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Sample records for fertilization increases fig

  1. Cattle manure fertilization increases fig yield Adubação com esterco de curral na produção da figueira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Leonel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization using organic compounds is complementary to chemical fertilization, being essential to integrated fruit production. Reports on fig tree (Ficus carica L. organic fertilization and mineral nutrition are worldwide scarce, especially in Brazil. This experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of cattle manure fertilization on the yield and productivity of the fig tree 'Roxo de Valinhos' in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, during the 2002/03, 2003/04, 2004/05 and 2005/06 crop cycles. Plants aged one, two, three and four year olds received the following cattle manure treatments: control (no fertilizer, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, 125% and 150% of the recommended N level for this crop. The evaluated variables were: fruit number, weight and mean diameter, plant yield and productivity. The application of cattle manure increased productivity, yield and fruit number, slightly affecting fruit dimensions. After four years of cattle manure application, the best results were obtained with 76 to 124% of the N level recommended for the fig crop.A adubação com compostos orgânicos é complementar à adubação química e especialmente necessária para a produção integrada de frutas. Trabalhos de pesquisa com adubação orgânica e nutrição mineral da figueira (Ficus carica L. são escassos em todo o mundo e particularmente, no Brasil. O experimento teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da adubação orgânica com esterco de curral na produção e produtividade da figueira 'Roxo de Valinhos' em Botucatu-SP, nos ciclos de produção de 2002/03, 2003/04, 2004/05 e 2005/06. As plantas com idade de um, dois, três e quatro anos receberam os tratamentos com doses de esterco de curral correspondentes a: testemunha (sem adubação, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, 125% e 150% da dose recomendada de N para a cultura. As variáveis avaliadas foram número, peso e diâmetro médio dos frutos, produção por planta e produtividade. A aplicação de esterco de curral

  2. Why has fertility been increasing in Egypt?

    OpenAIRE

    Goujon, A.; Al Zalak, Z.

    2018-01-01

    After declining slowly to 3 children per woman on average in the mid-2000s, fertility in Egypt has risen back to 3.5 children in recent years. Women are marrying earlier and more frequently. They also bear their children at younger ages. Some argue that this reflects an increase in religiosity. The labour market difficulties of Egyptian women, the most educated especially, provide a more convincing explanation. Faced with a lack of job opportunities and a slack labour market, women may be dec...

  3. Increased venous thrombosis incidence in pregnancies after in vitro fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anette Tarp; Kesmodel, U S; Juul, S

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is venous thrombosis risk increased in pregnancies after in vitro fertilization? SUMMARY ANSWER The venous thrombosis incidence was significantly increased in pregnancies after in vitro fertilization; especially in the first trimester and in the first 6 weeks post-partum. WHAT...... IS KNOWN ALREADY In vitro fertilization without pregnancy is not associated with increased venous thrombosis incidence. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This national register-based cohort study covered the period from 1995 to 2005. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS All Danish pregnancies conceived...... by in vitro fertilization (n = 18 787) were included. Venous thrombosis incidence rates in pregnancies after in vitro fertilization were compared with venous thrombosis incidence rates in reference pregnancies, by calculating incidence rate ratios. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE In total, 48 cases were...

  4. The increase of the fertility of soils using the liquid organic fertilizers and fertilizers based on sugar-beet wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyborova, Oxana

    2010-05-01

    The fertility of soil is a capacity for ensuring plants by water, nutrients, air and capacity for making optimal conditions for growth and development of plants. The result of it is a yield. The main characteristic of fertility of soil is maintenance of humus. The humus is important part of organic matter. The supporting of soil fertility is impossible by traditional methods. The amount of receiving mineral fertilizers in agriculture will not increase in future, because mineral fertilizers are very expensive. The mineral fertilizers don't influence on maintenance of total amount of humus in soil and improve the circulation of nutrients. Every hectare of fields have to receive no less than 8-10 tons of organic fertilizers, therefore we will have self-supporting balance of humus and the fertility of soils will be increasing. Consequently we are looking for new types of organic materials and we include them in modern agro technologies. One of them is an organomineral fertilizer (lignitic materials). The humic chemicals in the form of lignitic materials of natrium, potassium and ammonium are permitted for using them in agriculture at the beginning of 1984. The Department of agriculture in Russian Federation considered the problem of using humic chemicals and made a decision to use them on the fields of our country, because the lignitic materials can restore the fertility of our fields. The lignitic materials increase the amount of spore-forming bacteria, mold fungi and actinomycete. Therefore the organic decomposition occurs more strongly, the processes of humification increase the speed and the amount of humus rises in the soil. The new forming humus has a high biological activity and it improves chemical and physical soil properties. The addition of lignitic materials in soil activates different groups of microorganisms, which influence on mobilization of nutrients and transformation from potential to effective fertility. The inclusion of humic fertilizers improves

  5. Fertility awareness online: the efficacy of a fertility education website in increasing knowledge and changing fertility beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, J.C.; Koert, E.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION How effective is online education in increasing knowledge of fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), and changing beliefs about the timing of parenthood? SUMMARY ANSWER Exposure to an online educational intervention resulted in immediate changes in participants' beliefs about the ideal timing of parenthood, and a significant increase in their knowledge of fertility and ART treatments and options; most of these changes were not sustained over time, particularly for men. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Research has identified significant gaps in men's and women's knowledge of fertility and ART, contributing to the trend to delay childbearing. Effective educational programs need to be developed, to support informed fertility and child-timing decisions. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Pre-post intervention study of 199 currently childless men and women, and a 6-month follow-up of 110 of these participants. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS One hundred and ninety-nine childless participants between the ages of 18 and 35 were asked to complete 4 beliefs and 22 knowledge questions prior to, and immediately after, reading 10 online posts related to: fertility testing and preservation, fertility history and lifespan, the effects of health and fitness on fertility, and assisted reproduction. Six months later, 110 of the original sample repeated the 26-item survey. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Participants' fertility and ART knowledge scores increased significantly immediately after the intervention, as did their confidence in their fertility and ART knowledge. Participants' beliefs about the ideal and latest age a woman or man should consider producing a child decreased. However, 6 months later, participants' beliefs and knowledge levels largely returned to their pre-intervention levels, particularly for the men in the study. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION The sample size and the recruitment methods may limit the generalizability of these

  6. Fertility awareness online: the efficacy of a fertility education website in increasing knowledge and changing fertility beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, J C; Koert, E

    2015-02-01

    How effective is online education in increasing knowledge of fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), and changing beliefs about the timing of parenthood? Exposure to an online educational intervention resulted in immediate changes in participants' beliefs about the ideal timing of parenthood, and a significant increase in their knowledge of fertility and ART treatments and options; most of these changes were not sustained over time, particularly for men. Research has identified significant gaps in men's and women's knowledge of fertility and ART, contributing to the trend to delay childbearing. Effective educational programs need to be developed, to support informed fertility and child-timing decisions. Pre-post intervention study of 199 currently childless men and women, and a 6-month follow-up of 110 of these participants. One hundred and ninety-nine childless participants between the ages of 18 and 35 were asked to complete 4 beliefs and 22 knowledge questions prior to, and immediately after, reading 10 online posts related to: fertility testing and preservation, fertility history and lifespan, the effects of health and fitness on fertility, and assisted reproduction. Six months later, 110 of the original sample repeated the 26-item survey. Participants' fertility and ART knowledge scores increased significantly immediately after the intervention, as did their confidence in their fertility and ART knowledge. Participants' beliefs about the ideal and latest age a woman or man should consider producing a child decreased. However, 6 months later, participants' beliefs and knowledge levels largely returned to their pre-intervention levels, particularly for the men in the study. The sample size and the recruitment methods may limit the generalizability of these findings. Previous studies have demonstrated the short-term efficacy of online educational approaches to increase fertility knowledge and support informed family planning decisions. Web

  7. CORN PRODUCERS´ RESPONSE TO THE 2001 NITROGEN FERTILIZER PRICE INCREASE

    OpenAIRE

    Daberkow, Stan G.; McBride, William D.

    2004-01-01

    During the past few years, nitrogen fertilizer prices and price volatility have increased. Producers of nitrogen-intensive crops, such as corn, who are faced with increased nitrogen prices or price volatility, can adopt either cost-reducing or price variability-reducing strategies. Using a behavioral model in the logit specification and data from a 2001 national survey of U.S. corn producers, we found that the probability of forward pricing nitrogen fertilizer and the probability of using nit...

  8. Fertilization Increases Below-Ground Carbon Sequestration of Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.H. Johnsen; J.R. Butnor; C. Maier; R. Oren; R. Pangle; L. Samuelson; J. Seiler; S.E. McKeand; H.L. Allen

    2001-01-01

    The extent of fertilization of southern pine forests is increasing rapidly; industrial fertilization increased from 16,200 ha per year in 1988, to 344,250 ha in 1998. Fertilization increases stand productivity and can increase carbon (C) sequestration by: 1) increasing above-ground standing C; 2) increasing C stored in forest products; and 3) increasing below-ground...

  9. How to be an ant on figs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Anthony; Harrison, Rhett D.; Schatz, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    Mutualistic interactions are open to exploitation by one or other of the partners and a diversity of other organisms, and hence are best understood as being embedded in a complex network of biotic interactions. Figs participate in an obligate mutualism in that figs are dependent on agaonid fig wasps for pollination and the wasps are dependent on fig ovules for brood sites. Ants are common insect predators and abundant in tropical forests. Ants have been recorded on approximately 11% of fig species, including all six subgenera, and often affect the fig-fig pollinator interaction through their predation of either pollinating and parasitic wasps. On monoecious figs, ants are often associated with hemipterans, whereas in dioecious figs ants predominantly prey on fig wasps. A few fig species are true myrmecophytes, with domatia or food rewards for ants, and in at least one species this is linked to predation of parasitic fig wasps. Ants also play a role in dispersal of fig seeds and may be particularly important for hemi-epiphytic species, which require high quality establishment microsites in the canopy. The intersection between the fig-fig pollinator and ant-plant systems promises to provide fertile ground for understanding mutualistic interactions within the context of complex interaction networks.

  10. Increase of soybean nutritional quality with nonstandard foliar fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna DRAGIČEVIĆ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies of mineral elements in human nutrition could be surpassed by crop fortification. One of the prevalent measures of fortification is foliar fertilization. The aim of this study was to determine the content and availability of the mineral nutrients Mg, Fe and Zn, together with phytate, as an anti-nutritive factor, and β-carotene as a promoter of mineral nutrient availability in grain of two soybean cultivars (Nena and Laura treated with different non-standard foliar fertilizers (mainly based on plant extracts. Generally, a negative correlation between Fe and phytate indicated that factors which decrease phytate and increase β-carotene could be primarily responsible for Fe utilization by humans and animals. Zlatno inje (based on manure had the highest impact on increasing the grain yield and decreasing the ratios between phytate and mineral elements in Nena grain, while for Laura, it was generally Zircon (based on an extract of Echinacea purpurea L, increasing also availability of mineral elements.

  11. Efeito da adubação com boro e esterco bovino sobre a produtividade da figueira e as propriedades químicas do solo Effect of boron and cattle manure fertilization on yield productivity fig tree and on soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Santos Caetano

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da adubação da cultura da figueira com boro e esterco bovino sobre a produtividade de figos verdes e as propriedades químicas do solo. Os tratamentos foram cinco doses de ácido bórico (0, 20, 40, 60 e 100g planta-1 combinadas com dois níveis de adubação de esterco (sem esterco e 10kg de esterco/planta. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema de parcelas subdivididas e quatro repetições. A adubação com ácido bórico não afetou a produtividade de figos, enquanto que o esterco bovino aumentou-a. Os teores de fósforo e potássio no solo aumentaram significativamente e o teor de alumínio diminuiu significativamente em função da adubação com esterco bovino. O teor de B no solo, extraído pelo método da água quente, aumentou linearmente em função das doses de ácido bórico.The objective of the present work was evaluate the effect of fig tree orchard fertilization with boron and cattle manure on the green fig yield and soil chemical properties. The treatments were five boric acid levels (0, 20, 40, 60 and 100g plant-1 combined with two cattle manure fertilization levels (without cattle manure and 10kg of cattle manure/plant. The experimental design was that of randomized blocks in a split-plot scheme and four repetitions. The boric acid fertilization did not affect the fig productivity whereas the cattle manure one increased it. The P and K content increased significantly and the Al content decreased significantly in function of the cattle manure fertilization. The B soil content, extracted by hot water methodology increased linearly in function of the boric acid levels.

  12. Human Fertility Increases with the Marital-radius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labouriau, Rodrigo; Amorim, António

    2008-01-01

    We report a positive association between marital radius (distance between mates' birthplaces) and fertility detected in a large population. Spurious association due to socioeconomic factors is discarded by a conditional analysis involving income, education, and urbanicity. Strong evidence...

  13. Use of sewage sludge as a fertilizer for increasing soil fertility and crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, A.

    1997-01-01

    The high nutrient and organic-matter contents of sewage sludge make it a useful soil amendment for farmers. In this study at four locations in Bavaria, the application of sewage sludge produced com yields that were similar to or better than those produced by an equal application (in terms of N) of chemical fertilizer. High rates of sludge (800 m 3 /ha) further improved crop yields, although such are impractical for farmers' fields. Residual beneficial effects of sewage-sludge application were seen also in terms of subsequent yields of barley. Application of sludge also improved biological and physical properties of the soils. More long-term studies are needed to better understand how sewage sludge contributes to the improvement of soil fertility and crop yields. (author)

  14. Increasing Efficiency of Soil Fertility Map for Rice Cultivation Using Fuzzy Logic, AHP and GIS

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    javad seyedmohammadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With regard to increasing population of country, need to high agricultural production is essential. The most suitable method for this issue is high production per area unit. Preparation much food and other environmental resources with conservation of biotic resources for futures will be possible only with optimum exploitation of soil. Among effective factors for the most production balanced addition of fertilizers increases production of crops higher than the others. With attention to this topic, determination of soil fertility degree is essential tobetter use of fertilizers and right exploitation of soils. Using fuzzy logic and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP could be useful in accurate determination of soil fertility degree. Materials and Methods: The study area (at the east of Rasht city is located between 49° 31' to 49° 45' E longitude and 37° 7' to 37° 27' N latitude in north of Guilan Province, northern Iran, in the southern coast of the Caspian sea. 117 soil samples were derived from0-30 cm depth in the study area. Air-dried soil samples were crushed and passed through a 2mm sieve. Available phosphorus, potassium and organic carbon were determined by sodium bicarbonate, normal ammonium acetate and corrected walkly-black method, respectively. In the first stage, the interpolation of data was done by kriging method in GIS context. Then S-shape membership function was defined for each parameter and prepared fuzzy map. After determination of membership function weight parameters maps were determined using AHP technique and finally soil fertility map was prepared with overlaying of weighted fuzzy maps. Relative variance and correlation coefficient criteria used tocontrol groups separation accuracy in fuzzy fertility map. Results and Discussion: With regard to minimum amounts of parameters looks some lands of study area had fertility difficulty. Therefore, soil fertility map of study area distinct these lands and present soil

  15. Increased microbial functional diversity under long-term organic and integrated fertilization in a paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Long-Jun; Su, Jian-Qiang; Sun, Guo-Xin; Wu, Jin-Shui; Wei, Wen-Xue

    2018-02-01

    Microbes play key roles in diverse biogeochemical processes including nutrient cycling. However, responses of soil microbial community and functional genes to long-term integrated fertilization (chemical combined with organic fertilization) remain unclear. Here, we used pyrosequencing and a microarray-based GeoChip to explore the shifts of microbial community and functional genes in a paddy soil which received over 21-year fertilization with various regimes, including control (no fertilizer), rice straw (R), rice straw plus chemical fertilizer nitrogen (NR), N and phosphorus (NPR), NP and potassium (NPKR), and reduced rice straw plus reduced NPK (L-NPKR). Significant shifts of the overall soil bacterial composition only occurred in the NPKR and L-NPKR treatments, with enrichment of certain groups including Bradyrhizobiaceae and Rhodospirillaceae families that benefit higher productivity. All fertilization treatments significantly altered the soil microbial functional structure with increased diversity and abundances of genes for carbon and nitrogen cycling, in which NPKR and L-NPKR exhibited the strongest effect, while R exhibited the least. Functional gene structure and abundance were significantly correlated with corresponding soil enzymatic activities and rice yield, respectively, suggesting that the structural shift of the microbial functional community under fertilization might promote soil nutrient turnover and thereby affect yield. Overall, this study indicates that the combined application of rice straw and balanced chemical fertilizers was more pronounced in shifting the bacterial composition and improving the functional diversity toward higher productivity, providing a microbial point of view on applying a cost-effective integrated fertilization regime with rice straw plus reduced chemical fertilizers for sustainable nutrient management.

  16. Increasing fertility knowledge and awareness by tailored education: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Désirée; Vassena, Rita; Prat, Andrés; Vernaeve, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Women of reproductive age have insufficient fertility knowledge and awareness. Reproductive lifespan and assisted reproduction are the primary areas in which awareness is lacking. Relatively simple interventions can be used to increase knowledge among university students; however, no intervention has been tested to date in a population with more varied education levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate which intervention most improved fertility knowledge in women attending a fertility centre for oocyte donation. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with three intervention groups: tailored, untailored and control. A questionnaire was administered on the day of the first consultation, and again at the oocyte retrieval. Two hundred and one women were enrolled and completed the pre-test, 109 started the cycle and 90 completed the post-test. The effect of the intervention was measured as the difference between the groups in their score from the pre-test to the post test. Only the tailored group showed a significant increase (+2.5; 95% CI [1.8, 3.3]; P = 0.001). Information relating to a woman's most fertile age and limits for childbearing were the most useful. Tailored oral education, therefore, increases fertility knowledge in young women, particularly in relation to their fertility lifespan. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Teores de macronutrientes em pecíolos e folhas de figueira (Ficus carica L. em função da adubação potássica Fig trees (Ficus carica L. leaf nutrients contents with potassium fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubem Marcos de Oliveira Brizola

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este experimento avaliar o estado nutricional de figueira (Ficus carica L., cv. Roxo de Valinhos conduzida durante o estágio de formação (dois anos agrícolas, submetida a níveis crescentes de potássio. O experimento foi conduzido em área do Pomar da Fazenda Experimental Lageado, da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, Campus de Botucatu. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e seis tratamentos, dispostos em esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de seis níveis de adubação potássica (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 g. planta-1 de K2O aplicados em cobertura. Foram realizadas avaliações do estado nutricional das plantas mediante amostragens de folhas e pecíolos cinco meses após a poda de inverno. Os teores nutricionais obtidos no segundo ano agrícola revelaram a manifestação de interação competitiva entre potássio e magnésio nas dosagens acima de 50 g. planta-1 de K2O. Os teores de nitrogênio e enxofre não foram afetados pelas doses crescentes de potássio e os de fósforo tiveram aumentos lineares.Potassium rates were evaluated in fig trees cv Purple of Valinhos during first development years. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with four replications and six treatments. The plots were splited in the evaluations months. The treatments were six potassium fertilization rates (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 g per plant of K2O. The potassium fertilization was made in covering. The nutrients contents of fig trees were evaluated five months after the winter pruning, through the leafs and petioles samples. In the second year, the nutrients contents showed to be competition between potassium and magnesium in the rates higher than 50 g of K2O per plant. The nitrogen and sulfur contents were not modified by the increases in the potassium rates. The phosphorus rates had linear increases.

  18. In Winter Wheat, No-Till Increases Mycorrhizal Colonization thus Reducing the Need for Nitrogen Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Verzeaux

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF play a major role in the uptake of nutrients by agricultural plants. Nevertheless, some agricultural practices can interrupt fungal-plant signaling and thus impede the establishment of the mycorrhizal symbiosis. A field experiment performed over a 5-year period demonstrated that both the absence of tillage and of nitrogen (N fertilization improved AMF colonization of wheat roots. Moreover, under no-till conditions, N uptake and aboveground biomass production did not vary significantly between N-fertilized and N-unfertilized plots. In contrast, both N uptake and above ground biomass were much lower when N fertilizer was not added during conventional tillage. This finding strongly suggests that for wheat, no-till farming is a sustainable agricultural system that allows a gradual reduction in N fertilizer use by promoting AMF functionality and at the same time increasing N uptake.

  19. Application of Bioorganic Fertilizer Significantly Increased Apple Yields and Shaped Bacterial Community Structure in Orchard Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Jing; Yang, Fang; E, Yaoyao; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2017-02-01

    Application of bioorganic fertilizers has been reported to improve crop yields and change soil bacterial community structure; however, little work has been done in apple orchard soils where the biological properties of the soils are being degraded due to long-term application of chemical fertilizers. In this study, we used Illumina-based sequencing approach to characterize the bacterial community in the 0-60-cm soil profile under different fertilizer regimes in the Loess Plateau. The experiment includes three treatments: (1) control without fertilization (CK); (2) application of chemical fertilizer (CF); and (3) application of bioorganic fertilizer and organic-inorganic mixed fertilizer (BOF). The results showed that the treatment BOF increased the apple yields by 114 and 67 % compared to the CK and CF treatments, respectively. The treatment BOF also increased the soil organic matter (SOM) by 22 and 16 % compared to the CK and CF treatments, respectively. The Illumina-based sequencing showed that Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the predominant phyla and Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant classes in the soil profile. The bacterial richness for ACE was increased after the addition of BOF. Compared to CK and CF treatments, BOF-treated soil revealed higher abundance of Proteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, Rhizobiales, and Xanthomonadales while Acidobacteria, Gp7, Gp17, and Sphaerobacter were found in lower abundance throughout the soil profile. Bacterial community structure varied with soil depth under different fertilizer treatments, e.g., the bacterial richness, diversity, and the relative abundance of Verruccomicrobia, Candidatus Brocadiales, and Skermanella were decreased with the soil depth in all three treatments. Permutational multivariate analysis showed that the fertilizer regime was the major factor than soil depth in the variations of the bacterial community composition. Two groups, Lysobacter

  20. Bio fertilization of Cereal and Legume Crops for Increasing Soil available P Uptake Using Nuclear Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.; El-Gandour, E. A.; El Gala, A. M.; Ishac, Y. Z.

    2004-01-01

    Application of N and P in uncommon sources such as N 2 -fixers and AM fungi considered as an important source to save money and reduce pollution. In this concern, two pot experiments were carried out in sandy soils, to study the role of these neutral organisms in increasing the fertility of sandy soil. Wheat and faba bean were used. Seeds of wheat or faba bean were inoculated with Azotobacter or Rhizobium and planted in soils inoculated with and without AM fungi. A 20 mg P/kg soil in the form of single super phosphate (15.5 % P 2 O 5 ) or rock-P (26.6% P 2 O 5 ) were applied in the first experiment while KH 2 PO 4 was added in the second one. Dry weight, spore number, root infection, total and specific P were also determined. Maximum shoot growth were gained when either, wheat or faba bean inoculated with mycorrhizae and N2-fixers relative to the control. it was reached to 54 and 73%, respectively. Phosphorus uptake for shoots of both wheat and faba bean had been significantly increased upon inoculating with AM and/or Azotobacter or Rhizobium. Addition of fertilizer P help to identify the P uptake from soil or fertilizer. Mycorrhizal plants induced significant increase in Pdff by about 39 and 27% over inoculated with Azotobacter for wheat and Rhizobium for faba bean and it reached to 95 and 79% when inoculated with combined inoculation. This may be due to AM fungi absorb more available P than do nonmycorrhizal roots. FUE was increased from about 5 to 10% for wheat; 6 to 19% for faba bean. It can be concluded that, bio fertilizers can increase crop production and soil fertility. Rock-P might be recommended as a source of P fertilizer to be applied with AM fungi. (Authors)

  1. Physiological mechanisms contributing to increased water-use efficiency in winter wheat under organic fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Wang, Shiwen; Chen, Wei; Li, Hongbing; Deng, Xiping

    2017-01-01

    Improving the efficiency of resource utilization has received increasing research attention in recent years. In this study, we explored the potential physiological mechanisms underlying improved grain yield and water-use efficiency of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) following organic fertilizer application. Two wheat cultivars, ChangHan58 (CH58) and XiNong9871 (XN9871), were grown under the same nitrogen (N) fertilizer rate (urea-N, CK; and manure plus urea-N, M) and under two watering regimes (WW, well-watered; and WS, water stress) imposed after anthesis. The M fertilizer treatment had a higher Pn and lower gs and Tr than CK under both water conditions, in particular, it significantly increased WRC and Ψw, and decreased EWLR and MDA under WS. Also, the M treatment increased post-anthesis N uptake by 81.4 and 16.4% under WS and WW, thus increasing post-anthesis photosynthetic capacity and delaying leaf senescence. Consequently, the M treatment increased post-anthesis DM accumulation under WS and WW by 51.5 and 29.6%, WUEB by 44.5 and 50.9%, grain number per plant by 11.5 and 12.2% and 1000-grain weight by 7.3 and 3.6%, respectively, compared with CK. The grain yield under M treatment increased by 23 and 15%, and water use efficiency (WUEg) by 25 and 23%, respectively. The increased WUE under organic fertilizer treatment was due to elevated photosynthesis and decreased Tr and gs. Our results suggest that the organic fertilizer treatment enabled plants to use water more efficiently under drought stress.

  2. Oral allergy syndrome to fig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antico, A; Zoccatelli, G; Marcotulli, C; Curioni, A

    2003-06-01

    The few cases of food allergy to fig reported to date, whose main manifestations were anaphylactic reactions, have been related to a cross-sensitisation to weeping fig (Ficus benjamina) or to the 'latex-fruit syndrome'. Here we report on two cases of the oral allergy syndrome (OAS) to fig in patients whose main allergic manifestations were related to sensitisation to grass and birch pollens. The patients were characterised by clinical history, skin prick tests (SPT) with commercial and in-house extracts, prick-by-prick test, specific IgE measurements and challenge tests. PBS-soluble and insoluble extracts of both fig skin and pulp were examined for the presence of potential allergens by IgE immunoblotting. Both patients showed OAS followed by respiratory symptoms when challenged with fig. They were negative in both specific IgE detection and SPT with commercial extracts of fig and many other plant materials, including F. benjamina and Hevea Brasiliensis, while grass and birch pollens gave positive results. Prick-by-prick tests and SPT with in-house extracts indicated that the fig skin had a much higher allergenicity than the pulp. Despite negative IgE detection by the CAP assay, immunoblotting experiments showed that potential fig allergens were PBS-soluble and present only in the skin of the fruit. OAS to fig followed by respiratory symptoms can be present in patients not sensitised to weeping fig or having the latex-fruit syndrome. Different parts of the fig can have different allergenicities, the most important allergens being proteins related to the skin of the fruit. Improved commercial fig extracts to be used for the diagnosis of this type of allergy have to be developed. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Nitrogen fertilization interacts with light to increase Rubus spp. cover in a temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Walter; Devon T. Raiff; Mark B. Burnham; Frank S. Gilliam; Mary Beth Adams; William T. Peterjohn

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen additions have caused species composition changes in many ecosystems by facilitating the growth of nitrophilic species. After 24 years of nitrogen fertilization in a 40 year-old stand at the Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) in Central Appalachia, USA, the cover of Rubus spp. has increased from 1 to 19 % of total herbaceous-layer cover....

  4. Fertilization using sewage sludge in unfertile tropical soils increased wood production in Eucalyptus plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Junior, Cassio Hamilton; Firme, Lucia Pitol; Maldonado, Carlos Alberto Baca; de Moraes Neto, Sebastião Pires; Alves, Marcelo Corrêa; Muraoka, Takashi; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Gava, José Luís; He, Zhenli; Nogueira, Thiago Assis Rodrigues; Capra, Gian Franco

    2017-12-01

    Fertilization of Eucalyptus plantations using sewage sludge on unfertile tropical soils represents an alternative to using mineral N and P fertilizers. A 44-month field experiment was conducted to study the effects of increasing application of sludge, and its interactions with mineral N and P fertilizers, on wood volume. Four rates of sludge (0, 8, 15 and 23 Mg ha -1 , dry base), N (0, 47, 95 and 142 kg ha -1 ) and P (0, 28, 56 and 84 kg ha -1 of P 2 O 5 ) were combined in a 4 × 4 × 4 factorial scheme in a totally randomized block design. Response surface and age-shift modeling was used to establish an initial recommendation for mineral fertilization of the Eucalyptus plantations treated with sludge and to analyze the implications of increased growth on the duration of the forest cycle in a tropical climate. The results showed that from 8 to 44 months after planting, the sludge application (with or without N and P) yielded a statistically larger wood volume (P wood volume by 7% could be achieved, compared to NPK fertilizers only, if 2/3 of the recommended P was applied. The cultivation time to produce 150 m 3  ha -1 of wood volume was 45 months for the control and was reduced by two, three, four, or five months, respectively, through application of recommended P, sludge dose, sludge plus one third of P, and sludge plus two thirds of P. On the whole, sewage sludge could represent an excellent unconventional N and P fertilizer source for wood production on unfertile tropical soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of different methods of soil fertility increasing via application of organic, chemical and biological fertilizers on grain yield and quality of canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohammadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Different resource of fertilizers had an effect on grain yield, oil and grain quality. Information regarding the effect of simultaneous application of organic, chemical and biological fertilizers on canola (Brassica napus L. traits is not available. In order to study the effect of different systems of soil fertility on grain yield and quality of canola (Talayeh cultivar, an experiment was conducted at experimental farm of Agricultural Research Center of Sanandaj, Iran, during two growing seasons of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009. The experimental units were arranged as split plots based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Main plots consisted of five methods for obtaining the basal fertilizers requirement including (N1: farm yard manure; (N2: compost; (N3: chemical fertilizers; (N4: farm yard manure + compost and (N5: farm yard manure + compost + chemical fertilizers; and control (N6. Sub plots consisted four levels of biofertilizers were (B1: Bacillus lentus and Pseudomonas putida; (B2: Trichoderma harzianum; (B3: Bacillus lentus and Pseudomonas putida and Trichoderma harzianum; and (B4: control, (without biofertilizers. Results showed that basal fertilizers and biofertilizers have a significant effect on grain yield. The highest grain yield was obtained from N5 treatment in which organic and chemical fertilizers were applied simultaneously applied. Basal fertilizers, biofertilizers have a significant effect on leaf chlorophyll. The highest nitrogen content (42.85 mg.g-1 and least amount of (N/S were obtained from N5 treatment. The highest oil percent was obtained from N1 and N2 treatments and highest oil yield was obtained from N5 treatment. Finally, application of organic manure and biofertilizers with chemical fertilizer led to an increase in yield and quality of canola grain.

  6. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) desensitization increases sea urchin spermatozoa fertilization rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrezan-Nitao, Elis; Boni, Raianna; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) is a protein complex whose opening promotes an abrupt increase in mitochondrial inner membrane permeability. Calcium signaling pathways are described in gametes and are involved in the fertilization process. Although mitochondria may act as Ca(2+) store and have a fast calcium-releasing mechanism through MPTP, its contribution to fertilization remains unclear. The work aimed to investigate the MPTP phenomenon in sea urchin spermatozoa and its role on the fertilization. Several pharmacological tools were used to evaluate the MPTP's physiology. Our results demonstrated that MPTP occurs in male gametes in a Ca(2+) - and voltage-dependent manner and it is sensitive to cyclosporine A. Additionally, our data show that MPTP opening does not alter ROS generation in sperm cells. Inhibition of MPTP in spermatozoa strongly improved the fertilization rate, which may involve mechanisms that increase the spermatozoa lifespan. The present work is the first report of the presence of a voltage- and Ca(2+) -dependent MPTP in gametes of invertebrates and indicates MPTP opening as another evolutionary feature shared by sea urchins and mammals. Studies about MPTP in sea urchin male gametes may contribute to the elucidation of several mechanisms involved in sperm infertility. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  7. Long-term balanced fertilization increases the soil microbial functional diversity in a phosphorus-limited paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian-Qiang; Ding, Long-Jun; Xue, Kai; Yao, Huai-Ying; Quensen, John; Bai, Shi-Jie; Wei, Wen-Xue; Wu, Jin-Shui; Zhou, Jizhong; Tiedje, James M; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-01-01

    The influence of long-term chemical fertilization on soil microbial communities has been one of the frontier topics of agricultural and environmental sciences and is critical for linking soil microbial flora with soil functions. In this study, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and a functional gene array, geochip 4.0, were used to investigate the shifts in microbial composition and functional gene structure in paddy soils with different fertilization treatments over a 22-year period. These included a control without fertilizers; chemical nitrogen fertilizer (N); N and phosphate (NP); N and potassium (NK); and N, P and K (NPK). Based on 16S rRNA gene data, both species evenness and key genera were affected by P fertilization. Functional gene array-based analysis revealed that long-term fertilization significantly changed the overall microbial functional structures. Chemical fertilization significantly increased the diversity and abundance of most genes involved in C, N, P and S cycling, especially for the treatments NK and NPK. Significant correlations were found among functional gene structure and abundance, related soil enzymatic activities and rice yield, suggesting that a fertilizer-induced shift in the microbial community may accelerate the nutrient turnover in soil, which in turn influenced rice growth. The effect of N fertilization on soil microbial functional genes was mitigated by the addition of P fertilizer in this P-limited paddy soil, suggesting that balanced chemical fertilization is beneficial to the soil microbial community and its functions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Gamete Therapeutics: Recombinant Protein Adsorption by Sperm for Increasing Fertility via Artificial Insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Gallardo, Horacio; Kjelland, Michael E.; Moreno, Juan F.; Welsh, Thomas H.; Randel, Ronald D.; Lammoglia, Miguel A.; Pérez-Martínez, Mario; Lara-Sagahón, Alma V.; Esperón-Sumano, A. Enrique; Romo, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    A decrease in fertility can have a negative economic impact, both locally and over a broader geographical scope, and this is especially the case with regard to the cattle industry. Therefore, much interest exists in evaluating proteins that might be able to increase the fertility of sperm. Heparin binding proteins (HBPs), specifically the fertility associated antigen (FAA) and the Type-2 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-2), act to favor the capacitation and acrosome reaction and perhaps even modulate the immune system’s response toward the sperm. The objective of this research was to determine the effect on fertility of adding recombinant FAA (rFAA) and recombinant TIMP-2 (rTIMP-2) to bovine semen before cryopreservation for use in an artificial insemination (AI) program in a tropical environment. For this experiment, 100 crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) heifers were selected based on their estrus cycle, body condition score (BCS), of 4 to 6 on a scale of 1 to 9, and adequate anatomical conformation evaluated by pelvic and genital (normal) measurements. Heifers were synchronized using estradiol benzoate (EB), Celosil® (PGF2α) (Shering-Plough) and a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device was inserted that contained progesterone. Inseminations were performed in two groups at random, 50 animals per group. The control group was inseminated with conventional semen. The treatment group was inseminated with semen containing rFAA (25 µg/mL) and rTIMP-2 (25 µg/mL). In the control group a 16% pregnancy rate was obtained versus a 40% pregnancy rate for the HBP treatment group, resulting in a significant difference (P = 0.0037). Given the results herein, one may conclude that the HBPs can increase fertility and could be an option for cattle in tropical conditions; however, one needs to consider the environment, nutrition, and the genetic interaction affecting the final result in whatever reproductive program that is implemented. PMID:23762288

  9. Gamete therapeutics: recombinant protein adsorption by sperm for increasing fertility via artificial insemination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Alvarez-Gallardo

    Full Text Available A decrease in fertility can have a negative economic impact, both locally and over a broader geographical scope, and this is especially the case with regard to the cattle industry. Therefore, much interest exists in evaluating proteins that might be able to increase the fertility of sperm. Heparin binding proteins (HBPs, specifically the fertility associated antigen (FAA and the Type-2 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-2, act to favor the capacitation and acrosome reaction and perhaps even modulate the immune system's response toward the sperm. The objective of this research was to determine the effect on fertility of adding recombinant FAA (rFAA and recombinant TIMP-2 (rTIMP-2 to bovine semen before cryopreservation for use in an artificial insemination (AI program in a tropical environment. For this experiment, 100 crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus heifers were selected based on their estrus cycle, body condition score (BCS, of 4 to 6 on a scale of 1 to 9, and adequate anatomical conformation evaluated by pelvic and genital (normal measurements. Heifers were synchronized using estradiol benzoate (EB, Celosil® (PGF2α (Shering-Plough and a controlled internal drug release (CIDR device was inserted that contained progesterone. Inseminations were performed in two groups at random, 50 animals per group. The control group was inseminated with conventional semen. The treatment group was inseminated with semen containing rFAA (25 µg/mL and rTIMP-2 (25 µg/mL. In the control group a 16% pregnancy rate was obtained versus a 40% pregnancy rate for the HBP treatment group, resulting in a significant difference (P = 0.0037. Given the results herein, one may conclude that the HBPs can increase fertility and could be an option for cattle in tropical conditions; however, one needs to consider the environment, nutrition, and the genetic interaction affecting the final result in whatever reproductive program that is implemented.

  10. Both seed germination and seedling mortality increase with experimental warming and fertilization in a subarctic tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbau, Ann; Vandeplas, Nicolas; Kockelbergh, Fred; Nijs, Ivan

    2017-09-01

    Climate change is expected to force many species in arctic regions to migrate and track their climatic niche. This requires recruitment from seed, which currently shows very low rates in arctic regions, where long-lived and vegetatively reproducing plants dominate. Therefore, we pose the question whether recruitment (germination and seedling establishment) in arctic regions will significantly improve in a warmer world, and thus allow species to follow their climatic niche. We used a full factorial experiment to examine if realistic warmer temperatures (+3 °C; infrared radiation) and increased nitrogen availability (+1.4 g N m -2 year -1 ) affected germination, seedling survival and above- and below-ground seedling biomass in five species common in subarctic regions ( Anthoxanthum odoratum , Betula nana , Pinus sylvestris , Solidago virgaurea , Vaccinium myrtillus ). We found that warming increased seedling emergence in all species, but that subsequent mortality also increased, resulting in no net warming effect on seedling establishment. Warming slightly increased above-ground seedling biomass. Fertilization, on the other hand, did not influence seedling biomass, but it increased seedling establishment in B. nana while it reduced establishment in V. myrtillus . This may help B. nana dominate over V. myrtillus in warmer tundra. Surprisingly, no interactive effects between warming and fertilization were found. The lack of a general positive response of seedling establishment to warmer and more nutrient-rich conditions suggests that (sub)arctic species may experience difficulties in tracking their climatic niche. Predictions of future species distributions in arctic regions solely based on abiotic factors may therefore overestimate species' ranges due to their poor establishment. Also, the opposite response to fertilization of two key (sub)arctic dwarf shrubs, i.e. B. nana and V. myrtillus , could have important implications for the future development of arctic plant

  11. Primary energy and greenhouse gas implications of increasing biomass production through forest fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif; Bergh, Johan

    2010-01-01

    In this study we analyze the primary energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of increasing biomass production by fertilizing 10% of Swedish forest land. We estimate the primary energy use and GHG emissions from forest management including production and application of N and NPK fertilizers. Based on modelled growth response, we then estimate the net primary energy and GHG benefits of using biomaterials and biofuels obtained from the increased forest biomass production. The results show an increased annual biomass harvest of 7.4 million t dry matter, of which 41% is large-diameter stemwood. About 6.9 PJ/year of additional primary energy input is needed for fertilizer production and forest management. Using the additional biomass for fuel and material substitution can reduce fossil primary energy use by 150 or 164 PJ/year if the reference fossil fuel is fossil gas or coal, respectively. About 22% of the reduced fossil energy use is due to material substitution and the remainder is due to fuel substitution. The net annual primary energy benefit corresponds to about 7% of Sweden's total primary energy use. The resulting annual net GHG emission reduction is 11.9 million or 18.1 million tCO 2equiv if the reference fossil fuel is fossil gas or coal, respectively, corresponding to 18% or 28% of the total Swedish GHG emissions in 2007. A significant one-time carbon stock increase also occurs in wood products and forest tree biomass. These results suggest that forest fertilization is an attractive option for increasing energy security and reducing net GHG emission.

  12. Soil fertility increases with plant species diversity in a long-term biodiversity experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybzinski, Ray; Fargione, Joseph E; Zak, Donald R; Fornara, Dario; Tilman, David

    2008-11-01

    Most explanations for the positive effect of plant species diversity on productivity have focused on the efficiency of resource use, implicitly assuming that resource supply is constant. To test this assumption, we grew seedlings of Echinacea purpurea in soil collected beneath 10-year-old, experimental plant communities containing one, two, four, eight, or 16 native grassland species. The results of this greenhouse bioassay challenge the assumption of constant resource supply; we found that bioassay seedlings grown in soil collected from experimental communities containing 16 plant species produced 70% more biomass than seedlings grown in soil collected beneath monocultures. This increase was likely attributable to greater soil N availability, which had increased in higher diversity communities over the 10-year-duration of the experiment. In a distinction akin to the selection/complementarity partition commonly made in studies of diversity and productivity, we further determined whether the additive effects of functional groups or the interactive effects of functional groups explained the increase in fertility with diversity. The increase in bioassay seedling biomass with diversity was largely explained by a concomitant increase in N-fixer, C4 grass, forb, and C3 grass biomass with diversity, suggesting that the additive effects of these four functional groups at higher diversity contributed to enhance N availability and retention. Nevertheless, diversity still explained a significant amount of the residual variation in bioassay seedling biomass after functional group biomass was included in a multiple regression, suggesting that interactions also increased fertility in diverse communities. Our results suggest a mechanism, the fertility effect, by which increased plant species diversity may increase community productivity over time by increasing the supply of nutrients via both greater inputs and greater retention.

  13. Cattle and manure management strategies to increase soil fertility in Western Niger

    OpenAIRE

    Gnoumou, B.

    2001-01-01

    In western Niger soil fertility depletion threatens food production. Cattlemanagement and manure are used to maintain soil fertility. However, cattle population and insufficient feed limit the use of manure for improving soil fertility. The purpose of this research was to assess farmers perceptions of soil fertility, particularly the role of cattle, the contribution of communal action to soil fertility improvement, and to examine the ability of phosphorus (P) supplementation to cattle to incr...

  14. Increased ectomycorrhizal fungal abundance after long-term fertilization and warming of two arctic tundra ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Karina Engelbrecht; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2006-01-01

    . This was caused partly by increased dominance of EM plants and partly by stimulation of EM mycelial growth. •  We conclude that cycling of carbon and nitrogen through EM fungi will increase when strongly nutrient-limited arctic ecosystems are exposed to a warmer and more nutrient-rich environment. This has...... the response in EM fungal abundance to long-term warming and fertilization in two arctic ecosystems with contrasting responses of the EM shrub Betula nana. •  Ergosterol was used as a biomarker for living fungal biomass in roots and organic soil and ingrowth bags were used to estimate EM mycelial production...

  15. Nitrogen fertilization of switchgrass increases biomass yield and improves net greenhouse gas balance in northern Michigan, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiema, Paligwende; Rothstein, David E.; Min, Doo-Hong; Kapp, Christian J.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization can increase bioenergy crop production; however, fertilizer production and application can contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, potentially undermining the GHG benefits of bioenergy crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of N fertilization on GHG emissions and biomass production of switchgrass bioenergy crop, in northern Michigan. Nitrogen fertilization treatments included 0 kg ha -1 (control), 56 kg ha -1 (low) and 112 kg ha -1 (high) of N applied as urea. Soil fluxes of CO 2 , N 2 O and CH 4 were measured every two weeks using static chambers. Indirect GHG emissions associated with field activities, manufacturing and transport of fertilizer and pesticides were derived from the literature. Switchgrass aboveground biomass yield was evaluated at the end of the growing season. Nitrogen fertilization contributed little to soil GHG emissions; relative to the control, there were additional global warming potential of 0.7 Mg ha -1 y -1 and 1.5 Mg ha -1 y -1 as CO 2 equivalents (CO 2 eq), calculated using the IPCC values, in the low and high N fertilization treatments, respectively. However, N fertilization greatly stimulated CO 2 uptake by switchgrass, resulting in 1.5- and 2.5-fold increases in biomass yield in the low and high N fertilization treatments, respectively. Nitrogen amendments improved the net GHG benefits by 2.6 Mg ha -1 y -1 and 9.4 Mg ha -1 y -1 as CO 2 eq relative to the control. Results suggest that N fertilization of switchgrass in this region could reduce (15-50%) the land base needed for bioenergy production and decrease pressure on land for food and forage crop production. -- Highlights: → We examine the effects of N fertilization of switchgrass on GHG emissions. → Effects of N fertilization on biomass production of switchgrass bioenergy crop. → N fertilization contributed little to greenhouse gas emissions. → N fertilization greatly stimulated CO 2 uptake by the switchgrass. → N

  16. The Self-Regulation Effect of Fertility Status on Inbreeding Aversion: When Fertile, Disgust Increases more in Response to Descriptions of One's Own than of Others' Inbreeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Antfolk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ovulatory shift modulates emotions related to female sexuality. Because fertility status only affects the individual's own opportunity cost, the adaptive value of this shift is expected to stem from self-regulation. To test this assumption we asked women to contemplate various inbreeding descriptions: 1 they themselves having sex with male relatives; 2 their sister having sex with their common male relatives; and 3 an unrelated woman having sex with her male relatives (in 1, but not 2 and 3, negative fitness consequences are affected by the participant's fertility. We dichotomized the dependent variable disgust (ceiling vs. non-ceiling and analyzed the interaction between fertility status and description type. The ovulatory shift was stronger in descriptions where they themselves were described as engaging in inbreeding. A smaller increase was also found in reactions to others engaging in inbreeding. We explain the latter effect as due to self-reflection.

  17. The self-regulation effect of fertility status on inbreeding aversion: when fertile, disgust increases more in response to descriptions of one's own than of others' inbreeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antfolk, Jan; Lieberman, Debra; Albrecht, Anna; Santtila, Pekka

    2014-06-09

    The ovulatory shift modulates emotions related to female sexuality. Because fertility status only affects the individual's own opportunity cost, the adaptive value of this shift is expected to stem from self-regulation. To test this assumption we asked women to contemplate various inbreeding descriptions: 1) they themselves having sex with male relatives; 2) their sister having sex with their common male relatives; and 3) an unrelated woman having sex with her male relatives (in 1, but not 2 and 3, negative fitness consequences are affected by the participant's fertility). We dichotomized the dependent variable disgust (ceiling vs. non-ceiling) and analyzed the interaction between fertility status and description type. The ovulatory shift was stronger in descriptions where they themselves were described as engaging in inbreeding. A smaller increase was also found in reactions to others engaging in inbreeding. We explain the latter effect as due to self-reflection.

  18. Supplementation with rumen-protected L-arginine-HCl increased fertility in sheep with synchronized estrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chávez, Julio Agustín Ruiz; Guzmán, Adrian; Zamora-Gutiérrez, Diana; Mendoza, Germán David; Melgoza, Luz María; Montes, Sergio; Rosales-Torres, Ana María

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of L-arginine-HCl supplementation on ovulation rate, fertility, prolificacy, and serum VEGF concentrations in ewes with synchronized oestrus. Thirty Suffolk ewes with a mean body weight of 45 ± 3 kg and a mean body condition score (BCS) of 2.4 ± 0.28 were synchronized for estrus presentation with a progestin-containing sponge (20 mg Chronogest® CR) for 9 days plus PGF2-α (Lutalyse; Pfizer, USA) on day 7 after the insertion of the sponge. The ewes were divided into two groups; i.e., a control group (n = 15) that was fed on the native pasture (basal diet) and an L-arginine-HCl group (n = 15) that received 7.8 g of rumen-protected L-arginine-HCl from day 5 of the sponge insertion until day 25 after mating plus the basal diet. The L-arginine-HCl was administered daily via an esophageal probe between days 5 and 9 of the synchronization protocol and every third day subsequently. Blood samples were drawn from the jugular vein every 6 days throughout the entire experimental period. The results revealed that the L-arginine-HCl supplementation increased fertility during the synchronized estrus (P = 0.05). However, no effects were observed on the final BCS (P = 0.78), estrus presentation (P = 0.33), multiple ovulations (P = 0.24), prolificacy (P = 0.63), or serum VEGF concentration. In conclusion, L-arginine-HCl supplementation during the period used in this study increased fertility in sheep with synchronized estrus possibly due to improved embryo-fetal survival during early pregnancy.

  19. Combination of inoculation methods of Azospirilum brasilense with broadcasting of nitrogen fertilizer increases corn yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria Müller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is the most limiting nutrient for corn production. Thereby, the goal of the paper was to evaluate inoculation methods of Azospirillum brasilense in order to partially supply N required by the crop. The experiment was carried out in Guarapuava, PR, Brasil, in 2011/2012 growing season. Randomized blocks with factorial 3 inoculation methods (seed treatment, planting furrow and non-inoculated control x 5 doses of nitrogen (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300kg ha-1 x 8 replications was used as the experimental design. Leaf are index, foliar nitrogen content, total chlorophyll, grains per ear and yield were evaluated. There was significant interaction between inoculation methods and nitrogen fertilization to leaf area index, but not for yield. Inoculation with the diazotrophic bacteria provided yield increase of 702kg ha-1 for inoculation in seeding furrow and 432kg ha-1 for inoculation in seed treatment compared to the control, but both treatments did not differ between each other. Furthermore, total chlorophyll, grains per ear and yield were positively affected, with quadratic response, by the nitrogen fertilization in broadcasting

  20. Relationship between pollination and cell wall properties in common fig fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trad, Mehdi; Ginies, Christian; Gaaliche, Badii; Renard, Catherine M G C; Mars, Messaoud

    2014-02-01

    Most botanical types in fig Ficus carica require pollination to fulfil their development and ensure quality onset of the fruit. Cell wall behaviour and composition was followed in fig fruit in response to pollination during maturity. Figs, when ripe, soften drastically and lose of their firmness and cell wall cohesion. Pollination increased peel thickness, flesh thickness, fresh weight and dry matter content of the fruit. Alcohol insoluble solids (AIS), more concentrated in the flesh tissue, were not influenced by the lack of pollination. Concentrations in uronic acids were higher in the AIS of the peel than that of the flesh and differences were significant between pollinated and non-pollinated fruits. Pectin polymers in figs were high methylated (DM>50). The methylation degree (DM) increased more with pollination affecting textural properties of the fig receptacle. The major neutral sugars from the AIS were glucose (Glc) from cellulose followed by arabinose (Ara). No significant changes in neutral sugars content could be allocated to pollination. Pollination is essential in fruit enlargement and softening. Minor changes were determined in the cell wall composition of the fruit at maturity. Fertile seeds resulting from pollination may possibly take place in hormonal activity stimulating many related enzymes of the wall matrix depolymerisation in particular polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin methylesterase (PME). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal obesity and overnutrition increase oxidative stress in male rat offspring reproductive system and decrease fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, G L; Vega, C C; Boeck, L; Vázquez, M; Bautista, C J; Reyes-Castro, L A; Saldaña, O; Lovera, D; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E

    2015-04-01

    Increasing evidence exists that maternal obesity (MO) and overnutrition during pregnancy and lactation have long-lasting consequences for progeny metabolism, cardiovascular and endocrine function. Data on effects of MO on offspring reproduction are limited. We hypothesized that MO during pregnancy and lactation in founder F(0) rat mothers would increase testicular and sperm oxidative stress (OS) and adversely impact male fertility in their F(1) offspring. We induced pre-pregnancy MO by feeding F(0) females a high-fat diet from weaning through pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, all F(1) rats ate control (C) diet. We determined serum testosterone, malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in F(1) testes and sperm at postnatal days (PNDs) 110, 450 and 650. At PNDs 450 and 650, MO offspring had lower luteinizing hormone while testosterone levels were lower at all ages. Testicular MDA and ROS concentrations and SOD and GPx activity were higher in MO F(1) at all ages. Nitrotyrosine immunostaining was higher at all ages in MO F(1) testes than C F(1). At PNDs 450 and 650, MO F(1) spermatozoa showed higher MDA concentrations and lower SOD and GPx activity with reduced sperm concentration, viability and motility, and more sperm abnormalities. Fertility rate was not affected at PND 110 but was lower in MO F(1) at PNDs 450 and 650. We conclude that MO during pregnancy and lactation increases F(1) testicular and sperm OS leading to premature aging of reproductive capacity.

  2. Fertilization with phosphorus increases soil nitrogen absorption in young plants of Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina Graciano; Juan F. Goya; Jorge L. Frangi; Juan J. Guiamet

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the nutrients that most commonly limit tree growth. Interactions between fertilization and soil type are well known, and in soils with moderate or low N availability, N-fertilization is frequently recommended to improve tree nutrition. The aim of this paper was to analyze how different doses of P and N applied in three different...

  3. THE IMPACT OF FERTILIZATION AND FOLIAR STIMULATION PRODUCTS BOTH ON INCREASING THE RESISTANCE TO MAJOR PHYTOPATHOGENS ATTACKS, AND ON INCREASING THE QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF WINE GRAPES HARVEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BUNESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to demonstrate the impact of fertilization and foliar stimulation products both on increasing the resistance to major phytopathogens attacks, and on increasing the quantity and quality of wine grapes harvest. Applying the foliar fertilizer products Plonvit Kali (c1, Tytanit (c2 and Optysil (c3 to vines, for a period of three years (2011/2013, in phenophases of intensive growth of shoots and grapes at approved dosages, simultaneously with pesticide treatment, not only a reduction of pathogenic fungi attack was obtained, but also and an increase of harvest without diminishing the quality of the grapes.

  4. How did the domestication of Fertile Crescent grain crops increase their yields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Catherine; Livarda, Alexandra; Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Wallace, Michael; Martin, Gemma; Charles, Michael; Jones, Glynis; Rees, Mark; Osborne, Colin P

    2017-02-01

    The origins of agriculture, 10 000 years ago, led to profound changes in the biology of plants exploited as grain crops, through the process of domestication. This special case of evolution under cultivation led to domesticated cereals and pulses requiring humans for their dispersal, but the accompanying mechanisms causing higher productivity in these plants remain unknown. The classical view of crop domestication is narrow, focusing on reproductive and seed traits including the dispersal, dormancy and size of seeds, without considering whole-plant characteristics. However, the effects of initial domestication events can be inferred from consistent differences between traditional landraces and their wild progenitors.We studied how domestication increased the yields of Fertile Crescent cereals and pulses using a greenhouse experiment to compare landraces with wild progenitors. We grew eight crops: barley, einkorn and emmer wheat, oat, rye, chickpea, lentil and pea. In each case, comparison of multiple landraces with their wild progenitors enabled us to quantify the effects of domestication rather than subsequent crop diversification. To reveal the mechanisms underpinning domestication-linked yield increases, we measured traits beyond those classically associated with domestication, including the rate and duration of growth, reproductive allocation, plant size and also seed mass and number.Cereal and pulse crops had on average 50% higher yields than their wild progenitors, resulting from a 40% greater final plant size, 90% greater individual seed mass and 38% less chaff or pod material, although this varied between species. Cereal crops also had a higher seed number per spike compared with their wild ancestors. However, there were no differences in growth rate, total seed number, proportion of reproductive biomass or the duration of growth.The domestication of Fertile Crescent crops resulted in larger seed size leading to a larger plant size, and also a reduction

  5. Utilization of organic fertilizer to increase paddy growth and productivity using System of Rice Intensification (SRI method in saline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V . O . Subardja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity has negative effect on soil biodiversity as well as microbial activities. Hence, rice growth also effected by salinity. Application of organic fertilizer and adoption of System of Rice Intensification (SRI cultivation might improve the (biological soil properties and increase rice yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different rice cultivation methods namely conventional rice cultivation method and System of Rice Intensification (SRI rice cultivation method and two kinds organic fertilizer on improvement of soil biological properties and rice yield. In this study, a split plot experimental design was applied where rice cultivation method (conventional and SRI was the main plot and two kinds of organic fertilizer (market waste and rice straw was the sub plot. The treatments had four replicates. The results showed that SRI cultivation with market waste organic fertilizer could increase soil biological properties (population of microbe, fungi and soil respiration. The same treatment also increased rice growth and production. Combination of SRI and market waste organic fertilizer yielded the highest rice production (7.21 t/ha.

  6. Use of commercial organic fertilizer increases the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotics in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue; Qiao, Min; Wang, Feng-Hua; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2017-01-01

    The application of manure-based commercial organic fertilizers (COFs) is becoming increasingly extensive because of the expanding market for organic food. The present study examined the effects of repeated applications of chicken or swine manure-based COFs on the fate of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil by conducting a soil microcosm experiment. Application of COFs significantly increased antibiotics residues, as well as the relative abundance of ARGs and the integrase gene of class 1 integrons (intΙ1) in soil. Two months after each application, antibiotics and ARGs dissipated in amended soils, but they still remained at an elevated level, compared with the control. And, the accumulation of antibiotics was found due to repeated COF applications. However, the relative abundance of ARGs in most COF-amended soils did not differ significantly between the first application and the repeated application. The results imply that 2 months are not sufficient for ARGs to approach background levels, and that animal manure must be treated more effectively prior to using it in agriculture ecosystems.

  7. Supplementary data Fig. S1 Fig. S1. FE-SEM images of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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    . Page 2. 2. Fig. S2. Fig. S2. CV curves the samples obtained at various conditions. Page 3. 3. Fig. S3. Fig. S3. Cycling behavior of V2O5 nanomaterials recorded by CV at 20 mV·s-1 scan rate. Page 4. 4. Fig. S4. Fig. S4. Cycling behavior of ...

  8. Increased incidence of ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization in women with decreased ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengli; Yang, Rui; Chi, Hongbin; Lian, Ying; Wang, Jiejing; Huang, Shuo; Lu, Cuiling; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2017-02-28

    The incidence of ectopic pregnancy after assisted reproductive technology is increased approximately 2.5-5-fold compared with natural conceptions.Strategies were used to decrease the incidence of ectopic pregnancy, but ectopic pregnancy still occurs. In the present study, women were selected with decreased ovarian reserve (defined as FSH > 10 IU/L) aged 20 to 38 years who underwent IVF-ET between 2009 and 2014. These 2,061 women were age-matched with an equal number of women with normal ovarian reserve (defined as FSH ≤ 10 IU/L). During cycles following fresh embryo transfer, 93 patients were diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy in clinical pregnancies was significantly higher in the decreased ovarian reserve than in the normal ovarian reserve group (5.51% vs. 2.99%). After adjusting for confounding factors, the incidence of ectopic pregnancy was significantly associated with decreased ovarian reserve. Our results showed that decreased ovarian reserve is an independent risk factor for ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.

  9. Earthworm-induced N mineralization in fertilized grassland increases both N2O emission and crop-N uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.; Brussaard, L.; Otten, W.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Earthworms can increase plant nitrogen (N) availability by stimulating mineralization of organic matter. However, recent studies show that they can also cause elevated emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). It is unclear to what extent these two effects occur in fertilized grasslands,

  10. INCREASING FISH PRODUCTIVITY OF POND ECOSYSTEMS BY FERTILIZING THEM WITH DISTILLER'S GRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tson’

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study fish culture parameters of young-of-the-year carp in the conditions of industrial fish-growing ponds when applying experimental repeated fertilization with distiller’s grain. Methodology. The study was conducted in industrial fish-growing ponds. The wastes of alcohol industry – the distiller’s grain as organic fertilizer was gradually introduced into ponds at following amounts: first application – 1,0 t/ha, second application in 10 days – 0,5 t/ha, third application in 12 days – 0,5 t/ha. The control ponds were fertilized with humus (2 t/ha. Young-of-the-year carp (Cyprinus carpio were grown in monoculture at stocking density of 30 000 fish/ha. In addition, 100 kg/ha of lime were applied during the culture season in the experiment and control. Fertilization with humus and application of lime in ponds, hydrochemical studies, sampling and processing of hydrobiological samples, fish culturing and statistical studies were carried out according to standard methods. Findings. Gradual fertilizing with distiller’s grain (to the total 2 t/ha gave the possibility to create favorable hydrochemical and hydrobiological regimes. An average daily growth in the experimental fish groups of 0,44 ± 0,09 g/day that was similar to in the control (0,45 ± 0,11 g/day with positive significant correlation between them (r = 0,97; p <0,001 was achieved. The performed measures gave a possibility to obtain fish productivity in the experimental variant 10.7% more than in the control. An economic effect of 14.3% cost reduction for fertilizing ponds was achieved. Originality. For the first time we presented the results of fish culture and biological parameters of young-of-the-year carp in industrial ponds when applying 3-time fertilization with distiller’s grain. Practical Value. The obtained results are the basis for the broad use of non-traditional organic fertilizer – distiller’s grain in industrial ponds, when growing young

  11. Simultaneous investigation of intracellular Ca2+ increase and morphological events upon fertilization in the sand dollar egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Y; Hamaguchi, M S

    1990-06-01

    An increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]) and morphological were simultaneously observed by epifluorescence and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy during fertilization of the sand dollar, Clypeaster japonicus. [Ca2+], which was detected by a Ca2+ indicator, Fluo-3, initially increased just beneath the sperm-attached site on the egg surface 8.6 sec after attachment. The increase spread into the egg as a concentric sphere to the egg center and, thereafter, propagated in the egg cytoplasm as a planar wave rather than a spherical wave. It reached the site opposite the initiation site across the egg 24.2 sec after initiation. The fertilization envelope (FE) began to elevate 10.3 sec after the initiation of the increase in [Ca2+] and 21.2 sec after sperm attachment.

  12. Using organic matter to increase soil fertility in Burundi: potentials and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboneka, Salvator

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture production in Burundi is dominated by small scale farmers (0.5 ha/household) who have only very limited access to mineral inputs. In the past, farmers have relied on fallow practices combined with farm yard manures to maintain and improve soil fertility. However, due to the high population growth and high population density (370/km²), fallow practices are nowadays no longer feasible, animal manures cannot be produced in sufficient quantities to maintain soil productivity and food insecurity has become a quasi permanent reality. Most Burundian soils are characterized by 1:1 types of clay minerals (kaolinite) and are acidic in nature. Such soils are of very low cation exchange capacity (CEC). To compare the effect of % clays and % organic matter (% C), correlations tests have been conducted between the two parameters and the CEC. It was found that in high altitude kaolinitic and acidic soils, CEC was highly correlated to % C and less correlated to % clay, suggesting that organic matter could play an important role in improving fertility and productivity of these soils. Based on these findings, additional studies have been conducted to evaluate the fertilizer and soil amendment values of animal manures (cattle, goat, chicken), and leguminous (Calliandra calothyrsus, Gliricidia sepium, Senna simea, Senna spectabilis) and non-leguminous (Tithonia diversifolia) foliar biomass. It was observed that chicken manure significantly reduces Al3+ levels in acidic soils, while Tithonia diversifolia outperforms in nutrient releases compared to the commonly known leguminous agroforestry shrubs and trees indicated above. Although the above mentioned organic sources can contribute to the soil nutrients supply, the quantities potentially available on farm are generally small. The only solution is to supplement these organic sources with other organic sources (compost, organic household waste), chemical fertilizers and mineral amendments (lime) to achieve Integrated Soil

  13. Women's fertility across the cycle increases the short-term attractiveness of creative intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselton, Martie G; Miller, Geoffrey F

    2006-03-01

    Male provisioning ability may have evolved as a "good dad" indicator through sexual selection, whereas male creativity may have evolved partly as a "good genes" indicator. If so, women near peak fertility (midcycle) should prefer creativity over wealth, especially in short-term mating. Forty-one normally cycling women read vignettes describing creative but poor men vs. uncreative but rich men. Women's estimated fertility predicted their short-term (but not long-term) preference for creativity over wealth, in both their desirability ratings of individual men (r=.40, p<.01) and their forced-choice decisions between men (r=.46, p<.01). These preliminary results are consistent with the view that creativity evolved at least partly as a good genes indicator through mate choice.

  14. Ancient and modern occurrences of common fig (Ficus carica L.) in the British isles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, James H.; Dickson, Camilla

    Knowledge of the reproductive biology of the common fig ( Ficus carica) is essential for the interpretation of present and past occurrences of pips from archaeological layers as well as for understanding the status of trees, cultivated or wild. Only parthenocarpic varieties ripen figs in Britain and these cannot produce fertile pips. Common figs growing wild in Britain all come from pips from imported figs, often figs that had been eaten and the pips evacuated. There are many discoveries of pips from Roman and later urban and military sites in Britain. These pips too were derived from imported figs and not from locally cultivated trees. There is no proof that the Romans grew common fig in Britain and the earliest documentary evidence of cultivation is as late as the 15th century A.D.

  15. Composted Cattle Manure Increases Microbial Activity and Soil Fertility More Than Composted Swine Manure in a Submerged Rice Paddy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suvendu; Jeong, Seung Tak; Das, Subhasis; Kim, Pil Joo

    2017-01-01

    Livestock waste composts with minimum inorganic fertilizer as a soil amendment in low-input intensive farming are a feasible agricultural practice to improve soil fertility and productivity and to mitigate soil degradation. The key benefits of the practice rely on the activities of soil microorganisms. However, the role of different livestock composts [composted cattle manure (CCM) vs. composted swine manure (CSM)] on soil microbes, their activities and the overall impact on soil fertility and productivity in a flooded paddy remains elusive. This study compares the effectiveness of CCM and CSM amendment on bacterial communities, activities, nutrient availability, and crop yield in a flooded rice cropping system. We used deep 16S amplicon sequencing and soil enzyme activities to decipher bacterial communities and activities, respectively. Both CCM and CSM amendment significantly increased soil pH, nutrient availability (C, N, and P), microbial biomass, soil enzyme activities indicative for C and N cycles, aboveground plant biomass and grain yield. And the increase in above-mentioned parameters was more prominent in the CCM treatment compared to the CSM treatment. The CCM amendment increased species richness and stimulated copiotrophic microbial groups (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes) which are often involved in degradation of complex organic compounds. Moreover, some dominant species (e.g., Azospirillum zeae , Azospirillum halopraeferens , Azospirillum rugosum , Clostridium alkalicellulosi , Clostridium caenicola , Clostridium termitidis , Clostridium cellulolyticum , Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum , Pleomorphomonas oryzae , Variovorax boronicumulans , Pseudomonas xanthomarina , Pseudomonas stutzeri , and Bacillus niacini ) which have key roles in plant growth promotion and/or lignocellulose degradation were enhanced under CCM treatment compared to CSM treatment. Multivariate analysis revealed that soil pH and available carbon (C) and

  16. Composted Cattle Manure Increases Microbial Activity and Soil Fertility More Than Composted Swine Manure in a Submerged Rice Paddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvendu Das

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Livestock waste composts with minimum inorganic fertilizer as a soil amendment in low-input intensive farming are a feasible agricultural practice to improve soil fertility and productivity and to mitigate soil degradation. The key benefits of the practice rely on the activities of soil microorganisms. However, the role of different livestock composts [composted cattle manure (CCM vs. composted swine manure (CSM] on soil microbes, their activities and the overall impact on soil fertility and productivity in a flooded paddy remains elusive. This study compares the effectiveness of CCM and CSM amendment on bacterial communities, activities, nutrient availability, and crop yield in a flooded rice cropping system. We used deep 16S amplicon sequencing and soil enzyme activities to decipher bacterial communities and activities, respectively. Both CCM and CSM amendment significantly increased soil pH, nutrient availability (C, N, and P, microbial biomass, soil enzyme activities indicative for C and N cycles, aboveground plant biomass and grain yield. And the increase in above-mentioned parameters was more prominent in the CCM treatment compared to the CSM treatment. The CCM amendment increased species richness and stimulated copiotrophic microbial groups (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes which are often involved in degradation of complex organic compounds. Moreover, some dominant species (e.g., Azospirillum zeae, Azospirillum halopraeferens, Azospirillum rugosum, Clostridium alkalicellulosi, Clostridium caenicola, Clostridium termitidis, Clostridium cellulolyticum, Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum, Pleomorphomonas oryzae, Variovorax boronicumulans, Pseudomonas xanthomarina, Pseudomonas stutzeri, and Bacillus niacini which have key roles in plant growth promotion and/or lignocellulose degradation were enhanced under CCM treatment compared to CSM treatment. Multivariate analysis revealed that soil pH and available carbon (C and

  17. BRCA Mutations Increase Fertility in Families at Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Fabrice; Arbre, Marie; Bidet, Yannick; Laquet, Claire; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Bignon, Yves-Jean

    2015-01-01

    Deleterious mutations in the BRCA genes are responsible for a small, but significant, proportion of breast and ovarian cancers (5 - 10 %). Proof of de novo mutations in hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC) families is rare, in contrast to founder mutations, thousands of years old, that may be carried by as much as 1 % of a population. Thus, if mutations favoring cancer survive selection pressure through time, they must provide advantages that compensate for the loss of life expectancy. This hypothesis was tested within 2,150 HBOC families encompassing 96,325 individuals. Parameters included counts of breast/ovarian cancer, age at diagnosis, male breast cancer and other cancer locations. As expected, well-known clinical parameters discriminated between BRCA-mutated families and others: young age at breast cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer and male breast cancer. The major fertility differences concerned men in BRCA-mutated families: they had lower first and mean age at paternity, and fewer remained childless. For women in BRCA families, the miscarriage rate was lower. In a logistic regression including clinical factors, the different miscarriage rate and men's mean age at paternity remained significant. Fertility advantages were confirmed in a subgroup of 746 BRCA mutation carriers and 483 non-carriers from BRCA mutated families. In particular, female carriers were less often nulliparous (9.1 % of carriers versus 16.0 %, p = 0.003) and had more children (1.8 ± 1.4 SD versus 1.5 ± 1.3, p = 0.002) as well as male carriers (1.7 ± 1.3 versus 1.4 ± 1.3, p = 0.024). Although BRCA mutations shorten the reproductive period due to cancer mortality, they compensate by improving fertility both in male and female carriers.

  18. Supplementary data Fig. S1 Fig. S1. FE-SEM images of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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    Fig. S3. Cycling behavior of V2O5 nanomaterials recorded by CV at 20 mV·s-1 scan rate. Page 4. 4. Fig. S4. Fig. S4. Cycling behavior of V2O5 nanomaterials electrodes of galvanostatic charge and discharge profiles recorded by GCD at a current density of 1 A·g-1. Page 5. 5. Fig. S5. Fig. S5. Cycling behavior of V2O5 ...

  19. Ants use odour cues to exploit fig-fig wasp interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Bertrand; Hossaert-McKey, Martine

    2010-01-01

    Fig wasps may constitute a relatively abundant food source for ants associated with the fig-fig wasp nursery pollination mutualism. We found previously that a Mediterranean ant species detects fig wasps by chemical signals. In this paper we want to test the generality of this finding by studying two tropical ants, Oecophylla smaragdina and Crematogaster sp., preying on fig wasps on the dioecious Ficus fistulosa in Brunei (Borneo). Behavioural tests in a Y-tube olfactometer showed that these two ants were attracted both to odours emitted by receptive figs and to those emitted by fig wasps (male and female of the pollinator, and a non-pollinating fig wasp) used here as a kairomone. Naïve workers were not attracted to fig wasps, suggesting that olfactory learning may play a role in prey detection. We also found that O. smaragdina was much more likely to be present on figs of male trees (where fig wasps are more abundant), and that the abundance of this ant species varied strongly with developmental phase of figs on individual trees. Moreover, its aggressiveness was also strongly influenced by the nature of the object presented in our behavioural tests, the site of the test and the developmental phase of the fig tested. Investigation on the chemical and behavioural ecology of the different interacting species provides important insights into the intricate relationships supported by the fig-fig wasp mutualism.

  20. Developing the california fresh fig industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fig (Ficus carica), one of the first cultivated trees in the world, is grown in most of the of the world’s moderate climates. However, fresh figs are highly sensitive to physical damage, and susceptible to postharvest infections which cause high losses during marketing. Preharvest orchard and po...

  1. Fruit characteristics of the selected fig genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... The aim of this research was determine of fruit characteristics and select of some significant fig genotypes grown in Kiziltepe district of Mardin province. No studies have been made on the fig genotypes in Kiziltepe district by researchers up to now. Therefore, this study was very important. In this research, six ...

  2. Potency of Agroindustrial Wastewaters to Increase the Dissolution of Phosphate Rock Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainin Niswati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The used of agroindustrial wastewaters are not maximum yet in Lampung Province, althought it can be used as an acid solvent because of its acidic properties. This study was aimed to explore the most potential agroindustrial wastewaters in dissolving phosphate rock through acidulation in the laboratory scale. The experiment was arranged in a factorial. The first factor was origined of phosphate rock (Sukabumi, west Java and Selagailingga, central Lampung and the second factor was solvent types (agroindustrial wastewaters which were pineapple, tapioca, tofu industry, and palm oil as well as conventional acid solvents which were HCl, H2SO4, and CH3COOH. The incubation processes were 0, 1, 2, and 3 months. The results showed that agroindustrial wastewaters that have the highest potency to solubize phosphate rock was industrial tofu wastewaters and followed by industrial wastewaters of tapioca, palm oil, and pineapple. Both the conventional acid and agroindustrial wastewaters solvent had a big potency to solubilize phosphate rock, however, its highest soluble P-value did not match with the ISO criteria for phosphate fertilizers Quality I (SNI because it did not reach the solubility of 80% of its total P2O5, but it has been qualified as a fertilizer both the quality phosphate A, B, and C (SNI.

  3. New insights into how increases in fertility improve the growth of rice at the seedling stage in red soil regions of subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yilin; Shi, Weiming; Wang, Xingxiang

    2014-01-01

    The differences in rhizosphere nitrification activities between high- and low- fertility soils appear to be related to differences in dissolved oxygen concentrations in the soil, implying a relationship to differences in the radial oxygen loss (ROL) of rice roots in these soils. A miniaturised Clark-type oxygen microelectrode system was used to determine rice root ROL and the rhizosphere oxygen profile, and rhizosphere nitrification activity was studied using a short-term nitrification activity assay. Rice planting significantly altered the oxygen cycling in the water-soil system due to rice root ROL. Although the oxygen content in control high-fertility soil (without rice plants) was lower than that in control low-fertility soil, high rice root ROL significantly improved the rhizosphere oxygen concentration in the high-fertility soil. High soil fertility improved the rice root growth and root porosity as well as rice root ROL, resulting in enhanced rhizosphere nitrification. High fertility also increased the content of nitrification-induced nitrate in the rhizosphere, resulting in enhanced ammonium uptake and assimilation in the rice. Although high ammonium pools in the high-fertility soil increased rhizosphere nitrification, rice root ROL might also contribute to rhizosphere nitrification improvement. This study provides new insights into the reasons that an increase in soil fertility may enhance the growth of rice. Our results suggest that an amendment of the fertiliser used in nutrient- and nitrification-poor paddy soils in the red soil regions of China may significantly promote rice growth and rice N nutrition.

  4. Narrowing the harvest: Increasing sickle investment and the rise of domesticated cereal agriculture in the Fertile Crescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Osamu; Lucas, Leilani; Silva, Fabio; Tanno, Ken-Ichi; Fuller, Dorian Q.

    2016-08-01

    For the first time we integrate quantitative data on lithic sickles and archaeobotanical evidence for domestication and the evolution of plant economies from sites dated to the terminal Pleistocene and Early Holocene (ca. 12000-5000 cal. BCE) from throughout the Fertile Crescent region of Southwest Asia. We find a strong correlation in some regions, throughout the Levant, for increasing investment in sickles that tracks the evidence for increasing reliance on cereal crops, while evidence for morphological domestication in wheats (Triticum monococcum and Triticum dicoccum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) was delayed in comparison to sickle use. These data indicate that while the co-increase of sickle blades and cereal crops support the protracted development of agricultural practice, sickles did not drive the initial stages of the domestication process but rather were a cultural adaptation to increasing reliance on cereals that were still undergoing selection for morphological change. For other regions, such as the Eastern Fertile Crescent and Cyprus such correlations are weaker or non-existent suggesting diverse cultural trajectories to cereal domestication. We conclude that sickles were an exaptation transferred to cereal harvesting and important in signalling a new cultural identity of "farmers". Furthermore, the protracted process of technological and agricultural evolution calls into question hypotheses that the transition to agriculture was caused by any particular climatic event.

  5. Transgenic Suppression of AGAMOUS Genes in Apple Reduces Fertility and Increases Floral Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocko, Amy L; Borejsza-Wysocka, Ewa; Brunner, Amy M; Shevchenko, Olga; Aldwinckle, Herb; Strauss, Steven H

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the ability of RNA interference (RNAi) directed against two co-orthologs of AGAMOUS (AG) from Malus domestica (domestic apple, MdAG) to reduce the risks of invasiveness and provide genetic containment of transgenes, while also promoting the attractiveness of flowers for ornamental usage. Suppression of two MdAG-like genes, MdMADS15 and MdMADS22, led to the production of trees with highly showy, polypetalous flowers. These "double-flowers" had strongly reduced expression of both MdAG-like genes. Members of the two other clades within in the MdAG subfamily showed mild to moderate differences in gene expression, or were unchanged, with the level of suppression approximately proportional to the level of sequence identity between the gene analyzed and the RNAi fragment. The double-flowers also exhibited reduced male and female fertility, had few viable pollen grains, a decreased number of stigmas, and produced few viable seeds after cross-pollination. Despite these floral alterations, RNAi-AG trees with double-flowers set full-sized fruit. Suppression or mutation of apple AG-like genes appears to be a promising method for combining genetic containment with improved floral attractiveness.

  6. Transgenic Suppression of AGAMOUS Genes in Apple Reduces Fertility and Increases Floral Attractiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Klocko

    Full Text Available We investigated the ability of RNA interference (RNAi directed against two co-orthologs of AGAMOUS (AG from Malus domestica (domestic apple, MdAG to reduce the risks of invasiveness and provide genetic containment of transgenes, while also promoting the attractiveness of flowers for ornamental usage. Suppression of two MdAG-like genes, MdMADS15 and MdMADS22, led to the production of trees with highly showy, polypetalous flowers. These "double-flowers" had strongly reduced expression of both MdAG-like genes. Members of the two other clades within in the MdAG subfamily showed mild to moderate differences in gene expression, or were unchanged, with the level of suppression approximately proportional to the level of sequence identity between the gene analyzed and the RNAi fragment. The double-flowers also exhibited reduced male and female fertility, had few viable pollen grains, a decreased number of stigmas, and produced few viable seeds after cross-pollination. Despite these floral alterations, RNAi-AG trees with double-flowers set full-sized fruit. Suppression or mutation of apple AG-like genes appears to be a promising method for combining genetic containment with improved floral attractiveness.

  7. Explaining Below-Replacement Fertility and Increasing Childlessness in Wealthy Countries: Legacy Drive and the “Transmission Competition” Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonnie W. Aarssen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel evolutionary perspective for explaining why, in most wealthy countries, female fertility has recently dropped below replacement level, with an increasing incidence of childlessness. Our hypothesis is based on the proposition that throughout human evolution, behaviors that promoted gene transmission (offspring production, and hence fitness, have involved not just those associated with a strong “sex drive,” but also those associated with a strong “legacy drive”—the desire to “leave something of oneself for the future. Because of this intrinsic legacy drive, we argue, humans (and males, in particular have been inherently vulnerable for “side-tracking” into other activities that promote “meme transmission” — i.e., activities perceived as providing a lasting legacy of “self through investment in career development, accumulation of wealth and status, and several other activities that have potential to impact on the thoughts and actions of others in both current and future generations. Humans engage in meme transmission, therefore, at the potential expense of time, energy, and resources for investing in gene transmission. Based on evolutionary arguments, we discuss why realized competition between gene transmission and meme transmission has emerged significantly only in recent human history, why meme transmission is presently winning out in wealthy countries — thus accounting for below-replacement fertility and increasing childlessness — and why natural selection can be expected in the near future to generate a significant shift in the fertility-promoting behaviors of humans.

  8. The occurrence of fig wasps in the fruits of female gynodioecious fig trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Dunn, Derek W.; Hu, Hao-Yuan; Niu, Li-Ming; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Pan, Xian-Li; Feng, Gui; Fu, Yue-Guan; Huang, Da-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Fig trees are pollinated by wasp mutualists, whose larvae consume some of the plant's ovaries. Many fig species (350+) are gynodioecious, whereby pollinators generally develop in the figs of 'male' trees and seeds generally in the 'females.' Pollinators usually cannot reproduce in 'female' figs at all because their ovipositors cannot penetrate the long flower styles to gall the ovaries. Many non-pollinating fig wasp (NPFW) species also only reproduce in figs. These wasps can be either phytophagous gallers or parasites of other wasps. The lack of pollinators in female figs may thus constrain or benefit different NPFWs through host absence or relaxed competition. To determine the rates of wasp occurrence and abundance we surveyed 11 dioecious fig species on Hainan Island, China, and performed subsequent experiments with Ficus tinctoria subsp. gibbosa to identify the trophic relationships between NPFWs that enable development in female syconia. We found NPFWs naturally occurring in the females of Ficus auriculata, Ficus hainanensis and F. tinctoria subsp. gibbosa. Because pollinators occurred only in male syconia, when NPFWs also occurred in female syconia, overall there were more wasps in male than in female figs. Species occurrence concurred with experimental data, which showed that at least one phytophagous galler NPFW is essential to enable multiple wasp species to coexist within a female fig. Individuals of galler NPFW species present in both male and female figs of the same fig species were more abundant in females than in males, consistent with relaxed competition due to the absence of pollinator. However, these wasps replaced pollinators on a fewer than one-to-one basis, inferring that other unknown mechanisms prevent the widespread exploitation by wasps of female figs. Because some NPFW species may use the holes chewed by pollinator males to escape from their natal fig, we suggest that dispersal factors could be involved.

  9. ROW METHOD OF SUGAR BEET (BETA VULGARIS L. FERTILIZATION WITH MULTICOMPONENT FERTILIZER BASED ON UREA-AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTION AS A WAY TO INCREASE NITROGEN EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław BARŁÓG

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet is the main crop commonly cultivated for sugar production in temperate regions of the World. Actual yields in main Central Europe producing countries are much lower, due to many limiting factors. Among them, nutrients supply is of great value, especially referring to efficiency of nitrogen, which is generally low. In the conducted study two methods of nitrogen application were compared (i broadcast of calcium saltpeter and (ii row application of the multicomponent fertilizer based on urea-ammonium-nitrate (UAN solution. The basic amount of the applied N was 75 kg ha-1. The highest yields of both taproots and refined sugar were harvested on the plot receiving 75 kg N-1 as UAN liquid multicomponent fertilizer and 50% of the recommended P and K rates. The positive effects of row application of liquid N fertilizer on taproot and sugar yields were also corroborated by high values of indices of agronomic efficiency for both N as well as P and K. However this method of sugar beets fertilization has some possibilities, as indicated by still high contents of melassogenic substances.

  10. Reduction of centrifugation force in discontinuous percoll gradients increases in vitro fertilization rates without reducing bovine sperm recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, A C G; Leivas, F G; Santos, F W; Schwengber, E B; Giotto, A B; Machado, C I U; Gonçalves, C G M; Folchini, N P; Brum, D S

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different centrifugation forces in bovine sperm separation by discontinuous Percoll gradients for in vitro fertilization IVF. The semen samples from each bull were pooled or each bull were centrifuged separately and centrifuged in discontinuous Percoll gradients (30, 60 and 90%) at different forces: F1 (9000×g), F2 (6500×g), F3 (4500×g) and F4 (2200×g), according experiment. The sperm samples were evaluated to determine the concentration, motility, vigor, morphology, reactive oxygen species (ROS), integrity of the plasma membrane, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and embryo development were also evaluated. No difference was observed in the concentration of sperm submitted to different centrifugation forces. The total percentage of motile sperm was increased after centrifugation at F3 and F4, and the ROS production at F1 was greater than the other forces. When the bulls semen were processed individually, no significant differences were observed for the sperm quality parameters between F1 and F4, including lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, cleavage rate and average time to the first cleavage. This work demonstrated for the first time that centrifugation at 2200×g enhanced the sperm penetration and fertilization rates without reducing sperm recovery compared to the typical centrifugation force (9000×g) currently used by the commercial bovine IVF industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. ALA Pretreatment Improves Waterlogging Tolerance of Fig Plants.

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    Yuyan An

    Full Text Available 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, a natural and environmentally friendly plant growth regulator, can improve plant tolerance to various environmental stresses. However, whether ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of ALA pretreatment on the waterlogging-induced damage of fig (Ficus carica Linn. plants, which often suffer from waterlogging stress. ALA pretreatment significantly alleviated stress-induced morphological damage, increased leaf relative water content (RWC, and reduced leaf superoxide anion ([Formula: see text] production rate and malonaldehyde (MDA content in fig leaves, indicating ALA mitigates waterlogging stress of fig plants. We further demonstrated that ALA pretreatment largely promoted leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic electron transfer ability, and photosynthetic performance index, indicating ALA significantly improves plant photosynthetic efficiency under waterlogging stress. Moreover, ALA pretreatment significantly increased activities of leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD, root vigor, and activities of root alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, indicating ALA also significantly improves antioxidant ability and root function of fig plants under waterlogging stress. Taken together, ALA pretreatment improves waterlogging tolerance of fig plants significantly, and the promoted root respiration, leaf photosynthesis, and antioxidant ability may contribute greatly to this improvement. Our data firstly shows that ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance.

  12. Physical properties of a Red-Yellow Latosol and productivity of a signalgrass pasture fertilized with increasing nitrogen doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Alexandre de Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical properties and fertility of the soil are important factors in the formation and establishment of pasture. Changes in physical properties affect the movement of water, air, nutrients and roots, which, in turn, affect the productivity and longevity of pastures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of the soil and the dry matter yield of a pasture with signalgrass cv. Basilisk (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, fertilized with increasing nitrogen doses (N, on a dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol. The experiment was conducted on the Fazenda Rio Manso of the Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, in Couto de Magalhães de Minas, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. To evaluate the annual forage yield, a split plot scheme in a randomized block design with four replications was used, with N doses (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg/ha/year in the plots and growing seasons (first and second in the subplots. For soil evaluation, a split plot scheme was used with N doses (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 kg/ha/cut in the plots and three sampling times (prior to the experiment, at the end of the first growing season and at the end of the second growing season in the subplots in a randomized block design with four replications. This analysis was performed separately at two soil depths (0-3 and 10-13 cm. Forage samples were analyzed for the annual dry matter yield (DMY, and soil samples were analyzed for pre-consolidation pressure (σp, initial soil bulk density (Bd, total pore volume (TPV and void index (Vd. Higher nitrogen doses increased the dry matter yield of signalgrass pasture and the pre-consolidation pressure of the soil. The total pore volume and void index decreased, and the initial soil bulk density increased, though without promoting soil compaction.

  13. Soybeans grown in the Chernobyl area produce fertile seeds that have increased heavy metal resistance and modified carbon metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubicová, Katarína; Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Berezhna, Valentyna V; Uvackova, Lubica; Rashydov, Namik M; Hajduch, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Plants grow and reproduce in the radioactive Chernobyl area, however there has been no comprehensive characterization of these activities. Herein we report that life in this radioactive environment has led to alteration of the developing soybean seed proteome in a specific way that resulted in the production of fertile seeds with low levels of oil and β-conglycinin seed storage proteins. Soybean seeds were harvested at four, five, and six weeks after flowering, and at maturity from plants grown in either non-radioactive or radioactive plots in the Chernobyl area. The abundance of 211 proteins was determined. The results confirmed previous data indicating that alterations in the proteome include adaptation to heavy metal stress and mobilization of seed storage proteins. The results also suggest that there have been adjustments to carbon metabolism in the cytoplasm and plastids, increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and decreased condensation of malonyl-acyl carrier protein during fatty acid biosynthesis.

  14. Soybeans Grown in the Chernobyl Area Produce Fertile Seeds that Have Increased Heavy Metal Resistance and Modified Carbon Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubicová, Katarína; Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Berezhna, Valentyna V.; Uvackova, Lubica; Rashydov, Namik M.; Hajduch, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Plants grow and reproduce in the radioactive Chernobyl area, however there has been no comprehensive characterization of these activities. Herein we report that life in this radioactive environment has led to alteration of the developing soybean seed proteome in a specific way that resulted in the production of fertile seeds with low levels of oil and β-conglycinin seed storage proteins. Soybean seeds were harvested at four, five, and six weeks after flowering, and at maturity from plants grown in either non-radioactive or radioactive plots in the Chernobyl area. The abundance of 211 proteins was determined. The results confirmed previous data indicating that alterations in the proteome include adaptation to heavy metal stress and mobilization of seed storage proteins. The results also suggest that there have been adjustments to carbon metabolism in the cytoplasm and plastids, increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and decreased condensation of malonyl-acyl carrier protein during fatty acid biosynthesis. PMID:23110204

  15. Soybeans grown in the Chernobyl area produce fertile seeds that have increased heavy metal resistance and modified carbon metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Klubicová

    Full Text Available Plants grow and reproduce in the radioactive Chernobyl area, however there has been no comprehensive characterization of these activities. Herein we report that life in this radioactive environment has led to alteration of the developing soybean seed proteome in a specific way that resulted in the production of fertile seeds with low levels of oil and β-conglycinin seed storage proteins. Soybean seeds were harvested at four, five, and six weeks after flowering, and at maturity from plants grown in either non-radioactive or radioactive plots in the Chernobyl area. The abundance of 211 proteins was determined. The results confirmed previous data indicating that alterations in the proteome include adaptation to heavy metal stress and mobilization of seed storage proteins. The results also suggest that there have been adjustments to carbon metabolism in the cytoplasm and plastids, increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and decreased condensation of malonyl-acyl carrier protein during fatty acid biosynthesis.

  16. Cross-reactivity between Ficus benjamina latex and fig fruit in patients with clinical fig allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focke, M; Hemmer, W; Wöhrl, S; Götz, M; Jarisch, R

    2003-07-01

    Anaphylactic reactions to fig fruits (Ficus carica) have been reported from subjects sensitized to Ficus benjamina (FB) latex allergens. Figs may also be involved in the latex-fruit syndrome. To study the immunologic relationship between fig fruit, Ficus benjamina, natural rubber latex (Hevea brasiliensis), and other tropical fruits. RAST inhibition and Western blotting with FB and fruit extracts was performed in five patients with oral allergy syndrome (OAS) or anaphylaxis after the ingestion of figs and one patient with symptoms from exposure to FB trees. Co-sensitization to rubber latex and tropical fruits (kiwi, banana, avocado, papaya, pineapple, mulberry) was studied by skin testing. RAST to FB was inhibited >95% by FB extracts and 16-65% (mean 49%) by extracts from fresh fig. RAST to fig fruit was inhibited >95% by FB and fresh fig, 63-97% (mean 86%) by dried fig, and 0-84% (mean 35.5%) by kiwi fruit. FB and fig extracts lost most of their allergenicity when denatured by heat (95 degrees C) or reduced by dithiothreitol. Western blotting after non-reducing gel electrophoresis revealed IgE binding to proteins of 22 and 28-34 kDa in FB latex; however, no corresponding allergens could be detected in fig extracts. Positive skin tests were obtained most often with kiwi fruit, papaya, and avocado. Sensitization to rubber latex could not be demonstrated in any of the patients. RAST to papain was positive in three of five patients. Allergic reactions to fresh or dried figs can present as a consequence of primary sensitization to airborne FB allergens independent of sensitization to rubber latex allergens. Kiwi fruit, papaya, and avocado as well as pineapple and banana may be other fruits associated with sensitization to Ficus allergens.

  17. The biphasic increase of PIP2 in the fertilized eggs of starfish: new roles in actin polymerization and Ca2+ signaling.

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    Jong T Chun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fertilization of echinoderm eggs is accompanied by dynamic changes of the actin cytoskeleton and by a drastic increase of cytosolic Ca(2+. Since the plasma membrane-enriched phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 serves as the precursor of inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (InsP(3 and also regulates actin-binding proteins, PIP2 might be involved in these two processes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we have studied the roles of PIP2 at fertilization of starfish eggs by using fluorescently tagged pleckstrin homology (PH domain of PLC-δ1, which has specific binding affinity to PIP2, in combination with Ca(2+ and F-actin imaging techniques and transmission electron microscopy. During fertilization, PIP2 increased at the plasma membrane in two phases rather than continually decreasing. The first increase was quickly followed by a decrease about 40 seconds after sperm-egg contact. However, these changes took place only after the Ca(2+ wave had already initiated and propagated. The fertilized eggs then displayed a prolonged increase of PIP2 that was accompanied by the appearance of numerous spikes in the perivitelline space during the elevation of the fertilization envelope (FE. These spikes, protruding from the plasma membrane, were filled with microfilaments. Sequestration of PIP2 by RFP-PH at higher doses resulted in changes of subplasmalemmal actin networks which significantly delayed the intracellular Ca(2+ signaling, impaired elevation of FE, and increased occurrences of polyspermic fertilization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that PIP2 plays comprehensive roles in shaping Ca(2+ waves and guiding structural and functional changes required for successful fertilization. We propose that the PIP2 increase and the subsequent formation of actin spikes not only provide the mechanical supports for the elevating FE, but also accommodate increased membrane surfaces during cortical granule

  18. Isotope techniques in soil fertility and plant nutrition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, F.

    1990-01-01

    Fertilizers are one of the essential inputs which have to be used for maintaining and/or increasing the soil fertility level in intensive agricultural systems. The purpose of applying fertilizers is primarily to supply the crop with essential plant nutrients. The major plant nutrients (N, P and K) have to be applied regularly to compensate for the amounts exported from the soil by the harvested plant parts. Other plant nutrients such as Ca, Mg, S and the microelements also need to be added to maintain adequate levels of these nutrients or to correct deficiencies. The best combination of fertilizer practices can be established for each crop by carrying out field experiments under different environmental conditions. Methods which can be used to assess the effect of fertilizer practices are described in the article. 39 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  19. Increased resin flow in mature pine trees growing under elevated CO2 and moderate soil fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.A. Novick; G.G. Katul; H.R. McCarthy; R. Oren

    2012-01-01

    Warmer climates induced by elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) are expected to increase damaging bark beetle activity in pine forests, yet the effect of eCO2 on resin production—the tree’s primary defense against beetle attack—remains largely unknown. Following growth-differentiation balance theory, if extra carbohydrates produced under eCO2 are not consumed by respiration...

  20. Presence of triploid cytotypes in the common fig (Ficus carica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falistocco, E

    2009-11-01

    Ficus carica (2n = 26) is one of the oldest fruit trees of the Mediterranean basin. Recently there has been increasing interest in this species, in particular for questions related to germplasm such as genetic diversity and cultivar identification. This study was undertaken to gain more knowledge of F. carica cytogenetics and provide data useful for the characterization of its germplasm. Karyomorphological analysis and physical mapping of 18S-25S and 5S rRNA genes by the FISH technique contributed to defining the basic traits of the chromosome complement of F. carica. However, the most interesting result was the discovery of triploid (2n = 39) cytotypes of the cultivated common fig. This result demonstrates the importance of cytogenetic investigations in studies of fig germplasm and emphasizes the role of cross-fertilization as a source of variability not only in wild populations but also in cultivated forms. The results of pollen analysis suggest spontaneous sexual polyploidization as a possible origin of triploid cytotypes. Further studies are necessary to clarify the origin and effective spreading of polyploidy, the presence of other ploidy levels, and their distribution in wild and cultivated forms.

  1. Evolution of increased competitiveness in cows trades off with reduced milk yield, fertility and more masculine morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Cristina; Mazza, Serena; Guzzo, Nadia; Mantovani, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    In some species females compete for food, foraging territories, mating, and nesting sites. Competing females can exhibit morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations typical of males, which are commonly considered as secondary sexual traits. Competition and the development of traits increasing competitiveness require much energy and may exert adverse effects on fecundity and survival. From an evolutionary perspective, positive selection for increased competitiveness would then result in evolution of reduced values for traits related to fitness such as fecundity and survival. There is recent evidence for such evolutionary trade-offs involving male competition, but no study has considered competing females so far. Using data from competitions for dominance in cows (Bos taurus), we found negative genetic correlations between traits providing success in competition, that is, fighting ability and fitness traits related to milk production and with fertility (the inverse of parity-conception interval). Fighting ability also showed low but positive genetic correlations with "masculine" morphological traits, and negative correlations with "feminine" traits. A genetic change in traits over time has occurred due to selection on competitiveness, corresponding to an evolutionary process of "masculinization" counteracting the official selection for milk yield. Similar evolutionary trade-off between success in competition and fitness components may be present in various species experiencing female competition. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. An Extreme Case of Plant–Insect Codiversification: Figs and Fig-Pollinating Wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruaud, Astrid; Rønsted, Nina; Chantarasuwan, Bhanumas; Chou, Lien Siang; Clement, Wendy L.; Couloux, Arnaud; Cousins, Benjamin; Genson, Gwenaëlle; Harrison, Rhett D.; Hanson, Paul E.; Hossaert-Mckey, Martine; Jabbour-Zahab, Roula; Jousselin, Emmanuelle; Kerdelhué, Carole; Kjellberg, Finn; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Peebles, John; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Pereira, Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo; Schramm, Tselil; Ubaidillah, Rosichon; van Noort, Simon; Weiblen, George D.; Yang, Da-Rong; Yodpinyanee, Anak; Libeskind-Hadas, Ran; Cook, James M.; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Savolainen, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Abstract It is thought that speciation in phytophagous insects is often due to colonization of novel host plants, because radiations of plant and insect lineages are typically asynchronous. Recent phylogenetic comparisons have supported this model of diversification for both insect herbivores and specialized pollinators. An exceptional case where contemporaneous plant–insect diversification might be expected is the obligate mutualism between fig trees (Ficus species, Moraceae) and their pollinating wasps (Agaonidae, Hymenoptera). The ubiquity and ecological significance of this mutualism in tropical and subtropical ecosystems has long intrigued biologists, but the systematic challenge posed by >750 interacting species pairs has hindered progress toward understanding its evolutionary history. In particular, taxon sampling and analytical tools have been insufficient for large-scale cophylogenetic analyses. Here, we sampled nearly 200 interacting pairs of fig and wasp species from across the globe. Two supermatrices were assembled: on an average, wasps had sequences from 77% of 6 genes (5.6 kb), figs had sequences from 60% of 5 genes (5.5 kb), and overall 850 new DNA sequences were generated for this study. We also developed a new analytical tool, Jane 2, for event-based phylogenetic reconciliation analysis of very large data sets. Separate Bayesian phylogenetic analyses for figs and fig wasps under relaxed molecular clock assumptions indicate Cretaceous diversification of crown groups and contemporaneous divergence for nearly half of all fig and pollinator lineages. Event-based cophylogenetic analyses further support the codiversification hypothesis. Biogeographic analyses indicate that the present-day distribution of fig and pollinator lineages is consistent with a Eurasian origin and subsequent dispersal, rather than with Gondwanan vicariance. Overall, our findings indicate that the fig-pollinator mutualism represents an extreme case among plant

  3. The influence of snakehead (Channa striata) fish extract to increase hyperglycemic mice fertility based on spermatogenic cell composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, Dewi; Abdulgani, Nurlita; Ashuri, Nova Maulidina; Sa'adah, Noor Nailis; Lukitasari, Maharani

    2017-06-01

    Reproductive dysfunction is recognized as a consequence of diabetes mellitus. Previous study revealed that snakehead (Channa striata) fish extract can repairing the pancreas histological structure which by that decreasing the blood glucose levels. Further research was conducted to determine the influence of snakehead fish extract (SHFE) to increasing the fertility of hyperglycemic mice based on spermatogenic cell composition. Twenty five adult mice (Mus musculus) were induced intraperitoneally to be hyperglycemic using alloxan monohydrate single dose of 190 mg/kg body weight. Hyperglycemic mice treated orally for 14 days using SHFE which grouped into five treatment dosages. Testicular histology were prepared using the paraffin methods and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin. According to ANOVA and Tukey's test, it was found that spermatogenic cells population as well as its composition in the testis of mice that treated with SHFE are significantly higher than hyperglichemic mice. The highest dose of SHFE (0.15 ml/day), showed highest spermatogenic cell. All hyperglichemic mice that treated with SHFE exhibited the ratio composition of spermatogonia: spermatocytes: spermatids as same as with control (healthy mice) i.e. 1:1:3 respectively.

  4. Fig: ure it Out: A Creative Psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Murphy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sigmund Freud’s contribution to the field of psychology was significant, not because it was flawless but because it challenged conventional views of the time.   In the modern era, an individual’s view of the world is constantly being challenged due, in large part, to insurmountable information made available for public consumption. It’s an unrelenting bombardment of input that has made prominent the rift between facts and beliefs. This inquisitive article is an exploration of that conflict.   By applying Freudian psychology to one of the most confrontational and debatable topics of the 21st century—the environment—Fig: ure It Out reviews our environmental problems from one psychological perspective. Do we define truths by facts or by the way in which we cope with new information? It’s an example of human behaviour within a changing world.

  5. Proverbe et expression figée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cîţu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Les deux types d’énoncés sentencieux abordés dans cette étude ne feront pas l’objet d’une analyse formelle de type structural, se proposant de décrire une éventuelle architecture et des propriétés syntaxiques spécifiques. Il ne s’agira non plus d’une approche stylistique, rhétorique ou pragmatique. En revanche, c’est une vision de sémantique référentielle qui sera projetée sur ce type de séquences, laquelle essaiera de surprendre un trait fondamental et constant des proverbes, qui permet de le distinguer des expressions figées, et dont l’identification est apte aussi de prédire quelles phrases de la langue pourraient accéder au statut des proverbes.

  6. Heterosis Increases Fertility, Fecundity, and Survival of Laboratory-Produced F1 Hybrid Males of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles coluzzii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekechukwu, Nkiru E; Baeshen, Rowida; Traorè, Sékou F; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Diabate, Abdoulaye; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Tripet, Frédéric

    2015-10-23

    The success of vector control strategies aiming to decrease disease transmission via the release of sterile or genetically-modified male mosquitoes critically depends on mating between laboratory-reared males and wild females. Unfortunately, mosquito colonization, laboratory rearing, and genetic manipulations can all negatively affect male competitiveness. Heterosis is commonly used to produce domestic animals with enhanced vigor and homogenous genetic background and could therefore potentially improve the mating performance of mass-reared male mosquitoes. Here, we produced enhanced hybrid males of the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii by crossing two strains colonized >35 and 8 years ago. We compared the amount of sperm and mating plug proteins they transferred to females, as well as their insemination rate, reproductive success and longevity under various experimental conditions. Across experiments, widespread adaptations to laboratory mating were detected in the older strain. In large-group mating experiments, no overall hybrid advantage in insemination rates and the amount of sperm and accessory gland proteins transferred to females was detected. Despite higher sperm activity, hybrid males did not appear more fecund. However, individual-male mating and laboratory-swarm experiments revealed that hybrid males, while inseminating fewer females than older inbred males, were significantly more fertile, producing larger mating plugs and drastically increasing female fecundity. Heterotic males also showed increased longevity. These results validate the use of heterosis for creating hybrid males with improved fitness from long-established inbred laboratory strains. Therefore, this simple approach could facilitate disease control strategies based on male mosquito releases with important ultimate benefits to human health. Copyright © 2015 Ekechukwu et al.

  7. Garlic essential oil increases rates of eggs fertilization and hatching of Rhamdia quelen larvae in an artificial incubation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Garcia Marengoni

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of garlic (Allium sativum essential oil on the rates of eggs fertilization and hatching and on the normal development of larvae of artificially incubated silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen. The experiment was carried out using a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments and five replicates. The treatments consisted of introducing garlic essential oil into the incubators, which used a closed system of water recirculation, at concentrations of 0, 1, 3, and 5mg L-1. Rates of eggs fertilization and larval hatching were determined at 10 and 24h after the beginning of eggs hydration. Morphology of larvae was assessed with the aid of a stereo microscope to determine the rate of normal development. The concentration of 5mg L-1 promoted better rates of eggs fertilization and larval hatching. Concentrations of garlic essential oil had a linear effect on eggs fertilization rates and larval hatching. Garlic oil did not influence the morphology of the larvae (P>0.05. It is recommended to use 5mg L-1 of garlic essential oil to promote better rates of eggs fertilization and larval hatching of artificially incubated silver catfish.

  8. Effects of irrigation, fertilization and drought on the occurrence of Lophodermium piceae in Picea abies needles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtijaervi, Asko; Barklund, Pia [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1999-08-01

    Effects of irrigation, drought and fertilization on the frequency of the fungal endophyte Lophodermium piceae in green needles was assessed in a 30-year-old experimental stand of Picea abies in southern Sweden. Frequencies of needles with L. piceae were lower in irrigation and ammonium sulphate fertilization treatments than in the control. Drought treatment frequencies were similar to the control. Needles were susceptible to colonization for at least 3 years; colonization increased with needle age. The results indicate that the increased availability of water to the root system as well as ammonium sulphate fertilization indirectly delays colonization of needles by L. piceae 21 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  9. [Anaphylactic reaction to Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, S; Ruëff, F; Przybilla, B

    2001-10-01

    Ficus benjamina (weeping fig) is a widespread indoor ornamental plant. Allergens of Ficus benjamina are a well-known cause of IgE-mediated respiratory diseases. We treated a 32-year-old female who for 10 years had suffered from perennial rhinoconjunctivitis. When dusting her 2 meter high Ficus benjamina, she developed an anaphylactic reaction which resolved without sequelae. Skin prick testing revealed a strong immediate type reaction to a Ficus extract, the serum concentration of specific IgE-antibodies to Ficus was > 100 kU/I (CAP class 6). In view of these strong test reactions and the conclusive history, no challenge tests with Ficus allergens were performed. After removal of the Ficus plants which she had owned for 17 years and after thorough cleaning of her dwelling, the patient's symptoms of perennial rhinoconjunctivitis stopped. The patient also was sensitized to, but not allergic to natural rubber latex, which occurs frequently in Ficus allergy and probably is due to cross reactivity to allergens from both sources. As Ficus benjamina is an important source of indoor allergens, it should not be used in dwellings or work places.

  10. EFFICIENCY OF CONCOMITANT APPLICATION OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS AND CULTURED INVERTEBRATES FOR INCREASING FISH PRODUCTIVITY IN NURSERY PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tuchapska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the fisheries and biological indicators of young-of-the-year carp when applying fertilizer in ponds, introducing stock cultures of Daphnia magna (Straus and feeding of young-of-the-year with cultured zooplankton organisms and to evaluate the effectiveness of measures for enhancing the provision of young-of-the-year carp with natural feeds. Methodology. Stock culture of Daphnia magna was added into experimental ponds, 65 kg/ha of zooplankton, which were cultured in a pond-cultivator and cages installed in experimental ponds were used for feeding young-of-the-years in July and August. For study of nutrition and growth of young-of-the-year carp, samples were taken during regular control fish seining. Parameters of young-of-the-year carp growing and economic efficiency of measures aimed at increasing the supply of young-of-the-year carp with natural feeds were determined. Findings. Average seasonal zooplankton biomass in experimental ponds was 3,9 – 4,8 times higher than the biomass in the control pond. Natural food in the stomach content of carps from experimental ponds in June was 64,7 – 71,3 %, in July it decreased to 48.0 %, in August ― to 15,0 – 2,0 %. Natural food part in young-of-the-year diet in June was 9,3 %, in July ― 20,6 – 2,1%, in August ― 1,1 – 0,4 %. Fish productivity in experimental ponds was higher by 35,2 – 4,5% than that in the control pond. Expenditure of grain feeds for the growth of young-of-the-year carp in the control pond was 3,2 units, in the experiment it was 12,5 – 15,6 % lower. Profit from growing young-of-the-year carp in experimental ponds was 2,9 – 3,7 times higher than in the control and was 3955,2 – 5153,0 UAH/ha. Profitability of growing young-of-the-year with the use of intensification measures was 2,6 – 3,2 times higher than that in the control pond. Originality. For the first time we studied fisheries and biological indicators when growing young-of-the-year carp with

  11. Biochar-organic amendment mixtures added to simulated golf greens under reduced chemical fertilization increase creeping bentgrass growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simulated golf greens were used to test the growth of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L. "007") receiving suboptimal chemical fertilization in sand based substrates amended with 15% peat (control), a commercial biochar, a commercial biochar-compost (CarbonizPN), or seven formulated biochar...

  12. Strategic timing of nitrogen fertilization to increase root biomass and nitrogen-use efficiency of Lolium perenne L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de H.C.; Deru, J.G.C.; Hoekstra, N.J.; Eekeren, van N.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: During the first days after harvest of Lolium perenne L., N remobilized from roots and stubble forms the main N source for regrowth. Low N uptake from the soil during this period may lead to N loss if N fertilizer is applied too soon. Furthermore, temporary N deprivation has been found to

  13. Inhibition of 19S proteasomal regulatory complex subunit PSMD8 increases polyspermy during porcine fertilization in vitro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yi, Y.J.; Manandhar, G.; Sutovsky, M.; Jonáková, Věra; Park, Ch.S.; Sutovsky, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 2 (2010), s. 154-163 ISSN 0165-0378 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06011; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/09/1285 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Sperm * Proteasome * Fertilization * Zona pellucida * Acrosome Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.204, year: 2010

  14. Fertilization 2: Polyspermic Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushima, Shusei

    2017-01-01

    During fertilization in animals, a haploid egg nucleus fuses with a haploid sperm nucleus to restore the diploid genome. In most animals including mammals, echinoderms, and teleostei, the penetration of only one sperm into an egg is ensured at fertilization because the entry of two or more sperm is prevented by polyspermy block systems in these eggs. On the other hand, several animals such as birds, reptiles, and most urodele amphibians exhibit physiological polyspermy, in which the entry of several sperm into one egg is permitted. However, in these polyspermic eggs, only one sperm nucleus is involved in zygotic formation with a female nucleus, thereby avoiding syngamy with multiple sperm nuclei. In the chicken, 20-60 sperm are generally found within the egg cytoplasm at fertilization and this number is markedly higher than that of other polyspermic species; however, avian-specific events such as the degeneration and mitosis of supernumerary sperm nuclei during early embryo development allow a polyspermic egg to develop normally. This chapter describes current knowledge on polyspermy-related events in avian eggs during fertilization, and is characterized by a comparison to the fertilization modes of other vertebrates. The close relationship between sperm numbers and egg sizes, and the movement of supernumerary sperm nuclei towards the periphery of the egg cytoplasm and their degeneration are summarized. The molecular mechanisms by which polyspermy initiates egg activation to start embryo development are also discussed.

  15. Female figs as traps: Their impact on the dynamics of an experimental fig tree-pollinator-parasitoid community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleman, Nazia; Sait, Steve; Compton, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between fig trees (Ficus) and their pollinating fig wasps (Agaonidae) result in both a highly species-specific nursery mutualism and mutual exploitation. Around half of the 800 or so fig tree species are functionally dioecious. Figs on male plants produce pollen and fig wasp offspring, whereas figs on female plants produce only seeds. Figs on female plants are traps for pollinators. The fig wasps enter the female figs to oviposit, but lose their wings on entry and are then prevented from oviposition by the long styles that characterise the flowers in female figs. Continuation of the mutualism depends on the pollinators' failure to distinguish between male and female figs before entry. Female plants may also have a negative impact on the parasitoid fig wasps that feed on pollinators, if they are also attracted to female figs. We used glasshouse populations of figs (with and without female plants), pollinators and parasitoids to infer the impact of female figs on fig wasp dynamics. Cyclic population fluctuations were present in both species. Female plants appeared to dampen the amplitudes of pollinator population cycles, and parasitoid populations may become less tightly coupled with host populations, but the presence of female figs did not reduce parasitism rates, nor parasitoid and pollinator densities, and only parasitoid sex ratios were affected. Our glasshouse experimental design was likely to favour the impact of female figs on the wasp populations, which suggests that female plants in the field are unlikely to have a major negative impact on their pollinators, despite being a major mortality factor.

  16. In Vitro Fertilization Using Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Injections Resulted in Healthy Triplets without Increased Attack Rates in a Hereditary Angioedema Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Tunakan Dalgıç

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder. The management of pregnant patients with C1-INH-HAE is a challenge for the physician. Intravenous plasma-derived nanofiltered C1-INH (pdC1INH is the only recommended option throughout pregnancy, postpartum, and breastfeeding period. In order to increase pregnancy rates, physicians use fertilization therapies increasing endogen levels of estrogens. Therefore, these techniques can provoke an increase in the number and severity of edema attacks in C1-INH-HAE. Our patient is a 32-year-old female, diagnosed with C1-INH-HAE type 1 since 2004. She had been taking danazol 50–200 mg/day for 9 years. Due to her pregnancy plans in 2013, danazol was discontinued. PdC1INH was prescribed regularly for prophylactic purpose. Triplet pregnancy occurred by in vitro fertilization using luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH injections. In our patient, LHRH injections were done four times without causing any severe attack during in vitro fertilization. Angioedema did not worsen during pregnancy and delivery due to the prophylactic use of intravenous pdC1INH in our patient. According to the attack frequency and severity, there was no difference between the three pregnancy trimesters. To our knowledge, this is the first published case of C1-INH-HAE receiving in vitro fertilization therapies without any angioedema attacks during pregnancy and delivery and eventually having healthy triplets with the prophylactic use of intravenous pdC1INH.

  17. Fruit characteristics of the selected fig genotypes | Simsek | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research was determine of fruit characteristics and select of some significant fig genotypes grown in Kiziltepe district of Mardin province. No studies have been made on the fig genotypes in Kiziltepe district by researchers up to now. Therefore, this study was very important. In this research, six fig genotypes ...

  18. Evaluation of selected fig genotypes from South east Turkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Turkey has great variations and distributions in wild fig forms as well as fig cultivars. This study was carried out in Mardin and anlýurfa provinces during 2004 - 2005. Nine fig genotypes were evaluated in this selection study for two years. In this study, some morphological characteristics investigated were tree growth habit, ...

  19. Mixed fertilizers incorporated in organic polimer matrix and pressed in tablets as means of enhancing the nutrients productive use in increased crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavriluta, I.; Borlan, Z.; Alexandrescu, A; Budoi, G.; Bireescu, L.; Bireescu, G.

    1999-01-01

    In view of increasing productive use of fertilizer nutrients in crops an admixture of brown coal dust containing up to 40 % carbon ammonia lignosulfonate with 50 % lignoles dry matter as binding agent were used to press water soluble fertilizer sources with a total of N+P 2 O 5 +K 2 O content of up to 26 % in tablets. These may be manufactured at different N:P 2 O 5 :K 2 O ratios as for instance 1:1:1; 1:0.75:0.50 etc. Brown coal and coal refuse dust were used as matrix for inclusion while lignosulfonates served for binding the ingredients when pressing them in tablets of 15-20 g dry mass each. These were tested in accurate field experiments to compare the agronomic effectiveness of equal amounts of NPK in tablets with equivalent rates of powdered sources of nutrients in the same chemical forms. NPK pressed in tablets were applied locally along the plant row, while the powdered mixed fertilizer have been thoroughly mixed in the ploughed layer. Accurate field experiments have pointed out the higher agronomical effectiveness of NPK pressed in tablets as compared to equal amounts of NPK powdered and thoroughly mixed into the ploughed layer of soil. Indicators were higher yield increases per nutrient unit and higher degrees of apparent productive use of nutrients in crops. Refs. 4 (author)

  20. Floral ratios in the figs of Ficus montana span the range from actively to passively pollinated fig trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleman, Nazia; Quinnell, Rupert J.; Compton, Stephen G.

    2014-05-01

    Fig trees (Ficus spp., Moraceae) and their associated obligate pollinator fig wasps (Agaonidae) are partners in what is often a pair-wise species-specific association. Their interaction centres on the unique enclosed inflorescence of Ficus species - the fig. Among dioecious fig tree species, only pollinated ovules in figs on female trees develop into seeds. On male trees, galled ovules support development of the fig wasp offspring that will transport their pollen, but no seeds develop. Some fig wasp species actively collect and disperse pollen, whereas others are typical insect pollinators in that pollen is transferred passively. Active pollination is associated with improved larval survivorship in pollinated figs. Because active pollination is much more efficient, their host figs need to contain far fewer male flowers and across numerous Ficus species anther-ovule ratios are a good predictor of pollination mode. We examined variation in inflorescence size and floral ratios among male figs of the Asian Ficus montana and its consequences for the amounts of pollen that would be available for each pollinator to collect. Inflorescence size (total flower number) was highly variable, and female pollinator offspring production was higher in figs with more female flowers. Pollinator offspring numbers and anther-ovule ratios were also highly variable, and encompassed the range typical of both actively and passively pollinated fig tree species. In combination, this variation resulted in large differences in the extent to which pollinators were competing for access to pollen, with potential fitness consequences for both partners in the mutualism.

  1. Investigation of hormone profiles in dairy cattle with a view to controlling fertility and increasing reproductive efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacevic, R.; Krsmanovic, L.; Maric, D.; Perkucin, R.; Veselinovic, S.

    1988-01-01

    The investigation was carried out on 677 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from one big commercial farm in Voivodina. The accuracy of the application of serum progesterone RIA for the early diagnosis of non-pregnancy was 98% (and 97% for milk progesterone samples). The figures were 49% and 60%, respectively, for positive diagnosis. The high percentage of false positive results was probably due to a high incidence of disturbances in the oestrous cycle and problems of heat detection. Investigation of progesterone profiles in post-partum dairy cows showed that the duration of post-partum anoestrous was strongly influenced by the level of nutrition. Treatment with GnRH suggested that two injections of GnRH given 15 d and 23 d post-partum could induce the onset of the first ovulation. (author). 15 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  2. Increased temperature, but not acidification, enhances fertilization and development in a tropical urchin: potential for adaptation to a tropicalized eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Shawna A; Dworjanyn, Symon A; Khatkar, Mehar S; Poore, Alistair G B; Byrne, Maria

    2014-01-01

    To predict the effects of global change on marine populations, it is important to measure the effects of climate stressors on performance and potential for adaptation. Adaptation depends on heritable genetic variance for stress tolerance being present in populations. We determined the effects of near-future ocean conditions on fertilization success of the sea urchin Pseudoboletia indiana. In 16 multiple dam-sire crosses, we quantified genetic variation in tolerance of warming (+3°C) and acidification (−0.3 to 0.5 pH units) at the gastrulation stage. Ocean acidification decreased fertilization across all dam-sire combinations with effects of pH significantly differing among the pairings. Decreased pH reduced the percentage of normal gastrulae with negative effects alleviated by increased temperature. Significant sire by environment interactions indicated the presence of heritable variation in tolerance of stressors at gastrulation and thus the potential for selection of resistant genotypes, which may enhance population persistence. A low genetic correlation indicated that genotypes that performed well at gastrulation in low pH did not necessarily perform well at higher temperatures. Furthermore, performance at fertilization was not necessarily a good predictor of performance at the later stage of gastrulation. Southern range edge populations of Pseudoboletia indiana may benefit from future warming with potential for extension of their distribution in south-east Australia. PMID:25558283

  3. Ammonium nitrate, urea, and biuret fertilizers increase volume growth of 57-year-old douglas-fir trees within a gradient of nitrogen deficiency. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.E.; Reukema, D.L.; Hazard, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    In a nitrogen-deficient plantation in southwest Washington, the authors (1) compared effects of 224 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate, urea, and biuret on volume growth of dominant and codominant Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco); (2) determined how 8-year response of these trees to fertilization was related to their distance from a strip of the plantation interplanted with nitrogen-fixing red alder (alnus rubra Bong.); and (3) observed effects of biuret on understory vegetation. On both sides of the strip centerline, the authors grouped subject trees into 30 plots of 4 trees each, based on slope position and distance from alder. The authors randomly assigned three fertilizers and a control within each plot. They analyzed separately data from east and west of the mixed stand certerline. Initial volume differed greatly among the 120 trees on each side, so they used covariance analysis to adjust observed treatment means. Adjusted mean volume growth was increased (p equal to or less than 0.10) by 22 to 28 percent on the east side and by 11 to 14 percent on the west side, with no significant difference in response to the three fertilizers.

  4. Fertilizer trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-12-31

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  5. FigA, a putative homolog of low-affinity calcium system member Fig1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is involved in growth and asexual and sexual development in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shizhu; Zheng, Hailin; Long, Nanbiao; Carbó, Natalia; Chen, Peiying; Aguilar, Pablo S; Lu, Ling

    2014-02-01

    Calcium-mediated signaling pathways are widely employed in eukaryotes and are implicated in the regulation of diverse biological processes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, at least two different calcium uptake systems have been identified: the high-affinity calcium influx system (HACS) and the low-affinity calcium influx system (LACS). Compared to the HACS, the LACS in fungi is not well known. In this study, FigA, a homolog of the LACS member Fig1 from S. cerevisiae, was functionally characterized in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Loss of figA resulted in retardant hyphal growth and a sharp reduction of conidial production. Most importantly, FigA is essential for the homothallic mating (self-fertilization) process; further, FigA is required for heterothallic mating (outcrossing) in the absence of HACS midA. Interestingly, in a figA deletion mutant, adding extracellular Ca(2+) rescued the hyphal growth defects but could not restore asexual and sexual reproduction. Furthermore, quantitative PCR results revealed that figA deletion sharply decreased the expression of brlA and nsdD, which are known as key regulators during asexual and sexual development, respectively. In addition, green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagging at the C terminus of FigA (FigA::GFP) showed that FigA localized to the center of the septum in mature hyphal cells, to the location between vesicles and metulae, and between the junctions of metulae and phialides in conidiophores. Thus, our findings suggest that FigA, apart from being a member of a calcium uptake system in A. nidulans, may play multiple unexplored roles during hyphal growth and asexual and sexual development.

  6. Describing the appearance and flavor profiles of fresh fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ellena S; Hopfer, Helene; Haug, Megan T; Orsi, Jennifer D; Heymann, Hildegarde; Crisosto, Gayle M; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2012-12-01

    Twelve fig cultivars, including cultivars destined for the fresh and dried markets, were harvested from 6 locations and evaluated by a trained panel using descriptive sensory analysis. Instrumental measurements were taken at harvest and also during sensory analysis. Each fresh fig cultivar had a characteristic appearance and flavor sensory profile regardless of the source. The primary flavor attributes used to describe the fig cultivars were "fruity,"melon,"stone fruit,"berry,"citrus,"honey,"green," and "cucumber." Maturity levels significantly affected the chemical composition and sensory profiles of the fig cultivars. Less mature figs had a higher compression force, a thicker outer skin, and higher ratings for "green" and "latex" flavors, firmness, graininess, bitterness, tingling, and seed adhesiveness. Meanwhile, more mature figs had higher soluble solids concentration, and were perceptibly higher in "fruit" flavors, juiciness, stickiness, sliminess, and sweetness. The specific sensory terminology used for fig appearance and flavor profiles will assist with communication between marketers and consumers, which can increase fresh fig consumption. © 2012 The Regents of the University of California, Davis Campus Department of Plant Sciences.

  7. Chronic hyperandrogenemia and western-style diet beginning at puberty reduces fertility and increases metabolic dysfunction during pregnancy in young adult, female macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, C V; Stouffer, R L; Takahashi, D L; Mishler, E C; Wilcox, M C; Slayden, O D; True, C A

    2018-02-01

    What are the impacts of elevated testosterone (T) and an obesogenic western-style diet (WSD), either independently or together, on fertility and metabolic adaptations of pregnancy in primates? Testosterone increases the time to achieve pregnancy, while a WSD reduces overall fertility, and the combination of testosterone and WSD additionally impairs glucose tolerance and causes pregnancy loss. Both hyperandrogenemia and obesity are hallmarks of polycystic ovary syndrome, which is a leading cause of infertility among women worldwide. Female macaques receiving T and WSD beginning at puberty show increased metabolic, ovarian and uterine dysfunction in the non-pregnant state by 3 years of treatment. The same cohort of female rhesus macaques continued treatments from the time of puberty (2.5 years) to 4 years, including this fertility trial. There were four groups (n = 9-10/group): controls (C), T-treated (T; average total serum level 1.35 ng/ml), WSD-treated, and combined T and WSD-treated (T + WSD) females. Females, which were typically having menstrual cycles, were paired for 4 days with a proven male breeder following the late follicular rise in circulating estradiol (≥100 pg/ml). The presence of sperm in the reproductive tract was used to confirm mating. Animals went through up to three successive rounds of mating until they became pregnant, as confirmed by a rise in circulating mCG during the late luteal phase and ultrasound evidence of a gestational sac at Day 30 post-mating (GD30). Placental vascular parameters were also measured at GD30. Metabolic measurements consisted of fasting levels of blood glucose and insulin at approximately GD30, 60, 90 and 115, as well as an intravenous (iv) glucose tolerance test (GTT) at GD115. While all animals in the C and T groups eventually became pregnant, T-treated females on average had a greater interval to achieve pregnancy (P C, T or WSD. Placental blood volume at GD30 was reduced in all treatments compared to the C group

  8. Report of the consultants' meeting on the use of nuclear techniques to develop management practices for increasing crop production and soil fertility in acid soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Richard; Zapata, Felipe

    1999-01-01

    A Consultants' Meeting on 'The use of nuclear techniques to develop management practices for increasing crop production and soil fertility in acid soils' was held in Vienna at the IAEA headquarters from March 1-3, 1999. The meeting was attended by six consultants with expertise in tropical acid soils drawn from International Agricultural Research Organisations and universities together with staff members of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division. The consultants' presentations reviewed advances in approaches for the sustainable intensification of agricultural productivity in tropical acid soils in Latin America, Africa and South East Asia. The consultants also provided recommendations on the formulation and implementation of the future CRP

  9. Increasing water productivity, nitrogen economy, and grain yield of rice by water saving irrigation and fertilizer-N management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Omar; Hussain, Saddam; Rizwan, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; Bashir, Saqib; Lin, Lirong; Mehmood, Sajid; Imran, Muhammad; Yaseen, Rizwan; Lu, Guoan

    2018-03-29

    The looming water resources worldwide necessitate the development of water-saving technologies in rice production. An open greenhouse experiment was conducted on rice during the summer season of 2016 at Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China, in order to study the influence of irrigation methods and nitrogen (N) inputs on water productivity, N economy, and grain yield of rice. Two irrigation methods, viz. conventional irrigation (CI) and "thin-shallow-moist-dry" irrigation (TSMDI), and three levels of nitrogen, viz. 0 kg N ha -1 (N 0 ), 90 kg N ha -1 (N 1 ), and 180 kg N ha -1 (N 2 ), were examined with three replications. Study data indicated that no significant water by nitrogen interaction on grain yield, biomass, water productivity, N uptake, NUE, and fertilizer N balance was observed. Results revealed that TSMDI method showed significantly higher water productivity and irrigation water applications were reduced by 17.49% in TSMDI compared to CI. Thus, TSMDI enhanced root growth and offered significantly greater water saving along with getting more grain yield compared to CI. Nitrogen tracer ( 15 N) technique accurately assessed the absorption and distribution of added N in the soil crop environment and divulge higher nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) influenced by TSMDI. At the same N inputs, the TSMDI was the optimal method to minimize nitrogen leaching loss by decreasing water leakage about 18.63%, which are beneficial for the ecological environment.

  10. Multiplying Forest Garden Systems with biochar based organic fertilization for high carbon accumulation, improved water storage, nutrient cycling, and increased food diversity and farm productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Lucht, Wolfgang; Gerten, Dieter; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    On abandoned, erosion prone terraces in the middle hills of Nepal, 86 participating farmer families planted >25,000 mixed trees in 2015/16. Since it was convincingly demonstrated by more than 20 field trials in this region that this was the most plant-growth promoting method, all trees were planted with farmer-made organic biochar-based fertilizer. Planting pits were mulched with rice straw and were pipe irrigated from newly established water retention ponds during the 7 months of the dry season. A peer control system of farmer triads ensured an efficient maintenance of the plantations. Tree survival rate was above 80% after one year compared to below 50% on average for countrywide forestation projects over the last 30 years. In between the young Cinnamon, Moringa, Mulberry, Lemon, Michelia, Paulownia, nut and other trees, other secondary crops were cultivated such as ginger, turmeric, black beans, onions, lentils, all with organic biochar-based fertilizer and mulching. The objective of this forest garden project was to establish robust social-agronomic systems that can be multiplied from village to village for increasing soil fertility, protecting abandoned terraces from erosion, replenishing natural water resources, generating a stable income with climate-smart agriculture, as well as capturing and sequestering atmospheric carbon. The initial financing of the set-up of the forest garden systems (tree nursery, plantation, preparation of organic biochar based fertilizer, mulching materials, building of irrigation pits and pipe irrigation system, and general maintenance) was covered by carbon credits paid in advance by the international community in the form of a monthly carbon compensation subscription. All planted trees are GIS inventoried and the yearly biomass carbon uptake will be calculated as an average value of the first ten years of tree growth. The 25,000 mixed trees accumulated the equivalent of 350 t CO2 per year (10 years total C-accumulation divided by

  11. Fourfold Increase in Pumpkin Yield in Response to Low-Dosage Root Zone Application of Urine-Enhanced Biochar to a Fertile Tropical Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Peter Schmidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A widely abundant and invasive forest shrub, Eupatorium adenophorum, was pyrolyzed in a cost-efficient flame curtain kiln to produce biochar. The resulting biochar fulfilled all the requirements for premium quality, according to the European Biochar Certificate. The biochar was either applied alone or mixed with fresh cow urine (1:1 volume to test its capacity to serve as slow release fertilizer in a pumpkin field trial in Nepal. Treatments included cow-manure compost combined with (i urine-only; (ii biochar-only or (iii urine-loaded biochar. All materials were applied directly to the root zone at a biochar dry matter content of 750 kg·ha−1 before seeding. The urine-biochar treatment led to a pumpkin yield of 82.6 t·ha−1, an increase of more than 300% compared with the treatment where only urine was applied, and an 85% increase compared with the biochar-only treatment. This study showed for the first time that a low-dosage root zone application of urine-enhanced biochar led to substantial yield increases in a fertile silt loam soil. This was tentatively explained by the formation of organic coating of inner pore biochar surfaces by the urine impregnation, which improved the capacity of the biochar to capture and exchange plant nutrients.

  12. [Fertility preservation in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Laure; Grémeau, Anne-Sophie; Vorilhon, Solène; Pons, Hanae; Chabrot, Cécile; Grèze, Victoria; Pouly, Jean-Luc; Brugnon, Florence

    2018-01-01

    Since the improvement of cancer diagnosis and treatment, survival rates of these patients increase. Gonadal damages are frequent consequences of cancer treatments with different evidence of impaired fertility. In this context, fertility preservation should be proposed to patients exposed to potentially gonadotoxic treatments. Different preservation approaches may be proposed depending on patient age, sex, cancer type and type of treatment. The indications of fertility preservation depend on sexual maturity. In young girls, ovarian cortex cryopreservation is the only technique feasible in order to preserve their reproductive potential. Vitrification of oocytes which needs ovarian stimulation or oocytes in vitro maturation is becoming more commonly performed for pubertal women to preserve their fertility. Ovarian cortex freezing could be offered to emergency fertility preservation of adult female cancer patients. In prepubertal boys, testicular tissue cryopreservation is the only line treatment for fertility preservation. For future use, various approaches are being evaluated such as spermatogonial stem cell injection or in vitro maturation. Cryopreservation of spermatozoa is, today, an established and successful technique for male adults. When there are no spermatozoa in ejaculate, sperm can be retrieved after treatment of testicular biopsy. The French bioethics law clearly indicates that fertility preservation should be proposed to patients exposed to potentially gonadotoxic treatment. Today, many approaches are possible. Fertility preservation indications are based on multidisciplinary consultations within platforms for the fertility preservation in order to optimize the patient care. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Salmon carcasses increase stream productivity more than inorganic fertilizer pellets: A test on multiple trophic levels in streamside experimental channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Mark S.; Hudson, John P.; Caouette, John P.; Mitchell, N.L.; Lessard, Joanna L.; Heintz, Ron A.; Chaloner, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    Inorganic nutrient amendments to streams are viewed as possible restoration strategies for re-establishing nutrients and stream productivity throughout the western coast of North America, where salmon runs and associated marine-derived nutrient subsidies have declined. In a mesocosm experiment, we examined the short-term (6 weeks) comparative effects of artificial nutrient pellets and salmon carcasses, alone (low and high amounts) and in combination, on stream food webs. Response variables included dissolved nutrient concentrations, biofilm ash-free dry mass (AFDM) and chlorophyll-alevels, macroinvertebrate density, growth and body condition of juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and whole-body lipid content of invertebrates and juvenile coho salmon. Most of the response variables were significantly influenced by carcass treatment; the only response variable significantly influenced by fertilizer pellet treatment was soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration. Ammonium-nitrogen concentration was the only response variable affected by both (low and high) levels of carcass treatment; all others showed no significant response to the two carcass treatment levels. Significant treatment × time interactions were observed for all responses except nitrate; for most responses, significant treatment effects were detected at certain time periods and not others. For example, significantly higher SRP concentrations were recorded earlier in the experiment, whereas significant fish responses were observed later. These results provide evidence that inorganic nutrient additions do not have the same ecological effects in streams as do salmon carcasses, potentially because inorganic nutrient additions lack carbon-based biochemicals and macromolecules that are sequestered directly or indirectly by consumers. Salmon carcasses, preferably deposited naturally during spawning migrations, appear to be far superior to inorganic nutrient amendments for sustaining and restoring

  14. Figs Are More Than Fallback Foods: The Relationship between Ficus and Cebus in a Tropical Dry Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel A. Parr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In many studies on primate feeding ecology, figs (Ficus spp. are characterized as fallback foods, utilized only when preferred sources of food are unavailable. However, for white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus living in northwestern Costa Rica, figs are a consistently important resource and may increase groupwide energy intake. We investigated whether visits to figs affect ranging and behavioural patterns of capuchins. Although daily range length and average travel speed do not differ on days when fig trees are visited, capuchins spend more time in directed travel and more time stationary on “fig days”. Capuchins also increase time spent foraging for fruit and decrease time spent foraging for invertebrates on days when figs trees are visited. Capuchins experience higher energy intake and lower energy output on “fig” days. Thus, the patterns of foraging for figs support an energy-maximization strategy and constitute an important nutritional resource for capuchins.

  15. Identification, mycotoxin risk and pathogenicity of Fusarium species associated with fig endosepsis in Apulia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, A; Ferracane, L; Somma, S; Ricci, V; Mulè, G; Susca, A; Ritieni, A; Logrieco, A F

    2010-05-01

    In a survey carried out on 87 rotted fig fruits samples collected in the Apulia region of Italy, the authors isolated 126 Fusarium strains identified as F. ramigenum (69 strains), F. solani (49), F. proliferatum (five) and three not identified. Investigation on the fertility of the strains belonging to F. proliferatum and F. ramigenum revealed that only strains of F. proliferatum were fertile. The identity of F. ramigenum strains was confirmed by sequencing a portion of the translation elongation factor-1alpha gene. When Fusarium species were analysed for their toxigenicity, 37/69 strains of F. ramigenum produced fusaric acid (FA) up to 525 mg kg(-1); 30 strains produced beauvericin (BEA) up to 190 mg kg(-1); 60 strains produced fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) and fumonisin B(2) (FB(2)) up to 1575 mg kg(-1) of total FBs; and two strains produced fusaproliferin (FUP) up to 345 mg kg(-1); all five strains of F. proliferatum produced FA at low levels; two strains produced BEA up to 205 mg kg(-1); one strain produced FB(1) and FB(2), 1100 and 470 mg kg(-1), respectively; and one strain produced FUP, 820 mg kg(-1); F. solani (30 strains) produced FA, 13 strains up to 215 mg kg(-1). Few fungal extracts showed high toxicity toward brine shrimp larvae and in some cases in relation to BEA and FA content. A pathogenic assay on fig fruits showed that all three species were pathogenic, with higher virulence of F. ramigenum. These data report for the first time the production of BEA and FB(1)/FB(2) by F. ramigenum and show that it is a main agent of fig endosepsis in Apulia and can contribute to fumonisin contamination of fresh and dried figs.

  16. The secretions of oviduct epithelial cells increase the equine in vitro fertilization rate: are osteopontin, atrial natriuretic peptide A and oviductin involved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canepa Sylvie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oviduct epithelial cells (OEC co-culture promotes in vitro fertilization (IVF in human, bovine and porcine species, but no data are available from equine species. Yet, despite numerous attempts, equine IVF rates remain low. Our first aim was to verify a beneficial effect of the OEC on equine IVF. In mammals, oviductal proteins have been shown to interact with gametes and play a role in fertilization. Thus, our second aim was to identify the proteins involved in fertilization in the horse. Methods & results In the first experiment, we co-incubated fresh equine spermatozoa treated with calcium ionophore and in vitro matured equine oocytes with or without porcine OEC. We showed that the presence of OEC increases the IVF rates. In the subsequent experiments, we co-incubated equine gametes with OEC and we showed that the IVF rates were not significantly different between 1 gametes co-incubated with equine vs porcine OEC, 2 intact cumulus-oocyte complexes vs denuded oocytes, 3 OEC previously stimulated with human Chorionic Gonadotropin, Luteinizing Hormone and/or oestradiol vs non stimulated OEC, 4 in vivo vs in vitro matured oocytes. In order to identify the proteins responsible for the positive effect of OEC, we first searched for the presence of the genes encoding oviductin, osteopontin and atrial natriuretic peptide A (ANP A in the equine genome. We showed that the genes coding for osteopontin and ANP A are present. But the one for oviductin either has become a pseudogene during evolution of horse genome or has been not well annotated in horse genome sequence. We then showed that osteopontin and ANP A proteins are present in the equine oviduct using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor, and we analyzed their expression during oestrus cycle by Western blot. Finally, we co-incubated equine gametes with or without purified osteopontin or synthesized ANP A. No significant effect of osteopontin or ANP A was observed, though

  17. La giustizia nelle relazioni fra genitori e figli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Rubini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Questo contributo considera il ruolo della giustizia relazionale e distributiva nel rapporto tra genitori e figli adolescenti. Nello specifico, riporta i risultati di una ricerca focalizzata sul legame fra stili genitoriali, giustizia esercitata nelle relazioni familiari e comportamenti messi in atto dai figli nei confronti della famiglia.

  18. Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated fig (Ficus carica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred ninety-four germplasm accessions of fig representing the four fig types, Common, Smyrna, San Pedro, and Caprifig were analyzed for genetic diversity, structure, and differentiation using genetic polymorphism at 17 microsatellite loci. The collection showed considerable polymorphism with ...

  19. First report of anaphylactic reaction after fig (Ficus carica) ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechamp, C; Bessot, J C; Pauli, G; Deviller, P

    1995-06-01

    We report an anaphylactic reaction which occurred very shortly after ingestion of a fresh fig. The IgE-dependent mechanism was demonstrated on the basis of positivity of the prick test performed with fresh fig (Ficus carica) extract. In addition, we were able to detect specific IgE to the same extract in the serum. The patient did not demonstrate sensitization to other common allergens involved in respiratory and food allergies. However, detection of specific IgE to F. benjamina indicated a sensitization to weeping fig. The CAP F. benjamina was partially inhibited by preincubation of the serum with fig extract, suggesting that these two species of Ficus share some common allergens. In this context, the assumption can be made that weeping fig was responsible for the initial sensitization in this patient.

  20. [Fertility transition in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, D; Aramburu, C E

    1992-12-01

    Data from national censuses and sample surveys are the basis for this examintion of differential fertility and the fertility transition in Peru. Changes in the level and structure of fertility in the 3 major geographic regions are compared, and the role of contraceptive usage and nuptiality changes in the fertility decline are analyzed. Peru's total fertility rate was estimated at 6.85 in 1965 and has since declined to 6.56 in 1965-70, 6.00 in 1970-75, 5.30 in 1975-80, 4.65 in 1980-85, and 4.00 in 1985-90. The fertility decline varied in intensity and timing in the geographic regions. A clear fertility decline began among upper and middle income groups in the principal cities in the 1960s, spreading gradually to the urban low income sectors. Not until the late 1970s did the fertility decline spread to the rest of the population, coinciding with the years of severe economic crisis. The urban total fertility rate declined from 6 to 3.77 during 1961-86, but rural fertility increased through 1972 to 8.12, before declining slightly to 7.62 in 1981 and more markedly to 6.65 in 1986. Sociocultural and economic differences between Peru's natural regions are appreciable, and account for the contrasts in fertility trends. The greatest changes occurred in metropolitan Lima, which already had relatively low fertility in 1961. Its total fertility rate declined 44% from 5.6 in 1961 to 3.13 in 1986. Fertility declined by slightly under 40% in the rest of the coast, by almost 25% in the jungle, and by scarcely 14% in the sierra. The total fertility rates in 1961 and 1986, respectively, were 6.38 and 4.13 on the coast, 6.64 and 6.45 in the highlands, and 7.92 and 5.97 in the lowlands. The fertility decline, especially in the lower classes, was a response initially to the process of cultural modernization which in slightly over 2 decades saw a profound transformation of Peru from a rural, Andean, illiterate, and agrarian society to an urban, coastal, literate, and commercial society

  1. Competitive exclusion among fig wasps achieved via entrainment of host plant flowering phenology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    Full Text Available Molecular techniques are revealing increasing numbers of morphologically similar but co-existing cryptic species, challenging the niche theory. To understand the co-existence mechanism, we studied phenologies of morphologically similar species of fig wasps that pollinate the creeping fig (F. pumila in eastern China. We compared phenologies of fig wasp emergence and host flowering at sites where one or both pollinators were present. At the site where both pollinators were present, we used sticky traps to capture the emerged fig wasps and identified species identity using mitochondrial DNA COI gene. We also genotyped F. pumila individuals of the three sites using polymorphic microsatellites to detect whether the host populations were differentiated. Male F. pumila produced two major crops annually, with figs receptive in spring and summer. A small partial third crop of receptive figs occurred in the autumn, but few of the second crop figs matured at that time. Hence, few pollinators were available to enter third crop figs and they mostly aborted, resulting in two generations of pollinating wasps each year, plus a partial third generation. Receptive figs were produced on male plants in spring and summer, timed to coincide with the release of short-lived adult pollinators from the same individual plants. Most plants were pollinated by a single species. Plants pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 1 released wasps earlier than those pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 3, with little overlap. Plants occupied by different pollinators were not spatially separated, nor genetically distinct. Our findings show that these differences created mismatches with the flight periods of the other Wiebesia species, largely 'reserving' individual plants for the resident pollinator species. This pre-emptive competitive displacement may prevent long term co-existence of the two pollinators.

  2. Felling Ficus: The Cultural Status of Fig Trees in a Rural Assamese Community, India

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    H Eden W Cottee-Jones

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Scattered fig (Ficus spp. Moraceae trees are critically important for biodiversity conservation in tropical rural landscapes. By providing large fruit crops, they help maintain seed dispersal networks and facilitate forest restoration. The conservation of fig trees scattered across rural landscapes is therefore vital for the preservation of ecosystem services and biodiversity beyond the borders of protected areas. Given the threats to scattered fig trees, it is increasingly important to identify potentially effective local conservation strategies that accommodate existing perceptions of their value. We used ethnographic techniques to assess the attitudes of villagers towards fig trees in the village of Komargoan and its surroundings in Assam, India. As reported for other parts of South Asia, we found fig trees have significant sacred status, which included taboos against cutting them down. However, we discovered mixed and sometimes contradictory understandings of the religious attributes of fig trees, which were sometimes believed to be inhabited by gods or ancestral spirits. The benefits most commonly associated with fig trees by interviewees were their aesthetic beauty, large size, and shade during the daytime heat. When the presence of these trees incurred economic costs, their religious, aesthetic, and practical benefits were not sufficient reasons to prevent people from cutting them down, although often saplings would be planted in another place as compensation. Unexpectedly, figs were only planted by respected members of the community, usually older men, who had sufficient social status. Any conservation strategy aiming to sustain the abundance of figs in rural Assam is more likely to be successful if these cultural views are taken into account.

  3. Four viruses infecting figs in Western Saudi Arabia

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    Amal Y. ALDHEBIANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many diseases are compromising fig production in Saudi Arabia and in particular those caused by viruses. RT-PCR assays were conducted on 80 samples collected from four fig-growing provinces in the West Mecca region of Saudi Arabia, including the Fatima, Khulais, Rabigh and Alshifa valleys. Samples consisted of leaf tissues taken from caprifig and common fig trees. The presence of Fig mosaic virus (FMV, Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 1 (FLMaV-1, Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 2 (FLMaV-2 and Fig mild mottle-associated virus (FMMaV was assessed from the samples. RT-PCR results showed that all four viruses were present in the surveyed areas with different proportions of infection. Incidence was 69% of samples, with a peak of 80%, from the Alshifa and Fatima valleys, 60% from Rabigh and 55% from Khulais valley. FLMaV-1 was the prevailing virus (55% of samples, followed by FMV (34%, whereas FLMaV-2 (11% of samples and FMMaV (6% were less common. Most of the mosaic symptoms observed in surveyed fig orchards occurred with the presence of FMV. However, many other symptoms remained unexplained because of the arduous task of determining the involvement of other fig-infecting viruses with mosaic disease. This is the first report of FMMaV and FLMaV-2 in Saudi Arabia, and of FMV and FLMaV-1 in western Saudi Arabia. The virus status of this crop is probably compromised and a sanitation programme is required to produce healthy plant material in Saudi Arabia.

  4. Moving your sons to safety: galls containing male fig wasps expand into the centre of figs, away from enemies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yu

    Full Text Available Figs are the inflorescences of fig trees (Ficus spp., Moraceae. They are shaped like a hollow ball, lined on their inner surface by numerous tiny female flowers. Pollination is carried out by host-specific fig wasps (Agaonidae. Female pollinators enter the figs through a narrow entrance gate and once inside can walk around on a platform generated by the stigmas of the flowers. They lay their eggs into the ovules, via the stigmas and styles, and also gall the flowers, causing the ovules to expand and their pedicels to elongate. A single pollinator larva develops in each galled ovule. Numerous species of non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW, belonging to other families of Chalcidoidea also make use of galled ovules in the figs. Some initiate galls, others make use of pollinator-generated galls, killing pollinator larvae. Most NPFW oviposit from the outside of figs, making peripherally-located pollinator larvae more prone to attack. Style length variation is high among monoecious Ficus spp. and pollinators mainly oviposit into more centrally-located ovules, with shorter styles. Style length variation is lower in male (wasp-producing figs of dioecious Ficus spp., making ovules equally vulnerable to attack by NPFW at the time that pollinators oviposit. We recorded the spatial distributions of galled ovules in mature male figs of the dioecious Ficus hirta in Southern China. The galls contained pollinators and three NPFW that kill them. Pollinators were concentrated in galls located towards the centre of the figs, NPFW towards the periphery. Due to greater pedicel elongation by male galls, male pollinators became located in more central galls than their females, and so were less likely to be attacked. This helps ensure that sufficient males survive, despite strongly female-biased sex ratios, and may be a consequence of the pollinator females laying mostly male eggs at the start of oviposition sequences.

  5. Globalization and Contemporary Fertility Convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, Arun S

    2017-09-01

    The rise of the global network of nation-states has precipitated social transformations throughout the world. This article examines the role of political and economic globalization in driving fertility convergence across countries between 1965 and 2009. While past research has typically conceptualized fertility change as a country-level process, this study instead employs a theoretical and methodological framework that examines differences in fertility between pairs of countries over time. Convergence in fertility between pairs of countries is hypothesized to result from increased cross-country connectedness and cross-national transmission of fertility-related schemas. I investigate the impact of various cross-country ties, including ties through bilateral trade, intergovernmental organizations, and regional trade blocs, on fertility convergence. I find that globalization acts as a form of social interaction to produce fertility convergence. There is significant heterogeneity in the effects of different cross-country ties. In particular, trade with rich model countries, joint participation in the UN and UNESCO, and joining a free trade agreement all contribute to fertility convergence between countries. Whereas the prevailing focus in fertility research has been on factors producing fertility declines, this analysis highlights specific mechanisms-trade and connectedness through organizations-leading to greater similarity in fertility across countries. Globalization is a process that propels the spread of culturally laden goods and schemas impinging on fertility, which in turn produces fertility convergence.

  6. Reuse of Organomineral Substrate Waste from Hydroponic Systems as Fertilizer in Open-Field Production Increases Yields, Flavonoid Glycosides, and Caffeic Acid Derivatives of Red Oak Leaf Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Much More than Synthetic Fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannehl, Dennis; Becker, Christine; Suhl, Johanna; Josuttis, Melanie; Schmidt, Uwe

    2016-09-28

    Effects of organic waste from a hydroponic system added with minerals (organomineral fertilizer) and synthetic fertilizer on major polyphenols of red oak leaf lettuce using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(3) were investigated. Interestingly, contents of the main flavonoid glycosides and caffeic acid derivatives of lettuce treated with organomineral fertilizer were equal to those synthesized without soil additives. This was found although soil nutrient concentrations, including that of nitrogen, were much lower without additives. However, lettuce treated with synthetic fertilizer showed a significant decrease in contents of caffeic acid derivatives and flavonoid glycosides up to 78.3 and 54.2%, respectively. It is assumed that a negative effect of a high yield on polyphenols as described in the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis can be counteracted by (i) a higher concentration of Mg or (ii) optimal physical properties of the soil structure. Finally, the organomineral substrate waste reused as fertilizer and soil improver resulted in the highest yield (+78.7%), a total fertilizer saving of 322 kg ha(-1) and waste reduction in greenhouses.

  7. Influence of azolla on rice growth treated with and without N fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, E.L.; Sisworo, W.H.; Hendratno; Rasyid, H.; Solahuddin, S.; Partohardjono, S.

    1987-01-01

    Influence of azolla on rice growth treated with and without fertilizer. An experiment to investigate the influence of azolla on growth of rice treated with and without N fertilizer has been carried out in the rainy season 1984/1985 at the Muara Experimental Station, Bogota. Rice variety used in this experiment was Atomita I. Eight treatments employed in this experiment were treatments without azolla and N fertilizer, with azolla alone, with N fertilizer alone, and a combination of azolla and N fertilizer used was urea labelled with 5% 15 N atom excess. Parameters observed were: dry weight, total-N and N-derived from fertilizer in rough grain, straw and plant. Data from this experiment indicated that azolla was able to produce similar yield of rough grain, straw and plant with those produced by N fertilizer applied at a rate of 90 kg N/ha. These data were much higher compared to N fertilizer applied at a rate of 30 and 60 kg N/ha. The same trend was found in yield of N. It turned out that apparently azolla is effective to increase rice production. (author). 3 figs., 8 refs

  8. Increase in growth, productivity and nutritional status of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711) and enrichment in soil fertility applied with organic matrix entrapped urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Bauddh, Kuldeep; Kumar, Sanjeev; Sainger, Manish; Sainger, Poonam A; Singh, Rana P

    2013-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during two consequent years in semi-arid, subtropical climate of Rohtak district situated in North-West Indian state Haryana to evaluate the effects of eco-friendly organic matrix entrapped urea (OMEU) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711). The OMEU prepared in granular form contained cow dung, rice bran (grain cover of Oryza sativa), neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves and clay soil (diameter of particles < 0.002 mm) in 1:1:1:1 ratios and saresh (plant gum of Acacia sp.) as binder entrapping half of the recommended dose of urea. A basal application of organic matrix entrapped urea showed increase in plant growth in terms of fresh and dry weights, root length, root number, leaf number, tillers, plant height earlet number, earlet length and productivity in terms of grain yield and straw yield over free form of urea (FU) and no fertilizer (NF) application. The OMEU increased total soluble proteins, organic N and free ammonium content in the leaves at 45 and 60 days. The nutritional status of wheat grains in OMEU applied plants was almost similar to that observed for FU applied plants. An increase in organic carbon and available phosphorus (P) was observed in OMEU applied plots on harvest whereas pH was slightly decreased over FU applied plots. The microbial population and activity in terms of fungal and bacterial colony count and activities soil dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase were significantly higher in OMEU applied plots as compared to the FU applied plots. Our data indicate that OMEU which are low cost, biodegradable and non-toxic can be used to replace the expensive chemical fertilizers for wheat cultivation in semi-arid, subtropical climate.

  9. Fertilization of SRC Willow, I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevel, L.; Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Ingerslev, Morten

    2014-01-01

    of nitrogen, and that similar biomass production response can be achieved by use of mineral fertilizer, sewage sludge and animal manure. A 2-year experiment was established with the clone Tordis grown on a sandy soil in northern Jutland, Denmark. The experiment included mineral fertilizer, sludge and manure......, and treatments of different doses up to 360 kg nitrogen ha. The fertilization led to a modest but significant increase in biomass production. The largest production of 11.9 oven dried tons/ha/year was obtained for the application of 60 kg nitrogen ha annually. Higher doses did not lead to increased biomass...... production; in fact, production seemed to decline with increasing fertilization application (not significant). We found no difference in production between different types of fertilizers. The limited response of the fertilization may be caused by a high fertility of the soil due to former agricultural...

  10. Correlations in fertility across generations: can low fertility persist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolk, Martin; Cownden, Daniel; Enquist, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Correlations in family size across generations could have a major influence on human population size in the future. Empirical studies have shown that the associations between the fertility of parents and the fertility of children are substantial and growing over time. Despite their potential long-term consequences, intergenerational fertility correlations have largely been ignored by researchers. We present a model of the fertility transition as a cultural process acting on new lifestyles associated with fertility. Differences in parental and social influences on the acquisition of these lifestyles result in intergenerational correlations in fertility. We show different scenarios for future population size based on models that disregard intergenerational correlations in fertility, models with fertility correlations and a single lifestyle, and models with fertility correlations and multiple lifestyles. We show that intergenerational fertility correlations will result in an increase in fertility over time. However, present low-fertility levels may persist if the rapid introduction of new cultural lifestyles continues into the future. PMID:24478294

  11. Optimising yield and resource utilisation of summer maize under the conditions of increasing density and reducing nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shanshan; Wang, Xiangyu; Zhu, Qicen; Jiang, Dong; Dong, Shuting

    2017-12-01

    The inefficient use of resources always poses risks of maize ( Zea mays L.) yield reduction in China. We performed this research to monitor the effects of increasing plant density and reducing nitrogen (N) rate on radiation-use efficiency (RUE), N efficiency traits, grain yield (GY) and their inter-relationships. Besides, whether GY and resource-use efficiency can both be maximized was examined. Hence, a 2-year field experiment was conducted using a widely grown variety "Denghai 618" in Shandong, China. Treatments contained two different plant densities [67,500 (D1) and 97,500 (D2) plant ha-1] and three N levels [0 (N-2), 180 (N-1), 360 (Nck) kg ha-1], set D1Nck as control. Significant increases in grain yield, biomass, RUE, above-ground N uptake (AGN) and N efficiency were observed when density increased from D1 to D2. Declining N application was accompanied by reductions in yield, RUE and AGN especially under high density, yet an obvious improvement in N recovery efficiency (NRE), agronomic N efficiency and N partial factor productivity. The increased GY was positive related with population biomass ( r = 0.895**), RUE ( r = 0.769**) and AGN ( r = 0.923**), whereas it has no significant correlation with N efficiency. In this study, D2Nck obtained 18.8, 17.9, 24.8 and 29.7% higher grain yield, RUE, AGN and NRE respectively, compared to control, optimizing both yield and the efficiencies of radiation and N use. Furthermore, higher yield and RUE with more desirable N efficiency may be possible via optimizing density and N rate combination.

  12. Obesity is associated with increased seminal insulin and leptin alongside reduced fertility parameters in a controlled male cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisegang, Kristian; Bouic, Patrick J D; Menkveld, Roelof; Henkel, Ralf R

    2014-05-07

    Obesity appears to be associated with male reproductive dysfunction and infertility, although this has been inconsistent and inconclusive. Insulin and leptin are known mediators and modulators of the hypothalamus-pituitary-testes axis, contributing to the regulation of male reproductive potential and overall wellbeing. These hormones are also present in semen influencing sperm functions. Although abdominal obesity is closely associated with insulin resistance (hyperinsulinaemia), hyperleptinaemia and glucose dysfunction, changes in seminal plasma concentrations of insulin, leptin and glucose in obese males has not previously been investigated. This small case controlled study assessed serum and seminal concentrations of insulin, leptin and glucose in obese (BMI > =30; n = 23) and non-obese (BMI Obesity was associated with increased serum and seminal insulin and leptin, with no significant difference in seminal glucose. Serum and seminal concentrations of insulin and leptin were positively correlated. Furthermore, obesity was associated with decreased sperm concentration, sperm vitality and increased MMP and DF, with a non-significant impact on motility and morphology. Hyperinsulinaemia and hyperleptinaemia are associated with increased seminal insulin and leptin concentrations, which may negatively impact male reproductive function in obesity. Insulin was also found to be highly concentrated in the seminal plasma of both groups. This data will contribute to the contradictive information available in the literature on the impact of obesity and male reproduction.

  13. Long-term CO2 fertilization increases vegetation productivity and has little effect on hydrological partitioning in tropical rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Donohue, Randall J.; McVicar, Tim R.; Roderick, Michael L.; Beck, Hylke E.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how tropical rainforests respond to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (eCO2) is essential for predicting Earth's carbon, water, and energy budgets under future climate change. Here we use long-term (1982-2010) precipitation (P) and runoff (Q) measurements to infer runoff coefficient (Q/P) and evapotranspiration (E) trends across 18 unimpaired tropical rainforest catchments. We complement that analysis by using satellite observations coupled with ecosystem process modeling (using both "top-down" and "bottom-up" perspectives) to examine trends in carbon uptake and relate that to the observed changes in Q/P and E. Our results show there have been only minor changes in the satellite-observed canopy leaf area over 1982-2010, suggesting that eCO2 has not increased vegetation leaf area in tropical rainforests and therefore any plant response to eCO2 occurs at the leaf level. Meanwhile, observed Q/P and E also remained relatively constant in the 18 catchments, implying an unchanged hydrological partitioning and thus approximately conserved transpiration under eCO2. For the same period, using a top-down model based on gas exchange theory, we predict increases in plant assimilation (A) and light use efficiency (ɛ) at the leaf level under eCO2, the magnitude of which is essentially that of eCO2 (i.e., 12% over 1982-2010). Simulations from 10 state-of-the-art bottom-up ecosystem models over the same catchments also show that the direct effect of eCO2 is to mostly increase A and ɛ with little impact on E. Our findings add to the current limited pool of knowledge regarding the long-term eCO2 impacts in tropical rainforests.

  14. Asthma caused by Ficus benjamina latex: evidence of cross-reactivity with fig fruit and papain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Gómez, M L; Quirce, S; Aragoneses, E; Cuevas, M

    1998-01-01

    Ficus benjamina or weeping fig is a plant used increasingly for indoor decoration that can cause allergic rhinitis and asthma. We report a clinical and immunologic study in a patient with perennial asthma caused by F. benjamina latex in whom several episodes of angioedema of the oropharyngeal tract and tongue followed ingestion of figs and kiwi. Hypersensitivity to latex from F. benjamina and from Hevea brasiliensis, fig fruit, kiwi, papain, and bromelain was investigated by means of skin prick test, specific IgE determination by CAP, histamine release test, and bronchial provocation test to F. benjamina latex. CAP-inhibition assays were carried out to study possible cross-reactivity among these antigens. Hypersensitivity to F. benjamina latex, fig, kiwi, and proteases was demonstrated by means of skin prick test, determination of specific IgE and histamine release test. Bronchial provocation test with F. benjamina latex resulted in a dual asthmatic reaction, confirming the etiologic role of this plant. A rise of eosinophil cationic protein in patient's serum was observed 21 hours after bronchial challenge, suggesting activation of eosinophils. Inhibition assays showed that F. benjamina latex as liquid-phase inhibited up to 95% the CAP to fig and up to 57% the CAP to papain. Neither sensitization nor cross-allergenicity with H. brasiliensis latex was found. Hypersensitivity to F. benjamina latex may cause IgE-mediated respiratory allergy. The association with allergy to fig and papain is likely due to the existence of cross-reactive allergen structures.

  15. The ever-increasing CO2 seasonal cycle amplitude: contributions from high latitude warming, CO2 fertilization, and the agricultural Green Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, N.; Martin, C.; Zhao, F.; Collatz, G. J.; Kalnay, E.; Salawitch, R. J.; West, T. O.; Guanter, L.

    2014-12-01

    Human activities has tranformed the Earth's surface in complex ways. Here we show that not only land cover change, but also the management intensity, namely the intensification of agriculture through the Green Revolution has had a profound impact on the carbon cycle. A long-standing puzzle in the global carbon cycle is the increase in the amplitude of the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2. This increase likely reflects enhanced biological activity in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). It has been hypothesized that vegetation growth may have been stimulated by higher concentrations of CO2 as well as warming in recent decades, but the role of such specific mechanisms has not been quantified and they have been unable to explain the full range and magnitude of observations. Here we suggest another potential driver of the increased seasonal amplitude: the intensification of agriculture from the Green Revolution to feed a rising population, that led to a 3-fold increase in world crop production over the last 5 decades. Our analysis of CO2 data and atmospheric inversions shows a robust 15% long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude from 1961 to 2010 that is punctuated by large decadal and interannual variations. The three pillars of the Green Revolution, consisting of high yield cultivars, fertilizer use, and irrigation, are represented in a terrestrial carbon cycle model. The results reveal that the long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude arises from two major regions in the NH: the mid-latitude cropland between 25N-60N that encompasses the world's major agriculture zones in Asia, Europe and North America, and the high-latitude natural vegetation between 50N-70N that includes much of the Northern boreal forests, tundra and some deciduous forests. The long-term trend of seasonal amplitude is 0.3% per year, of which sensitivity experiments attribute 43% to land use change, 31% to climate variability and change, and 26% to CO2 fertilization. Our results suggest that human

  16. How to be a fig wasp down under: The diversity and structure of an Australian fig wasp community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segar, Simon T.; Dunn, Derek W.; Darwell, Clive T.; Cook, James M.

    2014-05-01

    Endophytic insects and their parasitoids provide valuable models for community ecology. The wasp communities in inflorescences of fig trees have great potential for comparative studies, but we must first describe individual communities. Here, we add to the few detailed studies of such communities by describing the one associated with Ficus rubiginosa in Australia. First, we describe community composition, using two different sampling procedures. Overall, we identified 14 species of non-pollinating fig wasp (NPFW) that fall into two size classes. Small wasps, including pollinators, gallers and their parasitoids, were more abundant than large wasps (both galler and parasitoid species). We show that in figs where wasps emerge naturally, the presence of large wasps may partly explain the low emergence of small wasps. During fig development, large gallers oviposit first, before and around the time of pollination, while parasitoids lay eggs after pollination. We further show that parasitoids in the subfamily Sycoryctinae, which comprise the majority of all individual NPFWs, segregate temporally by laying eggs at different stages of fig development. We discuss our results in terms of species co-existence and community structure and compare our findings to those from fig wasp communities on other continents.

  17. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth-Promoting Pseudomonads Increases Anthocyanin Concentration in Strawberry Fruits (Fragaria x ananassa var. Selva in Conditions of Reduced Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Gamalero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are a group of common phenolic compounds in plants. They are mainly detected in flowers and fruits, are believed to play different important roles such as in the attraction of animals and seed dispersal, and also in the increase of the antioxidant response in tissues directly or indirectly affected by biotic or abiotic stress factors. As a major group of secondary metabolites in plants commonly consumed as food, they are of importance in both the food industry and human nutrition. It is known that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi can influence the plant secondary metabolic pathways such as the synthesis of essential oils in aromatic plants, of secondary metabolites in roots, and increase flavonoid concentration. Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPB are able to increase plant growth, improving plant nutrition and supporting plant development under natural or stressed conditions. Various studies confirmed that a number of bacterial species living on and inside the root system are beneficial for plant growth, yield and crop quality. In this work it is shown that inoculation with AM fungi and/or with selected and tested Pseudomonas strains, under conditions of reduced fertilization, increases anthocyanin concentration in the fruits of strawberry.

  18. Engineered biochar from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of switchgrass for increasing water-holding capacity and fertility of sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Badr A.; Ellis, Naoko; Kim, Chang Soo; Bi, Xiaotao; Emam, Ahmed El-raie

    2016-01-01

    Engineered biochars produced from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of switchgrass have been evaluated in terms of their ability on improving water holding capacity (WHC), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and fertility of loamy sand soil. The addition of K 3 PO 4 , clinoptilolite and/or bentonite as catalysts during the pyrolysis process increased biochar surface area and plant nutrient contents. Adding biochar produced with 10 wt.% K 3 PO 4 + 10 wt.% clinoptilolite as catalysts to the soil at 2 wt% load increased soil WHC by 98% and 57% compared to the treatments without biochar (control) and with 10 wt.% clinoptilolite, respectively. Synergistic effects on increased soil WHC were manifested for biochars produced from combinations of two additives compared to single additive, which may be the result of increased biochar microporosity due to increased microwave heating rate. Biochar produced from microwave catalytic pyrolysis was more efficient in increasing the soil WHC due to its high porosity in comparison with the biochar produced from conventional pyrolysis at the same conditions. The increases in soil CEC varied widely compared to the control soil, ranging from 17 to 220% for the treatments with biochars produced with 10 wt% clinoptilolite at 400 °C, and 30 wt% K 3 PO 4 at 300 °C, respectively. Strong positive correlations also exist among soil WHC with CEC and biochar micropore area. Biochar from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis appears to be a novel approach for producing biochar with high sorption affinity and high CEC. These catalysts remaining in the biochar product would provide essential nutrients for the growth of bioenergy and food crops. - Highlights: • High quality biochar was made by catalytic pyrolysis in a microwave reactor. • High heating rate and good biochar quality were achieved using K 3 PO 4 and clinoptilolite mixture. • Biochars showed significant increase in soil WHC and CEC. • Microwave catalytic pyrolysis can produce

  19. Interference competition and high temperatures reduce the virulence of fig wasps and stabilize a fig-wasp mutualism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Wu Wang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Fig trees are pollinated by fig wasps, which also oviposit in female flowers. The wasp larvae gall and eat developing seeds. Although fig trees benefit from allowing wasps to oviposit, because the wasp offspring disperse pollen, figs must prevent wasps from ovipositing in all flowers, or seed production would cease, and the mutualism would go extinct. In Ficus racemosa, we find that syconia ('figs' that have few foundresses (ovipositing wasps are underexploited in the summer (few seeds, few galls, many empty ovules and are overexploited in the winter (few seeds, many galls, few empty ovules. Conversely, syconia with many foundresses produce intermediate numbers of galls and seeds, regardless of season. We use experiments to explain these patterns, and thus, to explain how this mutualism is maintained. In the hot summer, wasps suffer short lifespans and therefore fail to oviposit in many flowers. In contrast, cooler temperatures in the winter permit longer wasp lifespans, which in turn allows most flowers to be exploited by the wasps. However, even in winter, only in syconia that happen to have few foundresses are most flowers turned into galls. In syconia with higher numbers of foundresses, interference competition reduces foundress lifespans, which reduces the proportion of flowers that are galled. We further show that syconia encourage the entry of multiple foundresses by delaying ostiole closure. Taken together, these factors allow fig trees to reduce galling in the wasp-benign winter and boost galling (and pollination in the wasp-stressing summer. Interference competition has been shown to reduce virulence in pathogenic bacteria. Our results show that interference also maintains cooperation in a classic, cooperative symbiosis, thus linking theories of virulence and mutualism. More generally, our results reveal how frequency-dependent population regulation can occur in the fig-wasp mutualism, and how a host species can 'set the rules of the

  20. Identification of phenylpropanoids in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toru; Okiura, Aya; Saito, Keita; Kohno, Masahiro

    2014-10-15

    In this study, the phenylpropanoid composition and antioxidant activity of identified components in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves were examined. Known polyphenols rutin, isoschaftoside, isoquercetin, and chlorogenic acid were identified. Furthermore, caffeoylmalic acid (CMA) was the most abundant polyphenol and was identified for the first time. CMA exhibited antioxidant activity similar to that of vitamin C or catechin. Psoralen and bergapten were identified as known furanocoumarins, with psoralen being the most abundant. Moreover, psoralic acid glucoside (PAG) was identified for the first time. As a precursor of psoralen, PAG content was equivalent to the psoralen content in moles. Notably, the content of these compounds varied between the five fig varieties, and the furanocoumarin and PAG contents varied more than that of the polyphenols. Further investigations concerning the influence of CMA and PAG on human health are necessary to elucidate functionalities of fig leaves.

  1. Engineered biochar from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of switchgrass for increasing water-holding capacity and fertility of sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Badr A; Ellis, Naoko; Kim, Chang Soo; Bi, Xiaotao; Emam, Ahmed El-Raie

    2016-10-01

    Engineered biochars produced from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of switchgrass have been evaluated in terms of their ability on improving water holding capacity (WHC), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and fertility of loamy sand soil. The addition of K3PO4, clinoptilolite and/or bentonite as catalysts during the pyrolysis process increased biochar surface area and plant nutrient contents. Adding biochar produced with 10wt.% K3PO4+10 wt.% clinoptilolite as catalysts to the soil at 2wt% load increased soil WHC by 98% and 57% compared to the treatments without biochar (control) and with 10wt.% clinoptilolite, respectively. Synergistic effects on increased soil WHC were manifested for biochars produced from combinations of two additives compared to single additive, which may be the result of increased biochar microporosity due to increased microwave heating rate. Biochar produced from microwave catalytic pyrolysis was more efficient in increasing the soil WHC due to its high porosity in comparison with the biochar produced from conventional pyrolysis at the same conditions. The increases in soil CEC varied widely compared to the control soil, ranging from 17 to 220% for the treatments with biochars produced with 10wt% clinoptilolite at 400°C, and 30wt% K3PO4 at 300°C, respectively. Strong positive correlations also exist among soil WHC with CEC and biochar micropore area. Biochar from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis appears to be a novel approach for producing biochar with high sorption affinity and high CEC. These catalysts remaining in the biochar product would provide essential nutrients for the growth of bioenergy and food crops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Allergy to Ficus benjamina (weeping fig) in nonatopic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, I G

    1995-03-01

    Occupational allergy to Ficus benjamina (Fb), or weeping fig, occurs in about one in four plant-keepers. Sensitization to this plant occurs in about 3-4% of persons with clear-cut atopy. I now report on four female nonatopic patients with rhinoconjunctivitis who were sensitized only to weeping fig. All four had a positive skin prick test and RAST test to Fb. The identification of a preventable respiratory allergen is of considerable importance for the patient. Inclusion of Fb in the standard prick test panel may therefore be considered. Furthermore, the findings suggest that it may be unwise to choose Fb as an ornamental indoor plant.

  3. Mineralization of residual fertilizer nitrogen in soil after rice harvest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarika, S.; Sarkar, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Remineralization of immobilized 15 N labelled urea N applied to rice crop at the rate of 180 kg N/ha was determined. Mineral N increased rapidly up to 14 days of incubation and thereafter remained more or less constant. The recovery of fertilizer as mineral N varied between 0.7 and 3.1 μg/g soil. The percent mineralization of labelled organic N ranged between 3.1 and 9.5. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  4. Fertility outcomes in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend

    2016-01-01

    of fertility treatments, and the number of successful pregnancies differ significantly between women with unexplained infertility with and without asthma.245 women with unexplained infertility (aged 23-45 years) underwent questionnaires and asthma and allergy testing while undergoing fertility treatment. 96...... women entering the study had either a former doctor's diagnosis of asthma or were diagnosed with asthma when included. After inclusion they were followed for a minimum of 12 months in fertility treatment, until they had a successful pregnancy, stopped treatment, or the observation ended.The likelihood...... pregnancies during fertility treatment, 39.6 versus 60.4% (p=0.002). Increasing age was of negative importance for expected time to pregnancy, especially among asthmatic women (interaction between age and asthma on time to pregnancy, p=0.001). Female asthmatics had a longer time to pregnancy and less often...

  5. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten

    2014-01-01

    resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization...... gives, in most cases, a small and transient effect on the environment as well as a high rate of return to the forest owner with low-economic risk. The increase in biomass production, however, is relatively small and consequently the impact on the processing industry and the bioeconomy is limited. More...... on the effects on the stand level, and especially on the landscape level, including late rotation management of the forest....

  6. Fertility treatment in obese women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, A.M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are increasing worldwide. This has major adverse consequences for health in general and fertility in women in particular. With the increasing number of women in reproductive age being obese, there is also an increasing need for fertility treatment. And with more pregnant women

  7. Provisional host catalogue of Fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1966-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In this catalogue — entitled "provisional" because our knowledge of the subject is still so evidently incomplete — all species of Ficus mentioned as hosts of fig wasps, are listed with the Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea reared from their receptacles. The names used for the Agaonidae are in

  8. Dose mapping of dried figs treated by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polonia, I.; Portugal, L.; Andrade, M. E

    1998-06-01

    The irradiation parameters of two varieties of dried figs were determined in a fixed position. The Dose Uniformity (U=Dmax/Dmin) obtained for Fricke Dosimeter was 1.4 and for YR Gammachrome 1.3. The isodose curves were built using a geostatistical gridding method, the Kriging method.

  9. Figures Fig.1 suggested equation of Functionalized Graphene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    17

    25oC was supplied from Sigma-Aldrich Company. UK. Graphene Lab Ltd provided graphene. 1. 2. 3. 4 ... -1. (1). 2.5 Thermal Gravimetric tests (TGA). Thermogravimetric Instrument (Perkin-Elmer's) company was applied to follow the ... The fusion enthalpy (ΔHf) of polyethylene. Fig.2 Schematic showing possible interactions ...

  10. The preconception Mediterranean dietary pattern in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment increases the chance of pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujkovic, M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Lindemans, J.; Macklon, N.S.; Spek, van der P.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate associations between preconception dietary patterns and IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes validated by biomarkers of the homocysteine pathway. Design: Observational prospective study. Setting: A tertiary referral fertility clinic at the Erasmus University

  11. Starting Ovsynch protocol on day 6 of first postpartum estrous cycle increased fertility in dairy cows by affecting ovarian response during heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirandeh, E

    2014-10-01

    The objective was to compare fertility in cows using an Ovsynch protocol starting on day 6 of first postpartum estrous cycle with an Ovsynch protocol initiated at random stages of the estrous cycle during heat stress (temperature-humidity index (THI)=77-83). Cows (n=459) at the beginning of the lactation period were randomly assigned to time-of-ovulation synchronization treatments: (1) control, Ovsynch (first GnRH treatment, PGF2α treatment 7 days later, second GnRH treatment 56 h later, and TAI 16 h later), initiated at random stages of the estrous cycle (40 ± 2 days postpartum, n=224) and (2) Ovsynch initiated on day 6 of first postpartum estrous cycle (estrus=day 0) based on detection of the first estrus after day 30 postpartum (O6, 35 ± 2 postpartum, n=235). Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS. The percentage of cows responding to the initial GnRH injection using the Ovsynch protocol was greater with the O6 treatment compared to the control treatment (60.4% compared with 52.6%). The percentage of cows having a corpus luteum (CL) on the day of the PGF2α injection was not different among treatments (control=87.0% and O6=90.2%, respectively). Also more cows in the O6 treatment group responded to the second GnRH injection of the Ovsynch protocol compared with control treatments (82.5% compared with 75.8%). Treatment affected the percentage of cows diagnosed pregnant at 32 ± 0.7 days and 60 ± 3 days after the resynchronized timing of AI but pregnancy losses (5.3% compared with 6.8%) did not differ between treatment groups. It is concluded that initiating the Ovsynch protocol 6 days after estrus during the first 40 days postpartum resulted in a greater pregnancy rate at the synchronized estrus and increased fertility compared with control cows during heat stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger increases the number of oocytes and embryos available for cryopreservation in cancer patients undergoing ovarian stimulation for fertility preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nigel; Kelly, Amelia G; Stone, Logan D; Witzke, Justine D; Lekovich, Jovana P; Elias, Rony T; Schattman, Glenn L; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-09-01

    To compare the oocyte and embryo yield associated with GnRH-agonist triggers vs. hCG triggers in cancer patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) for fertilization preservation. Retrospective cohort study. Academic center. Cancer patients undergoing COS with letrozole and gonadotropins or gonadotropin-only protocols for oocyte or embryo cryopreservation. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist or hCG trigger. Number of metaphase II (MII) oocytes or two-pronuclei (2PN) embryos available for cryopreservation were primary outcomes. Separate multivariate linear regression models were used to assess the effect of trigger type on the primary outcomes, after controlling for confounders of interest. A total of 341 patients were included, 99 (29.0%) in the GnRH-agonist group and 242 (71%) in the hCG group. There was no difference in the baseline demographics of patients receiving GnRH-agonist or hCG triggers. Within the letrozole and gonadotropins group (n = 269), the number (mean ± SD, 11.8 ± 5.8 vs. 9.9 ± 6.0) and percentage of MII oocytes (89.6% vs. 73.0%) available for cryopreservation was higher with GnRH-agonist triggers compared with hCG triggers. Similar results were noted with GnRH-agonist triggers in the gonadotropin-only group (n = 72) (i.e., a higher number [13.3 ± 7.9 vs. 9.3 ± 6.0] and percentage of MII oocytes [85.7% vs. 72.8%] available for cryopreservation). Multivariate linear regression demonstrated approximately three more MII oocytes and 2PN embryos available for cryopreservation in the GnRH-agonist trigger group, irrespective of cancer and COS protocol type. Utilization of a GnRH-agonist trigger increases the number of MII oocytes and 2PN embryos available for cryopreservation in cancer patients undergoing COS for fertility preservation. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Organic Biochar Based Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Cornelissen, Gerard; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Biochar produced in cost-efficient flame curtain kilns (Kon-Tiki) was nutrient enriched either with cow urine or with dissolved mineral (NPK) fertilizer to produce biochar-based fertilizers containing between 60-100 kg N, 5-60 kg P2O5 and 60-100 kg K2O, respectively, per ton of biochar. In 21 field trials nutrient-enriched biochars were applied at rates of 0.5 to 2 t ha-1 into the root zone of 13 different annual and perennial crops. Treatments combining biochar, compost and organic or chemical fertilizer were evaluated; control treatments contained the same amounts of nutrients but without biochar. All nutrient-enriched biochar substrates improved yields compared to their respective no-biochar controls. Biochar enriched with dissolved NPK produced on average 20% ± 5.1% (N=4) higher yields than standard NPK fertilization without biochar. Cow urine-enriched biochar blended with compost resulted on average in 123% ± 76.7% (N=13) higher yields compared to the organic farmer practice with cow urine-blended compost and outcompeted NPK-enriched biochar (same nutrient dose) by 103% ± 12.4% (N=4) on average. 21 field trials robustly revealed that low-dosage root zone application of organic biochar-based fertilizers caused substantial yield increases in rather fertile silt loam soils compared to traditional organic fertilization and to mineral NPK- or NPK-biochar fertilization. This can likely be explained by the nutrient carrier effect of biochar causing a slow nutrient release behavior, more balanced nutrient fluxes and reduced nutrient losses especially when liquid organic nutrients are used for the biochar enrichment. The results promise new pathways for optimizing organic farming and improving on-farm nutrient cycling.

  14. Engineered biochar from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of switchgrass for increasing water-holding capacity and fertility of sandy soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Badr A. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Agricultural Engineering Department, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Ellis, Naoko [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Kim, Chang Soo [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 14 gil 5 Hwarang-no Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Bi, Xiaotao, E-mail: tony.bi@ubc.ca [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Emam, Ahmed El-raie [Agricultural Engineering Department, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2016-10-01

    Engineered biochars produced from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of switchgrass have been evaluated in terms of their ability on improving water holding capacity (WHC), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and fertility of loamy sand soil. The addition of K{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, clinoptilolite and/or bentonite as catalysts during the pyrolysis process increased biochar surface area and plant nutrient contents. Adding biochar produced with 10 wt.% K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} + 10 wt.% clinoptilolite as catalysts to the soil at 2 wt% load increased soil WHC by 98% and 57% compared to the treatments without biochar (control) and with 10 wt.% clinoptilolite, respectively. Synergistic effects on increased soil WHC were manifested for biochars produced from combinations of two additives compared to single additive, which may be the result of increased biochar microporosity due to increased microwave heating rate. Biochar produced from microwave catalytic pyrolysis was more efficient in increasing the soil WHC due to its high porosity in comparison with the biochar produced from conventional pyrolysis at the same conditions. The increases in soil CEC varied widely compared to the control soil, ranging from 17 to 220% for the treatments with biochars produced with 10 wt% clinoptilolite at 400 °C, and 30 wt% K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} at 300 °C, respectively. Strong positive correlations also exist among soil WHC with CEC and biochar micropore area. Biochar from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis appears to be a novel approach for producing biochar with high sorption affinity and high CEC. These catalysts remaining in the biochar product would provide essential nutrients for the growth of bioenergy and food crops. - Highlights: • High quality biochar was made by catalytic pyrolysis in a microwave reactor. • High heating rate and good biochar quality were achieved using K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and clinoptilolite mixture. • Biochars showed significant increase in soil WHC and CEC.

  15. Temporal Trends in Fertility Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Priskorn, Lærke; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increasing age at first childbirth has been suggested to increase the risk for infertility. Our objective is to determine whether women above thirty years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. DESIGN: A descriptive nationwide Danish study...... to determine total and age specific fertility rates. RESULTS: Total fertility rate (TFR) decreased from 4.1 to 1.8 children per woman and age specific fertility also decreased from 1901 to 2014. Women aged 30-34, 35-39 or 40-44 years in the first decade of the 20th century had higher fertility rates than...... for 10% of TFR in 1901 compared with 4% in 2014 despite usage of assisted reproduction. CONCLUSION: This nationwide study shows that women above 30 years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. This implies that other factors besides age are strong...

  16. Reconstructing historical fertility change in Mongolia: Impressive fertility rise before continued fertility decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Spoorenberg

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, historical fertility change in Mongolia has been analyzed starting from the 1960s. It is generally accepted that the adoption of pro-natalist policies resulted in very high fertility levels during the 1960s and 1970s and that their relaxation in the mid-1970s contributed to the onset of fertility decline. Objective: The objective of this paper is to reconstruct fertility levels and trends in Mongolia before the 1960s in order to offer an alternative view of the historical fertility change in the country. Methods: Mobilizing a large set of data from different sources and applying diverse estimation techniques, a consistent reconstruction of nearly a century of fertility change in Mongolia is conducted. For the first time, fertility estimates before 1960 are introduced. The quality of these estimates is assessed through cross-comparison and prospective reconstruction of the country's population. Results: The different fertility estimates give a very consistent picture of historical fertility change in Mongolia, indicating that total fertility stagnated until the late 1940s and then increased by about 2.5 children per woman within 15 years. The population of Mongolia can be consistently reproduced assuming almost constant fertility between 1918 and 1956. Conclusions: The improvement in health and living standards related to the establishment of a socialist society is the main factor explaining the variations in fertility before the 1960s in Mongolia. This study reinstates the importance of social and economic development in explaining fertility change in the country. Comments: This study calls for demographers to reconstruct long-term population development in statistically less-developed countries to better understand the global process of fertility transition.

  17. Therapeutic effects of fig tree latex on bovine papillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmatzadeh, F; Fatemi, A; Amini, F

    2003-12-01

    The effects of fig tree latex in treating teat papillomatosis in cow in comparison with salicylic acid were evaluated. For this purpose, 12 cows of 1-3 years of age (average 2.25) affected by teat papillomatosis were divided into three groups. In group A, four cows were treated by fig tree (Ficus carica) latex; in group B, four cows were treated with 10% salicylic acid solution and in group C, four cows were kept as control animals receiving no treatment. Animals in each treatment group received their treatment once every 5 days. In groups A and B, de-epithelialization and shrinking of the warts began from the fifth day of treatment and all the warts disappeared within 30 days. However, in the control group no changes in the number of warts were observed until day 15 but thereafter a number of warts disappeared spontaneously in some of the animals. Both salicylic acid and fig tree latex were evaluated as having similar therapeutic effects in treating teat papillomatosis in cow.

  18. Technology of boron-containing polyphosphate fertilizer 'Phosphobor'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldabergenov, M.K.; Balakaeva, T.G.

    1995-01-01

    A technology is developed for producing 'Phosphobor' fertilizer based on the rock phosphate weal (17-18% P 2 O 5 ) with additions of boron-magnesium compound. Boron is part of polyphosphate fertilizer in the form of polymeric compounds of phosphorus and boron. Phosphorus and boron copolymers -boratophosphates - are easily formed in the process of polyphosphate fertilizers production, since borates undergo a mutual polycondensation reaction with phosphates. 8 refs., 1 fig

  19. The effect of fig wall thickness in Ficus erecta var. beecheyana on parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Hsy-Yu; Ou, Chern-Hsiung; Lu, Fu-Yuan; Bain, Anthony; Chou, Lien-Siang; Kjellberg, Finn

    2014-05-01

    Fig wasp communities constitute a model system to analyse determinants of community complexity and to investigate how biological interaction networks are maintained. It has been suggested for monoecious figs, that fig pollinating wasps avoid ovipositing in flowers located close to the fig wall because of strong parasitic pressure by wasps ovipositing through the fig wall. This behaviour could help explain why mainly seeds are produced in flowers located close to the fig wall, thus stabilizing the fig-pollinating wasp mutualism. In this contribution we explore, for dioecious figs, whether ovipositor length of parasitic species may really be limiting. In dioecious figs, functionally male figs produce pollinating wasps and pollen while female figs produce only seeds, facilitating selection of traits favouring pollinator reproduction in male figs. We show in Ficus erecta that fig walls are thicker in male figs than in female figs. Male figs presenting thick walls, thicker than the length of the parasites' ovipositors, went unparasitized while male figs presenting thinner walls were systematically parasitized. Hence, in F. erecta, ovipositor length of the parasites is limiting access to some figs. However, we also show that in another dioecious species, Ficus formosana, presenting thin walled male figs, no fig is protected against oviposition by its two parasites. Hence in dioecious as well as in monoecious figs, in some Ficus species, ovipositors of the parasites are limiting access to ovules, while in other Ficus species all ovules are exposed to parasitism.

  20. Chronic Dietary Supplementation of 4% Figs on the Modification of Oxidative Stress in Alzheimer’s Disease Transgenic Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraju Subash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the changes in the plasma Aβ, oxidative stress/antioxidants, and membrane bound enzymes in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of Alzheimer’s disease (AD transgenic mice (Tg2576 after dietary supplementation of Omani figs fruits for 15 months along with spatial memory and learning test. AD Tg mice on control diet without figs showed significant impairment in spatial learning ability compared to the wild-type mice on same diet and figs fed Tg mice as well. Significant increase in oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant status were observed in AD Tg mice. 4% figs treated AD Tg mice significantly attenuated oxidative damage, as evident by decreased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls and restoration of antioxidant status. Altered activities of membrane bound enzymes (Na+ K+ ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE in AD Tg mice brain regions and was restored by figs treatment. Further, figs supplementation might be able to decrease the plasma levels of Aβ (1–40, 1–42 significantly in Tg mice suggesting a putative delay in the formation of plaques, which might be due to the presence of high natural antioxidants in figs. But this study warrants further extensive investigation to find a novel lead for a therapeutic target for AD from figs.

  1. Impacts of an African Green Revolution on Greenhouse Gases and Pollution Precursors: Nonlinear Trace N Gas Emission Responses to Incremental Increases in Fertilizer Inputs in a Western Kenyan Maize Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Over the last several decades, agricultural soils in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa have become depleted of nitrogen (N) and other nutrients, creating challenges to achieving food security in many countries. At only 7 kg N ha-1 yr-1, average fertilizer application rates in the region are an order of magnitude lower than typical rates in the United States, and well below optimal levels. Increased use of nutrient inputs is a centerpiece of most African Green Revolution strategies, making it important to quantify the impacts of this change in practices as farmers begin moving towards 50-80 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Increased N inputs are invariably accompanied by losses of trace N gases to the atmosphere, including the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitric oxide (NO), a precursor to tropospheric ozone pollution. Several investigations of greenhouse gas emissions and one investigation of NO emissions from sub-Saharan agricultural systems have been conducted over the last 20 years, but they are few in number and were not designed to identify potentially important thresholds in the response of trace gas emissions to fertilization rate. Here we examine the response function of NO and N2O emissions to 6 different levels of inorganic fertilizer additions in a maize field in Yala, Kenya during the 2011 long rainy season. We used a randomized complete block design incorporating inorganic fertilizer treatments of 0, 50, 75, 100, 150, and 200 kg N ha-1 in 4 blocks. After each of 2 fertilizer applications, we measured trace gas fluxes daily, and conducted weekly measurements until trace gas emissions subsided to control levels. We fit the data to linear and exponential models relating N gas emissions to N input levels, and conducted a model comparison using AIC. Preliminary analysis suggests that NO emissions do respond in a non-linear fashion over the course of 67 days, as has been found in several commercial agroecosystems for N2O. Although N2O emissions responded linearly

  2. The Effect of Elevated CO2 and Increased Temperature on in Vitro Fertilization Success and Initial Embryonic Development of Single Male:Female Crosses of Broad-Cast Spawning Corals at Mid- and High-Latitude Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Schutter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of global climate change on coral reefs is expected to be most profound at the sea surface, where fertilization and embryonic development of broadcast-spawning corals takes place. We examined the effect of increased temperature and elevated CO2 levels on the in vitro fertilization success and initial embryonic development of broadcast-spawning corals using a single male:female cross of three different species from mid- and high-latitude locations: Lyudao, Taiwan (22° N and Kochi, Japan (32° N. Eggs were fertilized under ambient conditions (27 °C and 500 μatm CO2 and under conditions predicted for 2100 (IPCC worst case scenario, 31 °C and 1000 μatm CO2. Fertilization success, abnormal development and early developmental success were determined for each sample. Increased temperature had a more profound influence than elevated CO2. In most cases, near-future warming caused a significant drop in early developmental success as a result of decreased fertilization success and/or increased abnormal development. The embryonic development of the male:female cross of A. hyacinthus from the high-latitude location was more sensitive to the increased temperature (+4 °C than the male:female cross of A. hyacinthus from the mid-latitude location. The response to the elevated CO2 level was small and highly variable, ranging from positive to negative responses. These results suggest that global warming is a more significant and universal stressor than ocean acidification on the early embryonic development of corals from mid- and high-latitude locations.

  3. Detection of differentially methylated regions of irradiated fig tree selections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Maria Gabriela Fontanetti; Soares, Murilo Racy; Gimenez, Daniele Fernanda Jovino; Fonseca, Larissa Fernanda Simielli; Torrieri, Erico; Ramos, Ester Silveira; Giuliatti, Silvana; Universidade de Sao Paulo; Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho

    2017-01-01

    Fig tree (Ficus carica L.) breeding programs using conventional methods, such as directed crosses, to obtain new cultivars, are unworkable in many countries, including Brazil. Consequently, genetic breeding through mutagenesis has emerged as an important line of research that can improve this crop, and be a significant source of information about this species and assist in the implementation of propagation projects and appropriate management. The aim of this study was to verify the existence of epigenetic variability attributable to DNA methylation in irradiated fig selections when compared both to each other and to the main commercial cultivar, 'Roxo-de-Valinhos', which had previously used methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) and DNA sequencing to detect the position of polymorphic regions, analyzable by bioinformatic tools. The sequencing of DNA, isolated from the differentially methylated sites, makes it possible to observe different patterns of methylation by sequencing the treated DNA with sodium bisulfite in the coding regions of regulatory genes active in the development, and fruit ripening stages. Furthermore, they have been found in the mitochondrial DNA of treatments which regulate the supply of energy in Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) form in plants. Closely related to their development, they justify the different phenotypes found in both fruit and plant growth that have suffered stress due to exposure to gamma radiation. Thus, future studies on gene expression in treatments have emerged as an extremely important strategy for understanding these complex regulatory systems, which may lead to the identification of genes of agricultural interest for the fig tree crop, and allow for manipulation and subsequent propagation of improved crops for commercial purposes. (author)

  4. Detection of differentially methylated regions of irradiated fig tree selections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Fontanetti Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fig tree (Ficus carica L. breeding programs using conventional methods, such as directed crosses, to obtain new cultivars, are unworkable in many countries, including Brazil. Consequently, genetic breeding through mutagenesis has emerged as an important line of research that can improve this crop, and be a significant source of information about this species and assist in the implementation of propagation projects and appropriate management. The aim of this study was to verify the existence of epigenetic variability attributable to DNA methylation in irradiated fig selections when compared both to each other and to the main commercial cultivar, “Roxo-de-Valinhos”, which had previously used methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP and DNA sequencing to detect the position of polymorphic regions, analyzable by bioinformatic tools. The sequencing of DNA, isolated from the differentially methylated sites, makes it possible to observe different patterns of methylation by sequencing the treated DNA with sodium bisulfite in the coding regions of regulatory genes active in the development, and fruit ripening stages. Furthermore, they have been found in the mitochondrial DNA of treatments which regulate the supply of energy in Adenosine triphosphate (ATP form in plants. Closely related to their development, they justify the different phenotypes found in both fruit and plant growth that have suffered stress due to exposure to gamma radiation. Thus, future studies on gene expression in treatments have emerged as an extremely important strategy for understanding these complex regulatory systems, which may lead to the identification of genes of agricultural interest for the fig tree crop, and allow for manipulation and subsequent propagation of improved crops for commercial purposes.

  5. Detection of differentially methylated regions of irradiated fig tree selections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Maria Gabriela Fontanetti; Soares, Murilo Racy; Gimenez, Daniele Fernanda Jovino; Fonseca, Larissa Fernanda Simielli; Torrieri, Erico; Ramos, Ester Silveira; Giuliatti, Silvana, E-mail: mariagabriela@dracena.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Dracena, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Agricultura e Ciencias Tecnologicas; Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica; Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Agricultura e Ciencias Veterinarias

    2017-07-15

    Fig tree (Ficus carica L.) breeding programs using conventional methods, such as directed crosses, to obtain new cultivars, are unworkable in many countries, including Brazil. Consequently, genetic breeding through mutagenesis has emerged as an important line of research that can improve this crop, and be a significant source of information about this species and assist in the implementation of propagation projects and appropriate management. The aim of this study was to verify the existence of epigenetic variability attributable to DNA methylation in irradiated fig selections when compared both to each other and to the main commercial cultivar, 'Roxo-de-Valinhos', which had previously used methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) and DNA sequencing to detect the position of polymorphic regions, analyzable by bioinformatic tools. The sequencing of DNA, isolated from the differentially methylated sites, makes it possible to observe different patterns of methylation by sequencing the treated DNA with sodium bisulfite in the coding regions of regulatory genes active in the development, and fruit ripening stages. Furthermore, they have been found in the mitochondrial DNA of treatments which regulate the supply of energy in Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) form in plants. Closely related to their development, they justify the different phenotypes found in both fruit and plant growth that have suffered stress due to exposure to gamma radiation. Thus, future studies on gene expression in treatments have emerged as an extremely important strategy for understanding these complex regulatory systems, which may lead to the identification of genes of agricultural interest for the fig tree crop, and allow for manipulation and subsequent propagation of improved crops for commercial purposes. (author)

  6. Increased time to pregnancy is associated with less optimal neurological condition in 4-year-old singletons, in vitro fertilization itself is not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schendelaar, P.; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Heineman, M. J.; La Bastide-Van Gemert, S.; Middelburg, K. J.; Seggers, Jorien; Hadders-Algra, M.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does ovarian hyperstimulation, the in vitro procedures required for in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection or the combination of both, affect the neurological outcome of 4-year-old singletons? SUMMARY ANSWER: Ovarian hyperstimulation, the in vitro procedure and

  7. Increased time to pregnancy is associated with less optimal neurological condition in 4-year-old singletons, in vitro fertilization itself is not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schendelaar, P.; van den Heuvel, E. R.; Heineman, M. J.; La Bastide-van Gemert, S.; Middelburg, K. J.; Seggers, J.; Hadders-Algra, M.

    2014-01-01

    Does ovarian hyperstimulation, the in vitro procedures required for in vitro fertilization (IVF)/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection or the combination of both, affect the neurological outcome of 4-year-old singletons? Ovarian hyperstimulation, the in vitro procedure and the combination of both, were

  8. First results from Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tilvi, V.; Pirzkal, N.; Malhotra, S.

    2016-01-01

    in the Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS). These spectra, taken with G102 grism on Hubble Space Telescope (HST), show a significant emission line detection (6{\\sigma}) in multiple observational position angles (PA), with total integrated Ly{\\alpha} line flux of 1.06+/- 0.12 e10-17erg s-1cm-2. The line flux...... is nearly a factor of four higher than the previous MOSFIRE spectroscopic observations of faint Ly{\\alpha} emission at {\\lambda} = 1.0347{\\mu}m, yielding z = 7.5078+/- 0.0004. This is consistent with other recent observations implying that ground-based near-infrared spectroscopy underestimates total...

  9. Women's education and fertility behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The education of women results in changes in women's health status, family well being, and fertility decline. The aim of human rights and social justice is also served by increasing women's educational levels. A review of the trends in developing countries has shown that there is a strong correlation between advanced female education (10 or more years) and lower fertility. Data for 26 countries was presented in table form for total fertility rates by years of education. There were many differences in the patterns of fertility by educational level based on country level of development. The data appeared to show stronger correlations between fertility and education in more prosperous societies; culture and social structure also influenced fertility. Partial primary education has been shown in some countries to be related to increased fertility. A UN study found a curvilinear relationship between fertility and education in 14 out of 38 countries with World Fertility Surveys. There were only 3 countries with Demographic and Health Surveys which showed the curvilinear pattern. The UN study confirmed that maternal education was related to shorter durations of postpartum abstinence and short durations of lactation. Caution was urged in interpreting that an increase in a few years of schooling in a dominant rural, illiterate population would facilitate rapid fertility decline. A critical threshold effect for educational attainment was found in mainly the least developed countries. Female education has direct and indirect effects on fertility. Education may affect breast feeding patterns, contraceptive use, social norms about small families, later age at marriage, and later age at first birth. The suggestion was that education provided for reproductive choice and reduces the gap between actual and desired family size. At the country and individual level of analysis, contraceptive use was linked with education. Effective contraceptive use was still however impeded by

  10. Acclimatization and leaf anatomy of micropropagated fig plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystiane Fráguas Chirinéa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of micropropagated plants during and after acclimatization is a limiting process to plant establishment. There is little information on how the anatomy of vegetative organs of Ficus carica can be affected by culture conditions and acclimatization. The present research aimed to study the effects of time on culture medium and substrates during the acclimatization of fig tree plantlets produced in vitro, characterizing some leaf anatomy aspects of plantlets cultured in vitro and of fig trees produced in field. Plantlets previously multiplied in vitro were separated and transferred into Wood Plant Medium (WPM where they were kept for 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Different substrates were tested and studies on leaf anatomy were performed in order to compare among plantlets grown in vitro, plantlets under 20, 40 and 60 days of acclimatization, and field grown plants. Keeping plantlets for 30 days in WPM allowed better development in Plantmax during acclimatization. Field grown plants presented higher number of stomata, greater epicuticular wax thickness and greater leaf tissue production compared to in vitro ones. The leaf tissues of in vitro plantlets show little differentiation and have great stomata number compared with acclimatized plants, which reduce the number of stomata during the acclimatization process.

  11. Soil Fertility Status on Organic Paddy Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiyo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to determine fertility status of the soil after organic paddy experiments using kinds and doses of organic fertilizers. Experiment was conducted at greenhouse laboratory in Faculty of Agriculture Sebelas Maret University Surakarta. Experimental design used completely randomized design with 9 kinds of treatment was replicated 3 times. Experiments were the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizer, Azolla inoculum and its combinations that are based on fulfilling nutrient requirements of 120 kg N ha-1. Result shows that the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizers and Azolla inoculum had no effect on changes of soil fertility status. Soil fertility status was not significantly correlated with cow manure (0,16ns, Azolla fertilizer (0,26ns and Azolla inoculum (0,16ns. Average of final soil fertility status included fertile category, which was similar as the initial soil fertility status. Average of final soil properties of treatment but nevertheless was relatively higher than in no treatment, indicating the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizer, Azolla inoculum and its combinations had greater impact to soil properties. Cow manure despite increased available K2O and dry grain, but it did not significantly increase the soil fertility status from fertile to very fertile. This was presumably due to the relatively short experiment period, only one planting season had not given significant effect to soil properties. Implication of this study is the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizer, Azolla inoculum and its combinations although did not increase the soil fertility status but could maintain soil fertility status as the initial conditions before planting.

  12. Occupational allergy to weeping fig in plant keepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, I G; Johansson, S G; Zetterström, O

    1987-04-01

    Plant keepers take regular care of green plants in public buildings and offices. One of the most common green plants in Scandinavia is weeping fig (Ficus benjamina). We have previously reported on two plant keepers sensitized to this plant, one had asthma and the other allergic rhinitis. We now report a study of four plant-leasing firms employing 60 plant keepers and 24 less exposed. Positive RAST and skin tests in 16 of the plant keepers and two of the employees showed them to be sensitized. All sensitized subjects suffered from conjunctivitis and/or rhinitis and six had asthma. Handling of green plants is a new example of an occupation which may cause IgE-mediated allergy.

  13. Fertilizers in cereals crops. Effect of fertilization in grain quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melaj, Mariana

    1997-01-01

    In the last years the yields of the maize cultivation in the Pampeana production region have constantly increased, foreseeing higher increases of yield in the next years. Such increase is due, between other motives, to the use of hybrids of higher potential yield. There is a direct relation between the yield potential of a genotype and the nutrients demand, fact that constitutes one of the geneticists concerns. Maize hybrids reach its maximum expression when the plant is cultivated in good supplied soils with balanced quantities of nutrients that in several cases are reached with the practice of fertilization. The quantitative and qualitative vegetal response to the use of phosphate fertilizers depend of soils, of the environmental conditions, of fertilizer and the way of its application as well as of the maize hybrid that was used. To direct the practice of fertilization towards the reposition of the soil nutrients extracted by genotypes of high yield without producing excesses that increase costs and put in danger the environment, it is necessary to know the real coefficient used by the plants of the phosphorus available in the soils. The isotopic methodology allows to distinguish the phosphorus coming from two nutrient sources: soil and fertilizer, even in the juvenile phase of vegetal development and to evaluate the efficiency of fertilizers in plant nutrition. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the use of phosphorus coming from one of the phosphorus source available (soil, fertilizer), that should allow to increase and make more specific the knowledge's level of the different maize hybrids. This is obtained by determination of the grade of use of nutrient (of the soil) and of the nutrient of fertilizers, evaluating the qualitative and quantitative responses to fertilization

  14. The fertility of internal migrants to Kinshasa

    OpenAIRE

    Anglewicz, Philip; Corker, Jamaica; Kayembe, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The rapid population growth of many African cities has important implications for population health, yet little is known about factors contributing to increasing population, such as the fertility of internal migrants. We examine whether in-migrants to Kinshasa have different fertility patterns than lifetime Kinshasa residents, and identify characteristics of migrants that may explain differences in fertility. We also use detailed migration histories to examine whether fertility differs by fea...

  15. Isotope studies on rice fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the report is to provide practical information on the efficient utilization of nitrogen fertilizers in rice production. Results obtained from field investigations during the years 1970 to 1974 in ten countries (Bangladesh, Burma, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Philippines), using 15 N-labelled nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, urea) are given. The experiments, which were conducted both during the dry and wet seasons, included comparison of varieties, effect of placement, source and time of nitrogen fertilizer application on the yield and quality of rice. The data from the project is presented in table form. In most of the experiments, the addition of nitrogen increased the rice grain yield. The role of soil nitrogen vs. fertilizer nitrogen is compared, and it is concluded that the physiological growth stage at which fertilizer-derived nitrogen is absorbed is of great importance

  16. Fertilization of SRC Willow, II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevel, L.; Ingerslev, Morten; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) willow is an emerging cropping system in focus for production of biomass for energy. To increase production, the willow is commonly fertilized, but studies have shown differing effects of fertilization on biomass production, ranging from almost no response...... to considerable positive effects. Focus has also been on replacing mineral fertilizer with organic waste products, such as manure and sludge. However, the effect on biomass production and environmental impact of various dosage and types of fertilizer is not well described. Therefore we studied the environmental...... impacts of different doses of mineral fertilizer, manure and sewage sludge in a commercially grown SRC willow stand. We examined macro nutrient and heavy metal leaching rates and calculated element balances to evaluate the environmental impact. Growth responses were reported in a former paper (Sevel et al...

  17. N{sub 2}O emissions from spring barley production as influenced by fertilizer nitrogen rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebarth, B.J. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Fredericton, NB (Canada). Potato Research Centre; Rochette, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Soils and Crops Research and Development Centre; Burton, D.L. [Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, NS (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    Agricultural crop systems are responsible for a large portion of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions in Canada. N{sub 2}O emissions in agricultural soils are primarily associated with nitrification and denitrification processes. This study investigated the effect of fertilizer nitrogen (N) rates applied to spring barley on N{sub 2}O emissions in a maritime climate with humid soil moisture regimes. The study was part of a national program conducted to measure N{sub 2}O emissions under a variety of different cropping systems and management practices in Canada. Trials were conducted at a site in New Brunswick and consisted of a randomized complete block design with 6 different N fertility treatments replicated 4 times. N{sub 2}O flux measurements were made using a non-flow through, non-steady-state vented chamber on a weekly basis from early spring until late fall. Soil and air samples were collected on the same days. Statistical analyses were performed using a general linear model. Linear interpolation was used to derive cumulative N{sub 2}O emissions. Results showed that N{sub 2}O emissions increased with fertilizer N applications in each year of the study period. Elevated N{sub 2}O emissions occurred in the 6-week period following fertilizer application when soil N concentrations were high. It was concluded that excessive fertilization increases overall N{sub 2}O emissions. 49 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. Liquid Organic Fertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture: Nutrient Uptake of Organic versus Mineral Fertilizers in Citrus Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Bermejo, Almudena; Legaz, Francisco; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the performance of two liquid organic fertilizers, an animal and a plant-based fertilizer, with mineral fertilization on citrus trees. The source of the fertilizer (mineral or organic) had significant effect in the nutritional status of the organic and conventionally managed mandarins. Nutrient uptake, vegetative growth, carbohydrate synthesis and soil characteristics were analyzed. Results showed that plants fertilized with animal based liquid fertilizers exhibited higher total biomass with a more profuse development of new developing organs (leaves and fibrous roots). Liquid organic fertilization resulted in an increased uptake of macro and micronutrients compared to mineral fertilized trees. Moreover, organic fertilization positively affected the carbohydrate content (fructose, glucose and sucrose) mainly in summer flush leaves. Liquid organic fertilization also resulted in an increase of soil organic matter content. Animal-based fertilizer, due to intrinsic composition, increased total tree biomass and carbohydrate leaves content, and led to lower soil nitrate concentration and higher P and Mg exchangeable in soil extract compared to vegetal-based fertilizer. Therefore, liquid organic fertilizers could be used as an alternative to traditional mineral fertilization in drip irrigated citrus trees.

  19. Enhancing inorganic fertilizer use in Imo State, Nigeria | Ogoke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased and more efficient fertilizer use hold the key to increase in crop yield per hectare, but there are limitations. This work, therefore, attempts a review of constraints to fertilizer use in Imo state including: high cost and unavailability of fertilizers; profitability of fertilizer use; lack of soil test; dependence on unpredictable ...

  20. High doses of ethylenediurea (EDU) as soil drenches did not increase leaf N content or cause phytotoxicity in willow grown in fertile soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agathokleous, Evgenios; Paoletti, Elena; Manning, William J; Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Saitanis, Costas J; Koike, Takayoshi

    2018-01-01

    Ground-level ozone (O 3 ) levels are nowadays elevated in wide regions of the Earth, causing significant effects on plants that finally lead to suppressed productivity and yield losses. Ethylenediurea (EDU) is a chemical compound which is widely used in research projects as phytoprotectant against O 3 injury. The EDU mode of action remains still unclear, while there are indications that EDU may contribute to plants with nitrogen (N) when the soil is poor in N and the plants have relatively small leaf area. To reveal whether the N content of EDU acts as a fertilizer to plants when the soil is not poor in N and the plants have relatively large total plant leaf area, willow plants (Salix sachalinensis Fr. Schm) were exposed to low ambient O 3 levels and treated ten times (9-day interval) with 200mL soil drench containing 0, 800 or 1600mg EDU L -1 . Fertilizer was added to a nutrient-poor soil, and the plants had an average plant leaf area of 9.1m 2 at the beginning of EDU treatments. Indications for EDU-induced hormesis in maximum electron transport rate (J max ) and ratio of intercellular to ambient CO 2 concentration (C i :C a ) were observed at the end of the experiment. No other EDU-induced effects on leaf greenness and N content, maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (F v /F m ), gas exchange, growth and matter production suggest that EDU did not act as N fertilizer and did not cause toxicity under these experimental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Volatile profile of Greek dried white figs (Ficus carica L.) and investigation of the role of β-damascenone in aroma formation in fig liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palassarou, Maria; Melliou, Eleni; Liouni, Maria; Michaelakis, Antonios; Balayiannis, George; Magiatis, Prokopios

    2017-12-01

    During an investigation of the chemical profile of Greek figs (Ficus carica L.), several aqueous ethanol extracts (liquors) were prepared from dried Smyrna fig varieties cultivated in the two major fig-producing geographical areas in Greece: Peloponnese and Evia Island. The distinctive aroma observed among the prepared fig liquors led to the investigation of the odor profile of the different fig cultivars through HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS analysis, with focus on the factors that affect it before and during the preparation of the respective liquors. Significant variation in volatiles was noticed among all fig cultivars, as also between each fig cultivar pulp and the respective liquor. The observed diversity was a result of chemical reactions taking place in the ethanol matrix during the preparation of the liquor. The 'key' odor compound of dried fig aroma was found to be β-damascenone. Owing to its low detection threshold and minute quantity in fig cultivars, the presence of β-damascenone was furthermore confirmed through GC/MS/MS and GC/TOF-MS. β-Damascenone was identified in variable quantities among fig varieties and their liquors, predominating in Kalamon fig cultivar of Peloponnese region, while its amount was found to be dependent on the postharvest storage time and preservation process of dried figs. Each of the studied fig cultivars and liquors showed a unique aroma profile, and the obtained results were used for the preparation of the first dried fig liqueur for potential commercial use with the highest content of β-damascenone. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. What Is Fertility Preservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print What is fertility preservation? Fertility preservation is the process of saving or protecting ... children in the future. Who can benefit from fertility preservation? People with certain diseases, disorders, and life ...

  3. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Additional Information About ART in the United States. Fertility Clinic Tables Introduction to Fertility Clinic Tables [PDF - ...

  4. Fertility Herbs: Do They Enhance Fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get pregnant. I've seen many ads for fertility herbs and supplements. Do they work? Answers from ... for infertility. Unfortunately, the research on so-called fertility herbs and supplements is inconclusive and based on ...

  5. Fertility and Population Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye; Tosun, Mehmet S.; Yang, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    There have been significant changes in both the fertility rates and fertility perception since 1970s. In this paper, we examine the relationship between government policies towards fertility and the fertility trends. Total fertility rate, defined as the number of children per woman, is used as the main fertility trend variable. We use panel data from the United Nations World Population Policies database, and the World Bank World Development Indicators for the period 1976 through 2013. We find...

  6. Optimal nitrogen fertilization of boreal conifer forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Pukkala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Forest fertilization offers a means to increase the production of renewable resources. Nitrogen is the most common fertilizer in boreal upland forests. There is plenty of research on the effect of nitrogen fertilization on volume growth, but less research on the optimal timing of fertilization and optimal management of fertilized stands. Methods This study used simulation and optimization to analyze the profitability of fertilization, optimal management of fertilized stands and the effects of fertilization on cash flows and timber yields. The management of 100 stands representing the most common growing sites of Scots pine and Norway spruce was optimized. Results Fertilization improved profitability in most of the analyzed stands. Profitability improved most in spruce stands growing on mesic site. Improving stem quality increased the economic benefit of fertilization. The timber yields of medium-aged conifer stands can be increased by almost 1 m3ha-1a-1 (15% in sub-xeric pine and mesic spruce sites and about 0.5 m3ha-1a-1 (5% in mesic pine and herb-rich spruce sites when the recommended nitrogen dose (150 kg ha-1 is applied once in 30 years. Conclusions Nitrogen fertilization of boreal conifer forest should be used mainly in spruce-dominated stands growing on medium sites. The gains are the highest in stands where the mean tree diameter is 16–20 cm and stand basal area is 14–20 m2ha-1.

  7. Phenological Adaptations in Ficus tikoua Exhibit Convergence with Unrelated Extra-Tropical Fig Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ting-Ting; Compton, Stephen G.; Yang, Yong-Jiang; Wang, Rong; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Flowering phenology is central to the ecology and evolution of most flowering plants. In highly-specific nursery pollination systems, such as that involving fig trees (Ficus species) and fig wasps (Agaonidae), any mismatch in timing has serious consequences because the plants must balance seed production with maintenance of their pollinator populations. Most fig trees are found in tropical or subtropical habitats, but the dioecious Chinese Ficus tikoua has a more northerly distribution. We monitored how its fruiting phenology has adapted in response to a highly seasonal environment. Male trees (where fig wasps reproduce) had one to three crops annually, whereas many seed-producing female trees produced only one fig crop. The timing of release of Ceratosolen fig wasps from male figs in late May and June was synchronized with the presence of receptive figs on female trees, at a time when there were few receptive figs on male trees, thereby ensuring seed set while allowing remnant pollinator populations to persist. F. tikoua phenology has converged with those of other (unrelated) northern Ficus species, but there are differences. Unlike F. carica in Europe, all F. tikoua male figs contain male flowers, and unlike F. pumila in China, but like F. carica, it is the second annual generation of adult wasps that pollinate female figs. The phenologies of all three temperate fig trees generate annual bottlenecks in the size of pollinator populations and for female F. tikoua also a shortage of fig wasps that results in many figs failing to be pollinated. PMID:25474008

  8. Phenological adaptations in Ficus tikoua exhibit convergence with unrelated extra-tropical fig trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Zhao

    Full Text Available Flowering phenology is central to the ecology and evolution of most flowering plants. In highly-specific nursery pollination systems, such as that involving fig trees (Ficus species and fig wasps (Agaonidae, any mismatch in timing has serious consequences because the plants must balance seed production with maintenance of their pollinator populations. Most fig trees are found in tropical or subtropical habitats, but the dioecious Chinese Ficus tikoua has a more northerly distribution. We monitored how its fruiting phenology has adapted in response to a highly seasonal environment. Male trees (where fig wasps reproduce had one to three crops annually, whereas many seed-producing female trees produced only one fig crop. The timing of release of Ceratosolen fig wasps from male figs in late May and June was synchronized with the presence of receptive figs on female trees, at a time when there were few receptive figs on male trees, thereby ensuring seed set while allowing remnant pollinator populations to persist. F. tikoua phenology has converged with those of other (unrelated northern Ficus species, but there are differences. Unlike F. carica in Europe, all F. tikoua male figs contain male flowers, and unlike F. pumila in China, but like F. carica, it is the second annual generation of adult wasps that pollinate female figs. The phenologies of all three temperate fig trees generate annual bottlenecks in the size of pollinator populations and for female F. tikoua also a shortage of fig wasps that results in many figs failing to be pollinated.

  9. Expression and evolutionary divergence of the non-conventional olfactory receptor in four species of fig wasp associated with one species of fig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jinhua

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactions of fig wasps and their host figs provide a model for investigating co-evolution. Fig wasps have specialized morphological characters and lifestyles thought to be adaptations to living in the fig's syconium. Although these aspects of natural history are well documented, the genetic mechanism(s underlying these changes remain(s unknown. Fig wasp olfaction is the key to host-specificity. The Or83b gene class, an unusual member of olfactory receptor family, plays a critical role in enabling the function of conventional olfactory receptors. Four Or83b orthologous genes from one pollinator (PFW (Ceratosolen solmsi and three non-pollinator fig wasps (NPFWs (Apocrypta bakeri, Philotrypesis pilosa and Philotrypesis sp. associated with one species of fig (Ficus hispida can be used to better understand the molecular mechanism underlying the fig wasp's adaptation to its host. We made a comparison of spatial tissue-specific expression patterns and substitution rates of one orthologous gene in these fig wasps and sought evidence for selection pressures. Results A newly identified Or83b orthologous gene was named Or2. Expressions of Or2 were restricted to the heads of all wingless male fig wasps, which usually live in the dark cavity of a fig throughout their life cycle. However, expressions were widely detected in the antennae, legs and abdomens of all female fig wasps that fly from one fig to another for oviposition, and secondarily pollination. Weak expression was also observed in the thorax of PFWs. Compared with NPFWs, the Or2 gene in C. solmsi had an elevated rate of substitutions and lower codon usage. Analyses using Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D* and F* tests indicated a non-neutral pattern of nucleotide variation in all fig wasps. Unlike in NPFWs, this non-neutral pattern was also observed for synonymous sites of Or2 within PFWs. Conclusion The sex- and species-specific expression patterns of Or2 genes detected beyond

  10. SOCIAL LIFE IN AROUND OF FIG / INCIR ÇEVRESINDE SOSYAL HAYAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Vehbi GÜNAY

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Fig cultivation is an important activity in the NorthEast Aegean region; apart from its economic value fig hasa pronounced mark on the socioculture of the region.Right along with dried figs, figs are used in thefabrication of marmalade, sweeties, biscuit and sweetcake;industry of ethyl alcohol, cosmetic, drug and alsoit’s bagasse is used in the feed industry. Fig cultivation ismade in summer therefore people move another place itis called seasonal migration. In recent years somechanges happened in fig cultivation and some culturalvalues are get lost in this region.

  11. [Stress and fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ősapay, György; Ősapay, Klára

    2015-08-30

    In Western countries, sperm quality and fertility of men significantly worsened. Female infertility does not show a better trend either. Subtle defects in the reproductive functions can not be explained by the current methods, and "unexplained infertility" is becoming a more common diagnosis. Every year 1 million couples seek expensive and time consuming fertility treatment in the world. Deeper understanding of an unhealthy lifestyle and the environmental damages may lead to personalized treatments to increase the chance of conception.The effects of various stressors on the male and female reproductive performance were scientifically substantiated by Selye and coworkers in 1976. Cognitive therapy methods can be applied against emotional stressors, supplementation by antioxidants against reactive oxygen compounds, and administration of vitamins and trace elements, especially when deficiency is found, may help before medical intervention on a rational and economical way in the fight against infertility.

  12. Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstrand, S.; Landner, L. [Swedish Environmental Research Group (MFG)

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this report is to review available information on the fluxes of cadmium (Cd) to agricultural soils and crops in Sweden from phosphorus fertilizers (P-fertilizer) and other sources, and to discuss how the content of Cd in soil, crops and human food may be influenced by the specific environmental conditions in Sweden, as well as by the agricultural practices used in the country 62 refs, 15 figs, 18 tabs. With 5 page summary in Swedish

  13. [Obesity and male fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Ana C; Molina, Rosa I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and male infertility have increased in the last decades; therefore, a possible association between these pathologies has been explored. Studies inform that obesity may affect fertility through different mechanisms, which alltogether could exert erectile dysfunction and/or sperm quality impairment. These include: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPG) axis malfunction: obese hormonal profile is characterized by reduction of testosterone, gonadotrophins, SHBG and/or inhibin B concentrations (marker of Sertoli cells function) and hyperestrogenemy (consequence of aromatase overactivity ascribed to adipose tissue increase); 2) increased release of adipose-derived hormones: leptin increase could be responsible for some of the alterations on the HPG axis and could also exert direct deleterious effects on Leydig cells physiology, spermatogenesis and sperm function; 3) proinflammatory adipokines augmentation, higher scrotal temperature (due to fat accumulation in areas surrounding testes) and endocrine disruptors accumulation in adiposites, all of these responsible for the increase in testes oxidative stress and 4) sleep apnea, frequent in obese patients, suppresses the nocturnal testosterone rise needed for normal spermatogenesis. Finally, although controversial, all the above mentioned factors could comprise gametes quality; i.e. decrease sperm density and motility and increase DNA fragmentation, probably disturbing spermatogenesis and/or epididymal function. In summary, although obesity may impair male fertility by some/all of the described mechanisms, the fact is that only a small proportion of obese men are infertile, probably those genetically predisposed or morbidly obese. Nevertheless, it is likely that because the incidence of obesity is growing, the number of men with reduced fertility will increase as well.

  14. In vivo fertilization of banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliane Leila Soares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the in vivo fertilization process of banana cultivars. The diploid hybrid (AA 091087-01 was the male progenitor. Flower samples were checked for fertilization from the first to the twentieth day after pollination. The size of the diploid ovules increased gradually at the beginning of the seed formation process. On the other hand, in the AAA triploids (Cavendish subgroup, the not fertilized ovules were aborted. In the AAB triploids (Prata subgroup some ovules were fertilized. The flowers of Grand Naine, Nanicão and 'Pacovan' cultivars presented necrosis in the distal part of the ovary on the first day after pollination. Necrosis can hinder pollen tube growth towards the ovule, which might be related to the low seed yield in 'Pacovan' cultivars and to the absence of seeds in the Cavendish subgroup cultivars.

  15. Sensory profiles for dried fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivars commercially grown and processed in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Megan T; King, Ellena S; Heymann, Hildegarde; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2013-08-01

    A trained sensory panel evaluated the 6 fig cultivars currently sold in the California dried fig market. The main flavor and aroma attributes determined by the sensory panel were "caramel," "honey," "raisin," and "fig," with additional aroma attributes: "common date," "dried plum," and "molasses." Sensory differences were observed between dried fig cultivars. All figs were processed by 2 commercial handlers. Processing included potassium sorbate as a preservative and SO2 application as an antibrowning agent for white cultivars. As a consequence of SO2 use during processing, high sulfite residues affected the sensory profiles of the white dried fig cultivars. Significant differences between dried fig cultivars and sources demonstrate perceived differences between processing and storage methods. The panel-determined sensory lexicon can help with California fig marketing. © 2013 The Regents of California, Davis Campus Department of Plant Sciences.

  16. [The impact of obesity on fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesant, M-H; Wunder, D; Pralong, F; Giusti, V

    2010-03-31

    There are many negative impacts of obesity on fertility. Obese couples present decreased sperm count, decreased ovulation and conception rates, increased erectile dysfunction and spontaneous abortion rate as well as increased maternal and foetal complications of pregnancy. Moreover, obesity tends to decrease response to fertility treatments. Fortunately, intensive lifestyle modifications can restore fertility while decreasing pregnancy complications risk. With the increasing trend of obesity to affect young populations, taking care of these infertile couples rapidly is capital to restore fertility and decrease its related pregnancy complications.

  17. Fertility impairment in radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Biedka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Infertility as a result of antineoplastic therapy is becoming a very important issue due to the growing incidence of neoplastic diseases. Routinely applied antineoplastic treatments and the illness itself lead to fertility disorders. Therapeutic methods used in antineoplastic treatment may cause fertility impairment or sterilization due to permanent damage to reproductive cells. The risk of sterilization depends on the patient’s sex, age during therapy, type of neoplasm, radiation dose and treatment area. It is known that chemotherapy and radiotherapy can lead to fertility impairment and the combination of these two gives an additive effect. The aim of this article is to raise the issue of infertility in these patients. It is of growing importance due to the increase in the number of children and young adults who underwent radiotherapy in the past. The progress in antineoplastic therapy improves treatment results, but at the same time requires a deeper look at existential needs of the patient. Reproductive function is an integral element of self-esteem and should be taken into account during therapy planning.

  18. Philippine Fig wasps 1. Records and descriptions of Otitesellini (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea, Torymidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1974-01-01

    In 1964, by awarding to me that year's proceeds of the "Pieter Langerhuizen Fonds", the Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen enabled me to study figs and fig wasps in the Philippines. While several Philippine fig wasps are already known from the papers by Ashmead (1904, 1905), Brown (1906),

  19. Effect of biochar compound fertilizers on crop yield and fertilizer N use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianqing; Fu, Xiangfeng; Xie, Qiu; Qiu, Liangzhu; Lu, Zexian; Pan, Genxing

    2017-04-01

    In order to meet the increasing demand for food in China, chemical fertilizers (NPK fertilizers) application continue to rise in agricultural production. Overuse of nitrogen fertilizer has occurred widely, and causes great challenges in environmental sustainability. To meet the need for reducing chemical fertilizer use and enhancing fertilizer N use efficiency, biochar compound fertilizers (BCF) are currently produced. Biochar are produced from crop straw with a maximum temperature of 500-600oC. Biochar compound fertilizer produced by rotary granulator. The nutrients proportion are 15:15:10 ( N:P2O5:K2O). Field experiments were conducted in 8 sites across the major crop production areas from Heilongjiang in north east to Hubei in central China, from Yili, Xinjiang in the west to Suqian, Jiangsu in the east. The results showed that rice and maize yield increased by 6-10% and 5-12%, respectively, compared with chemical fertilizer. N use efficiency increased by 9.4-45.46% for rice, and 12.39-52.93% for maize. The rate of fertilizer application decreased by 8-12%, and a cost saving by 8-10% compared with chemical fertilizer. Protein content of grain increased by 3-10%. It indicates that biochar had the potential to form a more effective fertilizer that improved crop yield and the quality.

  20. Purification and autolysis of the ficin isoforms from fig (Ficus carica cv. Sabz) latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Hamid; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Salami, Maryam; Mirzaei, Morteza; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Sheibani, Nader

    2013-03-01

    Ficin (EC 3.4.22.3), a cysteine endoproteolytic protease in fig trees' latex, has multiple isoforms. Until now, no data on autolysis of individual ficins (ficin isoforms) are available. Following purification, ficins' autolysis was determined by HPLC chromatogram changes and ultrafiltrations at different temperatures and storage times. These results showed that the number of HPLC peaks in latex proteins purification of Ficus carica cv. Sabz varied from previous fig varieties or cultivars. Proteolytic activity of ficins was inhibited by specific cysteine protease inhibitors, confirming the participation of the cysteine residue in the active site. The zeta potential of the first two eluted peaks (I and II) was negative, while that of other peaks were positive. All ficins were susceptible to autolysis when stored at high temperatures. In contrast, only the last two ficins (B, C) were prone to autolysis at cold temperature after long storage period. The rate of degradation of the ficins was significantly increased with the increased storage time. The ficin (A) related to peak (III) had the highest and the lowest surface hydrophobic patches and ratio of autolytic to proteolytic activity, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical-chemical characteristics of figs (Ficus carica) preready to submitted to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Paula B.; Lima, Roberta B.; Modlo, Debora M.; Arthur, Valter

    2009-01-01

    Fig (Ficus carica) is the fruit of the fig tree, original of Mediterranean, has fleshy and succulent pulp, besides being sweetened slightly. It is very appreciated for dessert. The immature form (green) can be used for make a sweet home-made. The aim of the present work was irradiate samples of fruits of pre-ready green fig, seeking the increase of the useful shelf-life. The samples were washed, made hygienic and submitted the cooking by a period of 15 minutes, after the cooking they were put in an drainer to expect cooling the fruits and after that process they were wrapped in plastic sack of 15x30cm and sealed in a manual sealing and stored at 8 deg C in a OBD camera for 7 days. Later samples were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control); 1.0 and 2.0 kGy, under a rate of dose of 0.601 kGy/h, in a Gammacell-220 irradiator and stored by 24 hours to 8 deg C in OBD. Each treatment was consisted with 3 repetitions with 10 fruits each. The samples were appraised, immediately after the irradiation, as for the parameters pH, soluble solids content, color peel, color pulp, texture, chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B and total carotenoids. The statistical analysis of the results was accomplished, through outline entirely randomized by test F for variance analysis and when significant compared by Tuckey test. By the obtained results was concluded that there was not significant difference between the treatments and the control. After four days the samples presented microbiological contamination, they went desecrated. (author)

  2. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Nitrogen Fertilizer Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrogen Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of nitrogen fertilizer nutrients...

  3. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Phosphorus Fertilizer Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phosphorus Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of phosphorus fertilizer nutrients...

  4. Development of molecular tools for characterization and genetic diversity analysis in Tunisian fig (Ficus carica) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatti, Khaled; Baraket, Ghada; Ben Abdelkrim, Ahmed; Saddoud, Olfa; Mars, Messaoud; Trifi, Mokhtar; Salhi Hannachi, Amel

    2010-10-01

    Fig, Ficus carica L., is a useful genetic resource for commercial cultivation. In this study, RAPD (60), ISSR (48), RAMPO (63), and SSR (34) markers were compared to detect polymorphism and to establish genetic relationships among Tunisian fig tree cultivars. The statistical procedures conducted on the combined data show considerable genetic diversity, and the tested markers discriminated all fig genotypes studied. The identification key established on the basis of SSR permitted the unambiguous discrimination of cultivars and confirmed the reliability of SSR for fingerprinting fig genotypes. The study findings are discussed in relation to the establishment of a national reference collection that will aid in the conservation of Tunisian fig resources.

  5. Effects on field- and bottom-layer species in an experiment with repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohrstedt, H.Oe.

    1994-01-01

    Long-term changes in forest ground vegetation because of repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization were examined in an old field experiment, located in a 85-year-old Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. Fertilizers were added at 5-(PK, NPK) or 10-(PK) year intervals, beginning 26 years prior to the study. The treatments were tested in two replicates on plots sized 40 x 40 m. The total doses added were N 720 kg/ha, P 222-380 kg/ha and K 318-620 kg/ha. N was given as ammonium nitrate, P as superphosphate and K as potassium chloride. The vegetation on control plots was of the Vaccinium vitis-idaea type. The field layer was dominated by V.vitis-idaea and V.myrtillus, and the bottom layer by Pleurozium schreberi. The effect of fertilization was quantified by examining the areal cover of individual species. This was done in 25 0.25 m 2 frames systematically placed in a grid over each treatment plot. The only pronounced effect in the field layer was on V.myrtillus. The cover was strongly reduced by fertilization with PK. The reduction was 70% for the 5-year interval and 34% for the 10-year interval. The cover more than doubled after NPK-fertilization. Among the cryptogams, a reduction in cover was indicated for Cladina arbuscula and C.rangiferina because of fertilization with NPK. NPK reduced the number of species that were found, totally depending on negative effects on several lichen species. For species absent in the examined frame areas but present somewhere else on the treatment plots, it was seen that Deschampsia flexuosa increased after NPK-fertilization, while Peltigera apthosa and Steroecaulon tomentosum decreased. Hylocomium splendens occurred on both control plots, but only on one fertilized plot. 30 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

  6. Effects on field- and bottom-layer species in an experiment with repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohrstedt, H.Oe.

    1994-01-01

    Long-term changes in forest ground vegetation because of repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization were examined in an old field experiment, located in a 85-year-old Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. Fertilizers were added at 5-(PK, NPK) or 10-(PK) year intervals, beginning 26 years prior to the study. The treatments were tested in two replicates on plots sized 40 x 40 m. The total doses added were N 720 kg/ha, P 222-380 kg/ha and K 318-620 kg/ha. N was given as ammonium nitrate, P as superphosphate and K as potassium chloride. The vegetation on control plots was of the Vaccinium vitis-idaea type. The field layer was dominated by V.vitis-idaea and V.myrtillus, and the bottom layer by Pleurozium schreberi. The effect of fertilization was quantified by examining the areal cover of individual species. This was done in 25 0.25 m[sup 2] frames systematically placed in a grid over each treatment plot. The only pronounced effect in the field layer was on V.myrtillus. The cover was strongly reduced by fertilization with PK. The reduction was 70% for the 5-year interval and 34% for the 10-year interval. The cover more than doubled after NPK-fertilization. Among the cryptogams, a reduction in cover was indicated for Cladina arbuscula and C.rangiferina because of fertilization with NPK. NPK reduced the number of species that were found, totally depending on negative effects on several lichen species. For species absent in the examined frame areas but present somewhere else on the treatment plots, it was seen that Deschampsia flexuosa increased after NPK-fertilization, while Peltigera apthosa and Steroecaulon tomentosum decreased. Hylocomium splendens occurred on both control plots, but only on one fertilized plot. 30 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

  7. Determination of radioactivity in Chinese phosphate rock and fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingjian; Zhu Yongyi; Yang Juncheng

    1993-01-01

    The presented paper reported the radioactivity of U-238, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 in Chinese phosphate rocks by gamma spectrographic analysis during 1985-1990. The results showed that the decay chain of U-238-Ra-226 was the main source of radionuclides in phosphate rocks. The radionuclides in phosphate fertilizer differed from the forms of phosphate fertilizer. U-238 was the most important radionuclide in phosphoric compound fertilizer. The transfer rate of radionuclides was also estimated. (2 figs., 1 tab.)

  8. Enhancing Soil Fertility through Intercropping, Inoculation and Fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, M. A.; Hussain, N.; Schmeisky, H.; Rasheed, M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of intercropping grass (Panicum maximum) and legumes (Vicia sativa and cowpeas) alone or coupled with inoculation or fertilizer on soil fertility. The study comprised of two field experiments conducted under rain fed conditions for two years (June 2005 to September 2007) at National Agriculture Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. In one experiment intercropping (33, 50 and 67%) of grass and legumes alone as well as coupled with seed inoculation were studied while, same set of treatments was combined with fertilizer application at the rates of 25, 75 and 50 kg/ha (N, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and K/sub 2/O) in the second experiment. Total soil N increased by 0.008 percent due to symbiotic fixation in addition to plant uptake under best treatment when compared with grass alone while, soil organic matter increased by 0.19 percent. After crop harvest soil N content was determined to be higher in all the treatments of the experiment compared with growing grass alone. Legumes caused rhizobial N fixation that caused an increase in soil N. Similarly, intercropping and inoculation increased this soil characteristic that was found to be non-significant in the first crop but later on became significant, especially when intercropping of grass with legumes after seed inoculation was investigated or fertilizer was supplemented to the crops. Thus, not only grass used the symbiotically fixed N by companion legumes but also enhanced the soil N content. The effect of fertilizer was not measurable statistically in case of soil organic matter. This parameter, in general, was not affected significantly when assessed after first crop harvest. Nevertheless, legumes alone or intercropped within grass increased this important soil constituent. Inoculation proved further beneficial in this regard but combination of intercropping (especially 67%) either with seed inoculation or application of fertilizer was found as the best technique for

  9. Fertility drugs and cancer: a guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Methodological limitations in studying the association between the use of fertility drugs and cancer include the inherent increased risk of cancer in women who never conceive, the low incidence of most of these cancers, and that the age of diagnosis of cancer typically is many years after fertility drug use. Based on available data, there does not appear to be a meaningful increased risk of invasive ovarian cancer, breast cancer, or endometrial cancer following the use of fertility drugs. Several studies have shown a small increased risk of borderline ovarian tumors; however, there is insufficient consistent evidence that a particular fertility drug increases the risk of borderline ovarian tumors, and any absolute risk is small. Given the available literature, patients should be counseled that infertile women may be at an increased risk of invasive ovarian, endometrial, and breast cancer; however, use of fertility drugs does not appear to increase this risk. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Are Nitrogen Fertilizers Deleterious to Soil Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijay- Singh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil is one of the most important natural resources and medium for plant growth. Anthropogenic interventions such as tillage, irrigation, and fertilizer application can affect the health of the soil. Use of fertilizer nitrogen (N for crop production influences soil health primarily through changes in organic matter content, microbial life, and acidity in the soil. Soil organic matter (SOM constitutes the storehouse of soil N. Studies with 15N-labelled fertilizers show that in a cropping season, plants take more N from the soil than from the fertilizer. A large number of long-term field experiments prove that optimum fertilizer N application to crops neither resulted in loss of organic matter nor adversely affected microbial activity in the soil. Fertilizer N, when applied at or below the level at which maximum yields are achieved, resulted in the build-up of SOM and microbial biomass by promoting plant growth and increasing the amount of litter and root biomass added to soil. Only when fertilizer N was applied at rates more than the optimum, increased residual inorganic N accelerated the loss of SOM through its mineralization. Soil microbial life was also adversely affected at very high fertilizers rates. Optimum fertilizer use on agricultural crops reduces soil erosion but repeated application of high fertilizer N doses may lead to soil acidity, a negative soil health trait. Site-specific management strategies based on principles of synchronization of N demand by crops with N supply from all sources including soil and fertilizer could ensure high yields, along with maintenance of soil health. Balanced application of different nutrients and integrated nutrient management based on organic manures and mineral fertilizers also contributed to soil health maintenance and improvement. Thus, fertilizer N, when applied as per the need of the field crops in a balanced proportion with other nutrients and along with organic manures, if available with the

  11. Fertility and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korula George

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The changing social scenario together with economic growth and an increase in job opportunities has to a great extent reduced gender inequality and has resulted in more and more older women seeking help from infertility clinics. Fertility and aging have always been closely linked and the age of the female partner remains the single most important factor in predicting success with treatment. Although tests for the ovarian reserve are an important informative tool and are helpful in selecting treatment options, they are poor predictors of the outcome.

  12. Fertility preservation for female cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Miyuki; Osuga, Yutaka

    2018-03-03

    An improvement in the survival rates of cancer patients and recent advancements in assisted reproductive technologies have led to remarkable progress in oncofertility and fertility preservation treatments. Currently, for adults and postpubertal girls, oocyte or embryo cryopreservation is an established method. If their cancer treatment cannot be postponed for 2 weeks, ovarian tissue cryopreservation is offered as an experimental technique. For prepubertal girls, ovarian tissue cryopreservation is the only option. As for ovarian protection, there is insufficient evidence regarding the effectiveness of GnRH agonist in fertility preservation. In the past decade, the concept of fertility preservation for cancer patients has been rapidly spreading, but at present only a small part of young cancer patients receive fertility preservation services. It is partly because of the lack of adequate provision of information on fertility preservation and the lack of referral from oncology to the fertility clinic. In Japan, the clinical practice guidelines for fertility preservation in childhood, adolescent and young adult cancer patients was issued last year by the Japan Society of Clinical Oncology (JSCO). It would help Japanese health care providers, including oncologists and reproductive specialists, to increase their knowledge on fertility preservation for cancer patients and move forward the fertility preservation services. For further progress, it is also needed to establish a national registration system of fertility preservation for cancer patients to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the current management.

  13. Cancer and fertility : strategies to preserve fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diedrich, K.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Devroey, P.

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented

  14. Male Fertility Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertility issues are common in boys and men getting cancer treatment. Fertility preservation options include sperm banking, testicular shielding, testicular sperm extraction (TESE), and testicular tissue freezing. Support and clinical trials are listed.

  15. Protect Your Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brochure briefly explains how such behaviors put your fertility at risk. Decisions and choices that you make ... your teens and early twenties can affect your fertility for years to come. This prevention guide was ...

  16. TCRC Fertility Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Testicular Cancer Resource Center The TCRC Fertility Page Testicular Cancer and fertility are interrelated in numerous ways. TC usually affects young men still in the process of having a family. ...

  17. Fertility Treatments for Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Females Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Fertility Treatments for Females Once a woman is diagnosed ... The presence or absence of male factor infertility Fertility treatments are most likely to benefit women whose ...

  18. Infertility and Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Infertility and Fertility "Infertility" is a term that describes when a ... infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss: A committee opinion. Fertility and Sterility, 99 (1), 63. American Society for ...

  19. Exploration of mechanisms regulating ectomycorrhizal colonization of boron-fertilized pine. [Pisolithus tinctorius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, H.E.; Sword, M.A.

    1991-06-01

    The ectomycorrhizal association is a naturally occurring symbiotic relationship existing between ectomycorrhizal-forming fungi and the root system of some plants, including many coniferous species. Since boron fertilization (BF) has been reported to increase fungal colonization of clover and alfalfa, the effect of BF on fungal colonization and growth of shortleaf pine was examined. Inoculation of seedlings was shown to increase growth responses in boron treated plants. BF increases root sucrose concentrations required for fungal development and improves the nutritional balance of the plant. Mycorrhizae increase auxin levels in root (possibly increasing root primordial development) while BF decreases root auxin (possibly increasing root elongation). BF reduces phenolic concentrations in the root. BF enhances mycorrhizae and root development, and results in increased tree seedling growth. 36 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Efficacy of Tissue Culture in Virus Elimination from Caprifig and Female Fig Varieties (Ficus carica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chokri Bayoudh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fig mosaic disease (FMD is a viral disease that spreads in all Tunisian fig (Ficus carica L. orchards. RT-PCR technique was applied to leaf samples of 29 fig accessions of 15 fig varieties from the fig germplasm collection of High Agronomic Institute (I.S.A of Chatt-Mariem, to detect viruses associated to FMD. Analysis results show that 65.5% of the accessions (19/29 and 80.0% (12/15 of the fig varieties are infected by FMD-associated viruses. From all fig accessions, 41.4% of them are with single infection (one virus and 24.1% are with multi-infections (2 virus and more. Viruses infecting fig leaf samples are Fig mosaic virus (FMV (20.7%, Fig milde-mottle-associated virus (FMMaV (17.25%, Fig fleck associated virus (FFkaV (3.45%, and Fig cryptic virus (FCV (55.17%. A reliable protocol for FCV and FMMaV elimination from 4 local fig varieties Zidi (ZDI, Soltani (SNI, Bither Abiadh (BA, and Assafri (ASF via in vitro culture of 3 meristem sizes was established and optimized. With this protocol, global sanitation rates of 79.46%, 65.55%, 68.75%, and 70.83% respectively for ZDI, SNI, BA, and ASF are achieved. For all sanitized varieties, the effectiveness of meristem culture for the elimination of FCV and FMMaV viruses was related to meristem size. Meristem size 0.5 mm provides the highest sanitation rates ranging from 70% to 90%.

  1. [[Fertility in Japan: 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosima, K; Yamamoto, C

    1992-04-01

    Japan's number of births for 1990 was 1,229,044, which was 25,000 less than 1989. The decrease, however, was smaller than the decrease which occurred between 1988 and 1989. Table 1 shows total number of births of Japanese and number of births of non-Japanese. Since 1987 number of births of non-Japanese has been slightly over 7000 every year, constituting 0.6% of total births. Table 2 shows total number of Japanese births, number of those with Japanese parents, number of those with non-Japanese mothers and number of those with non-Japanese fathers. The number of those with at least one non-Japanese parent was slightly over 1% in 1990. Table 3 shows in thousands, (1) number of births, (2) married female population ages 20-34, (3) female population ages 20-34, (4) total population. The second wave of baby boomers is now beginning to get married and reproduce, which has resulted in a slight increase in child births among women below 24. Child births among those below age 23 were 94,871 in 1988, 95,102 in 1989, and 98,632 in 1990. The same data for those below age 24 was 143,495 in 1989 and 147,037 in 1990. 1990's number of births was 63.1% of 1970's, which showed the onset of a second baby boom. This is due to a lower rate of currently married women, lower number of women ages 20 to 34, and lower fertility rate among currently married women. Total fertility rate dropped from 2.18 to 1.47 for males, from 2.13 to 1.53 for females, from 2.16 to 1.50 for the total. Ever-married total fertility rate went from 2.08 to 1.95 for males, from 2.13 to 1.98 for females. The reason why TFR was so low in 1980's was that total first marriage rate was as low as 70%. Between 1989 and 1990 age-specific fertility rates for males 34 years and above and for females 31 years and above, as well as that for both males and females 22 years and under, increased. 31-year-old males and 28-year-old females showed the highest age-specific fertility rate in 1990. Between 1975 and 1990 average age

  2. Effects of split application of organo-minerals fertilizers on Okra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... yield could be realized by combine application of 2t/ha compost and 30kg N/ha fertilizer. The efficiency of the fertilizer could be increased through 2-split application of the fertilizer combination. Keywords: Manure, fertilizer, okra and method of fertilizer application, tomato yields. Nigerian Journal of Horticultural Science Vol ...

  3. Obesity: modern man's fertility nemesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabler, Stephanie; Agarwal, Ashok; Flint, Margot; du Plessis, Stefan S

    2010-07-01

    The obesity pandemic has grown to concerning proportions in recent years, not only in the Western World, but in developing countries as well. The corresponding decrease in male fertility and fecundity may be explained in parallel to obesity, and obesity should be considered as an etiology of male fertility. Studies show that obesity contributes to infertility by reducing semen quality, changing sperm proteomes, contributing to erectile dysfunction, and inducing other physical problems related to obesity. Mechanisms for explaining the effect of obesity on male infertility include abnormal reproductive hormone levels, an increased release of adipose-derived hormones and adipokines associated with obesity, and other physical problems including sleep apnea and increased scrotal temperatures. Recently, genetic factors and markers for an obesity-related infertility have been discovered and may explain the difference between fertile obese and infertile obese men. Treatments are available for not only infertility related to obesity, but also as a treatment for the other comorbidities arising from obesity. Natural weight loss, as well as bariatric surgery are options for obese patients and have shown promising results in restoring fertility and normal hormonal profiles. Therapeutic interventions including aromatase inhibitors, exogenous testosterone replacement therapy and maintenance and regulation of adipose-derived hormones, particularly leptin, may also be able to restore fertility in obese males. Because of the relative unawareness and lack of research in this area, controlled studies should be undertaken and more focus should be given to obesity as an etiolgy of male infertility.

  4. [Intergenerational fertility changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinski, Z

    1983-07-01

    Intergenerational changes in fertility in Poland are analyzed using data from a 1977 sample survey of 38,600 women. The author notes that total fertility declined from 4.4 to 2.5 within the space of two generations. An analysis of fertility is presented by various characteristics of females, including age group, education, duration of marriage, and economic status.

  5. Foods That Can Affect Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affect Fertility Print Email Foods That Can Affect Fertility By Caroline Kaufman, MS, RDN Published January 30, ... impact on the ability to conceive. Women and Fertility To prepare for pregnancy and enhance fertility, maintain ...

  6. Farmers behavior on using fertilizer in West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdana, Tomy; Renaldy, Eddy; Utami, Hesty Nurul; Sadeli, Agriani Hermita; Mahra Arari, H.; Ginanjar, Tetep; Ajeng Sesy N., P.; Fernianda Rahayu, H.; Sanjaya, Sonny

    2018-02-01

    Fertilizer is one of the important materials in farming system to improve quality and quantity of harvest. Most of farmers in Indonesia using fertilizer, one of substantial fertilizer is NPK that contain of complex nutrient, there are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. There are tendency for farmers using NPK based on quality products and speed of decomposition. Nowadays, market size for NPK fertilizer has been dramatically increase and it will impact on intensify of fertilizer use. The potential requirement in marketing does not balanced with consumer behavior analysis. Meanwhile, agricultural sector (include horticulture, floriculture, bio-pharmacy and plantation) have been wieldly increase of the farming system annualy. This research is study case which is analyzed local NPK fertilizer competitive advantage compared to imported NPK fertilizer through consumer point of view towards product quality in four districts in West Java province, i.e., West Bandung, Garut, Bogor and Cianjur District with target respondents are farmers who use NPK fertilizer. NPK fertilizer qualities are based on product attributes, which are; availability, nutrient content, price, basic ingredients, form of fertilizer, speed of decomposition, label, color, type, design and size of packaging. It was analyzed using sematic differential attitude models and multi attribute attitude snake diagram model. The evaluation ranking of consumers interests towards fertilizer attribute characteristics showed that consumer intention before deciding to buy or use a NPK fertilizer will consider nutrient content, speed of decomposition, form of fertilizer and availability of products. Consumer's attitude towards all NPK fertilizer attribute quality illustrated that imported fertilizer is considered to be more positive than local fertilizer. Fertilizer companies or industries should be able to maintain their fertilizer production especially concerning nutrient content and availability of products through a

  7. Patriarchy and fertility in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Lerch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Theories of fertility collapse in the post-socialist era imply a decline in the moral primacy of traditional social institutions. Yet gender inequality actually increased in many countries, and there is a scarcity of empirical evidence for the role played by traditional social institutions in reproductive decision-making. OBJECTIVE We investigate whether patriarchal institutions sustained the fertility levels in Albania. The geography of marriage and family enlargement is related to the importance of patriarchy in kinship organisation and in the public sphere. To account for this spatial relationship we test the evidence for different pathways in patriarchal influence on reproductive decision-making including social effects, socialisation in patriarchal ideals, and the promotion of male fertility. METHODS We reconstruct reproductive histories from the 2001 Census and use data on attitudes and fertility intentions from the Reproductive and Health Survey 2002. Multilevel logistic regressions on marriage and (the intention of higher order births are used. RESULTS A majority of women endorsed patriarchal ideals and fertility transition was less advanced in more patriarchal municipalities. Patriarchal kinship organisation promoted early marriages and high fertility, which is shown to be achieved by social learning among peers and intergenerational social influences respectively, as well as by women's socialisation and a stopping behaviour in childbearing dominated by son-preference. Although gender inequality in the public sphere has also sustained the level of fertility and decreased the risk of marriage, it was not accounted for by these pathways of patriarchal influence. CONCLUSIONS Despite Albania's gradual opening to the world in a period of economic and political crisis, traditional social institutions remain important for family behaviours.

  8. Applied biotechnology for improving fertility of herds in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongiardino, M.E.; Dick, A.R.; Murray, R.; Ramos, G.; Balbiani, G.; Maciel, M.

    1990-01-01

    In an attempt to find methods to shorten the calving to conception interval of dairy cattle in Argentina, three research projects were carried out: (1) use of hormonal treatments in the early post-partum period to increase fertility in non-cycling cows; (2) treatments to increase the fertility of cycling cows; and (3) management systems to improve the efficiency of oestrus detection. In non-cycling cows, fewer services per conception and earlier pregnancies were obtained when a progesterone suppository was placed intravaginally (PRID treatment) 24-31 days post-partum. No statistical reduction in days open was observed, however, because of the great variability in response within groups. GnRH injection given 24 and 25 days post-partum did not improve reproductive indices. In cycling cows, clitoral massage after AI did not enhance fertility, while GnRH 14 days post-service resulted in pregnancy rates of 68.4% compared with 25% in the control group. In an attempt to improve the efficiency of oestrus detection successive periods of either 10 or 14 days of 'heat' observation followed by similar periods of no observation, combined with the systematic use of an oestrus synchronizer (cloprostenol), resulted in the same reproductive performance as in control cows observed continuously but with a saving of 50% in time spent in oestrus detection. In a seasonally bred herd, a reduction of 12 days in interval to conception and subsequent improvement in milk produced in the following season were obtained by synchronizing oestrus at the start of the breeding season with a norgestomet implant followed by a prostaglandin injection one day before implant removal. In repeat breeders, a second implant 9 days and 21 days later was found to be effective. (author). 24 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  9. Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, K; Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P

    2011-03-01

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This report is based on the expert presentations and group discussions, supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic cancer treatment. A variety of options are required to facilitate safe and effective fertility preservation for individual patients. Sperm banking is a simple and low-cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Further prospective studies are required to validate cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue, in-vitro maturation of oocytes and new vitrification techniques and to identify any long-term sequelae of slow freezing of embryos. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) vaginal infection of goats: clinical efficacy of fig latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camero, Michele; Marinaro, Mariarosaria; Losurdo, Michele; Larocca, Vittorio; Bodnar, Livia; Patruno, Giovanni; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The latex of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) has been shown to interfere with the replication of caprine herpesvirus (CpHV)-1 in vitro. The present study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of vaginal administration of fig latex in goats experimentally infected with CpHV-1. The fig latex reduced the clinical signs of the herpetic disease although it slightly influenced the titres of CpHV-1 shed. Thus, the fig latex maintained a partial efficacy in vivo.

  11. Fertility considerations in young women with hematological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jadoul, Pascale; Kim, S Samuel; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2012-01-01

    The need for practice guidelines for fertility preservation in young women with hematological malignancies has been increased. To develop recommendations, publications relevant to fertility preservation and hematological cancers were identified through a PubMed database search and reviewed...

  12. Gender equity and fertility intentions in Italy and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, Melinda; Mencarini, Letizia; Tanturri, Maria Letizia; Begall, Katia

    2008-01-01

    Fertility levels have fallen drastically in most industrialized countries. Diverse theoretical and empirical frameworks have had difficulty explaining these unprecedented low levels of fertility. More recently, however, attention has turned from classic explanations, such as women's increased labour

  13. Gender equity and fertility intentions in Italy and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, M.; Mencarini, L.; Tanturri, M.L.; Begall, K.

    2008-01-01

    Fertility levels have fallen drastically in most industrialized countries. Diverse theoretical and empirical frameworks have had difficulty in explaining these unprecedented low levels of fertility. More recently, however, attention has turned from classic explanations, such as women’s increased

  14. Situation on the market of mineral fertilizers in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Zalewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes international and domestic supply-demand situation on the market of mineral fertilizers. The article also analyses factors which had an influence on the increase of mineral fertilizers prices.

  15. The incidence of bilateral cryptorchidism is increased and the fertility potential is reduced in sons born to mothers who have smoked during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Cortes, D; Petersen, B L

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of cryptorchidism, decreasing semen quality and increasing incidence of testicular cancer. These changes seem to be interrelated, and may be symptoms of a common underlying entity with foundations in fetal life. We investigated the influence of m...

  16. Response of Penstemon Fruticosus to fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. O. Klock

    1976-01-01

    Bush penstemon (Penstemon fruticosus (Pursh) Greene), an attractive ground cover on east Cascade slopes, appears to survive under low fertility, xeric conditions. These plant characteristics are desirable for revegetating severely disturbed areas. Seedling response to fertilization was tested to find if growth rates could be increased to provide...

  17. Autolysis control and structural changes of purified ficin from Iranian fig latex with synthetic inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, H; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Salami, M; Sheibani, N; Khajeh, K; Habibi-Rezaei, M

    2016-03-01

    The fig's ficin is a cysteine endoproteolytic enzyme, which plays fundamental roles in many plant physiological processes, and has many applications in different industries such as pharmaceutical and food. In this work, we report the inhibition and activation of autolysis and structural changes associated with reaction of ficin with iodoacetamide and tetrathionate using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultra filtration membrane, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) methods. The ficin structural changes were also determined using UV-absorption, circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. These techniques demonstrated that iodoacetamide completely inhibited ficin autolysis, which was irreversible. However, tetrathionate partially and reversibility inhibited its autolysis. The ficin structural changes with two synthetic inhibitors were associated with secondary structural changes related to decreased alpha-helix and increased beta sheet and random coil conformations, contributing to its aggregation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mitigation of Water Stress on Apple Trees under Rotational Irrigation Conditions by Increasing the Application Rate of Organic Fertilizers to Sandy Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Lamy Mamdoh Mohamed; Ramadan Eid, Abdelraouf; Mohsmed Rabie Abdellatif Abdelaziz, Adel; Fathy Abdelsalam Essa, El-Sayed

    2016-04-01

    Egypt, as part of Mediterranean regions, is characterized by irregular and low rainfall amount which varies between (30-150 mm.year-1), and characterized also by high temperature which increase the rate of evapotranspiration from the cultivated soil. On the other hand, New reclaimed soils are mostly occupies around 84 % of total area of Egypt, which is mainly sandy soils. These soils generally characterized by low water capacity holding, soil organic matter, and weak in nutrients retention. Under these conditions which have a great influence on crop production, there is a great needing to increase the crop water use efficiency and increasing of nutrient retention in sandy soils. In this context, two field experiments were carried out on sand soil located in north Cairo-Egypt at the experimental farm of National Research Center, El-NUBARIA, (latitude 30° 30' N, and longitude 30° 19' E). The effect of compost rates on soil hydraulic characteristics, fruit yields, quality traits, and water use efficiency and productivity of apple tree (Apple Anna Cultivar), was studied under deficit irrigation conditions. Four rates of compost [I1: control, I2: 12 ton.ha-1., I3: 24 ton.ha-1., I4: 36 ton.ha-1. and I5:48 ton.ha-1.] were applied under irrigation frequencies of (IF1 :once per week; IF2 :twice per week, IF3 :three times per week). The obtained results indicated that by increasing the application rate of compost, the available water capacity and saturated water content of sandy soil have been enhanced. In the same time, the fruit yield, quality traits and water productivity were increased by increasing the application rate of compost. It is worthy to mention that the I5IF3 treatment gave the highest values of fruit yield, quality traits and water productivity, whereas I1IF1 treatment gave the lowest values of all the above mentioned variables. As result, for apple cultivation in El-NUBARIA region, the recommended rate of compost is 48 ton.ha-1 and irrigation frequency

  19. Migration and Fertility in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    M. FRAMURZ K. KIANI

    1987-01-01

    The phenomena of migration and fertility has not drawn much attention in Pakistan. A few studies based on census data, the National bnpact Survey 1968-69 and the Population Growth Survey 1968-71 showed higher crude birth rates for rural areas than for urban areas. However, recent studies showed higher urban fertility in Pakistan. In view of the increasing rate of rural migration to the urban areas it is important to understand the contribution of migration to popUlation growth. The main objec...

  20. MINERAL NUTRIENTS AND MALE FERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tvrdá

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Semen is a complex mixture containing a variety of organic and inorganic compounds. While the production and functions of semen are well understood, studies focused on the macro- and micronutrients necessary for male fertility are constantly appearing with new information. Chemical elements play a crucial role in male reproduction, as an unbalance in their amounts may lead to defective spermatogenesis, reduced libido, and consequently, male fertility impairment. Dietary and feeding supplementation has the ability to increase male reproductive performance which is why the effects of minerals in diet cannot be ignored. This review will provide recent information to a better understanding of the positive as well as negative roles of selected macro- and micronutrients on male fertility.

  1. Influence of long-term fertilization on soil physicochemical properties in a brown soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Luo, Peiyu; Han, Xiaori; Yang, Jinfeng

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to explore the influence on soil physicochemical properties under a 38-y long-term fertilization in a brown soil. Soil samples (0-20 cm)were taken from the six treatments of the long-term fertilization trial in October 2016:no fertilizer (CK), N1(mineral nitrogen fertilizer), N1P (mineral nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer), N1PK (mineral nitrogen, phosphate and potassic fertilizer), pig manure (M2), M2N1P (pig manure, mineral nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer).The results showed thatthe long-term application of chemical fertilizers reduced soil pH value, while the application of organic fertilizers increased pH value. Fertilization significantly increased the content of AHN, TN and SOM. Compared with the CK treatment and chemical fertilizer treatments, organic fertilizer treatments significantly increased the content of AP and TP. The content of AK and TK were no significant difference in different treatment.

  2. Bariatric surgery and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Divya K; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S

    2010-06-01

    Bariatric surgery is the most reliable way to sustain weight loss in the morbidly obese. Reproductive age women comprise the majority of bariatric patients, and many may be interested in conceiving after surgery. The purpose of this review is to synthesize the recent literature on bariatric surgery and fertility to assist providers in patient counseling. Obesity adversely impacts fecundability and IVF outcomes through a variety of mechanisms. The body of literature on reproductive outcome after bariatric surgery is sparse and of mixed quality. Bariatric surgery has been shown to improve menstrual cyclicity in anovulatory women, but little is published on the impact of surgical weight loss on spontaneous or IVF-treatment-related pregnancy rates. The increased risk of miscarriage in obese women may decline after bariatric surgery. There are currently insufficient data to support recommendations regarding the ideal timing for pregnancy after bariatric surgery. Obesity has been shown to adversely impact fertility, and weight loss is associated with significant improvement in many parameters of reproductive function. Further research is required as to the specific impact of surgical weight loss on pregnancy and miscarriage rates, as well as the optimal timing of pregnancy after bariatric surgery.

  3. Chaos of Wolbachia sequences inside the compact fig syconia of Ficus benjamina (Ficus: moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Yan; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Niu, Li-Ming; Ma, Guang-Chang; Cook, James M; Bian, Sheng-Nan; Fu, Yue-Guan; Huang, Da-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Figs and fig wasps form a peculiar closed community in which the Ficus tree provides a compact syconium (inflorescence) habitat for the lives of a complex assemblage of Chalcidoid insects. These diverse fig wasp species have intimate ecological relationships within the closed world of the fig syconia. Previous surveys of Wolbachia, maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria that infect vast numbers of arthropod hosts, showed that fig wasps have some of the highest known incidences of Wolbachia amongst all insects. We ask whether the evolutionary patterns of Wolbachia sequences in this closed syconium community are different from those in the outside world. In the present study, we sampled all 17 fig wasp species living on Ficus benjamina, covering 4 families, 6 subfamilies, and 8 genera of wasps. We made a thorough survey of Wolbachia infection patterns and studied evolutionary patterns in wsp (Wolbachia Surface Protein) sequences. We find evidence for high infection incidences, frequent recombination between Wolbachia strains, and considerable horizontal transfer, suggesting rapid evolution of Wolbachia sequences within the syconium community. Though the fig wasps have relatively limited contact with outside world, Wolbachia may be introduced to the syconium community via horizontal transmission by fig wasps species that have winged males and visit the syconia earlier.

  4. Pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation among dioecious fig species (Ficus, Moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Annika M; Weiblen, George D

    2012-12-01

    The extent of isolation among closely related sympatric plant species engaged in obligate pollination mutualisms depends on the fitness consequences of interspecies floral visitation. In figs (Ficus), interspecific gene flow may occur when pollinating wasps (Agaonidae) visit species other than their natal fig species. We studied reproductive isolation in a clade of six sympatric dioecious fig species in New Guinea. Microsatellite genotyping and Bayesian clustering analysis of the fig community indicated strong reproductive barriers among sympatric species. A total of 1-2% of fig populations consisted of hybrid individuals. A new experimental method of manipulating fig wasps investigated the reproductive consequences of conspecific and heterospecific pollinator visitation for both mutualists. Fig wasps introduced to Ficus hispidioides pollinated and oviposited in receptive figs. Seed development and seedling growth were largely comparable between conspecific and heterospecific crosses. Heterospecific pollinator fitness, however, was significantly less than that of conspecific pollinators. Heterospecific pollinators induced gall formation but offspring did not develop to maturity in the new host. Selection on pollinators maintaining host specificity appears to be an important mechanism of contemporary reproductive isolation among these taxa that could potentially influence their diversification. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Chaos of Wolbachia sequences inside the compact fig syconia of Ficus benjamina (Ficus: moraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yan Yang

    Full Text Available Figs and fig wasps form a peculiar closed community in which the Ficus tree provides a compact syconium (inflorescence habitat for the lives of a complex assemblage of Chalcidoid insects. These diverse fig wasp species have intimate ecological relationships within the closed world of the fig syconia. Previous surveys of Wolbachia, maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria that infect vast numbers of arthropod hosts, showed that fig wasps have some of the highest known incidences of Wolbachia amongst all insects. We ask whether the evolutionary patterns of Wolbachia sequences in this closed syconium community are different from those in the outside world. In the present study, we sampled all 17 fig wasp species living on Ficus benjamina, covering 4 families, 6 subfamilies, and 8 genera of wasps. We made a thorough survey of Wolbachia infection patterns and studied evolutionary patterns in wsp (Wolbachia Surface Protein sequences. We find evidence for high infection incidences, frequent recombination between Wolbachia strains, and considerable horizontal transfer, suggesting rapid evolution of Wolbachia sequences within the syconium community. Though the fig wasps have relatively limited contact with outside world, Wolbachia may be introduced to the syconium community via horizontal transmission by fig wasps species that have winged males and visit the syconia earlier.

  6. Codivergence and multiple host species use by fig wasp populations of the Ficus pollination mutualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLeish Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interaction between insects and plants takes myriad forms in the generation of spectacular diversity. In this association a species host range is fundamental and often measured using an estimate of phylogenetic concordance between species. Pollinating fig wasps display extreme host species specificity, but the intraspecific variation in empirical accounts of host affiliation has previously been underestimated. In this investigation, lineage delimitation and codiversification tests are used to generate and discuss hypotheses elucidating on pollinating fig wasp associations with Ficus. Results Statistical parsimony and AMOVA revealed deep divergences at the COI locus within several pollinating fig wasp species that persist on the same host Ficus species. Changes in branching patterns estimated using the generalized mixed Yule coalescent test indicated lineage duplication on the same Ficus species. Conversely, Elisabethiella and Alfonsiella fig wasp species are able to reproduce on multiple, but closely related host fig species. Tree reconciliation tests indicate significant codiversification as well as significant incongruence between fig wasp and Ficus phylogenies. Conclusions The findings demonstrate more relaxed pollinating fig wasp host specificity than previously appreciated. Evolutionarily conservative host associations have been tempered by horizontal transfer and lineage duplication among closely related Ficus species. Independent and asynchronistic diversification of pollinating fig wasps is best explained by a combination of both sympatric and allopatric models of speciation. Pollinator host preference constraints permit reproduction on closely related Ficus species, but uncertainty of the frequency and duration of these associations requires better resolution.

  7. Host-plant species conservatism and ecology of a parasitoid fig wasp genus (Chalcidoidea; Sycoryctinae; Arachonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J McLeish

    Full Text Available Parasitoid diversity in terrestrial ecosystems is enormous. However, ecological processes underpinning their evolutionary diversification in association with other trophic groups are still unclear. Specialisation and interdependencies among chalcid wasps that reproduce on Ficus presents an opportunity to investigate the ecology of a multi-trophic system that includes parasitoids. Here we estimate the host-plant species specificity of a parasitoid fig wasp genus that attacks the galls of non-pollinating pteromalid and pollinating agaonid fig wasps. We discuss the interactions between parasitoids and the Ficus species present in a forest patch of Uganda in context with populations in Southern Africa. Haplotype networks are inferred to examine intraspecific mitochondrial DNA divergences and phylogenetic approaches used to infer putative species relationships. Taxonomic appraisal and putative species delimitation by molecular and morphological techniques are compared. Results demonstrate that a parasitoid fig wasp population is able to reproduce on at least four Ficus species present in a patch. This suggests that parasitoid fig wasps have relatively broad host-Ficus species ranges compared to fig wasps that oviposit internally. Parasitoid fig wasps did not recruit on all available host plants present in the forest census area and suggests an important ecological consequence in mitigating fitness trade-offs between pollinator and Ficus reproduction. The extent to which parasitoid fig wasps exert influence on the pollination mutualism must consider the fitness consequences imposed by the ability to interact with phenotypes of multiple Ficus and fig wasps species, but not equally across space and time.

  8. Evolution and expression plasticity of opsin genes in a fig pollinator, Ceratosolen solmsi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    Full Text Available Figs and fig pollinators have co-evolved species-specific systems of mutualism. So far, it was unknown how visual opsin genes of pollinators have evolved in the light conditions inside their host figs. We cloned intact full-length mRNA sequences of four opsin genes from a species of fig pollinator, Ceratosolen solmsi, and tested for selective pressure and expressional plasticity of these genes. Molecular evolutionary analysis indicated that the four opsin genes evolved under different selective constraints. Subsets of codons in the two long wavelength sensitive opsin (LW1, LW2 genes were positively selected in ancestral fig pollinators. The ultraviolet sensitive opsin (UV gene was under strong purifying selection, whereas a relaxation of selective constrains occurred on several amino acids in the blue opsin. RT-qPCR analysis suggested that female and male fig pollinators had different expression patterns possibly due to their distinct lifestyles and different responses to light within the syconia. Co-evolutionary history with figs might have influenced the evolution and expression plasticity of opsin genes in fig pollinators.

  9. The effect of N fertilization on sugar beet production, root activity, and the efficent use of fertilizer N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charanek, Ahmad

    1990-10-01

    This study includes 2 field experiments using 15 N labelled fertilizer on sugarbeets. Five fertilization treatments with 6 replicates in Autumn and 3 with 5 replicates in Spring were carried out for three years (1985-1987), in the fields of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Damascus. The aim of the Autumn sugarbeet experiment was to study the effects of nitrogen fertilizer on the production of sugarbeet, root activity and the efficeint use of N from the fertilizer. The purpose of the Spring sugarbeet experiment was to compare two methods of N-fertilizer applications (surface and banding) and their effects on the utilization of N-fertilizer. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied as ammonium sulphate (21%) in Autumn at rates of 60, 120, 180 and 240 KgN/ha and as urea (46%) at 120 KgN/ha in Spring. The fertilizer was applied in two equal amounts, the first at the emergence and the second at the beginning of the optimal leaves development. Treatment at 120 Kg was only given labelled 15 N fertilizer. The purpose of this research study was to find out the optimal amount of fertilizer that produces the highest yield and the best nitrogen utilization rate. It was concluded from these results that the optimal amount of fertilizer needed to achieve the highest sugar content was between 120-180 KgN/ha. The second application of fertilizer affected positivily root production. The utilization rate of nitrogen in banding was more efficient than surface method at harvest of the second application. (author). 14 refs., 14 figs., 43 tabs

  10. FigS7.txt

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is an ascii file with georeferencing information containing the data plotted in Figure S7 of the supplemental information manuscript section. This dataset is...

  11. FigS8.txt

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is an ASCII file with georeferencing information containing data plotted in Figure S8 of the supplemental information section of the manuscript. This dataset is...

  12. Removal of viruses from Lebanese fig varieties using tissue culture and thermotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamis CHALAK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two Lebanese fig accessions of local varieties (Biadi and Aswad, infected by Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 1 (FLMaV-1, Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 2 (FLMaV-2 and Fig mosaic virus (FMV, were subjected to tissue culture and thermotherapy for producing virus-free plant material. The virus status of all progeny explants was assayed by RT-PCR using viruses-specific primers. The shoot tip culture technique was reliable for elimination of from 60 to 100% of fig viruses. However, stem cutting culture coupled with thermotherapy was the most effective for shoot regeneration (40% of reactive explants, while elimination of the three viruses was possible even though with lower rates of removal (from zero to 81% were achieved. This study has indicated that FLMaV-2 is more susceptible to thermotherapy than FLMaV-1 and FMV.

  13. Identification of Bet v 1-related allergens in fig and other Moraceae fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, W; Focke, M; Marzban, G; Swoboda, I; Jarisch, R; Laimer, M

    2010-04-01

    Allergy to fig fruit (Ficus carica) has been described in patients allergic to Ficus benjamina or rubber latex but may occur also in pollen-allergic patients. To study the potential cross-reactivity between fig and taxonomically related fruits with the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. One hundred and eighty-eight patients with or without birch pollen allergy were prick-to-prick tested with fig (F. carica), mulberry (Morus alba), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus; all family Moraceae) and other pollen-associated foods. Moraceae fruit extracts were separated by SDS-PAGE and tested with patient sera and polyclonal antisera against Mal d 1. Western blot inhibition was performed with Moraceae fruit extracts, birch pollen and recombinant Bet v 1. Putative Bet v 1 homologs in Moraceae fruits were analysed by liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Among 85 patients with isolated birch pollen allergy, 78% had a positive skin test to fresh fig, 10% to dried fig, 91% to mulberry, 91% to jackfruit, 77% to Rosaceae fruits and 83% to hazelnut. Sixty-six per cent of birch pollen-allergic patients positive for fig, reported symptoms after consumption of fresh figs, whereas dried figs were mostly well tolerated. In 60 patients with isolated Ficus benjamina sensitization, the reactivity rates to the same foods were 83-40-0-0-0-0%. None of 32 mugwort pollen-allergic patients reacted to Moraceae fruits. Rabbit anti-Mal d 1 and patient sera reacted to a 17 kDa band in all Moraceae extracts. IgE binding to these proteins was completely inhibited by birch pollen and rBet v 1. Mass spectrometry identified several peptides from the 17 kDa fig, mulberry and jackfruit allergen with respectively 60%, 56% and 76% homology to Bet v 1. Fig and other Moraceae fruits contain allergens homologous to Bet v 1 and represent clinically relevant birch pollen-associated foods.

  14. HIV and male fertility at the University Teaching Hospital Lusaka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There has been anecdotal evidence of a declining male fertility in Zambia over the last 10 years1. This prospective study of men seen in the fertility clinic was designed to look for an association between the increasing HIV infection in the population and male fertility. Methods: This prospective study compared ...

  15. Fertilization of black spruce or poor site peatland in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David H. Alban; Richard F. Watt

    1981-01-01

    Fertilization of poor site black spruce on organic soil with various rates of nitrogen and phosphorus increased height and diameter growth from 2 to 4 times. The growth response declined with time but was still apparent 16 years after fertilization. Shrub biomass and coverage, and nutrient levels of spruce foliage were strongly affected by fertilization.

  16. Genotype variation in grain yield response to basal N fertilizer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    So, a field experiment was conducted at Wuxi, China, under non-basal N and basal N fertilizer conditions, to identify the variation of grain yield response to basal fertilizer among 199 rice varieties with different genetic background, and finally choose the suitable rice varieties for us to increase basal N fertilizer efficiency and ...

  17. Obesity and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Damian; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in women of reproductive age has increased over the past 30 years. Infertility affects 1 in 7 couples, and female obesity is associated with anovulation. The mechanisms by which excessive fat delays time to pregnancy (TTP) appear rooted in ovulatory problems and direct effects on oocytes, causing poorer embryo development, as well as in effects on the endometrium. Weight loss in women has been shown to improve conception, but not necessarily live birth rates following fertility treatment, and further research in this area is needed. The obesity epidemic has been accompanied by a potential rise in male infertility, which has been attributed to hormonal disturbances and compromised semen parameters.

  18. Non-invasive detection of aflatoxin-contaminated figs using fluorescence and multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Habil; Güneş, Ali; Durmuş, Efkan; Kuşçu, Alper

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural products are prone to aflatoxin (AF)-producing moulds (Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus) during harvesting, drying, processing and also storage. AF is a mycotoxin that may cause liver cancer when consumed in amounts higher than allowed limits. Figs, like other agricultural products, are mostly affected by AF-producing moulds and these moulds usually produce kojic acid together with AF. Kojic acid is a fluorescent compound and exhibiting bright greenish yellow fluorescence (BGYF) under ultraviolet (UV) light. Using this fluorescence property, fig-processing plants manually select and remove the BGYF+ figs to reduce the AF level of the processed figs. Although manual selection is based on subjective criteria and strongly depends on the expertise level of the workers, it is known as the most effective way of removing AF-contaminated samples. However, during manual selection, workers are exposed to UV radiation and this brings skin health problems. In this study, we individually investigated the figs to measure their fluorescence level, surface mould concentration and AF levels and noted a strong correlation between mould concentration and BGYF and AF, and BGYF and surface. In addition to a pairwise correlation, we proposed a machine-vision and machine-learning approach to detect the AF-contaminated figs using their multispectral images under UV light. The figs were classified in two different approaches considering their surface mould and AF level with error rates of 9.38% and 11.98%, respectively.

  19. Erratum to: Fertilization of SRC Willow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevel, L; Ingerslev, Morten; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) willow is an emerging cropping system in focus for production of biomass for energy. To increase production, the willow is commonly fertilized, but studies have shown differing effects of fertilization on biomass production, ranging from almost no response...... to considerable positive effects. Focus has also been on replacing mineral fertilizer with organic waste products, such as manure and sludge. However, the effect on biomass production and environmental impact of various dosage and types of fertilizer is not well described. Therefore we studied the environmental...... impacts of different doses of mineral fertilizer, manure and sewage sludge in a commercially grown SRC willow stand. We examined macro nutrient and heavy metal leaching rates and calculated element balances to evaluate the environmental impact. Growth responses were reported in a former paper (Sevel et al...

  20. Evaluating the influence of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria as a bio-fertilizer under different fertility sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical fertilizers are being extensively used to satisfy the increasing demand for food. However, utilization of chemical fertilizers can be costly and over application for ensuring crop productivity may lead to environmental problems. As a result, interest in using bio-fertilizers to improve soil...

  1. Water availability determines the richness and density of fig trees within Brazilian semideciduous forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Luís Francisco Mello; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Pereira, Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo

    2014-05-01

    The success of fig trees in tropical ecosystems is evidenced by the great diversity (+750 species) and wide geographic distribution of the genus. We assessed the contribution of environmental variables on the species richness and density of fig trees in fragments of seasonal semideciduous forest (SSF) in Brazil. We assessed 20 forest fragments in three regions in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Fig tree richness and density was estimated in rectangular plots, comprising 31.4 ha sampled. Both richness and fig tree density were linearly modeled as function of variables representing (1) fragment metrics, (2) forest structure, and (3) landscape metrics expressing water drainage in the fragments. Model selection was performed by comparing the AIC values (Akaike Information Criterion) and the relative weight of each model (wAIC). Both species richness and fig tree density were better explained by the water availability in the fragment (meter of streams/ha): wAICrichness = 0.45, wAICdensity = 0.96. The remaining variables related to anthropic perturbation and forest structure were of little weight in the models. The rainfall seasonality in SSF seems to select for both establishment strategies and morphological adaptations in the hemiepiphytic fig tree species. In the studied SSF, hemiepiphytes established at lower heights in their host trees than reported for fig trees in evergreen rainforests. Some hemiepiphytic fig species evolved superficial roots extending up to 100 m from their trunks, resulting in hectare-scale root zones that allow them to efficiently forage water and soil nutrients. The community of fig trees was robust to variation in forest structure and conservation level of SSF fragments, making this group of plants an important element for the functioning of seasonal tropical forests.

  2. Land use history and population dynamics of free-standing figs in a maturing forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Albrecht

    Full Text Available Figs (Ficus sp. are often considered as keystone resources which strongly influence tropical forest ecosystems. We used long-term tree-census data to track the population dynamics of two abundant free-standing fig species, Ficus insipida and F. yoponensis, on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, a 15.6-km2 island in Lake Gatún, Panama. Vegetation cover on BCI consists of a mosaic of old growth (>400 years and maturing (about 90-150 year old secondary rainforest. Locations and conditions of fig trees have been mapped and monitored on BCI for more than 35 years (1973-2011, with a focus on the Lutz Catchment area (25 ha. The original distribution of the fig trees shortly after the construction of the Panama Canal was derived from an aerial photograph from 1927 and was compared with previous land use and forest status. The distribution of both fig species (~850 trees is restricted to secondary forest. Of the original 119 trees observed in Lutz Catchment in 1973, >70% of F. insipida and >90% of F. yoponensis had died by 2011. Observations in other areas on BCI support the trend of declining free-standing figs. We interpret the decline of these figs on BCI as a natural process within a maturing tropical lowland forest. Senescence of the fig trees appears to have been accelerated by severe droughts such as the strong El Niño event in the year 1982/83. Because figs form such an important food resource for frugivores, this shift in resource availability is likely to have cascading effects on frugivore populations.

  3. Land use history and population dynamics of free-standing figs in a maturing forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Larissa; Stallard, Robert F.; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.

    2017-01-01

    Figs (Ficus sp.) are often considered as keystone resources which strongly influence tropical forest ecosystems. We used long-term tree-census data to track the population dynamics of two abundant free-standing fig species, Ficus insipida and F. yoponensis, on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), a 15.6-km2 island in Lake Gatún, Panama. Vegetation cover on BCI consists of a mosaic of old growth (>400 years) and maturing (about 90–150 year old) secondary rainforest. Locations and conditions of fig trees have been mapped and monitored on BCI for more than 35 years (1973–2011), with a focus on the Lutz Catchment area (25 ha). The original distribution of the fig trees shortly after the construction of the Panama Canal was derived from an aerial photograph from 1927 and was compared with previous land use and forest status. The distribution of both fig species (~850 trees) is restricted to secondary forest. Of the original 119 trees observed in Lutz Catchment in 1973, >70% of F. insipida and >90% of F. yoponensis had died by 2011. Observations in other areas on BCI support the trend of declining free-standing figs. We interpret the decline of these figs on BCI as a natural process within a maturing tropical lowland forest. Senescence of the fig trees appears to have been accelerated by severe droughts such as the strong El Niño event in the year 1982/83. Because figs form such an important food resource for frugivores, this shift in resource availability is likely to have cascading effects on frugivore populations.

  4. Habits, aspirations and endogenous fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Fanti

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the increasing literature on endogenous preferences as well as on endogenous fertility, this paper investigates the implications of the interaction of the endogenous determination of the number of children with habit and aspiration formation in an OLG model. In contrast with the previous literature, we show that greater aspirations may lead to higher savings, and more interestingly, always increase the neoclassical economic growth.

  5. Effects of partial fertilizer substitution by organic fertilizer on growth of peanut at seedling stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Li, Na; Luo, Peiyu; Wang, Yue; Dai, Jian; Yang, Jinfeng

    2017-12-01

    In response to the Ministry of agriculture’s action plan for chemical fertilizer reductions and organic fertilizers instead of fertilizersand discuss the optimum consumption and proportion of peanut biochar-based fertilization.Six different fertilization treatments were set up:C40, C50(standard consumption), C60, C40+M, C30+M and C20+M. Seelding height, chlorophyll content and total biomass were also measured on 6th, 2017. The results showed that C20+M treatment had the highest plant height and the highest biomass in Peanut Seedlings, while the content of chlorophyll increased with the amount of biochar applied.

  6. Fertility preservation for patients with gynecologic malignancies: The Korean Society for Fertility Preservation clinical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Seul Ki; Hwang, Kyung Joo; Kim, Tak; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2017-12-01

    Fertility preservation plays a central role in cancer care since an increasingly large number of cancer patients are surviving as a result of improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Physicians who take part in the initial diagnosis and management of gynecologic cancer should understand the importance of fertility preservation. Since indications for fertility preservation are limited to early-stage gynecologic cancer, a surgeon must carefully consider each indication. Before performing fertility-sparing surgery, health professionals should compare its oncologic and pregnancy outcomes with those of other standard treatments. Individualized treatment strategies should be delivered depending on the patient's situation, and physicians should provide timely information and appropriate counseling.

  7. The Role of Contemporary Childbearing Postponement and Recuperation in Shaping Period Fertility Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Frejka

    2012-09-01

    3. These TPFR increases were predominantly the consequence of changes in cohort childbearing age patterns, i.e. changes in the timing of fertility. They were not generated by fertility quantum increases. During this period in almost all the low-fertility countries TPFRs were rising while corresponding total cohort fertility rates were declining.

  8. The effect of fertilizer application on 137 cesium accumulation in lucerne grown on a leached chernozem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, G.; Kovachev, K.; Penchev, D.; Ermolaev, I.; Mirchev, M.

    1974-01-01

    On the basis of pot experiments, carried out in a glass-house the following conclusions on the effect of fertilizer application are made: nitrogen fertilizer application increases the amount of radioactive cesium in lucerne plants. Phosphorus fertilizer introduction, similarly to potassium fertilizer application decreases cesium uptake, resulting in an increase in available phosphorus in the soil. (M.Ts.)

  9. Fig extract drying: The relationship between the main operating parameters of a pilot-scale spray dryer and product specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Maryam; Niakousari, Mehrdad; Haghighi-Manesh, Soroush; Rasouli, Mehrdad

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to optimize extraction and drying conditions of fig syrup. Drying was done in a pilot scale two-fluid nozzle spray dryer. A total of 27 experiments were conducted with varying inlet air temperatures, air flow rates, and also a maltodextrin (MD)- low methoxyl pectin (LMP) ratios. While feed rate, feed temperature, and compressed air flow rate of the atomizer were kept constant. The results of differential scanning calorimetry revealed that high levels of glucose and fructose in the extract resulted in a low glass transition temperature of fig syrup. By an increase in the inlet air temperature, the powder bulk density decreased. However, the MD:LMP ratio and the air flow rate were not significantly effective ( p spray-dried particles and particle size distribution analysis showed that particles were largely in a range of 5 to 50 μm. The best powders were obtained at an inlet air temperature of 170°C.

  10. First Report of the Fig Cyst Nematode,Heterodera ficiKirjanova, on Fig Tree,Ficus carica, in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengcheng; Henry, Neil; Yu, Qing

    2017-06-01

    Although fig trees are a popular ornamental fruit tree in subtropical regions, some hardy species, such as Ficus carica , have been grown in the west coast of British Columbia and southern Ontario in Canada. The fig cyst nematode, Heterodera fici Kirjanova, is a pest on fig plants, and the heavy infestation can cause retarded growth and yellowing of leaves (Maqbool et al., 1987). In the spring of 2016, a sample of rhizosphere from a potted fig ( F. carica ) seedling was submitted to the Nematology Laboratory, Canadian Food Inspection Agency. The sample was collected from a nursery in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada, during an inspection to support export certification. The fig trees in the nursery had been grown in the outside fields during the growing seasons and potted and moved to indoor during the winters for last 3 years. The sample was subjected to a nematode extraction process, including decanting and sieving and misting, and lemon-shaped cysts and second-stage juveniles of Heterodera sp. were recovered from the sample examined. The morphological and molecular analyses of the cysts, vulval cone, and second-stage juveniles from both the roots and the crushed cysts identified the species as Heterodera fici Kirjanova. The cysts were characterized by their dark brown color and lemon shape, as well as distinct necks and vulval cones. The vulval cones were observed having an ambifenestrate fenestra (Fig. 1AFig. 1Photomicrographs of Heterodera fici on fig tree from Ontario, Canada. A, B. Cyst vulval cones with the ambifenestrate fenestra in A) and well-developed underbridge and bullae in B). C-E. The second-stage juveniles from a crushed cyst with the whole body in C), the anterior region in D) and the posterior region in E).), dome-shaped bullae scattered around the underbridge plane (Fig. 1B), well-developed underbridge (Fig. 1B), and coarse zig-zag ridges surrounding the fenestra on the surface. The cyst measurements ( n = 3) were length 608.7 ± 91.6 (506

  11. France: High and stable fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Rossier

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The current total fertility rate in France is around 1.9 children per woman. This is a relatively high level by current European standards and makes France an outlier, despite the fact that its other demographic trends, especially conjugal behaviour, and social and economic trends are not very different from other Western European countries. France can serve as a counterfactual test case for some of the hypotheses advanced to explain the current low level of fertility in most European countries (delay in fertility, decline in marriage, increased birth control, greater economic uncertainty. France's fertility level can be partly explained by its active family policy introduced after the Second World War, and adapted in the 1980s to accommodate women's entry into the labour force. This policy is the result of a battle, fuelled by pro-natalism, between the conservative supporters of family values and the promoters of state-supported individual equality. French family policy thus encompasses a wide range of measures based on varying ideological backgrounds, and it is difficult to classify in comparison to the more precisely focused family policies of other European welfare states. The active family policy seems to have created especially positive attitudes towards two- or three child families in France.

  12. Fertilizer micro-dosing

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    is currently being replaced by a multi- stakeholder system involving NGOs, agro- dealers, microfinance institutions and farmer organizations. Under this system, farmers are linked to both credit institutions and fertilizer suppliers, with their crop production serving as collateral for fertilizer purchases. Known in. West Africa as.

  13. Exploring the fertility trend in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakarya Al Zalak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The unusual fertility increase experienced by several Arab countries in the recent years is particularly visible in Egypt, where fertility declined very slowly after 2000 and started to increase again between 2008 and 2014. Objective: We first check the quality and measurement accuracy of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS. The analysis confirms the trend since 2000. We descriptively look for possible underlying causes. Methods: We use quality criteria to check DHS data and control for tempo effect. We also perform a proximate determinants analysis to study the mechanisms affecting fertility, particularly marriage and contraceptive use patterns. Results: The trend in fertility, which has been at a level slightly below 3.5 children per woman since 2000, is due to an increase in parity one-to-three children and a steady decline in parity four-and-more children. While changes in contraception use had the largest and a growing suppressing effect before 2000, after the turn of the century there was no change in the impact of either marriage or contraception on fertility. Conclusions: We find that well-educated women between 20 and 29 years lack labour market opportunities. They may have preponed their fertility. Fertility could start declining again once the labour market situation for women has improved. On the other hand, the family model of three children is still widespread in the country. Contribution: The article studies the fertility increase in Egypt. It contributes to the literature on exceptions to the demographic transition, such as stalls in fertility decline, particularly in the context of Arab countries.

  14. "The Impact of Malaria Eradication on Fertility"

    OpenAIRE

    Adrienne M. Lucas

    2011-01-01

    The malaria eradication campaign that started in Sri Lanka in the late 1940s virtually eliminated malaria transmission on the island. I use the pre-eradication differences in malaria endemicity within Sri Lanka to identify the effect of malaria eradication on fertility and child survival. Malaria eradication increased the number of live births through increasing age specific fertility and causing an earlier first birth. The effect of malaria on the transition time to higher order births is in...

  15. Radiological impact of use of phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, V.K.; Chinnaesakki, S.; Sartandel, S.J.; Shanbhag, A.A.; Puranik, V.D.

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the results of gamma spectrometric measurements of 238 U, 233 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K in rock phosphates and various types of phosphate fertilizers and by-products. The increase in soil natural radioactivity has been assessed for major Indian crops. No significant increase in soil natural radioactivity is expected due to the application of phosphate fertilizers for agricultural productions. (author)

  16. Agro-morphological diversity of traditional fig cultivars grown in central-western Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Sánchez Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are not many exhaustive works addressing the agromorphological characterization of traditional fig (Ficus carica L. cultivars in Spain. In order to analyze the diversity of these fig genetic resources, twelve traditional fig cultivars from the Central-Western Region of Spain were surveyed and characterized agromorphologically. A total of forty descriptors, mainly defined by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute and the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants, were used to describe the fruits, leaves and the tree itself over two consecutive years (2013-2014. Some of the cultivars showed distinctive and interesting agronomical characters from a commercial point of view, such as two crops per year (breba and fig, high yields, and fruit quality. This was the case of the fig cultivar widely distributed through the Duero river valley called ‘Cuarterón’. Its fruits were quite heavy and sweet (breba: 93.75 g and 25.91º Brix; fig: 42.41 g and 31.50º Brix, easy to peel, and juicy. Principal component analysis revealed that more than 67% of the agromorphological variability observed was explained by the first three components, some of the breba size parameters (fruit and neck length and fruit width being the most important factors in differentiating the genotypes. A dendrogram clustered the cultivars into two major groups (unifera and bifera type and revealed existing synonymies and homonymies. ‘Carballar Negra’ and ‘Moscatel’ were the only fig cultivars which did not have breba crops. This work is an important step in the conservation of genetic fig resources in Spain.

  17. FiGS: a filter-based gene selection workbench for microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Taegyun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The selection of genes that discriminate disease classes from microarray data is widely used for the identification of diagnostic biomarkers. Although various gene selection methods are currently available and some of them have shown excellent performance, no single method can retain the best performance for all types of microarray datasets. It is desirable to use a comparative approach to find the best gene selection result after rigorous test of different methodological strategies for a given microarray dataset. Results FiGS is a web-based workbench that automatically compares various gene selection procedures and provides the optimal gene selection result for an input microarray dataset. FiGS builds up diverse gene selection procedures by aligning different feature selection techniques and classifiers. In addition to the highly reputed techniques, FiGS diversifies the gene selection procedures by incorporating gene clustering options in the feature selection step and different data pre-processing options in classifier training step. All candidate gene selection procedures are evaluated by the .632+ bootstrap errors and listed with their classification accuracies and selected gene sets. FiGS runs on parallelized computing nodes that capacitate heavy computations. FiGS is freely accessible at http://gexp.kaist.ac.kr/figs. Conclusion FiGS is an web-based application that automates an extensive search for the optimized gene selection analysis for a microarray dataset in a parallel computing environment. FiGS will provide both an efficient and comprehensive means of acquiring optimal gene sets that discriminate disease states from microarray datasets.

  18. [Spatial distribution of fig wasps in syconia of two monoecious Ficus sp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Ji; Li, Guo-Chang; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Yang, Da-Rong

    2012-04-01

    In addition to pollinator fig wasps, there are several non-pollinating fig wasps associated with monoecious Ficus sp. In order to understand how pollinator fig wasps and non-pollinating fig wasps are distributed across the same syconium, the spatial distribution of fig wasps associated with Ficus altissima and F. benjamina were compared using the pedicle lengths of galls containing each species. The results indicate that in Ficus altissima, the average pedicel length of galls containing Eupristina sp. is longer than that containing E. altissima. Average pedicel length of galls containing Sycobia sp., Micranisa ralianga and Sycoscapter sp. two did not show significant difference. The range of pedicel lengths of galls containing Sycobia sp., M. ralianga or Sycoscapter sp. two is narrower than that of galls containing E. altissima, indicating these non-pollinating fig wasps and pollinator have partially separated spatial niches. In F. benjamina, E. koningsbergeri was distributed in galls from the outer layer to inner layer, while most Walkerella sp. were found in outer layer galls, indicating E. koningsbergeri and Walkerella sp. have partially separated spatial niches.

  19. The uptake of S from four different 35 S labbelled fertilizer by tea plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibowo, Z.S.; Abdullah, N.; Wahid, R.A.; Soeminta, B.

    1988-01-01

    The uptake of S derived from 35-S-labelled ammonium sulphate, potasium sulphate, Kieserit (MgSO4) and Gypsum(CaSO4) of the specific activity of 0.1 mCi/g S by tea clone TRI 2025 planted in andosols was investigated. Randomized block design was used in the experiment. Fertilizers were give once at the rate of 40 kg S/ha. Counting of 35-S samples collected from the youngest and the lower leaves were done every week. Results of the experiment showed that the uptake patterns of S derived from fertilizers were the same for the youngest and the lower leaves. The activity of 35-S was clearly detected in leaves samples after one week of fertilizers application and increased continuously upto eight weeks. The total activity of 35-S in the plucked leaved derived from ammonium sulphate, potasium sulphate and Kieserite were little bit higher than from gypsum. (authors). 10 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Estimation of natural radioactivity in different fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Monika; Chauhan, Pooja; Chauhan, R.P.; Sonkawade, R.G.; Kant, K.

    2011-01-01

    Fertilizers have become essential to the agricultural field all over the world. The natural radionuclides of fertilizers consist mainly of 226 Ra, 232 Th, isotopes with their decay products. The level of activity concentration of radionuclides in phosphate fertilizers provides useful information in the monitoring of environmental contamination. The concepts of natural radiation are essential for radiation protection purpose. Radionuclides present in fertilizers affect the common people and farmers immensely. They are produced and used worldwide in increasing quantities to replenish natural nutrients depleted from soils because of forming and erosion. However, the mining, processing and use of fertilizer materials in massive quantities redistribute radioactive trace elements throughout the environment, principally uranium, radium, radium decay products. The agricultural phosphate fertilizer industries use raw materials that consist of phosphate rocks, phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphate. The level of activity concentration of radionuclides in different fertilizers provides useful information in the monitoring of environmental contamination. Radiological impacts of phosphate rocks mining and manufacture could be significant due to the elevated radioactivity contents of the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), such as 238 U series, 232 Th series and 40 K, in some phosphate deposits. The concepts of natural radiation are essential for radiation protection purpose. This paper emphasis on the public risk assessment in an integrated manner assessing doses to members of the public via the atmospheric aquatic and secondary pathways. In the present study radioactivity in different fertilizer samples, which are widely used in Indian fields, was determined. The experimental work includes the measurements of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K using gamma spectrometry and radon concentration and exhalation rates measurement using solid state nuclear track detectors to asses a

  1. Serum reactivity to other indoor ficus plants in patients with allergy to weeping fig (Ficus benjamina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, I G; Johansson, S G; Larsson, P H; Zetterström, O

    1991-02-01

    Ornamental plants have long been used for indoor decoration. An example is the india rubber tree (Ficus elastica). With the increased popularity of green plants, both in private homes and public premises, small-leaf species, such as weeping fig or Ficus benjamina (Fb), have become widely used. Exposure to dust from Fb may cause sensitization and allergic airway symptoms, which among occupationally exposed plant keepers occur both in atopics and non-atopics. The serum reactivity to sap extracts from Fb and seven other indoor plants of the genus Ficus were investigated with RAST and a RAST inhibition technique, using sera from 12 atopic subjects and 12 plant keepers, sensitized to Fb. The allergenic similarity between the different extracts was found to be extensive. The specific IgE antibodies with the highest concentrations in serum were those against Fb and its variegate form, "star light", with decreasing values for the other species, especially those with larger leaves. The binding of IgE antibodies to the other Ficus RAST discs could be completely inhibited by extract of Fb. These reactions were probably due to cross-reactivity. Sensitization is believed to occur by inhalation of allergen-enriched dust, emanating from the leaves of the plants. The high allergenic potency of the species with many small leaves may be due to their large total leaf area.

  2. Pectinesterase inhibitor from jelly-fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino) achenes reduces methanol content in carambola wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James Swi-Bea; Wu, Ming-Chang; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Hwang, Ya-Ping; Shen, Szu-Chuan; Chang, Hung-Min

    2005-11-30

    Crude pectinesterase (PE) inhibitor (PEI) extracted from jelly-fig achenes (JFA) (Ficus awakeosang Makino) was added to carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) puree to determine the change in methanol production during fermentation. Addition of pectin or microbial pectic enzyme to puree increased dose-dependently the methanol content in fermented products. Decreasing ratio (from 1:0 to 1:19, v:v) of pectic enzyme to diluted crude PEI solution in the puree-enzyme mixture decreased the PE activity remarkably. Except for transmittance (%T), addition of crude PEI to puree did not affect apparently the physical and chemical properties of wine; however, it reduced methanol content in the control from 256 to 58 ppm. The degree of esterification (DE) of pectin in starting puree was approximately 70%. It decreased to approximately 27% in the control group and reduced slightly to approximately 67% in fermented puree with crude PEI added after 14 days of fermentation. This reveals that crude PEI solution was potent in inhibiting intrinsic carambola PE activity and appeared to be a potential alternative for methanol reduction in wines.

  3. Environmental protection foliar fertilization in areas subject to limitation of fertilizers use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavriluta, I.; Alexandrescu, A; Budoi, G.; Bireescu, L.; Bireescu, G.

    1999-01-01

    Significant increases of plant productivity have been recorded in field experiments conducted between 1991 - 1994 using general purpose complex foliar fertilizers as well as aminoacid containing complex foliar fertilizers. These increases at the same time had positive environmental effects against chemical pollution, especially with nitrates. As a rule, the greater the degree of nutrient efficiency, especially of nitrate, the lower are the losses, which are subject to transfer to the environment. So in the light of environmental protection against chemical pollution using foliar fertilization is certainly beneficial for crops and for all other components of the agricultural environment giving rise to its significant improvement. Both, foliar and soil fertilization in areas with limitation of fertilizer use should be carried out under a continuous and strict analytical check of plant, soil and water. Refs. 14 (author)

  4. How does variance in fertility change over the demographic transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruschka, Daniel J; Burger, Oskar

    2016-04-19

    Most work on the human fertility transition has focused on declines in mean fertility. However, understanding changes in the variance of reproductive outcomes can be equally important for evolutionary questions about the heritability of fertility, individual determinants of fertility and changing patterns of reproductive skew. Here, we document how variance in completed fertility among women (45-49 years) differs across 200 surveys in 72 low- to middle-income countries where fertility transitions are currently in progress at various stages. Nearly all (91%) of samples exhibit variance consistent with a Poisson process of fertility, which places systematic, and often severe, theoretical upper bounds on the proportion of variance that can be attributed to individual differences. In contrast to the pattern of total variance, these upper bounds increase from high- to mid-fertility samples, then decline again as samples move from mid to low fertility. Notably, the lowest fertility samples often deviate from a Poisson process. This suggests that as populations move to low fertility their reproduction shifts from a rate-based process to a focus on an ideal number of children. We discuss the implications of these findings for predicting completed fertility from individual-level variables. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. [Quadratic Orthogonal Rotation Combination Design on Alisma orientalis of Fertilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Chen, Xing-fu; Peng, Shi-ming; Liang, Qin; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Chun

    2015-04-01

    To study the effects of combined N, P, K and micronutrient fertilizers on the yield of Alisma orientalis tuber, and to optimize the fertilizer application rate. Four factors five levels quadratic orthogonal rotation combination design was used. A function was established on nitrogen, phosphor, potassium and microelement fertilizer application rate with the yield of Alisma orientalis tuber. The established mathematical model was of high reliability for prediction with quadratic regression equation of R2 = 0. 8980. The order of increasing Alisma orientalis tuber yield was nitrogen > micronutrient fertilizer > potassium > phosphor. The results of the frequency analysis showed that for the target yield over 8 250 kg/hm2 and the confidence interval of 95%, the optimal fertilizer application rates were as follows :nitrogen of 241. 45 - 283. 55 kg/hm2, phosphor of 81. 14 - 208. 44 kg/hm2, potassium of 95. 57 - 239. 42 kg/hm2, and zinc fertilizer of 14. 32 - 16. 18 kg/hm2, boron fertilizer of 18. 84 - 19. 86 kg/hm2, and molybdenum fertilizer of 0. 151 -0. 159 kg/hm2 in micronutrient fertilizer. Nitrogen is related to the growth of Alisma orientalis, potassium promotes tuber bulking, micronutrient fertilizer consisted of zinc, boron and molybdenum fertilizer promotes Alisma orientalis growth and the absorption of nitrogen, phosphor and potassium. Moderate application of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, boron and molybdenum fertilizer can promote Alisma orientalis tuber yield. The nitrogen has the best effect.

  6. Fig Juice Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria as a Nutraceutical Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Khezri 1, Parvin Dehghan 2 * , Razzagh Mahmoudi 3, Mahdi Jafarlou 4

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotics are live microorganisms bringing useful effects to the host through balancing intestine microbiota. This research was undertaken to determine the suitability of fig juice as raw material for production of probiotic juice by three species of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Methods: Heat treated fig juices were inoculated (6 log CFU/ml by three species inocula separately and incubated at 30 °C for 72 h. Changes in the pH, acidity, reducing sugar content and viable cell counts during the fermentation were monitored. Sensory characteristics of probiotic fig juice were also evaluated. Results: L. delbrueckii grew well on fig juice; reached nearly 9 log CFU/ml after 48 h of fermentation at 30 °C. After 4 weeks of cold storage at 4 °C, the viable cell counts of L. delbrueckii and L. plantarum were still 6 and 5 log CFU/ml, respectively, in fermented fig juice; but L. casei was just survived until 2th week of cold storage time, reduced from 9 to 3 log CFU/ml. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that fermented fig juice samples were significantly different (P<0.05 from the control sample in taste, odor, consistency and overall acceptability. L. casei was more acceptable comparing to the others. Conclusion: L. delbrueckii was the most suitable strain from the point of survivability among other species at the consumption time. Therefore, probiotic fig juice can serve as healthy beverage for vegetarians and consumers with lactose-allergy.

  7. Diverging patterns of fertility decline in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathías Nathan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The total fertility rate (TFR in Uruguay fell from 2.5 to 1.9 children per woman between 1996 and 2011. However, no study to date has examined the decline of the TFR by observing changes in fertility patterns by birth order. Objective: The main aim of this study is to analyze recent changes in fertility level and timing of childbearing by birth order in Uruguay. Methods: We estimate unconditional and conditional age- and birth-order-specific fertility rates for 1996-2011 using data from vital statistics, population census, and national population estimates. Additionally, three period summary measures of birth-order-specific fertility quantum are calculated: TFR, PATFR and TFRp*. Timing changes by birth order are examined with MAB and TMAB, focusing on MAB1 and its standard deviation and comparing their evolutions in Uruguay with those of selected countries. Results: Fertility decline fits a parity-specific stopping model with a moderate increase in the mean ages of first, second, and third births. The distribution of conditional fertility rates for first and second births depicts an asymmetric bimodal shape linked to the increasing heterogeneity of the timing of childbearing. Compared to countries with similar fertility trends, heterogeneity in the age at first birth in Uruguay is remarkably high. Conclusions: Previous studies suggest that heterogeneity in first and second birth timing is related to structural social inequalities, as women from lower social strata have not significantly changed the age at which they bear a first child, whereas women of middle to high social strata have started to postpone it. The new evidence reinforces the idea that postponement transition in Uruguay cannot be studied without considering this consolidation of social status polarization in fertility timing.

  8. The Effect of Compost and the Ripe Fruit Waste of Fig on some Physical Properties of Surface Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra dianat maharluei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In arid and semi-arid soils, low organic matter is one of the barriers to achieving optimal performance. The soils with more organic matter have a better structure and are more resistant to erosive factors such as water and wind. Soil organic matter has a particular importance and has significant impact on the stability of soil aggregates, the extension of plant root system, carbon and water cycles and soil resistance to erosion. This substance acts as a cementing agent and plays an important role in soil flocculation and formation of resistant aggregates.Also, the addition of organic matter to the soil increases soil porosity and decreases soil bulk density. Materials and Methods: In this research, the effect of the two types of organic matter (compost and the ripe fruit waste of fig on some soil physical properties was studied. A factorial experiment based on completely randomized design, including the four levels of compost and the ripe fruit waste of fig (0, 1, 2 and 4 by weight % and three soil types (loamy sand, loam and silty clay loam with three replications was carried out. The soil samples were collected from the three territories of Fars Province: loamy sand soil from Shiraz, loamy soil from Maharlu and Silty clay loam soil from Zarghan area. The soil samples were air dried and passed through a 2 mm sieve. The physical properties including the bulk density, particle density, porosity, moisture content and soil crust strength was measured. In this research, the soil texture by hydrometer method, Electrical conductivity of the soil saturated paste extract by electrical conductivity meter, saturated paste pH by pH meter, seedling emergence test, soil crust strength by a pocket penetrometer (HUMBOLDT MFG.CO. bulk density by cylindrical sample and particle density by pycnometer method were measured. The fig fruit treatments were prepared by thoroughly mixing the dried powder of ripe fig fruit passed through a 2 mm sieve (with

  9. [Recent world fertility trends and their implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, H

    1976-10-01

    High fertility levels of 40-50% have continued in major parts of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. During the 1970's the upward fertility trend was seen in the socialistic countries. A downward trend in European countries began in the 1960's and accelerated in the 1970's. Declining tendencies of fertility were still slow in the 1970's in some Western countries. Fertility trends reflect government policies which are divided into 7 categories: 1) family planning has been disseminated freely in Western countries; 2) birth control was realized with legalized abortion influenced by the difficulties of the postwar period (Japan); family planning is promoted by the government to restrain the rapid population increase (most Asian countries); 4) some Asian countries have adopted policies of social welfare giving privilege to lower parity children and compulsive adaptation to birth control (Singapore, India, and South Korea); 5) a high level of fertility is recognized in relation to a new economic order and shortage of labor (Latin America); 6) recovery of fertility is desireable because socialistic welfare policies have resulted in low fertility (Eastern European countries); and, 7) social reform and birth control are promoted though "overpopulation" theory is rejected (China). Categories 1 and 4 recognize birth control and 5 and 7 deny it. Political organizations of 1 to 5 differ from those of 6 and 7. (Author's Modified)

  10. The ambiguous ripening nature of the fig (Ficus carica L.) fruit: a gene-expression study of potential ripening regulators and ethylene-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiman, Zohar E; Rosianskey, Yogev; Dasmohapatra, Rajeswari; Kamara, Itzhak; Flaishman, Moshe A

    2015-06-01

    The traditional definition of climacteric and non-climacteric fruits has been put into question. A significant example of this paradox is the climacteric fig fruit. Surprisingly, ripening-related ethylene production increases following pre- or postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) application in an unexpected auto-inhibitory manner. In this study, ethylene production and the expression of potential ripening-regulator, ethylene-synthesis, and signal-transduction genes are characterized in figs ripening on the tree and following preharvest 1-MCP application. Fig ripening-related gene expression was similar to that in tomato and apple during ripening on the tree, but only in the fig inflorescence-drupelet section. Because the pattern in the receptacle is different for most of the genes, the fig drupelets developed inside the syconium are proposed to function as parthenocarpic true fruit, regulating ripening processes for the whole accessory fruit. Transcription of a potential ripening regulator, FcMADS8, increased during ripening on the tree and was inhibited following 1-MCP treatment. Expression patterns of the ethylene-synthesis genes FcACS2, FcACS4, and FcACO3 could be related to the auto-inhibition reaction of ethylene production in 1-MCP-treated fruit. Along with FcMADS8 suppression, gene expression analysis revealed upregulation of FcEBF1, and downregulation of FcEIL3 and several FcERFs by 1-MCP treatment. This corresponded with the high storability of the treated fruit. One FcERF was overexpressed in the 1-MCP-treated fruit, and did not share the increasing pattern of most FcERFs in the tree-ripened fig. This demonstrates the potential of this downstream ethylene-signal-transduction component as an ethylene-synthesis regulator, responsible for the non-climacteric auto-inhibition of ethylene production in fig. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. Metatranscriptome Analysis of Fig Flowers Provides Insights into Potential Mechanisms for Mutualism Stability and Gall Induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen O Martinson

    Full Text Available A striking property of the mutualism between figs and their pollinating wasps is that wasps consistently oviposit in the inner flowers of the fig syconium, which develop into galls that house developing larvae. Wasps typically do not use the outer ring of flowers, which develop into seeds. To better understand differences between gall and seed flowers, we used a metatranscriptomic approach to analyze eukaryotic gene expression within fig flowers at the time of oviposition choice and early gall development. Consistent with the unbeatable seed hypothesis, we found significant differences in gene expression between gall- and seed flowers in receptive syconia prior to oviposition. In particular, transcripts assigned to flavonoids and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly up-regulated in gall flowers relative to seed flowers. In response to oviposition, gall flowers significantly up-regulated the expression of chalcone synthase, which previously has been connected to gall formation in other plants. We propose several genes encoding proteins with signal peptides or associations with venom of other Hymenoptera as candidate genes for gall initiation or growth. This study simultaneously evaluates the gene expression profile of both mutualistic partners in a plant-insect mutualism and provides insight into a possible stability mechanism in the ancient fig-fig wasp association.

  12. Metatranscriptome Analysis of Fig Flowers Provides Insights into Potential Mechanisms for Mutualism Stability and Gall Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Ellen O; Hackett, Jeremiah D; Machado, Carlos A; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    A striking property of the mutualism between figs and their pollinating wasps is that wasps consistently oviposit in the inner flowers of the fig syconium, which develop into galls that house developing larvae. Wasps typically do not use the outer ring of flowers, which develop into seeds. To better understand differences between gall and seed flowers, we used a metatranscriptomic approach to analyze eukaryotic gene expression within fig flowers at the time of oviposition choice and early gall development. Consistent with the unbeatable seed hypothesis, we found significant differences in gene expression between gall- and seed flowers in receptive syconia prior to oviposition. In particular, transcripts assigned to flavonoids and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly up-regulated in gall flowers relative to seed flowers. In response to oviposition, gall flowers significantly up-regulated the expression of chalcone synthase, which previously has been connected to gall formation in other plants. We propose several genes encoding proteins with signal peptides or associations with venom of other Hymenoptera as candidate genes for gall initiation or growth. This study simultaneously evaluates the gene expression profile of both mutualistic partners in a plant-insect mutualism and provides insight into a possible stability mechanism in the ancient fig-fig wasp association.

  13. Commercial Nitrogen Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer nitrogen (N) purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year...

  14. Protect Your Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smoking and alcohol Drugs such as steroids, cigarettes, marijuana and alcohol can negatively impact your health in ... STIs) don’t just affect a women’s fertility. Everyone knows that if you don’t practice safe ...

  15. Commercial Phosporus Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer P2O5 purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year from...

  16. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen

  17. Levodopa, fertility, and longevity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J.A. Jr.; Searcy, A.W.

    1977-04-29

    High concentrations of the dopaminergic drug levodopa (L-dopa, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) administered to mice in their diet affected fertility to a moderate degree and prolonged the mean life-span by a maximum of 50%.

  18. Optimizing Male Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's FAQs about In Vitro Fertilization REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH TOPICS Topics Index NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS Publications Overview News and Research Ethics Documents Practice Committee Documents Patient Fact Sheets and ...

  19. Optimizing Natural Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's FAQs about In Vitro Fertilization REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH TOPICS Topics Index NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS Publications Overview News and Research Ethics Documents Practice Committee Documents Patient Fact Sheets and ...

  20. Weight and Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's FAQs about In Vitro Fertilization REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH TOPICS Topics Index NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS Publications Overview News and Research Ethics Documents Practice Committee Documents Patient Fact Sheets and ...

  1. Queering the fertility clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Laura

    2013-06-01

    A sociologist examines contemporary engagements of queer bodies and identities with fertility biomedicine. Drawing on social science, media culture, and the author's own empirical research, three questions frame the analysis: 1. In what ways have queers on the gendered margins moved into the center and become implicated or central users of biomedicine's fertility offerings? 2. In what ways is Fertility Inc. transformed by its own incorporation of various gendered and queered bodies and identities? And 3. What are the biosocial and bioethical implications of expanded queer engagements and possibilities with Fertility Inc.? The author argues that "patient" activism through web 2.0 coupled with a largely unregulated free-market of assisted reproduction has included various queer identities as "parents-in-waiting." Such inclusions raise a set of ethical tensions regarding how to be accountable to the many people implicated in this supply and demand industry.

  2. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome. Use of injectable fertility drugs, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), to induce ovulation can cause ovarian hyperstimulation ... after eight to 14 days — you will take human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) or other medications to help the eggs ...

  3. Advanced reproductive age and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kimberly; Case, Allison

    2011-11-01

    increased time to conception that occurs after the age of 35, women > 35 years of age should be referred for infertility work-up after 6 months of trying to conceive. (III-B) 3. Ovarian reserve testing may be considered for women ≥ 35 years of age or for women single ovary, previous ovarian surgery, poor response to follicle-stimulating hormone, previous exposure to chemotherapy or radiation, or unexplained infertility. (III-B) 4. Ovarian reserve testing prior to assisted reproductive technology treatment may be used for counselling but has a poor predictive value for non-pregnancy and should be used to exclude women from treatment only if levels are significantly abnormal. (II-2A) 5. Pregnancy rates for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation are low for women > 40 years of age. Women > 40 years should consider IVF if they do not conceive within 1 to 2 cycles of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. (II-2B) 6. The only effective treatment for ovarian aging is oocyte donation. A woman with decreased ovarian reserve should be offered oocyte donation as an option, as pregnancy rates associated with this treatment are significantly higher than those associated with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation or in vitro fertilization with a woman's own eggs. (II-2B) 7. Women should be informed that the risk of spontaneous pregnancy loss and chromosomal abnormalities increases with age. Women should be counselled about and offered appropriate prenatal screening once pregnancy is established. (II-2A) 8. Pre-conception counselling regarding the risks of pregnancy with advanced maternal age, promotion of optimal health and weight, and screening for concurrent medical conditions such as hypertension and diabetes should be considered for women > age 40. (III-B) 9. Advanced paternal age appears to be associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and increased frequency of some autosomal dominant conditions, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia. Men > age 40 and their

  4. Antioxidant Activity of a Mediterranean Food Product: “Fig Syrup”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puoci, Francesco; Iemma, Francesca; Spizzirri, Umile G.; Restuccia, Donatella; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Sirianni, Rosa; Manganaro, Lillo; Curcio, Manuela; Parisi, Ortensia I.; Cirillo, Giuseppe; Picci, Nevio

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the efficacy of fig syrup, a Mediterranean fig derivative, as a nutraceutical supplement, was demonstrated. Fig syrup is a fruit concentrate used as a common ingredient in the preparation of typical foods, and particularly in cakes. In vitro assays were performed to determine the amount of nutraceutical ingredients, such as phenolic compounds (3.92 mg equivalent of gallic acid per g) and flavonoids (0.35 mg equivalent of catechin per g), while HPLC analyses provided specific information about the composition of antioxidants in the syrup. Furthermore, total antioxidant activity, scavenging properties against DPPH and peroxyl radicals, and the anticholinesterase activity, clearly showed the efficacy of the syrup in preventing damage induced by free radicals and, thus, the applicability of this food derivative as a nutraceutical supplement. PMID:22254099

  5. Characterization of pectinesterase inhibitor in jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino) achenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chii-Ming; Li, Chia-Pei; Chang, Jui-Chang; Chang, Hung-Min

    2002-08-14

    Pectinesterase inhibitor (PEI) extract prepared from intact jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino) achenes was separated by membrane (MWCO 3 and 10 kDa) and fractionated by a Sepharose G-50 gel permeation chromatography. Results from Sepharose G-50 gel permeation chromatography and concanavalin A Sepharose chromatography revealed PEI as polypeptides with molecular weights ranging from 3.5 to 4.5 kDa. Incubation of a PE (1 unit/mL)-PEI (2 mg/mL) mixture for 1 min decreased the PE activity by approximately 50%. On the basis of the results of Lineweaver-Burk double-reciprocal plots, Michaelis constant (K(m)) and V(max) values for jelly fig achenes PE (pH 6.0, 30 degrees C) were 0.78 mM -OCH3 and 1.09 microequiv of -COOH/min, respectively. In addition, PEI competitively inhibited both citrus and jelly fig achenes PEs.

  6. Molecular approaches to identify cryptic species and polymorphic species within a complex community of fig wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hua Xiao

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cryptic and polymorphic species can complicate traditional taxonomic research and both of these concerns are common in fig wasp communities. Species identification is very difficult, despite great effort and the ecological importance of fig wasps. Herein, we try to identify all chalcidoid wasp species hosted by one species of fig, using both morphological and molecular methods. We compare the efficiency of four different DNA regions and find that ITS2 is highly effective for species identification, while mitochondrial COI and Cytb regions appear less reliable, possibly due to the interference signals from either nuclear copies of mtDNA, i.e. NUMTs, or the effects of Wolbachia infections. The analyses suggest that combining multiple markers is the best choice for inferring species identifications as any one marker may be unsuitable in a given case.

  7. Prediction of bull fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utt, Matthew D

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of male fertility is an often sought-after endeavor for many species of domestic animals. This review will primarily focus on providing some examples of dependent and independent variables to stimulate thought about the approach and methodology of identifying the most appropriate of those variables to predict bull (bovine) fertility. Although the list of variables will continue to grow with advancements in science, the principles behind making predictions will likely not change significantly. The basic principle of prediction requires identifying a dependent variable that is an estimate of fertility and an independent variable or variables that may be useful in predicting the fertility estimate. Fertility estimates vary in which parts of the process leading to conception that they infer about and the amount of variation that influences the estimate and the uncertainty thereof. The list of potential independent variables can be divided into competence of sperm based on their performance in bioassays or direct measurement of sperm attributes. A good prediction will use a sample population of bulls that is representative of the population to which an inference will be made. Both dependent and independent variables should have a dynamic range in their values. Careful selection of independent variables includes reasonable measurement repeatability and minimal correlation among variables. Proper estimation and having an appreciation of the degree of uncertainty of dependent and independent variables are crucial for using predictions to make decisions regarding bull fertility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cancer and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Del Mastro, Lucia; Pescio, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, thanks to the improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients, a growing attention has been given to the fertility issues. International guidelines on fertility preservation in cancer patients recommend that physicians discuss, as early as possible, with all patients of reprodu......In the last years, thanks to the improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients, a growing attention has been given to the fertility issues. International guidelines on fertility preservation in cancer patients recommend that physicians discuss, as early as possible, with all patients...... data have become available, and several issues in this field are still controversial and should be addressed by both patients and their treating physicians.In April 2015, physicians with expertise in the field of fertility preservation in cancer patients from several European countries were invited...... data was encouraged. On the basis of the data presented, as well as the expertise of the invited speakers, a total of ten recommendations were discussed and prepared with the aim to help physicians in counseling their young patients interested in fertility preservation.Although there is a great...

  9. Synergistic Effects of Crizotinib and Temozolomide in Experimental FIG-ROS1 Fusion-Positive Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arabinda; Cheng, Ron Ron; Hilbert, Megan L T; Dixon-Moh, Yaenette N; Decandio, Michele; Vandergrift, William Alex; Banik, Naren L; Lindhorst, Scott M; Cachia, David; Varma, Abhay K; Patel, Sunil J; Giglio, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common malignant brain tumor. Drug resistance frequently develops in these tumors during chemotherapy. Therefore, predicting drug response in these patients remains a major challenge in the clinic. Thus, to improve the clinical outcome, more effective and tolerable combination treatment strategies are needed. Robust experimental evidence has shown that the main reason for failure of treatments is signal redundancy due to coactivation of several functionally linked receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), including anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor), and oncogenic c-ros oncogene1 (ROS1: RTK class orphan) fusion kinase FIG (fused in GB)-ROS1. As such, these could be attractive targets for GB therapy. The study subjects consisted of 19 patients who underwent neurosurgical resection of GB tissues. Our in vitro and ex vivo models promisingly demonstrated that treatments with crizotinib (PF-02341066: dual ALK/c-Met inhibitor) and temozolomide in combination induced synergistic antitumor activity on FIG-ROS1-positive GB cells. Our results also showed that ex vivo FIG-ROS1+ slices (obtained from GB patients) when cultured were able to preserve tissue architecture, cell viability, and global gene-expression profiles for up to 14 days. Both in vitro and ex vivo studies indicated that combination blockade of FIG, p-ROS1, p-ALK, and p-Met augmented apoptosis, which mechanistically involves activation of Bim and inhibition of survivin, p-Akt, and Mcl-1 expression. However, it is important to note that we did not see any significant synergistic effect of crizotinib and temozolomide on FIG-ROS1-negative GB cells. Thus, these ex vivo culture results will have a significant impact on patient selection for clinical trials and in predicting response to crizotinib and temozolomide therapy. Further studies in different animal models of FIG-ROS1-positive GB cells are warranted to determine useful therapies for the

  10. Synergistic Effects of Crizotinib and Temozolomide in Experimental FIG-ROS1 Fusion-Positive Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arabinda Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GB is the most common malignant brain tumor. Drug resistance frequently develops in these tumors during chemotherapy. Therefore, predicting drug response in these patients remains a major challenge in the clinic. Thus, to improve the clinical outcome, more effective and tolerable combination treatment strategies are needed. Robust experimental evidence has shown that the main reason for failure of treatments is signal redundancy due to coactivation of several functionally linked receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs, including anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK, c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor, and oncogenic c-ros oncogene1 (ROS1: RTK class orphan fusion kinase FIG (fused in GB-ROS1. As such, these could be attractive targets for GB therapy. The study subjects consisted of 19 patients who underwent neurosurgical resection of GB tissues. Our in vitro and ex vivo models promisingly demonstrated that treatments with crizotinib (PF-02341066: dual ALK/c-Met inhibitor and temozolomide in combination induced synergistic antitumor activity on FIG-ROS1-positive GB cells. Our results also showed that ex vivo FIG-ROS1+ slices (obtained from GB patients when cultured were able to preserve tissue architecture, cell viability, and global gene-expression profiles for up to 14 days. Both in vitro and ex vivo studies indicated that combination blockade of FIG, p-ROS1, p-ALK, and p-Met augmented apoptosis, which mechanistically involves activation of Bim and inhibition of survivin, p-Akt, and Mcl-1 expression. However, it is important to note that we did not see any significant synergistic effect of crizotinib and temozolomide on FIG-ROS1-negative GB cells. Thus, these ex vivo culture results will have a significant impact on patient selection for clinical trials and in predicting response to crizotinib and temozolomide therapy. Further studies in different animal models of FIG-ROS1-positive GB cells are warranted to determine useful therapies for

  11. North American fertilizer capacity data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Fertilizers production is reported or forecasted for the years 1987 through 1997. The fertilizers reported on are: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, wet-process phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphates, concentrated superphosphates, and potash.

  12. Why mutualist partners vary in quality: mutation-selection balance and incentives to cheat in the fig tree-fig wasp mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandér, K Charlotte; Steidinger, Brian S

    2017-07-01

    Mutualisms between species are ecologically ubiquitous but evolutionarily puzzling. Host discrimination mechanisms that reduce the fitness of uncooperative symbionts can stabilise mutualism against collapse, but also present a paradox - if discrimination is effective, why do uncooperative symbionts persist? Here, we test whether mutations or fitness benefits of cheating best explain the prevalence of uncooperative wasps in the fig tree-fig wasp mutualism. By combining theory with field-collected data we demonstrate that the proportions of pollen-free wasps of strongly discriminating hosts are reached with reasonable mutation rates. In contrast, in weakly discriminating hosts, the required mutation rates, assuming a single locus, are untenably high, but the required cheater advantages fall within expected ranges. We propose that when discrimination is weak, uncooperative symbionts proliferate until they reach the equilibrium proportion that balances costs and benefits of cheating. Our results suggest that mechanisms that resolve the paradox of uncooperative symbionts differ among host species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  13. Availability of residual nitrogen from fertilizers in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakovljevic, M.; Filipovic, R.; Petrovic, M.

    1983-01-01

    The plant availability of residual fertilizer nitrogen for the next crop was studied in chernozem and pseudogley soils. Release of nitrogen was examined after incubation at 3 and 30 0 C. It was found that the use of increased doses of nitrogen fertilizer (ammonium nitrate) led to an increased release of residual fertilizer nitrogen into plant available forms. The release of this nitrogen fraction was 5-10 times faster in comparison with the remaining soil nitrogen. (author)

  14. Availability of residual nitrogen from fertilizers in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakovljevic, M.; Filipovic, R.; Petrovic, M. (Institut za Primeni Nuklearne Energije u Poljoprivedri, Veterinarstvu i Sumarstvu, Zemun (Yugoslavia))

    1983-05-01

    The plant availability of residual fertilizer nitrogen for the next crop was studied in chernozem and pseudogley soils. Release of nitrogen was examined after incubation at 3 and 30/sup 0/C. It was found that the use of increased doses of nitrogen fertilizer (ammonium nitrate) led to an increased release of residual fertilizer nitrogen into plant available forms. The release of this nitrogen fraction was 5-10 times faster in comparison with the remaining soil nitrogen.

  15. [Variations of soil fertility level in red soil region under long-term fertilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Han-qing; Xu, Ming-gang; Lü, Jia-long; Bao, Yao-xian; Sun, Nan; Gao, Ju-sheng

    2010-07-01

    Based on the long-term (1982-2007) field experiment of "anthropogenic mellowing of raw soil" at the Qiyang red soil experimental station under Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and by using numerical theory, this paper studied the variations of the fertility level of granite red soil, quaternary red soil, and purple sandy shale soil under six fertilization patterns. The fertilization patterns included non-fertilization (CK), straw-returning without fertilizers (CKR), chemical fertilization (NPK), NPK plus straw-return (NPKR), rice straw application (M), and M plus straw-return (MR). The soil integrated fertility index (IFI) was significantly positively correlated with relative crop yield, and could better indicate soil fertility level. The IFI values of the three soils all were in the order of NPK, NPKR > M, MR > CK, CKR, with the highest value in treatment NPKR (0.77, 0.71, and 0.71 for granite red soil, quaternary red soil, and purple sandy shale soil, respectively). Comparing with that in the treatments of no straw-return, the IFI value in the treatments of straw return was increased by 6.72%-18.83%. A turning point of the IFI for all the three soils was observed at about 7 years of anthropogenic mellowing, and the annual increasing rate of the IFI was in the sequence of purple sandy shale soil (0.016 a(-1)) > quaternary red clay soil (0.011 a(-1)) > granite red soil (0.006 a(-1)). It was suggested that a combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers and/or straw return could be an effective and fast measure to enhance the soil fertility level in red soil region.

  16. Foraging dispersion of Ryukyu flying-foxes and relationships with fig abundance in East-Asian subtropical island forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ya-Fu; Kuo, Yen-Min; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Tsai, Chi-Feng; Baba, Shigeyuki

    2017-11-14

    Figs are widely distributed key resources to many tropical-subtropical animals, and flying-foxes are major consumers and seed dispersers of figs. Bat-fig interrelationships, however, may vary among species differing in fruiting traits, i.e., bat- versus bird-dispersed figs. We examined Ryukyu flying-fox foraging dispersion and the relationships with tree species composition and fig abundance in forests of Iriomote Island. Bat foraging dispersion showed no spatial patterns with respect to different areas of the island, and was not explained by heterogeneity, density, or basal area (BA) of total trees, nor by relative density or BA of fruiting trees or total fruiting figs among sites. Instead, bat densities were positively dependent on the relative density of total figs, and particularly the relative BA of bat-dispersed figs Ficus septica and F. variegata. Both species were dominant figs in forests, fruiting asynchronously with long crop seasons, and were used as predominant foods. Bats foraged mostly solitarily and the mean density was in a hump-shaped relationship with crop sizes of the dominant bat-figs. These two species and Ficus benguetensis are larger-sized bat-figs, all contained more seeds, higher dry-pulp mass and water mass, but not necessarily water content. By approximate estimation, higher proportions of seeds of these bat-figs would have been removed from fruits through the bat consumption, than that of small-sized bird-figs like F. virgata, F. superba, and F. microcarpa. The foraging dispersion of Ryukyu flying-foxes in forests depends on the availability of the most abundant bat-figs that serve as predominant foods. Intermediate levels of crop sizes of theses figs appear most fit with their solitary foraging. Our results suggest that as density and BA coverage of these dominant bat-figs are below a certain level, their effectiveness to attract bats may dwindle and so would their chance of dispersal by bats.

  17. Diagnostic imaging in fertility disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, A.C.; Fleischer, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    Some 10%-15% of married couples are affected by a fertility disorder. The number of infertile couples seeking medical assistance has increased dramatically in the past decade. The roles of diagnostic imaging with radiography and US (conventional and transvaginal) is emphasized in the assessment of couples with fertility disorders and an unexpectedly higher incidence of fetal wastage secondary to unsuspected uterine anomalies. The most frequently utilized radiographic examination in infertile patients is hysterosalpingography (HSG). Techniques and complications of HSG are illustrated. The normal anatomy, variants, and congenital anomalies of the uterus and fallopian tubes are demonstrated, as are the numerous abnormalities such as filling defects of the uterine cavity, synechiae, effects of maternal diethylstilbestrol exposure, inflammatory tubal disease, and the more common HSG findings following uterine and tubal surgery. The role of diagnostic imaging in male infertility, including vasography and varicocele detection, are addressed. Conventional and transvaginal US in the management of gynecologic fertility disorders are examined, with an emphasis on follicular monitoring, guided follicular aspirations, endometrial evaluations, and evaluation of other disorders (such as endometriosis) associated with infertility

  18. Expression of FcFT1, a FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene, is regulated by light and associated with inflorescence differentiation in fig (Ficus carica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Hidetoshi; Nogata, Hitoshi; Inoue, Yoshiaki; Himeno, Shuichi; Yakushiji, Hiroshi; Hirata, Chiharu; Hirashima, Keita; Mori, Masashi; Awamura, Mitsuo; Nakahara, Takao

    2013-12-16

    Because the floral induction occurs in many plants when specific environmental conditions are satisfied, most plants bloom and bear fruit during the same season each year. In fig, by contrast, the time interval during which inflorescence (flower bud, fruit) differentiation occurs corresponds to the shoot elongation period. Fig trees thus differ from many species in their reproductive growth characteristics. To date, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this unorthodox physiology of floral induction and fruit setting in fig trees have not been elucidated. We isolated a FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene from fig and examined its function, characteristics, and expression patterns. The isolated gene, F. carica FT (FcFT1), is single copy in fig and shows the highest similarity at the amino acid level (93.1%) to apple MdFT2. We sequenced its upstream region (1,644 bp) and identified many light-responsive elements. FcFT1 was mainly expressed in leaves and induced early flowering in transgenic tobacco, suggesting that FcFT1 is a fig FT ortholog. Real-time reverse-transcription PCR analysis revealed that FcFT1 mRNA expression occurred only in leaves at the lower nodes, the early fruit setting positions. mRNA levels remained a constant for approximately 5 months from spring to autumn, corresponding almost exactly to the inflorescence differentiation season. Diurnal variation analysis revealed that FcFT1 mRNA expression increased under relative long-day and short-day conditions, but not under continuous darkness. These results suggest that FcFT1 activation is regulated by light conditions and may contribute to fig's unique fruit-setting characteristics.

  19. Primary purification of two antifungal proteins from leaves of the fig ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis (MALDI-TOF MS), the molecular mass of figinI was 21531Da and figinII was 31957Da. This is the first report on isolation of antifungal proteins from F. carica L., and it shows their potential for further investigation. Key word: Fig, antifungal ...

  20. Spatial Distribution of Crown Gall in a Commercial Nursery of Weeping Fig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrobacterium larrymoorei causes tumors on the trunk and branches of weeping fig (Ficus benjamina L.). The extent to which this pathogen is spread through the mother tree planting and transmitted to daughter branches during the process of propagation was studied in a commercial nursery in 2007 and 2...

  1. Cross-reactivity between Ficus benjamina (weeping fig) and natural rubber latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehler, R; Abrams, E; Sedlmayr, S

    1998-04-01

    The importance of hypersensitivity to Ficus allergens is reported. Cross-sensitization between fig (Ficus carica), weeping fig (F. benjamina [Fb]), and natural rubber latex (NRL) was confirmed by RAST inhibition. We performed skin prick tests with fresh Fb tree sap and NRL extracts in 346 consecutive patients and in 151 patients with immediate-type hypersensitivity to NRL. Total serum IgE and IgE antibodies to NRL and Ficus spp. were analyzed in sera. By the RAST-inhibition method, we studied cross-reactivity among latex, fig, and weeping fig. Sensitization to Fb was diagnosed in 23 of the 346 consecutive patients, and the simultaneous presence of latex-specific IgE was highly significant. Of 151 NRL-allergic patients, 35 were also sensitized to Fb. Cross-reacting IgE antibodies recognizing latex and Ficus allergens were demonstrated by RAST inhibition. The present study reinforces the importance of Fb as an indoor allergen. Cross-reacting IgE antibodies to NRL and Ficus spp. allergens are frequently found in the sera of atopic patients. Development of commercially available standardized extracts for skin tests is urgently necessary.

  2. Riparian Ficus tree communities: the distribution and abundance of riparian fig trees in northern Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornwiwan Pothasin

    Full Text Available Fig trees (Ficus are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand were investigated in 2010-2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1 calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2 measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from northern Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in Northern Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance.

  3. Multivariate analysis of molecular and morphological diversity in fig (Ficus carica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic polymorphism across 15 microsatellite loci among 194 fig accessions including Common, Smyrna, San Pedro, and Caprifig were analyzed using a cluster analysis (CA) and the principal components analysis (PCA). The collection was moderately variable with observed number of alleles per locus rang...

  4. Ficus religiosa L. (English: Peepal tree or sacred fig; Hindi: Pippal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ficus religiosa L. (English: Peepal tree or sacred fig; Hindi: Pippal) of Moraceae is a large deciduous tree that grows wild as well as cultivated. The picture shows the tree with fresh flush of leaves. The tree is planted chiefly near the temples by Hindus and Buddhists who regard it as sacred. The characteristic heart-shaped ...

  5. Primary purification of two antifungal proteins from leaves of the fig ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-17

    Jan 17, 2011 ... Primary purification of two antifungal proteins from leaves of the fig (Ficus carica L.) Wei Yan3, Ming Zhao2, Yan Ma2, Ying-hong Pan1* and Wen-xia Yuan2. 1Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, People's Republic of China. 2College of Pu-erh Tea, Yunnan ...

  6. Investigation of branch breaking resistances in “Sari Zeybek” fig ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine the branch breaking characteristics of the 4 to 5 years old branches mechanically by a determination of the breaking resistance in Sari Zeybek fig cultivars. In this respect, the study was conducted with 10 different ages for trees belonging to Sarilop cultivar, known with a characteristic of ...

  7. 76 FR 14320 - Importation of Figs and Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... allowed. Importation of pomegranates (Punica granatum) from Chile is allowed if the fruit is fumigated... Pomegranate (Punica granatum) and Fig (Ficus carica) from Chile Imported into the Continental United States... pomegranates (Punica granatum) may be imported into the continental United States from Chile under the...

  8. Host pollination mode and mutualist pollinator presence: net effect of internally ovipositing parasite in the fig-wasp mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengping; Peng, Yanqiong; Compton, Stephen G.; Zhao, Yi; Yang, Darong

    2009-04-01

    The Ficus-their specific pollinating fig wasps (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae) interaction presents a striking example of mutualism. Figs also shelter numerous non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW) that exploit the fig-pollinator mutualism. Only a few NPFW species can enter figs to oviposit, they do not belong to the pollinating lineage Agaonidae. The internally ovipositing non-agaonid fig wasps can efficiently pollinate the Ficus species that were passively pollinated. However, there is no study to focus on the net effect of these internally ovipositing non-agaonid wasps in actively pollinated Ficus species. By collecting the data of fig wasp community and conducting controlled experiments, our results showed that internally ovipositing Diaziella bizarrea cannot effectively pollinate Ficus glaberrima, an actively pollinated monoecious fig tree. Furthermore, D. bizarrea failed to reproduce if they were introduced into figs without Eupristina sp., the regular pollinator, as all the figs aborted. Furthermore, although D. bizarrea had no effect on seed production in shared figs, it significantly reduced the number of Eupristina sp. progeny emerging from them. Thus, our experimental evidence shows that reproduction in Diaziella depends on the presence of agaonid pollinators, and whether internally ovipositing parasites can act as pollinators depends on the host fig’s pollination mode (active or passive). Overall, this study and others suggest a relatively limited mutualistic role for internally ovipositing fig wasps from non-pollinator (non-Agaonidae) lineages.

  9. Higher yields of hybrid rice do not depend on nitrogen fertilization under moderate to high soil fertility conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Jiang, Peng; Shan, Shuanglü; Gao, Wei; Ma, Guohui; Zou, Yingbin; Uphoff, Norman; Yuan, Longping

    2017-09-21

    Increasing rice yield with fewer external inputs is critical to ensuring food security, reducing environmental costs, and improving returns. Use of hybrid rice has expanded greatly in China due to its higher yield potential. Meanwhile, large and increasing amounts of nitrogen (N) fertilizers have been used for expanding rice production in China. It is not clear to what extent the success of hybrid rice in China is associated with N fertilizer inputs. We observed that the higher grain yield with N fertilizer in hybrid rice was driven more by a higher yield without N fertilizer than by increases in grain yield with N fertilizer under moderate to high soil fertility conditions. Our results suggest that greater application of N fertilizers is not needed to benefit from hybrid rice production under moderate to high soil fertility conditions, and that improving and maintaining soil fertility should be a focus for sustaining hybrid rice production. Moreover, our study also indicates that zero-N testing may be a potentially useful tool to develop hybrid rice with high yield and without requirement of greater external N inputs under moderate to high soil fertility conditions.

  10. Female Employment Reduces Fertility in Rural Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities. PMID:25816301

  11. Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedele Van den Broeck

    Full Text Available Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.

  12. Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Goedele; Maertens, Miet

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.

  13. Consumption of fig fruits grown in Oman can improve memory, anxiety, and learning skills in a transgenic mice model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subash, Selvaraju; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Braidy, Nady; Al-Jabri, Ahood; Vaishnav, Ragini; Al-Adawi, Samir; Al-Asmi, Abdullah; Guillemin, Gilles J

    2016-12-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is one of the most common forms of dementia in the elderly. Several reports have suggested neurotoxic effects of amyloid beta protein (Aβ) and role of oxidative stress in AD. Figs are rich in fiber, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, potassium, calcium, vitamin K, and are a good source of proanthocyanidins and quercetin which demonstrate potent antioxidant properties. We studied the effect of dietary supplementation with 4% figs grown in Oman on the memory, anxiety, and learning skills in APPsw/Tg2576 (Tg mice) mice model for AD. We assessed spatial memory and learning ability, psychomotor coordination, and anxiety-related behavior in Tg and wild-type mice at the age of 4 months and after 15 months using the Morris water maze test, rota-rod test, elevated plus maze test, and open-field test. Tg mice that were fed a control diet without figs showed significant memory deficits, increased anxiety-related behavior, and severe impairment in spatial, position discrimination learning ability, and motor coordination compared to the wild-type control mice on the same diet, and Tg mice fed on 4% fig diet supplementation for 15 months. Our results suggest that dietary supplementation of figs may be useful for the improvement of cognitive and behavioral deficits in AD.

  14. The fertilizer nitrogen problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.A.; Halstead, E.H.

    1974-01-01

    A world-wide fossil fuel crisis has surfaced in the past year by reason of shortage and high cost, which is felt throughout all segments of human society. Nor has the agriculture sector, with its very high demand for energy to supply its power, machinery, fertilizer, processing and transport, escaped the energy crisis. Among the agricultural inputs, fertilizer nitrogen is one of major concern. This commodity is currently in extremely short supply, world prices having more than doubled in the past year alone. Serious as this situation is to agricultural production in the highly developed countries of the world, it is a real disaster to the production potential of the developing countries. The birth of the 'Green Revolution' in those countries in the last ten years came about from an amalgamation of higher yielding varieties, improved pest and disease control, better crop watering practices, and the introduction of fertilizer nitrogen. Shortcomings in any one of these requisites invalidates the entire package. (author)

  15. Regulation of Fig (Ficus caricaL.) Fruit Color: Metabolomic and Transcriptomic Analyses of the Flavonoid Biosynthetic Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziran; Cui, Yuanyuan; Vainstein, Alexander; Chen, Shangwu; Ma, Huiqin

    2017-01-01

    Combined metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses were carried out with fig cultivar Green Peel and its color mutant "Purple Peel." Five and twenty-two metabolites were identified as having significantly different contents between fruit peels of the two cultivars at young and mature stages, respectively. Cyanidin O-malonylhexoside demonstrated a 3,992-fold increase in the mature purple peel, the first identification of a major cyanidin in fig fruit; cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin O-malonylhexoside O-hexoside and cyanidin-3,5-O-diglucoside were upregulated 100-fold, revealing the anthocyanins underlying the purple mutation. Beyond the visible differences, there was very significant accumulation of the colorless flavonoids procyanidin B1, luteolin-3',7-di-O-glucoside, epicatechin and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside in the mature "Purple Peel" compared to "Green Peel." At the young stage, only cyanidin O-malonylhexoside, cyanidin O-malonylhexoside O-hexoside and esculetin were upregulated a few fold in the mutant. Transcriptome analysis revealed a downregulated expression trend of genes encoding phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthetic pathway enzyme in the young "Purple Peel" compared to the young "Green Peel," whereas significant and simultaneous upregulation was revealed in almost all of the flavonoid and anthocyanin pathway components and relevant transcription factors in the mature-stage mutant. The role of R2R3-MYB transcription factors in the color morph mutation and its possible relation to the activity of retrotransposons are discussed. Moreover, large-scale upregulation of small heat-shock protein genes was found in the mature mutant. This is the first work to reveal comprehensive metabolome and transcriptome network changes underlying a fig mutation in a single horticultural attribute, and its profound effects on fruit nutrition and quality.

  16. Regulation of Fig (Ficus carica L. Fruit Color: Metabolomic and Transcriptomic Analyses of the Flavonoid Biosynthetic Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziran Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Combined metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses were carried out with fig cultivar Green Peel and its color mutant “Purple Peel.” Five and twenty-two metabolites were identified as having significantly different contents between fruit peels of the two cultivars at young and mature stages, respectively. Cyanidin O-malonylhexoside demonstrated a 3,992-fold increase in the mature purple peel, the first identification of a major cyanidin in fig fruit; cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin O-malonylhexoside O-hexoside and cyanidin-3,5-O-diglucoside were upregulated 100-fold, revealing the anthocyanins underlying the purple mutation. Beyond the visible differences, there was very significant accumulation of the colorless flavonoids procyanidin B1, luteolin-3′,7-di-O-glucoside, epicatechin and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside in the mature “Purple Peel” compared to “Green Peel.” At the young stage, only cyanidin O-malonylhexoside, cyanidin O-malonylhexoside O-hexoside and esculetin were upregulated a few fold in the mutant. Transcriptome analysis revealed a downregulated expression trend of genes encoding phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthetic pathway enzyme in the young “Purple Peel” compared to the young “Green Peel,” whereas significant and simultaneous upregulation was revealed in almost all of the flavonoid and anthocyanin pathway components and relevant transcription factors in the mature-stage mutant. The role of R2R3-MYB transcription factors in the color morph mutation and its possible relation to the activity of retrotransposons are discussed. Moreover, large-scale upregulation of small heat-shock protein genes was found in the mature mutant. This is the first work to reveal comprehensive metabolome and transcriptome network changes underlying a fig mutation in a single horticultural attribute, and its profound effects on fruit nutrition and quality.

  17. Evaluation of phosphatic fertilizer application methods to enhance the fertilizer use efficiency - for cotton crop using 32P radio-tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, Manoj; Ramachandran, V.; D'Souza, S.F.

    2004-01-01

    Application of fertilizer in excess can result in contamination of both surface and drainage waters. Injudicious usage of phosphatic fertilizer leads to phosphate loss through surface runoff and thereby accounts for eutrophication of water in lakes, rivers and ponds. Utilization of proper method of fertilizer application not only reduces the problem of P-losses but also enhance the use efficiency of fertilizer applied. Greenhouse pot-culture experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of different methods of fertilizer application, namely, broadcasting, band placement at 5 cm depth and band placement at 10 cm depth below the seed with three fertilizer rates, namely, 60, 90 and 120 kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 using 32 P labelled single super phosphate (SSP) and growing cotton crop in a vertisol from Akola (Maharashtra). Results indicated that dry matter yield (DMY) and P uptake by plants were significantly increased in broadcasting and fertilizer placement at 5 cm depth treatments as compared to fertilizer placement at 10 cm depth. Phosphorus derived from fertilizer (%Pdft) and % Utilization of applied fertilizer P was found to be significantly higher in placement at 5 cm depth. In other words, significantly higher A-values were obtained in broadcasting and fertilizer placement at 10 cm depth treatments as compared to fertilizer application at 5 cm depth showing thereby efficient utilization of fertilizer P by plants at 5 cm depth placement. Dry matter yield, P uptake, % Pdff increased with increasing fertilizer rate, whereas, % utilization of applied fertilizer P and A-value of soil were not influenced by the different fertilizer rates. In general, results from this study revealed that fertilizer application at 5 cm depth enhanced the fertilizer use efficiency for cotton crop in vertisol. Hence, this method may be useful in reducing the loss of P and further reduce the chances of eutrophication. (author)

  18. The effects of 15N-fertilizer on the yields of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dechao

    1985-01-01

    By using 15 N-fertilizer, the effects of increasing yield and the utilization of nitrogen of N-fertilizer applied at different periods and by different methods on wheat were studied. The results were as follows: The utilization of N-fertilizer by winter wheat is dependent on the fertilizer of soil before or after winter. Strong seedlings were obtained in the high fertility soils and the application of N-fertilizer in spring is recommended. In soils of low fertility, however, application of a part of N-fertilizer before winter is recommded in order to get strong seedlings. Application of a part of N-fertilizer as base manure for spring wheat is more advantageous. Deep application of N-fertilizer losses less NH 3 than surface broadcast does

  19. Some chemical parameters of a fertilized productive pond | Nwamba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no significant variation (P>0.05) in the conductivity (ionic content) of the pond water whether fertilized or unfertilized. The increased in the mean values of free carbon dioxide during the fertilized period was attributed to increased rate of decomposition of organic matter and a concomitant release of carbon dioxide.

  20. Age and Fertility: A Study on Patient Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Deatsman, Sara; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Rhoton-Vlasak, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fertility declines as women age. Advancing maternal age increases pregnancy risks such as diabetes or hypertension. Studies suggest women are not aware of the risks of aging on fertility and pregnancy. The study objective was to assess women's knowledge of fertility and reproductive outcomes affected by aging. Methods Prospective IRB approved survey of women (n=94) attending an obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) clinic. Data collected included demographics, pregnancy history, and kn...

  1. Transcriptome-facilitated development of SNPs for the Sonoran Desert rock fig, Ficus petiolaris (Moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nicholas G; Houston, Derek D; Nason, John D

    2015-07-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) primers were developed for a native North American desert fig, Ficus petiolaris (Moraceae), to provide markers for population genetic studies designed to quantify patterns of gene flow across a complex landscape. Transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatic protocols were implemented to discover SNPs in single-copy protein-coding genes. Multiplexes of 30 nuclear and 24 organellar (chloroplast and mitochondrial) SNPs were selected for primer development and genotyping on the Sequenom MASSArray System. Of these 54 loci, 49 reliably amplified across a panel of 96 F. petiolaris individuals. This study has provided SNP primers that can be applied in future studies investigating population genetics of F. petiolaris and its coevolution with associated pollinating and nonpollinating fig wasps.

  2. Diffusion Performance of Fertilizer Nutrient through Polymer Latex Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Di; Yang, Ling; Liu, Boyang; Wang, Ting-Jie; Kan, Chengyou

    2017-12-20

    Matching the nutrient release rate of coated fertilizer with the nutrient uptake rate of the crop is the best way to increase the utilization efficiency of nutrients and reduce environmental pollution from the fertilizer. The diffusion property and mechanism of nutrients through the film are the theoretical basis for the product pattern design of coated fertilizers. For the coated fertilizer with a single-component nutrient, an extended solution-diffusion model was used to describe the difference of nutrient release rate, and the release rate is proportional to the permeation coefficient and the solubility of the nutrient. For the double- and triple-component fertilizer of N-K, N-P, and N-P-K, because of the interaction among nutrient molecules and ions, the release rates of different nutrients were significantly affected by the components in the composite fertilizer. Coating the single-component fertilizer (i.e., nitrogen fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer, and potash fertilizer) first and subsequently bulk blending is expected to be a promising way to adjust flexibly the nutrient release rate to meet the nutrient uptake rate of the crop.

  3. Bisphenol-A Affects Male Fertility via Fertility-related Proteins in Spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Saidur; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Lee, June-Sub; Yoon, Sung-Jae; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2015-01-01

    The xenoestrogen bisphenol-A (BPA) is a widespread environmental contaminant that has been studied for its impact on male fertility in several species of animals and humans. Growing evidence suggests that xenoestrogens can bind to receptors on spermatozoa and thus alter sperm function. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of varying concentrations of BPA (0.0001, 0.01, 1, and 100 μM for 6 h) on sperm function, fertilization, embryonic development, and on selected fertility-related proteins in spermatozoa. Our results showed that high concentrations of BPA inhibited sperm motility and motion kinematics by significantly decreasing ATP levels in spermatozoa. High BPA concentrations also increased the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on sperm proteins involved in protein kinase A-dependent regulation and induced a precocious acrosome reaction, which resulted in poor fertilization and compromised embryonic development. In addition, BPA induced the down-regulation of β-actin and up-regulated peroxiredoxin-5, glutathione peroxidase 4, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase. Our results suggest that high concentrations of BPA alter sperm function, fertilization, and embryonic development via regulation and/or phosphorylation of fertility-related proteins in spermatozoa. We conclude that BPA-induced changes in fertility-related protein levels in spermatozoa may be provided a potential cue of BPA-mediated disease conditions. PMID:25772901

  4. Hispanic Adolescent Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Katherine F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses fertility of Hispanic adolescents in the United States. Summarizes what is known about sexuality, contraception, pregnancy, and childbearing among male and female Hispanics of various countries of origin. Indicates Hispanic adolescent birthrates fall between those of non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks, but there is considerable within-group…

  5. Fertilizing Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Broadfoot; A. F. Ike

    1967-01-01

    If present trends continue, fertilizing may soon be economically feasible in southern hardwood stands. Demands for the wood are rising, and the acreage alloted for growing it is steadily shrinking. To supply anticipated requests for information, the U. S. Forest Service has established tree nutrition studies at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville,...

  6. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    After the pollen grain reaches the stigma through outsourcedagents (pollinators), the next step before fertilization is to selectthe right type of pollen. Similar to a marriage in humanbeings, flowering plants also have evolved elaborate screeningprocess to select the right pollen grains and to reject thewrong ones. Even after ...

  7. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    After the pollen grain reaches the stigma through outsourced agents (pollinators), the next step before fertilization is to se- lect the right type of pollen. Similar to a marriage in human beings, flowering plants also have evolved elaborate screen- ing process to select the right pollen grains and to reject the wrong ones.

  8. Age and Fertility: A Study on Patient Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatsman, Sara; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Rhoton-Vlasak, Alice

    2016-08-01

    Fertility declines as women age. Advancing maternal age increases pregnancy risks such as diabetes or hypertension. Studies suggest women are not aware of the risks of aging on fertility and pregnancy. The study objective was to assess women's knowledge of fertility and reproductive outcomes affected by aging. Prospective IRB approved survey of women (n=94) attending an obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) clinic. Data collected included demographics, pregnancy history, and knowledge of age-related fertility decline and pregnancy risks. Statistical analysis performed using JMP Pro11.0. Ages ranged from 18 to 67. One third (30.5%) were aware fertility begins to decline at age 35, however this varied among groups depending on prior history of infertility or requiring fertility treatment. Nulliparous women were more unaware of the health risks of pregnancy over age 35 (1.4% vs 13.6%, P 0.02). African Americans (AA) women were less likely to think obesity (76% Caucasian vs 47.8% AA vs 66.7% other, P fertility. Knowledge regarding fertility and reproduction related to aging was variable and differed by age and race. Difficulty conceiving appears to be associated with higher knowledge levels. Public education will increase awareness of age-related fertility declines. Increased contact during pregnancy is an excellent opportunity to educate women in a nondirective way.

  9. Aspergillus section Flavi and aflatoxins in dried figs and nuts in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Mimoune, Nouara; Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; García-Campaña, Ana M; Bouti, Karima; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Riba, Amar

    2018-03-05

    The presence of Aspergillus section Flavi and aflatoxin (AF) contamination was investigated in 112 samples of peanuts, almonds and dried figs collected in Algeria. The occurrence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) in different commodities has been determined with a sensitive method based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with fluorescence detection with post-column photochemical derivatization. Analytical results indicated that 28 samples of peanuts, 16 samples of almonds and 26 samples of dried figs contained detectable levels of AF S . A total of 69 samples (61.6%) were contaminated with AFB1 ranging from the limit of quantification to 174 μg kg -1 . AFB2 was found in 12 samples (10.7%) and varied from 0.18 to 193 μg kg -1 . Seven samples revealed AF concentrations lower than the limit of quantification. Eleven peanut and fourteen dried fig samples exceeded the European maximum limits for AFB1.

  10. YIELD OF COMMON FIG FERTIGATED WITH BOVINE BIOFERTILIZER IN THE SEMIARID REGION OF CEARÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO LIMEIRA DA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the productivity of the fig tree the organic fertirrigation cattle under different environmental conditions in Ceará semiarid region. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the Teaching Unit, Research and Extension, the IFCE, North Lemon Tree, EC. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with split plots, with four replications and three plants per plot. The plots consisted of three rooms (full sun - PS; trellis - LT and greenhouse - EST, the subplots, the concentrations of bovine biofertilizer diluted in water in the following concentrations: T0 (0% of biofertilizer + 100% water; T1 (20% biofertilizer 80 +% water; T2 (40% biofertilizer + 60% water, T3 (60% biofertiliante + 40% water and subsubplot, the production cycles. The variables were evaluated: average fruit weight, fruit diameter, number of fruits per plant and yield. The cultivation environments (greenhouse and trellis promote better performance on average mass and diameter of the fruit compared to plants grown in full sun during the production cycles of the fig crop grown in Ceará semiarid region. The bovine biofertilizer in the concentration of 60% promoted the highest mass, diameter, number of fruits per plant and the fig crop yield.

  11. Semivariogram models for estimating fig fly population density throughout the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Paulo Batistella Pasini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to select semivariogram models to estimate the population density of fig fly (Zaprionus indianus; Diptera: Drosophilidae throughout the year, using ordinary kriging. Nineteen monitoring sites were demarcated in an area of 8,200 m2, cropped with six fruit tree species: persimmon, citrus, fig, guava, apple, and peach. During a 24 month period, 106 weekly evaluations were done in these sites. The average number of adult fig flies captured weekly per trap, during each month, was subjected to the circular, spherical, pentaspherical, exponential, Gaussian, rational quadratic, hole effect, K-Bessel, J-Bessel, and stable semivariogram models, using ordinary kriging interpolation. The models with the best fit were selected by cross-validation. Each data set (months has a particular spatial dependence structure, which makes it necessary to define specific models of semivariograms in order to enhance the adjustment to the experimental semivariogram. Therefore, it was not possible to determine a standard semivariogram model; instead, six theoretical models were selected: circular, Gaussian, hole effect, K-Bessel, J-Bessel, and stable.

  12. Characterization of fig achenes' oil of Ficus carica grown in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltana, Hala; Tekaya, Meriem; Amri, Zahra; El-Gharbi, Sinda; Nakbi, Amel; Harzallah, Arij; Mechri, Beligh; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    This work investigated the composition of the oil extract from achenes of "Kholi" variety of Ficus carica, grown in Tunisia. Fatty acid and sterol compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to flame ionization detector (FID). Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity in fig achenes' oil was assessed by employing two different in vitro assays such as DPPH, ABTS(+) radical scavenging capacities. Our results indicated that the fig achenes' oil is a rich source of bioactive molecules. The soxhlet n-hexane extraction of these achenes produced a total oil yield of 16.24%. The predominant fatty acid was linolenic acid. Concerning phytosterols, the total amount reached 1061.45 mg/100 g with a predominance of Δ(5,23)-stigmastadienol (73.78%). Regarding antioxidant activities, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 215.86 μg/ml and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was 95.25 mM. These data indicate that fig achenes oil of F. carica could be potentially useful in food and pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Color and antioxidant characteristics of some fresh fig (Ficus carica L.) genotypes from northeastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercisli, Sezai; Tosun, Murat; Karlidag, Huseyin; Dzubur, Ahmed; Hadziabulic, Semina; Aliman, Yasmina

    2012-09-01

    Fruit skin color, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, soluble solids content, titratable acidity and total antioxidant capacity in fresh fruits of a number of local and well-known fig (Ficus carica L.) genotypes and cultivars grown in northeastern Turkey were determined. TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) assays were used to determine total antioxidant capacity. Fruit skin color of genotypes were found to be very diverse, i.e., light green, light purple, purple, dark purple and black. The content of total phenolics, soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity greatly varied in the range from 24 to 237 mg of gallic acid equivalent per 100 g fresh weight, 18.60 to 26.30 % and 0.16 to 0.47 % in local genotypes and studied cultivars. In general, total antioxidant capacities determined by two methods expressed higher values in the local fig genotypes compared with the cultivars. The results suggested that genotype is the main factor that determines difference in the composition of bioactive compounds in figs and provide information on putative health benefits locally grown genotypes.

  14. Trade-offs and coexistence: a lottery model applied to fig wasp communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, A Bradley; Abbott, Karen C; Nason, John D

    2014-06-01

    Ecological communities in which organisms complete their life cycles on discrete ephemeral patches are common and often support an unusually large number of species. Explaining this diversity is challenging for communities of ecologically similar species undergoing preemptive competition, where classic coexistence mechanisms may not readily apply. We use nonpollinating fig wasps as a model community characterized by high diversity and preemptive competition to show how subadditive population growth and a trade-off between competitor fecundity and dispersal ability can lead to coexistence. Because nonpollinator species are often closely related, have similar life histories, and compete for the same discrete resources, understanding their coexistence is challenging given competitive exclusion is expected. Empirical observations suggest that nonpollinating fig wasp species may face a trade-off between egg loads and dispersal abilities. We model a lottery in which a species' competitive ability is determined by a trade-off between fecundity and dispersal ability. Variation in interpatch distance between figs generates temporal variability in the relative benefit of fecundity versus dispersal. We show that the temporal storage effect leads to coexistence for a range of biologically realistic parameter values. We further use individual-based modeling to show that when species' traits evolve, coexistence is less likely but trait divergence can result. We discuss the implications of this coexistence mechanism for ephemeral patch systems wherein competition is strongly preemptive.

  15. (ajst) pedological characteristics, general fertility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    described and analysed for their chemical, physical and mineralogical characteristics. Based on these data, general fertility is ... Key words: Pedological characteristics, fertility, soil classification, benchmark soils, Morogoro. District, Tanzania. INTRODUCTION .... under Eucalyptus spp . and Hyperrhenia spp . ustic. 6.

  16. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord ... a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, ...

  17. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal ... male fertility? play_arrow Where can people get information on sex and fertility after a spinal cord ...

  18. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries ... Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. ...

  19. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... male fertility? play_arrow Where can people get information on sex and fertility after a spinal cord ... health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  20. Agriculture: Nutrient Management and Fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertilizers and soil amendments can be derived from raw materials, composts and other organic matter, and wastes, such as sewage sludge and certain industrial wastes. Overuse of fertilizers can result in contamination of surface water and groundwater.

  1. Produtividade e qualidade pós-colheita de cebola adubada com doses crescentes de nitrogênio e potássio Yield and post-harvest quality of onion fertilized with increasing levels of nitrogen and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo M de Resende

    2008-09-01

    scheme, involving four levels of nitrogen (0; 60; 120 and 180 kg ha-1 and three levels of potassium (0; 90 and 180 kg ha-1 with three replications. The commercial yield showed a linear effect in the absence of potassium fertilization, while the levels of 90 and 180 kg ha-1 of potassium provided maximum yield with the levels of 175.8 and 169.4 kg ha-1 of nitrogen. Increasing the doses of nitrogen resulted in a reduction of the non-commercial yield (culls. In the absence of potassium fertilization, a linear effect was obtained as a result of the levels of nitrogen for fresh mass of the bulb. For the levels of 90 to 180 kg ha-1 of potassium, the highest yield of fresh mass of the bulb was obtained with the level of 153.3 kg ha-1 of nitrogen. The levels of nitrogen influenced the classification of commercial bulbs of onion and the largest percentage of bulbs of the class 3 (85,8% corresponded the dose of 153,6 kg ha-1 of nitrogen. No significant mass loss occurred after 20 days and only after 40 and 60 days after cure did any significant effects become evident and there was no interaction between the levels of nitrogen and potassium.

  2. Genome-wide sequence data suggest the possibility of pollinator sharing by host shift in dioecious figs (Moraceae, Ficus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachi, Nakatada; Kusumi, Junko; Tzeng, Hsy-Yu; Su, Zhi-Hui

    2016-11-01

    The obligate mutualism of figs and fig-pollinating wasps has been one of the classic models used for testing theories of co-evolution and cospeciation due to the high species-specificity of these relationships. To investigate the species-specificity between figs and fig pollinators and to further understand the speciation process in obligate mutualisms, we examined the genetic differentiation and phylogenetic relationships of four closely related fig-pollinating wasp species (Blastophaga nipponica, Blastophaga taiwanensis, Blastophaga tannoensis and Blastophaga yeni) in Japan and Taiwan using genome-wide sequence data, including mitochondrial DNA sequences. In addition, population structure was analysed for the fig wasps and their host species using microsatellite data. The results suggest that the three Taiwanese fig wasp species are a single panmictic population that pollinates three dioecious fig species, which are sympatrically distributed, have large differences in morphology and ecology and are also genetically differentiated. Our results illustrate the first case of pollinator sharing by host shift in the subgenus Ficus. On the other hand, there are strict genetic codivergences between allopatric populations of the two host-pollinator pairs. The possible processes that produce these pollinator-sharing events are discussed based on the level and pattern of genetic differentiation in these figs and fig wasps. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effects of Long-term Fertilization on Potassium Fixation Capacity in Brown Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Guo, Chunlei; Wang, Yue; Gao, Tianyi; Yang, Jinfeng; Han, Xiaori

    2018-01-01

    This study concentrated on the research of features of fixation. The objective of this study was to provide theoretical foundation of rational application of potassium fertilizer along with improving fertilizer availability ratio. A 32 years long-term experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of fertilizer application on potassium changes and the factors affecting K fixation on brown soil by simulation in laboratory. When the concentration of exogenous potassium was in range of 400∼4000 mg·kg-1, potassium fixation capacity increased along with the rise of concentration of exogenous potassium, whereas K fixation rate reduced; Compared with no-potassium fertilizer, application of potassium fertilizer and organic fertilizer reduced soil potassium fixation capacity. Potassium rate and fixation-release of potassium character in soil should be taken into comprehensive consideration for rational fertilization to maintain or improve soil fertility for increasing potassium fertilizers efficiency in agriculture.

  4. Efficacy of Tissue Culture in Virus Elimination from Caprifig and Female Fig Varieties (Ficus caricaL.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoudh, Chokri; Elair, Manel; Labidi, Rahma; Majdoub, Afifa; Mahfoudhi, Naima; Mars, Messaoud

    2017-06-01

    Fig mosaic disease (FMD) is a viral disease that spreads in all Tunisian fig ( Ficus carica L.) orchards. RT-PCR technique was applied to leaf samples of 29 fig accessions of 15 fig varieties from the fig germplasm collection of High Agronomic Institute (I.S.A) of Chatt-Mariem, to detect viruses associated to FMD. Analysis results show that 65.5% of the accessions (19/29) and 80.0% (12/15) of the fig varieties are infected by FMD-associated viruses. From all fig accessions, 41.4% of them are with single infection (one virus) and 24.1% are with multi-infections (2 virus and more). Viruses infecting fig leaf samples are Fig mosaic virus (FMV) (20.7%), Fig milde-mottle-associated virus (FMMaV) (17.25%), Fig fleck associated virus (FFkaV) (3.45%), and Fig cryptic virus (FCV) (55.17%). A reliable protocol for FCV and FMMaV elimination from 4 local fig varieties Zidi (ZDI), Soltani (SNI), Bither Abiadh (BA), and Assafri (ASF) via in vitro culture of 3 meristem sizes was established and optimized. With this protocol, global sanitation rates of 79.46%, 65.55%, 68.75%, and 70.83% respectively for ZDI, SNI, BA, and ASF are achieved. For all sanitized varieties, the effectiveness of meristem culture for the elimination of FCV and FMMaV viruses was related to meristem size. Meristem size 0.5 mm provides the highest sanitation rates ranging from 70% to 90%.

  5. FERTILIZATION OF VINE BY A 5-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID-BASED FERTILIZER AND ITS PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMR IMANSK

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the effect of different doses of NPKS fertilizer added into the soil for nutrient contents in the soil, as well as the quantity and quality of grapes. During the vegetation of the vine, we tested the 5-aminolevulinic acid-based fertilizer (ALA. We summarize that higher doses of fertilizer added into soil caused higher amounts of available nutrients. During the vegetation of the vine an increase of ALA had a positive effect on the optimal balance of nutrients. Fertilization also increased the grape-vine yield, with the strongest effect (by 68% observed due to the application of ALA during the vegetation period of the vine. Added fertilizers had a statistically significant influence on decreased sugar concentration in the grape-vine however the addition of fertilizer into the soil, mainly the application of ALA during vegetation of the vine (by 57% had a positive effect on increase of the total content of sugar in the grape-vine, produced on 1 hectare. The year had a significant influence on the economical evaluation.

  6. Fertility preservation in female cancer patients: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Nalini

    2015-01-01

    Fertility preservation is becoming increasingly important to improve the quality of life in cancer survivors. Despite guidelines suggesting that discussion of fertility preservation should be done prior to starting cancer therapies, there is a lack of implementation in this area. A number of techniques are available for fertility preservation, and they can be used individually or together in the same patient to maximize efficiency. Oocyte and embryo cryopreservation are now established techniques but have their limitations. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation though considered experimental at present, has a wider clinical application and the advantage of keeping the fertility window open for a longer time. Both chemotherapy and radiotherapy have a major impact on reproductive potential and fertility preservation procedures should be carried out prior to these treatments. The need for fertility preservation has to be weighed against morbidity and mortality associated with cancer. There is thus a need for a multidisciplinary collaboration between oncologists and reproductive specialists to improve awareness and availability. PMID:25838742

  7. A New Proposal for Measuring Marital Fertility in Historical Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús J. Sánchez-Barricarte

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical analysis is made of some of the indices used in numerous historical studies on the decline of fertility. More concretely, it is demonstrated how the Total Marital Fertility Rate (TMFR and the Ig and I’g indices of marital fertility designed by Coale (1986 not only are not good indicators of a population’s level of marital fertility, but also in some cases (for example, when there is an important delay in female mean age at marriage can even indicate an increase in marital fertility when in reality it is decreasing. Likewise, a new index for measuring marital fertility (known as the Navarre Index is presented which takes into account women’s average age at marriage as well as their mortality rate during their reproductive period.

  8. Fertility Adaptation of Child Migrants to Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsera, Alicia; Ferrer, Ana

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the fertility behavior of immigrant women arriving to Canada before age 19 using the 20 per cent sample of the Canadian Census from 1991 through 2006. Findings show that fertility increases with age at immigration, and is particularly high for those immigrating in their late teens. This pattern prevails regardless of the country of origin or whether the mother tongue of the migrant is an official language in Canada or not. We do not find a ‘critical age’ at which the behavior of migrants with and without official mother tongue start to diverge by more, even though the fertility of migrants without official mother tongue is always higher on average. Formal education matters as the fertility of immigrants who arrived to Canada before adulthood and graduated from college is similar to that of their native peers regardless of their age of arrival. However, the fertility of those with less than tertiary education increasingly diverges with age at migration from similarly educated Canadians. PMID:23800074

  9. Socioeconomic status and fertility decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dribe, Martin; Breschi, Marco; Gagnon, Alain

    2017-01-01

    America to analyse the relationship between socio-economic status and fertility during the fertility transition. Using comparable analytical models and class schemes for each population, we examined the changing socio-economic differences in marital fertility and related these to common theories...

  10. Dendrochemical response to soil fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. DeWalle; Jeffrey S. Tepp; Bryan R. Swistock; Pamela J. Edwards; William E. Sharpe; Mary Beth Adams; James N. Kochenderfer

    2003-01-01

    Use of chemical element content of tree rings to detect soil acid or base changes was tested at 13 sites of former forest fertilization trials in the eastern United States and Canada. Ammonium sulfate or nitrogen fertilization was the typical acidification treatment, while lime added with or without other fertilizer was the typical base treatment. Molar ratios of...

  11. North American fertilizer capacity data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industries. Yearly production and forecasts are given for 1987 through 1997. Fertilizers reported on include: ammonium sulfate, nitric acid, wet-process superphosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  12. Increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension and operative delivery after conception induced by in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection in women aged 40 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshimitsu, Masatake; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Nagasaka, Takaaki; Iwasawa-Kawai, Yuki; Komatsu, Atsushi; Yamashita, Takahiro; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2014-10-01

    To clarify the association between preconception fertility status and obstetric outcomes in women aged 40 years and older. Retrospective study by reviewing medical records. Tertiary perinatal center in a university hospital. 330 women aged 40 years and older who delivered a singleton from 2006 to 2010, and 450 women aged 30 to 34 years who delivered at the same facility as controls. None. Incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm birth, low birth weight, and mode of delivery assessed based on the mode of conception; spontaneous conception (SC) and in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection conception (IVF-ICSI). The incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension was statistically significantly higher in IVF-ICSI group than the SC group. This gap was commonly observed in both the women aged 40 years and older and those in the 30 to 34 age group. No statistically significant difference was observed in the frequency of gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm birth, or low birth weight. As a characteristic of nulliparous women of advanced age, the rate of operative delivery, which includes emergency cesarean section and instrumental delivery, was statistically significantly higher in IVF-ICSI group than in the SC group. Detailed investigation into the medical indications for operative delivery revealed that the difference was attributable to the elevated incidence of labor protraction and arrest. Preconception fertility status can be a predicting factor of the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension and labor outcome, especially for women aged 40 years and older. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ...

  14. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website. Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open ... Diagnosed with Cancer You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation ...

  15. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Provider Pocket Guides Provider Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ... Patient Pocket Guides Patient Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ...

  16. Tunisia: high fertility stalls development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, M

    1985-01-01

    Despite government policy enacted in 1964 to reduce fertility in order to hasten socioeconomic progress, population pressures continue to impair development in Tunisia. The birth rate fell 20% over the last 2 decades, but this accomplishment has been outweighed by a 50% decline in mortality rates. As a result, the rate of natural population increase has remained relatively constant at 2.5%/year. The initial decline in fertility that followed introduction of the national family planning program appears to have reached a plateau, explained in part by the resurgence of conservatism and religious fundamentalism and the consequent emphasis on women's childbearing roles. Unemployment in rural areas has led to widespread migration and unemployment is as high as 20% in the nonagricultural sector. Many young Tunisians lack adequate educational preparation to enter the labor force; in 1982, 27% of new job entrants could not read or write. The government's plan to decentralize development to stabilize population and achieve equilibrium between regions has been thwarted by the pace of population growth and limited resources. The rural regions where population is increasing the fastest are also the most difficult to reach with family planning programs. On the other hand, there have been some successes in this area when services have been adapted to the lifestyle and traditions of those in these isolated rural villages.

  17. Cohort estimates of nonmarital fertility for U.S. women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lawrence L

    2008-02-01

    Historical trends in U.S. nonmarital fertility have been compiled almost exclusively from vital statistics on births. This paper complements this historical record by providing cohort estimates of nonmarital fertility for cohorts of U.S. women spanning approximately 50 years of cohort experience. Life table estimates using retrospective marital and fertility histories in the June 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995 Current Population Surveys reveal nonnegligible levels of nonmarital fertility historically. For women born between 1925 and 1929, nearly 1 in 10 had at least one nonmarital birth by age 30. For women born between 1965 and 1969, more than 1 of 4 had one or more nonmarital births by age 30, with roughly 1 of5 white, 3 of 5 black, and 1 in 3 Hispanic women having at least one nonmarital birth by age 30. Life table estimates reveal a twofold increase between ages 20 and 30 in the percentage of women with at least one child outside of formal marriage for all cohorts of white and Hispanic women, and an increase of roughly two-thirds for all cohorts of black women. I also document qualitative differences in nonmarital fertility by race/ethnicity, with the percentage of nonmarital births following a divorce or marital separation for white women approximately twice that for black or Hispanic women. Finally, I introduce a new measure, the cohort nonmarital fertility ratio (CNMFR), which provides a cohort complement to the standard period nonmarital fertility ratio. Conservative estimates reveal a roughly threefold increase in the CNMFR for women born from 1925-1929 to 1950-1954 for both whites and blacks, despite substantially higher levels of nonmarital fertility among black women. Overall, these findings reveal surprisingly high levels of nonmarital fertility for women born since the 1920s and confirm that nonmarital fertility has become an increasingly substantial component of overall U.S. fertility.

  18. Availability of N amino sugar fraction and response to nitrogen fertilization ({sup 15}N) on soils containing increasing concentrations of organic matter; Disponibilidade da fracao N amino-acucar e resposta a fertilizacao nitrogenada ({sup 15}N) em solos com teores crescentes de materia organica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Sandra R. da S.; Salcedo, Ignacio H.; Menezes, Romulo S.C. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear]. E-mail: reginassg@uol.com.br; salcedo@ufpe.br; rmenezes@ufpe.br; Tiessen, Holm [Goettingen Universitaet (Germany)]. E-mail: tiessen@sask.usask.ca

    2005-07-01

    It has been proposed that the soil N amino sugar fraction (N amino), obtained by chemical extraction, represents a reservoir of labile N for the plants. To test the availability of this fraction and how it affects the response to N fertilization ({sup 15}N), we conducted a pot experiment with twenty soil samples containing increasing concentrations of total N, ten of which were sandy clay loam and ten sandy loam. PVC pots containing 500 cm{sup 3} of soil were divided in two groups: one group received 40 mg N kg{sup -1} as NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} enriched with 2,5 atoms- % of {sup 15}N while the other group did not receive nitrogen. All the soil samples were supplied with 25 mg P kg{sup -1} and cultivated with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) during 60 days. Total soil N and N amino contents were greater in fine textured samples, in average, than in sandy loams. Dry matter production and N uptake were positively related with N amino concentrations and were greater (p < 0,1) in sandy clay loams than in sandy loams, independently of N fertilization. Ndds% was greater also in fine textured samples than in sandy loams, while Nddf%, in average, did not vary with texture. The use efficiency of fertilizer-N oscillated between 78 and 98%, but the percent yield response decreased from 404% to 47% with the increase in N amino concentrations. (author)

  19. The economics of fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loraine, J A

    1982-01-01

    The statement that economics and fertility are closely interrelated is a truism. The classical economists--Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill and John Maynard Keynes appreciated this fact, and their reviews are recounted and their prescience is assessed. Adam Smith (1723-1790) was primarily concerned with the desire of humankind to better his/her material conditions. Although he did not put forward a specific population policy, the tenet of his writing is pronatalist. Economic advantages would accrue to parents by the production of many children. Yet, underneath Smith's optimism, there was an apocalyptic vision of the distant future, i.e., the "steady state" when resources would be depleted or near exhaustion, when capital accumulation would have ceased, and living standards would be dropping vertiginously. In his 1st "Essay on Population" Malthus maintained that "the power of population is infinitely greater than the power of the earth to produce subsistence of men." Malthus can be complimented on his prescience. There is little question that the planet of today is grossly overpopulated and that a great gulf exists between numbers of people and their aspirations and the resources which the earth can provide for them. Malthus was particularly concerned about the population food dilemma, and that is still much in evidence in 1982. 2 concomitants of overpopulation--excessive urbanization and joblessness--could not be foreseen by Malthus. Marx did not deny the basic tenet promulgated by Malthus but to him this was simply an artifact of capitalist society which required "enormous reserves of proletarians" in order to maintain its odius system. Officially Communist governments remain in a Marxist straitjacket regarding the population issue. Mills approach was strongly antinatalist; he saw little need for an increase in human numbers. Mills was concerned that because of unlimited population growth and wealth the earth would lose much of its

  20. Acute Toxicity Of Npk (15:15:15) Fertilizer To Tilapia zilli Fingerlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... showed decrease in dissolved oxygen content and increase in both alkalinity and conductivity as the concentration of the fertilizer was increased. Consequences of strategic fertilizer applications are discussed. Keywords: ke NPK (15-15-15) fertilizer, Acute toxicity, Tilapia zilli fingerlings. Nigerian Journal of Fisheries Vol.

  1. Productivity and quality of a grain wheat durum spring (Triticum durum Dest. in depending on fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. В. Бараболя

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available It was studied the impact of mineral fertilizers on productivity and grain quality of wheat durum spring. Glassiness of grain, protein and gluten contain increase along with increase of doses of nitrogenous fertilizer. Maximum grain productivity was achieved by mineral fertilizers in combination on autumn fallow N60P60K60. after pea - N90P60K60

  2. Eco-innovations in the German fertilizer supply Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasler, Kathrin; Bröring, Stefanie; Omta, Onno S.W.F.; Olfs, Hans Werner

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse to what extent the existing eco-innovations in the German fertilizer domain might reduce the fertilizer carbon footprint without compromising on crop productivity. The continuously growing demand for agricultural products will require a further increase in

  3. Effectiveness of liquid organic-nitrogen fertilizer in enhancing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ever increasing price of nitrogenous (N) fertilizers coupled with the deleterious effects of imbalanced N fertilizers on the environment necessitates the enhancement of N use efficiency of plants. The objectives of this study were to: (1) Evaluate the uptake of selected nutrients due to application of liquid organic-N ...

  4. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer on Agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    caraway plant (Carum carvi) grown from root tubers when phosphorus was applied at the rate of 40 kg/ ha. The significant reduction in the number of days to first flower appearance, number of days to 50% flower appearance and first fruit maturity with increasing rates of phosphorus fertilizer showed that well P-fertilized T.

  5. Scaling Up Fertilizer Micro-Dosing and Indigenous Vegetable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Poor soil fertility and land degradation result in low production yields and quality for indigenous vegetables in West Africa. This project will address the challenges to improve vegetable production through fertilizer innovations. Increasing vegetable yields and quality This project will build on earlier research funded by the ...

  6. Comparative effects of organic compost and NPK fertilizer on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-treatment and post planting soil samples were taken for laboratory soil analysis of soil chemical properties for a comparison of the assessment of the cumulative effects of organic compost and inorganic fertilizer in improving soil fertility over a period of three years. The organic matter increased by 23.3% and 0.6% in the ...

  7. Nitrogen fertilizer replacement value of legumes with residues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop rotation with legumes can help reduce the inorganic nitrogen fertilizer need of the following maize as a result of increased nitrogen availability in the soil. The Nitrogen Fertilizer Replacement Value (NFRV) method was used to estimate the nitrogen contribution of grain legumes (soybean, cowpea) and an herbaceous ...

  8. The effects of remedial fertilizer treatments on growth and pulp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remedial fertilizer applications were applied to nutrient-poor stands of Eucalyptus grandis growing on infertile (ex-agricultural) land of the Zululand coastal plain. Two nitrogen-rich fertilizer mixtures were applied in one year-old stands at rates ranging from zero to 160 kg N ha-1 . Foliar nitrogen levels increased highly ...

  9. Diel variation in fig volatiles across syconium development: making sense of scents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Renee M; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Ranganathan, Yuvaraj

    2013-05-01

    Plants produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a variety of contexts that include response to abiotic and biotic stresses, attraction of pollinators and parasitoids, and repulsion of herbivores. Some of these VOCs may also exhibit diel variation in emission. In Ficus racemosa, we examined variation in VOCs released by fig syconia throughout syconium development and between day and night. Syconia are globular enclosed inflorescences that serve as developing nurseries for pollinating and parasitic fig wasps. Syconia are attacked by gallers early in their development, serviced by pollinators in mid phase, and are attractive to parasitoids in response to the development of gallers at later stages. VOC bouquets of the different development phases of the syconium were distinctive, as were their day and night VOC profiles. VOCs such as α-muurolene were characteristic of the pollen-receptive diurnal phase, and may serve to attract the diurnally-active pollinating wasps. Diel patterns of release of volatiles could not be correlated with their predicted volatility as determined by Henry's law constants at ambient temperatures. Therefore, factors other than Henry's law constant such as stomatal conductance or VOC synthesis must explain diel variation in VOC emission. A novel use of weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) on the volatilome resulted in seven distinct modules of co-emitted VOCs that could be interpreted on the basis of syconium ecology. Some modules were characterized by the response of fig syconia to early galling by parasitic wasps and consisted largely of green leaf volatiles (GLVs). Other modules, that could be characterized by a combination of syconia response to oviposition and tissue feeding by larvae of herbivorous galler pollinators as well as of parasitized wasps, consisted largely of putative herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs). We demonstrated the usefulness of WGCNA analysis of the volatilome in making sense of the scents

  10. Rooting of hardwood cuttings of Roxo de Valinhos fig (Ficus carica L. with different propagation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Antônio Nava

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the substrate, cuttings collection time, the position and the cutting depth, and the propagation environment on rooting of 'Purple Valinhos' fig tree cuttings in Southwestern Paraná, Brazil. Two experiments were carried out at UTFPR, Câmpus Dois Vizinhos, with hardwoods cuttings from Roxo de Valinhos fig tree. The first experiment used a randomized block design, in 3 x 3 x 2 factorial (substrate x environment x collection time, with four replications of 10 cuttings per plot. The cuttings were collected in the first fifteen days of July and August. The substrates were sand, soil and the mixture of these [1:1 (v / v]. The environments used were open sky, tunnel with plastic cover and tunnel with half-shade black net cover. The second experiment used a randomized block design, 2 x 2 x 3 factorial (shoot cutting position x soil cover x shoot cutting depth, with four replications of 12 cuttings per plot. In the factor position, the vertically (0 º inclination and inclined (45 º inclination shoot cuttings were evaluated. Soil cover was tested with mulching plastic cover or not. The tested depths were 1/3, 1/2 and 2/3 in relation to the total length of the shoot cutting. In both experiments, the following were analyzed: rooting and mortality indices, number of leaves and primary shoots, length of the three largest roots per cutting. It was conclude that, the protected environment with plastic cover on sand as substrate must recommended for the rooting of fig estaca, collecting them in the first half of July. The inclination position and cutting depth of the estaca and the substrate coverage with plastic mulching did not influence the results.

  11. Mycorrhizal colonization does not affect tolerance to defoliation of an annual herb in different light availability and soil fertility treatments but increases flower size in light-rich environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Chama, Ana; Guevara, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous distribution of resources in most plant populations results in a mosaic of plant physiological responses tending to maximize plant fitness. This includes plant responses to trophic interactions such as herbivory and mycorrhizal symbiosis which are concurrent in most plants. We explored fitness costs of 50% manual defoliation and mycorrhizal inoculation in Datura stramonium at different light availability and soil fertility environments in a greenhouse experiment. Overall, we showed that non-inoculated and mycorrhiza-inoculated plants did not suffer from 50% manual defoliation in all the tested combinations of light availability and soil fertility treatments, while soil nutrients and light availability predominately affected plant responses to the mycorrhizal inoculation. Fifty percent defoliation had a direct negative effect on reproductive traits whereas mycorrhiza-inoculated plants produced larger flowers than non-inoculated plants when light was not a limiting factor. Although D. stramonium is a facultative selfing species, other investigations had shown clear advantages of cross-pollination in this species; therefore, the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation on flower size observed in this study open new lines of inquiry for our understanding of plant responses to trophic interactions. Also in this study, we detected shifts in the limiting resources affecting plant responses to trophic interactions.

  12. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen cryopreservation; evaluation of semen in the andrology laboratory; genetic aspects of male reproduction; emerging techniques and future development of semen evaluation and handling and applied androlo...

  13. Efficient transformation and regeneration of fig (Ficus carica L.) via somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Hemaid Ibrahim; Gabr, Mahdia; Abdallah, Naglaa A

    2010-01-01

    Fig is one of the most important fruit trees in Egypt. It used to constitute the major source of income for the inhabitants of the western north coast of Egypt. Since 1993 fig cultivations were threatened by a number of factors including virus, insect and mite infections. An efficient system for regeneration and transformation of the common fig Ficus carica L. cultivar Sultani (fresh consumption) was required to conserve fig cultivation in the area. The effect of different combinations of BA and NAA/2,4-D and kinetin on callus formation from leaf segments were studied. Results showed that the best medium for callus formation was MS supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D and 0.2 mg/l kinetin. The best plantlet differentiation was obtained at concentrations of 30 mg/l 2iP and 7 mg/l TDZ with 0.25 mg/l NAA (with a regeneration efficiency of 83 and 79%, respectively). On the other hand, the obtained callus failed to induce organogenesis on media containing a combination of BA and kinetin. The highest shoot formation percentage (89%) was obtained when using 2 mg/l TDZ and 4 mg/l 2iP. The highest percentage of shoots forming roots (95%) was obtained when using MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l IBA. Explants were transformed using Agrobacterium and microprojectile bombardment using the plasmid pISV2678 which harbors the gus-intron and bar genes. Results showed that the highest transformation efficiency using the Agrobacterium (17.5%) was obtained when explants were co-cultivated with the bacteria for 30 min. The highest transformation efficiency recorded using the microprojectile bombardment (12%) was obtained with 2.0 μg DNA per shot at 1,100 psi and a distance of 6 cm repeated twice. The transgenic nature of regenerated plants was confirmed by PCR analysis, histochemical GUS assay and leaf painting assay.

  14. Television and Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Basten

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been conducted in the field of utilising the media - television and radio in particular - to promote particular public health messages. However, a burgeoning canon has examined how mass media can play a role in affecting change in fertility preferences and outcomes. In this paper we review these researches which have primarily focussed upon higher fertility settings. The impact of mass media presentation of families and children in low fertility settings has not yet been subject to rigorous sociological investigation so its impact can not be accurately inferred. However, given the pervasive nature of mass media and celebrity culture, we suggest that this is an important avenue for future research. We conclude that television plays a multi-faceted role in shaping individuals decision-making procedures concerning both demographic events and public health interactions. To illustrate this, we present a model which demonstrates a sliding scale of intent - but not impact - of various genres in order to understand the actual role of the media in shaping attitudes towards family size - either explicitly in terms of edutainment or implicitly as a forms of normalization.

  15. [Environment and lifestyle: Impacts on male fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendayan, M; Alter, L; Swierkowski-Blanchard, N; Caceres-Sanchez, L; Selva, J; Robin, G; Boitrelle, F

    2018-01-01

    In this last century, an increase of men infertility has been registered. It has been suggested that environmental factors could a negative impact over sperm quality. Among these factors, impact of environmental toxicant has been spread by media. In this review of scientific literature, we identify several environmental factors that could impact men fertility in a negative way. These factors are tobacco, marijuana, weight, body mass index, heat, nutritional state, electromagnetic waves and altitude. For each of these factors, the impact over men fertility, their mechanism, as well their influence over the use of Assisted Reproductive Technics are reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. COENOLOGICAL SHIFT FOLLOWING FERTILIZATION IN MEDITERRANEAN GRASSLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRO SERAFINI SAULI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In Rome both meadows of CentraI-European affinity and Mediterranean dry grasslands are presento We studied a site (Parco Regionale Urbano de] Pineto in Rome with very diverse vegetation, where species belonging to both coenologica] groups oceur. Wc fertilized a grassland with a combination of phosphorus (P and nitrogen (N. After fertilization diagDostie species of Helianthemetea guttati (Thcrophytes dccrease while species of MolinioArrhenatheretea (Hemicriptophytes increase. In a climate as that of Rome, transition between Mediterranean (with summer drought and Central European (without summer drought, nutrients availability modulates the distribution of vegetation Classes with respectively Mediterranean or Central-Europe affinities.

  17. [Fertility preservation and cancer in the male].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyvraz, Recrosio Céline; Vaucher, Laurent; Primi, Marie-Pierre

    2012-12-05

    Improvement in cancer treatments resulted in an increased number of men surviving cancer. Quality of life has become an important issue in these patients. Anti cancer treatments might have transient or definitive harmful effects on male fertility. Sperm cryoconservation is currently the only proven method to preserve fertility in patients undergoing oncologic treatment. It should be proposed to every patient at reproductive age before chemotherapy, radiotherapy or any surgery involving reproductive tract. Despite low use rate, this simple method could allow patients presenting infertility after treatment to father a child.

  18. The fertility decline in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W C; Harbison, S F

    1995-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa Kenya is a prime example of a country experiencing a rapid decline in fertility and greater contraceptive prevalence. These changes have occurred since 1980 when fertility was high at 8.0 children per woman. In 1993 the total fertility rate (TFR) was 5.4, and the growth rate declined to about 2.0%. This transition is swifter than any country in contemporary Asia or historical Europe. The likely projection for Kenya is attainment of replacement level fertility during the 2020s and a leveling of population at about 100 million persons. Fertility has declined the most in urban areas and central and eastern regions. Bongaarts' proximate determinants (TFR, total marital fertility rate, total natural marital fertility rate, and total fecundity) are reduced to the proportion of currently married women using contraception, the proportion in lactational nonfecund status, and the proportion currently married. Actual fertility change is accounted for by total fertility change of 3.0 children. Lactational infecundability accounts for 0.5 potential births, and changes in marital fertility account for 1.0 reduced births per woman. About 70% of fertility reduction is accounted for by contraception and abortion. During 1977-78 80% of fertility control was due to lactational nonfecundity, 10% to nonmarriage, and 10% to contraception. In 1993 lactational nonfecundity accounted for 50% of the reduction, nonmarriage for 20%, and abortion about 30%. Future fertility is expected to be dependent on contraceptive prevalence. Kenya has experienced the Coale paradigm of preconditions necessary for demographic transition (willing, ready, and able). High fertility in Africa is not intractable. Creating the change in attitudes that leads to readiness is linked to education, health, and exposure to modernizing media and urban lifestyles. The public sector family planning program in Kenya has created the opportunity for access and availability of contraception. The key

  19. Lifetime impact of cash transfer on fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Il Albert Kim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In most OECD countries, fertility level is below the natural generation replacement level, and many OECD countries implement pro-natal policies, including direct cash transfer schemes. However, evaluations of the long-run impact of such policies are surprisingly rare. We investigate whether the cash transfer increases completed fertility, exploiting a quasi-experiment from a pro-natal cash transfer called Allowance for Newborn Children (ANC. We first devise a measure of ANC impact for different birth cohorts, because the policy lasted for a decade and affected cohorts with different intensities at different ages. The results show that ANC impact on fertility has little permanent component.

  20. Parental Infertility, Fertility Treatment, and Childhood Epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettner, Laura O.; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H.; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A few studies have indicated an increased risk of epilepsy in children conceived by fertility treatment possibly due to characteristics of the infertile couple rather than the treatment. We therefore aimed to investigate the association between parental infertility, fertility treatment......, and epilepsy in the offspring, including the subtypes of epilepsy; idiopathic generalised epilepsy and focal epilepsy. METHODS: This cohort included all pregnancies resulting in liveborn singletons from the Aarhus Birth Cohort, Denmark (1995-2013). Information on time to pregnancy and fertility treatment...... was obtained from pregnancy questionnaires in early pregnancy. Children developing epilepsy were identified from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Prescription Registry until 2013. Data were analysed using Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for potential confounders...

  1. Fertility Regulation in an Economic Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Christopher; Thomas, Duncan; Frankenberg, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Substantial international aid is spent reducing the cost of contraception in developing countries, as part of a larger effort to reduce global fertility and increase investment per child worldwide. The importance for fertility behaviors of keeping contraceptive prices low, however, remains unclear. Targeting of subsidies and insufficient price variation have hindered prior attempts to estimate the effect of monetary and non-monetary contraceptive costs on fertility behavior. Using longitudinal survey data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we exploit dramatic variation in prices and incomes that was induced by the economic crisis in the late 1990s to pin down the effect of contraceptive availability and costs as well as household resources on contraceptive use and method choice. The results are unambiguous: monetary costs of contraceptives and levels of family economic resources have a very small (and well-determined) impact on contraceptive use and choice of method. PMID:25843969

  2. FERTILIZING INFLUENCE TOWARDS GROWTH AND FRUIT CROPS OF COCOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available TRACT Fertilizers is one activities of maintenance plants that an important role to productivity plants. Without right fertilizing, cacao farms are many setbacks especially in quality of land. Land quality decline because reduction of nutrient in land, damage characteristics of biological or physical and more deplete substantially thickness of land. Nutrient reduction has occur caused by activities of harvest, washing, denitrification, and erosion that occurred in area of cacao plants roots. Damage of biological and physical of land include land aggregate damage, decreased stability of structure, decreased organic matter, and reducing amount of and activities of organisms that live in land. Efforts to increase land fertility can be with gift fertilizer. Study using a Random Group Design with 3 replication, with fertilizer treatment: P1 = Control (farmers; P2 = natural fertilizer 5 kg; P3 = natural fertilizer 5 kg+ 5 g urea + 5 g SP-36, and P4 = natural fertilizer 5 kg+ 5 g SP-36+ 5 g (KC1. Results of study showed that giving of manure and organic matter are significantly different with farmers (control, but best treatment is found on gift manure combined fertilizer anorganic (P3 provides growth and number of best fruit.

  3. Integrated Public Education, Fertility and Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarnert, Leonid V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the consequences of integration in public education. I show that the flight from the integrated multicultural public schools to private education increases private educational expenditures and, as a result, decreases fertility among more affluent parents whose children flee. In contrast, among less prosperous parents…

  4. Implementation strategy for achieving replacement level fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The recommendation of the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development at the ESCAP regional conference was to adopt strategies for attaining replacement-level fertility of 2.1 or 2.2 children by 2010. East Asian countries, except Mongolia and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and the Southeast Asian countries Singapore and Thailand have already reached replacement-level fertility. Most larger Oceanic countries have also done so. Only South Asian Sri Lanka and southern India have attained replacement level. The following conditions slow or hinder the goal, but they do not provide an "absolute" barrier to fertility decline: social welfare schemes and old age security, son preference, lack of government family planning, poverty, relatively high mortality, low status of women, and education status. Theories of demographic transition have postulated that economic and social development initially brings a decline in mortality, and later brings a decline in fertility; and high fertility was an adaptation to high mortality. Policy gets caught in the lag between mortality and fertility decline. Eventually the cultural motives for high fertility are undercut by social and economic development. Although the generalization that economic growth slows fertility is true for South Asia, the correlation is uneven. Forceful government-sponsored family planning programs in Bangladesh and China may lead the way to strategies for decline in ESCAP region. A Thailand study suggested important factors were fundamental social change, the increased cost of children, cultural acceptance of birth control, a latent demand for fertility control, and government efforts in family planning. ESCAP countries have in common relatively high morality and inadequate public health programs, patriarchal structures, and limited female autonomy, poverty and landlessness, lack of community cohesiveness, and inadequate family planning programs. Weaknesses in programs are attributed to

  5. Electrophoretic Ink Display Prepared by Jelly Fig Pectin/Gelatin Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Ming Chou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A brand new Bio-Electronic ink (Bio-E ink display device was prepared and characterized in this study. Semiconductor material, copper phthalocyanine (CuPc was modified by cationic surfactants, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC, as the core material, and the shell of capsule was prepared by jelly fig pectin, gelatin and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS. Here, jelly fig pectin was provided as the shell material for the first time. Chemical structure of the modified CuPc was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR. The core-shell microcapsules were achieved by coacervation method in an oil/water (O/W emulsion system. The particle size and morphology of microcapsules were affected by the concentrations of SDS and pH values of the O/W emulsion system. A new microcapsule-based electrophoretic display device was presented. Its image display ability of the microcapsules electrophoretic device was presented as appropriated electric power was applied, and the response time was 0.06 sec under 0.1 V/mm of electric field. Moreover, we found that its image contrast ratio of display device was influenced by the particle sizes of the microcapsules.

  6. Preservation of different fig cultivars (Ficus carica L.) under modified atmosphere packaging during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, María del Carmen; Serradilla, Manuel Joaquín; Martín, Alberto; López Corrales, Margarita; Pereira, Cristina; Córdoba, María de Guía

    2016-04-01

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the stability of 'Cuello Dama Blanco' (CDB), 'Cuello Dama Negro' (CDN) and 'San Antonio' (SA) figs during post-harvest cold storage was evaluated by using three different films with a diverse number of microperforations (diameter, ø = 100 µm): M10 (16 holes), M30 (five holes) and M50 (three holes). A macroperforated film was used as control (five holes, ø = 9 mm). Gas composition, weight loss, percentage disorder, microbial counts and physico-chemical parameters were monitored during cold storage for 21 days. Furthermore, sensory quality was also evaluated. MAP has allowed the extension of cold storage and distribution time for the three different cultivars of figs, minimising weight loss and delaying pathological disorders related to endosepsis, smut, and souring. Of the three cultivars, the M50 batch (one hole per 50 mm) showed the best efficiency in terms of physico-chemical quality and delay of post-harvest decay, although the M30 batch was also found to be suitable for delaying the post-harvest decay, especially for the CDB cultivar. MAP is a useful tool to extend the storability with optimal quality properties for CDN and SA during 21 days of cold storage and 14-17 days of cold storage for CDB. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Characterization of allergenic components in sap extract from the weeping fig (Ficus benjamina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, I G; Johansson, S G; Larsson, P H; Zetterström, O

    1990-01-01

    The allergen composition of crude extract from sap (latex) of the weeping fig (Ficus benjamina) was investigated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. The allergenic components were detected by sera from 11 occupationally exposed plant keepers, of whom 7 were non-atopic, and from 9 non-occupationally exposed atopic patients with a positive radio-allergosorbent test to weeping fig. The allergen-antibody complexes were visualized by rabbit anti-IgE and beta-galactosidase-labelled sheep anti-rabbit IgG, using a chromogenic insoluble substrate. A total of 11 allergenic components were identified. Three of them were found to be major allergenic components, identified by more than 50% of the investigated sera. These 3 IgE-binding components had molecular weights of approximately 29,000, 28,000 and 25,000 daltons, respectively. The major allergenic components were denatured by heat in the temperature range of 60-90 degrees C.

  8. Yeasts isolated from figs (Ficus carica L.) as biocontrol agents of postharvest fruit diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moyano, S; Martín, A; Villalobos, M C; Calle, A; Serradilla, M J; Córdoba, M G; Hernández, A

    2016-08-01

    Fresh fruit is highly perishable during postharvest life, mainly due to fungal growth. Thus, fungal control is an important goal for the fruit industry. In this work, a selection of antagonistic yeasts isolated from fig and breba crops were screened in vitro. The isolated yeasts were challenged with three moulds isolated from decayed figs and breba crops, identified as Penicillium expansum M639 and Cladosporium cladosporioides M310 and M624, and pathogenic moulds Botrytis cinerea CECT20518 and Monilia laxa CA1 from culture collections. Two yeast isolates, Hanseniaspora opuntiae L479 and Metschnikowia pulcherrima L672, were selected for their ability to inhibit the growth of aforementioned moulds. These yeasts reduced the radial growth of moulds on PDA by between 45.23% and 66.09%. Antagonistic activity was associated with the interaction of live yeast cells with moulds. M. pulcherrima L672 apparently parasitised C. cladosporioides isolates. In addition, challenges were assayed using wounded apples and nectarines, with significant reductions in percent infection and lesion size for all moulds tested. To our knowledge, this is the first report identifying H. opuntiae as an antagonist against different pathogenic moulds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pectin Methyl Esterase Activity Change in Intermediate Moisture Sun-Dried Figs after Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Demirbüker Kavak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate moisture fruits can be obtained by rehydrating dried fruits. Intermediate moisture fruits are suitable for direct consumption compared to dry fruits and can be directly used in the production of various products such as bakery products, dairy products and candies. Aim of this study is to compare the pectin methyl esterase (PME activity of intermediate moisture figs which causes softening of the texture and to compare their microbial stability after 3 months storage period. For this purpose, dried figs were rehydrated in 30 and 80° C water until they reach 30% moisture content. Rehydrated samples were stored for 3 months at +4°C. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the control samples and the samples rehydrated at 80°C according to the total viable counts. At the end of the storage period, results of residual PME activity in control samples was 24.1 μmol COOH min-1g-1, while it was found 17.4 μmol COOH min-1g-1 in samples rehydrated at 80°C. As a result rehydration conducted at 80°C provided 28% reduction in PME activity compared to the control samples rehydrated at 30°C, although it did not affect the microbial load significantly after storage.

  10. Development of the knowledge of fertility and fertility preservation scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNees P

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Angela Jukkala1, Karen Meneses1, Andres Azuero1, June Cho1, Patrick McNees1,21School of Nursing, 2School of Health Professions, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAObjective: Infertility is a severe and often underestimated consequence of successful treatment for breast cancer. Ensuring young breast cancer survivors receive patient-centered health information on the impact of treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options in a timely manner is a critical component of high quality nursing care. The objective of this manuscript is to report the process used to develop and examine the reliability and validity of an instrument to measure a breast cancer survivor’s self-assessed knowledge of fertility and fertility preservation.Design: A scale development and descriptive study.Setting: Online and global.Participants: Ninety-two young breast cancer survivors (ages 25–45 years.Methods: Participants completed the Knowledge of Fertility and Fertility Preservation (KF Scale as part of their participation in a larger study, the Fertility Cancer Project (FCP.Results: An exploratory factor analysis revealed five domains: normal reproductive function; general information about fertility; cancer treatment factors affecting fertility; infertility information; and alternative parenting options. A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the validity of the construct with a demonstrated good fit between the factor structure of the new scale and the observed data. Many participants self-assessed their overall knowledge of fertility and fertility preservation as “a little” and the majority rated their knowledge of infertility information as “a little”.Conclusion: The KF Scale can be used to provide useful information to support health care professionals in the development of patient-centered education that is responsive to the unique needs of each young breast cancer survivor. The initial testing of the KF Scale indicates

  11. Effect of different fertilizer application on the soil fertility of paddy soils in red soil region of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenyi; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin; Dai, Xiaoqin; Sun, Xiaomin; Qiu, Weiwen; Yang, Fengting

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate fertilizer application is an important management practice to improve soil fertility and quality in the red soil regions of China. In the present study, we examined the effects of five fertilization treatments [these were: no fertilizer (CK), rice straw return (SR), chemical fertilizer (NPK), organic manure (OM) and green manure (GM)] on soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N ratio and available nutrients (AN, AP and AK) contents in the plowed layer (0-20 cm) of paddy soil from 1998 to 2009 in Jiangxi Province, southern China. Results showed that the soil pH was the lowest with an average of 5.33 units in CK and was significantly higher in NPK (5.89 units) and OM (5.63 units) treatments (Pfertilizers have remarkably improved SOC and TN values compared with the CK, Specifically, the OM treatment resulted in the highest SOC and TN concentrations (72.5% and 51.2% higher than CK) and NPK treatment increased the SOC and TN contents by 22.0% and 17.8% compared with CK. The average amounts of C/N ratio ranged from 9.66 to 10.98 in different treatments, and reached the highest in OM treatment (Psoil fertility in this region and K fertilizer should be simultaneously applied considering the soil K contents. Considering the long-term fertilizer efficiency, our results also suggest that annual straw returning application could improve soil fertility in this trial region.

  12. Natural enemies managing the invasion of the Fig whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), infesting a Ficus benjamina hedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fig whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) is a recent invasive species that has become a major pest in Florida feeding on Ficus shrubs and trees. A pilot study was conducted on a weeping fig, Ficus benjamina shrub hedge to determine the efficacy and compatibility of a biopesticide (PFR 97™=Isaria...

  13. Attack by Pyemotes johnmoseri (Acari:Pyemotidae) on Hypoborus ficus (Coleoptera:Scolytidae) in fig trees in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Aksit; I. Cakmak; J. Moser

    2007-01-01

    The Aegean Region of Turkey is one of the largest dried fig producers in the world. A Turkish cultivar sarilop (Ficus carica cv. Calimyrna L.) possesses good qualities for drying process, and has been grown extensively for many years in Turkey. Hypoborus ficus is the most common xylophagous insect attacking fig trees in Aydin (Aks¸...

  14. Living on the edge: Fig tree phenology at the northern range limit of monoecious Ficus in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu-Shui; Compton, Stephen G.; Xiao, Hui; Lu, Qian; Chen, Yan

    2014-05-01

    Fig trees (Ficus) are a species-rich group of mainly tropical and subtropical plants that are of ecological importance because of the large numbers of vertebrates that utilise their figs for food. Factors limiting their distributions to warmer regions are still poorly understood, but are likely to include factors linked to their specialised pollination biology, because each Ficus species is dependent on one or a small number of host-specific fig wasps (Agaonidae) for pollination. Adult fig wasps are short-lived, but some species are capable of dispersing extremely long distances to pollinate their hosts. Close to its northern range limit we investigated the phenology of Ficus virens, the monoecious fig tree that reaches furthest north in China. Relatively few trees produced any figs, and very few retained figs throughout the winter. Despite this, new crops produced in spring were pollinated, with seasonally migrant pollinators from plants growing further south the most likely pollen vectors. An inability to initiate new crops at low temperatures may limit the distribution of monoecious fig trees to warmer areas.

  15. Enhanced and green extraction polyphenols and furanocoumarins from Fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves using deep eutectic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Jiao, Jiao; Gai, Qing-Yan; Wang, Peng; Guo, Na; Niu, Li-Li; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2017-10-25

    Nowadays, green extraction of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants has gained increasing attention. As green solvent, deep eutectic solvent (DES) have been highly rated to replace toxic organic solvents in extraction process. In present study, to simultaneous extraction five main bioactive compounds from fig leaves, DES was tailor-made. The tailor-made DES composed of a 3:3:3 molar ratio of glycerol, xylitol and D-(-)-Fructose showed enhanced extraction yields for five target compounds simultaneously compared with traditional methanol and non-tailor DESs. Then, the tailor-made DES based extraction methods have compared and microwave-assisted extraction was selected and optimized due to its high extraction yields with lower time consumption. The influencing parameters including extraction temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and extraction time were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Under optimal conditions the extraction yield of caffeoylmalic acid, psoralic acid-glucoside, rutin, psoralen and bergapten was 6.482mg/g, 16.34mg/g, 5.207mg/g, 15.22mg/g and 2.475mg/g, respectively. Macroporous resin D101 has been used to recovery target compounds with recovery yields of 79.2%, 83.4%, 85.5%, 81.2% and 75.3% for caffeoylmalic acid, psoralic acid-glucoside, rutin, psoralen and bergapten, respectively. The present study suggests that DESs are truly designer and efficient solvents and the method we developed was efficient and sustainable for extraction main compounds from Fig leaves.mg/g. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of obesity on female fertility and fertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Murizah M; Norman, Robert J

    2008-03-01

    Obesity and overweight are common conditions that have consequences not only on general health but also to a great extent on reproductive health. There is a high prevalence of obese women in the infertile population and numerous studies have highlighted the link between obesity and infertility. Obesity contributes to anovulation and menstrual irregularities, reduced conception rate and a reduced response to fertility treatment. It also increases miscarriage and contributes to maternal and perinatal complication. Reduction of obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, is associated with improvements in reproductive functions; hence, treatment of obesity itself should be the initial aim in obese infertile women before embarking on ovulation-induction drugs or assisted reproductive techniques. While various strategies for weight reduction, including diet, exercise, pharmacological and surgical intervention exist, lifestyle modification continues to be of paramount importance.

  17. Effect of fertilizer nitrogen management on N2O emissions in commercial corn fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebarth, B.J.; Rochette, P.; Burton, D.L.; Price, M.

    2008-01-01

    Corn crops receive higher fertilizer nitrogen (N) application rates than many other crops. Pre-sidedress soil nitrate tests (PSNT) are used to determine how much fertilizer N is applied at the sidedress of corn crops, and can provide an opportunity to reduce fertilizer N application rates and delay the timing of fertilizer N applications which contribute to nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions into the atmosphere. This study examined how the rate and time of fertilizer N application influence N 2 O emissions in corn crops grown in alluvial soils in Atlantic Canada. Starter fertilizer was applied at 45 and 59 kg N per hectare (ha) in 2004 and 2005. Treatments included the application of 75 or 150 kg N per ha banded at a sidedress, and 150 kg N per ha broadcast at the emergence of the crops. Soil mineral N content was measured using a soil core method. Cumulative N 2 O emissions were calculated using a linear interpolation method between sampling dates. Results showed that delays in fertilizer application to the sidedress, and reductions in fertilizer N application reduced nitrate (NO 3 ) intensity but had no impact on cumulative N 2 O emissions. It was concluded that further research is needed to understand controls on denitrification and N 2 O emissions. 28 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  18. Decomposing trends in nonmarital fertility among Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeone, Felicia Yang; Lichter, Daniel T; Strawderman, Robert L

    2009-09-01

    For Latinos, high rates of nonmarital fertility reinforce economic inequality and slow the pace of social and economic incorporation into American society. Changes in the nonmarital fertility ratio--nonmarital births as a percentage of all births (NMFR)--among women aged 15-44 over the period 1994-2005 were partitioned into three components: changes in marital and in nonmarital fertility, and in the proportion of women who were married. Annual birth data were drawn from the national Natality Detail File, and population estimates were drawn from the Current Population Surveys. Analyses were conducted for blacks, whites and Latinas, as well as for selected subgroups of Latinas; differences in NMFRs between racial and ethnic groups were also calculated. NMFRs were largely unchanged between 1994 and 2002, and then began to rise; they averaged 43% for Latinas, 69% for blacks and 23% for whites over the study period. In 2005, 48% of births to Latinas were nonmarital. Most of the rise in Latinas' NMFR was linked to a decline in marriage. Among foreign-born Latinas, a six-percentage-point increase in the NMFR was due mostly to a rise in nonmarital fertility and a decline in marital fertility, which offset the beneficial effects of a rising marriage rate. The difference between Latinas' and whites' NMFRs was largely attributed to Latinas' higher nonmarital fertility, whereas the difference between blacks' and whites' NMFRs was driven mostly by lower marriage rates among blacks. Efforts to reduce out-of-wedlock childbearing among Latinas are needed, and programs should promote healthy marriages, especially among foreign-born Latinas.

  19. Modeling fertility curves in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra Gayawan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of fertility patterns is an essential method researchers use to understand world-wide population patterns. Various types of fertility models have been reported in the literature to capture the patterns specific to developed countries. While much effort has been put into reducing fertility rates in Africa, models which describe the fertility patterns have not been adequately described. This article presents a flexible parametric model that can adequately capture the varying patterns of the age-specific fertility curves of African countries. The model has parameters that are interpretable in terms of demographic indices. The performance of this model was compared with other commonly used models and Akaike's Information Criterion was used for selecting the model with best fit. The presented model was able to reproduce the empirical fertility data of 11 out of 15 countries better than the other models considered.

  20. Spatial distribution of ammonium and calcium in optimally fertilized pine plantation soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan Edwards; Andrew Gillespie; Jennifer Chen; Kurt Johnsen; Ronald Turco

    2005-01-01

    Commercial timber production is increasingly reliant on long-term fertilization to maximize stand productivity, yet we do not understand the extent to which this practice homogenizes soil properties. The effects of 16 yr of optimal fertilization and optimal fertilization with irrigation (fertigation) on forest floor depth, pH, total organic carbon (TOC) and total...

  1. Studies on fertility in dairy cattle based on analysis of AI data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.

    1986-01-01

    Fertility is one of the non-yield traits which is of great economic importance in dairy herds. Reduced fertility results in prolonged calving intervals and an increased culling rate. Both are undesirable. Fertility problems account for about 30% of all disposals.

    In this thesis it

  2. Postharvest decay reduction of fig fruit (Ficus carica) by hot water sodium carbonate solutions dip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinu, M G; Venditti, T; Dore, A; D'Hallewin, G; Serusi, A; Del Caro, A; Agabbio, M

    2006-01-01

    Treatments as hot water dips or high temperature conditioning have been proven to be effective to control postharvest decay on various horticultural crops. These treatments reduce chilling injury and rot losses without causing detrimental effects on fruit firmness, flavour, taste or peel appearance. These technologies, aimed to control postharvest pathogens, can be easily matched with the use of "Generally Recognized as Safe" (G.R.A.S.) compounds and employed alternatively to pesticides, known to be harmful to health and environment. In this respect we studied the combined effect of sodium carbonate (SC) and hot water on the storability of black fig fruit cultivar 'Niedda Longa' of Sardinian germplasm. Second crop fig fruit, harvested in the middle of September, was dipped for one minute in water solutions containing 0, 0.05, 0.5, and 1% (w/v) of SC at 25 or 60 degrees C and then stored at 5 degrees C and 90% relative humidity (RH) for two weeks. After one and two weeks of storage decay, weight loss were monitored and visual assessment was scored. Treatments with hot solutions were more effective in controlling decay compared to cold ones and the best results were achieved with 0.5% of SC at 60 degrees C. This combination reduced the decay rate from 26% (control) to 0% after 1 week and from 50% to 14% after two weeks of storage, respectively. Lower or higher SC concentrations applied at 60 degrees C were less effective and, after two weeks of storage, decay percentages were 38 and 43.6%, respectively. Water dip at 60 degrees C did not affect the weight loss as compared to dips at 25 degrees C either after one or two weeks of storage. At the same time, a significant reduction was found only with 1% of SC at 25 degrees C. The fruit treated with 0.5% of SC at 60 degrees C also had the best visual assessment up to two weeks of storage.

  3. Cycling of fertilizer and cotton crop residue nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochester, I.J.; Constable, G.A.; MacLeod, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Mineral nitrogen (N), nitrate and ammonium contents were monitored in N-fertilized soils supporting cotton crops to provide information on the nitrification, mineralization and immobilization processes operating in the soil. The relative contributions of fertilizer N, previous cotton crop residue N and indigenous soil N to the mineral N pools and to the current crop's N uptake were calculated. After N fertilizer (urea) application, the soil's mineral N content rose rapidly and subsequently declined at a slower rate. The recovery of 15 N-labelled urea as mineral N declined exponentially with time. Biological immobilization (and possibly denitrification to some extent) were believed to be the major processes reducing post-application soil mineral N content. Progressively less N was mineralized upon incubation of soil sampled through the growing season. Little soil N (either from urea or crop residue) was mineralized at crop maturity. Cycling of N was evident between the soil mineral and organic N pools throughout the cotton growing season. Considerable quantities of fertilizer N were immobilized by the soil micro biomass; immobilized N was remineralized and subsequently taken up by the cotton crop. A large proportion of the crop N was taken up in the latter part of the season when the soil mineral N content was low. It is suggested that much of the N taken up by cotton was derived from microbial sources, rather than crop residues. The application of cotton crop residue (stubble) slightly reduced the mineral N content in the soil by encouraging biological immobilization. 15 N was mineralized very slowly from the labelled crop residue and did not contribute significantly to the supply of N to the current crop. Recovery of labelled fertilizer N and labelled crop residue N by the cotton crop was 28% and 1%, respectively. In comparison, the apparent recovery of fertilizer N was 48%. Indigenous soil N contributed 68% of the N taken up by the cotton crop. 33 refs., 1 tab

  4. [Fertility change in Mexico and the politics of population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala De Cosio, M E

    1993-01-01

    This introduction to a detailed study of fertility change in Mexico assesses the available fertility data and describes the sources used, traces the beginning and course of the demographic transition in Mexico, and describes the work. Mexico's demographic transition began around 1930 with the acceleration of mortality decline. The considerable time lag between the mortality decline and the beginning of the fertility decline resulted in a period of very rapid growth. Between 1955 and 1975, the growth rate exceeded 3% annually. The start of the fertility decline dated to about 1970, the time of a major reform of population policy and creation of institutions to reduce growth. But the fertility decline was not solely the result of population programs. An incipient fertility decline could be observed in the metropolitan and more educated population sectors beginning in the early 1960s. The onset of the mortality decline in the 1930s resulted from the sustained social and economic progress made possible after the conclusion of the Mexican Revolution. Between 1930 and 1980, the adult illiteracy rate declined from 61.2% to 17%, while life expectancy increased from 33 years to 63.2 years. In Mexico as in other Latin American countries, the mortality decline, which disturbed the traditional balance between high mortality and high fertility, was the force setting off the demographic transition and the necessary precursor to fertility decline. The first of two main sections of the book focuses on examination of fertility variations in Mexico since around 1900 using cross-sectional and longitudinal methods of analysis. The second part describes the origins, history, and institutions involved in Mexico's population policies and the demographic programs and their principal results. The influence of population policies in demographic change is assessed, especially in the case of fertility changes induced by family planning programs. Both the first and second parts sought to place

  5. Fertilization compatibility of spawning corals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes experimental results of fertilization assays to characterize genetic compatibility between individual parental genotypes. Targeted species...

  6. Fertilizers in Leaching Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Ciesielczuk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter contained in the waste of food industry or occurring in the households, in the absence of contamination with other kind of waste, may be used to create a “fertiliser”, which could be even reused in the organic production of arable crops. Particular attention is drawn to the fertilisers which may be applied in the case of amateur cultivation of pot plants and in the allotment gardens. The paper presents the results of research regarding the dynamics of the release of nutrients from tablets created with the help of encapsulation of the mixture manufactured from solvent extraction waste of coffee (SCG, modified by the ash obtained from low temperature burning of biomass. In this study, the mixture was determined as a fertilizer. Collagen, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl alcohol, shellac as well as sodium water glass have been applied as testing membranes in order to slow down the elution of the components from a fertilizer into solution. The durability tests have been carried out according to PN-EN-13266 standard over 118 days at the temperature of 25°C. The obtained results indicate significant differentiation with regard to the leaching of nutrients and organic matter from the tablets depending on the applied membrane. Strong inhibition concerning leaching of the components through membranes and from shellac and polyvinyl acetate has been observed. The remaining membranes did not inhibit the leaching of nutrients in the long-lasting manner; however, even they may be applied in the agricultural practice.

  7. Obesogens and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, A M; Alves, M G; Mathur, P P; Oliveira, P F; Cavaco, J E; Rato, L

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades, several studies evidenced a decrease in male fertility in developed countries. Although the aetiology of this trend in male reproductive health remains a matter of debate, environmental compounds that predispose to weight gain, namely obesogens, are appointed as contributors because of their action as endocrine disruptors. Obesogens favour adipogenesis by an imbalance of metabolic processes and can be found virtually everywhere. These compounds easily accumulate in tissues with high lipid content. Obesogens change the functioning of male reproductive axis, and, consequently, the testicular physiology and metabolism that are pivotal for spermatogenesis. The disruption of these tightly regulated metabolic pathways leads to adverse reproductive outcomes. Notably, adverse effects of obesogens may also promote disturbances in the metabolic performance of the following generations, through epigenetic modifications passed by male gametes. Thus, unveiling the molecular pathways by which obesogens induce toxicity that may end up in epigenetic modifications is imperative. Otherwise, a transgenerational susceptibility to metabolic diseases may be favoured. We present an up-to-date overview of the impact of obesogens on testicular physiology, with a particular focus on testicular metabolism. We also address the effects of obesogens on male reproductive parameters and the subsequent consequences for male fertility. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  8. Stream water chemistry after two forest fertilizations with Skog Vital in central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, E.; Nohrstedt, H.Oe.

    1993-05-01

    A study was made of the impact of forest fertilization (non-nitrogenous mix) on the water chemistry of two streams, which drain catchment areas in east Haerjedalen in Sweden. In summer 1990, part of one of the catchment areas was fertilized by tractor at a dose of 0.6 tonnes per hectare, and part of the other by helicopter at a dose of 0.5 tonnes per hectare. The fertilizer contained base cations, sulphur, phosphorus, zinc and boron. Water samples were taken at a water-sampling station upstream of the treated area and at a water-sampling station downstream of the treated area. A total of 30 samples were made and the water was analysed for pH, alkalinity, nitrogen, phosphorus, base cations, aluminium and sulphate. Discharge was both measured and simulated, the latter using a runoff model. An estimate was made of the additional leaching resulting from fertilization. 13 refs, 12 figs, 6 tabs

  9. Oviduct: roles in fertilization and early embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Winuthayanon, Wipawee

    2017-01-01

    Animal oviducts and human Fallopian tubes are a part of the female reproductive tract that hosts fertilization and pre-implantation development of the embryo. With an increasing understanding of roles of the oviduct at the cellular and molecular levels, current research signifies the importance of the oviduct on naturally conceived fertilization and pre-implantation embryo development. This review highlights the physiological conditions within the oviduct during fertilization, environmental regulation, oviductal fluid composition and its role in protecting embryos and supplying nutrients. Finally, the review compares different aspects of naturally occurring fertilization and assisted reproductive technology (ART)-achieved fertilization and embryo development, giving insight into potential areas for improvement in this technology. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  10. Phylogenetic analyses suggest a hybrid origin of the figs (Moraceae: Ficus) that are endemic to the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumi, Junko; Azuma, Hiroshi; Tzeng, Hsy-Yu; Chou, Lien-Siang; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Nakamura, Keiko; Su, Zhi-Hui

    2012-04-01

    The Ogasawara Islands are oceanic islands and harbor a unique endemic flora. There are three fig species (Ficus boninsimae, F. nishimurae and F. iidaiana) endemic to the Ogasawara Islands, and these species have been considered to be closely related to Ficus erecta, and to have diverged within the islands. However, this hypothesis remains uncertain. To investigate this issue, we assessed the phylogenetic relationships of the Ogasawara figs and their close relatives occurring in Japan, Taiwan and South China based on six plastid genome regions, nuclear ITS region and two nuclear genes. The plastid genome-based tree indicated a close relationship between the Ogasawara figs and F. erecta, whereas some of the nuclear gene-based trees suggested this relationship was not so close. In addition, the phylogenetic analyses of the pollinating wasps associated with these fig species based on the nuclear 28S rRNA and mitochondrial cytB genes suggested that the fig-pollinating wasps of F. erecta are not sister to those of the Ogasawara figs These results suggest the occurrence of an early hybridization event(s) in the lineage leading to the Ogasawara figs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of aflatoxin and surface mould contaminated figs by using Fourier transform near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmuş, Efkan; Güneş, Ali; Kalkan, Habil

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites that are mainly produced by members of the Aspergillus section Flavi on many agricultural products. Certain agricultural products such as figs are known to be high risk products for aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxin contaminated figs may show a bright greenish yellow fluorescence (BGYF) under ultraviolet (UV) light at a wavelength of 365 nm. Traditionally, BGYF positive figs are manually selected by workers. However, manual selection depends on the expertise level of the workers and it may cause them skin-related health problems due to UV radiation. In this study, we propose a non-invasive approach to detect aflatoxin and surface mould contaminated figs by using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) reflectance spectroscopy. A classification accuracy of 100% is achieved for classifying the figs into aflatoxin contaminated/uncontaminated and surface mould contaminated/uncontaminated categories. In addition, a strong correlation has been found between aflatoxin and surface mould. Combined with pattern classification methods, the NIR spectroscopy can be used to detect aflatoxin contaminated figs non-invasively. Furthermore, a positive correlation between surface mould and aflatoxin contamination leads to a promising alternative indicator for the detection of aflatoxin-contaminated figs. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Unmet fertility expectations and the perception of fertility problems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individual and social expectations about childbearing inform the perception of fertility problems if more than a few months pass without a noticeable pregnancy. Such problems are usually attributed to women, especially if the male partner has proven his fertility with another spouse/sexual partner. Community education on ...

  13. Has a fertility transition begun in West Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuoha, N C; Timaeus, I M

    1995-01-01

    Data from 4 World Fertility Surveys (WFS) and Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in Senegal and Ghana are used to examine whether fertility decline has occurred and whether a decline is consistent with changes in proximate determinants of fertility. The 1980s were a period marked by initiation of fertility decline throughout southern Africa and in most of eastern Africa where war or civil strife were absent. In Senegal evidence suggests a slight decline in fertility by age 40 years from 6.5 to 5.7 children during 1975-77 and 1986. In Ghana separate analysis of each survey suggests a slight decline in fertility, however, between survey periods there appears to be a slight increase in fertility. Senegal experienced a period of stability in fertility rates in the 15 years prior to 1978 and a change in rates in only the 5 years prior to 1986. Fertility decline was apparent among older age groups. In Ghana the reported cohort-period fertility rates were fairly constant in the 5-30 years prior to 1979-80 and showed a slight decline in the 5 years just before the survey in 1979-80, particularly among older women. Prior to 1988 rates declined steadily over time, except for rates among women around 30 years old. Findings support a decline in Senegal appearing around 1980 and an earlier decline in Ghana that suggests a fertility rate of about 6.4 by the mid-1980s. Parity progression ratios suggest limitation of births among women in their 30s with 6 children. Gaps between urban and rural fertility are apparent. Declines occurred among urban women and better educated women. Mean age at marriage increased, particularly among middle school educated women. Educated Ghanian women married earlier than Senegalese educated women. Contraceptive use was low in both countries, and use of traditional methods was high. Proximate determinants predicted a decline of 1 child in Senegal and confirmed the importance of secondary education and the rise in marriage age, and predicted a

  14. Gender equity and fertility intentions in Italy and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letizia Tanturri

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Fertility levels have fallen drastically in most industrialized countries. Diverse theoretical and empirical frameworks have had difficulty in explaining these unprecedented low levels of fertility. More recently, however, attention has turned from classic explanations, such as women's increased labour market participation, to gender equity as the essential link to understand this phenomenon. The increase in women's labour market participation did not prompt an increase in men's domestic duties, which is often referred to women's 'dual burden' or 'second shift'. Institutions and policies within countries also facilitate or constrain the combination of women's employment with fertility. This paper provides an empirical test of gender equity theory by examining whether the unequal division of household labour leads to lower fertility intentions of women in different institutional contexts. Italy constitutes a case of high gender inequity, low female labour market participation and the lowest-low fertility. The Netherlands has moderate to low gender inequity, high part-time female labour market participation and comparatively higher fertility. Using data from the 2003 Italian Multipurpose Survey - Family and Social Actors and the 2004/5 Dutch sample from the European Social Survey, a series of logistic regression models test this theory. A central finding is that the unequal division of household labour only has a significant impact on women's fertility intentions when they already carry the load of high paid work hours or children, a finding that is particularly significant for working women in Italy.

  15. Marriage and fertility in the developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westoff, C F

    1978-12-01

    Most developed countries have reached zero population growth or less and, while population projections have often proved badly off-target, it seems that currently low fertility levels are the result of a long-term trend, which was interrupted in the last 100 years only by the still-unexplained postwar baby boom, and which will probably continue. The declining trend has accompanied economic development and modernization, which have transformed the economic value of children, making them a drain on resources rather than a source of income. The concomitant social changes seem largely irreversible: urban economy, the decline in traditional authority, universal, prolonged education, equality of women, low infant mortality, high consumer demands and sophisticated birth control technology are all here to stay. The theory that fertility exhibits a cyclical pattern based on people's perception of their degree of economic and social opportunity ignores the other elements affecting fertility behavior, especially the radical change in the status and expectations of women. Several trends in marriage and reproductive behavior in the U.S., Denmark and Sweden reinforce the presumption that fertility will remain low: declining number of marriages; postponement of marriage; increased tendency for unmarried couples to live together; instability of marriage shown by high divorce rates and declining remarriage rates; and increasing economic activity by women. The traditional institution of marriage is losing its economic, sexual, sociological and parenting rationales. Thus, declining fertility is both cause and consequence of changes in marriage. In Europe, where the decline is more advanced than in the U.S., governments are concerned that population growth will be too low and have instituted social welfare measures to induce and facilitate childbearing and childrearing. As women become more career-oriented, greater incentives will have to be provided. Manipulating immigration quotas

  16. Treatments with gras compounds to keep fig fruit (Ficus carica L.) quality during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, T; Molinu, M G; Dore, A; D'Hallewin, G; Fiori, P; Tedde, M; Agabbio, M

    2005-01-01

    The trade of fresh fig fruit is restricted by its high perishability and numerous attempts have been done to extend the postharvest life. The main difficulties can be found in the fast ripening and the easiness of pathogen spread. Although the ripening can be slowed by low storage temperatures (close to 0 degrees C) the control of pathogens remains still unsolved since no pesticide treatments are allowed. Generally Recognized As Save Compounds (G.R.A.S.) are possible candidates to fulfil this void. Sodium carbonate (SC) solutions (0.5, 1, 2 and 3%) and acetic acid (AAC) vapours (25, 50 and 100 ppm) have been used as postharvest treatments to control Botrytis cinerea on black (Craxiou de Porcu) and white (Rampelina) fig varieties. Fruit was subsequently stored at 2 or 8 degrees C and 90% relative humidity for two weeks. At the end of the experiment decay, weight loss, pH, acidity, total soluble solids and visual assessment were performed. SC treatment at 1% reduced significantly the decay while, lower and higher concentrations did not. Between the two studied varieties the lowest decay percentage (9.8%) was found for the Craxiou de Porcu. Using AAC a good efficacy was achieved only with 100 ppm, this treatment decrease to 2.4% the incidence of decay irrespective to storage temperature. Lower concentrations were lesser effective and the efficacy was strictly dependent on the storage temperature, being higher at 2 degrees C. No treatment damages were observed following SC or AAC applications. Regarding fruit weight loss all treatments did not affect this parameter that was 10.1% and 16.9% at 2 and 8 degrees C, respectively. Chemical analyses performed at the end of the storage period did not evidenced differences among the treatments and slight ones if compared to initial values. Visual score of the fruit at the end of storage evidenced a better keeping quality for Craxiou de Porcu especially when stored at 2 degrees C. Both G.R.A.S. compounds are promising, but in

  17. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month. Fifteen (15 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment, cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m were taken for anatomical characteristics (fiber and vessels and wood density analysis. Results showed that eucalyptus trees treated with mineral fertilizers did not show significant alteration in average wood density, with radial profile model common to all three treatments, characterized by a values increase in the region next to the pith, toward to bark. Mineral fertilization influenced wood anatomical characteristics: treatment with sodium was characterized by thinner walls and lumen larger diameter; in treatment with potassium, larger vessels were detected.

  18. Phosphorus in recycling fertilizers - analytical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Oliver; Adam, Christian

    2017-05-01

    The importance of secondary raw materials for phosphorus (P) fertilizer production is expected to increase in the future due to resource depletion, supply risks, and heavy metal contamination of fossil phosphate resources. Municipal wastewater is a promising source for P recovery. In Germany for instance, it contains almost 50% of the total amount of P that is currently applied as mineral fertilizer. Several procedures have been developed to recover and re-use P resulting in a growing number of recycling fertilizers that are currently not regulated in terms of fertilizer efficiency. We tested various materials and matrices for their total P content, solubility of P in neutral ammonium citrate (P nac ) and water, and performed robustness tests to check if existing analytical methods are suitable for those new materials. Digestion with inverse aqua regia was best suited to determine the total P content. P nac sample preparation and analyses were feasible for all matrices. However, we found significant time and temperature dependencies, especially for materials containing organic matter. Furthermore, several materials didn't reach equilibrium during the extractions. Thus, strict compliance of the test conditions is strongly recommended to achieve comparable results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A new topical treatment of atopic dermatitis in pediatric patients based on Ficus carica L. (Fig): A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Shirin; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Babaie, Delara; Shams, SeyedMohammad; Sadr, Zahra; Gheysari, Mehdi; Askari, Vahid Reza; Rakhshandeh, Hassan

    2017-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic, relapsing and inflammatory skin disease characterized by pruritus and xerosis (dry skin). Its prevalence is on the increase worldwide, particularly in children. As the pathogenesis of AD involves a complex interaction of genetic, environmental and immunological factors, its definitive treatment is difficult. This clinical trial was designed as equivalence study to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of edible dried fig fruit on the severity of AD as measured with scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD), in comparison with Hydrocortisone 1.0% as the routine treatment of AD and base cream as a placebo. Forty five children aged 4 months to 14 years with mild to moderate AD (SCORAD <50) were randomly assigned, in a double blind manner, to three treatment groups in order to perform a randomised, double blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The patients were instructed to apply their allocated creams twice a day for two weeks. The randomised, placebo-controlled trial indicates that the new treatment had significantly increased efficacy in terms of reducing the SCORAD index, pruritus and intensity scores in comparison with Hydrocortisone 1.0% (p<0.05) and the placebo failed to ameliorate the symptoms. Safety, efficacy, tolerability, and symptom relief were considerable in fig fruit extract in comparison with hydrocortisone 1.0%. This clinical trial suggests that fig fruit extract can be used instead of low potent corticosteroid in mild to moderate cases of AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fertility Desire and Reproductive Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding fertility desire and reproductive health care needs of HIV positive men and women in the era of better access to antiretroviral therapy and improved health status is important in planning and organizing appropriate health services. To assess the fertility desire and reproductive health care needs of men and ...

  1. Fertility potential after unilateral orchiopexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Lindenberg, S

    1996-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: The age matched number of spermatogonia per tubular cross section is significant in regard to fertility potential, and a value of 1% or less (approximately Sertoli cells only) may predict low fertility potential. To our knowledge Sertoli cells only have not been observed before 15 months of life...

  2. Menstrual cycle pattern and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss.......To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss....

  3. Determinants of fertility in Namibia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    factors. Fertility reduction was smaller where contraceptive use was small because of the late age at first sexual intercourse, and also since birth rate at older ages was already low. Mechanisms for HIV- associated sub-fertility in rural. Zimbabwe included more frequent widowhood and divorce, reduced coital frequency, ...

  4. Fertilizing Douglas-fir forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Roger D. Right

    1979-01-01

    This report supplements a slide-tape presentation of the same title. Part I of the report describes the current practice of nitrogen fertilization of Douglas-fir forests in western Washington and Oregon and the effects of this fertilization on tree growth and water quality. Part II discusses factors that affect costs and revenues from investments in forest...

  5. to nitrogen and organic fertilizer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of the compound fertilizer (NPK) were superior to single fertilizer (urea) and organic manure (cowdung) in that order. Average cumulative fresh weight of waterleaf under the different manurial regimes were 1.89 kg, 1.65 kg and 0.89 kg for NPK, urea and cowdung, respectively. Studies are, however, continuing to ...

  6. Fertility in Namibia. Changes in fertility levels in North-Central Namibia 1960-2001, including an assessment of the impact of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka Shemeikka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the development of fertility in North-Central Namibia, former Ovamboland, from 1960 to 2001. Special attention was given to the onset of fertility decline and to the impact of the HIV epidemic on fertility. An additional aim was to introduce parish registers as a source of data for fertility research in Africa.  Data used consisted of parish registers from Evangelical Lutheran congregations, the 1991 and 2001 Population and Housing Censuses, the 1992 and 2000 Namibia Demographic and Health Surveys, and the HIV sentinel surveillances of 1992-2004. Both period and cohort fertility were analysed. The P/F ratio method was used when analysing census data. The impact of HIV infection on fertility was estimated indirectly by comparing the fertility histories of women who died at an age of less than 50 years with the fertility of other women. The impact of the HIV epidemic on fertility was assessed both among infected women and in the general population.  Fertility in the study population began to decline in 1980. The decline was rapid during the 1980s, levelled off in the early 1990s at the end of war of independence and then continued to decline until the end of the study period. According to parish registers, total fertility was 6.4 in the 1960s and 6.5 in the 1970s, and declined to 5.1 in the 1980s and 4.2 in the 1990s. Adjustment of these total fertility rates to correspond to levels of fertility based on data from the 1991 and 2001 censuses resulted in total fertility declining from 7.6 in 1960-79 to 6.0 in 1980-89, and to 4.9 in 1990-99. The decline was associated with increased age at first marriage, declining marital fertility and increasing premarital fertility. Fertility among adolescents increased, whereas the fertility of women in all other age groups declined.  During the 1980s, the war of independence contributed to declining fertility through spousal separation and delayed marriages. Contraception

  7. Effects of ionizing radiation on the boreal forest: Canada's FIG experiment, with implications for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.; Sheppard, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Field-Irradiator Gamma (FIG) experiment chronically irradiated a section of the Canadian boreal forest over a period of 14 years. Forest trees were affected at dose rates >0.1 mGy·h -1 , but a berbaceous plant community thrived at dose rates up to 65 mGy·h -1 . Irradiation resulted in the establishment of four zones of vegetation: a herbaceous community, a shrub community, a narrow zone of dying trees, and a zone with no apparent impacts. Concentrations of 14 C, 99 Tc, 129 I, 137 Cs and 226 Ra that could cause a dose rate of 0.1 mGy·h -1 within vegetation were calculated. Chemical toxic effects on plants would be caused by 99 Tc and 129 I before radiological effects are predicted to occur. The calculated 226 Ra concentration is about a factor of 10 greater than that measured at some natural sites. Sufficiently high concentrations of 14 C and 137 Cs to cause an impact are unlikely unless a site is severely contaminated. (author)

  8. A role for parasites in stabilising the fig-pollinator mutualism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek W Dunn

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Mutualisms are interspecific interactions in which both players benefit. Explaining their maintenance is problematic, because cheaters should outcompete cooperative conspecifics, leading to mutualism instability. Monoecious figs (Ficus are pollinated by host-specific wasps (Agaonidae, whose larvae gall ovules in their "fruits" (syconia. Female pollinating wasps oviposit directly into Ficus ovules from inside the receptive syconium. Across Ficus species, there is a widely documented segregation of pollinator galls in inner ovules and seeds in outer ovules. This pattern suggests that wasps avoid, or are prevented from ovipositing into, outer ovules, and this results in mutualism stability. However, the mechanisms preventing wasps from exploiting outer ovules remain unknown. We report that in Ficus rubiginosa, offspring in outer ovules are vulnerable to attack by parasitic wasps that oviposit from outside the syconium. Parasitism risk decreases towards the centre of the syconium, where inner ovules provide enemy-free space for pollinator offspring. We suggest that the resulting gradient in offspring viability is likely to contribute to selection on pollinators to avoid outer ovules, and by forcing wasps to focus on a subset of ovules, reduces their galling rates. This previously unidentified mechanism may therefore contribute to mutualism persistence independent of additional factors that invoke plant defences against pollinator oviposition, or physiological constraints on pollinators that prevent oviposition in all available ovules.

  9. Soil recovery at the Meirama opencast lignite mine in northwest Spain: a comparison of the effectiveness of cattle slurry and inorganic fertilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiros, M.C.; Gil-Sotres, F.; Trasar-Cepeda, M.C.; Saa, A.; Seoane, S. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola

    1996-09-01

    Effective minesoil recovery requires spoils to be converted to soils of similar quality to those previously existing on that site. The developing minesoil should thus acquire three critical capacities, namely the capacities to (a) support plant production, (b) degrade organic matter and (c) remove contaminants from water. The degree of development of these capacities provides a useful measure of soil quality and thus of the success of a given soil recovery technique. At the Meirama lignite mine in Galicia (northwest Spain), the possibility of using cattle slurry instead of the inorganic fertilizers currently used is being investigated. The results of a number of experiments suggest that cattle slurry is more effective (in terms of the above three critical capacities) than inorganic fertilizer. In slurry-fertilized spoils, rapid increases are observed in vegetation cover, in the relative abundance of self-seeded native plant species, in soil microbial activity and in those physical and chemical properties which affect infiltration and the capacity to remove contaminants from percolating water. 30 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. The FIGS (focused identification of germplasm strategy) approach identifies traits related to drought adaptation in Vicia faba genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Hamid; Street, Kenneth; Bari, Abdallah; Mackay, Michael; Stoddard, Frederick L

    2013-01-01

    Efficient methods to explore plant agro-biodiversity for climate change adaptive traits are urgently required. The focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS) is one such approach. FIGS works on the premise that germplasm is likely to reflect the selection pressures of the environment in which it developed. Environmental parameters describing plant germplasm collection sites are used as selection criteria to improve the probability of uncovering useful variation. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of FIGS to search a large faba bean (Vicia faba L.) collection for traits related to drought adaptation. Two sets of faba bean accessions were created, one from moisture-limited environments, and the other from wetter sites. The two sets were grown under well watered conditions and leaf morpho-physiological traits related to plant water use were measured. Machine-learning algorithms split the accessions into two groups based on the evaluation data and the groups created by this process were compared to the original climate-based FIGS sets. The sets defined by trait data were in almost perfect agreement to the FIGS sets, demonstrating that ecotypic differentiation driven by moisture availability has occurred within the faba bean genepool. Leaflet and canopy temperature as well as relative water content contributed more than other traits to the discrimination between sets, indicating that their utility as drought-tolerance selection criteria for faba bean germplasm. This study supports the assertion that FIGS could be an effective tool to enhance the discovery of new genes for abiotic stress adaptation.

  11. Traditional agroecosystems as conservatories and incubators of cultivated plant varietal diversity: the case of fig (Ficus carica L.) in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtak, Hafid; Ater, Mohammed; Oukabli, Ahmed; Santoni, Sylvain; Kjellberg, Finn; Khadari, Bouchaib

    2010-02-18

    Traditional agroecosystems are known to host both large crop species diversity and high within crop genetic diversity. In a context of global change, this diversity may be needed to feed the world. Are these agroecosystems museums (i.e. large core collections) or cradles of diversity? We investigated this question for a clonally propagated plant, fig (Ficus carica), within its native range, in Morocco, but as far away as possible from supposed centers of domestication. Fig varieties were locally numerous. They were found to be mainly highly local and corresponded to clones propagated vegetatively. Nevertheless these clones were often sufficiently old to have accumulated somatic mutations for selected traits (fig skin color) and at neutral loci (microsatellite markers). Further the pattern of spatial genetic structure was similar to the pattern expected in natural population for a mutation/drift/migration model at equilibrium, with homogeneous levels of local genetic diversity throughout Moroccan traditional agroecosystems. We conclude that traditional agroecosystems constitue active incubators of varietal diversity even for clonally propagated crop species, and even when varieties correspond to clones that are often old. As only female fig is cultivated, wild fig and cultivated fig probably constitute a single evolutionary unit within these traditional agroecosystems. Core collections, however useful, are museums and hence cannot serve the same functions as traditional agroecosystems.

  12. Effect of drying of figs (Ficus carica L.) on the contents of sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatnar, Ana; Klancar, Urska; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2011-11-09

    Fresh figs were subjected to two different drying processes: sun-drying and oven-drying. To assess their effect on the nutritional and health-related properties of figs, sugars, organic acids, single phenolics, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity were determined before and after processing. Samples were analyzed three times in a year, and phenolic compounds were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). In figs, monomer sugars predominate, which is important nutritional information, and the content of sugars as well as organic acids in fresh figs was lower than in dried fruits. However, the best sugar/organic acid ratio was measured after the sun-drying process. Analysis of individual phenolic compounds revealed a higher content of all phenolic groups determined after the oven-drying process, with the exception of cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside. Similarly, higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were detected after the drying process. With these results it can be concluded that the differences in analyzed compounds in fresh and dried figs are significant. The differences between the sun-dried and oven-dried fruits were determined in organic acids, sugars, chlorogenic acid, catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, luteolin-8-C-glucoside, and total phenolic contents. The results indicate that properly dried figs can be used as a good source of phenolic compounds.

  13. Traditional agroecosystems as conservatories and incubators of cultivated plant varietal diversity: the case of fig (Ficus carica L. in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoni Sylvain

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional agroecosystems are known to host both large crop species diversity and high within crop genetic diversity. In a context of global change, this diversity may be needed to feed the world. Are these agroecosystems museums (i.e. large core collections or cradles of diversity? We investigated this question for a clonally propagated plant, fig (Ficus carica, within its native range, in Morocco, but as far away as possible from supposed centers of domestication. Results Fig varieties were locally numerous. They were found to be mainly highly local and corresponded to clones propagated vegetatively. Nevertheless these clones were often sufficiently old to have accumulated somatic mutations for selected traits (fig skin color and at neutral loci (microsatellite markers. Further the pattern of spatial genetic structure was similar to the pattern expected in natural population for a mutation/drift/migration model at equilibrium, with homogeneous levels of local genetic diversity throughout Moroccan traditional agroecosystems. Conclusions We conclude that traditional agroecosystems constitue active incubators of varietal diversity even for clonally propagated crop species, and even when varieties correspond to clones that are often old. As only female fig is cultivated, wild fig and cultivated fig probably constitute a single evolutionary unit within these traditional agroecosystems. Core collections, however useful, are museums and hence cannot serve the same functions as traditional agroecosystems.

  14. [Analysis of soil humus and components after 26 years' fertilization by infrared spectroscopy method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Lan; Sun, Cai-Xia; Chen, Zhen-Hua; Li, Dong-Po; Liu, Xing-Bin; Chen, Li-Jun; Wu, Zhi-Jie; Du, Jian-Xiong

    2010-05-01

    The infrared spectrum was used to discuss structure change of soil humus and components of chemical groups in soil humic acids (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) isolated from soils in different fertilization treatment after 26 year's fertilization. The result indicated that using the infrared spectroscopy method for the determination of humus, humus fractions (HA and FA) and their structure is feasible. Fertilization affected the structure and content of soil humus and aromatization degree. After 26 years' fertilization, the infrared spectrum shapes with different treatments are similar, but the characteristic peak intensity is obviously different, which reflects the effects of different fertilization treatments on the structure and amounts of soil humus or functional groups. Compared with no fertilization, little molecule saccharides decreased and aryl-groups increased under application of inorganic fertilizer or combined application of organic and chemical fertilizer. The effect was greater in Treatment NPK and M+NPK than in Treatment M1 N and M2 N. Organic and NPK fertilizer increased the development of soil and increased soil quality to a certain extent. Results showed that organic fertilization increased aromatization degree of soil humus and humus fractions distinctly. The authors could estimate soil humus evolvement of different fertilization with infrared spectroscopy.

  15. Strategies to increase nitrogen use efficiency and reduce nitrate leaching in vegetable production in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, de F.J.; Berge, ten H.F.M.; Smit, A.L.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental concern and legislation of fertilization requires strategies to increase nitrogen use efficiency and reduce nitrate leaching. Strategies can be fertilizer choice, timing of N availability and fertilizer placement. Rainfall in the experimental year 2007 was moderate and different

  16. Development of Malaysian women fertility index: Evidence from Shannon's entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Wan Aznie Fatihah Wan Abd; Sharif, Shamshuritawati

    2017-11-01

    A fertility rate is a measure of the average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years. Malaysia is now facing a population crisis and the fertility rate continues to decline. This situation will have implications for the age structure of the population where percentages of senior citizens are higher than percentages of people aged below 5 years old. Malaysia is expected to reach aging population status by the year 2035. As the aging population has a very long average life expectancy, the government needs to spend a lot on medical costs for senior citizens and need to increase budgets for pensions. The government may be required to increase tax revenues to support the growing older population. The falling fertility rate requires proper control by relevant authorities, especially through planning and implementation of strategic and effective measures. Hence, this paper aims to develop a fertility index using Shannon's entropy method. The results show that Selangor, Johor, and Sarawak are among the states with the highest values of the fertility index. On the other end of the spectrum, Terengganu, W.P. Labuan, and Perlis are ranked in the last positions according to the fertility index. The information generated from the results in this study can be used as a primary source for the government to design appropriate policies to mitigate dwindling fertility rates among Malaysian women.

  17. Fabrication and evaluation of variable rate fertilizer system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Damirchi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In conventional farming, the soil and crop are considered uniform in different locations of the farm and the fertilizers are applied according to the average of soil needs with an additional percentage for safety (Loghavi, 2003. Non-essential chemical fertilizers in the field have harmful effects and social, economic and environmental concerns will increase. Many fertilizers go into the surface waters and ground waters and cause poisoning and environmental pollution without being absorbed by the plants. In variable rate technology, the soil fertilizer needs a map of all parts of the farm which is prepared with the GIS system. This map is uploaded on the computer before variable rate fertilizer machine starts. The computer continually controls the fertilizing rate for each part of the farm using a fertilizing map and global positioning system. The purpose of this study is to construct and evaluate a map-based variable rate fertilizer system that can be installed on a common fertilizer in Iran to be used as a variable rate system. Materials and methods: In common variable rate fertilizers, the rotational speed change of the distributor shaft is used to apply fertilizers. In this way, a DC motor is assembled on the main shaft of all distributors, which reduces the fertilizing accuracy. The reason for this is that there is no separation for units along the width of the fertilizer. Therefore, we used one DC motor for each distributor and another motor to rotate the agitator in the tank. System Set up: To design and select a suitable engine, the required torque for the rotation distributor shaft was measured by a torque meter and the amount of 2.1 Nm was acquired for that. With regard to the maximum rate of nitrogen fertilizer for land and tractor speed at the time of fertilizing, the order of 350 kg per hectare and 8 km per hour, the maximum distributor shaft speed and power required to rotate distributor shaft were calculated to be 55

  18. Radiological investigation of phosphate fertilizers: Leaching studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedűs, Miklós; Tóth-Bodrogi, Edit; Németh, Szabolcs; Somlai, János; Kovács, Tibor

    2017-07-01

    The raw materials of the phosphate fertilizer industry are the various apatite minerals. Some of these have high levels of natural radionuclides, and thus phosphate fertilizers contain significant amounts of U-238, K-40 and Ra-226. These can leach out of the fertilizers used in large quantities for resupplying essential nutrients in the soil and can then enter the food chain through plants, thereby increasing the internal dose of the affected population. In the current study, the radiological risk of eight commercially available phosphate fertilizers (superphosphate, NPK, PK) and their leaching behaviours were investigated using different techniques (gamma and alpha spectrometry), and the dose contributions of using these fertilizers were estimated. To characterize the leaching behaviour, two leaching procedures were applied and compared -the MSZ 21470-50 (Hungarian standard) and the Tessier five-step sequential extraction method. Based on the evaluation of the gamma-spectra, it is found that the level of Th-232 in the samples was low (max.7 ± 6 Bq kg -1 ), the average Ra-226 activity concentration was 309 ± 39 Bq kg -1 (min. 10 ± 8 Bq kg -1 , max. 570 ± 46 Bq kg -1 ), while the K-40 concentrations (average 3139 ± 188 Bq kg -1 , min. 51 ± 36 Bq kg -1 ) could be as high as 7057 ± 427 Bq kg -1 . The high K-40 can be explained by reference to the composition of the investigated fertilizers (NPK, PK). U concentrations were between 15 and 361 Bq kg -1 , with the average of 254 Bq kg -1 , measured using alpha spectrometry. The good correlation between P 2 O 5 content and radioactivity reported previously is not found in our data. The leaching studies reveal that the mobility of the fertilizer's uranium content is greatly influenced by the parameters of the leaching methods. The availability of U to water ranged between 3 and 28 m/m%, while the Lakanen-Erviö solution mobilized between 10 and 100% of the U content. Copyright © 2016

  19. The World Fertility Survey: charting global childbearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightbourne R; Singh, S; Green, C P

    1982-03-01

    Interviewing some 350,000 women in 42 developing countries and 20 developed countries representing nearly 40% of the world's population, the World Fertility Survey (WFS) is in a unique position to document the historic 1970s slowdown in global population growth. This Bulletin describes efforts begun in 1972 to ensure high quality, internationally comparable, accessible data, the data's importance for policymakers, planners and researchers, and major findings available by early 1982 from directly assisted WFS surveys in 29 developing countries and contraceptive use data from WFS-type surveys in 16 developed countries. Marital fertility has declined in all developing regions except Africa but still averages from 4.6 children/woman in Latin America to 6.7 in Africa, while preferred family size ranges from 3.0 children in Turkey to 8.9 in Senegal--far above the average 2.2-2.5 children/woman needed to end developing countries' population growth in the long run. However, women ages 15-19 prefer nearly 2 children fewer than the oldest women ages 45-49; 3.8 vs. 5.7 on the average. Nearly 1/2 (48%) of married women surveyed in 27 countreis said they wanted no more children. Preventing all unwanted births would reduce birth rates up to 15 births/1000 population in these countries. Overall, 32% of married, fecund women in developing countries are using contraception compared to an average 72% in 16 developed countries. Education, literacy, and more available family planning services increase contraceptive use. Age at marriage is rising in Asia, but this factor alone has little effect on fertility. Infant mortality is higher in many developing countries than previously thought. Breastfeeding is an important restraint on fertility in most developing countries but is declining among more educated, employed, and urban women which could raise fertility if not compensated for by gains in contraceptive use.

  20. Effects of Biofertilizer Application Method with Integrated Chemical Fertilizers on Maize Production and Some Chemical Characteristics of Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ebrahimpour

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of integrated application of bio-fertilizer and chemical fertilizers on yield and yield components of corn, an experiment was conducted in 2008 in Dezful city, (Khoozestan province in a factorial arrangement based on complete randomized block design with four replications. Treatments were integrated application of biological and chemical fertilizers in four levels (100% chemical fertilizer, 50% chemical fertilizer+ bio-fertilizer, 25% chemical fertilizer + bio-fertilizer and bio-fertilizer and bio-fertilizer application method in three levels (seed inoculation, fertigation, seed inoculation+fertigation. The results showed that highest and the lowest grain yield was obtained by application of 50% chemical fertilizer+ bio-fertilizer (10.7 t/ha and bio-fertilizer (5.2 t/ha, respectively. The greatest and the lowest harvest indices were recorded in chemical (0.59 and bio-fertilizer (0.45 treatments, respectively. Number of grain per row and row in ear had not significant differences in integrated and chemical treatments. Methods of bio-fertilizer application had not significant effect on maize yield and yield components. The results of soil analysis showed that bio-fertilizers increased P, K as well as other macro elements availability rather than N. The results revealed that although replacing chemical fertilizers by bio-fertilizers reduced maize growth, but integrated application of these sources produced highest grain yield, nitration elements availability and reduced substantially consumption of fertilizer. The results also indicated that non-chemical sources of crop nutrients can be considered as a reliable alternative for chemical fertilization in ecological production of crops in agro-ecosystems of Iran.

  1. The impact of obesity on male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Thomas J G; Richard, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Obesity in men of reproductive age is globally on the increase. There is clear evidence from epidemiological studies that obesity impacts negatively on male fertility; it is associated with hypogonadism, although it is less consistently linked to impaired spermatogenesis and tests of sperm function, including DNA fragmentation. Sperm from obese men used for in vitro fertilisation/intra cytoplasmic sperm injection is associated with a greater number of pregnancy losses and is less likely to result in live births. There are also increasing data from animal studies that paternal obesity may impact negatively on the reproductive and metabolic health of offspring and grand-offspring. It has been suggested that high-fat dietary exposures could affect the epigenetic content of sperm or the endocrine content of seminal fluid and thus impact early fetal development. Experimental and epidemiological data show that male fertility, and offspring health, can be improved by weight loss in obese and overweight males.

  2. Differential accumulation of photosynthetic proteins regulates diurnal photochemical adjustments of PSII in common fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlinarić, Selma; Antunović Dunić, Jasenka; Skendrović Babojelić, Martina; Cesar, Vera; Lepeduš, Hrvoje

    2017-02-01

    Molecular processes involved in photosystem II adaptation of woody species to diurnal changes in light and temperature conditions are still not well understood. Regarding this, here we investigated differences between young and mature leaves of common fig (Ficus carica L.) in photosynthetic performance as well as accumulation of the main photosynthetic proteins: light harvesting complex II, D1 protein and Rubisco large subunit. Investigated leaf types revealed different adjustment mechanisms to keep effective photosynthesis. Rather stable diurnal accumulation of light harvesting complex II in mature leaves enabled efficient excitation energy utilization (negative L-band) what triggered faster D1 protein degradation at high light. However, after photoinhibition, greater accumulation of D1 during the night enabled them faster recovery. So, the most photosynthetic parameters, as the maximum quantum yield for primary photochemistry, electron transport and overall photosynthetic efficiency in mature leaves successfully restored to their initial values at 1a.m. Reduced connectivity of light harvesting complexes II to its reaction centers (positive L-band) in young leaves increased dissipation of excess light causing less pressure to D1 and its slower degradation. Decreased electron transport in young leaves, due to reduced transfer beyond primary acceptor Q A - most probably additionally induced degradation of Rubisco large subunit what consequently led to the stronger decrease of overall photosynthetic efficiency in young leaves at noon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for ...

  4. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for Patients Many adult ...

  5. Relationship between Balanced Fertilization and Healthy Agricultural Products (A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Malakouti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on World Health Organization (WHO report, our society’s health ranks 123 among 192 countries. Unfortunately, this ranking position is very low and its main reason is malnutrition due to imbalanced fertilization. Although more than 85% of Iranian people are not hungry, about 90% of them are suffering from cell hunger, because agricultural authorities and hence producers do not pay attention to food security. According to the latest information, about 86.5% of applied fertilizers in our country appertain to urea and triple super phosphate. In fact, this is an alarming issue in respect to the production of healthy agricultural products and it remains a threat to food security. At present, a total subsidy of more than 7,000 billion rials is paid for nitrogen (N and phosphate (P fertilizers. Whereas, it should be considered that, firstly, the efficiency of these fertilizers, due to different reasons such as mismanagement and existing subsidy level, is low and, secondly, the overuse of these fertilizers causes the accumulation of nitrate (NO3 and cadmium (Cd in agricultural products. Furthermore, according to the law of minimum, the overdosed fertilizers do not have any special positive effect on sustainable production and society’s health. Paying for such high-cost subsidy just for N and P-fertilizers has caused farmers to overuse and waste these fertilizers in the country and moreover not having any tendency to apply biologic, organic and micronutrient fertilizers. Whereas, the application of these fertilizers, beside their adaptability with the environment, has a very positive effect on the human health. Therefore, at this time scientific management of production and application of all kinds of fertilizers is inevitable. In this case, by improving the quality of all types of fertilizers, and following the principle of balanced fertilization, besides achieving the desired yield increase, the quality of agricultural products will be

  6. Age at marriage and fertility in Java-Bali, a question of natural or controlled fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adioetomo, S M

    1983-12-01

    Controlled fertility, as defined by Henry (1961), is fertility achieved in a stituation where the behavior of couples is bound to parity, that is the number of children they aim to have, while natural fertility is a fertility achieved under the absence of deliberate birth control practices. Based on this definition, the fertility of women in Java-Bali aged 40 years and over in 1976 was examined. Age at 1st marriage of the Java-Bali women was examined in relation to their subsequent fertility following their 1st marriage, namely, their 1st birth interval, their ages at the birth of their 1st child, intervals between births (up to the 4th birth), and their estimated age at completion of childbearing. The data used were derived from the 1976 Indonesia Fertility Survey. This examination of the impact of age at marriage on fertility produced evidence of a natural fertility situation. Women who married before their 15th birthday had, on the average, twice as many children as those who married at age 25 years or older. The differences in the mean number of children ever born between women who married at ages 15-17, 18-19, 20-21, and 20-24 were small. A marked decline was shown among the women who married at age 25 or older. Women who married before their 15th birthday had the longest 1st birth interval of 44.1 months. The interval then decreased with increasing age at marriage with the lowest birth interval reached by the women married at ages 22-24 years old. The interval rose again for women married at 25 years or older. Examination of the subsequent births yielded the impression that women who married older tended to have their children in rapid succession and thus reached the 4th birth quicker than those who married younger. This evidence is not indicative of Henry's catching up effect but rather an indication of peak level of fecundity in the early years of marriage for those who married older. The examination of the estimated age at completion of childbearing and

  7. Proteolytic versus surgical removal: the therapeutic effect of fig tree latex (Ficus carica L on cutaneous and diphtheric forms of avian pox in pigeons (Columba domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Abid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic effect of topical applications of fig tree latex (Ficus carica on avian pox lesions in pigeon (Columba domestica in comparison with surgical dressing and topical application of tetracycline ointment 3% were evaluated. Fifteen infected pigeons with mixed infection of both cutaneous and diptheric forms of pox have typical lesions on head, eyelids, inside mouth, cere, base of beak, legs, and feet were used in this study. Birds were divided into three equal groups (5 birds for each group. Group one (G¹ was treated twice daily (BID with tetracycline ointment 3% applied directly on the lesions, after cleaning of the lesions and removal of the external scabs. Group two (G² was treated once a day (during night only, for ten successive days with fig tree latex applied directly on lesions. Group three (G³ was left without treatment as a control group. The activity of the birds, consumption of feed, regression of nodules was monitored daily till the end of the experiment. In both G¹ and G³ groups, the pox lesions remained as they were (persisted as such and did not regressed. The activity of the birds fastly declined from unable to fly, to limited movement, depression, decrease feeding and death within 6 days from the beginning of treatment. The fig tree latex (G² treated birds survived, the activity of the birds and consumption of the feed increased from the 4th day of treatment. The pox lesions regressed and atrophied and disappeared within 10 days of treatment and by this time all birds returned to the normal life. In conclusion, the fig tree latex has beneficial effect in treating the pox lesions with unclear mechanisms of action.

  8. Will sex selection reduce fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S F

    1994-01-01

    Population control is one of the primary policies applied against poverty in many low income countries. The widespread prevalence of son preference in some countries such as China and India, however, works against any reduction of fertility. This is so because parents often continue to have children until they obtain the number of sons which they desire. The bias against girls has also led to higher abortion and mortality rates of female children. It is frequently argued that if sex selection methods are made available to parents so that they can control the gender of their children, population growth would be lowered and women's welfare improved. The author investigates both theoretically and numerically the impact of sex selection on fertility. A static quantity-quality model of fertility is used to compare fertility choices when parents cannot choose the gender of children versus a situation in which parents can choose gender. Empirical data are drawn from the 1976 Malaysian Family Life Survey. Analysis found that whether sex selection reduces fertility depends upon the second and third derivatives of the utility function and the child expenditure function. A numerical dynamic analysis is also presented. The simulation shows, using empirical dynamic models of fertility and the Monte Carlo integration technique, that sex selection on the firstborn child among the Chinese in Malaysia could reduce fertility by about 3%.

  9. Comparison of unenriched versus 15N-enriched fertilizer as a tracer for N fertilizer uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meints, V.W.; Shearer, G.; Kohl, D.H.; Kurtz, L.T.

    1975-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted on three soils with differing cropping and fertilization histories to determine whether unenriched fertilizer N can be used in the same manner as 15 N-enriched fertilizer to estimate the amount of plant N derived from fertilizer. Estimates using unenriched fertilizer N were compared with estimates using two 15 N enrichment levels. Use of unenriched fertilizer N led to underestimation of the amount of fertilizer N in the plant material in four of six cases when compared to 15 N-enriched fertilizer. Standard deviations of the estimates of fertilizer-derived N in plant material were considerably greater when unenriched fertilizer was used. (U.S.)

  10. Evaluation of influence of fertilizers in radium concentration from tomato culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, Dejanira C.; Ribeiro, Fernando C.A.; Alleluia, Irene B.; Perez, Daniel V.

    2001-01-01

    The fertilizer contribution to radio uptake by tomato plants was assessed. Tomato and soil samples from four different plantations were analyzed: two using organic fertilizer and two using phosphate fertilizer. The Ra concentrations in eight of the most used tomato fertilizers were determined. The concentration values ranged from 14 to 221 Bq/kg of Ra-226 and from 25 to 176 Bq/kg of Ra-228. Owing to the low Ra concentration and to the used fertilizer quantities, the fertilizers would not increase significantly the Ra soil concentration. However, the highest soil to plant concentration ratios were found in the plantations using phosphate fertilizers. This outcome pointed out the higher Ra availability in the phosphate fertilizer plantations than in the organic fertilizer plantations, showing a possible positive influence of phosphate fertilizers for the tomato Ra uptake. Due to the phosphate fertilizer used, the dose could increase from 0,05 Sv/year to 0,24 Sv/year. However this increase is not significant face the ingestion average worldwide effective dose. (author)

  11. Fertilization of criollo corn with vermicompost and its rate of decomposition in the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ángel García Sañudo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural lands of Sinaloa have been intensively cultivated for over 50 years with increasing use of chemical fertilizers and decreasing use of organic applications. This situation has led to an environmental problem which is gradually getting worse; this is this study chooses to focus on the study of the application of organic additives such as vermicompost and supermagro in the cultivation of criollo corn. The treatments studied were: T1= criollo corn organic fertilizers with mineral fertilization; T2= criollo corn with organic fertilizers and without mineral fertilization; T3= criollo corn without organic fertilizers and with mineral fertilization; T4= criollo corn without fertilization; T5= hybrid corn with mineral fertilization of N, P and K and T6= hybrid corn without fertilization. 3 t.ha- 1 of vermicompost in pre-seeding stage, 250 L.ha-1 of supermagro and mineral fertilization (350 N, 120 P, 0 K; the experimental design implemented randomized complete blocks, with four repetitions. The response variables were: CO2 release from soil, vermicompost decomposition rate in soil and corn grain yield. The accumulation of biomass in corn development stages was benefited by the stimulation of the CO2 concentration after obtaining an acceptable grain yield, with the application of vermicompost as an organic fertilizer, concluding that the application of organic additives of vermicompost and supermagro showed that criollo corn grain yield of Sinaloa is practicable in accordance with the experiment results.

  12. The mutual dependence of M1 fertility and M2 mutations in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinathan Nair, V.

    1982-01-01

    The mutual dependence of M 1 fertility and M 2 mutations in rice was studied after treatment with gamma rays and EMS. The frequency of chlorophyll mutations increased with decrease in seed fertility when M 1 ears were selected at random. However, at the lowest fertility class the mutation frequency was low. This reduction is attributed to the elimination of mutants in the high sterility class. The mutation yield can therefore be significantly enhanced by selecting M 1 ears of low fertility. The segregation ratio of mutants increased as fertility decreased. Mutation spectrum was however not influenced by M 1 fertility. This makes selection for fertility quite ineffective in altering the mutation spectrum. (author)

  13. Fertility transition and socio-economic change in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, J I

    1992-12-01

    Kenya's national survey data have shown patterns of fertility decline in the more socioeconomically advantaged regions. In the central areas, where urbanization and economic development is the highest, fertility has begun to decline rapidly. The lowest fertility was in Nairobi capital region; the Coast Province also experienced recent fertility decline. Fertility has remained high in the Western Province and in Nyanza, Rift Valley, and Eastern Provinces. The case study of Kisii district in Nyanza Province was used to illustrate the preconditions of high fertility. The district is an agriculturally rich region that includes rounded, steep-sided hills and narrow valleys. The district is a primary producer of cash crops such as coffee, tea, and pyrethrum, and other food crops including high-yielding varieties of maize. Farm size varies between 0.11 and 2.2 hectares and farms are owner occupied. All cultivable land is in use with traditional farming methods. Tractors are used in flat areas by 11.6% of farmers. 69.3% of farmers use fertilizers, but only 32% use insecticides and pesticides. Population density is 395 persons per square kilometer. The total fertility rate is 8.2 compared to 7.7 for the nation. 6% currently used contraception, and 23% have ever used. Fertility preferences of women under 25 years old is 6.9 children. Most farm labor, even among the wealthy farmers, is family labor organized by age and gender. Women are responsible for planting, weeding, harvesting and household chores. Male off-farm employment increases the agricultural production responsibilities of women. Only mothers of sons can control property and gain prestige. Modernization and land shortages have pressured families to increase nonfarm employment.

  14. Aqueous and gaseous nitrogen losses induced by fertilizer application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, C.; Maggi, F.; Riley, W.J.; Hornberger, G.M.; Xu, T.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Spycher, N.; Miller, N.L.; Venterea, R.T.; Steefel, C.

    2009-01-15

    In recent years concern has grown over the contribution of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use to nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) water pollution and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), nitric oxide (NO), and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) atmospheric pollution. Characterizing soil N effluxes is essential in developing a strategy to mitigate N leaching and emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, a previously described and tested mechanistic N cycle model (TOUGHREACT-N) was successfully tested against additional observations of soil pH and N{sub 2}O emissions after fertilization and irrigation, and before plant emergence. We used TOUGHREACT-N to explain the significantly different N gas emissions and nitrate leaching rates resulting from the different N fertilizer types, application methods, and soil properties. The N{sub 2}O emissions from NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N fertilizer were higher than from urea and NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N fertilizers in coarse-textured soils. This difference increased with decreases in fertilization application rate and increases in soil buffering capacity. In contrast to methods used to estimate global terrestrial gas emissions, we found strongly non-linear N{sub 2}O emissions as a function of fertilizer application rate and soil calcite content. Speciation of predicted gas N flux into N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} depended on pH, fertilizer form, and soil properties. Our results highlighted the need to derive emission and leaching factors that account for fertilizer type, application method, and soil properties.

  15. Nutrient uptake of NPK and result of some rice varieties in tidal land by using combination of organic and inorganic fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlina, Neni; Rompas, Joni Phillep; Marlina, Musbik

    2017-09-01

    Rice planting in tidal land has two main problems: iron (Fe) which has the potential to poison rice and low nutrient availability. Azospirillum enriched chicken manure and phosphate solvent bacteria (Biological Organic Fertilizer = BOF) is an option to overcome iron toxicity and as a source of nutrition. The objective of the study was to obtain a combination of biological organic fertilizers and balanced inorganic fertilizers in reducing doses of inorganic fertilizers, increasing NPK nutrient uptake and yield of several rice varieties in tidal land. This research used Factorial RAK with 25 treatment combinations that were repeated three times. Factor I is a combination of BOF and anorganic fertilizer with 5 levels of treatment (no inorganic fertilizers, BOF 400 kg / ha with inorganic fertilizer 25% NPK, BOF 400 kg / ha with inorganic fertilizer 50% NPK and BOF 400 kg / ha with fertilizer Inorganic 75% NPK). Factor II is several rice varieties (IPB 4S, Martapura, Margasari, Inpara 5, Inpara 7). The results showed that organic fertilizer 400 kg / ha can reduce the use of inorganic fertilizer by 75% of NPK fertilizer. The highest NPK nutrient absorption is in the treatment of organic fertilizer 400 kg / ha and inorganic fertilizer 25% of NPK fertilizer. Production of biological organic fertilizer 400 kg / ha with inorganic fertilizer 25% NPK and 4B IPB varieties 727.77% higher when compared with without the provision of organic fertilizer with Inpara 5 varieties.

  16. The impact of cross-border reproductive care or 'fertility tourism' on NHS maternity services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, A; David, A L; Shenfield, F; Jauniaux, E R

    2009-10-01

    High order multiple pregnancies have substantial morbidity and mortality. Fertility treatment is commonly responsible for their conception and is available globally with variable regulation. We investigated cross-border fertility treatment in these pregnancies in a UK fetal medicine unit, recording mode of conception, country of fertility treatment, reason for non-UK treatment and fetal reduction. Over an 11-year period, 109 women had a high order multiple pregnancy. Ninety-four women (86%) conceived with fertility treatment of whom 24 (26%) had this performed overseas. Cross-border fertility treatment poses an increasing challenge to obstetricians. National data on its occurrence is urgently needed.

  17. Spatial Scales of Genetic Structure in Free-Standing and Strangler Figs (Ficus, Moraceae) Inhabiting Neotropical Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Katrin; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Albrecht, Larissa; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt; Staeps, Felix C; Herre, Edward Allen; Dick, Christopher W

    2015-01-01

    Wind-borne pollinating wasps (Agaonidae) can transport fig (Ficus sp., Moraceae) pollen over enormous distances (> 100 km). Because of their extensive breeding areas, Neotropical figs are expected to exhibit weak patterns of genetic structure at local and regional scales. We evaluated genetic structure at the regional to continental scale (Panama, Costa Rica, and Peru) for the free-standing fig species Ficus insipida. Genetic differentiation was detected only at distances > 300 km (Jost´s Dest = 0.68 ± 0.07 & FST = 0.30 ± 0.03 between Mesoamerican and Amazonian sites) and evidence for phylogeographic structure (RST>permuted RST) was only significant in comparisons between Central and South America. Further, we assessed local scale spatial genetic structure (SGS, d ≤ 8 km) in Panama and developed an agent-based model parameterized with data from F. insipida to estimate minimum pollination distances, which determine the contribution of pollen dispersal on SGS. The local scale data for F. insipida was compared to SGS data collected for an additional free-standing fig, F. yoponensis (subgenus Pharmacosycea), and two species of strangler figs, F. citrifolia and F. obtusifolia (subgenus Urostigma) sampled in Panama. All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012). Model simulations indicated that most pollination events likely occur at distances > > 1 km, largely ruling out spatially limited pollen dispersal as the determinant of SGS in F. insipida and, by extension, the other fig species. Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal. We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs.

  18. Spatial Scales of Genetic Structure in Free-Standing and Strangler Figs (Ficus, Moraceae Inhabiting Neotropical Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Heer

    Full Text Available Wind-borne pollinating wasps (Agaonidae can transport fig (Ficus sp., Moraceae pollen over enormous distances (> 100 km. Because of their extensive breeding areas, Neotropical figs are expected to exhibit weak patterns of genetic structure at local and regional scales. We evaluated genetic structure at the regional to continental scale (Panama, Costa Rica, and Peru for the free-standing fig species Ficus insipida. Genetic differentiation was detected only at distances > 300 km (Jost´s Dest = 0.68 ± 0.07 & FST = 0.30 ± 0.03 between Mesoamerican and Amazonian sites and evidence for phylogeographic structure (RST>>permuted RST was only significant in comparisons between Central and South America. Further, we assessed local scale spatial genetic structure (SGS, d ≤ 8 km in Panama and developed an agent-based model parameterized with data from F. insipida to estimate minimum pollination distances, which determine the contribution of pollen dispersal on SGS. The local scale data for F. insipida was compared to SGS data collected for an additional free-standing fig, F. yoponensis (subgenus Pharmacosycea, and two species of strangler figs, F. citrifolia and F. obtusifolia (subgenus Urostigma sampled in Panama. All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012. Model simulations indicated that most pollination events likely occur at distances > > 1 km, largely ruling out spatially limited pollen dispersal as the determinant of SGS in F. insipida and, by extension, the other fig species. Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal. We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs.

  19. Quantifying cradle-to-farm gate life-cycle impacts associated with fertilizer used for corn, soybean, and stover production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Susan E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Fertilizer use can cause environmental problems, particularly eutrophication of water bodies from excess nitrogen or phosphorus. Increased fertilizer runoff is a concern for harvesting corn stover for ethanol production.

  20. Optimal fertilizer application for Panax notoginseng and effect of soil water on root rot disease and saponin contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengguo Xia

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: These results indicate that the amount of nitrogen fertilizer used in these fields is excessive and that of potassium fertilizer is deficient. Higher soil moisture is an important factor that increases the severity of the root rot disease.

  1. Zinc fertilization of flooded rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Local scientists studied Zn fertilization of flooded rice soils in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Egypt, the Philippines, Thailand and Turkey. Diagnosis of Zn deficiency was carried out for submerged rice soils. Soil maps were prepared, designating areas as low, medium and high in Zn, based on Zn extraction with DTPA and HCl solutions and on rice leaf analysis. The effectiveness of various Zn fertilizer sources and methods of application in field and greenhouse experiments was measured, using 65 Zn. The percent Zn derived from fertilizer was shown to be a much more sensitive measure of efficiency than yield or total uptake

  2. Individual fertility assessment and pro-fertility counselling; should this be offered to women and men of reproductive age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidman, Helene W; Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Larsen, Elisabeth C

    2015-01-01

    During the 1970s new contraceptive options developed and legal abortions became accessible. Family planning clinics targeting young women and men provided advice and assistance on contraception. Today, delayed childbearing, low total fertility rates and increasing use of social oocyte freezing...... to be established, as there is a strong unmet demand among women and men to obtain: (i) knowledge of fertility status, (ii) knowledge of reproductive lifespan (women) and (iii) pro-fertility advice. Addressing these issues is often more challenging than treating infertile patients. Therefore, we propose...

  3. Red Maple (Acer rubrum L.) Growth and Foliar Nutrient Responses to Soil Fertility Level and Water Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. H. Pham; Howard G. Halverson; Gordon M. Heisler

    1978-01-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) seedlings were grown in a greenhouse using three treatments: two soil horizons, two soil moisture regimes, and three nutrient levels. Fertilization increased growth under moist conditions on the more fertile topsoil. Under dry conditions, fertilization had no effect on growth in subsoil, and slightly increased growth in...

  4. The carbon fertilization effect over a century of anthropogenic CO2emissions: higher intracellular CO2and more drought resistance among invasive and native grass species contrasts with increased water use efficiency for woody plants in the US Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Brandon L; Hanson, David T; Lowrey, Timothy K; Sharp, Zachary D

    2017-02-01

    From 1890 to 2015, anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions have increased atmospheric CO 2 concentrations from 270 to 400 mol mol -1 . The effect of increased carbon emissions on plant growth and reproduction has been the subject of study of free-air CO 2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. These experiments have found (i) an increase in internal CO 2 partial pressure (c i ) alongside acclimation of photosynthetic capacity, (ii) variable decreases in stomatal conductance, and (iii) that increases in yield do not increase commensurate with CO 2 concentrations. Our data set, which includes a 115-year-long selection of grasses collected in New Mexico since 1892, is consistent with an increased c i as a response to historical CO 2 increase in the atmosphere, with invasive species showing the largest increase. Comparison with Palmer Drought Sensitivity Index (PDSI) for New Mexico indicates a moderate correlation with Δ 13 C (r 2  = 0.32, P environments (Pinus longaeva and Pinus edulis in the US Southwest) as well as from wetter environments (Bromus and Poa grasses in New Mexico) suggests differing responses based on environment; arid environments in New Mexico see increased intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE) in response to historic elevated CO 2 while wetter environments see increased c i . This study suggests that (i) the observed increases in c i in FACE experiments are consistent with historical CO 2 increases and (ii) the CO 2 increase influences plant sensitivity to water shortage, through either increased WUE or c i in arid and wet environments, respectively. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Semai Senoi fertility and population dynamics: Two-census method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Alan G

    1989-01-01

    The fertility and parameters of population growth of the Semai Senoi of Malaysia are studied by using a two-census method based on nonstable population theory. Semai fertility is shown to be moderately high; female completed fertility is 7.42 children and the crude birth rate is greater than 0.050. Previous estimates of Semai mortality rates are also moderately high but are insufficient to balance birth; thus, the overall rate of growth is presently nearly 2%. Compared with an earlier description of the pre-1969 Semai population, fertility has increased markedly leading to a nearly threefold increase in the annual growth rate. Copyright © 1989 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  6. Sperm motility of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, R K; Kaurova, S A; Uteshev, V K; Shishova, N V; McGinnity, D; Figiel, C R; Mansour, N; Agney, D; Wu, M; Gakhova, E N; Dzyuba, B; Cosson, J

    2015-01-01

    We review the phylogeny, sperm competition, morphology, physiology, and fertilization environments of the sperm of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians. Increased sperm competition in both fish and anurans generally increases sperm numbers, sperm length, and energy reserves. The difference between the internal osmolarity and iconicity of sperm cells and those of the aquatic medium control the activation, longevity, and velocity of sperm motility. Hypo-osmolarity of the aquatic medium activates the motility of freshwater fish and amphibian sperm and hyperosmolarity activates the motility of marine fish sperm. The average longevity of the motility of marine fish sperm (~550 seconds) was significantly (P amphibian sperm in general and anurans reversion from internal to external fertilization. Our findings provide a greater understanding of the reproductive biology of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians, and a biological foundation for the further development of reproduction technologies for their sustainable management.

  7. Cancer, Fertility Preservation, and Future Pregnancy: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Matthews

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the increases in 5-year cancer survival and recent advances in fertility preserving technologies, an increasing number of women with cancer are presenting for discussion of fertility preserving options. This review will summarize the risk of infertility secondary to cancer treatment, available treatment options for fertility preservation, and techniques to reduce future risks for patients. Concerns that will be addressed include the risk of the medications and procedures, the potential delay in cancer treatment, likelihood of pregnancy complications, as well as the impact of future pregnancy on the recurrence risk of cancer. Recent advances in oocyte cryopreservation and ovarian stimulation protocols will be discussed. Healthcare providers need to be informed of available treatment options including the risks, advantages, and disadvantages of fertility preserving options to properly counsel patients.

  8. Intercropping of wheat and pea as influenced by nitrogen fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaley, B.B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2005-01-01

    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on crop yield, fertilizer and soil nitrogen (N) use was tested on a sandy loam soil at three levels of urea fertilizer N (0, 4 and 8 g N m−2) applied at sowing. The 15N enrichment and natu...... with lower soil N levels, and vice versa for wheat, paving way for future option to reduce N inputs and negative environmental impacts of agricultural crop production......., grain N concentration, the proportion of N derived from symbiotic N2 fixation, and soil N accumulation. With increasing fertilizer N supply, intercropped and sole cropped wheat responded with increased yield, grain N yield and soil N accumulation, whereas the opposite was the case for pea. Fertilizer N...

  9. Convergence in fertility of South Africans and Mozambicans in rural South Africa, 1993–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Garenne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there are significant numbers of people displaced by war in Africa, very little is known about long-term changes in the fertility of refugees. Refugees of the Mozambican civil war (1977–1992 settled in many neighbouring countries, including South Africa. A large number of Mozambican refugees settled within the Agincourt sub-district, underpinned by a Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance Site (AHDSS, established in 1992, and have remained there. The AHDSS data provide a unique opportunity to study changes in fertility over time and the role that the fertility of self-settled refugee populations plays in the overall fertility level of the host community, a highly relevant factor in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives: To examine the change in fertility of former Mozambican self-settled refugees over a period of 16 years and to compare the overall fertility and fertility patterns of Mozambicans to host South Africans. Design: Prospective data from the AHDSS on births from 1993 to 2009 were used to compare fertility trends and patterns and to examine socio-economic factors that may be associated with fertility change. Results: There has been a sharp decline in fertility in the Mozambican population and convergence in fertility patterns of Mozambican and local South African women. The convergence of fertility patterns coincides with a convergence in other socio-economic factors. Conclusion: The fertility of Mozambicans has decreased significantly and Mozambicans are adopting the childbearing patterns of South African women. The decline in Mozambican fertility has occurred alongside socio-economic gains. There remains, however, high unemployment and endemic poverty in the area and fertility is not likely to decrease further without increased delivery of family planning to adolescents and increased education and job opportunities for women.

  10. The fate of phosphorus fertilizer in Amazon soya bean fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Shelby H; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Tubbesing, Carmen; Mahowald, Natalie

    2013-06-05

    Fertilizer-intensive soya bean agriculture has recently expanded in southeastern Amazonia, and whereas intensive fertilizer use in the temperate zone has led to widespread eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, the effects in tropical systems are less well understood. We examined the fate of fertilizer phosphorus (P) by comparing P forms and budgets across a chronosequence of soya bean fields (converted to soya beans between 2003 and 2008) and forests on an 800 km(2) soya bean farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Soya bean fields were fertilized with 50 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) (30 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) above what is removed in crops). We used modified Hedley fractionation to quantify soil P pools and found increases in less-plant-available inorganic pools and decreases in organic pools in agricultural soils compared with forest. Fertilizer P did not move below 20 cm. Measurements of P sorption capacity suggest that while fertilizer inputs quench close to half of the sorption capacity of fast-reacting pools, most added P is bound in more slowly reacting pools. Our data suggest that this agricultural system currently has a low risk of P losses to waterways and that long time-scales are required to reach critical soil thresholds that would allow continued high yields with reduced fertilizer inputs.

  11. The effect of female education on fertility: a simple explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A K

    1981-11-01

    This paper investigates the structure of the relationship between female education and fertility. It is based on data published in First Country Reports of the World Fertility Surveys for eleven countries--Costa Rica, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Panama, Fiji, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Indonesia. The cumulative marital fertility of educated women is shown to be similar in different settings. A lack of uniformity in the education and fertility relationship including the curvilinear nature of this relationship observed across countries is shown to be attributable to marked differences between countries in the average fertility of women with no education rather than to the presumed differences in the average fertility of the educated women. The structure of the relationship is shown to be similar across several developing countries. This analysis suggests that advancement in female education can be expected to influence fertility behavior even without simultaneous changes in other factors such as increasing opportunity for participation in the paid labor force in the modern sector.

  12. Approximation to a model of sustainable fertilization in coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Francisco J

    1999-01-01

    In the actuality famous investigators of the agriculture think that the non-equilibrium and inconvenient inherent the chemical fertilizers are the result of the disorder produced by the high entropy of these fertilizers. In spite of that, much investigation's works increment the result without to decrease the chemical fertilizer doses in crops. The present work continues an investigation begun in 1994 in la Union town Department of Narino Colombia, about an organic fertilization alternative system and improvement of soils of coffee, with the purpose to find low doses of chemical fertilizers in combination with organic manures able to compete with the chemical conventional system. In the experiment found that low-middle doses of coffee pulp and production's fertilizers correspondent to 3 kg/coffee pulp/small boxes and 35 g/17-6-18-2/plant, produced 68 % more than the full doses of the module 2 of Cenicafe. The before result indicates that it's possible to decrease costs, to improve the quality and to increase significantly the coffee production, inclusive it can improve the environmental supply or history production, without high doses of chemical fertilizer

  13. From desires to behavior: Moderating factors in a fertility transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Hayford

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Extensive research in both developed and developing countries has shown that preferences and intentions for future childbearing predict behavior. However, very little of this research has examined high-fertility contexts in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, the factors that increase or decrease correspondence between fertility desires and behavior in these settings are not well understood. OBJECTIVE This article documents the degree to which the desire to stop childbearing predicts fertility behavior over the short term among married women in rural southern Mozambique, a context where fertility transition is still in the early stages. Analyses test the moderating powers of individual, household, and community characteristics. METHODS Analyses use data from a longitudinal survey of married women of reproductive age (N=1678 carried out in 2006 and 2009 in rural areas of southern Mozambique. Logistic regression models are estimated to predict childbearing between 2006 and 2009 based on desires to stop childbearing and characteristics measured in 2006. RESULTS As expected, the desire to stop childbearing is strongly predictive of fertility behavior. Household wealth, local adult AIDS mortality, and being married to an unsuccessful labor migrant are associated with higher correspondence between reported desire to stop childbearing and fertility behavior. CONCLUSIONS Both factors related to the ability to carry out desires to stop childbearing and factors related to the strength and consistency of these desires moderate the association between desires and behaviors. Future research should expand measurement of fertility preferences to incorporate their strength and consistency as well as direction.

  14. Rising up: Fertility trends in Egypt before and after the revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovich, Emma; El-Shitany, Atef; Sholkamy, Hania; Benova, Lenka

    2018-01-01

    In 2014, Egypt's Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) documented an increase in the total fertility rate (TFR) to 3.5, up from a low of 3.0 recorded by the 2008 EDHS. The increase has been anecdotally attributed to the social upheaval following Egypt's January 2011 revolution, but little is known about when fertility first began to increase and among which sub-groups of women. Using birth histories from seven rounds of EDHS (1992-2014), this study reconstructed fertility rates for single years from 1990-2013 and examined patterns of childbearing in five-year birth cohorts of women. We found that the decline in fertility reversed in 2007, earlier than postulated, plateaued and then increased again in 2013. The increase in TFR coincided with a convergence of fertility rates across education levels, and there is evidence of a shift toward childbearing at younger ages among more educated women, which may be inflating period measures of fertility.

  15. Spatial and temporal variations of crop fertilization and soil fertility in the loess plateau in china from the 1970s to the 2000s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoying; Tong, Yanan; Gao, Yimin; Gao, Pengcheng; Liu, Fen; Zhao, Zuoping; Pang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Increased fertilizer input in agricultural systems during the last few decades has resulted in large yield increases, but also in environmental problems. We used data from published papers and a soil testing and fertilization project in Shaanxi province during the years 2005 to 2009 to analyze chemical fertilizer inputs and yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) on the farmers' level, and soil fertility change from the 1970s to the 2000s in the Loess Plateau in China. The results showed that in different regions of the province, chemical fertilizer NPK inputs and yields of wheat and maize increased. With regard to soil nutrient balance, N and P gradually changed from deficit to surplus levels, while K deficiency became more severe. In addition, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium increased during the same period. The PFP of N, NP and NPK on wheat and maize all decreased from the 1970s to the 2000s as a whole. With the increase in N fertilizer inputs, both soil total nitrogen and alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen increased; P fertilizer increased soil available phosphorus and K fertilizer increased soil available potassium. At the same time, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium all had positive impacts on crop yields. In order to promote food safety and environmental protection, fertilizer requirements should be assessed at the farmers' level. In many cases, farmers should be encouraged to reduce nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer inputs significantly, but increase potassium fertilizer and organic manure on cereal crops as a whole.

  16. Research Progress in the Effect and Mechanism of Fertilization Measures on Soil Fertility

    OpenAIRE

    HUANG, Dongfeng; WANG, Limin; LI, Weihua; QIU, Xiaoxuan

    2015-01-01

    This paper firstly summarized the domestic and foreign research progress in the relationship between fertilization measures and soil fertility. It elaborated the relationship between fertilization measures and basic physical and chemical properties, soil enzyme activity, soil microorganism fertility index, and soil animal fertility index. It pointed out future researches about the relationship between fertilization measures and soil fertility include: (i) the relationship between fine and hig...

  17. Analysis of the effectiveness of fertilizer subsidy policy and its effect on rice production in Karanganyar Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyadiana, A. T.; Marwanti, S.; Rahayu, W.

    2018-03-01

    The research aims to know the factors which affecting rice production, and to know the effectiveness of fertilizer subsidy policy on rice production in Karanganyar Regency. The fertilizer subsidy policy was based on four indicators of fertilizer subsidy namely exact price, exact place, exact time, and exact quantity. Data was analyzed using descriptive quantitative and qualitative and multiple linear regression. The result of research showed that fertilizer subsidy policy in Karanganyar Regency evaluated from four indicators was not effective because the distribution of fertilizer subsidy to farmers still experience some mistakes. The result of regression analysis showed that production factors such as land area, use of urea fertilizer, use of NPK fertilizer, and effectiveness of fertilizer subsidy policy had positive correlation and significant influence on rice production, while labor utilization and use of seeds factors had no significant effect on rice production in Karanganyar Regency. This means that if the fertilizer subsidy policy is more effective, rice production is also increased.

  18. Nucleocapsid Protein from Fig Mosaic Virus Forms Cytoplasmic Agglomerates That Are Hauled by Endoplasmic Reticulum Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kazuya; Miura, Chihiro; Maejima, Kensaku; Komatsu, Ken; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Tomomitsu, Tatsuya; Fukuoka, Misato; Yusa, Akira; Yamaji, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although many studies have demonstrated intracellular movement of viral proteins or viral replication complexes, little is known about the mechanisms of their motility. In this study, we analyzed the localization and motility of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) of Fig mosaic virus (FMV), a negative-strand RNA virus belonging to the recently established genus Emaravirus. Electron microscopy of FMV-infected cells using immunogold labeling showed that NPs formed cytoplasmic agglomerates that were predominantly enveloped by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, while nonenveloped NP agglomerates also localized along the ER. Likewise, transiently expressed NPs formed agglomerates, designated NP bodies (NBs), in close proximity to the ER, as was the case in FMV-infected cells. Subcellular fractionation and electron microscopic analyses of NP-expressing cells revealed that NBs localized in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we found that NBs moved rapidly with the streaming of the ER in an actomyosin-dependent manner. Brefeldin A treatment at a high concentration to disturb the ER network configuration induced aberrant accumulation of NBs in the perinuclear region, indicating that the ER network configuration is related to NB localization. Dominant negative inhibition of the class XI myosins, XI-1, XI-2, and XI-K, affected both ER streaming and NB movement in a similar pattern. Taken together, these results showed that NBs localize in the cytoplasm but in close proximity to the ER membrane to form enveloped particles and that this causes passive movements of cytoplasmic NBs by ER streaming. IMPORTANCE Intracellular trafficking is a primary and essential step for the cell-to-cell movement of viruses. To date, many studies have demonstrated the rapid intracellular movement of viral factors but have failed to provide evidence for the mechanism or biological significance of this motility. Here, we observed that agglomerates of nucleocapsid protein (NP) moved rapidly

  19. EFFECT OF SOIL SULFUR FERTILIZER AND SOME FOLIAR FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF BROCCOLI IN SALINE SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Husain JASIM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Factorial experiment was conducted in the open fields of Agricultural College, Al-Qasim Green University during the agricultural seasons of 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 to study the effect of adding two levels of agricultural sulfur (control and add 100 kg.ha-1 and four levels of nutrient spray (without spray, high-potash fertilizer, high-phosphorus fertilizer and humic acid on growth and yield of broccoli under drip irrigation and polyethylene soil mulching in saline soil (9.6 dS.m-1. Randomized complete block design with three replicates was used. The results showed that agricultural sulfur led to increase number of leaves, leaf area, leaves chlorophyll content, diameter and weight of flower head compared to control. Spraying foliar fertilizer and its interaction with sulfur fertilizer also led to increase all of parameters above (except leaves chlorophyll content significantly compared to control treatment.

  20. Phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase Fig 4p is required for both acute rise and subsequent fall in stress-induced phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duex, Jason E; Nau, Johnathan J; Kauffman, Emily J; Weisman, Lois S

    2006-04-01

    Phosphoinositide lipids regulate complex events via the recruitment of proteins to a specialized region of the membrane at a specific time. Precise control of both the synthesis and turnover of phosphoinositide lipids is integral to membrane trafficking, signal transduction, and cytoskeletal rearrangements. Little is known about the acute regulation of the levels of these signaling lipids. When Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are treated with hyperosmotic medium the levels of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI3,5P(2)) increase 20-fold. Here we show that this 20-fold increase is rapid and occurs within 5 min. Surprisingly, these elevated levels are transient. Fifteen minutes following hyperosmotic shock they decrease at a rapid rate, even though the cells remain in hyperosmotic medium. In parallel with the rapid increase in the levels of PI3,5P(2), vacuole volume decreases rapidly. Furthermore, concomitant with a return to basal levels of PI3,5P(2) vacuole volume is restored. We show that Fig 4p, consistent with its proposed role as a PI3,5P(2) 5-phosphatase, is required in vivo for this rapid return to basal levels of PI3,5P(2). Surprisingly, we find that Fig 4p is also required for the hyperosmotic shock-induced increase in PI3,5P(2) levels. These findings demonstrate that following hyperosmotic shock, large, transient changes occur in the levels of PI3,5P(2) and further suggest that Fig 4p is important in regulating both the acute rise and subsequent fall in PI3,5P(2) levels.