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Sample records for ferroelectric barium titanate

  1. Enhanced flexoelectricity through residual ferroelectricity in barium strontium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, Lauren M.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Residual ferroelectricity is observed in barium strontium titanate ceramics over 30 °C above the global phase transition temperature, in the same temperature range in which anomalously large flexoelectric coefficients are reported. The application of a strain gradient leads to strain gradient-induced poling or flexoelectric poling. This was observed by the development of a remanent polarization in flexoelectric measurements, an induced d 33 piezoelectric response even after the strain gradient was removed, and the production of an internal bias of 9 kV m −1 . It is concluded that residual ferroelectric response considerably enhances the observed flexoelectric response

  2. Enhanced flexoelectricity through residual ferroelectricity in barium strontium titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, Lauren M., E-mail: lmg309@psu.edu; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2015-03-07

    Residual ferroelectricity is observed in barium strontium titanate ceramics over 30 °C above the global phase transition temperature, in the same temperature range in which anomalously large flexoelectric coefficients are reported. The application of a strain gradient leads to strain gradient-induced poling or flexoelectric poling. This was observed by the development of a remanent polarization in flexoelectric measurements, an induced d{sub 33} piezoelectric response even after the strain gradient was removed, and the production of an internal bias of 9 kV m{sup −1}. It is concluded that residual ferroelectric response considerably enhances the observed flexoelectric response.

  3. Enhanced flexoelectricity through residual ferroelectricity in barium strontium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garten, Lauren M.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Residual ferroelectricity is observed in barium strontium titanate ceramics over 30 °C above the global phase transition temperature, in the same temperature range in which anomalously large flexoelectric coefficients are reported. The application of a strain gradient leads to strain gradient-induced poling or flexoelectric poling. This was observed by the development of a remanent polarization in flexoelectric measurements, an induced d33 piezoelectric response even after the strain gradient was removed, and the production of an internal bias of 9 kV m-1. It is concluded that residual ferroelectric response considerably enhances the observed flexoelectric response.

  4. Polarization switching kinetics in ultrathin ferroelectric barium titanate film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaynutdinov, R., E-mail: rgaynutdinov@gmail.com [Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119333 (Russian Federation); Minnekaev, M., E-mail: m.minnekaev@gmail.com [NRNU Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Mitko, S., E-mail: sergey_m@ntmdt.ru [NT-MDT Co., Moscow 124482 (Russian Federation); Tolstikhina, A., E-mail: alla@ns.crys.ras.ru [Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119333 (Russian Federation); Zenkevich, A., E-mail: avzenkevich@mephi.ru [NRNU Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Ducharme, S., E-mail: sducharme@unl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE 68588-0299 (United States); Fridkin, V., E-mail: fridkin@ns.crys.ras.ru [Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119333 (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-01

    The investigation of polarization switching kinetics in an ultrathin barium titanate film reveals true threshold switching at a large coercive electric field, evidence that switching is of intrinsic thermodynamic nature, rather than of extrinsic nature initiated by thermal nucleation, which has no true threshold field. The switching speed of a 7 nm thick epitaxial film exhibits a critical slowing as the threshold is approached from above, a key characteristic of intrinsic switching. In contrast, a bulk crystal exhibits nucleation-initiated switching, which has no threshold, and proceeds even at fields well below the nominal coercive field, which was determined independently from the polarization-electric field hysteresis loop. Previously, this phenomenon was only reported for ultrathin ferroelectric polymer Langmuir–Blodgett films. Since both the thermodynamic coercive field and the intrinsic switching kinetics are derived from the mean field theory of ferroelectricity, we expect that these phenomena will be found in other ferroelectric films at the nanoscale.

  5. Room-temperature biosynthesis of ferroelectric barium titanate nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Vipul; Poddar, Pankaj; Ahmad, Absar; Sastry, Murali

    2006-09-13

    The syntheses of inorganic materials by biological systems is characterized by processes that occur close to ambient temperatures, pressures, and neutral pH, as is exemplified by biosilicification and biomineralization processes in nature. Conversely, laboratory-based syntheses of oxide materials often require extremes of temperature and pressure. We have shown here the extracellular, room-temperature biosynthesis of 4-5 nm ternary oxide nanoparticles such as barium titanate (BT) using a fungus-mediated approach. The tetragonality as well as a lowered Curie transition temperature in sub-10 nm particles was established, and the ferroelectricity in these particles was shown using Kelvin probe microscopy.

  6. Study of the structure of ferroelectric domain walls in barium titanate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normand, L.; Thorel, A. [Centre des Materiaux, Evry cedex (France) ; Kilaas, R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Montardi, Y. [Rhone-Poulenc, CRA, Aubervilliers (France)

    1995-02-01

    Structure of 90{degree} ferroelectric domain boundaries in barium titanate ceramics has been studied by means of Transmission Electron Microscopy and High Resolution TEM. Tilts of specific fringes across domain walls are measured on HREM images and Selected Area Diffraction Patterns. They are in a good agreement with the twin model admitted for these domain boundaries. A computerized method has been developed to give access to quantitative information about atomic displacements across these ferroelectric domain walls. The so calculated displacement field is then compared with Landau-Ginzburg based theoretical predictions.

  7. Thermostable ferroelectric capacitors based on graded films of barium strontium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumarkin, A. V.; Razumov, S. V.; Volpyas, V. A.; Gagarin, A. G.; Odinets, A. A.; Zlygostov, M. V.; Sapego, E. N.

    2017-10-01

    The influence of the pressure of working gas during the ion-plasma sputtering on properties of deposited ferroelectric barium strontium titanate coatings has been experimentally studied. Variations in the of pressure of the working gas during deposition allows the component composition of the deposited layer to be changed, which leads to the diffusion of the phase transition and the improvement of temperature stability of properties of ferroelectric film. The gradation of layers has an impact on the temperature of the dielectric permittivity maximum, the shape of the dependence of the capacity on temperature, and the capacitance-voltage characteristics of the capacitor structures.

  8. Specific features of the ferroelectric state in two-layer barium strontium titanate-based heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryukov, D. V.; Mukhortov, V. M.; Golovko, Yu. I.; Biryukov, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The structural properties of one- and two-layer heterostructures based on the barium-strontium titanate of various compositions deposited by the Frank-Van der Merve on a magnesium oxide substrate have been studied. The heterostructures have been prepared by the rf sputtering of the stoichiometric ceramic targets in a Plazma 50 SE deposition system. The principal difference of this method of deposition from known analogs is that the growth of single-crystal films occurs from a disperse oxide phase formed in the plasma of a high-current rf discharge during the ceramic target sputtering at the cluster level. The peculiarities of the manifestation of the ferroelectric state in the two-layer heterostructures when changing the sequence order of the films with various compositions of barium-strontium titanate.

  9. Unfolding grain size effects in barium titanate ferroelectric ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yongqiang; Zhang, Jialiang; Wu, Yanqing; Wang, Chunlei; Koval, Vladimir; Shi, Baogui; Ye, Haitao; McKinnon, Ruth; Viola, Giuseppe; Yan, Haixue

    2015-01-01

    Grain size effects on the physical properties of polycrystalline ferroelectrics have been extensively studied for decades; however there are still major controversies regarding the dependence of the piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties on the grain size. Dense BaTiO3 ceramics with different grain sizes were fabricated by either conventional sintering or spark plasma sintering using micro- and nano-sized powders. The results show that the grain size effect on the dielectric permittivity is nearly independent of the sintering method and starting powder used. A peak in the permittivity is observed in all the ceramics with a grain size near 1 μm and can be attributed to a maximum domain wall density and mobility. The piezoelectric coefficient d33 and remnant polarization Pr show diverse grain size effects depending on the particle size of the starting powder and sintering temperature. This suggests that besides domain wall density, other factors such as back fields and point defects, which influence the domain wall mobility, could be responsible for the different grain size dependence observed in the dielectric and piezoelectric/ferroelectric properties. In cases where point defects are not the dominant contributor, the piezoelectric constant d33 and the remnant polarization Pr increase with increasing grain size. PMID:25951408

  10. Unfolding grain size effects in barium titanate ferroelectric ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yongqiang; Zhang, Jialiang; Wu, Yanqing; Wang, Chunlei; Koval, Vladimir; Shi, Baogui; Ye, Haitao; McKinnon, Ruth; Viola, Giuseppe; Yan, Haixue

    2015-05-07

    Grain size effects on the physical properties of polycrystalline ferroelectrics have been extensively studied for decades; however there are still major controversies regarding the dependence of the piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties on the grain size. Dense BaTiO3 ceramics with different grain sizes were fabricated by either conventional sintering or spark plasma sintering using micro- and nano-sized powders. The results show that the grain size effect on the dielectric permittivity is nearly independent of the sintering method and starting powder used. A peak in the permittivity is observed in all the ceramics with a grain size near 1 μm and can be attributed to a maximum domain wall density and mobility. The piezoelectric coefficient d33 and remnant polarization Pr show diverse grain size effects depending on the particle size of the starting powder and sintering temperature. This suggests that besides domain wall density, other factors such as back fields and point defects, which influence the domain wall mobility, could be responsible for the different grain size dependence observed in the dielectric and piezoelectric/ferroelectric properties. In cases where point defects are not the dominant contributor, the piezoelectric constant d33 and the remnant polarization Pr increase with increasing grain size.

  11. Poly (vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/barium titanate nanocomposite for ferroelectric nonvolatile memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiyaneerilakkal, Uvais; Varghese, Soney

    2013-01-01

    The effect of barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ) nanoparticles (particle size <100 nm) on the ferroelectric properties of poly (vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer has been studied. Different concentrations of nanoparticles were added to P(VDF-TrFE) using probe sonication, and uniform thin films were made. Polarisation - Electric field (P-E) hysteresis analysis shows an increase in remnant polarization (P r ) and decrease in coercive voltage (V c ). Piezo-response force microscopy analysis shows the switching capability of the polymer composite. The topography and surface roughness was studied using atomic force microscopy. It has been observed that this nanocomposite can be used for the fabrication of non-volatile ferroelectric memory devices.

  12. Poly (vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene/barium titanate nanocomposite for ferroelectric nonvolatile memory devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvais Valiyaneerilakkal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of barium titanate (BaTiO3 nanoparticles (particle size <100nm on the ferroelectric properties of poly (vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene P(VDF-TrFE copolymer has been studied. Different concentrations of nanoparticles were added to P(VDF-TrFE using probe sonication, and uniform thin films were made. Polarisation - Electric field (P-E hysteresis analysis shows an increase in remnant polarization (Pr and decrease in coercive voltage (Vc. Piezo-response force microscopy analysis shows the switching capability of the polymer composite. The topography and surface roughness was studied using atomic force microscopy. It has been observed that this nanocomposite can be used for the fabrication of non-volatile ferroelectric memory devices.

  13. Scaling issues in ferroelectric barium strontium titanate tunable planar capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Peter G; Haridasan, Vrinda; Feng, Zhiping; Steer, Michael B; Kingon, Angus I; Maria, Jon-Paul

    2012-02-01

    We report on the geometric limits associated with tunability of interdigitated capacitors, specifically regarding the impact of a parasitic non-tunable component that necessarily accompanies a ferroelectric surface capacitor, and can dominate the voltage-dependent response as capacitor dimensions are reduced to achieve the small capacitance values required for impedance matching in the X band. We present a case study of simple gap capacitors prepared and characterized as a function of gap width (i.e., the distance between electrodes) and gap length (i.e., the edge-to-edge gap distance). Our series of measurements reveals that for gap widths in the micrometer range, as gap lengths are reduced to meet sub-picofarad capacitance values, the non-tunable parasitic elements limit the effective tunability. These experimental measurements are supported by a companion set of microwave models that clarify the existence of parallel parasitic elements.

  14. Nucleation in the presence of long-range interactions. [performed on ferroelectric barium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, P.

    1989-01-01

    Unlike droplet nucleation near a liquid-gas critical point, the decay of metastable phases in crystalline materials is strongly affected by the presence of long-range forces. Field quench experiments performed on the ferroelectric barium titanate indicate that nucleation in this material is markedly different from that observed in liquids. In this paper, a theory for nucleation at a first-order phase transition in which the mediating forces are long range is presented. It is found that the long-range force induces cooperative nucleation and growth processes, and that this feedback mechanism produces a well-defined delay time with a sharp onset in the transformation to the stable phase. Closed-form expressions for the characteristic onset time and width of the transition are developed, in good agreement with numerical and experimental results.

  15. Chemical preparation of ferroelectric mesoporous barium titanate thin films: drastic enhancement of Curie temperature induced by mesopore-derived strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Norihiro; Jiang, Xiangfen; Salunkhe, Rahul R; Osada, Minoru; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2014-09-01

    Mesoporous barium titanate (BT) thin films are synthesized by a surfactant-assisted sol-gel method. The obtained mesoporous BT thin films show enhanced ferroelectricity due to the effective strains induced by mesopores. The Curie temperature (T(c)) of the mesoporous BT reaches approximately 470 °C. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Residual ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, and flexoelectricity in barium strontium titanate tunable dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garten, Lauren M.

    response in these materials. Residual ferroelectricity is observed in barium strontium titanate ceramics 30°C above the global phase transition temperature, in the same temperature range in which anomalously large flexoelectric coefficients are reported. The application of a strain gradient in this temperature range was shown to lead to strain gradient-induced poling, or flexoelectric poling, enhancing the flexoelectric response. Flexoelectric poling was observed by the development of a remanent polarization in flexoelectric measurements upon the removal of the applied strain gradient. Additionally, an induced d33 piezoelectric response was observed in samples after the removal of the applied strain gradient, indicating that the polarization was realigned during flexoelectric measurements. Flexoelectric poling lead to the production of an internal bias of 9 kV/m. It is concluded that residual ferroelectric response considerably enhances the observed flexoelectric response. In order to investigate the effects of dc electric field induced piezoelectricity, metrology was designed, developed and calibrated for the measurement of the e31,f piezoelectric coefficient as a function of applied electric field and strain. This allowed for direct measurements of the field-induced piezoelectric response for Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 (70:30) and Ba 0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (60:40) thin films on MgO and silicon. The relative dielectric tunabilities for the 70:30 and 60:40 composition on MgO were 83% and 70% respectively, with a dielectric loss of 0.011 and 0.004 at 100 kHz respectively. A linear increase in induced piezoelectricity with field to --3.0 C/m2 and --1.5 C/m2 at 110 kV/cm was observed in 60:40 BST on MgO and 70:30 BST on Si. Large and hysteretic piezoelectric and tuning responses were observed in the 70:30 BST thin films on MgO. This was consistent with the irreversible Rayleigh behavior, indicating a ferroelectric contribution to the piezoelectric and dielectric response 40°C above the global

  17. A theoretical investigation of the influence of the surface effect on the ferroelectric property of strained barium titanate film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chao; Liu, Wei Hua

    2017-07-01

    The influence of the surface effect on the ferroelectric property of strained barium titanate film has been investigated. In this study, based on time-dependent Ginsburg-Landau-Devonshire thermodynamic theory, the surface effects have been simulated by introducing a surface constant, which leads to the strained BaTiO3 film consisting of inner tetragonal core and gradient lattice strain layer. Further, surface effects produce a depolarization field which has a dominant effect on the ferroelectric properties of the films. The spontaneous polarization, dielectric properties and ferroelectric hysteresis loop of BaTiO3 film are calculated under different boundary conditions. Theoretical and experimental results for strained BaTiO3 film are compared and discussed.

  18. Studies of ferroelectric and dielectric properties of pure and doped barium titanate prepared by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisen, Supriya; Mishra, Ashutosh; Jarabana, Kanaka M. [School of Physics, Vigyan Bhawan, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road Indore-452001 (India)

    2016-05-23

    In this work, Barium Titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) powders were synthesized via Sol-Gel auto combustion method using citric acid as a chelating agent. We study the behavior of ferroelectric and dielectric properties of pure and doped BaTiO{sub 3} on different concentration. To understand the phase and structure of the powder calcined at 900°C were characterized by X-ray Diffraction shows that tetragonal phase is dominant for pure and doped BTO and data fitted by Rietveld Refinement. Electric and Dielectric properties were characterized by P-E Hysteresis and Dielectric measurement. In P-E measurement ferroelectric loop tracer applied for different voltage. The temperature dependant dielectric constant behavior was observed as a function of frequency recorded on hp-Hewlett Packard 4192A, LF impedance, 5Hz-13Hz analyzer.

  19. Dielectric properties of composite based on ferroelectric copolymer of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene and ferroelectric ceramics of barium lead zirconate titanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Solnyshkin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of dielectric properties of composite films on the base of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene copolymer P(VDF-TrFE and ferroelectric ceramics of barium lead zirconate titanate (BPZT solid solution is presented in this work. The composite films containing up to 50 vol.% of BPZT grains with size ∼1μm were prepared by the solvent cast method. Frequency dependences of real and imaginary components of the complex permittivity were determined. The concentration dependence of the dielectric constant was discussed.

  20. Domain epitaxial growth of ferroelectric films of barium strontium titanate on sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumarkin, A. V.; Odinets, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    A model of the epitaxial growth of crystalline multicomponent films on single-crystal substrates with a domain correspondence is presented using a solid solution of barium strontium titanate on sapphire substrates ( r cut). The domain epitaxial growth suggests the matching of the lattice planes of the film and the substrate having similar structures by comparison of domain multiple of an integral number of the interplanar spacings. Variation of the component composition of the solid solution enables changes in the domain size in the range sufficient for epitaxial growth. This method can be used to project the epitaxial growth of films of various solid solutions on single-crystal substrates.

  1. Origin of thermally stable ferroelectricity in a porous barium titanate thin film synthesized through block copolymer templating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Suzuki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A porous barium titanate (BaTiO3 thin film was chemically synthesized using a surfactant-assisted sol-gel method in which micelles of amphipathic diblock copolymers served as structure-directing agents. In the Raman spectrum of the porous BaTiO3 thin film, a peak corresponding to the ferroelectric tetragonal phase was observed at around 710 cm−1, and it remained stable at much higher temperature than the Curie temperature of bulk single-crystal BaTiO3 (∼130 °C. Measurements revealed that the ferroelectricity of the BaTiO3 thin film has high thermal stability. By analyzing high-resolution transmission electron microscope images of the BaTiO3 thin film by the fast Fourier transform mapping method, the spatial distribution of stress in the BaTiO3 framework was clearly visualized. Careful analysis also indicated that the porosity in the BaTiO3 thin film introduced anisotropic compressive stress, which deformed the crystals. The resulting elongated unit cell caused further displacement of the Ti4+ cation from the center of the lattice. This displacement increased the electric dipole moment of the BaTiO3 thin film, effectively enhancing its ferro(piezoelectricity.

  2. History and challenges of barium titanate: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijatović M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanate is the first ferroelectric ceramics and a good candidate for a variety of applications due to its excellent dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. Barium titanate is a member of a large family of compounds with the general formula ABO3 which is called perovskite. Barium titanate can be prepared using different methods. The synthesis method depends on the desired characteristics for the end application and the method used has a significant influence on the structure and properties of barium titanate materials. In this review paper, in Part II the properties of obtained materials and their application are presented.

  3. History and challenges of barium titanate: Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijatović M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanate is the first ferroelectric ceramics and a good candidate for a variety of applications due to its excellent dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. Barium titanate is a member of a large family of compounds with the general formula ABO3 called perovskites. Barium titanate can be prepared using different methods. The synthesis method depends on the desired characteristics for the end application. The used method has a significant influence on the structure and properties of barium titanate materials. In this review paper, Part I contains a study of the BaTiO3 structure and frequently used synthesis methods.

  4. Nanoscale symmetry fluctuations in ferroelectric barium titanate, BaTiO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yu Tsun; Zuo, Jian Min

    2017-08-01

    Crystal charge density is a ground-state electronic property. In ferroelectrics, charge is strongly influenced by lattice and vice versa, leading to a range of interesting temperature-dependent physical properties. However, experimental determination of charge in ferroelectrics is challenging because of the formation of ferroelectric domains. Demonstrated here is the scanning convergent-beam electron diffraction (SCBED) technique that can be simultaneously used for imaging ferroelectric domains and identifying crystal symmetry and its fluctuations. Results from SCBED confirm the acentric tetragonal, orthorhombic and rhombohedral symmetry for the ferroelectric phases of BaTiO 3 . However, the symmetry is not homogeneous; regions of a few tens of nanometres retaining almost perfect symmetry are interspersed in regions of lower symmetry. While the observed highest symmetry is consistent with the displacive model of ferroelectric phase transitions in BaTiO 3 , the observed nanoscale symmetry fluctuations are consistent with the predictions of the order-disorder phase-transition mechanism.

  5. Electrical characterization of zirconium substituted barium titanate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nyquist (Cole–Cole) plots show both inter and intra grain boundary ... Ferroelectrics; barium zirconate titanate; complex impedance spectroscopy. ... The impedance plots in the complex plane appear in the form of succe- ssion of semicircles representing electrical phenomena due to the bulk material, grain boundary effect ...

  6. Study of the photovoltaic effect in thin film barium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannemann, W. W.; Dharmadhikari, V. S.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of making non-volatile digital memory devices of barium titanate, BaTiO3, that are integrated onto a silicon substrate with the required ferroelectric film produced by processing, compatible with silicon technology was examined.

  7. The Overview of The Electrical Properties of Barium Titanate

    OpenAIRE

    Burcu Ertuğ

    2013-01-01

    The perovskite family includes many titanates used in various electroceramic applications, for example, electronic, electro-optical, and electromechanical applications of ceramics. Barium titanate, perovskite structure, is a common ferroelectric material with a high dielectric constant, widely utilized to manufacture electronic components such as mutilayer capacitors (MLCs), PTC thermistors, piezoelectric transducers, and a variety of electro-optic devices. Pure barium titanate is an insulato...

  8. Ferroelectric domain pattern in barium titanate single crystals studied by means of digital holographic microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mokrý, Pavel; Psota, Pavel; Steiger, Kateřina; Václavík, Jan; Doleček, Roman; Vápenka, David; Lédl, Vít

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 25 (2016), č. článku 255307. ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-32228S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : ferroelectric domain patterns * electro-optical materials * digital holographic microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0022-3727/49/25/255307

  9. Ferroelectric barium titanate nanocubes as capacitive building blocks for energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizi, Saman Salemizadeh; Mellinger, Axel; Caruntu, Gabriel

    2014-10-22

    Highly uniform polymer-ceramic nanocomposite films with high energy density values were fabricated by exploiting the unique ability of monodomain, nonaggregated BaTiO3 colloidal nanocrystals to function as capacitive building blocks when dispersed into a weakly interacting dielectric matrix. Monodisperse, surface-functionalized ferroelectric 15 nm BaTiO3 nanoparticles have been selectively incorporated with a high packing density into poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (P(VDF-HFP)) leading to the formation of biphasic BaTiO3-P(VDF-HFP) nanocomposite films. A systematic investigation of the electrical properties of the nanocomposites by electrostatic force microscopy and conventional dielectric measurements reveals that polymer-ceramic film capacitor structures exhibit a ferroelectric relaxor-type behavior with an increased intrinsic energy density. The composite containing 7% BaTiO3 nanocrystals displays a high permittivity (ε = 21) and a relatively high energy density (E = 4.66 J/cm(3)) at 150 MV/m, which is 166% higher than that of the neat polymer and exceeds the values reported in the literature for polymer-ceramic nanocomposites containing a similar amount of nanoparticle fillers. The easy processing and electrical properties of the polymer-ceramic nanocomposites make them suitable for implementation in pulse power capacitors, high power systems and other energy storage applications.

  10. Ferroelectric/Dielectric Double Gate Insulator Spin-Coated Using Barium Titanate Nanocrystals for an Indium Oxide Nanocrystal-Based Thin-Film Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hien Thu; Yang, Jin Ho; Lee, Don-Sung; Lee, Byoung Hun; Jeong, Hyun-Dam

    2016-03-23

    Barium titanate nanocrystals (BT NCs) were prepared under solvothermal conditions at 200 °C for 24 h. The shape of the BT NCs was tuned from nanodot to nanocube upon changing the polarity of the alcohol solvent, varying the nanosize in the range of 14-22 nm. Oleic acid-passivated NCs showed good solubility in a nonpolar solvent. The effect of size and shape of the BT NCs on the ferroelectric properties was also studied. The maximum polarization value of 7.2 μC/cm(2) was obtained for the BT-5 NC thin film. Dielectric measurements of the films showed comparable dielectric constant values of BT NCs over 1-100 kHz without significant loss. Furthermore, the bottom gate In2O3 NC thin film transistors exhibited outstanding device performance with a field-effect mobility of 11.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at a low applied gate voltage with BT-5 NC/SiO2 as the gate dielectric. The low-density trapped state was observed at the interface between the In2O3 NC semiconductor and the BT-5 NCs/SiO2 dielectric film. Furthermore, compensation of the applied gate field by an electric dipole-induced dipole field within the BT-5 NC film was also observed.

  11. Doped barium titanate nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    electric random access memories (FRAM) etc (Mathews et al 1997; Scott 1998; Park et al 1999). With the minia- turization of electronic devices, it is both scientifically interesting and technologically challenging to synthesize and characterize an ultrafine, preferably nanosized, bar- ium titanate powders. Bulk BaTiO3 has the ...

  12. Influence of Bias on the Friction Imaging of Ferroelectric Domains in Single Crystal Barium Titanate Energy Storage Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction imaging of newlycleaved surface domains of single crystal BaTiO3 energy storage materials under both positive and negative voltage bias is investigated by scanning force microscope. When the bias was applied and reversed, three regions with different brightness and contrast in friction image indicated different response to the biases: the friction image of domain A displayed a great change in brightness while domains B and C displayed only a very small change. Possible mechanisms of the interesting phenomena originating from different static force between different charged tip and the periodical array of surface charges inside the inplane domains were proposed. These results provide a new method for the determination of the polarization direction for the domain parallel to the surface and may be useful in the investigation of ferroelectric energy storage materials, especially the relationship between the polarization direction of domain and the bias.

  13. Hydrogen diffusion in lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvine, K. J.; Vijayakumar, M.; Bowden, M. E.; Schemer-Kohrn, A. L.; Pitman, S. G.

    2012-08-01

    Hydrogen is a potential clean-burning, next-generation fuel for vehicle and stationary power. Unfortunately, hydrogen is also well known to have serious materials compatibility issues in metals, polymers, and ceramics. Piezoelectric actuator materials proposed for low-cost, high efficiency high-pressure hydrogen internal combustion engines (HICE) are known to degrade rapidly in hydrogen. This limits their potential use and poses challenges for HICE. Hydrogen-induced degradation of piezoelectrics is also an issue for low-pressure hydrogen passivation in ferroelectric random access memory. Currently, there is a lack of data in the literature on hydrogen species diffusion in piezoelectrics in the temperature range appropriate for the HICE as charged via a gaseous route. We present 1HNMR quantification of the local hydrogen species diffusion within lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate on samples charged by exposure to high-pressure gaseous hydrogen ˜32 MPa. Results are discussed in context of theoretically predicted interstitial hydrogen lattice sites and aqueous charging experiments from existing literature.

  14. Nanostructured tetragonal barium titanate produced by the polyol and spark plasma sintering (SPS) route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Salas, Ulises; Breitwieser, Romain; Gaudisson, Thomas; Nowak, Sophie; Ammar, Souad; Valenzuela, Raúl

    2017-10-01

    There is a great interest to synthesize ferroelectric ceramics both with fine grain size and significant electric properties. Here, we report the preparation of nanostructured tetragonal barium titanate by combining forced hydrolysis of metallic salts in polyol, soft annealing and 650 °C spark plasma sintering under uniaxial pressure of 120 MPa for 5 min. The stabilization of highly dense (density of 90%), nanostructured (grains about 50 nm) tetragonal barium titanate ceramic was achieved. The produced ceramic exhibited ferroelectric behavior and a dielectric permittivity of 3600 at 1 kHz and room temperature.

  15. Synthesis of nanosized barium titanate/epoxy resin composites and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Barium titanate/epoxy resin composites have been synthesized and tested for microwave absorption/ transmission. Nanocrystalline barium titanate (BaTiO3 or BT) ... Anechoic chamber; barium titanate; electromagnetic interference and compatibility; epoxy resin ..... electromagnetic waves, the two port calibrations have been.

  16. Preparation and characterization of nanofibers barium strontium titanate using electrospinning route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraco, B.S.; Engel, A.B.; Alves, A.K.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    The barium strontium titanate (BST) is a ferroelectric material well known for exhibiting a ferroelectric transition temperature that can be adjusted by varying the Ba /Sr ratio. The reduction of the Curie point can be achieved by the substitution of strontium for barium. Due to the combination of interesting properties, such as high crystallographic orientation of grains and high thermal stability, ferroelectric fibers have attracted considerable interest for their potential use as functional ceramic fibers in the reinforcement of ceramics and metals. The electrospinning process is an effective method for the preparation of nano ceramic fibers with uniform diameter and having different composition. The objective of this work was to product and to characterize the structure and morphology of barium strontium titanate nanofibers made using the electrospinning method. (author)

  17. Mechanical and Microstructural Evaluation of Barium Strontium Titanate Thin Films for Improved Antenna Performance and Reliability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hubbard, C

    1999-01-01

    Ferroelectric barium strontium titanate (Ba(1-x)SrxTiO3 BSTO) films of 1-micron nominal thickness were deposited on single crystals of sapphire and electroded substrates at substrate temperatures varying from 30 deg C to 700 deg C...

  18. A plasmonic modulator based on metal-insulator-metal waveguide with barium titanate core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We design a plasmonic modulator which can be utilized as a compact active device in photonic integrated circuits. The active material, barium titanate (BaTiO3), is sandwiched between metal plates and changes its refractive index under applied voltage. Some degree of switching of ferroelectric...

  19. Electromechanical Response of Polycrystalline Barium Titanate Resolved at the Grain Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majkut, Marta; Daniels, John E.; Wright, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    critical for understanding bulk polycrystalline ferroic behavior. Here, three-dimensional X-ray diffraction is used to reconstruct a 3D grain map (grain orientations and neighborhoods) of a polycrystalline barium titanate sample and track the grain-scale non-180° ferroelectric domain switching strains...

  20. Impurities in barium titanate posistor ceramics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korniyenko, S. M.; Bykov, I. P.; Glinchuk, M. J.; Laguta, V. V.; Belous, A. G.; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 239, - (2000), s. 1209-1218 ISSN 0015-0193 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : barium titanate phase transition * ESR * positive temperature coefficient of resistivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.547, year: 2000

  1. Synthesis of Barium Titanate Using Deep Eutectic Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Rebecca; Foeller, Philip Y; Sinclair, Derek C; Reaney, Ian M

    2017-01-03

    Novel synthetic routes to prepare functional oxides at lower temperatures are an increasingly important area of research. Many of these synthetic routes, however, use water as the solvent and rely on dissolution of the precursors, precluding their use with, for example, titanates. Here we present a low-cost solvent system as a means to rapidly create phase-pure ferroelectric barium titanate using a choline chloride-malonic acid deep eutectic solvent. This solvent is compatible with alkoxide precursors and allows for the rapid synthesis of nanoscale barium titanate powders at 950 °C. The phase and morphology were determined, along with investigation of the synthetic pathway, with the reaction proceeding via BaCl 2 and TiO 2 intermediates. The powders were also used to create sintered ceramics, which exhibit a permittivity maximum corresponding to a tetragonal-cubic transition at 112 °C, as opposed to the more conventional temperature of ∼120 °C. The lower-than-expected value for the ferro- to para-electric phase transition is likely due to undetectable levels of contaminants.

  2. Barium titanate coated with magnesium titanate via fused salt method and its dielectric property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Renzheng; Cui Aili; Wang Xiaohui; Li Longtu

    2003-01-01

    Barium titanate fine particles were coated homogeneously with magnesium titanate via the fused salt method. The thickness of the magnesium titanate film is 20 nm, as verified by TEM and XRD. The mechanism of the coating is that: when magnesium chloride is liquated in 800 deg. C, magnesium will replace barium in barium titanate, and form magnesium titanate film on the surface of barium titanate particles. Ceramics sintered from the coated particles show improved high frequency ability. The dielectric constant is about 130 at the frequency from 1 to 800 MHz

  3. Deflocculants for Tape Casting Barium Titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    are discussed in detail by Mitchell and Smith (2). The measurement of free and bound water was performed by titration to an electrometric end point by...the dead- stop ( biamperometric ) technique using a Fisher Model 391 aquametry apparatus. The fundamental theory behind this technique is reviewed p in... Titrations were performed at 25 ± 10C. "i 9 For insoluble materials, such as the barium titanate powder, the solid was added to the pyridine solvent

  4. Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicken, Matthew J; Sweatlock, Luke A; Pacifici, Domenico; Lezec, Henri J; Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Atwater, Harry A

    2008-11-01

    We demonstrate control of the surface plasmon polariton wavevector in an active metal-dielectric plasmonic interferometer by utilizing electrooptic barium titanate as the dielectric layer. Arrays of subwavelength interferometers were fabricated from pairs of parallel slits milled in silver on barium titanate thin films. Plasmon-mediated transmission of incident light through the subwavelength slits is modulated by an external voltage applied across the barium titanate thin film. Transmitted light modulation is ascribed to two effects, electrically induced domain switching and electrooptic modulation of the barium titanate index.

  5. Relaxor properties of barium titanate crystals grown by Remeika method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Michel; Tiagunov, Jenia; Dul'kin, Evgeniy; Mojaev, Evgeny

    2017-06-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT) crystals have been grown by the Remeika method using both the regular KF and mixed KF-NaF (0.6-0.4) solvents. Typical acute angle "butterfly wing" BT crystals have been obtained, and they were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (including energy dispersive spectroscopy), conventional dielectric and acoustic emission methods. A typical wing has a triangular plate shape which is up to 0.5 mm thick with a 10-15 mm2 area. The plate has a (001) habit and an atomically smooth outer surface. Both K+ and F- solvent ions are incorporated as dopants into the crystal lattice during growth substituting for Ba2+ and O2- ions respectively. The dopants' distribution is found to be inhomogeneous, their content being almost an order of magnitude higher (up to 2 mol%) at out surface of the plate relatively to the bulk. A few μm thick surface layer is formed where a multidomain ferroelectric net is confined between two≤1 μm thick dopant-rich surfaces. The layer as a whole possess relaxor ferroelectric properties, which is apparent from the appearance of additional broad maxima, Tm, in the temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity around the ferroelectric phase transition. Intense acoustic emission responses detected at temperatures corresponding to the Tm values allow to observe the Tm shift to lower temperatures at higher frequencies, or dispersion, typical for relaxor ferroelectrics. The outer surface of the BT wing can thus serve as a relaxor thin film for various electronic application, such as capacitors, or as a substrate for BT-based multiferroic structure. Crystals grown from KF-NaF fluxes contain sodium atoms as an additional impurity, but the crystal yield is much smaller, and while the ferroelectric transition peak is diffuse it does not show any sign of dispersion typical for relaxor behavior.

  6. Anion and cation diffusion in barium titanate and strontium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, Markus Franz

    2012-01-01

    Perovskite oxides show various interesting properties providing several technical applications. In many cases the defect chemistry is the key to understand and influence the material's properties. In this work the defect chemistry of barium titanate and strontium titanate is analysed by anion and cation diffusion experiments and subsequent time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The reoxidation equation for barium titanate used in multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) is found out by a combination of different isotope exchange experiments and the analysis of the resulting tracer diffusion profiles. It is shown that the incorporation of oxygen from water vapour is faster by orders of magnitude than from molecular oxygen. Chemical analysis shows the samples contain various dopants leading to a complex defect chemistry. Dysprosium is the most important dopant, acting partially as a donor and partially as an acceptor in this effectively acceptor-doped material. TEM and EELS analysis show the inhomogeneous distribution of Dy in a core-shell microstructure. The oxygen partial pressure and temperature dependence of the oxygen tracer diffusion coefficients is analysed and explained by the complex defect chemistry of Dy-doped barium titanate. Additional fast diffusion profiles are attributed to fast diffusion along grain boundaries. In addition to the barium titanate ceramics from an important technical application, oxygen diffusion in cubic, nominally undoped BaTiO 3 single crystals has been studied by means of 18 O 2 / 16 O 2 isotope exchange annealing and subsequent determination of the isotope profiles in the solid by ToF-SIMS. It is shown that a correct description of the diffusion profiles requires the analysis of the diffusion through the surface space-charge into the material's bulk. Surface exchange coefficients, space-charge potentials and bulk diffusion coefficients are analysed as a function of oxygen partial pressure and temperature. The

  7. Barium titanate thin films deposited by electrophoresis on p-Doped Si (001) substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, J G; Pereira, M R; Moura, C; Mendes, J A; Almeida, B G

    2011-10-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3) thin films have been prepared by electrophoretic deposition on p-doped and platinum covered silicon (Si) substrates. Their structure, nanostructure and dielectric properties were characterized. The as-deposited films were polycrystalline and composed by barium titanate nanograins with an average grain size approximately 9 nm. Annealing at high temperatures promoted grain growth, so that the samples annealed at 600 degrees C presented average grain sizes approximately 24 nm. From Raman spectroscopy measurements it was found that the tetragonal (ferroelectric) BaTiO3 phase was stabilized on the films. Also, at higher annealing temperatures, cation disorder was reduced on the films. From measurements of the temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity the corresponding paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transition was determined. The observed transition temperature (approximately 100 degrees C) was found to be below the BaTiO3 bulk or thick film values, due to the small nanosized grains composing the films.

  8. Dielectric properties of barium titanate supramolecular nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun Hyung; Kao, Joseph; Parizi, Saman Salemizadeh; Caruntu, Gabriel; Xu, Ting

    2014-04-07

    Nanostructured dielectric composites can be obtained by dispersing high permittivity fillers, barium titanate (BTO) nanocubes, within a supramolecular framework. Thin films of BTO supramolecular nanocomposites exhibit a dielectric permittivity (εr) as high as 15 and a relatively low dielectric loss of ∼0.1 at 1 kHz. These results demonstrate a new route to control the dispersion of high permittivity fillers toward high permittivity dielectric nanocomposites with low loss. Furthermore, the present study shows that the size distribution of nanofillers plays a key role in their spatial distribution and local ordering and alignment within supramolecular nanostructures.

  9. Doping a mixture of two smectogenic liquid crystals with barium titanate nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Alexander; Zimmermann, Natalie; Kumar, Satyendra; Evans, Dean R; Cook, Gary; Fernández Martínez, Manuel; Kitzerow, Heinz-S

    2013-01-24

    A mixture of two smectic liquid crystals was doped with harvested ferroelectric barium titanate nanoparticles and investigated with wide- and small-angle X-ray scattering during cooling from the isotropic phase. A decrease in the isotropic to nematic and in the nematic to partially bilayer smectic-A(d) (SmA(d)) phase transition temperatures was observed accompanied by an increase of the layer spacing in the SmA(d) phase.

  10. Photoexcited-carrier transport in barium strontium titanate/strontium titanate heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, H.; Wang, J. Y.; Zhang, Z. T.; Yang, B.; Chen, C. L.; Jin, K. X.

    2017-09-01

    Photoexcited-carrier transport properties at the surface and the interface of barium strontium titanate/strontium titanate heterostructures are reported. Under a 365 nm light irradiation, the surfaces of barium strontium titanate films exhibit a metal-to-insulator transition, while the interfaces favor the metallic conduction with increasing temperatures. By analyzing, we consider that these results might be attributed to the intrinsic features of strontium titanate and the polarization state of barium strontium titanate films under the irradiation. Our results would contribute to further understanding of the photocarrier effect at the interface and demonstrate great potential applications in optoelectronic devices of all-oxide heterostructures.

  11. Large Flexoelectric Anisotropy in Paraelectric Barium Titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, Jackeline; Saremi, Sahar; Hong, Jiawang; Stengel, Massimiliano; Catalan, Gustau

    2015-07-17

    The bending-induced polarization of barium titanate single crystals has been measured with an aim to elucidate the origin of the large difference between theoretically predicted and experimentally measured flexoelectricity in this material. The results indicate that part of the difference is due to polar regions (short-range order) that exist above T(C) and up to T*≈200-225 °C. Above T*, however, the flexovoltage coefficient still shows an unexpectedly large anisotropy for a cubic material, with (001)-oriented crystals displaying 10 times more flexoelectricity than (111)-oriented crystals. Theoretical analysis shows that this anisotropy cannot be a bulk property, and we therefore interpret it as indirect evidence for the theoretically predicted but experimentally elusive contribution of surface piezoelectricity to macroscopic bending-induced polarization.

  12. Large Flexoelectric Anisotropy in Paraelectric Barium Titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, Jackeline; Saremi, Sahar; Hong, Jiawang; Stengel, Massimiliano; Catalan, Gustau

    2015-07-01

    The bending-induced polarization of barium titanate single crystals has been measured with an aim to elucidate the origin of the large difference between theoretically predicted and experimentally measured flexoelectricity in this material. The results indicate that part of the difference is due to polar regions (short-range order) that exist above TC and up to T*≈2 00 - 2 2 5 °C . Above T* , however, the flexovoltage coefficient still shows an unexpectedly large anisotropy for a cubic material, with (001)-oriented crystals displaying 10 times more flexoelectricity than (111)-oriented crystals. Theoretical analysis shows that this anisotropy cannot be a bulk property, and we therefore interpret it as indirect evidence for the theoretically predicted but experimentally elusive contribution of surface piezoelectricity to macroscopic bending-induced polarization.

  13. The Novel Formation of Barium Titanate Nanodendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Jung Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The barium titanate (BaTiO3 nanoparticles with novel dendrite-like structures have been successfully fabricated via a simple coprecipitation method, the so-called BaTiO3 nanodendrites (BTNDs. This method was remarkable, fast, simple, and scalable. The growth solution is prepared by barium chloride (BaCl2, titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4, and oxalic acid. The shape and size of BaTiO3 depend on the amount of added BaCl2 solvent. To investigate the influence of amount of BaCl2 on BTNDs, the amount of BaCl2 was varied in the range from 3 to 6 mL. The role of BaCl2 is found to have remarkable influence on the morphology, crystallite size, and formation of dendrite-like structures. The thickness and length of the central stem of BTND were ~300 nm and ~20 μm, respectively. The branchings were found to occur at irregular intervals along the main stem. Besides, the formation mechanism of BTND is proposed and discussed.

  14. Microwave assisted synthesis and characterization of barium titanate nanoparticles for multi layered ceramic capacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalai, Sundararajan; Shanmugavel, Balasivanandha Prabu

    2011-01-01

    Barium titanate is a common ferroelectric electro-ceramic material having high dielectric constant, with photorefractive effect and piezoelectric properties. In this research work, nano-scale barium titanate powders were synthesized by microwave assisted mechano-chemical route. Suitable precursors were ball milled for 20 hours. TGA studies were performed to study the thermal stability of the powders. The powders were characterized by XRD, SEM and EDX Analysis. Microwave and Conventional heating were performed at 1000 degrees C. The overall heating schedule was reduced by 8 hours in microwave heating thereby reducing the energy and time requirement. The nano-scale, impurity-free and defect-free microstructure was clearly evident from the SEM micrograph and EDX patterns. LCR meter was used to measure the dielectric constant and dielectric loss values at various frequencies. Microwave heated powders showed superior dielectric constant value with low dielectric loss which is highly essential for the fabrication of Multi Layered Ceramic Capacitors.

  15. Real time observation of the hydrothermal crystallization of barium titanate using in situ neutron powder diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, R I; Millange, F; Smith, R I; Hansen, T C; O'Hare, D

    2001-12-19

    The hydrothermal crystallization of barium titanate, BaTiO3, has been studied in situ by time-resolved powder neutron diffraction methods using the recently developed Oxford/ISIS hydrothermal cell. This technique has allowed the formation of the ferroelectric ceramic to be followed in a noninvasive manner in real time and under genuine reaction conditions. In a first set of experiments, Ba(OD)2-8D2O was reacted with two different titanium sources, either crystalline TiO2 (anatase) or amorphous TiO2-H2O in D2O, at 100-140 degrees C and the reaction studied using the POLARIS time-of-flight neutron powder diffractometer, at the ISIS Facility. In a second series of experiments, the reaction between barium chloride and crystalline TiO2 (anatase) in NaOD/D2O was studied at temperatures between 100 and 200 degrees C and at different deuterioxide concentrations using the constant-wavelength D20 neutron powder diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin. Quantitative growth and decay curves were determined from analysis of the integrated intensities of Bragg reflections of starting materials and product phases. In both sets of experiments the rapid dissolution of the barium source was observed, followed by dissolution of the titanium source before the onset of crystallization of barium titanate. Using a nucleation-growth model we are able to simulate the growth curve of barium titanate at three temperatures. Our results indicate the predominance of a homogeneous dissolution-precipitation mechanism for the hydrothermal formation of barium titanate, rather than other possible mechanisms that have been discussed in the literature. Analysis of the line widths of the Bragg reflections in the neutron diffraction data indicates that the particle size of the BaTiO3 product phase prepared from the amorphous TiO2-H2O is smaller than that prepared from crystalline TiO2 (anatase).

  16. Flexoelectric sensing using a multilayered barium strontium titanate structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S R; Huang, W B; Yuan, F G; Jiang, X N; Zhang, S J

    2013-01-01

    The flexoelectric effect has been recently explored for its promise in electromechanical sensing. However, the relatively low flexoelectric coefficients of ferroelectrics inhibit the potential to develop flexoelectric sensing devices. In this paper, a multilayered structure using flexoelectric barium strontium titanate (Ba 0.65 Sr 0.35 TiO 3 or BST) ceramic was fabricated in an attempt to enhance the effective flexoelectric coefficients using its inherent scale effect, and hence to improve the flexoelectric sensitivity. The performances of piezoelectric and flexoelectric cantilevers with the same dimensions and under the same conditions were compared. Owing to the flexoelectric scaling effect, under the same force input, the BST flexoelectric structure generated a higher charge output than its piezoelectric P(VDF-TrFE) and PMN-30PT counterparts when its thickness was less than 73.1 μm and 1.43 μm, respectively. Also, amplification of the charge output using the multilayered structure was then experimentally verified. The prototyped structure consisted of three layers of 350 μm-thick BST plates with a parallel electric connection. The charge output was approximately 287% of that obtained using a single-layer structure with the same total thickness of the multilayered structure under the same end deflection input, which suggests high sensitivity sensing can be achieved using multilayer flexoelectric structures. (paper)

  17. Electronic structure of barium strontium titanate by soft-x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Y. [Mitsubishi Electric Co., Hyogo (Japan); Underwood, J.H.; Gullikson, E.M.; Perera, R.C.C. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Perovskite-type titanates, such as Strontium Titanate (STO), Barium Titanate (BTO), and Lead Titanate (PTO) have been widely studied because they show good electric and optical properties. In recent years, thin films of Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) have been paid much attention as dielectrics of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) capacitors. BST is a better insulator with a higher dielectric constant than STO and can be controlled in a paraelectric phase with an appropriate ratio of Ba/Sr composition, however, few studies have been done on the electronic structure of the material. Studies of the electronic structure of such materials can be beneficial, both for fundamental physics research and for improving technological applications. BTO is a famous ferroelectric material with a tetragonal structure, in which Ti and Ba atoms are slightly displaced from the lattice points. On the other hand, BST keeps a paraelectric phase, which means that the atoms are still at the cubic lattice points. It should be of great interest to see how this difference of the local structure around Ti atoms between BTO and BST effects the electronic structure of these two materials. In this report, the authors present the Ti L{sub 2,3} absorption spectra of STO, BTO, and BST measured with very high accuracy in energy of the absorption features.

  18. Centrifugal Jet Spinning for Highly Efficient and Large-scale Fabrication of Barium Titanate Nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Liyun; Kotha, Shiva P.

    2013-01-01

    The centrifugal jet spinning (CJS) method has been developed to enable large-scale synthesis of barium titanate nanofibers. Barium titanate nanofibers with fiber diameters down to 50 nm and grain sizes around 25 nm were prepared with CJS by spinning a sol-gel solution of barium titanate and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) with subsequent heat treatment at 850 °C. XRD and FTIR analysis demonstrated high purity and tetragonal perovskite structured barium titanate nanofibers. SEM and TEM images confirm t...

  19. Measurement of Elastic Modulus of Alumina and Barium Strontium Titanate Wafers Produced by Tape Casting Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    DATES COVERED (From – To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MEASUREMENT OF ELASTIC MODULUS OF ALUMINA AND BARIUM STRONTIUM TITANATE WAFERS PRODUCED BY...configuration testing method. Samples of barium strontium titanate (BST) were made using a regular powder pressing, sintering, pelletizing, and...fabricated using thin wafers of barium strontium titanate (BST) and aluminum oxide (alumina) ceramic during launch of a system. Sandia National

  20. Optically tuned dielectric property of barium titanate thin film by THz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Siyan; Ji, Jie; Tian, Yue; Ling, Furi; Yu, Wenfeng

    2017-11-01

    The dielectric property of ferroelectric barium titanate (BaTiO3) thin film with optical field was investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy at room temperature. Experimental results showed that dielectric constant of BTO film was increased with the optical pump powers, and tunability of the real part of dielectric constant could be reached to74%. The reason of realizing high modulation depth could be explained as photorefractive and photothermal effects. Furthermore, the variation of refractive index displayed a monotonically increase with the optical powers.

  1. Barium titanate thick films prepared by screen printing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana M. Vijatović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The barium titanate (BaTiO3 thick films were prepared by screen printing technique using powders obtained by soft chemical route, modified Pechini process. Three different barium titanate powders were prepared: i pure, ii doped with lanthanum and iii doped with antimony. Pastes for screen printing were prepared using previously obtained powders. The thick films were deposited onto Al2O3 substrates and fired at 850°C together with electrode material (silver/palladium in the moving belt furnace in the air atmosphere. Measurements of thickness and roughness of barium titanate thick films were performed. The electrical properties of thick films such as dielectric constant, dielectric losses, Curie temperature, hysteresis loop were reported. The influence of different factors on electrical properties values was analyzed.

  2. Compact pulse forming line using barium titanate ceramic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Sharma, Surender; Deb, P; Shukla, R; Prabaharan, T; Shyam, A

    2011-11-01

    Ceramic material has very high relative permittivity, so compact pulse forming line can be made using these materials. Barium titanate (BaTiO(3)) has a relative permittivity of 1200 so it is used for making compact pulse forming line (PFL). Barium titanate also has piezoelectric effects so it cracks during high voltages discharges due to stresses developed in it. Barium titanate is mixed with rubber which absorbs the piezoelectric stresses when the PFL is charged and regain its original shape after the discharge. A composite mixture of barium titanate with the neoprene rubber is prepared. The relative permittivity of the composite mixture is measured to be 85. A coaxial pulse forming line of inner diameter 120 mm, outer diameter 240 mm, and length 350 mm is made and the composite mixture of barium titanate and neoprene rubber is filled between the inner and outer cylinders. The PFL is charged up to 120 kV and discharged into 5 Ω load. The voltage pulse of 70 kV, 21 ns is measured across the load. The conventional PFL is made up of oil or plastics dielectrics with the relative permittivity of 2-10 [D. R. Linde, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 90th ed. (CRC, 2009); Xia et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 086113 (2008); Yang et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 43303 (2010)], which increases the length of PFL. We have reported the compactness in length achieved due to increase in relative permittivity of composite mixture by adding barium titanate in neoprene rubber. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  3. Methods for producing monodispersed particles of barium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a low-temperature controlled method for producing high-quality, ultrafine monodispersed nanocrystalline microsphere powders of barium titanate and other pure or composite oxide materials having particles ranging from nanosized to micronsized particles. The method of the subject invention comprises a two-stage process. The first stage produces high quality monodispersed hydrous titania microsphere particles prepared by homogeneous precipitation via dielectric tuning in alcohol-water mixed solutions of inorganic salts. Titanium tetrachloride is used as an inorganic salt precursor material. The second stage converts the pure hydrous titania microsphere particles into crystalline barium titanate microsphere powders via low-temperature, hydrothermal reactions.

  4. Preparation, structure and dielectric property of barium stannate titanate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Xiaoyong [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong Univesity, Xi' an 710049 (China)]. E-mail: wdy@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Yao Xi [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong Univesity, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2007-02-25

    The processing route of barium stannate titanate ceramics were optimized to prepare full composition range solid solution sample. The phase structure, microscopic morphology and dielectric properties of barium stannate titanate ceramics were studied. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the samples are of single perovskite structure. Linear empirical relationship between crystal lattice and tin content was proposed. This relationship is valid covering the full composition range, which suggests that this solid solution system is ultimate mutual soluble. The phase transition behavior was studied and a phase diagram was obtained based on the dielectric measurements.

  5. The permittivity and refractive index measurements of doped barium titanate (BT-BCN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, Michael A.; Kundu, Souvik; Maurya, Deepam; Kang, Min-Gyu; Sosa, Alejandro; Mudiyanselage, Rathsara R. H. H.; Clavel, Michael; Gollapudi, Sreenivasulu; Hudait, Mantu K.; Priya, Shashank; Khodaparast, Giti A.

    2017-11-01

    While piezoelectric- ferroelectric materials offer great potential for nonvolatile random access memory, most commonly implemented ferroelectrics contain lead which imposes a challenge in meeting environmental regulations. One promising candidate for lead-free, ferroelectric material based memory is (1 - x) BaTiO3 - xBa(Cu1 / 3 Nb2 / 3) O3 (BT-BCN), x = 0.025 . The samples studied here were grown on a Si substrate with an HfO2 buffer layer, thereby preventing the interdiffusion of BT-BTCN into Si. This study provides further insight into the physical behavior of BT-BCN that will strengthen the foundation for developing switching devices. The sample thicknesses ranged from 1.5 to 120 nm, and piezoelectric force microscopy was employed in order to understand the local ferroelectric behaviors. Dielectric constant as a function of frequency demonstrated enhanced frequency dispersion indicating the polar nature of the composition. The relative permittivity was found to change significantly with varying bias voltage and exhibited a tunability of 82%. The difference in the peak position during up and down sweeps is due to the presence of the spontaneous polarization. Furthermore, reflectometry was performed to determine the refractive index of samples with differing thicknesses. Our results demonstrate that refractive indices are similar to that of barium titanate. This is a promising result indicating that improved ferroelectric properties are obtained without compromising the optical properties.

  6. Synthesis of nanosized barium titanate/epoxy resin composites and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anechoic chamber; barium titanate; electromagnetic interference and compatibility; epoxy resin composites; microwave absorbers; radio frequency absorbers. ... The reflection loss (RL) and transmission loss (TL) of the composite materials were measured by the reflection/transmission method using a vector network ...

  7. peroxo-oxalate preparation of doped barium titanate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gijp, S.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Verweij, H.

    1999-01-01

    The peroxo-oxalate complexation method is a method that can be used for the preparation of doped barium titanate. In this paper we focus on BaTi0.91Zr0.09O3, which can be used for discharge capacitors in lamp starters. The preparation method described here is based on the complexation and subsequent

  8. Synthesis of Barium Titanate Piezoelectric Ceramics for Multilayer Actuators (MLAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biglar Mojtaba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the characteristics of BaTiO3 ceramics synthesized by solid state method is presented. In order to receive the monophase ceramics the double activation and calcination were applied. A spray drier was used to granulate the powder of BaTiO3. Isostatic and uniaxial pressing were applied to manufacture the barium titanate pellets. The properties of fabricated BaTiO3 ceramics were determined at different stages of production. After the sintering phase, the hardness, the bending strength, the fracture toughness, and the coefficient of thermal expansion of barium titanate sinter were estimated. The BaTiO3 powder is characterized by spherical grains and the average size of 0.5 μm. The small value of the specific surface area of granulate ensured good properties of material mouldability and finally allowed to receive sinters of high density.

  9. Barium titanate nanoparticles: promising multitasking vectors in nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genchi, Giada Graziana; Marino, Attilio; Rocca, Antonella; Mattoli, Virgilio; Ciofani, Gianni

    2016-06-10

    Ceramic materials based on perovskite-like oxides have traditionally been the object of intense interest for their applicability in electrical and electronic devices. Due to its high dielectric constant and piezoelectric features, barium titanate (BaTiO3) is probably one of the most studied compounds of this family. Recently, an increasing number of studies have been focused on the exploitation of barium titanate nanoparticles (BTNPs) in the biomedical field, owing to the high biocompatibility of BTNPs and their peculiar non-linear optical properties that have encouraged their use as nanocarriers for drug delivery and as label-free imaging probes. In this review, we summarize all the recent findings about these 'smart' nanoparticles, including the latest, most promising potential as nanotransducers for cell stimulation.

  10. Cavity resonator for dielectric measurements of high-ε, low loss materials, demonstrated with barium strontium zirconium titanate ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marksteiner, Quinn R; Treiman, Michael B; Chen, Ching-Fong; Haynes, William B; Reiten, M T; Dalmas, Dale; Pulliam, Elias

    2017-06-01

    A resonant cavity method is presented which can measure loss tangents and dielectric constants for materials with dielectric constant from 150 to 10 000 and above. This practical and accurate technique is demonstrated by measuring barium strontium zirconium titanate bulk ferroelectric ceramic blocks. Above the Curie temperature, in the paraelectric state, barium strontium zirconium titanate has a sufficiently low loss that a series of resonant modes are supported in the cavity. At each mode frequency, the dielectric constant and loss tangent are obtained. The results are consistent with low frequency measurements and computer simulations. A quick method of analyzing the raw data using the 2D static electromagnetic modeling code SuperFish and an estimate of uncertainties are presented.

  11. Ferroelectrics principles, structure and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Merchant, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Ferroelectric physics is a theory on ferroelectric phase transition for explaining various related phenomena, which is different from dielectric physics. Ferroelectric materials are important functional materials for various applications such as NVRAMs, high energy density capacitors, actuators, MEMs, sonar sensors, microphones and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). This book investigates the dielectric, ferroelectric and energy storage properties of barium zirconate-titanate/barium calcium-titanate (BZT-BCT) based ceramic for high energy density capacitors. It also compares the energy storage capabilities of ceramic powders with polymer-ceramic nanocomposites; and discusses dielectric properties of ferroelectricity in composition distributions.

  12. Microwave-hydrothermal synthesis of barium strontium titanate nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes, A.Z., E-mail: alezipo@yahoo.co [Universidade Federal de Itajuba- Unifei - Campus Itabira, Rua Sao Paulo, 377, Bairro, Amazonas, CEP 35900-37, Itabira, MG (Brazil); Universidade Estadual Paulista- Unesp - Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratingueta, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, Bairro Pedregulho, CEP 12516-410 Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Moura, F.; Onofre, T.B. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba- Unifei - Campus Itabira, Rua Sao Paulo, 377, Bairro, Amazonas, CEP 35900-37, Itabira, MG (Brazil); Ramirez, M.A.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica (LIEC), Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, CEP 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Barium strontium titanate nanoparticles were obtained by the Hydrothemal microwave technique (HTMW) {yields} This is a genuine technique to obtain nanoparticles at low temperature and short times {yields} Barium strontium titanate free of carbonates with tetragonal structure was grown at 130 {sup o}C. - Abstract: Hydrothermal-microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline barium strontium titanate (Ba{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3}) nanoparticles (BST) in the temperature range of 100-130 {sup o}C. The crystallization of BST with tetragonal structure was reached at all the synthesis temperatures along with the formation of BaCO{sub 3} as a minor impurity at lower syntheses temperatures. Typical FT-IR spectra for tetragonal (BST) nanoparticles presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. TG-DTA analyses confirmed the presence of lattice OH- groups, commonly found in materials obtained by HTMW process. FE/SEM revealed that lower syntheses temperatures led to a morphology that consisted of uniform grains while higher syntheses temperature consisted of big grains isolated and embedded in a matrix of small grains. TEM has shown BST nanoparticles with diameters between 40 and 80 nm. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could serve as an alternative to obtain BST nanoparticles.

  13. An in vitro study of electrically active hydroxyapatite-barium titanate ceramics using Saos-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Frances R; Turner, Irene G; Bowen, Christopher R; Gittings, Jonathan P; Chaudhuri, Julian B

    2009-08-01

    Electrically active ceramics are of interest as bone graft substitute materials. This study investigated the ferroelectric properties of hydroxyapatite-barium titanate (HABT) composites and the behaviour of osteoblast-like cells seeded on their surfaces. A piezoelectric coefficient (d(33)) of 57.8 pCN(-1) was observed in HABT discs prepared for cell culture. The attachment, proliferation, viability, morphology and metabolic activity of cells cultured on unpoled HABT were comparable to those observed on commercially available hydroxyapatite at all time points. No indication of the cytotoxicity of HABT was detected. At one day after seeding, cell attachment was modified on both the positive and negative surfaces of poled HABT. After longer incubations, all parameters observed were comparable on poled and unpoled ceramics. The results indicate that HABT ceramics are biocompatible in the short term in vitro and that further investigation of cell responses to these materials under mechanical load and at longer incubation times is warranted.

  14. Crystalline Structure, Defect Chemistry and Room Temperature Colossal Permittivity of Nd-doped Barium Titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiaomei; Gu, Qilin; Zhu, Kongjun; Jin, Rongying; Liu, Jinsong; Wang, Jing; Qiu, Jinhao

    2017-02-13

    Dielectric materials with high permittivity are strongly demanded for various technological applications. While polarization inherently exists in ferroelectric barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ), its high permittivity can only be achieved by chemical and/or structural modification. Here, we report the room-temperature colossal permittivity (~760,000) obtained in xNd: BaTiO 3 (x = 0.5 mol%) ceramics derived from the counterpart nanoparticles followed by conventional pressureless sintering process. Through the systematic analysis of chemical composition, crystalline structure and defect chemistry, the substitution mechanism involving the occupation of Nd 3+ in Ba 2+ -site associated with the generation of Ba vacancies and oxygen vacancies for charge compensation has been firstly demonstrated. The present study serves as a precedent and fundamental step toward further improvement of the permittivity of BaTiO 3 -based ceramics.

  15. Verification of the flexoelectricity in barium strontium titanate through d33 meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longlong Shu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexoelectricity is a newly arising electromechanical property that couples strain gradient to polarization. This physical property widely exists in most of the solid dielectrics but has quite weak response that often overlooked. Recently, barium strontium titanate (BST, a well-known ferroelectrics, has been reported to be a promising flexoelectric material, and thus triggered the associated studies on flexoelectricity to a new height. However, part of the researchers argued the observed flexoelectricity in BST is either by residual piezoelectricity or centric symmetry breaking during the densification process. In this paper, we would verify the flexoelectricity in BST ceramics by many comparison experiments. Our experimental result suggested the observed polarization in BST material is likely to be induced by strain gradient through flexoelectricity.

  16. Verification of the flexoelectricity in barium strontium titanate through d33 meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Longlong; Wang, Tong; Jiang, Xiaoning; Huang, Wenbin

    2016-12-01

    Flexoelectricity is a newly arising electromechanical property that couples strain gradient to polarization. This physical property widely exists in most of the solid dielectrics but has quite weak response that often overlooked. Recently, barium strontium titanate (BST), a well-known ferroelectrics, has been reported to be a promising flexoelectric material, and thus triggered the associated studies on flexoelectricity to a new height. However, part of the researchers argued the observed flexoelectricity in BST is either by residual piezoelectricity or centric symmetry breaking during the densification process. In this paper, we would verify the flexoelectricity in BST ceramics by many comparison experiments. Our experimental result suggested the observed polarization in BST material is likely to be induced by strain gradient through flexoelectricity.

  17. Characterization and properties of barium bismuth titanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena D. Bobić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BaBi4Ti4O15 (BBiT was prepared from stoichiometric amounts of BaTiO3 (BT and Bi4Ti3O12 (BIT obtained via mechanochemical synthesis. Mechanochemical synthesis was performed in air atmosphere in a planetary ball mill. BBiTceramics were sintered at 1100°C, 1110°C and 1120°C for 1 h without pre-calcination step. The formation of phase and crystal structure of BT, BIT and BBiT were verified using X-ray analysis. The morphology of obtained powders and microstructure were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The electrical properties of sintered samples were carried out and BBiT shows behaviour typical for relaxor ferroelectrics and dielectric constant at room temperature is approximately 93.

  18. Study of barium bismuth titanate prepared by mechanochemical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Z.Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium-bismuth titanate, BaBi4Ti4O15 (BBT, a member of Aurivillius bismuth-based layer-structure perovskites, was prepared from stoichiometric amounts of barium titanate and bismuth titanate obtained via mechanochemical synthesis. Mechanochemical synthesis was performed in air atmosphere in a planetary ball mill. The reaction mechanism of BaBi4Ti4O15 and the preparation and characteristics of BBT ceramic powders were studied using XRD, Raman spectroscopy, particle analysis and SEM. The Bi-layered perovskite structure of BaBi4Ti4O15 ceramic forms at 1100 °C for 4 h without a pre-calcination step. The microstructure of BaBi4Ti4O15 exhibits plate-like grains typical for the Bi-layered structured material and spherical and polygonal grains. The Ba2+ addition leads to changes in the microstructure development, particularly in the change of the average grain size.

  19. Centrifugal Jet Spinning for Highly Efficient and Large-scale Fabrication of Barium Titanate Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Liyun; Kotha, Shiva P

    2014-02-15

    The centrifugal jet spinning (CJS) method has been developed to enable large-scale synthesis of barium titanate nanofibers. Barium titanate nanofibers with fiber diameters down to 50 nm and grain sizes around 25 nm were prepared with CJS by spinning a sol-gel solution of barium titanate and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) with subsequent heat treatment at 850 °C. XRD and FTIR analysis demonstrated high purity and tetragonal perovskite structured barium titanate nanofibers. SEM and TEM images confirm the continuous high aspect ratio structure of barium titanate nanofibers after heat treatment. It is demonstrated that the CJS technique offers a highly efficient method for large-scale fabrication of ceramic nanofibers at production rates of up to 0.3 gram/minute.

  20. Anion and cation diffusion in barium titanate and strontium titanate; Anionen- und Kationendiffusion in Barium- und Strontiumtitanat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, Markus Franz

    2012-12-19

    Perovskite oxides show various interesting properties providing several technical applications. In many cases the defect chemistry is the key to understand and influence the material's properties. In this work the defect chemistry of barium titanate and strontium titanate is analysed by anion and cation diffusion experiments and subsequent time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The reoxidation equation for barium titanate used in multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) is found out by a combination of different isotope exchange experiments and the analysis of the resulting tracer diffusion profiles. It is shown that the incorporation of oxygen from water vapour is faster by orders of magnitude than from molecular oxygen. Chemical analysis shows the samples contain various dopants leading to a complex defect chemistry. Dysprosium is the most important dopant, acting partially as a donor and partially as an acceptor in this effectively acceptor-doped material. TEM and EELS analysis show the inhomogeneous distribution of Dy in a core-shell microstructure. The oxygen partial pressure and temperature dependence of the oxygen tracer diffusion coefficients is analysed and explained by the complex defect chemistry of Dy-doped barium titanate. Additional fast diffusion profiles are attributed to fast diffusion along grain boundaries. In addition to the barium titanate ceramics from an important technical application, oxygen diffusion in cubic, nominally undoped BaTiO{sub 3} single crystals has been studied by means of {sup 18}O{sub 2}/{sup 16}O{sub 2} isotope exchange annealing and subsequent determination of the isotope profiles in the solid by ToF-SIMS. It is shown that a correct description of the diffusion profiles requires the analysis of the diffusion through the surface space-charge into the material's bulk. Surface exchange coefficients, space-charge potentials and bulk diffusion coefficients are analysed as a function of oxygen partial

  1. Barium strontium titanate powders prepared by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brankovic, G.; Brankovic, Z.; Goes, M.S.; Paiva-Santos, C.O.; Cilense, M.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.

    2005-01-01

    Ultasonic spray pyrolysis (SP) has been investigated for the production of the barium strontium titanate (BST) powders from the polymeric precursors. The processing parameters, such as flux of aerosol and temperature profile inside the furnace, were optimized to obtain single phase BST. The powders were characterized by the methods of X-ray diffraction analysis, SEM, EDS and TEM. The obtained powders were submicronic, consisting of spherical, polycrystalline particles, with internal nanocrystalline structure. Crystallite size of 10 nm, calculated using Rietveld refinement, is in a good agreement with results of HRTEM

  2. Barium titanate core--gold shell nanoparticles for hyperthermia treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FarrokhTakin, Elmira; Ciofani, Gianni; Puleo, Gian Luigi; de Vito, Giuseppe; Filippeschi, Carlo; Mazzolai, Barbara; Piazza, Vincenzo; Mattoli, Virgilio

    2013-01-01

    The development of new tools and devices to aid in treating cancer is a hot topic in biomedical research. The practice of using heat (hyperthermia) to treat cancerous lesions has a long history dating back to ancient Greece. With deeper knowledge of the factors that cause cancer and the transmissive window of cells and tissues in the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, hyperthermia applications have been able to incorporate the use of lasers. Photothermal therapy has been introduced as a selective and noninvasive treatment for cancer, in which exogenous photothermal agents are exploited to achieve the selective destruction of cancer cells. In this manuscript, we propose applications of barium titanate core-gold shell nanoparticles for hyperthermia treatment against cancer cells. We explored the effect of increasing concentrations of these nanoshells (0-100 μg/mL) on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, testing the internalization and intrinsic toxicity and validating the hyperthermic functionality of the particles through near infrared (NIR) laser-induced thermoablation experiments. No significant changes were observed in cell viability up to nanoparticle concentrations of 50 μg/mL. Experiments upon stimulation with an NIR laser revealed the ability of the nanoshells to destroy human neuroblastoma cells. On the basis of these findings, barium titanate core-gold shell nanoparticles resulted in being suitable for hyperthermia treatment, and our results represent a promising first step for subsequent investigations on their applicability in clinical practice.

  3. Studies on Nano Barium Strontium Titanate/Cellulose Derivatives Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hamzeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the preparation and properties of the composites made from cellulose acetate butyrate and cellulose acetate propionate with various amounts of barium strontium titanate nano-particle. The nano-particles of barium strontium titanate (BST with formulation of Ba0.77Sr0.23TiO3 were made by sol-gel method and their purity and particle size were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The composites were prepared with BST nano-particle loading of 10 to 50 vol%, and their distribution in the composites studied using SEM imaging. The dielectric constant of the composites was measured at 1 kHz and 100 kHz at room temperature. It was found that the adopted procedure produced dense and uniform composites. The dielectric constant of the composites increased with the solid contentof BST and followed the modified Lichtenecker equation. The increasing rate of dielectric constant with increased BST content was more pronounced for the BST/CAP composite. The dielectric constant of the composites decreased withincreasing the frequency which was more obvious at higher loading of BST nano-particle

  4. Barium titanate core – gold shell nanoparticles for hyperthermia treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    FarrokhTakin, Elmira; Ciofani, Gianni; Puleo, Gian Luigi; de Vito, Giuseppe; Filippeschi, Carlo; Mazzolai, Barbara; Piazza, Vincenzo; Mattoli, Virgilio

    2013-01-01

    The development of new tools and devices to aid in treating cancer is a hot topic in biomedical research. The practice of using heat (hyperthermia) to treat cancerous lesions has a long history dating back to ancient Greece. With deeper knowledge of the factors that cause cancer and the transmissive window of cells and tissues in the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, hyperthermia applications have been able to incorporate the use of lasers. Photothermal therapy has been introduced as a selective and noninvasive treatment for cancer, in which exogenous photothermal agents are exploited to achieve the selective destruction of cancer cells. In this manuscript, we propose applications of barium titanate core–gold shell nanoparticles for hyperthermia treatment against cancer cells. We explored the effect of increasing concentrations of these nanoshells (0–100 μg/mL) on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, testing the internalization and intrinsic toxicity and validating the hyperthermic functionality of the particles through near infrared (NIR) laser-induced thermoablation experiments. No significant changes were observed in cell viability up to nanoparticle concentrations of 50 μg/mL. Experiments upon stimulation with an NIR laser revealed the ability of the nanoshells to destroy human neuroblastoma cells. On the basis of these findings, barium titanate core–gold shell nanoparticles resulted in being suitable for hyperthermia treatment, and our results represent a promising first step for subsequent investigations on their applicability in clinical practice. PMID:23847415

  5. Characterization of barium titanate powder doped with sodium and potassium ions by using Rietveld refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, M.C.; Assis, J.T.; Pereira, F.R.

    2009-01-01

    A solid-reaction synthesis of doped barium titanate was done by employing barium carbonates, sodium, potassium and titanium oxides with classic procedures. Rietveld refining of X ray diffraction data of perovskite samples with tetragonal symmetry was applying and show good agreement. Besides, the treatment performed from 600 deg C produces nanocrystals of barium titanate with average size of 33 nm. The presence of endothermic peaks related to BaTiO 3 formation at relatively low temperatures was determined by thermal analysis. A pseudo-Voigt Thompson-Cox-Hastings function was used to fit the standard samples of barium titanate. The Rietveld method has showed be efficient to detect the influences of temperature and doping on barium titanate microstructures. (author)

  6. Strontium titanate resistance modulation by ferroelectric field effect

    CERN Document Server

    Marré, D; Bellingeri, E; Pallecchi, I; Pellegrino, L; Siri, A S

    2003-01-01

    Among perovskite oxides strontium titanate (STO) SrTiO sub 3 undergoes a metal-insulator transition at very low carrier concentration and exhibits high mobility values at low temperature. We exploited such electrical properties and the structural compatibility of perovskite oxide materials in realizing ferroelectric field effect epitaxial heterostructures. By pulsed laser deposition, we grew patterned field effect devices, consisting of lanthanum doped STO and Pb(Zr,Ti)O sub 3. Such devices showed a resistance modulation up to 20%, consistent with geometrical parameters and carrier concentration of the semiconducting channel.

  7. Microstructure of doped barium titanate prepared from polymeric precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanovic, B. D.

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanate is used extensively as a dielectric in ceramic capacitors, particularly due to its high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss characteristics. It can be made semiconducting by addition of certain dopants and by proper modification of grains and grain boundary properties obtaining very interesting characteristics for various applications. The synthesis method and sintering regime have a strong influence on properties of obtained barium titanate ceramics. Doped barium titanate was prepared with Nb+5 and Y+3 ions as donor dopants, and with Mn+2 ions as acceptor dopant by polymeric precursors method. By this procedure nanosized powders were obtained after calcination. Sintering was performed in the temperature range of 1290ºC to 1380ºC. The microstructure of doped BaTiO3 was performed using scanning electron microscopy. The influence of dopants and sintering temperature on grain size was analysed.

    El titanato de bario se usa extensamente como dieléctrico en condensadores cerámicos, debido principalmente a su elevada constante dieléctrica y a sus bajas pérdidas dieléctricas. Puede hacerse semiconductor mediante la adición de ciertos dopantes y a través de modificaciones adecuadas de las propiedades de los granos y los bordes de grano se obtienen características muy interesantes para muchas aplicaciones. El método de síntesis y el régimen de sinterización tienen una fuerte influencia sobre las propiedades del titanato de bario cerámico. El titanato de bario dopado con Nb5+ y Y3+ como dopantes donores y con Mn2+ como dopante aceptor se preparó mediante el método de precursores poliméricos. Mediante este procedimiento se obtuvieron polvos nanométricos después de la etapa de calcinación. La sinterización se realizó en el intervalo de temperaturas entre 1290ºC y 1380ºC. La microestructura del BaTiO3 dopado se estudió usando microscopía electrónica de barrido. Se analizó la influencia de los

  8. Fabrication and characterization of cerium-doped barium titanate inverse opal by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yi; Zhu Yihua; Yang Xiaoling; Li Chunzhong; Zhou Jinghong

    2007-01-01

    Cerium-doped barium titanate inverted opal was synthesized from barium acetate contained cerous acetate and tetrabutyl titanate in the interstitial spaces of a polystyrene (PS) opal. This procedure involves infiltration of precursors into the interstices of the PS opal template followed by hydrolytic polycondensation of the precursors to amorphous barium titanate and removal of the PS opal by calcination. The morphologies of opal and inverse opal were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The pores were characterized by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigation showed the doping structure of cerium, barium and titanium. And powder X-ray diffraction allows one to observe the influence of doping degree on the grain size. The lattice parameters, crystal size and lattice strain were calculated by the Rietveld refinement method. The synthesis of cerium-doped barium titanate inverted opals provides an opportunity to electrically and optically engineer the photonic band structure and the possibility of developing tunable three-dimensional photonic crystal devices. - Graphical abstract: Cerium-doped barium titanate inverted opal was synthesized from barium acetate acid contained cerous acetate and tetrabutyl titanate in the interstitial spaces of a PS opal, which involves infiltration of precursors into the interstices of the PS opal template and removal of the PS opal by calcination

  9. Onset of multiferroicity in nickel and lithium co-substituted barium titanate ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkathy, Mahmoud S.; James Raju, K. C.

    2018-04-01

    The structural, magnetic and ferroelectric properties of nickel and lithium co-substituted barium titanate were investigated in this work. Ba(1-x)LixNix/2TiO3 (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.08) ceramics were synthesized via solid-state reaction with the assistance of microwave heating of the starting materials. The tetragonal structure has been observed in all samples, and it is confirmed by the Rietveld refinement study. The morphological study has been carried out by FE-SEM. Electron spin resonance (ESR) has been used to study the electron interaction and to verify the magnetism behavior of present samples. No resonance signal was observed in pure BaTiO3 samples. However, the resonance signal has appeared in the co-substituted samples. The result shows that the electron interactions are strongly affected by Ni2+ and Li+ concentrations. M-H loop was traced using VSM at room temperature. The results confirm that the sample with x = 0 shows an anti-ferromagnetic response. However, a ferromagnetic hysteresis loop arises with co-substitution. The emergence of M-H loops confirms the appearance of magnetic properties in Ni2+ and Li+ co-substituted BaTiO3 ceramics. The origin of magnetic behavior could be due to the carrier-mediated exchange interactions. Room temperature P-E hysteresis loop has been investigated at an applied electric field of 35 kV/cm and 33 Hz frequency. Measurements of room temperature ferroelectric and magnetic hysteresis loops indicate that the Ni2+ and Li+ co-substituted BaTiO3 ceramics show ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism simultaneously.

  10. Structural and functional characterization of barium zirconium titanate / epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiberto González Garcia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric behavior of composite materials (barium zirconium titanate / epoxy system was analyzed as a function of ceramic concentration. Structure and morphologic behavior of the composites was investigated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM analyses. Composites were prepared by mixing the components and pouring them into suitable moulds. It was demonstrated that the amount of inorganic phase affects the morphology of the presented composites. XRD revealed the presence of a single phase while Raman scattering confirmed structural transitions as a function of ceramic concentration. Changes in the ceramic concentration affected Raman modes and the distribution of particles along into in epoxy matrix. Dielectric permittivity and dielectric losses were influenced by filler concentration.

  11. Effect of Nb on barium titanate prepared from citrate solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the addition of dopants on the microstructure development and electrical properties of BaTiO3 doped with 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mol% of Nb and 0.01 mol% of Mn based compounds was studied. Doped barium titanate was prepared using the polymeric precursor method from citrate solutions. The powders calcined at 700°C for 4 hours were analysed by infrared (IR spectroscopy to verify the presence of carbonates, and by X-ray diffraction (XRD for phase formation. The phase composition, microstructure and dielectric properties show a strong dependence on the amount of added niobium.

  12. Ultrasonic de-agglomeration of barium titanate powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, S; Mitrić, M; Starcević, G; Uskoković, D

    2008-01-01

    BaTiO3 (BT) powder, with average particle size of 1.4 microm, was synthesized by solid-state reaction. A high-intensity ultrasound irradiation (ultrasonication) was used to de-agglomerate micro-sized powder to nano-sized one. The crystal structure, crystallite size, morphology, particle size, particle size distribution, and specific surface area of the BT powder de-agglomerated for different ultrasonication times (0, 10, 60, and 180 min) were determined. It was found that the particles size of the BT powder was influenced by ultrasonic treatment, while its tetragonal structure was maintained. Therefore, ultrasonic irradiation can be proposed as an environmental-friendly, economical, and effective tool for the de-agglomeration of barium titanate powders.

  13. Barium titanate nanocomposite capacitor FY09 year end report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Tyler E.; DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Yang, Pin; Chavez, Tom P.; Winter, Michael R.; Monson, Todd C.; Roesler, Alexander William; Fellows, Benjamin D.

    2009-11-01

    This late start RTBF project started the development of barium titanate (BTO)/glass nanocomposite capacitors for future and emerging energy storage applications. The long term goal of this work is to decrease the size, weight, and cost of ceramic capacitors while increasing their reliability. Ceramic-based nanocomposites have the potential to yield materials with enhanced permittivity, breakdown strength (BDS), and reduced strain, which can increase the energy density of capacitors and increase their shot life. Composites of BTO in glass will limit grain growth during device fabrication (preserving nanoparticle grain size and enhanced properties), resulting in devices with improved density, permittivity, BDS, and shot life. BTO will eliminate the issues associated with Pb toxicity and volatility as well as the variation in energy storage vs. temperature of PZT based devices. During the last six months of FY09 this work focused on developing syntheses for BTO nanoparticles and firing profiles for sintering BTO/glass composite capacitors.

  14. Study on a flexoelectric microphone using barium strontium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S R; Huang, W B; Yuan, F G; Jiang, X N; Zhang, S J

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a flexoelectric microphone was, for the first time, designed and fabricated in a bridge structure using barium strontium titanate (Ba 0.65 Sr 0.35 TiO 3 ) ceramic and tested afterwards. The prototyped flexoelectric microphone consists of a 1.5 mm  ×  768 μm  ×  50 μm BST bridge structure and a silicon substrate with a cavity. The sensitivity and resonance frequency were designed to be 0.92 pC/Pa and 98.67 kHz, respectively. The signal to noise ratio was measured to be 74 dB. The results demonstrate that the flexoelectric microphone possesses high sensitivity and a wide working frequency range simultaneously, suggesting that flexoelectricity could be an excellent alternative sensing mechanism for microphone applications. (paper)

  15. Study on a flexoelectric microphone using barium strontium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, S. R.; Huang, W. B.; Zhang, S. J.; Yuan, F. G.; Jiang, X. N.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a flexoelectric microphone was, for the first time, designed and fabricated in a bridge structure using barium strontium titanate (Ba0.65Sr0.35TiO3) ceramic and tested afterwards. The prototyped flexoelectric microphone consists of a 1.5 mm  ×  768 μm  ×  50 μm BST bridge structure and a silicon substrate with a cavity. The sensitivity and resonance frequency were designed to be 0.92 pC/Pa and 98.67 kHz, respectively. The signal to noise ratio was measured to be 74 dB. The results demonstrate that the flexoelectric microphone possesses high sensitivity and a wide working frequency range simultaneously, suggesting that flexoelectricity could be an excellent alternative sensing mechanism for microphone applications.

  16. Synthesis of barium titanate crystalline nanoparticles using hydrothermal microwave method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, A.E.; Silva, R.A.; Teixeira, S.R.; Moreira, M.L.; Volanti, D.P.; Longo, E.

    2009-01-01

    The hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW) was used in the synthesis of barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ) nanoparticles. The solution was prepared in deionized water by using titanium (IV) isopropoxide (C 12 H 28 O 4 Ti), barium chloride (BaCl 2 .2H 2 O) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). Afterwards it was heated in an adapted conventional microwave oven. The system is composed of a temperature controller with thermocouple, a hermetic camera of reaction made of teflon, a manometer and a safety valve. The solution was heated to 140 deg C, at a 140 deg C/min heating rate, and maintained at this temperature for 40 minutes. The obtained ceramic powder was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The XRD data confirms the formation of a high crystalline ceramic material with perovskite structure. The FE-SEM images reveal morphologies with dimensions varying from 27 to 54 nm. (author)

  17. Molecular ferroelectrics: where electronics meet biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangyu; Liu, Yuanming; Zhang, Yanhang; Cai, Hong-Ling; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2013-12-28

    In the last several years, we have witnessed significant advances in molecular ferroelectrics, with the ferroelectric properties of molecular crystals approaching those of barium titanate. In addition, ferroelectricity has been observed in biological systems, filling an important missing link in bioelectric phenomena. In this perspective, we will present short historical notes on ferroelectrics, followed by an overview of the fundamentals of ferroelectricity. The latest developments in molecular ferroelectrics and biological ferroelectricity will then be highlighted, and their implications and potential applications will be discussed. We close by noting molecular ferroelectric as an exciting frontier between electronics and biology, and a number of challenges ahead are also described.

  18. Luminescence studies of perovskite structured titanates: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag Bhargavi, G.; Khare, Ayush

    2015-06-01

    Apart from widely known dielectric and ferroelectric properties, the perovskite type materials also constitute a class of materials, which are recently investigated for their optical properties. These materials are being used for fabrication of various microelectronics and optoelectronic devices. Photoluminescence (PL), mechanoluminescence (ML) and thermoluminescence (TL) are such phenomena offering numerous applications in different fields like electro-optics, flat panel displays, LED technology, sensors, dynamic visualization etc. This paper briefly reviews the status and new progress in luminescence studies of ferroelectric materials like barium titanate (BT), barium zirconate titanate (BZT), calcium titanate (CT), calcium zirconate titanate (CZT), lead titanate (PT), lead zirconate titanate (PZT), etc., prepared through various methods.

  19. Experimental studies on 3D printing of barium titanate ceramics for medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schult Mark

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the 3D printing of porous barium titanate ceramics. Barium titanate is a biocompatible material with piezoelectric properties. Due to insufficient flowability of the starting material for 3D printing, the barium titanate raw material has been modified in three different ways. Firstly, barium titanate powder has been calcined. Secondly, flow additives have been added to the powder. And thirdly, flow additives have been added to the calcined powder. Finally, a polymer has been added to the three materials and specimens have been printed from these three material mixtures. The 3D printed parts were then sintered at 1320°C. The sintering leads to shrinkage which differs between 29.51–71.53% for the tested material mixtures. The porosity of the parts is beneficial for cell growth which is relevant for future medical applications. The results reported in this study demonstrate the possibility to fabricate porous piezoelectric barium titanate parts with a 3D printer that can be used for medical applications. 3D printed porous barium titanate ceramics can especially be used as scaffold for bone tissue engineering, where the bone formation can be promoted by electrical stimulation.

  20. Calorimetric study of phase transitions in ocylcyanobiphenyl-barium titanate nanoparticle dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigdel, Krishna P; Iannacchione, Germano S

    2013-11-28

    High-resolution ac-calorimetry is reported on the weakly first-order isotropic to nematic (I-N) and the continuous nematic to smectic-A (N-SmA) phase transitions in the liquid crystal octylcyanobiphenyl (8CB) doped with a ferroelectric nanoparticle barium titanate, BaTiO3 (BT). Measurements were performed as a function of BT concentration and over a wide temperature range well above and below the two transitions. From the thermal scans of all samples (having BT mass fraction φ(m) = 0.001 to 0.014 and pure 8CB), both the I-N and the N-SmA transitions evolve in character. Specifically, there appears an unusual change of the I-N specific heat peak shape on heating as φ(m) increases. Both the transitions shift to lower temperature at a different rate for φ(m)φ(m)(c). The effective transition enthalpies are essentially constant and similar to that seen in the bulk. Using a simple geometric model, the mean distance between the BT particles at the cross-over φ(m)(c) is found to be x(c)~3 μm, which is consistent with an estimated surface extrapolation length b for the nematic director. This suggests that the low φ(m) regime is dominated by an impurity/disorder effect while for φ(m)>φ(m)(c) the mean distance is small enough for the LC to mediate coupling between the BT ferroelectric nanoparticles.

  1. Correlations and local order parameter in the paraelectric phase of barium titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneste, Grégory

    2011-03-30

    General features of the order parameter distribution in barium titanate in its paraelectric phase and in its ferroelectric phases (tetragonal and orthorhombic) are presented. The density of probability of the polarization [Formula: see text], defined by an average of the local order parameters over regions of various sizes and shapes (L(x) × L(y) × L(z)), is examined by molecular dynamics simulations using a first-principles derived effective Hamiltonian. The free energies [Formula: see text] associated with these probabilities are computed by thermodynamic integration. The evolution of these quantities are explained through the computation of pair correlations, which are found, as stated in several previous works, very anisotropic, 'needle-like', with longitudinal correlations ([Formula: see text]) having much longer range than transverse ones ([Formula: see text]). The correlations explain why the density of probability of the order parameter evolves from a multiple-peaked distribution with maxima along [111] (in the single cell), along [100] for small needle-like regions, towards a single-peaked distribution for larger regions. A useful expression in which the shape-dependence of the free energy is manifest is provided.

  2. Monolithic Mid-Infrared Integrated Photonics Using Silicon-on-Epitaxial Barium Titanate Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tiening; Li, Leigang; Zhang, Bruce; Lin, Hao-Yu Greg; Wang, Haiyan; Lin, Pao Tai

    2017-07-05

    Broadband mid-infrared (mid-IR) photonic circuits that integrate silicon waveguides and epitaxial barium titanate (BTO) thin films are demonstrated using the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process. The epitaxial BTO thin films are grown on lanthanum aluminate (LAO) substrates by the pulsed laser deposition technique, wherein a broad infrared transmittance between λ = 2.5 and 7 μm is observed. The optical waveguiding direction is defined by the high-refractive-index amorphous Si (a-Si) ridge structure developed on the BTO layer. Our waveguides show a sharp fundamental mode over the broad mid-IR spectrum, whereas its optical field distribution between the a-Si and BTO layers can be modified by varying the height of the a-Si ridge. With the advantages of broad mid-IR transparency and the intrinsic electro-optic properties, our monolithic Si on a ferroelectric BTO platform will enable tunable mid-IR microphotonics that are desired for high-speed optical logic gates and chip-scale biochemical sensors.

  3. Preparation of meta-stable phases of barium titanate by Sol-hydrothermal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahalakshmi Selvaraj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two low-cost chemical methods of sol–gel and the hydrothermal process have been strategically combined to fabricate barium titanate (BaTiO3 nanopowders. This method was tested for various synthesis temperatures (100 °C to 250 °C employing barium dichloride (BaCl2 and titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4 as precursors and sodium hydroxide (NaOH as mineralizer for synthesis of BaTiO3 nanopowders. The as-prepared BaTiO3 powders were investigated for structural characteristics using x-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The overall analysis indicates that the hydrothermal conditions create a gentle environment to promote the formation of crystalline phase directly from amorphous phase at the very low processing temperatures investigated. XRD analysis showed phase transitions from cubic - tetragonal - orthorhombic - rhombohedral with increasing synthesis temperature and calculated grain sizes were 34 – 38 nm (using the Scherrer formula. SEM and TEM analysis verified that the BaTiO3 nanopowders synthesized by this method were spherical in shape and about 114 - 170 nm in size. The particle distribution in both SEM and TEM shows that as the reaction temperature increases from 100 °C to 250 °C, the particles agglomerate. Selective area electron diffraction (SAED shows that the particles are crystalline in nature. The study shows that choosing suitable precursor and optimizing pressure and temperature; different meta-stable (ferroelectric phases of undoped BaTiO3 nanopowders can be stabilized by the sol-hydrothermal method.

  4. Pyro- and electromagnetic effects in ferrite/barium titanate composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Pan'kov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available New solutions for tensors of effective pyroelectromagnetic properties of piezoactive composites on the basis of boundary value problem solution for electromagnetic elasticity have been obtained. For the solution of the boundary value problem, new solutions for singular components of the second derivative Green functions for displacements, electric and magnetic potentials in homogeneous transversal isotropic piezoelectromagnetic medium with ellipsoidal grain of heterogeneity have been used. Calculation results on the concentration dependences for effective coefficients of pyromagnetic and electromagnetic coherence of ferrite/barium titanate composite with ellipsoidal, spherical and fibrous inclusions for various polydisperse structures and those of a layered structure composite have been presented. Considerable influence of the shape of the inclusions, features of relative positioning and inversion of the properties of phases on the effective coefficients of pyromagnetic and electromagnetic coherence of the composite material have been revealed. The conclusion is drawn on the preferable use of the pyroelectric phase as spherical inclusions, and ferrite as the composite matrix. This allows for more than a fivefold increase in the effective constant of pyromagnetic coherence of the composite material in comparison with its value for the same structure but with inversion of properties of phases for constant volume fractions of the ferrite and pyroelectric phases.

  5. Initial stages of the growth of barium strontium titanate films on a semi-isolating silicon carbide substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumarkin, A. V.; Serenkov, I. T.; Sakharov, V. I.; Razumov, S. V.; Odinets, A. A.; Zlygostov, M. V.; Sapego, E. N.; Afrosimov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    The initial stages of the growth of ferroelectric barium strontium titanate films on single-crystal silicon carbide substrates have been studied for the first time. The choice of a substrate with high thermal conductivity has been due to the possibility of applying these structures in powerful microwave devices. The temperature ranges separating the mechanism of the surface diffusion of deposited atoms from the diffusion via a gaseous phase during the growth of multicomponent films have been determined. The studies show that the mass transfer by means of surface diffusion leads to the formation of small-height nuclei that cover a large area of the substrate, whereas the mass transfer via a gaseous phase leads to the formation of a "columnar" islandtype structure with small percentage of covering the substrate and larger island heights.

  6. [Adsorption behavior of immobilized nanometer barium-strontium titanate for cadmium ion in water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Guan, Xin; Gao, Hong; He, Hong-Bo

    2009-03-01

    Nanometer barium-strontium titanate immobilized on silica gel G was successfully prepared by the citrate acid sol-gel method and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). By means of the determination of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), the adsorption behavior of immobilized nanometer-barium strontium titanate for cadmium ion was investigated. The results showed that the nanometer barium-strontium titanate was immobilized on the silica gel G firmly, gaining a new sort of adsorbent. And the cadmium ion studied could be quantitatively retained in the pH value range of 4-7. The adsorption behavior followed a Freundlich adsorption isotherm and a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic constants of the adsorption process, such as enthalpy changes (deltaH), Gibbs free energy changes (deltaG) and entropy changes (deltaS), were evaluated. These showed that the adsorption of cadmium ion by immobilized nanometer barium-strontium titanate was endothermic and spontaneous physical process. The cadmium ion adsorbed could be completely eluted using 1 mol x L(-1) HNO3. A new method for the determination of trace cadmium ion in water based on this immobilized nanometer barium-strontium titanate preconcentration and FAAS determination was proposed. The method has been applied to the determination of trace cadmium ion in tap water and river water with satisfactory results.

  7. The review of various synthesis methods of barium titanate with the enhanced dielectric properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, S. P.; Topare, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Barium Titanate is a very well known dielectric ceramic belongs to perovskite structure. It has very wide applications in the field of electronic, electro ceramic, electromechanical and electro-optical applications. Barium Titanate has very high dielectric constant as well as low dielectric loss. Substituted dielectrics are one of the most important technological compounds in modern electro ceramics. Its electrical properties can be tuned flexibly by a simple substitution technique. This has encouraged researchers to select a typical cation to be substituted at cationic sites. In the present paper, the review of various synthesis methods of Barium Titanate compound with the effect of different dopants, the grain size on the dielectric properties at various temperatures is discussed.

  8. Sputtered Modified Barium Titanate for Thin-Film Capacitor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Glyn J; Kratzer, Martin; Dubs, Martin; Felzer, Heinz; Mamazza, Robert

    2012-04-10

    New apparatus and a new process for the sputter deposition of modified barium titanate thin-films were developed. Films were deposited at temperatures up to 900 °C from a Ba₀ .96 Ca 0. 04 Ti 0. 82 Zr 0. 18 O₃ (BCZTO) target directly onto Si, Ni and Pt surfaces and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Film texture and crystallinity were found to depend on both deposition temperature and substrate: above 600 °C, the as-deposited films consisted of well-facetted crystallites with the cubic perovskite structure. A strongly textured Pt (111) underlayer enhanced the (001) orientation of BCZTO films deposited at 900 °C, 10 mtorr pressure and 10% oxygen in argon. Similar films deposited onto a Pt (111) textured film at 700 °C and directly onto (100) Si wafers showed relatively larger (011) and diminished intensity (00ℓ) diffraction peaks. Sputter ambients containing oxygen caused the Ni underlayers to oxidize even at 700 °C: Raising the process temperature produced more diffraction peaks of NiO with increased intensities. Thin-film capacitors were fabricated using ~500 nm thick BCZTO dielectrics and both Pt and Ni top and bottom electrodes. Small signal capacitance measurements were carried out to determine capacitance and parallel resistance at low frequencies and from these data, the relative permittivity (e r ) and resistivity (r) of the dielectric films were calculated; values ranged from ~50 to >2,000, and from ~10⁴ to ~10 10 Ω∙cm, respectively.

  9. Evaluation of antibacterial properties of Barium Zirconate Titanate (BZT nanoparticle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Mohseni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available So far, the antibacterial activity of some organic and inorganic compounds has been studied. Barium zirconate titanate [Ba(Zr xTi1-xO3] (x = 0.05 nanoparticle is an example of inorganic materials. In vitro studies have provided evidence for the antibacterial activity of this nanoparticle. In the current study, the nano-powder was synthesized by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction showed that the powder was single-phase and had a perovskite structure at the calcination temperature of 1000 ºC. Antibacterial activity of the desired nanoparticle was assessed on two gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus PTCC1431 and Micrococcus luteus PTCC1625 and two gram-negative (Escherichia coli HP101BA 7601c and clinically isolated Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria according to Radial Diffusion Assay (RDA. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of BZT nano-powder on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was acceptable. The minimum inhibitory concentration of this nano-powder was determined. The results showed that MIC values for E. coli, K. pneumoniae, M. luteus and S. aureus were about 2.3 µg/mL, 7.3 µg/mL, 3 µg/mL and 12 µg/mL, respectively. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC was also evaluated and showed that the growth of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, M. luteus and S. aureus could be decreased at 2.3, 14, 3 and 18 µg/mL of BZT. Average log reduction in viable bacteria count in time-kill assay ranged between 6 Log10 cfu/mL to zero after 24 h of incubation with BZT nanoparticle.

  10. Evaluation of antibacterial properties of Barium Zirconate Titanate (BZT) nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Simin; Aghayan, Mahdi; Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Behdani, Mohammad; Asoodeh, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    So far, the antibacterial activity of some organic and inorganic compounds has been studied. Barium zirconate titanate [Ba(ZrxTi₁-x)O₃] (x = 0.05) nanoparticle is an example of inorganic materials. In vitro studies have provided evidence for the antibacterial activity of this nanoparticle. In the current study, the nano-powder was synthesized by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction showed that the powder was single-phase and had a perovskite structure at the calcination temperature of 1000 °C. Antibacterial activity of the desired nanoparticle was assessed on two gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus PTCC1431 and Micrococcus luteus PTCC1625) and two gram-negative (Escherichia coli HP101BA 7601c and clinically isolated Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria according to Radial Diffusion Assay (RDA). The results showed that the antibacterial activity of BZT nano-powder on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was acceptable. The minimum inhibitory concentration of this nano-powder was determined. The results showed that MIC values for E. coli, K. pneumoniae, M. luteus and S. aureus were about 2.3 μg/mL, 7.3 μg/mL, 3 μg/mL and 12 μg/mL, respectively. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was also evaluated and showed that the growth of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, M. luteus and S. aureus could be decreased at 2.3, 14, 3 and 18 μg/mL of BZT. Average log reduction in viable bacteria count in time-kill assay ranged between 6 Log₁₀ cfu/mL to zero after 24 h of incubation with BZT nanoparticle.

  11. Sputtered Modified Barium Titanate for Thin-Film Capacitor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mamazza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available New apparatus and a new process for the sputter deposition of modified barium titanate thin-films were developed. Films were deposited at temperatures up to 900 °C from a Ba0.96Ca0.04Ti0.82Zr0.18O3 (BCZTO target directly onto Si, Ni and Pt surfaces and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Film texture and crystallinity were found to depend on both deposition temperature and substrate: above 600 °C, the as-deposited films consisted of well-facetted crystallites with the cubic perovskite structure. A strongly textured Pt (111 underlayer enhanced the (001 orientation of BCZTO films deposited at 900 °C, 10 mtorr pressure and 10% oxygen in argon. Similar films deposited onto a Pt (111 textured film at 700 °C and directly onto (100 Si wafers showed relatively larger (011 and diminished intensity (00ℓ diffraction peaks. Sputter ambients containing oxygen caused the Ni underlayers to oxidize even at 700 °C: Raising the process temperature produced more diffraction peaks of NiO with increased intensities. Thin-film capacitors were fabricated using ~500 nm thick BCZTO dielectrics and both Pt and Ni top and bottom electrodes. Small signal capacitance measurements were carried out to determine capacitance and parallel resistance at low frequencies and from these data, the relative permittivity (er and resistivity (r of the dielectric films were calculated; values ranged from ~50 to >2,000, and from ~104 to ~1010 Ω∙cm, respectively.

  12. Preparation of barium titanate nanoparticle sphere arrays and their dielectric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Satoshi; Yazawa, Aki; Hoshina, Takuya; Kameshima, Yoshikazu; Kakemoto, Hirofumi; Tsurumi, Takaaki; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro

    2008-09-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO(3)) nanoparticles from 27 to 192 nm were prepared by the 2-step thermal decomposition method from barium titanyl oxalate nanoparticles. These particles were dispersed well into 1-propanol, and dense BaTiO(3); nanoparticle sphere arrays without stress-field were prepared by the meniscus method. Temperature dependence of dielectric properties was successfully measured using these dense nanoparticle sphere arrays, and size effect on dielectric properties was discussed.

  13. Fabrication of crystal-oriented barium-bismuth titanate ceramics in high magnetic field and subsequent reaction sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Tomita, Yusuke; Furushima, Ryoichi; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Doshida, Yutaka; Uematsu, Keizo

    2009-02-01

    High magnetic field was applied to fabricate novel lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with a textured structure. A compact of crystallographically oriented grains was prepared by dry forming in a high magnetic field from a mixed slurry of bismuth titanate and barium titanate powders. Bismuth titanate particles with a size of about 1 μ m were used as the host material. In the forming process, the slurry was poured into a mold and set in a magnetic field of 10 T until completely dried. Bismuth titanate particles were highly oriented in the slurry under the magnetic field. The dried powder compact consisted of highly oriented bismuth titanate particles and randomly oriented barium titanate particles. Barium bismuth titanate ceramics with a - and b -axis orientations were successfully produced from the dried compact by sintering at temperatures above 1100 ° C.

  14. Review - Fabrication of crystal-oriented barium-bismuth titanate ceramics in high magnetic field and subsequent reaction sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Tanaka, Yusuke Tomita, Ryoichi Furushima, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Yutaka Doshida and Keizo Uematsu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available High magnetic field was applied to fabricate novel lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with a textured structure. A compact of crystallographically oriented grains was prepared by dry forming in a high magnetic field from a mixed slurry of bismuth titanate and barium titanate powders. Bismuth titanate particles with a size of about 1 μ m were used as the host material. In the forming process, the slurry was poured into a mold and set in a magnetic field of 10 T until completely dried. Bismuth titanate particles were highly oriented in the slurry under the magnetic field. The dried powder compact consisted of highly oriented bismuth titanate particles and randomly oriented barium titanate particles. Barium bismuth titanate ceramics with a- and b-axis orientations were successfully produced from the dried compact by sintering at temperatures above 1100 ° C.

  15. Barium Titanate Photonic Crystal Electro-Optic Modulators for Telecommunication and Data Network Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girouard, Peter D.

    The microwave, optical, and electro-optic properties of epitaxial barium titanate thin films grown on (100) MgO substrates and photonic crystal electro-optic modulators fabricated on these films were investigated to demonstrate the applicability of these devices for telecommunication and data networks. The electrical and electro-optical properties were characterized up to modulation frequencies of 50 GHz, and the optical properties of photonic crystal waveguides were determined for wavelengths spanning the optical C band between 1500 and 1580 nm. Microwave scattering parameters were measured on coplanar stripline devices with electrode gap spacings between 5 and 12 mum on barium titanate films with thicknesses between 230 and 680 nm. The microwave index and device characteristic impedance were obtained from the measurements. Larger (lower) microwave indices (impedances) were obtained for devices with narrower electrode gap spacings and on thicker films. Thinner film devices have both lower index mismatch between the co-propagating microwave and optical signals and lower impedance mismatch to a 50O system, resulting in a larger predicted electro-optical 3 dB bandwidth. This was experimentally verified with electro-optical frequency response measurements. These observations were applied to demonstrate a record high 28 GHz electro-optic bandwidth measured for a BaTiO3 conventional ridge waveguide modulator having 1mm long electrodes and 12 mum gap spacing on a 260nm thick film. The half-wave voltage and electro-optic coefficients of barium titanate modulators were measured for films having thicknesses between 260 and 500 nm. The half-wave voltage was directly measured at low frequencies using a polarizer-sample-compensator-analyzer setup by over-driving waveguide integrated modulators beyond their linear response regime. Effective in-device electro-optic coefficients were obtained from the measured half-wave voltages. The effective electro-optic coefficients were

  16. an oxalate-peroxide complex used in the preparation of doped barium titanate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gijp, S.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Verweij, H.

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for the preparation of homogeneously doped barium titanate, which can be applied in non-linear dielectric elements. Ba and Ti salts are dissolved, mixed with hydrogen peroxide and added to a solution of ammonium oxalate, resulting in the formation of an insoluble peroxo-oxalate

  17. Nanostructure Development in Alkoxide-Carboxylate-Derived Precursor Films of Barium Titanate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stawski, Tomasz; Veldhuis, Sjoerd; Besselink, R.; Castricum, H.L.; Portale, G.; Blank, David H.A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2012-01-01

    The structural evolution in wet alkoxide-carboxylate sol–gel precursor films of barium titanate upon drying was investigated by time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The morphology of as-dried amorphous precursor thin films was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and

  18. Dielectric properties and vacancy-like defects in plasma-sprayed barium titanate.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Čížek, J.; Sedláček, J.; Lukáč, František

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 7 (2017), s. 2972-2983 ISSN 0002-7820 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : barium titanate * plasma spraying * vacancies Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass OBOR OECD: Ceramics Impact factor: 2.841, year: 2016

  19. Structural and electrical properties of barium titanate (BaTiO3 thin films obtained by spray pyrolysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbhar S.S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanate (BaTiO3 thin films have been prepared using the spray pyrolysis method. The films were deposited onto a glass substrate at varying substrate temperature ranging from 250 to 350 °C with the interval of 50 °C. The structural, morphological, electrical and dielectric properties of the deposited films have been studied. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the polycrystalline nature of the films with a cubic crystal structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS showed a good agreement of the thin films stoichiometry with BaTiO3. A presence of Ba, Ti and O in the BaTiO3 thin films was observed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed the heterogeneous distribution of cubical grains all over the substrate. The grain size decreased with an increase in substrate temperature. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss showed the dispersion behaviour as a function of frequency, measured in the frequency range of 20 Hz to 1 MHz. The AC conductivity (σac measurement showed the linear nature of obtained films, which confirms conduction mechanism due to small polarons. Impedance spectroscopy has been used to study the electrical behaviour of BaTiO3 ferroelectric thin films. The ferroelectric hysteresis loop has been recorded at room temperature.

  20. Radiation losses in microwave K{sub u} region by conducting pyrrole/barium titanate and barium hexaferrite based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Talwinder [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144411 (India); Kumar, Sachin [Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Narang, S.B. [Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Srivastava, A.K., E-mail: srivastava_phy@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144411 (India)

    2016-12-15

    Nanocomposites of substituted barium hexaferrite and barium titanate embedded in a polymer were synthesized via emulsion polymerization. The study was performed by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, a vibrating sample magnetometer and a vector network analyzer. It is found that maximum radiation loss occur at 16.09 GHz (−14.23 dB) frequency owing to the combined effect of conducting polymer, suitable dielectric and magnetic material. This suggests that prepared material is suitable for radiation losses. Micro structural study reveals the presence of all the phases of the compounds comprises composite. Benzene ring absorption band (at 1183 cm{sup −1}) in FT-IR spectra illustrates the presence of polymer. Surface morphology reveals the presence of array of particles encapsulated by the polymer. - Highlights: • Composites having polymer, barium titanate and hexaferrite have been successfully prepared. • Effective radiation absorption and losses have been achieved. • Magnetic properties have made an impact on shielding effectiveness.

  1. Mobility of ferroelastic domain walls in barium titanate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlinka, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 349, - (2007), s. 49-54 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ferroelectric and ferroelastic domains * BaTiO 3 * Ginzburg-Landau theory * mobility Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.427, year: 2007

  2. A Study on Reactive Ion Etching of Barium Strontium Titanate Films Using Mixtures of Argon (Ar), Carbon Tetrafluoride (CF4), and Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A Study on Reactive Ion Etching of Barium Strontium Titanate Films Using Mixtures of Argon (Ar), Carbon Tetrafluoride (CF4), and Sulfur...Etching of Barium Strontium Titanate Films Using Mixtures of Argon (Ar), Carbon Tetrafluoride (CF4), and Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) Samuel G...Study on Reactive Ion Etching of Barium Strontium Titanate Films Using Mixtures of Argon (Ar), Carbon Tetrafluoride (CF4), and Sulfur Hexafluoride

  3. Mapping of strain mechanisms in barium titanate by three-dimensional X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majkut, Marta

    This thesis presents an in-situ three-dimensional study of the grain-scale response of a prototypical piezoelectric ceramic, barium titanate (BT), to an exernally applied electric field. Piezoceramics take advantage of the coupling of electrical and mechanical energies for use in sensors and actu......This thesis presents an in-situ three-dimensional study of the grain-scale response of a prototypical piezoelectric ceramic, barium titanate (BT), to an exernally applied electric field. Piezoceramics take advantage of the coupling of electrical and mechanical energies for use in sensors...... to study the material at the grain scale. First, we use the intensity ratios of split diffraction peaks to extract grain-scale domain volume fractions for 139 grains. We find that even in the as-processed state there exist unequal volume fractions of each domain type, which we attribute to a heterogeneous...

  4. High-sensitivity accelerometer composed of ultra-long vertically aligned barium titanate nanowire arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koka, Aneesh; Sodano, Henry A

    2013-01-01

    A configuration that shows great promise in sensing applications is vertically aligned piezoelectric nanowire arrays that allow facile interfacing with electrical interconnects. Nano-electromechanical systems developed using piezoelectric nanowires have gained interest primarily for their potential in energy harvesting applications, because they are able to convert several different sources of mechanical energy into useful electrical power. To date, no results have demonstrated the capability to use aligned piezoelectric nanowire arrays as a highly accurate nano-electromechanical system based dynamic sensor with a wide operating bandwidth and unity coherence. Here we report the growth of vertically aligned (~45 μm long) barium titanate nanowire arrays, realized through a two-step hydrothermal synthesis approach, and demonstrate their use as an accurate accelerometer. High sensitivity of up to 50 mV g(-1) is observed from the sensor composed of vertically aligned barium titanate nanowire arrays, thus providing performance comparable to many of the commercial accelerometer systems.

  5. Preparation of stable dispersion of barium titanate nanoparticles: Potential applications in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofani, G; Danti, S; Moscato, S; Albertazzi, L; D'Alessandro, D; Dinucci, D; Chiellini, F; Petrini, M; Menciassi, A

    2010-04-01

    Nanoscale structures and materials have been explored in many biological applications because of their extraordinary novel properties. Here we propose a study of cellular interactions with barium titanate nanoparticles, an interesting ceramic material that has received a lot of interest in the nanotechnology research, but without any attention about its biological potential. We introduced for the first time an efficient method for the preparation of stable aqueous dispersions of barium titanate nanoparticles, characterized with FIB, TEM and AFM imaging, light scattering, Z-potential and UV/vis analysis. Finally, we presented a systematic study of short-term cytotoxicity of the prepared dispersion based both on quantitative (metabolism, proliferation) and qualitative (apoptosis, viability, differentiation) assays. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Surface-initiated polymerization from barium titanate nanoparticles for hybrid dielectric capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Sergio A; Kim, Yunsang; Henry, Katherine; Kumar, Ritesh; Perry, Joseph W; Marder, Seth R

    2014-03-12

    A phosphonic acid is used as a surface initiator for the growth of polystyrene and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) from barium titanate (BTO) nanoparticles through atom transfer radical polymerization with activators regenerated by electron transfer. This results in the barium titanate cores embedded in the grafted polymer. The one-component system, PMMA-grafted-BTO, achieves a maximum extractable energy density of 2 J/cm(3) at a field strength of ∼220 V/μm, which exhibits a 2-fold increase compared to that of the composite without covalent attachment or the neat polymer. Such materials have potential applications in hybrid capacitors due to the high permittivity of the nanoparticles and the high breakdown strength, mechanical flexibility, and ease of processability due to the organic polymer. The synthesis, processing, characterization, and testing of the materials in capacitors are discussed.

  7. Characterization of individual barium titanate nanorods and their assessment as building blocks of new circuit architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagar, Kristina; Hernandez-Ramirez, Francisco; Prades, Joan Daniel; Morante, Joan Ramon; Rečnik, Aleksander; Ceh, Miran

    2011-09-23

    In this work, we report on the integration of individual BaTiO(3) nanorods into simple circuit architectures. Polycrystalline BaTiO(3) nanorods were synthesized by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of barium titanate sol into aluminium oxide (AAO) templates and subsequent annealing. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed the presence of slabs of hexagonal polymorphs intergrown within cubic grains, resulting from the local reducing atmosphere during the thermal treatment. Electrical measurements performed on individual BaTiO(3) nanorods revealed resistivity values between 10 and 100 Ω cm, which is in good agreement with typical values reported in the past for oxygen-deficient barium titanate films. Consequently the presence of oxygen vacancies in their structure was indirectly validated. Some of these nanorods were tested as proof-of-concept humidity sensors. They showed reproducible responses towards different moisture concentrations, demonstrating that individual BaTiO(3) nanorods may be integrated in complex circuit architectures with functional capacities.

  8. Impedance spectroscopy and dielectric studies of nanocrystalline iron doped barium strontium titanate ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reenu Jacob

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanate compounds have great research attention due to their good electric and in some case interesting magnetic properties. The synthesis and characterization of iron doped barium strontium titanate (BSFTO make an attempt to understand its structure and investigate electric/dielectric properties. The formation of a perovskite compound with tetragonal phase was confirmed through X-ray structural studies. Dielectric and electrical impedance properties of the sintered BSFTO ceramics were measured in the frequency range from 42 Hz to 2 MHz and at different temperatures (up to 600 °C. It was shown that the properties of this material are highly dependent on temperature and frequency. The nature of frequency dependence of AC conductivity confirms the Jonscher’s power law. The temperature dependence of DC conductivity obeys the Arrhenius behaviour.

  9. Characterization of individual barium titanate nanorods and their assessment as building blocks of new circuit architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, Kristina; Recnik, Aleksander; Ceh, Miran; Hernandez-Ramirez, Francisco; Morante, Joan Ramon; Prades, Joan Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report on the integration of individual BaTiO 3 nanorods into simple circuit architectures. Polycrystalline BaTiO 3 nanorods were synthesized by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of barium titanate sol into aluminium oxide (AAO) templates and subsequent annealing. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed the presence of slabs of hexagonal polymorphs intergrown within cubic grains, resulting from the local reducing atmosphere during the thermal treatment. Electrical measurements performed on individual BaTiO 3 nanorods revealed resistivity values between 10 and 100 Ω cm, which is in good agreement with typical values reported in the past for oxygen-deficient barium titanate films. Consequently the presence of oxygen vacancies in their structure was indirectly validated. Some of these nanorods were tested as proof-of-concept humidity sensors. They showed reproducible responses towards different moisture concentrations, demonstrating that individual BaTiO 3 nanorods may be integrated in complex circuit architectures with functional capacities.

  10. Modelling of conjugate heat transfer in barium titanate plates heated by the air flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyulin, Nikolay; Bobrov, Maxim; Hrebtov, Michael

    2017-10-01

    We present the results of simulation of conjugate heat transfer between the grid of barium titanate plates and the hot air flow. The air temperature undergoes rapid change and the thermal front propagation and heat exchange with the solid plates have been studied for several plate configurations. The results show that the air heat could be effectively absorbed by the plates during the time of thermal front propagation, making such configuration attractive for pyroelectric energy harvesting applications.

  11. Preliminary experiments on phase conjugation for flow visualization. [barium titanate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, D.; Howes, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    Barium titanate single crystals are discussed in the context of: the procedure for polarizing a crystal; a test for phase conjugation; transients in the production of phase conjugation; real time readout by a separate laser of a hologram induced within the crystal, including conjugation response times to on-off switching of each beam; and a demonstration of a Twyman-Green interferometer utilizing phase conjugation.

  12. Polarization rotation and the electrocaloric effect in barium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H. H.; Cohen, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    We study the electrocaloric effect in the classic ferroelectric BaTiO3 through a series of phase transitions driven by applied electric field and temperature. We find both negative and positive electrocaloric effects, with the negative electrocaloric effect, where temperature decreases with applied field, in monoclinic phases. Macroscopic polarization rotation is evident through the monoclinic and orthorhombic phases under applied field, and is responsible for the negative electrocaloric effect.

  13. Structure and properties of sodium bismuth titanate ferroelectric ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksel, Elena

    Piezoelectric materials are commonly used in sensor and actuator technologies due to their unique ability to couple electrical and mechanical displacements. Applications of piezoelectric materials range from diesel engine fuel injectors, sonar, ultrasound, and nanopositioners in scanning microscopes. Changing environmental regulations and policies have led to a recent surge in the research of lead-free piezoelectric materials. One such system currently under investigation is sodium bismuth titanate (Na0.5Bi0.5 TiO3) or NBT. It has recently been investigated with the addition of chemical modifiers as well as part of various solid solutions with other compounds. However, research into the structure and properties of NBT is still in its infancy. The aim of this dissertation was to develop a comprehensive understanding of the crystal structure and property relationships in NBT. First, the formation of the NBT phase during solid state processing was examined using in situ X-ray diffraction. It was determined that NBT forms through a particle conversion mechanism of the Bi2O 3 particle. The average and local room temperature structure of calcined and sintered NBT were examined using both high resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction techniques. It was determined that the room temperature average structure of this material is best modeled using the monoclinic Cc space group rather than the previously accepted rhombohedral R3c space group. A combined high resolution XRD and neutron diffraction Rietveld refinement provided refined lattice parameters, atomic positions, and displacement parameters. The departure of the local structure of NBT from the average structure was examined through the Pair Distribution Function analysis. It was determined that Na+ and Bi3+, which share the A-site, have differing bonding environments with their surrounding O2- ions. In order to understand the origin of the piezoelectric depolarization behavior of NBT, crystal

  14. Ferroelastic domain walls in barium titanate - quantitative phenomenological model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlinka, Jiří; Márton, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 1 (2009), s. 50-62 ISSN 1058-4587 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0411; GA ČR(CZ) GD202/05/H003; GA AV ČR 1ET300100401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ferroelectric and ferroelastic domains * BaTiO 3 * Ginzburg-Landau theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.329, year: 2009

  15. Tunable pyroelectric properties of barium strontium titanate thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokov, V B; Razumnaya, A G; Yuzyuk, Yu I

    2017-05-10

    We studied the influence of the induced strain and applied electric field on the ground state of ferroelectric Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3 TiO 3 thin films, deposited on the cubic (0 0 1) substrate. The dependence of the pyroelectric coefficient on the applied field is calculated for the different values of the induced strain. We found that tuning of the misfit strain in the film under the dielectric bolometer mode by the proper selection of substrate makes it possible to create the structures with very large values of the pyroelectric coefficient.

  16. Improved flexoelectricity in PVDF/barium strontium titanate (BST) nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinping; Zhou, Yang; Liu, Jie; Chu, Baojin

    2018-04-01

    The flexoelectric effect of polymers is normally much weaker than that of ferroelectric oxides. In order to improve the flexoelectric response of the poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) ferroelectric polymer, PVDF/Ba0.67Si0.33TiO3 (BST) nanocomposites were fabricated. BST nanofibers were prepared by the electrospinning method, and the fibers were further surface modified with H2O2 to achieve a stronger interfacial interaction between the fibers and polymer matrix. Due to the high dielectric properties and strong flexoelectric effect of the BST, both dielectric constant and flexoelectric response of the composite with 25 vol. % surface modified BST are 3-4 times higher than those of PVDF. The dependence of the dielectric constant and the flexoelectric coefficient on the composition of the nanocomposites can be fitted by the empirical Yamada model, and the dielectric constant and the flexoelectric coefficient are correlated by a linear relationship. This study provides an approach to enhance the flexoelectric response of PVDF-based polymers.

  17. Comparative analysis of barium titanate thin films dry etching using inductively coupled plasmas by different fluorine-based mixture gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wang, Cong; Yao, Zhao; Kim, Hong-Ki; Kim, Nam-Young

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the inductively coupled plasma etching technique was applied to etch the barium titanate thin film. A comparative study of etch characteristics of the barium titanate thin film has been investigated in fluorine-based (CF4/O2, C4F8/O2 and SF6/O2) plasmas. The etch rates were measured using focused ion beam in order to ensure the accuracy of measurement. The surface morphology of etched barium titanate thin film was characterized by atomic force microscope. The chemical state of the etched surfaces was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. According to the experimental result, we monitored that a higher barium titanate thin film etch rate was achieved with SF6/O2 due to minimum amount of necessary ion energy and its higher volatility of etching byproducts as compared with CF4/O2 and C4F8/O2. Low-volatile C-F compound etching byproducts from C4F8/O2 were observed on the etched surface and resulted in the reduction of etch rate. As a result, the barium titanate films can be effectively etched by the plasma with the composition of SF6/O2, which has an etch rate of over than 46.7 nm/min at RF power/inductively coupled plasma (ICP) power of 150/1,000 W under gas pressure of 7.5 mTorr with a better surface morphology.

  18. LOWERING THE SINTERING TEMPERATURE OF BARIUM STRONTIUM TITANATE BULK CERAMICS BY BARIUM STRONTIUM TITANATE-GEL AND BaCu(B₂O₅

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Gleissner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of barium strontium titanate (BST xerogel as a sinter additive and BaCu(B₂O₅(BCB as a liquid phase sintering aid on the sintering behavior of BST bulk ceramics is investigated. BST as well as BCB powders were synthesized via a mixed oxide route and BST gel via a sol-gel process. Compared to pure BST bulk ceramics, BST gel reduces the sintering start (onset temperature by up to 174°C and increases the density for a sintering temperature of 1200°C. By adding BCB to the BST powder the sintering was completed much faster and the onset temperatures were reduced by 281°C and 312°C for 1 mol% and 2.5 mol%, respectively. With 2.5 mol% BCB, the highest density of 96 % (5.41 g/cm³ was achieved at 950°C.

  19. Synthesis of Barium Titanate (BT) Nano Particles via Hydrothermal Route for the Production of BT-Polymer Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, A.; Haubner, R.; Jakopic, G.; Stelzer, N.

    2007-08-01

    Barium titanate (high-k dielectric material) nano-powders (approx. 30 nm to 60 nm) were synthesised using hydrothermal route under moderate conditions. Effect of temperature and time was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction techniques. Obtained barium titanate nano-powders were dispersed in thermoplastic polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) to get homogeneous dispersions. Thin layers were obtained using these dispersions to achieve BaTiO3 endorsed polymer layers by dip-coating for improved polymer insulators on various substrates e.g., glass, and Au sputtered silicon wafers. SEM and focused ion beam (FIB) techniques were used to study the dispersion of barium titanate nano-particles in PMMA. The layers obtained showed homogenous distribution of BaTiO3 nano particles with no agglomeration.

  20. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Processing of Barium Titanate Nanoparticles Embedded in Polymer Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Michael D; Gao, Kai; Mendis, Gamini P; Slamovich, Elliott B; Howarter, John A

    2015-12-30

    Barium titanate nanoparticles embedded in flexible polymer films were synthesized using hydrothermal processing methods. The resulting films were characterized with respect to material composition, size distribution of nanoparticles, and spatial location of particles within the polymer film. Synthesis conditions were varied based on the mechanical properties of the polymer films, ratio of polymer to barium titanate precursors, and length of aging time between initial formulations of the solution to final processing of nanoparticles. Block copolymers of poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (SMAh) were used to spatially separate titanium precursors based on specific chemical interactions with the maleic anhydride moiety. However, the glassy nature of this copolymer restricted mobility of the titanium precursors during hydrothermal processing. The addition of rubbery butadiene moieties, through mixing of the SMAh with poly(styrene-butadiene-styrene) (SBS) copolymer, increased the nanoparticle dispersion as a result of greater diffusivity of the titanium precursor via higher mobility of the polymer matrix. Additionally, an aminosilane was used as a means to retard cross-linking in polymer-metalorganic solutions, as the titanium precursor molecules were shown to react and form networks prior to hydrothermal processing. By adding small amounts of competing aminosilane, excessive cross-linking was prevented without significantly impacting the quality and composition of the final barium titanate nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to verify nanoparticle compositions. Particle sizes within the polymer films were measured to be 108 ± 5 nm, 100 ± 6 nm, and 60 ± 5 nm under different synthetic conditions using electron microscopy. Flexibility of the films was assessed through measurement of the glass transition temperature using dynamic mechanical analysis. Dielectric permittivity was measured using an impedance analyzer.

  1. Fabrication and Characterization of Carbonized Rice Husk/Barium Titanate Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, G. J. H.; Wang, Z.; Ni, Q.-Q.; Siambun, N. J.; Rahman, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    Carbon materials were prepared by carbonizing rice husk (RHs) at 2500°C. Few- and multi-layer graphene were obtained from this carbonization process. Barium titanate (BTO) nanoparticles were fabricated by using sol-gel method. Then, the BTO nanoparticles were grafted onto the surface of carbonized rice husk (CRH) to fabricate CRH/BTO nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were characterized using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman measurement, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Based on the broadening of (1 1 0) peak from XRD result, the average crystalline size of BTO nanoparticles were calculated to be 16.5 nm. Coexistence of cubic and tetragonal phase of BTO nanoparticles is expected, based on the XRD and Raman results. From XPS result, carbon, barium, titanium, and oxygen peaks were also observed. The combination of CRH with BTO can integrate the properties of these two components to form nanocomposites for broad applications.

  2. Formation of nanocrystalline barium titanate in benzyl alcohol at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Sjoerd A; Vijselaar, Wouter J C; Stawski, Tomasz M; ten Elshof, Johan E

    2014-12-15

    Nanocrystalline barium titanate (8-10 nm crystallite size) was prepared at temperatures of 23-78 °C through reaction of a modified titanium alkoxide precursor in benzyl alcohol with barium hydroxide octahydrate. The room temperature formation of a perovskite phase from solution is associated with the use of benzyl alcohol as solvent medium. The formation mechanism was elucidated by studying the stability and interaction of each precursor with the solvent and with each other using various experimental characterization techniques. Density functional theory (DFT) computational models which agreed well with our experimental data could explain the formation of the solid phase. The stability of the Ti precursor was enhanced by steric hindrance exerted by phenylmethoxy ligands that originated from the benzyl alcohol solvent. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction indicated that the crystallite sizes were independent of the reaction temperature. Crystal growth was inhibited by the stabilizing phenylmethoxy groups present on the surface of the crystallites.

  3. Modified Pechini Processing of Barium and Lanthanum-Lithium Titanate Nanoparticles and Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslov, A; Kobylianska, S; Durilin, D; Ovchar, O; Trachevskii, V; Jancar, B; Belous, A

    2017-12-01

    Barium-strontium titanate (BST) Ba 0.6 Sr 0.4 TiO 3 and lanthanum-lithium titanate (LLT) La 0.5 Li 0.5 TiO 3 nanopowders and thin films have been obtained via the modified Pechini route. Polyesterification and complexation processes of gel formation have been examined. Hypothetical models of coordinative polymers formed in sol-gel system have been suggested. It has been shown that BST and LLT solid solutions form in one step at relatively low temperature. X-ray diffraction confirms that the final products, which are single phases and have cubic shape, are formed at 600 and 700 °C for BST and LLT respectively. It has been found that use of thermal shock as pretreatment allows to increase the density of BST- and LLT-based thin films.

  4. Microstructure Control of Barium Titanate Grain-oriented Ceramics and Their Piezoelectric Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Rintaro; Nakashima, Koichi; Fujii, Ichiro; Wada, Satoshi; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Nagamori, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Yuichi

    2011-01-01

    The Barium titanate (BaTiO 3 , BT) [110] grain-oriented ceramics along [110] direction were prepared by a templated grain growth (TGG) method. The [110] oriented BT platelike particles (t-BT) were used as template particles. The relationship between poling treatment program and piezoelectric constant was investigated. The change in the poling conditions did not greatly influence domain size and the piezoelectric constant. The relationship between piezoelectric properties and domain size in BT grain-oriented ceramics was investigated. The smaller domain size was required to increase the piezoelectric constant.

  5. Comparison of barium titanate thin films prepared by inkjet printing and spin coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vukmirović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, barium titanate films were prepared by different deposition techniques (spin coating, office Epson inkjet printer and commercial Dimatix inkjet printer. As inkjet technique requires special rheological properties of inks the first part of the study deals with the preparation of inks, whereas the second part examines and compares structural characteristics of the deposited films. Inks were synthesized by sol-gel method and parameters such as viscosity, particle size and surface tension were measured. Deposited films were examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy, XRD analysis and Raman spectroscopy. The findings consider advantages and disadvantages of the particular deposition techniques.

  6. Contribution of the irreversible displacement of domain walls to the piezoelectric effect in barium titanate and lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Damjanovic, D

    1997-01-01

    The contribution from the irreversible displacement of non-180 deg domain walls to the direct longitudinal piezoelectric d sub 3 sub 3 coefficient of BaTiO sub 3 and Pb(Zr, Ti)O sub 3 ceramics was determined quantitatively by using the Rayleigh law. Effects of the crystal structure and microstructure of the ceramics as well as the external d.c. pressure on the domain wall contribution to d sub 3 sub 3 were examined. In barium titanate, this domain wall contribution is large (up to 35% of the total d sub 3 sub 3 , under the experimental conditions used) and dependent on the external d.c. pressure in coarse grained ceramics, and much smaller and independent of the external d.c. pressure in fine-grained samples. The presence of internal stresses in fine-grained ceramics could account for the observed behaviour. The analysis shows that the domain-wall contribution to the d sub 3 sub 3 in lead zirconate titanate ceramics is large in compositions close to the morphotropic phase boundary that contain a mixture of te...

  7. Nanostructured Barium Titanate/Carbon Nanotubes Incorporated Polyaniline as Synergistic Electromagnetic Wave Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujun Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional (3D conductive network structures formed by barium titanate/carbon nanotubes incorporated polyaniline were favorable for strengthening electromagnetic absorption capability. Herein, an easy and flexible method consisting of sol-gel technique, in situ polymerization, and subsequent mechanical method have been developed to prepare the barium titanate/carbon nanotubes incorporated polyaniline (CNTs/BaTiO3/PANI or CBP ternary composites. The dielectric properties and microwave absorption properties of CNTs/BaTiO3/PANI composites were investigated in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz by vector network analyzer. Interestingly, it is found that the CNTs/BaTiO3/PANI composites with 3D conductive network structures presented outstanding electromagnetic absorption properties, which may be attributed to the high impedance matching behavior and improved dielectric loss ability and novel synergistic effect. Additionally, it also can be supposed that the “geometrical effect” of composite was more beneficial to absorbing the incident electromagnetic wave. The CNTs/BaTiO3/PANI composite (the mass ratio of CNTs/BaTiO3 to PANI is 2 : 3 exhibits the best microwave absorption properties, of which the minimum reflection loss value can reach −30.9 dB at 8 GHz and the absorption bandwidth with a reflection loss blew −10 dB ranges from 7.5 to 10.2 GHz.

  8. Size effect of barium titanate and computer-aided design of multilayered ceramic capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumi, Takaaki; Hoshina, Takuya; Takeda, Hiroaki; Mizuno, Youichi; Chazono, Hirokazu

    2009-08-01

    The size effect of BaTiO3 (BTO) is the most important issue to design multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) with high capacitance. In the size effect of BTO particles, the size dependence of dielectric permittivity related with the complex structure in BTO nano-particles. The grain size dependence of dielectric permittivity in BTO ceramics was due to the domain wall contribution. The core-shell structure played an important role in the size effect of dielectric layers in X7R-MLCCs. Computer simulation technique was developed to predict the limit of capacitance density of MLCCs produced by the current technology. Dielectric properties of MLCCs with different particle size of BTO were measured, and the data were analyzed using B-SPLINE fitting to predict dielectric permittivity at arbitrary temperatures and AC-fields. The dielectric properties of barium titanate grains smaller than 100 nm were predicted using least squares fitting of the B-SPLINE coefficients. It was found from the simulation that the use of barium titanate grains smaller than 80 nm did not give an advantage to increase the capacitance density as well as temperature stability of the MLCCs. The maximum capacitance was predicted for the 1608 (mm) chip size.

  9. Determination of vanadium in titanate-based ferroelectrics by INAA with discriminating gamma-ray spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kameník, Jan; Dragounová, K.; Kučera, Jan; Bryknar, Z.; Trepakov, Vladimír; Strunga, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 311, č. 2 (2017), s. 1333-1338 ISSN 0236-5731. [1st International Conference on Radioanalytical and Nuclear chemistry (RANC). Budapest, 10.04.2016-15.04.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : Titanate-based ferroelectrics * Vanadium * INAA * discriminating gamma-ray spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry; Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  10. Experimental investigation of the effect of titanium dioxide and barium titanate additives on DC transient currents in low density polyethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalil, M.S; Henk, Peter O; Henriksen, Mogens

    1988-01-01

    The effect of titanium dioxide as a semiconductive additive and barium titanate as a highly polar additive on the DC transient currents in low-density polyethylene is investigated. Experiments were made using thick specimens under a high electric field (>25×106 V/m) and a constant temperature of 40...

  11. Fabrication of Barium Strontium Titanate (Ba1-xSrxTiO3) Films Used for Bio-inspired Infrared Detector Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Fabrication of Barium Strontium Titanate (Ba1–xSrxTiO3) Films Used for Bio-inspired Infrared Detector Arrays by Kimberley A. Olver ARL...MD 20783-1197 ARL-TR-6112 September 2012 Fabrication of Barium Strontium Titanate (Ba1–xSrxTiO3) Films Used for Bio-inspired Infrared...MM-YYYY) September 2012 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fabrication of Barium Strontium Titanate (Ba1

  12. Defect controlled room temperature ferromagnetism in Co-doped barium titanate nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Sugata; Kolen'ko, Yury V; Watanabe, Tomoaki; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Itoh, Mitsuru; Kovnir, Kirill A; Lebedev, Oleg I; Turner, Stuart; Erni, Rolf; Tendeloo, Gustaaf Van; Chakraborty, Tanushree

    2012-01-01

    Defect mediated high temperature ferromagnetism in oxide nanocrystallites is the central feature of this work. Here, we report the development of room temperature ferromagnetism in nanosized Co-doped barium titanate particles with a size of around 14 nm, synthesized by a solvothermal drying method. A combination of x-ray diffraction with state-of-the-art electron microscopy techniques confirms the intrinsic doping of Co into BaTiO 3 . The development of the room temperature ferromagnetism was tracked down to the different donor defects, namely hydroxyl groups at the oxygen site and oxygen vacancies and their relative concentrations at the surface and the core of the nanocrystal, which could be controlled by post-synthesis drying and thermal treatments.

  13. Study of grain boundary tunneling in barium-titanate ceramic films

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, H; Poon, M C

    1999-01-01

    The temperature and the electric-field dependences of the current-voltage characteristics and the low-frequency noise of barium-titanate ceramic films are studied. An abnormal field dependence is observed in the resistivity of BaTiO sub 3 materials with a small average grain size. In addition, experiments show that the low-frequency noise behaviors are governed by grain-boundary tunneling at room temperature and by trapping-detrapping of grain-boundary states at temperatures above the Curie point. Physical models for the new observations are developed. Results suggest that grain-boundary tunneling of carriers is as important as the double Schottky barrier in the current conduction in BaTiO sub 3 materials with small grain sizes.

  14. Study of a Flexible Low Profile Tunable Dipole Antenna Using Barium Strontium Titanate Varactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cure, David; Weller, Thomas; Miranda, Felix A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a flexible low profile dipole antenna using a frequency selective surface (FSS) with interdigital barium strontium titanate (BST) varactor-tuned unit cells is presented. The varactor chips were placed only along one dimension of the FSS to avoid the use of vias and simplify the DC bias network. The antenna uses overlapping metallic plates that resemble fish scales as a ground plane to improve the flexibility of the multi-material stack structure. The measured data of the antenna demonstrate tunability from 2.42 GHz to 2.66 GHz and 1.3 dB gain drop when using overlapping metallic plates instead of continuous ground plane. The total antenna thickness is approximately lambda/24.

  15. Poly(vinylidene-trifluoroethylene)/barium titanate composite for in vivo support of bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Helena B; Santos, Thiago de S; de Oliveira, Fabiola S; Freitas, Gileade P; de Almeida, Adriana Lg; Gimenes, Rossano; Rosa, Adalberto L; Beloti, Marcio M

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/barium titanate (P(VDF-TrFE)/BT) membrane on in vivo bone formation. Rat calvarial bone defects were implanted with P(VDF-TrFE)/BT and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes, and at 4 and 8 weeks, histomorphometric and gene expression analyses were performed. A higher amount of bone formation was noticed on P(VDF-TrFE)/BT compared with PTFE. The gene expression of RUNX2, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand, and osteoprotegerin indicates that P(VDF-TrFE)/BT favored the osteoblast differentiation compared with PTFE. These results evidenced the benefits of using P(VDF-TrFE)/BT to promote new bone formation, which may represent a promising alternative to be employed in guided bone regeneration. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Bioconjugation of barium titanate nanocrystals with immunoglobulin G antibody for second harmonic radiation imaging probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chia-Lung; Grange, Rachel; Pu, Ye; Psaltis, Demetri

    2010-03-01

    The second harmonic generation (SHG) active nanocrystals have been demonstrated as attractive imaging probes in nonlinear microscopy due to their coherent, non-bleaching and non-blinking signals with a broad flexibility in the choice of excitation wavelength. For the use of these nanocrystals as biomarkers, it is essential to prepare a chemical interface for specific labeling. We developed a specific labeling scheme for barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanocrystals which we use as second harmonic radiation imaging probes. The specificity was achieved by covalently coupling antibodies onto the nanocrystals. We demonstrate highly specific labeling of the nanocrystal conjugates in an antibody microarray and also the membrane proteins of live biological cells in vitro. The development of surface functionalization and bioconjugation of SHG active nanocrystals provides the opportunities of applying them to biological studies. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Defect controlled room temperature ferromagnetism in Co-doped barium titanate nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sugata; Kolen'ko, Yury V; Kovnir, Kirill A; Lebedev, Oleg I; Turner, Stuart; Chakraborty, Tanushree; Erni, Rolf; Watanabe, Tomoaki; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Itoh, Mitsuru

    2012-01-20

    Defect mediated high temperature ferromagnetism in oxide nanocrystallites is the central feature of this work. Here, we report the development of room temperature ferromagnetism in nanosized Co-doped barium titanate particles with a size of around 14 nm, synthesized by a solvothermal drying method. A combination of x-ray diffraction with state-of-the-art electron microscopy techniques confirms the intrinsic doping of Co into BaTiO3. The development of the room temperature ferromagnetism was tracked down to the different donor defects, namely hydroxyl groups at the oxygen site (OH·(O) and oxygen vacancies (V··(O), and their relative concentrations at the surface and the core of the nanocrystal, which could be controlled by post-synthesis drying and thermal treatments.

  18. Barium Titanate Nanoparticles: Highly Cytocompatible Dispersions in Glycol-chitosan and Doxorubicin Complexes for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danti Serena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the latest years, innovative nanomaterials have attracted a dramatic and exponentially increasing interest, in particular for their potential applications in the biomedical field. In this paper, we reported our findings on the cytocompatibility of barium titanate nanoparticles (BTNPs, an extremely interesting ceramic material. A rational and systematic study of BTNP cytocompatibility was performed, using a dispersion method based on a non-covalent binding to glycol-chitosan, which demonstrated the optimal cytocompatibility of this nanomaterial even at high concentration (100 μg/ml. Moreover, we showed that the efficiency of doxorubicin, a widely used chemotherapy drug, is highly enhanced following the complexation with BTNPs. Our results suggest that innovative ceramic nanomaterials such as BTNPs can be realistically exploited as alternative cellular nanovectors.

  19. Barium strontium titanate (BST) thin film analysis on different layer and annealing temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Y. C.; Ong, N. R.; Sauli, Z.; Alcain, J. B.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) thin film has been prepared by using sol-gel method. The samples are prepared with 2 different deposition layers (1 layer and 4 layer) and annealing temperature (600°C and 800°C) with Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 solution. Physical and electrical characterization of all the samples is done. The results showed that the grain size and surface roughness of the samples increased as the deposition layer and annealing temperature increased. In addition, the dielectric constant of the samples also increased as the deposition layer and annealing temperature increased. Thus, the physical and electrical characteristics of the thin films are related one to another.

  20. Barium Titanate Nanoparticles: Highly Cytocompatible Dispersions in Glycol-chitosan and Doxorubicin Complexes for Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofani, Gianni; Danti, Serena; D'Alessandro, Delfo; Moscato, Stefania; Petrini, Mario; Menciassi, Arianna

    2010-05-09

    In the latest years, innovative nanomaterials have attracted a dramatic and exponentially increasing interest, in particular for their potential applications in the biomedical field. In this paper, we reported our findings on the cytocompatibility of barium titanate nanoparticles (BTNPs), an extremely interesting ceramic material. A rational and systematic study of BTNP cytocompatibility was performed, using a dispersion method based on a non-covalent binding to glycol-chitosan, which demonstrated the optimal cytocompatibility of this nanomaterial even at high concentration (100 μg/ml). Moreover, we showed that the efficiency of doxorubicin, a widely used chemotherapy drug, is highly enhanced following the complexation with BTNPs. Our results suggest that innovative ceramic nanomaterials such as BTNPs can be realistically exploited as alternative cellular nanovectors.

  1. Structural and Mössbauer investigation on barium titanate-cobalt ferrite composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonel, Liliam V.; Silva, Juliana B.; Albuquerque, Adriana S.; Ardisson, José D.; Macedo, Waldemar A. A.; Mohallem, Nelcy D. S.

    2012-11-01

    Perovskite and spinels oxides have received renewed attention due to the possibility of combining both structures in di-phase composites to obtain multifunctional materials. In this work, barium titanate (perovskite)-cobalt ferrite (spinel) composite powders with different microstructures were obtained from thermal treatment of amorphous precursors at 500-1100 °C. The precursors were prepared by combining coprecipitation and sol-gel routes. Lyophilization of ferrite prior to mixing was used as a strategy to control interphase reaction. Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that the dispersion of coprecipitated ferrite in a viscous BaTiO3 precursor gel resulted in superparamagnetic behavior and reduction of the local magnetic field of site [B].

  2. Novel design of highly [110]-oriented barium titanate nanorod array and its application in nanocomposite capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lingmin; Pan, Zhongbin; Zhai, Jiwei; Chen, Haydn H D

    2017-03-23

    Nanocomposites in capacitors combining highly aligned one dimension ferroelectric nanowires with polymer would be more desirable for achieving higher energy density. However, the synthesis of the well-isolated ferroelectric oxide nanorod arrays with a high orientation has been rather scant, especially using glass-made substrates. In this study, a novel design that is capable of fabricating a highly [110]-oriented BaTiO 3 (BT) nanorod array was proposed first, using a three-step hydrothermal reaction on glass-made substrates. The details for controlling the dispersion of the nanorod array, the orientation and the aspect ratio are also discussed. It is found that the alkaline treatment of the TiO 2 (TO) nanorod array, rather than the completing transformation into sodium titanate, favors the transformation of the TO into the BT nanorod array, as well as protecting the glass-made substrate. The dispersity of the nanorod array can be controlled by the introduction of a glycol ether-deionized water mixed solvent and soluble salts. Moreover, the orientation of the nanorod arrays could be tuned by the ionic strength of the solution. This novel BT nanorod array was used as a filler in a nanocomposite capacitor, demonstrating that a large energy density (11.82 J cm -3 ) can be achieved even at a low applied electric field (3200 kV cm -1 ), which opens us a new application in nanocomposite capacitors.

  3. Electrical Properties of Thin-Film Capacitors Fabricated Using High Temperature Sputtered Modified Barium Titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Glyn J; Kratzer, Martin; Dubs, Martin; Felzer, Heinz; Mamazza, Robert

    2012-04-13

    Simple thin-film capacitor stacks were fabricated from sputter-deposited doped barium titanate dielectric films with sputtered Pt and/or Ni electrodes and characterized electrically. Here, we report small signal, low frequency capacitance and parallel resistance data measured as a function of applied DC bias, polarization versus applied electric field strength and DC load/unload experiments. These capacitors exhibited significant leakage (in the range 8-210 μA/cm²) and dielectric loss. Measured breakdown strength for the sputtered doped barium titanate films was in the range 200 kV/cm -2 MV/cm. For all devices tested, we observed clear evidence for dielectric saturation at applied electric field strengths above 100 kV/cm: saturated polarization was in the range 8-15 μC/cm². When cycled under DC conditions, the maximum energy density measured for any of the capacitors tested here was ~4.7 × 10 -2 W-h/liter based on the volume of the dielectric material only. This corresponds to a specific energy of ~8 × 10 -3 W-h/kg, again calculated on a dielectric-only basis. These results are compared to those reported by other authors and a simple theoretical treatment provided that quantifies the maximum energy that can be stored in these and similar devices as a function of dielectric strength and saturation polarization. Finally, a predictive model is developed to provide guidance on how to tailor the relative permittivities of high-k dielectrics in order to optimize their energy storage capacities.

  4. Electrical Properties of Thin-Film Capacitors Fabricated Using High Temperature Sputtered Modified Barium Titanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mamazza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Simple thin-film capacitor stacks were fabricated from sputter-deposited doped barium titanate dielectric films with sputtered Pt and/or Ni electrodes and characterized electrically. Here, we report small signal, low frequency capacitance and parallel resistance data measured as a function of applied DC bias, polarization versus applied electric field strength and DC load/unload experiments. These capacitors exhibited significant leakage (in the range 8–210 μA/cm2 and dielectric loss. Measured breakdown strength for the sputtered doped barium titanate films was in the range 200 kV/cm −2 MV/cm. For all devices tested, we observed clear evidence for dielectric saturation at applied electric field strengths above 100 kV/cm: saturated polarization was in the range 8–15 μC/cm2. When cycled under DC conditions, the maximum energy density measured for any of the capacitors tested here was ~4.7 × 10−2 W-h/liter based on the volume of the dielectric material only. This corresponds to a specific energy of ~8 × 10−3 W-h/kg, again calculated on a dielectric-only basis. These results are compared to those reported by other authors and a simple theoretical treatment provided that quantifies the maximum energy that can be stored in these and similar devices as a function of dielectric strength and saturation polarization. Finally, a predictive model is developed to provide guidance on how to tailor the relative permittivities of high-k dielectrics in order to optimize their energy storage capacities.

  5. Low-Temperature Synthesis and Thermodynamic and Electrical Properties of Barium Titanate Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Maxim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies regarding the morphology dependence of the perovskite-type oxides functional materials properties are of recent interest. With this aim, nanorods (NRs and nanocubes (NCs of barium titanate (BaTiO3 have been successfully synthesized via a hydrothermal route at temperature as low as 408 K, employing barium acetate, titanium isopropoxide, and sodium hydroxide as reagents without any surfactant or template. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, used for the morphology and structure analyses, showed that the NRs were formed by an oriented attachment of the NCs building-blocks with 20 nm average crystallites size. The thermodynamic properties represented by the relative partial molar free energies, enthalpies, and entropies of the oxygen dissolution in the perovskite phase, as well as the equilibrium partial pressure of oxygen, indicated that NRs powders have lower oxygen vacancies concentration than the NCs. This NRs characteristic, together with higher tetragonallity of the structure, leads to the enhancement of the dielectric properties of BaTiO3 ceramics. The results presented in this work show indubitably the importance of the nanopowders morphology on the material properties.

  6. Synthesis of nanoparticles of barium strontium titanate using hydrothermal microwave method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.A.; Souza, A.E.; Teixeira, S.R.; Moreira, M.L.; Volanti, D.P.; Longo, E.

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles of barium strontium titanate Ba x Sr 1 - x TiO 3 (BST) had been prepared, with x = 0.5, using the hydrothermal method attended by microwaves (HTMW). A solution was prepared using deionized water, barium chloride (BaCl 2 .2H 2 O), strontium chloride (SrCl 2 .6H 2 O), titanium (IV) isopropoxide (C 12 H28O 4 Ti) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). Afterward the solution was heated to 140 deg C in a microwave oven, at a heating rate of 140 deg C/min, and maintained at this temperature for 40 min, under a pressure of 3 to 4 bar. X-ray diffraction (DRX) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) had been used in the particles characterization. DRX was used to identify the crystallized phases and the images taken from (FE-SEM) show that the material has a wide particle-size distribution with most of them between 10 and 30 nm. (author)

  7. Structural and optical properties of Er3+/Yb3+ doped barium titanate phosphor prepared by co-precipitation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahata, Manoj Kumar; Kumar, Kaushal; Rai, Vineet Kumar

    2014-04-24

    In the present work we have synthesized the Er(3+)/Yb(3+) codoped barium titanate phosphor via co-precipitation method and studied its upconversion emission properties. The prepared BaTiO3 powder was found in cubic phase as a major component and having good crystallinity revealed by the XRD analysis. Optical band gap of the cubic barium titanate was calculated using the diffuse reflectance absorption spectrum. Good green upconversion emission is observed from the samples when excited by 980 nm diode laser. The variation in upconversion emission intensity is studied with the increase in excitation power as well as temperature of the sample. It is found that the emission bands centred at 524 and 548 nm are thermally coupled and can act as a temperature sensor in the 300-480 K temperature range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Zr on dielectric, ferroelectric and impedance properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. A polycrystalline sample of Zr-doped barium titanate (BaTiO3) was prepared by conventional solid state reaction method. The effect of Zr (0⋅15) on the structural and microstructural properties of BaTiO3 was investigated by XRD and SEM. The electrical properties (dielectric, ferroelectric and impedance spectro-.

  9. Effect of Zr on dielectric, ferroelectric and impedance properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A polycrystalline sample of Zr-doped barium titanate (BaTiO3) was prepared by conventional solid state reaction method. The effect of Zr (0.15) on the structural and microstructural properties of BaTiO3 was investigated by XRD and SEM. The electrical properties (dielectric, ferroelectric and impedance spectroscopy) were ...

  10. Ferroelectric mesocrystals of bismuth sodium titanate: formation mechanism, nanostructure, and application to piezoelectric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dengwei; Kong, Xingang; Mori, Kotaro; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Shinagawa, Kazunari; Feng, Qi

    2013-09-16

    Ferroelectric mesocrystals of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 (BNT) with [100]-crystal-axis orientation were successfully prepared using a topotactic structural transformation process from a layered titanate H1.07Ti1.73O4·nH2O (HTO). The formation reactions of BNT mesocrystals in HTO-Bi2O3-Na2CO3 and HTO-TiO2-Bi2O3-Na2CO3 reaction systems and their nanostructures were studied by XRD, FE-SEM, TEM, SAED, and EDS, and the reaction mechanisms were given. The BNT mesocrystals are formed by a topotactic structural transformation mechanism in the HTO-Bi2O3-Na2CO3 reaction system and by a combination mechanism of the topotactic structural transformation and epitaxial crystal growth in the HTO-TiO2-Bi2O3-Na2CO3 reaction system, respectively. The BNT mesocrystals prepared by these methods are constructed from [100]-oriented BNT nanocrystals. Furthermore, these reaction systems were successfully applied to the fabrication of [100]-oriented BNT ferroelectric ceramic materials. A BNT ceramic material with a high degree of orientation, high relative density, and small grain size was achieved.

  11. Barium titanate nanoparticles and hypergravity stimulation improve differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocca A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antonella Rocca,1,2 Attilio Marino,1,2 Veronica Rocca,3 Stefania Moscato,4 Giuseppe de Vito,5,6 Vincenzo Piazza,5 Barbara Mazzolai,1 Virgilio Mattoli,1 Thu Jennifer Ngo-Anh,7 Gianni Ciofani1 1Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Center for Micro-BioRobotics @SSSA, Pontedera, Italy, 2Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, The BioRobotics Institute, Pontedera, Italy, 3Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, Pisa, Italy, 4Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, Pisa, Italy, 5Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Center for Nanotechnology Innovation @NEST, Pisa, Italy, 6Scuola Normale Superiore, NEST, Pisa, Italy, 7Directorate of Human Spaceflight and Operations, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, the Netherlands Background: Enhancement of the osteogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs is highly desirable in the field of bone regeneration. This paper proposes a new approach for the improvement of osteogenesis combining hypergravity with osteoinductive nanoparticles (NPs.Materials and methods: In this study, we aimed to investigate the combined effects of hypergravity and barium titanate NPs (BTNPs on the osteogenic differentiation of rat MSCs, and the hypergravity effects on NP internalization. To obtain the hypergravity condition, we used a large-diameter centrifuge in the presence of a BTNP-doped culture medium. We analyzed cell morphology and NP internalization with immunofluorescent staining and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, respectively. Moreover, cell differentiation was evaluated both at the gene level with quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and at the protein level with Western blotting.Results: Following a 20 g treatment, we found alterations in cytoskeleton conformation, cellular shape and morphology, as well as a significant increment of expression of osteoblastic markers both at the gene and protein levels, jointly pointing to a substantial

  12. Losses in Ferroelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials are the best dielectric and piezoelectric materials known today. Since the discovery of barium titanate in the 1940s, lead zirconate titanate ceramics in the 1950s and relaxor-PT single crystals (such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate and lead zinc niobate-lead titanate) in the 1980s and 1990s, perovskite ferroelectric materials have been the dominating piezoelectric materials for electromechanical devices, and are widely used in sensors, actuators and ultrasonic transducers. Energy losses (or energy dissipation) in ferroelectrics are one of the most critical issues for high power devices, such as therapeutic ultrasonic transducers, large displacement actuators, SONAR projectors, and high frequency medical imaging transducers. The losses of ferroelectric materials have three distinct types, i.e., elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric losses. People have been investigating the mechanisms of these losses and are trying hard to control and minimize them so as to reduce performance degradation in electromechanical devices. There are impressive progresses made in the past several decades on this topic, but some confusions still exist. Therefore, a systematic review to define related concepts and clear up confusions is urgently in need. With this objective in mind, we provide here a comprehensive review on the energy losses in ferroelectrics, including related mechanisms, characterization techniques and collections of published data on many ferroelectric materials to provide a useful resource for interested scientists and engineers to design electromechanical devices and to gain a global perspective on the complex physical phenomena involved. More importantly, based on the analysis of available information, we proposed a general theoretical model to describe the inherent relationships among elastic, dielectric, piezoelectric and mechanical losses. For multi-domain ferroelectric single crystals and ceramics, intrinsic and extrinsic energy

  13. Investigation of the effects of misfit strain on barium strontium titanate thin films deposited on base metal substrates by a modified phenomenological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hanting; Li, Hongfang; Chen, Jianguo; Jin, Dengren; Cheng, Jinrong

    2017-10-01

    The Landau-Devonshire phenomenological model, which has been utilized to investigate epitaxial barium strontium titanate (BST) thin films, was modified to investigate the effects of misfit strain on the dielectric properties of polycrystalline BST thin films deposited on base metal substrates. The modification considers the relaxation of lattice misfit stress resulting from the formation of in-plane misfit dislocations. The modified lattice misfit strain was calculated by referring to the ferroelectric critical grain size. Moreover, the misfit strain and dielectric properties of BST thin films with different structures and substrates were investigated by the models. It was found that the measured dielectric constant and tunability of BST thin films on different metal substrates overall agreed with the computed data. In addition, the good agreement was also observed for sandwich-like structural BST thin films deposited on LNO buffered stainless steel plates. Our results indicated that the modified L-D models might be utilized to predict dielectric properties of polycrystalline BST thin films for varied substrates and multilayer structures.

  14. Elaboration and characterization of doped barium titanate films for gas sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romh, M. A. El, E-mail: Mohamad.romh@univ-littoral.fr; Fasquelle, D., E-mail: Mohamad.romh@univ-littoral.fr; Mascot, M. [Unité de Dynamique et Structure des Matériaux Moléculaires (UDSMM), Université du Littoral Côte d' Opale (ULCO), BP717, 62228 Calais (France); Députier, S. [UMR CNRS no. 6226 ISCR, Université de Rennes 1, Equipe Chimie du Solide et Matériaux (CSM), CS 74205, 35042 RENNES Cedex (France)

    2014-11-05

    Barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) thick films were prepared from commercial powder to develop and optimize the film elaboration. Then, BaTiO{sub 3} was doped by strontium and iron to increase the conductivity by a double substitution on site A and B of the perovskite structure in view to develop semiconductor gas sensors. Film inks were prepared by mixing BT and BSTF powder with an organic vehicle, using a ratio of 50:50; 60:40, respectively and deposited on alumina substrates. The BT and BSTF films were sintered at 1100°C for 2h. The structural and physical properties of the films have been studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The dielectric measurements showed a huge increase in the a.c. conductivity for the BSTF films, by a factor of 10000 at low frequency, when the temperature ranges from 25°C to 500°C.

  15. Damage accumulation and recovery in gold-ion-irradiated barium titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, W.; Weber, W.J. E-mail: bill.weber@pnl.gov; Thevuthasan, S

    2001-04-01

    Single-crystal barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) wafers were irradiated 60 deg. off the surface normal at 170 and 300 K using 1.0 MeV Au{sup 2+} ions over a fluence range from 0.03 to 0.19 ions/nm{sup 2}. Disorder on both the Ba and Ti sublattices has been studied in situ using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry along the <1 1 0> axial direction. At these irradiation temperatures, the temperature dependence of disordering is small. The dose for amorphization under these conditions is on the order of 0.5 dpa, which is 50% of that required to amorphize SrTiO{sub 3} under similar conditions. At low damage levels, recovery of disorder is observed at room temperature, suggesting at least one lower temperature recovery stage. For more highly damaged states, two distinct recovery stages have been identified between 420 and 570 K and between 720 and 870 K. The recovery stage between 420 and 570 K is associated with the critical temperature for full amorphization ({approx}550 K) in BaTiO{sub 3}. The higher temperature recovery stage is most likely associated with epitaxial recrystallization.

  16. Damage Accumulation and Recovery in Gold-Ion-Irradiated Barium Titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Weilin; Weber, William J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2001-06-04

    Single-crystal barium titanate (BaTiO) wafers were irradiated 60? off the surface normal at 170 and 300 K using 1.0 MeV Au ions over a fluence range from 0.03 to 0.19 ions/nm. Disorder on both the Ba and Ti sublattices has been studied in situ using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry along the <110> axial direction. At these irradiation temperatures, the temperature dependence of disordering is small. The dose for amorphization under these conditions is on the order of 0.5 dpa, which is 50% of that required to amorphize SrTiO under similar conditions. At low damage levels, recovery of disorder is observed at room temperature, suggesting at least one lower temperature recovery stage. For more highly damaged states, two distinct recovery stages have been identified between 420 and 570 K and between 720 and 870 K. The recovery stage between 420 and 570 K is associated with the critical temperature for full amorphization ({approx}550 K) in BaTiO. The higher temperature recovery stage is most likely associated with epitaxial recrystallization.

  17. Barium titanate nanoparticles and hypergravity stimulation improve differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Antonella; Marino, Attilio; Rocca, Veronica; Moscato, Stefania; de Vito, Giuseppe; Piazza, Vincenzo; Mazzolai, Barbara; Mattoli, Virgilio; Ngo-Anh, Thu Jennifer; Ciofani, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Enhancement of the osteogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is highly desirable in the field of bone regeneration. This paper proposes a new approach for the improvement of osteogenesis combining hypergravity with osteoinductive nanoparticles (NPs). In this study, we aimed to investigate the combined effects of hypergravity and barium titanate NPs (BTNPs) on the osteogenic differentiation of rat MSCs, and the hypergravity effects on NP internalization. To obtain the hypergravity condition, we used a large-diameter centrifuge in the presence of a BTNP-doped culture medium. We analyzed cell morphology and NP internalization with immunofluorescent staining and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, respectively. Moreover, cell differentiation was evaluated both at the gene level with quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and at the protein level with Western blotting. Following a 20 g treatment, we found alterations in cytoskeleton conformation, cellular shape and morphology, as well as a significant increment of expression of osteoblastic markers both at the gene and protein levels, jointly pointing to a substantial increment of NP uptake. Taken together, our findings suggest a synergistic effect of hypergravity and BTNPs in the enhancement of the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. The obtained results could become useful in the design of new approaches in bone-tissue engineering, as well as for in vitro drug-delivery strategies where an increment of nanocarrier internalization could result in a higher drug uptake by cell and/or tissue constructs.

  18. Size-dependent ecotoxicity of barium titanate particles: the case of Chlorella vulgaris green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonini, Hudson C; Brandão, Humberto M; Raposo, Nádia R B; Brandão, Marcos Antônio F; Mouton, Ludovic; Couté, Alain; Yéprémian, Claude; Sivry, Yann; Brayner, Roberta

    2015-05-01

    Studies have been demonstrating that smaller particles can lead to unexpected and diverse ecotoxicological effects when compared to those caused by the bulk material. In this study, the chemical composition, size and shape, state of dispersion, and surface's charge, area and physicochemistry of micro (BT MP) and nano barium titanate (BT NP) were determined. Green algae Chlorella vulgaris grown in Bold's Basal (BB) medium or Seine River water (SRW) was used as biological indicator to assess their aquatic toxicology. Responses such as growth inhibition, cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) content and photosynthetic activity were evaluated. Tetragonal BT (~170 nm, 3.24 m(2) g(-1) surface area) and cubic BT (~60 nm, 16.60 m(2) g(-1)) particles were negative, poorly dispersed, and readily aggregated. BT has a statistically significant effect on C. vulgaris growth since the lower concentration tested (1 ppm), what seems to be mediated by induced oxidative stress caused by the particles (increased SOD activity and decreased photosynthetic efficiency and intracellular ATP content). The toxic effects were more pronounced when the algae was grown in SRW. Size does not seem to be an issue influencing the toxicity in BT particles toxicity since micro- and nano-particles produced significant effects on algae growth.

  19. Barium Titanate Nanoparticles Formed by Chlorine-Free Ambient Condition Sol Process Using Tetrabutylammonium Hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooje Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanate (BaTiO3: BTO nanoparticles (NPs were synthesized by chlorine-free ambient condition sol (ACS process using heat reflux at low temperature of 90°C. The size distribution and morphology of BTO NPs were investigated by varying the concentration of tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH. The crystalline size of BTO NPs was decreased with increasing the amount of TBAH capping agent (average size changes from 54.3 to 38.7 nm for 0 to 0.5 M TBAH in X-ray diffraction measurement. The particle size of BTO NPs was principally controlled by a synthetic control of butyl chain of TBAH and also a steric effect of excess amount of TBAH. The dielectric constant of BTO NPs was decreased from 152 to 144 at 1 MHz after an adoption of TBAH capping agent with almost uniform dielectric loss (<0.027. But the dielectric constant of BTO NPs synthesized with various molar ratio of TBAH (0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 did not show a distinguished decrease. At the particle size range in this experiment, the dielectric behavior of BTO NPs was found to be mainly dependent on the TBAH ligands at BTO NPs formed during capping process, not on the size of BTO NPs.

  20. Surface functionalization of barium titanate SHG nanoprobes for in vivo imaging in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čulić-Viskota, Jelena; Dempsey, William P; Fraser, Scott E; Pantazis, Periklis

    2012-09-01

    To address the need for a bright, photostable labeling tool that allows long-term in vivo imaging in whole organisms, we recently introduced second harmonic generating (SHG) nanoprobes. Here we present a protocol for the preparation and use of a particular SHG nanoprobe label, barium titanate (BT), for in vivo imaging in living zebrafish embryos. Chemical treatment of the BT nanoparticles results in surface coating with amine-terminal groups, which act as a platform for a variety of chemical modifications for biological applications. Here we describe cross-linking of BT to a biotin-linked moiety using click chemistry methods and coating of BT with nonreactive poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). We also provide details for injecting PEG-coated SHG nanoprobes into zygote-stage zebrafish embryos, and in vivo imaging of SHG nanoprobes during gastrulation and segmentation. Implementing the PROCEDURE requires a basic understanding of laser-scanning microscopy, experience with handling zebrafish embryos and chemistry laboratory experience. Functionalization of the SHG nanoprobes takes ∼3 d, whereas zebrafish preparation, injection and imaging setup should take approximately 2-4 h.

  1. Effects of barium titanate nanoparticles on proliferation and differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofani, Gianni; Ricotti, Leonardo; Canale, Claudio; D'Alessandro, Delfo; Berrettini, Stefano; Mazzolai, Barbara; Mattoli, Virgilio

    2013-02-01

    Nanomaterials hold great promise in the manipulation and treatments of mesenchymal stem cells, since they allow the modulation of their properties and differentiation. However, systematic studies have to be carried out in order to assess their potential toxicological effects. The present study reports on biocompatibility evaluation of glycol-chitosan coated barium titanate nanoparticles (BTNPs) on rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). BTNPs are a class of ceramic systems which possess interesting features for biological applications thanks to their peculiar dielectric and piezoelectric properties. Viability was evaluated up to 5 days of incubation (concentrations in the range 0-100 μg/ml) both quantitatively and qualitatively with specific assays. Interactions cells/nanoparticles were further investigated with analysis of the cytoskeleton conformation, with SEM and TEM imaging, and with AFM analysis. Finally, differentiation in adipocytes and osteocytes was achieved in the presence of high doses of BTNPs, thus highlighting the safety of these nanostructures towards mesenchymal stem cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Formation of barium strontium titanate thin films via electrophoretic deposition process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Wen; Cheng, Pei-Chi; Liang, Cheng-Feng; Chang, Yu-Shan

    2008-12-01

    Synthesis of crystalline barium stronium titanate (Ba(0.6)Sr(0.4)TiO(3)) nanoparticles and subsequent formation of thin films have been carried out. The crystalline products were confirmed by X-ray diffractometry. Uniform Ba(0.6)Sr(0.4)TiO(3) thin films were formed by using electrophoretic deposition method (EPD) under a 0.3 to 5 V dc bias for 10 min to 1 h. Ba(0.6)Sr(0.4)TiO(3) nanoparticles having an average crystallite size of 20 to 50 nm, and Ba(0.6)Sr(0.4)TiO(3) thin films with thickness of 150 nm to 4 mum were obtained. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to characterize the morphologies of nanoparticles and thin films. The results show that the EPD process route is a rapid, cost-effective alternative for forming Ba(0.6)Sr(0.4)TiO(3) thin films.

  3. Synthesis and In vitro Evaluation of Electrodeposited Barium Titanate Coating on Ti6Al4V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Shahram; Basiriani, Mohammad Basir; Rafienia, Mohammad; Yaghini, Jaber; Raeisi, Keyvan

    2016-01-01

    Osseointegration has been the concern of implantology for many years. Researchers have used various ceramic coatings for this purpose; however, piezoelectric ceramics (e.g., barium titanate [BTO]) are a novel field of interest. In this regard, BTO (BaTiO3) coating was fabricated by electrophoretic deposition on Ti6Al4V medical alloy, using sol-gel-synthesized nanometer BTO powder. Structure and morphologies were studied using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Bioactivity response of coated samples was evaluated by SEM and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). Cell compatibility was also studied via MTT assay and SEM imaging. Results showed homogenous coating with cubic structure and crystallite size of about 41 nm. SEM images indicated apatite formation on the coating after 7 days of SBF immersion, and ICP analysis approved ions concentration decrement in SBF. Cells showed flattened morphology in intimate contact with coating after 7 days of culture. Altogether, coated samples demonstrated appropriate bioactivity and biocompatibility.

  4. Aligned porous barium titanate/hydroxyapatite composites with high piezoelectric coefficients for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Liangjian; Zeng, Jing; Zhou, Kechao; Zhang, Dou

    2014-06-01

    It was proposed that the piezoelectric effect played an important physiological role in bone growth, remodelling and fracture healing. An aligned porous piezoelectric composite scaffold was fabricated by freeze casting hydroxyapatite/barium titanate (HA/BT) suspensions. The highest compressive strength and lowest porosity of 14.5MPa and 57.4% with the best parallelism of the pore channels were achieved in the HA10/BT90 composite. HA30/BT70 and HA10/BT90 composites exhibited piezoelectric coefficient d33 of 1.2 and 2.8pC/N, respectively, both of which were higher than the piezoelectric coefficient of natural bone. Increase of the solid loading of the suspension and solidification velocity led to the improvement of piezoelectric coefficient d33. Meanwhile, double-templates resulted in the coexistence of lamellar pores and aligned macro-pores, exhibiting the ability to produce an oriented long-range ordered architecture. The manipulation flexibility of this method indicated the potential for customized needs in the application of bone substitute. An MTT assay indicated that the obtained scaffolds had no cytotoxic effects on L929 cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Epitaxial growth of barium titanate thin films on germanium via atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Edward L.; Posadas, Agham B.; Wu, Hsin Wei; Smith, David J.; Demkov, Alexander A.; Ekerdt, John G.

    2017-10-01

    Barium titanate BaTiO3 (BTO) thin films were epitaxially grown at 225 °C on 2 × 1-reconstructed Ge(001) surfaces via atomic layer deposition (ALD). Approximately 2 nm of BTO film was grown directly on Ge(001) as an amorphous film. Electron diffraction confirmed the epitaxy of the BTO films after post-deposition annealing at 650 °C. Additional BTO layers grown on the crystalline BTO/Ge(001) film were crystalline as-deposited. X-ray diffraction indicated that the epitaxial BTO films had a c-axis out-of-plane orientation, and the abrupt BTO/Ge interface was preserved with no sign of any interfacial germanium oxide. Scanning transmission electron microscopy provided evidence of Ba atoms occupying the troughs of the dimer rows of the 2 × 1-reconstructed Ge(001) surface, as well as preservation of the 2 × 1-reconstructed Ge(001) surface. This study presents a low-temperature process to fabricate BTO/Ge heterostructures.

  6. Enhancement of piezoelectric properties for [poly (vinylidene fluoride)/barium zirconate titanate] nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemeda, O. M.; Tawfik, A.; El-Shahawy, M. M.; Darwish, K. A.

    2017-08-01

    Poly (vinylidene fluoride) / barium zirconate titanate nanocomposite samples with the formula [ x (PVDF) / (1 - x) BZT] (where x = zero, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1) are prepared using the hot pressing method. The BZT is prepared using the tartrate precursor method. The properties of these nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scan electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) at room temperature. The XRD patterns indicate that the average crystallite size ranges from 7.5 to 23.8nm. The grain size is estimated from SEM micrograph and lies between 263 and 186nm, whereas the average crystallite size has a distribution between 14 and 70nm from TEM images. The FTIR spectra illustrate the absence of any absorption band related to the (γ) phase, but the absorption bands characteristic for (α), and (β) phases of PVDF are observed. The fraction of the (β) phase of PVDF increases by increasing the BZT content, which is very useful in industrial applications, such as sensors, actuators and transducers. The high value of the piezoelectric coefficient d_{33} is measured for the PVDF/BZT nanocomposites.

  7. Studies on electrophoretically deposited nanostructured barium titanate systems and carrier transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Manjit; Mohanta, Dambarudhar

    2016-06-01

    We report on the development of nanostructured barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT) films on ~200-μm-thick Ag substrates by employing a cathodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique, where solid-state-derived BT nanoparticles are used as the starting material. Structural, morphological and compositional analyses of the as-synthesized BT nanoparticles and films were performed by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy studies. The synthesized nano-BT system has an average crystallite size of ~8.1 nm and a tetragonality ( c/ a) value ~1.003. To reveal current transport mechanism, the BT films possessing microporous structures and surrounded by homogeneously grown islands were assessed in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) conformation. The forward current conduction was observed to be purely thermionic up to respective voltages of ~1.4 and 2.2 V as for the fresh and 3-day aged samples. On the other hand, direct tunneling (DT)-mediated Ohmic feature was witnessed at a comparatively higher voltage, beyond which Fowler-Nordheim tunneling (FN) dominates in the respective MIM junctions. The magnitude of current accompanied by FN process was observed to be stronger in reverse biasing than that of forward biasing case. The use of microporous BT films can offer new insights as regards regulated tunneling events meant for miniaturized nanoelectronic elements/components.

  8. Low temperature fabrication of barium titanate hybrid films and their dielectric properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshio; Saito, Hirobumi; Kinoshita, Takafumi; Nagao, Daisuke; Konno, Mikio

    2011-01-01

    A method for incorporating BT nano-crystalline into barium titanate (BT) films is proposed for a low temperature fabrication of high dielectric constant films. BT nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrolysis of a BT complex alkoxide in 2-methoxyethanol (ME)/ethanol cosolvent. As the ME volume fraction in the cosolvent (ME fraction) increased from 0 to 100%, the particle and crystal sizes tended to increase from 13.4 to 30.2 nm and from 15.8 to 31.4 nm, respectively, and the particle dispersion in the solution became more improved. The BT particles were mixed with BT complex alkoxide dissolved in an ME/ethanol cosolvent for preparing a precursor solution that was then spin-coated on a Pt substrate and dried at 150 o C. The dielectric constant of the spin-coated BT hybrid film increased with an increase in the volume fraction of the BT particles in the film. The dissipation factor of the hybrid film tended to decrease with an increase in the ME fraction in the precursor solution. The hybrid film fabricated at a BT fraction of 30% and an ME fraction of 25% attained a dielectric constant as high as 94.5 with a surface roughness of 14.0 nm and a dissipation factor of 0.11.

  9. Effect of Semiconductor Element Substitution on the Electric Properties of Barium Titanate Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbarz-Glos B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigated ceramics were prepared by a solid-state reaction from simple oxides and carbonates with the use of a mixed oxide method (MOM. The morphology of BaTi0.96Si0.04O3 (BTSi04 ceramics was characterised by means of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was found that Si+4 ion substitution supported the grain growth process in BT-based ceramics. The EDS results confirmed the high purity and expected quantitative composition of the synthesized material. The dielectric properties of the ceramics were also determined within the temperature range (ΔT=130-500K. It was found that the substitution of Si+4 ions had a significant influence on temperature behavior of the real (ε’ and imaginary (ε” parts of electric permittivity as well as the temperature dependence of a.c. conductivity. Temperature regions of PTCR effect (positive temperature coefficient of resistivity were determined for BTSi04 ceramics in the vicinity of structural phase transitions typical for barium titanate. No distinct maximum indicating a low-temperature structural transition to a rhombohedral phase in BTSi04 was found. The activation energy of conductivity was determined from the Arrhenius plots. It was found that substitution of Si ions in amount of 4wt.% caused almost 50% decrease in an activation energy value.

  10. Measuring the flexoelectric coefficient of bulk barium titanate from a shock wave experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Taotao; Deng, Qian; Liang, Xu; Shen, Shengping

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a phenomenon of polarization introduced by shock waves is experimentally studied. Although this phenomenon has been reported previously in the community of physics, this is the first time to link it to flexoelectricity, the coupling between electric polarization and strain gradients in dielectrics. As the shock waves propagate in a dielectric material, electric polarization is thought to be induced by the strain gradient at the shock front. First, we control the first-order hydrogen gas gun to impact and generate shock waves in unpolarized bulk barium titanate (BT) samples. Then, a high-precision oscilloscope is used to measure the voltage generated by the flexoelectric effect. Based on experimental results, strain elastic wave theory, and flexoelectric theory, a longitudinal flexoelectric coefficient of the bulk BT sample is calculated to be μ 11 = 17.33 × 10 - 6 C/m, which is in accord with the published transverse flexoelectric coefficient. This method effectively suppresses the majority of drawbacks in the quasi-static and low frequency dynamic techniques and provides more reliable results of flexoelectric behaviors.

  11. Damage Accumulation and Recovery in Gold-Ion-Irradiated Barium Titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Weilin; Weber, William J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2000-01-01

    Single-crystal barium titanate (BaTiO3) wafers were irradiated 60? off the surface normal at 170 and 300 K using 1.0 MeV Au2+ ions over a fluence range from 0.03 to 0.19 ions/nm2. Disorder on both the Ba and Ti sublattices has been studied in situ using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry along the axial direction. At these irradiation temperatures, the temperature dependence of disordering is small. The dose for amorphization under these conditions is on the order of 0.5 dpa, which is 50% of that required to amorphize SrTiO3 under similar conditions. At low damage levels, recovery of disorder is observed at room temperature, suggesting at least one lower temperature recovery stage. For more highly damaged states, two distinct recovery stages have been identified between 420 and 570 K and between 720 and 870 K. The recovery stage between 420 and 570 K is associated with the critical temperature for full amorphization (∼550 K) in BaTiO3. The higher temperature recovery stage is most likely associated with epitaxial recrystallization

  12. Biocompatible evaluation of barium titanate foamed ceramic structures for orthopedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Jordan P; Mound, Brittnee A; Nino, Juan C; Allen, Josephine B

    2014-07-01

    The potential of barium titanate (BT) to be electrically active makes it a material of interest in regenerative medicine. To enhance the understanding of this material for orthopedic applications, the in vitro biocompatibility of porous BT fabricated using a direct foaming technique was investigated. Characterization of the resultant foams yielded an overall porosity between 50 and 70% with average pore size in excess of 30 µm in diameter. A mouse osteoblast (7F2) cell line was cultured with the BT to determine the extent of the foams' toxicity using a LDH assay. After 72 h, BT foams showed a comparable cytotoxicity of 6.4 ± 0.8% to the 8.4 ± 1.5% of porous 45S5 Bioglass®. The in vitro inflammatory response elicited from porous BT was measured as a function of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secreted from a human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1). Results indicate that the BT foams do not cause a significant inflammatory response, eliciting a 9.4 ± 1.3 pg of TNF-α per mL of media compared with 20.2 ± 2.3 pg/mL from untreated cells. These results indicate that porous BT does not exhibit short term cytotoxicity and has potential for orthopedic tissue engineering applications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. INFLUENCE OF REOXIDATION ON SILICA-CONTAINING BARIUM TITANATE CERAMICS FOR PTCR THERMISTORS PREPARED BY TAPE CASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiao Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Silica-containing barium-rich BaTiO₃ ceramics for thermistors with a positive temperature coefficient of resistance are prepared by a tape-casting technique. The ceramics are sintered in a reducing atmosphere at low temperatures of 1175-1225°C. The influences of reoxidation are investigated after the reduced ceramics are reoxidized in air at 700-900°C. An anomalous correlation is illustrated between room temperature resistivity and reoxidation temperature. The anomaly results from the ferroelectricity rebuilding mechanism, which includes the spontaneous polarization theory and the ferroelectricity degradation caused by oxygen vacancies. The acceptor-state densities are estimated from the temperature-dependent resistivity. A critical temperature of 750-800°C is concluded for the grain boundary reoxidation.

  14. Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric properties of (111) oriented lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Soma; Antony Jeyaseelan, A.; Sruthi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) thick film with molecular formula of Pb 0.92 La 0.08 (Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 ) 0.98 O 3 was grown preferentially along (111) direction on Pt/SiO 2 /Si (platinum/silicon oxide/silicon) substrate by spin coating of chemical solution. The directional growth of the film was facilitated by platinum (Pt) (111) template and rapid thermal annealing. X-ray diffraction pattern and atomic force microscopy revealed the preferential growth of the PLZT film. The film was characterized for ferroelectric and detailed piezoelectric properties in a parallel plate capacitor (metal–PLZT–metal) configuration. Ferroelectric characterization of the film showed saturated hysteresis loop with remanent polarization and coercive electric field values of 10.14 μC/cm 2 and 42 kV/cm, respectively, at an applied field of 300 kV/cm. Longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d 33,f ) was measured by employing converse piezoelectric effect where electrical charge response and displacement were measured with electrical voltage excitation on the sample electrodes. The effective transverse piezoelectric coefficient (e 31,f ) was derived from charge measurement with an applied mechanical excitation strain by using the four point bending method. d 33,f and e 31,f coefficients of PLZT films were found to be 380 pm/V and − 0.831 C/m 2 respectively. - Highlights: • PLZT (111) film is prepared by spin coating of chemical sol on Pt (111) template. • Piezoelectric d 33 value (380 pm/V) of PLZT film is found 20% higher than PZT. • Transverse piezocoefficient e 31,f of PLZT film is reported for the first time

  15. Obtaining and electrical characterization of silicone/barium titanate composite for variable capacitor applications; Obtencao e caracterizacao eletrica de composito silicone/titanato de bario para aplicacoes em capacitor variavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, D.A.; Souza, P.S.S.; Souza, C.P., E-mail: debora.vieira@cear.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Energias Alternativas e Renovaveis. Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica; Menezes, P.C.F. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    Silicone/barium titanate composites are excellent candidates for applications in the production of electronics components. In this work, silicone/barium titanate composite was obtained for the production of capacitors with variable dielectric distance. The mixture of composite (20% of barium titanate) was performed in a mixer with stem type propellers, at room temperature for 20 minutes. The cure was held in vacuum kiln. After obtaining the composite, was mounted a parallel plate capacitor, using composite as dielectric. The composite obtained was subjected to x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and capacitive electrical test. The DRX confirms the presence of ceramic charge in composite with the presence of broad peaks of barium titanate and micrographs show the barium titanate particles dispersed in polymer matrix. The capacitance of the sample was approximately 28,7pF. (author)

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Low Loss Dielectric Ceramics Prepared from Composite of Titanate Nanosheets with Barium Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Wypych-Puszkarz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a strategy for preparing barium titanate precursor, being the composite of titanate nanosheets (TN with barium ions (Ba-TN, which subjected to step sintering allows obtaining TiO2 rich barium titanate ceramics of stoichiometry BaTi4O9 or Ba2Ti9O20. These compounds are important in modern electronics due to their required dielectric properties and grains’ size that can be preserved in nanometric range. The morphology studies, structural characterization, and dielectric investigations were performed simultaneously in each step of Ba-TN calcinations in order to properly characterize type of obtained ceramic, its grains’ morphology, and dielectric properties. The Ba-TN precursor can be sintered at given temperatures, so that its dielectric permittivity can be tuned between 25 and 42 with controlled temperature coefficients that change from negative 32 ppm/°C for Ba-TN sintered at 900°C up to positive 37 ppm/°C after calcination at 1300°C. XRD analysis and Raman investigations performed for the Ba-TN in the temperature range of 900÷1250°C showed that below 1100°C we obtained as a main phase BaTi4O9, whereas the higher calcinations temperature transformed Ba-TN into Ba2Ti9O20. Taking into account trend of device miniaturization and nanoscopic size requirements, temperatures of 900°C and 1100°C seem to be an optimal condition for Ba-TN precursor calcinations that guarantee the satisfactory value of dielectric permittivity (ε=26 and 32 and ceramic grains with a mean size of ~180 nm and ~550 nm, respectively.

  17. Structural and ferroelectrical properties of bismuth titanate ceramic powders prepared by mechanically assisted synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Z.Ž.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosized bismuth titanate, Bi4Ti3O12, was prepared via a high-energy ball milling process through mechanically assisted synthesis directly from the oxide mixture of Bi2O3 and TiO2. The Bi4Ti3O12 phase started to form after 1 h of milling. With increasing the milling time from 3 to 12 h, the particle size of formed Bi4Ti3O12 did not reduce significantly. The grain size was less than 16 nm and showed a strong tendency to agglomeration. The nucleation and phase formation of Bi4Ti3O12, crystal structure, microstructure, powder grain size and specific surface area were followed by XRD, Rietveld refinement analysis, SEM and the BET specific surface area measurements. Raman spectroscopy was used to explain the structural properties of Bi4Ti3O12 powder, prepared by mechanically assisted synthesis. Reduction in grain size with the increase of milling time was also noted (change in the position and relative intensity, which indicated changes in the structure, caused by nanodimension grains. The sample milled for 12 h and subsequently sintered at 1000°C for 24 h exhibited a hysteresis loop, confirming that the synthesized material possesses ferroelectric properties. .

  18. Microstructure evolution and electrical characterization of Lanthanum doped Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billah, Masum; Ahmed, A.; Rahman, Md. Miftaur; Mahbub, Rubbayat; Gafur, M. A.; Bashar, M. Shahriar

    2016-01-01

    In the current work, we investigated the structural and dielectric properties of Lanthanum oxide (La 2 O 3 ) doped Barium Titanate (BaTiO 3 ) ceramics and established a correlation between them. Solid state sintering method was used to dope BaTiO 3 with 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 mole% La 2 O 3 under different sintering parameters. The raw materials used were La 2 O 3 nano powder of ~80 nm grain size and 99.995% purity and BaTiO 3 nano powder of 100 nm grain size and 99.99% purity. Grain size distribution and morphology of fracture surface of sintered pellets were examined by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope and X-Ray Diffraction analysis was conducted to confirm the formation of desired crystal structure. The research result reveal that grain size and electrical properties of BaTiO 3 ceramic significantly enhanced for small amount of doping (up to 0.5 mole% La 2 O 3 ) and then decreased with increasing doping concentration. Desired grain growth (0.80-1.3 µm) and high densification (<90% theoretical density) were found by proper combination of temperature, sintering parameters and doping concentration. We found the resultant stable value of dielectric constant was 10000-12000 at 100-300 Hz in the temperature range of 30°-50° C for 0.5 mole% La 2 O 3 with corresponding shift of curie temperature around 30° C. So overall this research showed that proper La 3+ concentration can control the grain size, increase density, lower curie temperature and hence significantly improve the electrical properties of BaTiO 3 ceramics.

  19. Improved polymer nanocomposite dielectric breakdown performance through barium titanate to epoxy interface control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddabattuni, Sasidhar; Schuman, Thomas P.; Dogan, Fatih

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A covalent filler-matrix interface improves the dielectric properties of a polymer-particle nanocomposite dielectric. → A covalent interface reduced the polymer free volume around the nanoparticles as assessed through T g measurements. → Composite T g was raised and breakdown strength improved for nanocomposites with a covalent polymer-particle interface. → A larger Maxwell-Wagner (MW) relaxation correlated with reduced breakdown strengths and energy storage densities. → The MW relaxation could be considered a dielectric defect regarding breakdown strength and energy storage density. - Abstract: A composite approach to dielectric design has the potential to provide improved permittivity as well as high breakdown strength and thus afford greater electrical energy storage density. Interfacial coupling is an effective approach to improve the polymer-particle composite dielectric film resistance to charge flow and dielectric breakdown. A bi-functional interfacial coupling agent added to the inorganic oxide particles' surface assists dispersion into the thermosetting epoxy polymer matrix and upon composite cure reacts covalently with the polymer matrix. The composite then retains the glass transition temperature of pure polymer, provides a reduced Maxwell-Wagner relaxation of the polymer-particle composite, and attains a reduced sensitivity to dielectric breakdown compared to particle epoxy composites that lack interfacial coupling between the composite filler and polymer matrix. Besides an improved permittivity, the breakdown strength and thus energy density of a covalent interface nanoparticle barium titanate in epoxy composite dielectric film, at a 5 vol.% particle concentration, was significantly improved compared to a pure polymer dielectric film. The interfacially bonded, dielectric composite film had a permittivity ∼6.3 and at a 30 μm thickness achieved a calculated energy density of 4.6 J/cm 3 .

  20. Worm structure piezoelectric energy harvester using ionotropic gelation of barium titanate-calcium alginate composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alluri, Nagamalleswara Rao; Selvarajan, Sophia; Chandrasekhar, Arunkumar; Saravanakumar, Balasubramaniam; Lee, Gae Myoung; Jeong, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2017-01-01

    A laterally aligned flexible composite linear worm-based piezoelectric energy harvester made up of piezoelectric barium titanate nanoparticles and a three dimensional gel network of calcium alginate biopolymer was aimed to harness the low frequency mechanical energy. It is highly desirable to fabricate innovative micro/nanostructures for high performance energy harvesting beyond the conventional thin films, and small scale fabrication of nanowires (or rods). The open circuit voltage of a single composite worm-based energy harvester (diameter ≈ 550 μm, length ≈ 2.5 cm) increases up to 5 times by increasing the frequency of mechanical load (11 N) from 3 to 20 Hz. Similarly, 1.5 times voltage increment was observed by increasing the length of the composite worm from 1.5 to 3.5 cm upon the bio-mechanical hand force. The energy harvester can function as an efficient portable/wearable self-powered device due to its good flexibility, and multiple lengths of composite linear worms can be utilized to drive low-power electronic devices. In this work, the composite worms were prepared by an ionotropic gelation approach, which is eco-friendly, non-toxic, having low processing temperature/time, and potential for cost-effective, large-scale fabrication, making it suitable for low frequency based self-powered devices. - Highlights: • Portable energy harvester was developed using composite linear worm structure. • Real time power generating shoe insole was demonstrated by two energy harvesters. • Energy harvested from the applied mechanical load, air and human body motions. • The relation between composite worm length and generated energy was identified. • Eco-friendly, Mass production of worms developed by ionotropic gelation method.

  1. Structural and optical properties of barium titanate modified bismuth borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lakhwant; Thakur, Vanita; Punia, R.; Kundu, R. S.; Singh, Anupinder

    2014-11-01

    Glass samples with composition (70B2O3-29Bi2O3-1Dy2O3) modified with Barium titanate (BT), where BT is added in different successive weight percents, have been synthesized by conventional melt quenching technique. X-ray diffraction studies were performed in order to confirm the amorphous nature of the samples. The density of the samples has been found to decrease with an increase in the BT content, whereas an opposite trend has been observed in the molar volume. The analysis of FTIR and Raman spectra of the samples depicts that the glass network is built up of mainly BiO6, BiO3, BO3 and BO4 units. Its detailed analysis also revealed that the glass structure depends upon the amount of BT in the glass matrix and hence it acts as a modifier in the glass network. Introduction of BT into the glass matrix leads to the conversion of BO3 trigonal units into BO4 tetrahedral units, which results in a decrease in the degree of disorder in the glass network and makes the glass system more stable. The values of Urbach energy obtained for the prepared samples also confirmed the decrease in disorder in the glass network. The optical absorption measurements carried out for well-polished samples show a decrease in optical band gap energy with an increase in BT content whereas the molar refractivity shows the reverse trend. The Hydrogenic excitonic model applied to the studied glasses suggested that the present glass system favors direct transitions. The metallization criterion of the presently studied samples suggests that the prepared glasses may be potential candidates for nonlinear optical applications.

  2. Improved polymer nanocomposite dielectric breakdown performance through barium titanate to epoxy interface control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddabattuni, Sasidhar [Missouri University of Science and Technology (formerly the University of Missouri-Rolla), Chemistry Department, 400W. 11th Street, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Schuman, Thomas P., E-mail: tschuman@mst.edu [Missouri University of Science and Technology (formerly the University of Missouri-Rolla), Chemistry Department, 400W. 11th Street, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Dogan, Fatih [Missouri University of Science and Technology, Materials Science and Engineering Department, 1400N. Bishop Avenue, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > A covalent filler-matrix interface improves the dielectric properties of a polymer-particle nanocomposite dielectric. > A covalent interface reduced the polymer free volume around the nanoparticles as assessed through T{sub g} measurements. > Composite T{sub g} was raised and breakdown strength improved for nanocomposites with a covalent polymer-particle interface. > A larger Maxwell-Wagner (MW) relaxation correlated with reduced breakdown strengths and energy storage densities. > The MW relaxation could be considered a dielectric defect regarding breakdown strength and energy storage density. - Abstract: A composite approach to dielectric design has the potential to provide improved permittivity as well as high breakdown strength and thus afford greater electrical energy storage density. Interfacial coupling is an effective approach to improve the polymer-particle composite dielectric film resistance to charge flow and dielectric breakdown. A bi-functional interfacial coupling agent added to the inorganic oxide particles' surface assists dispersion into the thermosetting epoxy polymer matrix and upon composite cure reacts covalently with the polymer matrix. The composite then retains the glass transition temperature of pure polymer, provides a reduced Maxwell-Wagner relaxation of the polymer-particle composite, and attains a reduced sensitivity to dielectric breakdown compared to particle epoxy composites that lack interfacial coupling between the composite filler and polymer matrix. Besides an improved permittivity, the breakdown strength and thus energy density of a covalent interface nanoparticle barium titanate in epoxy composite dielectric film, at a 5 vol.% particle concentration, was significantly improved compared to a pure polymer dielectric film. The interfacially bonded, dielectric composite film had a permittivity {approx}6.3 and at a 30 {mu}m thickness achieved a calculated energy density of 4.6 J/cm{sup 3}.

  3. Flexoelectricity: strain gradient effects in ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Wenhui [Department of Physics, Shantou Unversity, Shantou, Guangdong 515063 (China)

    2007-12-15

    Mechanical strain gradient induced polarization effect or flexoelectricity in perovskite-type ferroelectric and relaxor ferroelectric ceramics was investigated. The flexoelectric coefficients measured at room temperature ranged from about 1 {mu} C m{sup -1} for lead zirconate titanate to 100 {mu} C m{sup -1} for barium strontium titanate. Flexoelectric effects were discovered to be sensitive to chemical makeup, phase symmetry, and domain structures. Based on phenomenological discussion and experimental data on flexoelectricity, the present study proposed that mechanical strain gradient field could influence polarization responses in a way analogous to electric field. Flexoelectric coefficients were found to be nonlinearly enhanced by dielectric permittivity and strain gradient. Interfacial mismatch in epitaxial thin films can give rise to high strain gradients, enabling flexoelectric effects to make a significant impact in properly engineered ferroelectric heterostructure systems.

  4. Flexoelectricity: strain gradient effects in ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Wenhui

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical strain gradient induced polarization effect or flexoelectricity in perovskite-type ferroelectric and relaxor ferroelectric ceramics was investigated. The flexoelectric coefficients measured at room temperature ranged from about 1 μ C m -1 for lead zirconate titanate to 100 μ C m -1 for barium strontium titanate. Flexoelectric effects were discovered to be sensitive to chemical makeup, phase symmetry, and domain structures. Based on phenomenological discussion and experimental data on flexoelectricity, the present study proposed that mechanical strain gradient field could influence polarization responses in a way analogous to electric field. Flexoelectric coefficients were found to be nonlinearly enhanced by dielectric permittivity and strain gradient. Interfacial mismatch in epitaxial thin films can give rise to high strain gradients, enabling flexoelectric effects to make a significant impact in properly engineered ferroelectric heterostructure systems

  5. Study of dielectric and ferroelectric properties of five-layer Aurivillius ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    All three materials show multiple relaxation phenomena and their electrical conductivity was found to be temperature dependent. The Pb2Bi4Ti5O18 ceramic possessed the highest value of activation energy (0.68 eV) and hence shows better ferroelectric properties, as compared to barium and strontium bismuth titanates.

  6. Structural Studies of BaTiO 3 Ferroelectric Material Prepared by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nano particle Barium Titanate (BT) is the first ferroelectric ceramics and a good nominee for a variety of applications from large family of Perovskite. In this study BaTiO3 was synthesised by using Sol-gel (green chemistry) method. It is environmental friendly method and has a significant influence on the structure and ...

  7. Room-temperature relaxor ferroelectricity and photovoltaic effects in tin titanate directly deposited on a silicon substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Radhe; Sharma, Yogesh; Chang, Siliang; Pitike, Krishna C.; Sohn, Changhee; Nakhmanson, Serge M.; Takoudis, Christos G.; Lee, Ho Nyung; Tonelli, Rachel; Gardner, Jonathan; Scott, James F.; Katiyar, Ram S.; Hong, Seungbum

    2018-02-01

    Tin titanate (SnTi O3 ) has been notoriously impossible to prepare as a thin-film ferroelectric, probably because high-temperature annealing converts much of the S n2 + to S n4 + . In the present paper, we show two things: first, perovskite phase SnTi O3 can be prepared by atomic-layer deposition directly onto p -type Si substrates; and second, these films exhibit ferroelectric switching at room temperature, with p -type Si acting as electrodes. X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that the film is single-phase, preferred-orientation ferroelectric perovskite SnTi O3 . Our films showed well-saturated, square, and repeatable hysteresis loops of around 3 μ C /c m2 remnant polarization at room temperature, as detected by out-of-plane polarization versus electric field and field cycling measurements. Furthermore, photovoltaic and photoferroelectricity were found in Pt /SnTi O3/Si /SnTi O3/Pt heterostructures, the properties of which can be tuned through band-gap engineering by strain according to first-principles calculations. This is a lead-free room-temperature ferroelectric oxide of potential device application.

  8. Barium titanate microparticles as potential carrier platform for lanthanide radionuclides for their use in the treatment of arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Vimalnath, K V; Sharma, Jyothi; Shetty, Priyalata; Sarma, H D; Chakravarty, Rubel; Prakash, Deep; Sinha, P K; Dash, Ashutosh

    2018-02-12

    Since the inception of radiation synovectomy, a host of radioactive colloids and microparticles incorporating suitable therapeutic radionuclides have been proposed for the treatment of arthritis. The present article reports the synthesis and evaluation of barium titanate microparticles as an innovative and effective carrier platform for lanthanide radionuclides in the preparation of therapeutic agents for treatment of arthritis. The material was synthesized by mechanochemical route and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface area and particle size distribution analyses. Loading of lanthanide radionuclides ( 166 Ho, 153 Sm, 177 Lu and 169 Er) on the microparticles was achieved in high yield (> 95%) resulting in the formulation of loaded particulates with excellent radiochemical purities (> 99%). Radiolanthanide-loaded microparticles exhibited excellent in vitro stability in human serum. In vitro DTPA challenge study indicated fairly strong chemical association of lanthanides with barium titanate microparticles. Long-term biodistribution studies carried out after administration of 177 Lu-loaded microparticles into one of the knee joints of normal Wistar rats revealed near-complete retention of the formulation (> 96% of the administered radioactivity) within the joint cavity even 14 d post-administration. The excellent localization of the loaded microparticles was further confirmed by sequential whole-body radio-luminescence imaging studies carried out using 166 Ho-loaded microparticles. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of KF substitution on the ferroelectric phase transition of lead titanate single crystals studied by Brillouin light scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonhyeop Shin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The elastic properties of KF-substituted perovskite lead titanate (PbTiO3 were investigated by dielectric measurements and Brillouin light scattering. The ferroelectric phase transition occurred at substantially lower temperature due to KF substitution, which was attributed to the modification of the covalency in Pb–O and Ti–O bonds. The longitudinal acoustic (LA mode of KF-substituted PbTiO3 showed a frequency softening in the paraelectric phase, which was accompanied by increasing acoustic damping. This indicated that polarization fluctuations responsible for the acoustic anomalies were enhanced by KF substitution.

  10. Characterization of barium titanate powder doped with sodium and potassium ions by using Rietveld refining; Caracterizacao do po de titanato de bario dopado com ions sodio e potasio com o refinamento de Rietveld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, M.C.; Assis, J.T.; Pereira, F.R., E-mail: mcalixto@iprj.uerj.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IPRJ/UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico; Araujo, J.C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FFP/UERJ), Sao Goncalo, RJ (Brazil). Fac. de Formacao de Professores; Moreira, E.L.; Moraes, V.C.A.; Lopes, A.R. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF/MCT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A solid-reaction synthesis of doped barium titanate was done by employing barium carbonates, sodium, potassium and titanium oxides with classic procedures. Rietveld refining of X ray diffraction data of perovskite samples with tetragonal symmetry was applying and show good agreement. Besides, the treatment performed from 600 deg C produces nanocrystals of barium titanate with average size of 33 nm. The presence of endothermic peaks related to BaTiO{sub 3} formation at relatively low temperatures was determined by thermal analysis. A pseudo-Voigt Thompson-Cox-Hastings function was used to fit the standard samples of barium titanate. The Rietveld method has showed be efficient to detect the influences of temperature and doping on barium titanate microstructures. (author)

  11. Multicomponent doped barium strontium titanate thin films for tunable microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alema, Fikadu Legesse

    In recent years there has been enormous progress in the development of barium strontium titanate (BST) films for tunable microwave applications. However, the properties of BST films still remain inferior compared to bulk materials, limiting their use for microwave technology. Understanding the film/substrate mismatch, microstructure, and stoichiometry of BST films and finding the necessary remedies are vital. In this work, BST films were deposited via radio frequency magnetron sputtering method and characterized both analytically and electrically with the aim of optimizing their properties. The stoichiometry, crystal structure, and phase purity of the films were studied by varying the oxygen partial pressure (OPP) and total gas pressure (TGP) in the chamber. A better stoichiometric match between film and target was achieved when the TGP is high (> 30 mTorr). However, the O2/Ar ratio should be adjusted as exceeding a threshold of 2 mTorr in OPP facilitates the formation of secondary phases. The growth of crystalline film on platinized substrates was achieved only with a lower temperature grown buffer layer, which acts as a seed layer by crystallizing when the temperature increases. Concurrent Mg/Nb doping has significantly improved the properties of BST thin films. The doped film has shown an average tunability of 53%, which is only ˜8 % lower than the value for the undoped film. This drop is associated with the Mg ions whose detrimental effects are partially compensated by Nb ions. Conversely, the doping has reduced the dielectric loss by ˜40 % leading to a higher figure of merit. Moreover, the two dopants ensure a charge neutrality condition which resulted in significant leakage current reduction. The presence of large amounts of empty shallow traps related to Nb Ti localize the free carriers injected from the contacts; thus increase the device control voltage substantially (>10 V). A combinatorial thin film synthesis method based on co-sputtering of two BST

  12. Impedance spectroscopy and mechanical response of porous nanophase hydroxyapatite-barium titanate composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Ashutosh Kumar; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims to develop the porous nanophase hydroxyapatite (HA)-barium titanate (BT) composite with reasonable mechanical and electrical properties as an electrically-active prosthetic orthopedic implant alternate. The porous samples (densification ~40-70%) with varying amounts of BT (0, 25, 35 and 100 vol.%) in HA were synthesized using optimal spark plasma sintering conditions, which revealed the thermochemical stability between both the phases. The reasonably good combination of functional properties such as compressive [(236.00 ± 44.90)MPa] and flexural [(56.18 ± 5.82) MPa] strengths, AC conductivity [7.62 × 10(-9)(ohm-cm)(-1) at 10 kHz] and relative permittivity [15.20 at 10 kHz] have been achieved with nanostructured HA-25 vol.% BT composite as far as significant sample porosity (~30%) is concerned. Detailed impedance spectroscopic analysis was performed to reveal the electrical microstructure of developed porous samples. The resistance and capacitance values (at 500 °C) of grain (RG, CG) and grain boundary (RGB, CGB) for the porous HA-25 vol.% BT composite are (1.3 × 10(7) ohm, 3.1 × 10(-11)F) and (1.6 × 10(7) ohm, 5.9 × 10(-10)F), respectively. Almost similar value of activation energy (~1-1.5 eV) for grain and grain boundary has been observed for all the samples. The mechanism of conduction is found to be same for porous monolithic HA as well as composite samples. Relaxation spectroscopic analyses suggest that both the localized as well as long range charge carrier translocations are responsible for conduction in these samples. The degree of polarization of porous samples has been assessed by measuring thermally stimulated depolarization current of the poled samples. The depolarization current is observed to depend on the heating rate. The maximum current density, measured for HA-25 vol.% BT sample at a heating rate of 1 °C/min is 2.7 nA/cm(2). Formation of oxygen vacancies due to the reduced atmosphere sintering contribute to the space

  13. Ecotoxicological studies of micro- and nanosized barium titanate on aquatic photosynthetic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonini, Hudson C; Brandão, Humberto M; Raposo, Nádia R B; Mouton, Ludovic; Yéprémian, Claude; Couté, Alain; Brayner, Roberta

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between live organisms and micro- or nanosized materials has become a current focus in toxicology. As nanosized barium titanate has gained momentum lately in the medical field, the aims of the present work are: (i) to assess BT toxicity and its mechanisms on the aquatic environment, using two photosynthetic organisms (Anabaena flos-aquae, a colonial cyanobacteria, and Euglena gracilis, a flagellated euglenoid); (ii) to study and correlate the physicochemical properties of BT with its toxic profile; (iii) to compare the BT behavior (and Ba(2+) released ions) and the toxic profile in synthetic (Bold's Basal, BB, or Mineral Medium, MM) and natural culture media (Seine River Water, SRW); and (iv) to address whether size (micro, BT MP, or nano, BT NP) is an issue in BT particles toxicity. Responses such as growth inhibition, cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) content and photosynthetic efficiency were evaluated. The main conclusions are: (i) BT have statistically significant toxic effects on E. gracilis growth and viability even in small concentrations (1μgmL(-1)), for both media and since the first 24 h; on the contrary of on A. flos-aquae, to whom the effects were noticeable only for the higher concentrations (after 96 h: ≥75 μg mL(-1) for BT NP and =100 μg mL(-1) for BT MP, in BB; and ≥75 μg mL(-1) for both materials in SRW), in spite of the viability being affected in all concentrations; (ii) the BT behaviors in synthetic and natural culture media were slightly different, being the toxic effects more pronounced when grown in SRW - in this case, a worse physiological state of the organisms in SRW can occur and account for the lower resistance, probably linked to a paucity of nutrients or even a synergistic effect with a contaminant from the river; and (iii) the effects seem to be mediated by induced stress without a direct contact in A. flos-aquae and by direct endocytosis in E. gracilis, but in

  14. Influence of high temperature processing of sol-gel derived barium titanate thin films deposited on platinum and strontium ruthenate coated silicon wafers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stawski, Tomasz; Vijselaar, Wouter Jan, Cornelis; Göbel, Ole; Veldhuis, Sjoerd; Smith, B.F.; Blank, David H.A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2012-01-01

    Thin films of barium titanate (BTO) of 200 nm thickness, derived from an alkoxide¿carboxylate sol¿gel process, were deposited on Pt/Ti and SrRuO3/ZrO2¿8%Y2O3 coated Si wafers. Films with a dense columnar microstructure were obtained by repeated deposition of thin amorphous layers from

  15. Integration and High-Temperature Characterization of Ferroelectric Vanadium-Doped Bismuth Titanate Thin Films on Silicon Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Mattias; Khartsev, Sergiy; Östling, Mikael; Zetterling, Carl-Mikael

    2017-07-01

    4H-SiC electronics can operate at high temperature (HT), e.g., 300°C to 500°C, for extended times. Systems using sensors and amplifiers that operate at HT would benefit from microcontrollers which can also operate at HT. Microcontrollers require nonvolatile memory (NVM) for computer programs. In this work, we demonstrate the possibility of integrating ferroelectric vanadium-doped bismuth titanate (BiTV) thin films on 4H-SiC for HT memory applications, with BiTV ferroelectric capacitors providing memory functionality. Film deposition was achieved by laser ablation on Pt (111)/TiO2/4H-SiC substrates, with magnetron-sputtered Pt used as bottom electrode and thermally evaporated Au as upper contacts. Film characterization by x-ray diffraction analysis revealed predominately (117) orientation. P- E hysteresis loops measured at room temperature showed maximum 2 P r of 48 μC/cm2, large enough for wide read margins. P- E loops were measurable up to 450°C, with losses limiting measurements above 450°C. The phase-transition temperature was determined to be about 660°C from the discontinuity in dielectric permittivity, close to what is achieved for ceramics. These BiTV ferroelectric capacitors demonstrate potential for use in HT NVM applications for SiC digital electronics.

  16. Molecular structures of (3-aminopropyl)trialkoxysilane on hydroxylated barium titanate nanoparticle surfaces induced by different solvents and their effect on electrical properties of barium titanate based polymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yanyan; Wang, Guanyao; Huang, Xingyi; Bu, Jing; Sun, Xiaojin; Jiang, Pingkai

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The silanization on the surface of hydroxylated barium titanate nanoparticles was introduced by using two kinds of trialkoxysilanes with different solvents (toluene and ethanol), respectively. • Solvents have more remarkable impact on the dielectric properties of the subsequent BT/PVDF nanocomposites than the types of silanes. • The solvents used for BT nanoparticle surface modification exhibit a significant effect on the breakdown strength of the nanocomposites. - Abstract: Surface modification of nanoparticles by grafting silane coupling agents has proven to be a significant approach to improve the interfacial compatibility between inorganic filler and polymer matrix. However, the impact of grafted silane molecular structure after the nanoparticle surface modification, induced by the utilized solvents and the silane alkoxy groups, on the electrical properties of the corresponding nanocomposites, has been seldom investigated. Herein, the silanization on the surface of hydroxylated barium titanate (BT-OH) nanoparticles was introduced by using two kinds of trialkoxysilane, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (AMEO) and 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AMMO), with different solvents (toluene and ethanol), respectively. Solid-state 13 C, 29 Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to validate the structure differences of alkoxysilane attachment to the nanoparticles. The effect of alkoxysilane structure attached to the nanoparticle surface on the dielectric properties of the BT based poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanocomposites were investigated. The results reveal that the solvents used for BT nanoparticle surface modification exhibit a significant effect on the breakdown strength of the nanocomposites. Nevertheless, the alkoxy groups of silane show a marginal influence on the dielectric properties of the nanocomposites. These research results provide

  17. Near-field terahertz imaging of ferroelectric domains in barium titanate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berta, Milan; Kadlec, Filip

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 83, 10-11 (2010), 985-993 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : singular value decomposition * domain structure imaging * near-field terahertz microscopy * subwavelength resolution Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.006, year: 2010

  18. Coating barium titanate nanoparticles with polyethylenimine improves cellular uptake and allows for coupled imaging and gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Christopher; Lee, Isac; Cowan, Katie R; Suh, Junghae

    2013-12-01

    Barium titanate nanoparticles (BT NP) belong to a class of second harmonic generating (SHG) nanoprobes that have recently demonstrated promise in biological imaging. Unfortunately, BT NPs display low cellular uptake efficiencies, which may be a problem if cellular internalization is desired or required for a particular application. To overcome this issue, while concomitantly developing a particle platform that can also deliver nucleic acids into cells, we coated the BT NPs with the cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI)-one of the most effective nonviral gene delivery agents. Coating of BT with PEI yielded complexes with positive zeta potentials and resulted in an 8-fold increase in cellular uptake of the BT NPs. Importantly, we were able to achieve high levels of gene delivery with the BT-PEI/DNA complexes, supporting further efforts to generate BT platforms for coupled imaging and gene therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation and Sound Absorption Properties of a Barium Titanate/Nitrile Butadiene Rubber–Polyurethane Foam Composite with Multilayered Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueliang Jiang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanate/nitrile butadiene rubber (BT/NBR and polyurethane (PU foam were combined to prepare a sound-absorbing material with an alternating multilayered structure. The effects of the cell size of PU foam and the alternating unit number on the sound absorption property of the material were investigated. The results show that the sound absorption efficiency at a low frequency increased when decreasing the cell size of PU foam layer. With the increasing of the alternating unit number, the material shows the sound absorption effect in a wider bandwidth of frequency. The BT/NBR-PU foam composites with alternating multilayered structure have an excellent sound absorption property at low frequency due to the organic combination of airflow resistivity, resonance absorption, and interface dissipation.

  20. Preparation and Sound Absorption Properties of a Barium Titanate/Nitrile Butadiene Rubber-Polyurethane Foam Composite with Multilayered Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xueliang; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Zhijie; Zhang, Fuqing; You, Feng; Yao, Chu

    2018-03-22

    Barium titanate/nitrile butadiene rubber (BT/NBR) and polyurethane (PU) foam were combined to prepare a sound-absorbing material with an alternating multilayered structure. The effects of the cell size of PU foam and the alternating unit number on the sound absorption property of the material were investigated. The results show that the sound absorption efficiency at a low frequency increased when decreasing the cell size of PU foam layer. With the increasing of the alternating unit number, the material shows the sound absorption effect in a wider bandwidth of frequency. The BT/NBR-PU foam composites with alternating multilayered structure have an excellent sound absorption property at low frequency due to the organic combination of airflow resistivity, resonance absorption, and interface dissipation.

  1. On the persistence of polar domains in ultrathin ferroelectric capacitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zubko, P.; Lu, H.; Bark, C.-W.; Martí, Xavier; Santiso, J.; Eom, C.-B.; Catalan, G.; Gruverman, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 28 (2017), s. 1-8, č. článku 284001. ISSN 1361-648X R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37427G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ultrathin barium titanate * tunnel junctions * ferroelectric domains * polarization screening * retention * negative capacitance Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics , supercond.)

  2. Preparation, Structural, Electrical, and Ferroelectric Properties of Lead Niobate–Lead Zirconate–Lead Titanate Ternary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A ternary system of lead niobate–lead zirconate–lead titanate with composition xPN–yPZ–(x-yPT where x=0.5 and y=0.15, 0.25, and 0.35 known as PNZT has been prepared by conventional mixed oxide route at a temperature of 1100°C. The formation of the perovskite phase was established by X-ray diffraction analysis. The surface morphology studied by scanning electron microscopy shows the formation of fairly dense grains and elemental composition was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Dielectric properties like dielectric constant and dielectric loss (ε′ and tan⁡δ indicate poly-dispersive nature of the material. The temperature dependent dielectric constant (ε′ curve indicates relaxor behaviour with two dielectric anomalies. The poly-dispersive nature of the material was analysed by Cole-Cole plots. The activation energy follows the Arrhenius law and is found to decrease with increasing frequency for each composition. The frequency dependence of ac conductivity follows the universal power law. The ac conductivity analysis suggests that hopping of charge carriers among the localized sites is responsible for electrical conduction. The ferroelectric studies reveal that these ternary systems are soft ferroelectric.

  3. Electron Emission And Beam Generation Using Ferroelectric Cathodes (electron Beam Generation, Lead Lanthanum Zicronate Titanate, High Power Traveling Wave Tube Amplfier)

    CERN Document Server

    Flechtner, D D

    1999-01-01

    In 1989, researchers at CERN published the discovery of significant electron emission (1– 100 A/cm2) from Lead- Lanthanum-Zirconate-Titanate (PLZT). The publication of these results led to international interest in ferroelectric cathodes studies for use in pulsed power devices. At Cornell University in 1991, experiments with Lead-Zirconate-Titanate (PZT) compositions were begun to study the feasibility of using this ferroelectric material as a cathode in the electron gun section of High Power Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier Experiments. Current-voltage characteristics were documented for diode voltages ranging from 50– 500,000 V with anode cathode gaps of.5– 6 cm. A linear current-voltage relation was found for voltages less than 50 kV. For diode voltages ≥ 200 kV, a typical Child-Langmuir V3/2 dependence was observed...

  4. Dielectric relaxation and conductivity behavior in modified lead titanate ferroelectric ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaiz-Barranco, A; Gonzalez Abreu, Y [Facultad de Fisica-Instituto de Ciencia y TecnologIa de Materiales, Universidad de La Habana. San Lazaro y L, Vedado. La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Lopez-Noda, R [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica, ICIMAF, CITMA 15 no. 551, Vedado. La Habana 10400 (Cuba)], E-mail: pelaiz@fisica.uh.cu

    2008-12-17

    The frequency and temperature dielectric response and the electrical conductivity behavior around the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition temperature are studied in the ferroelectric ceramic system (Pb{sub 0.88}Sm{sub 0.08})(Ti{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x})O{sub 3}, with x = 0,1,3 at.%. The contribution of the conductive processes to the dielectric relaxation for the studied frequency range is discussed considering the oxygen vacancies as the most mobile ionic defects in perovskites, whose concentration seems to increase with the manganese content. The relaxation processes below the transition temperature are associated with the decay of the polarization in the oxygen-defect-related dipoles due to their hopping conduction. Above the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition temperature, the electrical conduction is governed by the thermal excitation of carriers from oxygen vacancies; the relaxation processes are associated with ionic dipoles distorted by the oxygen vacancies.

  5. Effect of donor and acceptor dopants on crystallization, microstructural and dielectric behaviors of barium strontium titanate glass ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Avadhesh Kumar, E-mail: yadav.av11@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Dr. Bheem Rao Ambedkar Government Degree College, Anaugi, Kannauj (India); Gautam, C.R. [Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007 (India); Singh, Prabhakar [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2016-07-05

    Bulk transparent barium strontium titanate borosilicate glasses in glass system (65-x)[(Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}).TiO{sub 3}]-30[2SiO{sub 2}.B{sub 2}O{sub 3}]-5[K{sub 2}O]-x[A{sub 2}O{sub 3}], A = La, Fe (x = 2, 5 and 10) were prepared by rapid melt-quench technique and subsequently, converted into glass ceramics by regulated heat treatment process. The phase identification was carried out by X-ray powder diffraction and their surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The dielectric properties were studied by impedance spectroscopic technique. Investigated glass samples were crystallized into major and secondary phases of Ba{sub 1.91}Sr{sub 0.09}TiO{sub 4} and Ba{sub 2}TiSi{sub 2}O{sub 8}, respectively. A very high dielectric constant having value upto 68000 was found in glass ceramic sample BST5K10F. This high value of dielectric constant was attributed to interfacial polarization, which arose due to conductivity difference among semiconducting crystalline phases, conducting grains and insulating grain boundaries. Donor dopant La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and acceptor dopant Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} play an important role for enhancing crystallization, dielectric constant and retardation of dielectric loss in the samples. Moreover, higher value of dielectric constant and lower value of dielectric loss was found in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped samples in comparison to La{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped samples. - Highlights: • Bulk transparent barium strontium titanate glasses are successfully prepared. • A very high dielectric constant upto 68000 was found in glass ceramics. • La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} play role for enhancing value of dielectric constant. • Higher dielectric constant with low dielectric loss was found in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped sample. • Such glass ceramics may be used in making capacitors for high energy storage.

  6. Influence of Sn and Pb Ions Substitutions on Dielectric Properties of Barium Titanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bąk W.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the microstructural and dielectric measurements of (Ba1-xPbx(Ti1-xSnxO3 (BPTSx (x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.30 polycrystalline samples are presented. The samples were obtained by means of a high temperature synthesis and their expected stoichiometry was confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS measurements. The dielectric properties of BPTSx were studied with the use of broadband dielectric spectroscopy. The measurements over a wide range of temperature (from 140 K to 600 K and frequency (from 0.1 Hz to 10 MHz were performed. The experimental results indicate an influence of Pb ions in a sublattice A and Sn ions in a sublattice B substitution on paraelectric - ferroelectric phase transition parameters. Diffused phase transitions from a paraelectric to ferroelectric state (for x = 0.10 and x = 0.30 were observed. From the electric modulus measurements in the frequency domain the relaxation times and the activation energy were determined.

  7. A promising lightweight multicomponent microwave absorber based on doped barium hexaferrite/calcium titanate/multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afghahi, Seyyed Salman Seyyed [Imam Hossein University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafarian, Mojtaba, E-mail: m.jafarian@srbiau.ac.ir [Islamic Azad University, Young Researchers and Elite Club, Science and Research Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Atassi, Yomen [Higher Institute for Applied Sciences and Technology, Department of Applied Physics (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2016-07-15

    We present the design of a microwave absorber in the X band based on ternary nanocomposite of doped barium hexaferrite (Ba-M)/calcium titanate (CTO)/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in epoxy matrix. The hydrothermal method has been used to synthesize Ba-M and CTO nanopowder. The phase identification has been investigated using XRD patterns. Scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, vibrating sample magnetometer, and vector network analyzer are used to analyze the morphology of the different components and the magnetic, electromagnetic, and microwave absorption properties of the final composite absorbers, respectively. As far as we know, the design of this type of multicomponent microwave absorber has not been investigated before. The results reveal that the combination of these three components with their different loss mechanisms has a synergistic effect that enhances the attenuation properties of the final composite. The absorber of only 2.5-mm thickness and 35 wt% of loading ratio exhibits a minimum reflection loss of −43 dB at 10.2 GHz with a bandwidth of 3.6 GHz, while the corresponding absorber based on pure (Ba-M) shows a minimum reflection loss of −34 dB at 9.8 GHz with a bandwidth of 0.256 GHz and a thickness of 4 mm.Graphical Abstract.

  8. Rhodium-doped barium titanate perovskite as a stable p-type semiconductor photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kazuhiko

    2014-02-12

    Rhodium-doped barium titanate (BaTiO3:Rh) powder was prepared by the polymerized complex (PC) method, and the photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution from water was examined. BaTiO3 is a wide-gap n-type semiconductor having a band gap of 3.0 eV. Doping Rh species into the lattice of BaTiO3 resulted in the formation of new absorption bands in visible light region. Upon visible light (λ > 420 nm), BaTiO3:Rh modified with nanoparticulate Pt as a water reduction promoter was capable of producing H2 from water containing an electron donor such as methanol and iodide. The best material prepared by the PC method exhibited higher activity than that made by a conventional solid-state reaction method. Visible-light-driven Z-scheme water splitting was also accomplished using Pt/BaTiO3:Rh as a building block for H2 evolution in combination with PtOx-loaded WO3 as an O2 evolution photocatalyst in the presence of an IO3(-)/I(-) shuttle redox mediator. Photoelectrochemical analysis indicated that a porous BaTiO3:Rh electrode exhibited cathodic photoresponse due to water reduction in a neutral aqueous Na2SO4 solution upon visible light.

  9. Simulations of high permittivity materials for 7 T neuroimaging and evaluation of a new barium titanate-based dielectric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeuwisse, W M; Brink, W M; Haines, K N; Webb, A G

    2012-04-01

    High permittivity "dielectric pads" have been shown to increase image quality at high magnetic fields in regions of low radiofrequency transmit efficiency. This article presents a series of electromagnetic simulations to determine the effects of pad size and geometry, relative permittivity value, as well as thickness on the transmit radiofrequency fields for neuroimaging at 7 T. For a 5-mm thick pad, there is virtually no effect on the transmit field for relative permittivity values lower than ∼90. Significant improvements are found for values between 90 and ∼180. If the relative permittivity is increased above ∼180 then areas of very low transmit efficiency are produced. For a 1-cm thick pad, the corresponding numbers are ∼60 and ∼120, respectively. Based upon the findings, a new material (barium titanate, relative permittivity ∼150) is used to produce thin (∼5 mm) dielectric pads which can easily be placed within a standard receive head array. Experimental measurements of transmit sensitivities, as well as acquisition of T(2) - and T 2*-weighted images show the promise of this approach. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Application of Photoreactive Barium Titanate (BaTiO₃) Beam Fanning to the Photothermal Mirror Technique: An Experimental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuto, Vitor Santaella; Capeloto, Otávio Augusto; Lukasievicz, Gustavo Vinicius Bassi; Herculano, Leandro Silva; Malacarne, Luis Carlos; Astrath, Nelson Guilherme Castelli; Bialkowski, Stephen Edward

    2015-07-01

    An adaptive spatial filter is used as an optical novelty filter to detect photothermal mirror (PM) signals in high absorbing materials using continuous wave laser excitation. The optical novelty filter uses an optical beam-fanning limiter based on single domain barium titanate (BaTiO3), cut and poled 45° relative to the c-axis. The optical novelty filter approach relaxes the requirement for high sample surface smoothness because the effect aperture adapts to the surface, reducing the stationary background from the optical signal and provides a means of developing the photothermal mirror signal. Time-dependent probe laser phase shifts due to photothermal surface deformation pass through the optical novelty filter and are detected as an intensity increase over the stationary or "mundane" signal. Experimental studies are performed using four well-characterized metals using both the conventional photothermal mirror and optical novelty filter apparatuses in order to understand the complicated signal behavior. Signal behavior is analyzed in different excitation intervals using pseudo-chopped sample excitation with different duty cycles. Optical novelty filter signals show fast response for changes in the spatial beam profile followed by long relaxation time. Reasons for the optical novelty filter response are described.

  11. Tunable Dielectric Properties of Poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) Films with Embedded Fluorinated Barium Strontium Titanate Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wooje; Kim, Taehee; Yoo, Byungwook; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2018-03-06

    Fluoropolymer nanocomposites of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) were prepared using fluorinated barium strontium titanate (Ba 1-x Sr x TiO 3 , BSTO) nanoparticles (NPs) by low-temperature synthesis using a modified liquid-solid solution process. The exact stoichiometry of as-synthesized BSTO NPs was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis along with lattice parameter calculations. The synthesized BSTO NPs were fluorinated using 2,2,2-trifluoroacetic acid as a fluorous ligand. The BSTO NPs showed high solubility in the fluorous system (polymer and solvent) on account of their modified surface. The root-mean-square roughness of the fluorinated BSTO/PVdF-HFP nanocomposite was 76 times lower than that of the nonfluorinated BSTO/PVdF-HFP nanocomposite. The dielectric constant of the fluorinated BSTO/PVdF-HFP nanocomposite exhibited Curie temperature behavior. The dielectric constant of the nanocomposite predicted using the modified Kerner model at room temperature agreed well with the experimental values.

  12. Structure and Rheology of Poloxamine T1107 and Its Nanocomposite Hydrogels with Cyclodextrin-Modified Barium Titanate Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Gómez, Rafael; Dreiss, Cécile A; González-Benito, Javier; González-Gaitano, Gustavo

    2016-06-28

    We report the preparation of a nanocomposite hydrogel based on a poloxamine gel matrix (Tetronic T1107) and cyclodextrin (CD)-modified barium titanate (BT) nanoparticles. The micellization and sol-gel behavior of pH-responsive block copolymer T1107 were fully characterized by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy as a function of concentration, pH and temperature. SANS results reveal that spherical micelles in the low concentration regime present a dehydrated core and highly hydrated shell, with a small aggregation number and size, highly dependent on the degree of protonation of the central amine spacer. At high concentration, T1107 undergoes a sol-gel transition, which is inhibited at acidic pH. Nanocomposites were prepared by incorporating CD-modified BT of two different sizes (50 and 200 nm) in concentrated polymer solutions. Rheological measurements show a broadening of the gel region, as well as an improvement of the mechanical properties, as assessed by the shear elastic modulus, G' (up to 200% increase). Initial cytocompatibility studies of the nanocomposites show that the materials are nontoxic with viabilities over 70% for NIH3T3 fibroblast cell lines. Overall, the combination of Tetronics and modified BaTiO3 provides easily customizable systems with promising applications as soft piezoelectric materials.

  13. Luminescence properties of barium--gadolinium-titanate ceramics doped with rare-earth ions (Eu3+ and Tb3+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemasundara Raju, S; Muni Sudhakar, B; Sudhakar Reddy, B; Dhoble, S J; Thyagarajan, K; Nageswara Raju, C

    2014-11-01

    Barium-gadolinium-titanate (BaGd2 Ti4 O12) powder ceramics doped with rare-earth ions (Eu(3+) and Tb(3+)) were synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. From the X-ray diffraction spectrum, it was observed that Eu(3+) and Tb(3+):BaGd2 Ti4 O12 powder ceramics are crystallized in the form of an orthorhombic structure. Scanning electron microscopy image shows that the particles are agglomerated and the particle size is about 200 nm. Eu(3+) - and Tb(3+) -doped BaGd2 Ti4 O12 powder ceramics were examined by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, photoluminescence and thermoluminescence (TL) spectra. Emission spectra of Eu(3+)-doped BaGd2 Ti4 O12 powder ceramics showed bright red emission at 613 nm ((5)D0 →(7)F2) with an excitation wavelength λ(exci)  = 408 nm ((7)F0 → (5)D3) and Tb(3+):BaGd2 Ti4 O12 ceramic powder has shown green emission at 534 nm ((5)D4 → (7)F5) with an excitation wavelength λ(exci)  = 331 nm (((7)F6 → (5)D1). TL spectra show that Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) ions affect TL sensitivity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Electronic structure of layered ferroelectric high-k titanate La2Ti2O7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atuchin, V. V.; Gavrilova, T. A.; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    The electronic structure of binary titanate La2Ti2O7 has been studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Spectral features of valence band and all constituent element core levels have been considered. The Auger parameters of titanium and oxygen in La2Ti2O7 are determined as alpha(Ti) = 872...

  15. Electronic structure of layered ferroelectric high-k titanate Pr2Ti2O7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atuchin, V.V.; Gavrilova, T.A.; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    The spectroscopic parameters and electronic structure of binary titanate Pr2Ti2O7 have been studied by IR-, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for the powder sample prepared by solid state synthesis. The spectral features of valence band and all constituent element core levels have...

  16. Growth and characterization of multiferroic barium titanate-cobalt ferrite thin film nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haimei

    Multiferroic materials which display simultaneous ferroelectricity and magnetism have been stimulating significant interest both from the basic science and application point of view. It was proposed that composites with one piezoelectric phase and one magnetostrictive phase can be magnetoelectrically coupled via a stress mediation. The coexistence of magnetic and electric subsystems as well as the magnetoelectric effect of the material allows an additional degree of freedom in the design of actuators, transducers, and storage devices. Previous work on such materials has been focused on bulk ceramics. In the present work, we created vertically aligned multiferroic BaTiO 3-CoFe2O4 thin film nanostructures using pulsed laser deposition. Spinel CoFe2O4 and perovskite BaTiO 3 spontaneously separated during the film growth. CoFe2O 4 forms nano-pillar arrays embedded in a BaTiO3 matrix, which show three-dimensional heteroepitaxy. CoFe2O4 pillars have uniform size and spacing. As the growth temperature increases the lateral size of the pillars also increases. The size of the CoFe2O 4 pillars as a function of growth temperature at a constant growth rate follows an Arrhenius behaviour. The formation of the BaTiO3-CoFe 2O4 nanostructures is a process directed by both thermodynamic equilibrium and kinetic diffusion. Lattice mismatch strain, interface energy, elastic moduli and molar ratio of the two phases, etc., are considered to play important roles in the growth dynamics leading to the nanoscale pattern formation of BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 nanostructures. Magnetic measurements exhibit that all the films have a large uniaxial magnetic anisotropy with an easy axis normal to the film plane. It was calculated that stress anisotropy is the main contribution to the anisotropy field. We measured the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the films, which correspond to the present of BaTiO3 phase. The system shows a strong coupling of the two order parameters of polarization and

  17. Design and Construction of Capacitors with the Use of Nano-Barium Titanate’s (BaTiO3 Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Nikolarakis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic idea of this work, from the beginning of the laboratory work till now, is to develop innovative polymer composite materials using nanoparticles that can polarize in such a way that electrical energy can be stored. A number of thermosetting polymers have been laboratory-polymerized and then mixed with barium titanate nanoparticles, in order to develop new polymer nanocomposites. Barium titanate is a well-known dielectric material, which is used in sensors and actuators as it is a piezoelectric and ferroelectric material. In this work, we examine the storage capability between different types of such composites by creating passive filters.

  18. The field induced e31,f piezoelectric and Rayleigh response in barium strontium titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, L. M.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.

    2014-01-01

    The electric field induced e 31,f piezoelectric response and tunability of Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3 TiO 3 (70:30) and Ba 0.6 Sr 0.4 TiO 3 (60:40) thin films on MgO and silicon was measured. The relative dielectric tunabilities for the 70:30 and 60:40 compositions on MgO were 83% and 70%, respectively, with a dielectric loss of less than 0.011 and 0.004 at 100 kHz. A linear increase in induced piezoelectricity to −3.0 C/m 2 and −1.5 C/m 2 at 110 kV/cm was observed in Ba 0.6 Sr 0.4 TiO 3 on MgO and Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3 TiO 3 on Si. Hysteresis in the piezoelectric and dielectric response of the 70:30 composition films was consistent with the positive irreversible dielectric Rayleigh coefficient. Both indicate a ferroelectric contribution to the piezoelectric and dielectric response over 40–80 °C above the global paraelectric transition temperature.

  19. Combinatorial bulk ceramic magnetoelectric composite libraries of strontium hexaferrite and barium titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullar, Robert C

    2012-07-09

    Bulk ceramic combinatorial libraries were produced via a novel, high-throughput (HT) process, in the form of polycrystalline strips with a gradient composition along the length of the library. Step gradient ceramic composite libraries with 10 mol % steps of SrFe12O19-BaTiO3 (SrM-BT) were made and characterized using HT methods, as a proof of principle of the combinatorial bulk ceramic process, and sintered via HT thermal processing. It was found that the SrM-BT libraries sintered at 1175 °C had the optimum morphology and density. The compositional, electrical and magnetic properties of this library were analyzed, and it was found that the SrM and BT phases did not react and remained discrete. The combinatorial synthesis method produced a relatively linear variation in composition. The magnetization of the library followed the measured compositions very well, as did the low frequency permittivity values of most compositions in the library. However, with high SrM content of ≥80 mol %, the samples became increasingly conductive, and no reliable dielectric measurements could be made. Such conductivity would also greatly inhibit any ferroelectricity and magnetoelectric coupling with these composites with high levels of the SrM hexagonal ferrite.

  20. Electric field induced strain, switching and energy storage behaviour of lead free Barium Zirconium Titanate ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badapanda, T.; Chaterjee, S.; Mishra, Anupam; Ranjan, Rajeev; Anwar, S.

    2017-09-01

    There is a huge demand of lead-free high performance ceramics with large strain, low hysteresis loss and high-energy storage ability at room temperature. In this context, we investigated the large electric field induced strain, switching behaviour and energy storage properties of BaZr0.05Ti0.95O3 ceramic (BZT) prepared by high energy ball milling technique, reportedly exhibiting a triple point transition near the room temperature. The X-ray diffraction of the BZT ceramic confirms orthorhombic symmetry with space group Amm2 at room temperature. The room temperature dielectric study reveals that there is a negligible variation of dielectric constant and dielectric loss with frequency. The polarization behaviour at various applied electric fields was studied and the energy storage densities were obtained from the integral area of P-E loops. Electric field induced strain behaviour has been studied with due emphasis on the electrostrictive response at room temperature. The ferroelectric and electromechanical properties derived from the P-E and S-E loops suggest that the present ceramic encompass the properties of actuation and energy storage simultaneously.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of highly porous barium titanate based scaffold coated by Gel/HA nanocomposite with high piezoelectric coefficient for bone tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehterami, Arian; Kazemi, Mansure; Nazari, Bahareh; Saraeian, Payam; Azami, Mahmoud

    2018-03-01

    It is well established that the piezoelectric effect plays an important physiological role in bone growth, remodeling and fracture healing. Barium titanate, as a well-known piezoelectric ceramic, is especially an attractive material as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications. In this regard, we tried to fabricate a highly porous barium titanate based scaffolds by foam replication method and polarize them by applying an external electric field. In order to enhance the mechanical and biological properties, polarized/non-polarized scaffolds were coated with gelatin and nanostructured HA and characterized for their morphologies, porosities, piezoelectric and mechanical properties. The results showed that the compressive strength and piezoelectric coefficient of porous scaffolds increased with the increase of sintering temperature. After being coated with Gel/HA nanocomposite, the interconnected porous structure and pore size of the scaffolds almost remain unchanged while the Gel/nHA-coated scaffolds exhibited enhanced compressive strength and elastic modulus compared with the uncoated samples. Also, the effect of polarizing and coating of optimal scaffolds on adhesion, viability, and proliferation of the MG63 osteoblast-like cell line was evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and MTT assay. The cell culture experiments revealed that developed scaffolds had good biocompatibility and cells were able to adhere, proliferate and migrate into pores of the scaffolds. Furthermore, cell density was significantly higher in the coated scaffolds at all tested time-points. These results indicated that highly porous barium titanate scaffolds coated with Gel/HA nanocomposite has great potential in tissue engineering applications for bone tissue repair and regeneration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microstructure evolution and electrical characterization of Lanthanum doped Barium Titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billah, Masum, E-mail: masum.buet09@gmail.com; Ahmed, A., E-mail: jhinukbuetmme@gmail.com; Rahman, Md. Miftaur, E-mail: miftaurrahman@mme.buet.ac.bd [Department of Materials & Metallurgical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Mahbub, Rubbayat, E-mail: rubayyatm@gce.buet.ac.bd [Department of Glass and Ceramic Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Gafur, M. A., E-mail: d-r-magafur@bcsir.gov.bd [Bangladesh Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (BCSIR), Dhaka-1205 (Bangladesh); Bashar, M. Shahriar, E-mail: bashar@agni.com [Institute of Fuel Research & Development, Bangladesh Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (BCSIR), Dhaka-1205 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    In the current work, we investigated the structural and dielectric properties of Lanthanum oxide (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}) doped Barium Titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) ceramics and established a correlation between them. Solid state sintering method was used to dope BaTiO{sub 3} with 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 mole% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} under different sintering parameters. The raw materials used were La{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano powder of ~80 nm grain size and 99.995% purity and BaTiO{sub 3} nano powder of 100 nm grain size and 99.99% purity. Grain size distribution and morphology of fracture surface of sintered pellets were examined by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope and X-Ray Diffraction analysis was conducted to confirm the formation of desired crystal structure. The research result reveal that grain size and electrical properties of BaTiO{sub 3} ceramic significantly enhanced for small amount of doping (up to 0.5 mole% La{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and then decreased with increasing doping concentration. Desired grain growth (0.80-1.3 µm) and high densification (<90% theoretical density) were found by proper combination of temperature, sintering parameters and doping concentration. We found the resultant stable value of dielectric constant was 10000-12000 at 100-300 Hz in the temperature range of 30°-50° C for 0.5 mole% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} with corresponding shift of curie temperature around 30° C. So overall this research showed that proper La{sup 3+} concentration can control the grain size, increase density, lower curie temperature and hence significantly improve the electrical properties of BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics.

  3. Enhanced dielectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites filled with nano iron oxide-deposited barium titanate hybrid particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changhai; Chi, Qingguo; Dong, Jiufeng; Cui, Yang; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Lizhu; Lei, Qingquan

    2016-09-16

    We report enhancement of the dielectric permittivity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) generated by depositing magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles on the surface of barium titanate (BT) to fabricate BT-Fe3O4/PVDF composites. This process introduced an external magnetic field and the influences of external magnetic field on dielectric properties of composites were investigated systematically. The composites subjected to magnetic field treatment for 30 min at 60 °C exhibited the largest dielectric permittivity (385 at 100 Hz) when the BT-Fe3O4 concentration is approximately 33 vol.%. The BT-Fe3O4 suppressed the formation of a conducting path in the composite and induced low dielectric loss (0.3) and low conductivity (4.12 × 10(-9) S/cm) in the composite. Series-parallel model suggested that the enhanced dielectric permittivity of BT-Fe3O4/PVDF composites should arise from the ultrahigh permittivity of BT-Fe3O4 hybrid particles. However, the experimental results of the BT-Fe3O4/PVDF composites treated by magnetic field agree with percolation theory, which indicates that the enhanced dielectric properties of the BT-Fe3O4/PVDF composites originate from the interfacial polarization induced by the external magnetic field. This work provides a simple and effective way for preparing nanocomposites with enhanced dielectric properties for use in the electronics industry.

  4. Response of human alveolar bone-derived cells to a novel poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/barium titanate membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, L N; Crippa, G E; Gimenes, R; Zaghete, M A; de Oliveira, P T; Rosa, A L; Beloti, M M

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the response of human alveolar bone-derived cells to a novel poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/barium titanate (P(VDF-TrFE)/BT) membrane. Osteoblastic cells were cultured in osteogenic conditions either on P(VDF-TrFE)/BT or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) for up to 14 days. At 7 and 14 days, the mRNA expression of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), Type I collagen (COL I), Osteopontin (OPN), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Bone sialoprotein (BSP), and Osteocalcin (OC), key markers of the osteoblastic phenotype, and of Bcl2-associated X protein (Bax), B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and Survivin (SUR), associated with the control of the apoptotic cell death, was assayed by real-time PCR. In situ ALP activity was qualitatively evaluated by means of Fast red staining. Surface characterization was also qualitatively and quantitatively assayed in terms of topography, roughness, and wettability. Cells grown on P(VDF-TrFE)/BT exhibited a significantly higher mRNA expression for all markers compared to the ones on PTFE, except for Bcl-2, which was not detected for both groups. Additionally, Fast red staining was noticeably stronger in cultures on P(VDF-TrFE)/BT at 7 and 14 days. At micron- and submicron scale, SEM images and roughness analysis revealed that PTFE and P(VDF-TrFE)/BT exhibited a smooth topography and a similar roughness, respectively. PTFE membrane displayed higher contact angles compared with P(VDF-TrFE)/BT, as indicated by wettability assay. The novel P(VDF-TrFE)/BT membrane supports the acquisition of the osteoblastic phenotype in vitro, while up-regulating the expression of apoptotic markers. Further in vivo experiments should be carried out to confirm the capacity of P(VDF-TrFE)/BT membrane in promoting bone formation in guided bone regeneration.

  5. Effect of sulfur hexafluoride gas and post-annealing treatment for inductively coupled plasma etched barium titanate thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Li, Yang; Yao, Zhao; Kim, Hong-Ki; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Nam-Young

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol deposition- (AD) derived barium titanate (BTO) micropatterns are etched via SF6/O2/Ar plasmas using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching technology. The reaction mechanisms of the sulfur hexafluoride on BTO thin films and the effects of annealing treatment are verified through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, which confirms the accumulation of reaction products on the etched surface due to the low volatility of the reaction products, such as Ba and Ti fluorides, and these residues could be completely removed by the post-annealing treatment. The exact peak positions and chemicals shifts of Ba 3d, Ti 2p, O 1 s, and F 1 s are deduced by fitting the XPS narrow-scan spectra on as-deposited, etched, and post-annealed BTO surfaces. Compared to the as-deposited BTOs, the etched Ba 3d 5/2 , Ba 3d 3/2 , Ti 2p 3/2 , Ti 2p 1/2 , and O 1 s peaks shift towards higher binding energy regions by amounts of 0.55, 0.45, 0.4, 0.35, and 0.85 eV, respectively. A comparison of the as-deposited film with the post-annealed film after etching revealed that there are no significant differences in the fitted XPS narrow-scan spectra except for the slight chemical shift in the O 1 s peak due to the oxygen vacancy compensation in O2-excessive atmosphere. It is inferred that the electrical properties of the etched BTO film can be restored by post-annealing treatment after the etching process. Moreover, the relative permittivity and loss tangent of the post-annealed BTO thin films are remarkably improved by 232% and 2,695%, respectively.

  6. Shallow-trap-induced positive absorptive two-beam coupling 'gain' and light-induced transparency in nominally undoped barium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, M. H.; Tayebati, P.; Chang, J. Y.; Jenssen, H. P.; Warde, C.

    1992-01-01

    The asymmetry of beam coupling with respect to the orientation of the polar axis in a nominally undoped barium titanate crystal is used to determine the electro-optic and absorptive 'gain' in the usual beam-coupling geometry. For small grating wave vectors, the electrooptic coupling vanishes but the absorptive coupling remains finite and positive. Positive absorptive coupling at small grating wave vectors is correlated with the light-induced transparency of the crystal described herein. The intensity and grating wave vector dependence of the electrooptic and absorptive coupling, and the light-induced transparency are consistent with a model incorporating deep and shallow levels.

  7. Preparation, characterization and in vitro testing of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid/barium titanate nanoparticle composites for enhanced cellular proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofani, Gianni; Ricotti, Leonardo; Mattoli, Virgilio

    2011-04-01

    The recent advancements in tissue engineering and, more in general, in cell-based applications, has led to an ever increasing interest toward new materials for sustained cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, the preparation and the characterization of scaffolds based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid / barium titanate nanoparticle composites are presented. In vitro testing on H9C2 cell line demonstrates how the presence of the nanoparticles positively affects both the proliferation and the differentiation of this muscle-like cell line. Finally, the possibility to obtain porous scaffold and, therefore, an actual 3D culture system, is introduced.

  8. Tunable double-channel filter based on two-dimensional ferroelectric photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Ping; Ding, Chengyuan; Hu, Xiaoyong; Gong, Qihuang

    2007-01-01

    A tunable double-channel filter is presented, which is based on a two-dimensional nonlinear ferroelectric photonic crystal made of cerium doped barium titanate. The filtering properties of the photonic crystal filter can be tuned by adjusting the defect structure or by a pump light. The influences of the structure disorders caused by the perturbations in the radius or the position of air holes on the filtering properties are also analyzed

  9. Tunable double-channel filter based on two-dimensional ferroelectric photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Ping [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ding, Chengyuan [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Hu, Xiaoyong [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: xiaoyonghu@pku.edu.cn; Gong, Qihuang [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn

    2007-04-02

    A tunable double-channel filter is presented, which is based on a two-dimensional nonlinear ferroelectric photonic crystal made of cerium doped barium titanate. The filtering properties of the photonic crystal filter can be tuned by adjusting the defect structure or by a pump light. The influences of the structure disorders caused by the perturbations in the radius or the position of air holes on the filtering properties are also analyzed.

  10. Image plane digital holographic microscope for the inspection of ferroelectric single crystals.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Psota, Pavel; Mokrý, Pavel; Lédl, Vít; Vojtíšek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 12 (2016), č. článku 121731. ISSN 0091-3286 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-32228S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Digital holography * barium titanate * domain pattern * ferroelectric crystals * holographic microscopy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.082, year: 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.55.12.121731

  11. Processing effects on core-shell grain formation in zirconium dioxide-modified barium titanate ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei

    2001-07-01

    Formation of core-shell grains in BaTiO3 based dielectric ceramics is essential to achieve stable dielectric temperature characteristic. This grain core-shell structure consists of a grain core, which is high purity BaTiO3, ferroelectric, and a paraelectric grain shell, where there is a concentration gradient of dopant. Most commonly core-shell additives are ZrO2, CeO2, Nb2O5+CO 2O3. As a result, internal stress is generated due to this dopant inhomogeneity within the grain and the normally sharp phase transition at Curie point becomes diffused. Up to now understanding and control of core-shell grains in BaTiO3 ceramics is still far from satisfying, which is the basis of this thesis work. In this work, processing influences on core-shell grain formation were investigated in the terms of powder size, stoichiometry, particle surface modification by slurry pH and leached Ba2+, pressing pressure and additive effects such as ZrO2, Nd2O3, BaO and flux CuO, BaCuO2, followed by multiple regression analysis to identify significant variables so as to form core-shell grains in a controller manner. It is found that ZrO2 amount; powder size, stoichiometry and temperature/time are most significant in control of core-shell characteristic (low Deltaepsilon% slurry pH; with adequate eutectic liquid phase, uniformly distributed fine grain morphology was achieved with high sintered densities. A dielectric formulation of 0.8˜1.3 wt% ZrO2, and 3 m/o BaCuO2 and 0.1˜0.3 m/o Nd2 O3 was successfully developed to be sintered at 1055˜1085°C/45˜90 min with Deltaepsilon% < 25%. This formulation has the potential to be co-fired with base metal electrodes.

  12. Characterization of ferroelectric material properties of multifunctional lead zirconate titanate for energy harvesting sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovic, Bozidar; Kaya, Tolga; Koser, Hur

    2011-01-01

    We propose a microsystem integration technique that is ideal for low-cost fabrication of vibration energy harvesting sensor nodes. Our approach exploits diverse uses of sol-gel deposited lead zirconate titanate, effectively combining fabrication of several microsystem components into a single process and significantly reducing manufacturing cost and time. Here, we measure and characterize thin film parameters—such as the piezoelectric coefficient e31 (-4.0 C/m2 ) , the dielectric constant ɛr-eff (219 at 3.3 V), and the total switching polarization (2 Pr;52 μ C/cm2 ) —in order to verify this material's potential for energy harvesting, energy storage, and nonvolatile memory applications simultaneously on the same device.

  13. Low-sintering condenser materials on the basis of barium titanate; Niedrig-sinternde Kondensatorwerkstoffe auf der Basis von Bariumtitanat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naghib zadeh, Hamid

    2010-07-01

    The main objective of this work was the development of new barium titanate capacitor materials, which fully densified at a sintering temperature of 900 C and exhibit a high and almost temperature-independent dielectric constant as well as low dielectric loss. In order to decrease the sintering temperature of barium titanate from ca. 1300 C to 900 C, addition of various types of sintering aids have been tested. Li-containing sintering additives show the best result concerning densification and dielectric properties. By addition of 2 to 3 wt% (SrO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Li{sub 2}O) -, (ZnO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Li{sub 2}O) - or (LiF-SrCO{sub 3})-additive combinations to commercially available barium titanate powder 95 % of the theoretical density was achieved after sintering at 900 C. The sintered capacitor materials with the above mentioned additive combinations possess high dielectric constants from 1800 to 3590. It is well known that for a high temperature stability of dielectric constant the formation of core-shell structure in a fine-grained microstructure is required (average grain size < 1 {mu}m). For BaTiO{sub 3} samples contained 2 wt% LiF-SrCO{sub 3} is temperature coefficient of capacitance (TCC) relatively low. The TCC in temperature range between 0 C and 80 C is less than {+-} 15%. The formation of the core-shell structure in a fine-grained microstructure of this sample, which is required to have low TCC, was detected by TEM / EDX analyses. The significantly higher TCC for the BaTiO{sub 3} samples contained 3 wt% SrO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Li{sub 2}O is due to the strong grain growth during sintering. To reduce the TCC in this sample Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Co{sub 2}O{sub 3} was added. By addition of 1.5 wt% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Co{sub 2}O{sub 3} the temperature stability of the dielectric constant could be significantly improved as a result of the grain growth inhibition and the core-shell formation during sintering. For BaTiO{sub 3} samples contained ZnO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Li

  14. Ferroelectric behavior of a lead titanate nanosphere due to depolarization fields and mechanical stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade Landeta, J.; Lascano, I.

    2017-07-01

    A theorical model has been developed based on the theory of Ginzburg-Landau-Devonshire to study and predict the effects the decreasing of size particle in a nanosphere of PbTiO3 subjected to the action of depolarization fields and mechanical stress. It was considered that the nanosphere is surrounded by a layer of space charges on its surface, and containing 180° domains generated by minimizing free energy of depolarization. Energy density of depolarization, wall domain and electro-elastic energy have been incorporated into the free energy of the theory Ginzburg-Landau-Devonshire. Free energy minimization was performed to determine the spontaneous polarization and transition temperature system. These results show that the transition temperature for nanosphere is substantially smaller than the corresponding bulk material. Also, it has been obtained that the stability of the ferroelectric phase of nanosphere is favored for configurations with a large number of 180° domains, with the decreasing of thickness space charge layer, and the application of tensile stress and decreases with compressive stress. (Author)

  15. Pressure dependence of electron density distribution and d-p-π hybridization in titanate perovskite ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Takamitsu; Nakamoto, Yuki; Ahart, Muhtar; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2018-04-01

    Electron density distributions of PbTi O3 , BaTi O3 , and SrTi O3 were determined by synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction up to 55 GPa at 300 K and ab initio quantum chemical molecular orbital (MO) calculations, together with a combination of maximum entropy method calculations. The intensity profiles of Bragg peaks reveal split atoms in both ferroelectric PbTi O3 and BaTi O3 , reflecting the two possible positions occupied by the Ti atom. The experimentally obtained atomic structure factor was used for the determination of the deformation in electron density and the d-p-π hybridization between dx z (and dy z) of Ti and px (and py) of O in the Ti-O bond. Ab initio MO calculations proved the change of the molecular orbital coupling and of Mulliken charges with a structure transformation. The Mulliken charge of Ti in the Ti O6 octahedron increased in the ionicity with increasing pressure in the cubic phase. The bonding nature is changed with a decrease in the hybridization of the Ti-O bond and the localization of the electron density with increasing pressure. The hybridization decreases with pressure and disappears in the cubic paraelectric phase, which has a much more localized electron density distribution.

  16. Two-diode behavior in metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor structures with bismuth titanate interfacial layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmuş, Perihan; Altindal, Şemsettin

    2017-10-01

    In this study, electrical parameters of the Al/Bi4Ti3O12/p-Si metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor (MFS) structure and their temperature dependence were investigated using current-voltage (I-V) data measured between 120 K and 300 K. Semi-logarithmic I-V plots of the structure revealed that fabricated structure presents two-diode behavior that leads to two sets of ideality factor, reverse saturation current and zero-bias barrier height (BH) values. Obtained results of these parameters suggest that current conduction mechanism (CCM) deviates strongly from thermionic emission theory particularly at low temperatures. High values of interface states and nkT/q‑kT/q plot supported the idea of deviation from thermionic emission. In addition, ln(I)‑ln(V) plots suggested that CCM varies from one bias region to another and depends on temperature as well. Series resistance values were calculated using Ohm’s law and Cheungs’ functions, and they decreased drastically with increasing temperature.

  17. Chemical solution deposited BaPbO3 buffer layers for lead zirconate titanate ferroelectric films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, T.-K.; Wu, J.-M.

    2005-01-01

    Conductive perovskite BaPbO 3 (BPO) films have been prepared successfully by chemical solution deposition method through spin-coating on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates. The choice of baking temperature is a key factor on the development of conducting BPO perovskite phase. When the baking temperature is higher than 350 deg. C, the BPO films contain a high content of BaCO 3 phase after annealing at temperatures higher than 500 deg. C. If the baking temperature is chosen lower than 300 deg. C, such as 200 deg. C, the annealed BPO films consist mostly of perovskite with only traces of BaCO 3 . Choosing 200 deg. C as the baking temperature, the BPO films developed single perovskite phase at temperatures as low as 550 deg. C. The perovskite BPO phase is stable in the range of 550-650 deg. C and the measured sheet resistance of the BPO films is about 2-3 Ω/square. The perovskite BPO film as a buffer layer provides improvement in electric properties of lead zirconate titanate films

  18. Gd-substituted bismuth titanate film capacitors having ferroelectric reliability and large non-volatile charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chon, Uong; Jang, Hyun M.; Shin, Nam S.; Kim, Jae S.; Ahn, Do C.; Kim, Yun S.; No, Kwangsoo

    2007-01-01

    Fatigue-free Gd-modified bismuth titanate (Bi 3.15 Gd 0.85 Ti 3 O 12 ; BGdT) film capacitors having stable charge-retaining characteristics were grown on Pt/TiO 2 /SiO 2 /Si(1 0 0) substrates using the method of metal-organic sol decomposition. The BGdT film capacitor with a top Pt electrode showed significantly improved values of the remanent polarization (2P r ) and the non-volatile charge as compared to those of the Bi 4- x La x Ti 3 O 12 (BLT; x=0.75) film capacitor, currently renowned as a promising candidate for non-volatile memories. The saturated 2P r value of the BGdT capacitor was 75 μC/cm 2 while it remained essentially constant up to 4.5x10 10 read/write switching cycles at a frequency of 1 MHz. In addition to these, the capacitor demonstrated excellent charge-retention characteristics with its sensing margin of 52 μC/cm 2 and a strong resistance against the imprinting failure

  19. Preparation of Parium Titanates With Different Particle Size Distribution Using Modified Pechini Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Jaafer Abed AL-Jabar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanates is one of the most important ceramics that are widely used in the electronic industry because of its high dielectric constant, its ferroelectricity, and its piezoelectric properties. In the current study, five different batches of barium titanate powders were prepared by modifiedpechini method using the barium chloride and the titanium chloride as a starting materials in order to obtain different particle size distributions.SEM, TGA, DTA, XRD, FTIR, and other techniques have been used to characterize the prepared samples.XRD results suggested that the synthesized BaTiO3has a tetragonal phase.SEM images of the prepared samples reveala polyhedron shapes, on average, also it show that there are markedinfluence of the reactant concentration on the average size of the grains,where the samples prepared from higher solution concentration tend to possess larger grain size compared to that prepared from low concentration.

  20. Incipient ferroelectric to a possible ferroelectric transition in Te4+ doped calcium copper titanate (CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics at low temperature as evidenced by Raman and dielectric spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabadyuti Barman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial replacement of Ti4+ by Te4+ ions in calcium copper titanate lattice improved its dielectric behaviour mostly due to cubic-to-tetragonal structural transformation and associated distortion in TiO6 octahedra. The relative permittivity values (23–30 x 103 of Te4+ doped ceramics is more than thrice that of un-doped ceramics (8 x 103 at 1 kHz. A decreasing trend in relative permittivity with increasing temperature (50–300 K is observed for all the samples. Barrett’s formula, as a signature of incipient ferroelectricity, is invoked to rationalize the relative permittivity variation as a function of temperature. A systematic investigation supported by temperature dependent Raman studies reveal a possible ferroelectric transition in Te4+ doped ceramic samples below 120 K. The possible ferroelectric transition is attributed to the interactions between quasi-local vibrations associated with the micro-clusters comprising TiO6 and TeO6 structural units and indirect dipole-dipole interactions of off-center B–cations (Ti4+ and Te4+ in double perovskite lattice.

  1. Study of the effect of ionizing radiation on composites of wood flour in polypropylene matrix using barium titanate as coupling agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulloa, Maritza Eliza Perez

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the effects of ionizing radiation on the properties of wood flour composites in polypropylene matrix, using barium titanate as a coupling agent and the reactive monomer tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPDGA). An electron accelerator was used in the study as the radiation source. The physical properties of virgin compounds and of the polypropylene/wood flour composite, with and without barium titanate and TPDGA addition, were investigated. The composites were developed from the load treatment, which first consisted of incorporating additives to the wood flour reinforcement and after that, the fusion process of polypropylene and composite mixing in a 'calander'. Subsequently, the samples to be irradiated and submitted to thermal and mechanical assays were molded by injection. The mechanical properties (hardness, impact resistance and molten fluidity index (MFI)), as well as the thermal properties (HDT and Vicat) of the composites were determined. The investigated compositions consisted of polypropylene/wood flour, polypropylene/wood flour with barium titanate and polypropylene/wood flour with barium titanate and TPDGA, using different wood flour concentrations of 10 por cent, 15 por cent and 20 por cent in the polypropylene matrix. The samples were separated in groups and irradiated to doses of 10 kGy and 20 kGy in the samples of the essays of traction. Besides these doses, it was also used doses of 15 kGy and 25 kGy to be observed the behavior of the sample of the sample due to the increase of the radiation. These doses were chosen to show that with low doses the composite material presents reticulation, what represents a viable commercial option. There was a reduction of the flow rate for the composites containing wood flour, being this reduction more effective in the presence of TiBa. The superficial treatment using TPDGA monomer influence in the composite samples because it acted as a plastic additive becoming the sample

  2. Doped barium titanate nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have synthesized nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe) ion doped BaTiO3 nanoparticles through a chemical route using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The concentration of dopant varies from 0 to 2 mole% in the specimens. The results from X-ray diffractograms and transmission electron micrographs show that the particle diameters in the ...

  3. Doped barium titanate nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. We have synthesized nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe) ion doped BaTiO3 nanoparticles through a chemical route using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The concentration of dopant varies from 0 to 2 mole% in the specimens. The results from X-ray diffractograms and transmission electron micrographs show that the particle ...

  4. Studies on the effects of titanate and silane coupling agents on the performance of poly (methyl methacrylate)/barium titanate denture base nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshereksi, Nidal W; Ghazali, Mariyam J; Muchtar, Andanastuti; Azhari, Che H

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to fabricate and characterise silanated and titanated nanobarium titanate (NBT) filled poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) denture base composites and to evaluate the behaviour of a titanate coupling agent (TCA) as an alternative coupling agent to silane. The effect of filler surface modification on fracture toughness was also studied. Silanated, titanated and pure NBT at 5% were incorporated in PMMA matrix. Neat PMMA matrix served as a control. NBT was sonicated in MMA prior to mixing with the PMMA. Curing was carried out using a water bath at 75°C for 1.5h and then at 100°C for 30min. NBT was characterised via Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis before and after surface modification. The porosity and fracture toughness of the PMMA nanocomposites (n=6, for each formulation and test) were also evaluated. NBT was successfully functionalised by the coupling agents. The TCA exhibited the lowest percentage of porosity (0.09%), whereas silane revealed 0.53% porosity. Statistically significant differences in fracture toughness were observed among the fracture toughness values of the tested samples (pPMMA composites. Thus, TCA seemed to be more effective than silane. Minimising the porosity level could have the potential to reduce fungus growth on denture base resin to be hygienically accepTable Such enhancements obtained with Ti-NBT could lead to promotion of the composites' longevity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis of barium titanate crystalline nanoparticles using hydrothermal microwave method; Obtencao de nanoparticulas cristalinas de titanato de bario usando metodo hidrotermal assistido por microondas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, A.E.; Silva, R.A.; Teixeira, S.R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DFQB/FCT/UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica, Quimica e Biologia. Lab. de Compositos e Ceramicas Funcionais; Moreira, M.L. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (LiEC/UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Lab. Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica; Volanti, D.P.; Longo, E. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (LiEC/UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Lab. Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica

    2009-07-01

    The hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW) was used in the synthesis of barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) nanoparticles. The solution was prepared in deionized water by using titanium (IV) isopropoxide (C{sub 12}H{sub 28}O{sub 4}Ti), barium chloride (BaCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). Afterwards it was heated in an adapted conventional microwave oven. The system is composed of a temperature controller with thermocouple, a hermetic camera of reaction made of teflon, a manometer and a safety valve. The solution was heated to 140 deg C, at a 140 deg C/min heating rate, and maintained at this temperature for 40 minutes. The obtained ceramic powder was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The XRD data confirms the formation of a high crystalline ceramic material with perovskite structure. The FE-SEM images reveal morphologies with dimensions varying from 27 to 54 nm. (author)

  6. Synthesis of nanoparticles of barium strontium titanate using hydrothermal microwave method; Sintese de nanoparticulas de titanato de bario estroncio utilizando o metodo hidrotermal assistido por microondas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.A.; Souza, A.E.; Teixeira, S.R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DFQB/FCT/UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencia e Tecnologia. Dept. de Fisica, Quimica e Biologia; Moreira, M.L.; Volanti, D.P. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (LiEC/UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Lab. Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica; Longo, E. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP/LiEC), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Lab. Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica

    2009-07-01

    Nanoparticles of barium strontium titanate Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1}-{sub x}TiO{sub 3} (BST) had been prepared, with x = 0.5, using the hydrothermal method attended by microwaves (HTMW). A solution was prepared using deionized water, barium chloride (BaCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O), strontium chloride (SrCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O), titanium (IV) isopropoxide (C{sub 12}H28O{sub 4}Ti) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). Afterward the solution was heated to 140 deg C in a microwave oven, at a heating rate of 140 deg C/min, and maintained at this temperature for 40 min, under a pressure of 3 to 4 bar. X-ray diffraction (DRX) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) had been used in the particles characterization. DRX was used to identify the crystallized phases and the images taken from (FE-SEM) show that the material has a wide particle-size distribution with most of them between 10 and 30 nm. (author)

  7. Direct probing of semiconductor barium titanate via electrostatic force microscopy Sondagem direta de titanato de bário semicondutorpor meio de microscopia de força eletrostática

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Gheno; H. L. Hasegawa; P. I. Paulin Filho

    2007-01-01

    Electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) was used to directly probe surface potential in doped barium titanate semiconducting ceramics. EFM measurements were performed using noncontact scans at a constant tip-sample separation of 75 nm with varied bias voltages applied to the sample. The applied voltage was mapped up to 10 V and the distribution of potential across the sample showed changes in regions that matched the grain boundaries, displaying a constant barrier width of 145.2 nm.A microscopia...

  8. Computer simulations of sequency-dependent dielectric response of 90-degree domain walls in tetragonal barium titanate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Márton, Pavel; Hlinka, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 373, č. 1 (2008), s. 139-144 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ferroelectric and ferroelastic domains * BaTiO 3 * Ginzburg-Landau theory * mobility Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2008

  9. The influences of mole composition of strontium (x) on properties of barium strontium titanate (Ba{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3}) prepared by solid state reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandi, Dianisa Khoirum; Supriyanto, Agus; Iriani, Yofentina, E-mail: yopen-2005@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Sebelas Maret University (Indonesia); Jamaluddin, Anif [Physics Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Sebelas Maret University (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    Barium Strontium Titanate (Ba{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3}) or BST was prepared by solid state reaction method. Raw materials are BaCO{sub 3}, SrCO{sub 3}, and TiO{sub 2}. Those materials are mixed for 8 h, pressed, and sintered at temperature 1200°C for 2 h. Mole composition of Sr (x) was varied to study its influences on structural, morphological, and electrical properties of BST. Variation of (x) are x = 0; x = 0.1; and x = 0.5. XRD patterns showed a single phase of BST, which mean that mixture of raw materials was homogenous. Crystal structure was influenced by x. BaTiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 0.9}Ti{sub 0.1}TiO{sub 3} have tetragonal crystal structure, while Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} is cubic. The diffraction angle shifted to right side (angle larger) as the increases of x. Crystalline size of BaTiO{sub 3}, Ba{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}TiO{sub 3}, and Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} are 38.13 nm; 38.62 nm; and 37.13 nm, respectively. SEM images showed that there are still of pores which were influenced by x. Ba{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}TiO{sub 3} has densest surface (pores are few and small in size). Sawyer Tower circuit showed that BaTiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1} TiO{sub 3} is ferroelectric, while Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} is paraelectric. The dielectric constants of BaTiO{sub 3}, Ba{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}TiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} at frequency of 1 KHz are 156; 196; and 83, respectively. Ba{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}TiO{sub 3} has relatively highest dielectric constant. It is considered that Ba{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}TiO{sub 3} has densest surface.

  10. Effect of rare earth substitution on properties of barium strontium titanate ceramic and its multiferroic composite with nickel cobalt ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahuja, Poonam; Kotnala, R.K.; Tandon, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rare earth ions Dy 3+ , Gd 3+ and Sm 3+ have been substituted in Ba 0.95 Sr 0.05 TiO 3 (BST). • Ni 0.8 Co 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 has been used as ferrimagnetic phase to obtain composites. • Substitution of these ions increases dielectric constant of BST and composites. • Magnetoelectric coefficient of composites increases on substitution of these ions. - Abstract: Effect of substitution of rare earth ions (Dy 3+ , Gd 3+ and Sm 3+ ) on various properties of Ba 0.95 Sr 0.05 TiO 3 (BST) i.e. the composition Ba 0.95−1.5x Sr 0.05 R x TiO 3 (where x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and R are rare earths Dy, Gd, Sm) and that of their multiferroic composite with Ni 0.8 Co 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 (NCF) has been studied. Shifting of peaks corresponding to different compositions in the X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the substitution of rare earth ions at both Ba 2+ and Ti 4+ sites in BST. It is clear from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images that rare earth substitution in BST increases its grain size in both pure and composite samples. Substitution of rare earth ions results in increase in value of dielectric constant of pure and composite samples. Sm substitution in BST significantly decreases its Curie temperature. Dy substituted pure and composite samples possess superior ferroelectric properties as confirmed by polarization vs electric field (P–E) loops. Composite samples containing Dy, Gd and Sm substituted BST as ferroelectric phase possess lower values of remanent and saturation magnetizations in comparison to composite sample containing pure BST as ferroelectric phase (BSTC). Rare earth substituted composite samples possess higher value of magnetoelectric coefficient as compared to that for BSTC

  11. High temperature dielectric relaxation anomaly of Y³⁺ and Mn²⁺ doped barium strontium titanate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Shiguang; Mao, Chaoliang, E-mail: maochaoliang@mail.sic.ac.cn, E-mail: xldong@mail.sic.ac.cn; Wang, Genshui; Yao, Chunhua; Cao, Fei; Dong, Xianlin, E-mail: maochaoliang@mail.sic.ac.cn, E-mail: xldong@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2014-10-14

    Relaxation like dielectric anomaly is observed in Y³⁺ and Mn²⁺ doped barium strontium titanate ceramics when the temperature is over 450 K. Apart from the conventional dielectric relaxation analysis method with Debye or modified Debye equations, which is hard to give exact temperature dependence of the relaxation process, dielectric response in the form of complex impedance, assisted with Cole-Cole impedance model corrected equivalent circuits, is adopted to solve this problem and chase the polarization mechanism in this paper. Through this method, an excellent description to temperature dependence of the dielectric relaxation anomaly and its dominated factors are achieved. Further analysis reveals that the exponential decay of the Cole distribution parameter n with temperature is confirmed to be induced by the microscopic lattice distortion due to ions doping and the interaction between the defects. At last, a clear sight to polarization mechanism containing both the intrinsic dipolar polarization and extrinsic distributed oxygen vacancies hopping response under different temperature is obtained.

  12. Fabrication of Crack-Free Barium Titanate Thin Film with High Dielectric Constant Using Sub-Micrometric Scale Layer-by-Layer E-Jet Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junsheng; Li, Pengfei; Wang, Dazhi; Fang, Xu; Ding, Jiahong; Wu, Junxiong; Tang, Chang

    2016-01-19

    Dense and crack-free barium titanate (BaTiO₃, BTO) thin films with a thickness of less than 4 μm were prepared by using sub-micrometric scale, layer-by-layer electrohydrodynamic jet (E-jet) deposition of the suspension ink which is composed of BTO nanopowder and BTO sol. Impacts of the jet height and line-to-line pitch of the deposition on the micro-structure of BTO thin films were investigated. Results show that crack-free BTO thin films can be prepared with 4 mm jet height and 300 μm line-to-line pitch in this work. Dielectric constant of the prepared BTO thin film was recorded as high as 2940 at 1 kHz at room temperature. Meanwhile, low dissipation factor of the BTO thin film of about 8.6% at 1 kHz was also obtained. The layer-by-layer E-jet deposition technique developed in this work has been proved to be a cost-effective, flexible and easy to control approach for the preparation of high-quality solid thin film.

  13. The fabrication and characterization of barium titanate/akermanite nano-bio-ceramic with a suitable piezoelectric coefficient for bone defect recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrollahi, H; Salimi, F; Doostmohammadi, A

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, due to the controllable mechanical properties and degradation rate, calcium silicates such as akermanite (Ca 2 MgSi 2 O 7 ) with Ca-Mg and Si- containing bio-ceramics have received much more attention. In addition, the piezoelectric effect plays an important role in bone growth, remodeling and defect healing. To achieve our objective, the porous bioactive nano-composite with a suitable piezoelectric coefficient was fabricated by the freeze-casting technique from the barium titanate and nano-akermanite (BT/nAK) suspension. The highest d 33 of 4pC/N was obtained for BT90/nAK10. The compressive strength and porosity were for BT75/nAK25 and BT60/nAK40 at the highest level, respectively. The average pore channel diameter was 41 for BT75/nAK25. Interestingly enough, the inter-connected pore channel was observed in the SEM images. There was no detectable transformation phase in the XRD pattern for the BT/nAK composites. The manipulation flexibility of this method indicated the potential for the customized needs in the application of bone substitutes. An ((3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide)) MTT assay indicated that the obtained scaffolds have no cytotoxic effects on the human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fabrication of Crack-Free Barium Titanate Thin Film with High Dielectric Constant Using Sub-Micrometric Scale Layer-by-Layer E-Jet Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsheng Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense and crack-free barium titanate (BaTiO3, BTO thin films with a thickness of less than 4 μm were prepared by using sub-micrometric scale, layer-by-layer electrohydrodynamic jet (E-jet deposition of the suspension ink which is composed of BTO nanopowder and BTO sol. Impacts of the jet height and line-to-line pitch of the deposition on the micro-structure of BTO thin films were investigated. Results show that crack-free BTO thin films can be prepared with 4 mm jet height and 300 μm line-to-line pitch in this work. Dielectric constant of the prepared BTO thin film was recorded as high as 2940 at 1 kHz at room temperature. Meanwhile, low dissipation factor of the BTO thin film of about 8.6% at 1 kHz was also obtained. The layer-by-layer E-jet deposition technique developed in this work has been proved to be a cost-effective, flexible and easy to control approach for the preparation of high-quality solid thin film.

  15. Improvement in crystallization and electrical properties of barium strontium titanate thin films by gold doping using metal-organic deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.-W.; Nien, S.-W.; Lee, K.-C.; Wu, M.-C.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of gold (Au) on the crystallization, dielectric constant and leakage current density of barium strontium titanate (BST) thin films was investigated. BST thin films with various gold concentrations were prepared via a metal-organic deposition process. The X-ray diffraction shows enhanced crystallization as well as expanded lattice constants for the gold-doped BST films. Thermal analysis reveals that the gold dopant induces more complete decomposition of precursor for the doped films than those of undoped ones. The leakage current density of BST films is greatly reduced by the gold dopant over a range of biases (1-5 V). The distribution of gold was confirmed by electron energy loss spectroscopy and found to be inside the BST grains, not in the grain-boundaries. Gold acted as a catalyst, inducing the nucleation of crystallites and improving the crystallinity of the structure. Its addition is shown to be associated to the improvement of the electrical properties of BST films

  16. Enhanced bipolar resistive switching behavior in polar Cr-doped barium titanate thin films without electro-forming process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Thakre

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An enhanced, repeatable and robust resistive switching phenomenon was observed in Cr substituted BaTiO3 polar ferroelectric thin films; fabricated and deposited by the sol-gel approach and spin coating technique, respectively. An enhanced bistable bipolar resistive switching (BRS phenomenon without electro-forming process, low switching voltage (∼ 2 V and moderate retention characteristics of 104 s along with a high Roff/Ron resistance ratio ∼103 was achieved. The current conduction analysis showed that the space charge limited conduction (SCLC and Schottky emission conduction dominate in the high voltage range, while thermally active charge carriers (ohmic in the lower voltage range. The impedance spectroscopy study indicates the formation of current conducting path and rupturing of oxygen vacancies during SET and RESET process.

  17. Enhanced bipolar resistive switching behavior in polar Cr-doped barium titanate thin films without electro-forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakre, Atul; Kumar, Ashok

    2017-12-01

    An enhanced, repeatable and robust resistive switching phenomenon was observed in Cr substituted BaTiO3 polar ferroelectric thin films; fabricated and deposited by the sol-gel approach and spin coating technique, respectively. An enhanced bistable bipolar resistive switching (BRS) phenomenon without electro-forming process, low switching voltage (˜ 2 V) and moderate retention characteristics of 104 s along with a high Roff/Ron resistance ratio ˜103 was achieved. The current conduction analysis showed that the space charge limited conduction (SCLC) and Schottky emission conduction dominate in the high voltage range, while thermally active charge carriers (ohmic) in the lower voltage range. The impedance spectroscopy study indicates the formation of current conducting path and rupturing of oxygen vacancies during SET and RESET process.

  18. Electro-optic tunable multi-channel filter in two-dimensional ferroelectric photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Yulan; Zhang, Jiaxiang; Hu, Xiaoyong; Gong, Qihuang

    2010-01-01

    An electro-optic tunable multi-channel filter is presented, which is based on a two-dimensional ferroelectric photonic crystal made of barium titanate. The filtering properties of the photonic crystal filter can be tuned by an applied voltage or by adjusting the structural parameters. The channel shifts about 30 nm under excitation of an applied voltage of 54.8 V. The influences of the structural disorders caused by the perturbations in the radius or the position of air holes on the filtering properties are also analyzed

  19. Effect of Barium Titanate Particles on Dielectric and Electro-Optical Properties of a Smectic-a Liquid Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazanov, M. A.; Imamaliyev, A. R.; Humbatov, Sh. A.; Agamaliev, Z. A.

    2018-02-01

    The effect of submicron ferroelectric BaTiO3 particles on the dielectric and electro-optical properties of the smectic-A liquid crystal (LC) with a high negative dielectric anisotropy is investigated. It is shown that the addition of BaTiO3 particles with a weight amount of 1% reduces insignificantly the transverse dielectric permittivity component ɛ ⊥ of, but significantly increases the longitudinal dielectric permittivity component ɛ // of the smectic-A LC. As a result, the anisotropy of the dielectric permittivity Δɛ = ɛ // - ɛ ⊥ of the smectic-A LC decreases. The addition of BaTiO3 particles shifts the dispersion ɛ ⊥ toward lower frequencies. Both components of the electrical conductivity of LC colloid + BaTiO3 are an order of magnitude higher than of the pure LC. The threshold voltage of the homeotropic-planar transition of the colloid is twice smaller, and its velocity is 6 times higher in comparison with the pure LC. A simple model explaining qualitatively all results obtained is presented.

  20. Participation of MicroRNA-34a and RANKL on bone repair induced by poly(vinylidene-trifluoroethylene)/barium titanate membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Helena B; Ferraz, Emanuela P; Almeida, Adriana L G; Florio, Pedro; Gimenes, Rossano; Rosa, Adalberto L; Beloti, Marcio M

    2016-09-01

    The poly(vinylidene-trifluoroethylene)/barium titanate (PVDF) membrane enhances in vitro osteoblast differentiation and in vivo bone repair. Here, we hypothesized that this higher bone repair could be also due to bone resorption inhibition mediated by a microRNA (miR)/RANKL circuit. To test our hypothesis, the large-scale miR expression of bone tissue grown on PVDF and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes was evaluated to identify potential RANKL-targeted miRs modulated by PVDF. The animal model used was rat calvarial defects implanted with either PVDF or PTFE. At 4 and 8 weeks, the bone tissue grown on membranes was submitted to a large-scale analysis of miRs by microarray. The expression of miR-34a and some of its targets, including RANKL, were evaluated by real-time polimerase chain reaction and osteoclast activity was detected by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Among more than 250 miRs, twelve, including miR-34a, were simultaneously higher expressed (≥2 fold) at 4 and 8 weeks on PVDF. The higher expression of miR-34a was concomitant with a reduced expression of all its evaluated targets, including RANKL. Additionally, more TRAP-positive cells were observed in bone tissue grown on PTFE compared with PVDF in both time points. In conclusion, our results suggest that the higher bone formation induced by PVDF could be, at least in part, triggered by a miR-34a increase and RANKL decrease, which may inhibit osteoclast differentiation and activity, and bone resorption.

  1. Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride-Trifluorethylene)/barium titanate membrane promotes de novo bone formation and may modulate gene expression in osteoporotic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalize, Priscilla Hakime; Bombonato-Prado, Karina F; de Sousa, Luiz Gustavo; Rosa, Adalberto Luiz; Beloti, Marcio Mateus; Semprini, Marisa; Gimenes, Rossano; de Almeida, Adriana L G; de Oliveira, Fabíola Singaretti; Hallak Regalo, Simone Cecilio; Siessere, Selma

    2016-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic disease that impairs proper bone remodeling. Guided bone regeneration is a surgical technique that improves bone defect in a particular region through new bone formation, using barrier materials (e.g. membranes) to protect the space adjacent to the bone defect. The polytetrafluorethylene membrane is widely used in guided bone regeneration, however, new membranes are being investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of P(VDFTrFE)/BT [poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/barium titanate] membrane on in vivo bone formation. Twenty-three Wistar rats were submitted to bilateral ovariectomy. Five animals were subjected to sham surgery. After 150 days, bone defects were created and filled with P(VDF-TrFE)/BT membrane or PTFE membrane (except for the sham and OVX groups). After 4 weeks, the animals were euthanized and calvaria samples were subjected to histomorphometric and computed microtomography analysis (microCT), besides real time polymerase chain reaction (real time PCR) to evaluate gene expression. The histomorphometric analysis showed that the animals that received the P(VDF-TrFE)/BT membrane presented morphometric parameters similar or even better compared to the animals that received the PTFE membrane. The comparison between groups showed that gene expression of RUNX2, BSP, OPN, OSX and RANKL were lower on P(VDF-TrFE)/BT membrane; the gene expression of ALP, OC, RANK and CTSK were similar and the gene expression of OPG, CALCR and MMP9 were higher when compared to PTFE. The results showed that the P(VDF-TrFE)/BT membrane favors bone formation, and therefore, may be considered a promising biomaterial to support bone repair in a situation of osteoporosis.

  2. Large dielectric constant and high thermal conductivity in poly(vinylidene fluoride)/barium titanate/silicon carbide three-phase nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Huang, Xingyi; Hu, Zhiwei; Jiang, Pingkai; Li, Shengtao; Tanaka, Toshikatsu

    2011-11-01

    Dielectric polymer composites with high dielectric constants and high thermal conductivity have many potential applications in modern electronic and electrical industry. In this study, three-phase composites comprising poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), barium titanate (BT) nanoparticles, and β-silicon carbide (β-SiC) whiskers were prepared. The superiority of this method is that, when compared with the two-phase PVDF/BT composites, three-phase composites not only show significantly increased dielectric constants but also have higher thermal conductivity. Our results show that the addition of 17.5 vol % β-SiC whiskers increases the dielectric constants of PVDF/BT nanocomposites from 39 to 325 at 1000 Hz, while the addition of 20.0 vol % β-SiC whiskers increases the thermal conductivity of PVDF/BT nanocomposites from 1.05 to 1.68 W m(-1) K(-1) at 25 °C. PVDF/β-SiC composites were also prepared for comparative research. It was found that PVDF/BT/β-SiC composites show much higher dielectric constants in comparison with the PVDF/β-SiC composites within 17.5 vol % β-SiC. The PVDF/β-SiC composites show dielectric constants comparable to those of the three-phase composites only when the β-SiC volume fraction is 20.0%, whereas the dielectric loss of the PVDF/β-SiC composites was much higher than that of the three-phase composites. The frequency dependence of the dielectric property for the composites was investigated by using broad-band (10(-2)-10(6) Hz) dielectric spectroscopy.

  3. Potential of energy harvesting in barium titanate based laminates from room temperature to cryogenic/high temperatures: measurements and linking phase field and finite element simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Fumio; Fox, Marina; Mori, Kotaro; Takeuchi, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Omote, Kenji

    2017-11-01

    This paper studies the energy harvesting characteristics of piezoelectric laminates consisting of barium titanate (BaTiO3) and copper (Cu) from room temperature to cryogenic/high temperatures both experimentally and numerically. First, the output voltages of the piezoelectric BaTiO3/Cu laminates were measured from room temperature to a cryogenic temperature (77 K). The output power was evaluated for various values of load resistance. The results showed that the maximum output power density is approximately 2240 nW cm‑3. The output voltages of the BaTiO3/Cu laminates were also measured from room temperature to a higher temperature (333 K). To discuss the output voltages of the BaTiO3/Cu laminates due to temperature changes, phase field and finite element simulations were combined. A phase field model for grain growth was used to generate grain structures. The phase field model was then employed for BaTiO3 polycrystals, coupled with the time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau theory and the oxygen vacancies diffusion, to calculate the temperature-dependent piezoelectric coefficient and permittivity. Using these properties, the output voltages of the BaTiO3/Cu laminates from room temperature to both 77 K and 333 K were analyzed by three dimensional finite element methods, and the results are presented for several grain sizes and oxygen vacancy densities. It was found that electricity in the BaTiO3 ceramic layer is generated not only through the piezoelectric effect caused by a thermally induced bending stress but also by the temperature dependence of the BaTiO3 piezoelectric coefficient and permittivity.

  4. Effect of Fe{sup 3+} substitution on structural, optical and magnetic properties of barium titanate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, N.V.; Dung, N.T. [Department of Physics and Technology, Thai Nguyen University of Science, Thai Nguyen City (Viet Nam); Phong, P.T., E-mail: ptphong.nh@khanhhoa.edu.vn [Department of Natural Sciences, Nha Trang Pedagogic College, 1- Nguyen Chanh Street, Nha Trang City, Khanh Hoa Province (Viet Nam); Department of Advanced Materials Chemistry, Dongguk University-Gyeongju, 707 Suckjang-dong, Gyeongju-Si, Gyeongbuk 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In-Ja, E-mail: lij@dongguk.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Chemistry, Dongguk University-Gyeongju, 707 Suckjang-dong, Gyeongju-Si, Gyeongbuk 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Multiferroic BaTi{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 3} (0≤x≤0.12) materials were synthesized using the solid-state reaction method. The influence of Fe on the crystalline structure, the electronic structure, the optical properties and the magnetic property of BaTi{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 3} samples were investigated. The obtained X-ray diffraction patterns, Raman and UV–vis spectra showed that the structure of the material sensitively depends on Fe dopant content, x, and transforms gradually from the tetragonal (P4mm) phase to the hexagonal (P6{sub 3}/mmc) one with increasing x. The photoluminescence emission of BaTi{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 3} was attributed to structural disorder. All of the samples exhibit both ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism at room temperature. The relaxor like behavior was observed for all samples. The magnetization at a magnetic field of 1 T abnormally depends on x, increases up to 0.1 then decreases monotonously afterward. This anomaly in the magnetic behavior can be explained in terms of the changes in the oxidation state of ions such as the Fe{sup 3+}-to-Fe{sup 4+} and/or Ti{sup 4+}-to-Ti{sup 3+} change induced by oxygen vacancies. The substitution of Fe into Ti sites also causes the changes in the conductivity of the material and impurity (acceptor) levels in the band gap, which can be evident from the absorption spectra, and time-dependent leakage current measured at room temperature.

  5. Down-conversion luminescence and its temperature-sensing properties from Er3+-doped sodium bismuth titanate ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Zheng, Shanshan; Zhou, Hong; Pan, Anlian; Wu, Guangheng; Liu, Jun-ming

    2015-11-01

    Here, we demonstrate outstanding temperature-sensing properties from Na0.5Bi0.49Er0.01TiO3 (NBT:Er) thin films. The perovskite phase for them is stable in the temperature range from 80 to 440 K. Interestingly, the Er doping enhances the ferroelectric polarization and introduces local dipolar, which are positive for temperature sensing. Pumped by a 488-nm laser, the NBT:Er thin films show strong green luminescence with two bands around 525 and 548 nm. The intensity ratio I 525/ I 548 can be used for temperature sensing, and the maximum sensitivity is about 2.3 × 10-3 K-1, higher than that from Er-doped silicon oxide. These suggest NBT:Er thin film is a promising candidate for temperature sensor.

  6. Tunable Microwave Filter Design Using Thin-Film Ferroelectric Varactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridasan, Vrinda

    rejection, and constant bandwidth is designed, simulated, fabricated and measured. The filters are fabricated using barium strontium titanate (BST) varactors. Electromagnetic simulations and measured results of the tunable two-pole ferroelectric filter are analyzed to explore the origins of high insertion loss in ferroelectric filters. The results indicate that the high-permittivity of the BST (a ferroelectric) not only makes the filters tunable and compact, but also increases the conductive loss of the ferroelectric-based tunable resonators which translates into high insertion loss in ferroelectric filters.

  7. Investigation of chemically modified barium titanate beads as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrates for the detection of benzene thiol, 1,2-benzene dithiol, and rhodamine 6G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuegbu, Jonathan; Fu, Anqie; Glembocki, Orest; Pokes, Shaka; Alexson, Dimitri; Hosten, Charles M

    2011-08-01

    SERS active surfaces were prepared by depositing silver films using Tollen's reaction on to barium titanate beads. The SERS activity of the resulting surfaces was probed using two thiols (benzene thiol and 1,2-benzene dithiol) and rhodamine 6G. The intensity of the SERS signal for the three analytes was investigated as a function of silver deposition time. The results indicate that the SERS intensity increased with increasing thickness of the silver film until a maximum signal intensity was achieved; additional silver deposition resulted in a decrease in the SERS intensity for all of the studied molecules. SEM measurement of the Ag coated barium titanate beads, as a function of silver deposition time, indicate that maximum SERS intensity corresponded with the formation of atomic scale islands of silver nanoparticles. Complete silver coverage of the beads resulted in a decreased SERS signal and the most intense SERS signals were observed at deposition times of 30 min for the thiols and 20 min for rhodamine 6G. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnetic and ferroelectric properties of Ni doped BaTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S. K.; Mishra, R. N.; Roul, B. K.

    2014-08-01

    Our paper reports structural, magnetic and ferroelectric properties of Ni doped barium titanate. Ceramics samples of BaTi1-xNixO3 (here, x=0, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15) were prepared through solid state sintering technique. It is revealed from structural studies that the phase transformation from tetragonal to hexagonal phase is strongly influenced by Ni doping concentration. Magnetism is induced in doped composition and the value of magnetism is dependent upon Ni ion concentration. This enhanced magnetic effect is likely to originate from carrier-mediated exchange interactions. Ferroelectricity was observed in all samples at room temperature, but it was decreased by Ni doping.

  9. In vitro biocompatibility of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/barium titanate composite using cultures of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts and keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, L N; Crippa, G E; Trabuco, A C; Gimenes, R; Zaghete, M A; Palioto, D B; de Oliveira, P T; Rosa, A L; Beloti, M M

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the biocompatibility of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/barium titanate (P(VDF-TrFE)/BT) membrane to be used in guided tissue regeneration (GTR). Fibroblasts from human periodontal ligament (hPDLF) and keratinocytes (SCC9) were plated on P(VDF-TrFE)/BT and polytetrafluorethylene membranes at a cell density of 20,000 cells well(-1) and cultured for up to 21 days. Cell morphology, adhesion and proliferation were evaluated in hPDLF and keratinocytes, while total protein content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were assayed only for hPDLF. Using a higher cell density, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to assess the expression of typical genes of hPDLF, such as periostin, PDLs17, S100A4 and fibromodulin, and key phenotypic markers of keratinocytes, including involucrin, keratins 1, 10 and 14. Expression of the apoptotic genes bax, bcl-2 and survivin was evaluated for both cultures. hPDLF adhered and spread more on P(VDF-TrFE)/BT, whereas keratinocytes showed a round shape on both membranes. hPDLF adhesion was greater on P(VDF-TrFE)/BT at 2 and 4h, while keratinocyte adhesion was similar for both membranes. Whereas proliferation was significantly higher for hPDLF on P(VDF-TrFE)/BT at days 1 and 7, no signs of keratinocyte proliferation could be noticed for both membranes. Total protein content was greater on P(VDF-TrFE)/BT at 7, 14 and 21 days, and higher levels of ALP activity were observed on P(VDF-TrFE)/BT at 21 days. Real-time PCR revealed higher expression of phenotypic markers of hPDLF and keratinocytes as well as greater expression of apoptotic genes in cultures grown on P(VDF-TrFE)/BT. These results indicate that, by favoring hPDLF adhesion, spreading, proliferation and typical mRNA expression, P(VDF-TrFE)/BT membrane should be considered an advantageous alternative for GTR. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance Enhancement of Tunable Bandpass Filters Using Selective Etched Ferroelectric Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Mueller, Carl H.; VanKeuls, Fred W.; Subramanyam, Guru; Vignesparamoorthy, Sivaruban

    2003-01-01

    The inclusion of voltage-tunable barium strontium titanate (BSTO) thin films into planar band pass filters offers tremendous potential to increase their versatility. The ability to tune the passband so as to correct for minor deviations in manufacturing tolerances, or to completely reconfigure the operating frequencies of a microwave communication system, are highly sought-after goals. However, use of ferroelectric films in these devices results in higher dielectric losses, which in turn increase the insertion loss and decrease the quality factors of the filters. This study explores the use of patterned ferroelectric layers to minimize dielectric losses without degrading tunability. Patterning the ferroelectric layers enables us to constrict the width of the ferroelectric layers between the coupled microstrip lines, and minimize losses due to ferroelectric layers. Coupled one-pole microstrip bandpass filters with fundamental resonances at approx. 7.2 GHz and well defined harmonic resonances at approx. 14.4 and approx. 21.6 GHz, were designed, simulated and tested. For one of the filters, experimental results verified that its center frequency was tunable by 528 MHz at a center frequency of 21.957 GHz, with insertion losses varying from 4.3 to 2.5 dB, at 0 and 3.5 V/micron, respectively. These data demonstrate that the tuning-to-loss figure of merit of tunable microstrip filters can be greatly improved using patterned ferroelectric thin films as the tuning element, and tuning can be controlled by engineering the ferroelectric constriction in the coupled sections.

  11. Structural and electrical properties of Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) and Neodymium doped BaTiO3 (Ba0.995Nd0.005TiO3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulong, Tuan Amirah Tuan; Aina Maulat Osman, Rozana; Sobri Idris, Mohd; Azhar Zahid Jamal, Zul

    2017-11-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3) and Neodymium (Nd) doped BaTiO3 with composition Ba0.995Nd0.005TiO3 were prepared using conventional solid state reaction method to study the dielectric properties of materials. Pure phase samples were found at final heating temperature of 1400°C for overnight. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the changes in the lattice parameter and unit cell volume of the pure perovskite tetragonal structure with space group (P4mm). Electrical analysis is carried out to investigate the dielectric properties, conductivity behaviour and dielectric loss of BaTiO3 and Ba0.995Nd0.005TiO3. Ba0.995Nd0.005TiO3 have a broaden dielectric peaks with high permittivity of 8000 and reasonably low loss tan δ which is about 0.004 (1 kHz).

  12. BaTiO3 FILMS DEPOSITED ONTO TiNb AND Ti SUBSTRATES - AMOUNT AND STABILITY OF BARIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Moriová

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BaTiO3 films deposited onto TiNb and Ti substrates using hydrothermal synthesis method were studied in the presented work. These films are supposed to improve properties of bone implants due to their ferroelectric behaviour, because ferroelectrics induce improved bone formation. A great question is the chemical stability of the used material. It can be crucial for its biocompatibility and possible in vivo application. We studied chemical composition of prepared samples, especially concentration of Ba and Ti and trends of these concentrations stimulated by a solution saline action. The Ba and Ti concentrations were determined by XPS under ultra - high vacuum condition. The BaTiO3 films were investigated as received after the preparation procedure as well as after a long - time treatment in solution saline. Every sample was introduced to the solution saline at first for 1 and later for 3 weeks. Ti concentration almost does not change during our experiments while a meaningful Ba decrease is observed. Nevertheless, barium release seems to slow down with respect to the time of solution saline action. Stability of barium titanate films in a period of several months and an absolute amount of the released barium will be a subject of the next research.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of barium titanate, doped with europium and neodymium; Sintese e caracterizacao de titanato de bario, dopados com europio e neodimio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Fernanda L.C.; Cabral, Alciney M.; Silva, Ademir O.; Oliveiro, Joao B.L., E-mail: nanda_louise@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2013-07-01

    This work aims at synthesize and characterize mixed oxides in Barium Titanium matrix in doping with Neodymium and Europium analyzing thermogravimetric curves, characteristic bands at infrared region of the polymer complex, which are intermediates to mixed oxides, and identify the formation thereof, and the crystallinity using XRD analysis.

  14. Effect of substrate temperature in the structural, optical and ferroelectric properties of thin films of BaTiO{sub 3} deposited by RF sputtering; Efecto de la temperatura de substrato en las propiedades estructurales, opticas y ferroelectricas de peliculas delgadas de BaTiO{sub 3} depositadas por RF sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez H, A. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Coordinacion Academica Region Altiplano, Carretera a Cedral Km. 5 -600, Matehuala, 78800 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Hernandez R, E.; Zapata T, M. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Calz. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Calzadilla A, O. [Universidad de la Habana, Facultad de Fisica-IMRE, San Lazaro y L. Municipio Plaza de la Revolucion, La Habana (Cuba); Melendez L, M. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Thin films of Barium Titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) were grown on nichrome and quartz substrates, using a BaTiO{sub 3} target, by RF sputtering technique. We varied the substrate temperature in order to study its effect on the structural, optical and ferroelectric properties of the samples. The results of the X-ray diffraction showed tetragonal structure with increases of the crystallinity as increases the substrate temperature. Furthermore, it observed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy that the band gap decreased as the substrate temperature increases showing abrupt sharp decrease at 494.8{sup o} C. The ferroelectric properties of the films showed a dependence with substrate temperature, the best ferroelectric answer was obtained at 494.8{sup o} C. (Author)

  15. Reduction of anti-ferroelectric temperature region in NBT-BT ceramics using 100 MeV O{sup 7+} ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmuga Sundari, S. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India); Murugan, Ramaswamy [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry 605014 (India); Asokan, K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Dhanasekaran, R., E-mail: rdcgc@yahoo.com [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India)

    2014-01-01

    NBT-BT (sodium bismuth titanate-barium titanate) lead-free ceramics were prepared via the conventional solid-state reaction method in the Morphotropic Phase Boundary (MPB) composition. The prepared ceramics were irradiated with 100 MeV O{sup 7+} ions using four different fluences of 5 × 10{sup 11}, 1 × 10{sup 12}, 5 × 10{sup 12} and 1 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The dielectric constants of the pristine and irradiated samples were determined from 300 to 623 K for a broad range of frequencies from 20 Hz to 2 MHz. Irradiation with oxygen ions decreased the anti-ferroelectric temperature region present in the samples. The structural stability of the samples against the irradiation was investigated via XRD and Raman spectroscopy before and after the irradiation.

  16. Predicting the effective response of bulk polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics via improved spectral phase field methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyasagar, A.; Tan, W. L.; Kochmann, D. M.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the electromechanical response of bulk polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics requires scale-bridging approaches. Recent advances in fast numerical methods to compute the homogenized mechanical response of materials with heterogeneous microstructure have enabled the solution of hitherto intractable systems. In particular, the use of a Fourier-based spectral method as opposed to the traditional finite element method has gained significant interest in the homogenization of periodic microstructures. Here, we solve the periodic, electro-mechanically-coupled boundary value problem at the mesoscale of polycrystalline ferroelectrics in order to extract the effective response of barium titanate (BaTiO3) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT) under applied electric fields. Results include the effective electric hysteresis and the associated butterfly curve of strain vs. electric field for mean stress-free electric loading. Computational predictions of the 3D polycrystalline response show convincing agreement with our experimental electric cycling and strain hysteresis data for PZT-5A. In addition to microstructure-dependent effective physics, we also show how finite-difference-based approximations in the spectral solution scheme significantly reduce instability and ringing phenomena associated with spectral techniques and lead to spatial convergence with h-refinement, which have been major challenges when modeling high-contrast systems such as polycrystals.

  17. High-k 3D-barium titanate foam/phenolphthalein poly(ether sulfone)/cyanate ester composites with frequency-stable dielectric properties and extremely low dielectric loss under reduced concentration of ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Longhui; Yuan, Li; Guan, Qingbao; Liang, Guozheng; Gu, Aijuan

    2018-01-01

    Higher dielectric constant, lower dielectric loss and better frequency stability have been the developing trends for high dielectric constant (high-k) materials. Herein, new composites have been developed through building unique structure by using hyperbranched polysiloxane modified 3D-barium titanate foam (BTF) (BTF@HSi) as the functional fillers and phenolphthalein poly(ether sulfone) (cPES)/cyanate ester (CE) blend as the resin matrix. For BTF@HSi/cPES/CE composite with 34.1 vol% BTF, its dielectric constant at 100 Hz is as high as 162 and dielectric loss is only 0.007; moreover, the dielectric properties of BTF@HSi/cPES/CE composites exhibit excellent frequency stability. To reveal the mechanism behind these attractive performances of BTF@HSi/cPES/CE composites, three kinds of composites (BTF/CE, BTF/cPES/CE, BTF@HSi/CE) were prepared, their structure and integrated performances were intensively investigated and compared with those of BTF@HSi/cPES/CE composites. Results show that the surface modification of BTF is good for preparing composites with improved thermal stability; while introducing flexible cPES to CE is beneficial to fabricate composites with good quality through effectively blocking cracks caused by the stress concentration, and then endowing the composites with good dielectric properties at reduced concentration of ceramics.

  18. Direct probing of semiconductor barium titanate via electrostatic force microscopy Sondagem direta de titanato de bário semicondutorpor meio de microscopia de força eletrostática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Gheno

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic force microscopy (EFM was used to directly probe surface potential in doped barium titanate semiconducting ceramics. EFM measurements were performed using noncontact scans at a constant tip-sample separation of 75 nm with varied bias voltages applied to the sample. The applied voltage was mapped up to 10 V and the distribution of potential across the sample showed changes in regions that matched the grain boundaries, displaying a constant barrier width of 145.2 nm.A microscopia de força eletrostática (EFM foi usada para sondagem direta do potencial na superfície do titanato de bário dopado, o qual é cerâmica semicondutora. As medidas de EFM foram realizadas no modo não contato, mantendo a distância ponta-amostra de 75 nm constante, mas variando a voltagem bias aplicada à amostra de zero a 10 V. A distribuição do potencial na amostra mostrou mudanças em regiões próximas ao contorno de grão, exibindo largura de barreira constante de 145,2 nm.

  19. Structural and microstructural study of gamma ray-irradiated co-doped barium titanate (Ba0.88Ca0.12Ti0.975Sn0.025O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umaru Ahmadu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Barium calcium stannate titanate (Ba0.88Ca0.12Ti0.975Sn0.025O3 ceramics, synthesized by solid state reaction method and sintered at 1100 °C/3 h, were exposed to gamma radiation dose of up to 1 kGy using a Cs-137 irradiation source at a dose rate of 100.46 Gv/h. Structural analysis of the ceramics indicated a tetragonal perovskite crystalline structure for both pristine and irradiated ceramics with a minor secondary phase. However, slight changes of the lattice parameters and average crystallite size were observed for the irradiated samples. The lattice aspect ratio of the tetragonal phase (c/a for the pristine ceramics was 1.0022 which decreased by 0.22% at maximum irradiation dose. Irradiation also causes some microstructural changes and slight decrease in grain size. Energy dispersive spectroscopic investigation of the Ba0.88Ca0.12Ti0.975Sn0.025O3 showed small variation in its chemical composition as gamma radiation dose is increased.

  20. Structural and electrical properties of Barium Titanate (BaTiO3 and Neodymium doped BaTiO3 (Ba0.995Nd0.005TiO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Sulong Tuan Amirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanate (BaTiO3 and Neodymium (Nd doped BaTiO3 with composition Ba0.995Nd0.005TiO3 were prepared using conventional solid state reaction method to study the dielectric properties of materials. Pure phase samples were found at final heating temperature of 1400°C for overnight. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the changes in the lattice parameter and unit cell volume of the pure perovskite tetragonal structure with space group (P4mm. Electrical analysis is carried out to investigate the dielectric properties, conductivity behaviour and dielectric loss of BaTiO3 and Ba0.995Nd0.005TiO3. Ba0.995Nd0.005TiO3 have a broaden dielectric peaks with high permittivity of 8000 and reasonably low loss tan δ which is about 0.004 (1 kHz.

  1. A Reconfigurable Coplanar Waveguide Bowtie Antenna Using an Integrated Ferroelectric Thin-Film Varactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel printed antenna with a frequency reconfigurable feed network is presented. The antenna consists of a bowtie structure patch radiating element in the inner space of an annulus that is on a nongrounded substrate with a ferroelectric (FE Barium Strontium Titanate (BST thin film. The bowtie patch is fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW transmission line that also includes a CPW-based BST shunt varactor. Reconfiguration of the compact 8 mm × 8 mm system has been demonstrated by shifting the antenna system’s operating frequency 500 MHz in the 7–9 GHz band by applying a DC voltage bias.

  2. Development and construction of a novel MOCVD facility for the growth of ferroelectric thin layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, P.R.

    2002-02-01

    This thesis deals with the production of ferroelectric thin films using the MOCVD technology. The main focus is put on the design and construction of a complete MOCVD research system that is equipped with a novel non-contact vaporizer system. The precursors are nebulized in an ultrasonic atomizer and injected into a hot gas stream, so they can vaporize without getting into contact with a hot surface. Hence, one of the biggest disadvantages of conventional vaporizer concepts, the contamination of the vaporizing element with decomposing chemicals, could be avoided completely, resulting in a nearly maintenance-free system. In a direct comparison with the well-established Direct Liquid Injection Subsystem DLI-25C from MKS Instruments, the advantages of non-contact evaporation were clearly demonstrated. Additionally, the scope of this work included the development of standard deposition processes for the ternary oxides SrTiO 3 , BaTiO 3 und PbTiO 3 and growth studies were performed. Electrical measurements performed on MIM structures with Pt electrodes and SrTiO 3 as dielectric indicate a high film quality comparable with results presented in the literature. Furthermore, for the first time the solid solution (Pb x Ba 1-x )TiO 3 has been deposited by MOCVD. This material system is widely unknown in thin film form and it is well suited as a model system to investigate the influence of mechanical stresses on the film properties, because it represents a transition between the (as a thin film) superparaelectric barium titanate and the ferroelectric lead titanate. Through variation of the lead/barium ratio the tetragonal distortion of the lattice cell could be adjusted in a wide range. (orig.)

  3. Effects of surrounding powder in sintering process on the properties of Sb and Mn- doped barium-strontium titanate PTCR ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornsuda Bomlai

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of surrounding powder used during sintering of Sb and Mn doped bariumstrontium titanate (BST ceramics were studied. The ceramic samples were prepared by a conventional mixed-oxide method and placed on different powders during sintering. Phase formation, microstructure and PTCR behavior of the samples were then observed. Microstructures and PTCR behavior varied with the type of surrounding powder, whereas the crystal structure did not change. The surrounding powder has more effects on the shape of the grain than on the size. The grain size of samples was in the range of 5-20 μm. The most uniform grain size and the highest increase of the ratio of ρmax/ρRT were found to be about 106 for samples which had been sintered on Sb-doped BST powder. This value was an order of magnitude greater than for samples sintered on a powder of the equivalent composition to that of the sample pellet.

  4. Tungsten Bronze Barium Neodymium Titanate (Ba(6-3n)Nd(8+2n)Ti(18)O(54)): An Intrinsic Nanostructured Material and Its Defect Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azough, Feridoon; Cernik, Robert Joseph; Schaffer, Bernhard; Kepaptsoglou, Demie; Ramasse, Quentin Mathieu; Bigatti, Marco; Ali, Amir; MacLaren, Ian; Barthel, Juri; Molinari, Marco; Baran, Jakub Dominik; Parker, Stephen Charles; Freer, Robert

    2016-04-04

    We investigated the structure of the tungsten bronze barium neodymium titanates Ba(6-3n)Nd(8+2n)Ti(18)O(54), which are exploited as microwave dielectric ceramics. They form a complex nanostructure, which resembles a nanofilm with stacking layers of ∼12 Å thickness. The synthesized samples of Ba(6-3n)Nd(8+2n)Ti(18)O(54) (n = 0, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) are characterized by pentagonal and tetragonal columns, where the A cations are distributed in three symmetrically inequivalent sites. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and electron energy loss spectroscopy allowed for quantitative analysis of the site occupancy, which determines the defect distribution. This is corroborated by density functional theory calculations. Pentagonal columns are dominated by Ba, and tetragonal columns are dominated by Nd, although specific Nd sites exhibit significant concentrations of Ba. The data indicated significant elongation of the Ba columns in the pentagonal positions and of the Nd columns in tetragonal positions involving a zigzag arrangement of atoms along the b lattice direction. We found that the preferred Ba substitution occurs at Nd[3]/[4] followed by Nd[2] and Nd[1]/[5] sites, which is significantly different to that proposed in earlier studies. Our results on the Ba(6-3n)Nd(8+2n)Ti(18)O(54) "perovskite" superstructure and its defect distribution are particularly valuable in those applications where the optimization of material properties of oxides is imperative; these include not only microwave ceramics but also thermoelectric materials, where the nanostructure and the distribution of the dopants will reduce the thermal conductivity.

  5. Photoelectron spectroscopic and microspectroscopic probes of ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tǎnase, Liviu C.; Abramiuc, Laura E.; Teodorescu, Cristian M.

    2017-12-01

    This contribution is a review of recent aspects connected with photoelectron spectroscopy of free ferroelectric surfaces, metals interfaced with these surfaces, graphene-like layers together with some exemplifications concerning molecular adsorption, dissociations and desorptions occurring from ferroelectrics. Standard photoelectron spectroscopy is used nowadays in correlation with other characterization techniques, such as piezoresponse force microscopy, high resolution transmission electron spectroscopy, and ferroelectric hysteresis cycles. In this work we will concentrate mainly on photoelectron spectroscopy and spectro-microscopy characterization of ferroelectric thin films, starting from atomically clean ferroelectric surfaces of lead zirco-titanate, then going towards heterostructures using this material in combination with graphene-like carbon layers or with metals. Concepts involving charge accumulation and depolarization near surface will be revisited by taking into account the newest findings in this area.

  6. Pyroelectric Ferroelectric and Resistivity Studies on Samarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barium Strontium Sodium Niobate (Ba1-xSrx)2NaNb5O15 (BSNN) belongs to tungsten bronze ferroelectric morphotrophic phase boundary (MPB) system at x = 0.6, having large spontaneous polarisation, pyroelectric coefficient and low dielectic constant and is expected to be applicable for piezoceramic filter and ...

  7. Microstructural Evolution and Domain Structures of Flux-grown Ferroelectric Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Matthew James

    Barium titanate is one of the most commonly utilized dielectric materials for commercial applications. As devices continue to scale smaller, it is necessary to find processing routes that allow for the integration of high-permittivity barium titanate into the thin film geometry. In the bulk, high permittivity barium titanate can be produced at high processing temperatures (>1250°C). This is several hundred degrees higher than many low temperature substrates are able to withstand, which makes integration of high-permittivity barium titanate onto these substrates a challenge.One method to lower the processing temperature and maintain bulk-like permittivity of barium titanate thin films is through the addition of a liquid forming flux. The fluxing agent increases the kinetics of the system while encouraging densification. This increase in kinetics results in large-grained, dense samples, with high dielectric properties at relatively low processing temperatures. In this dissertation, the underlying mechanisms of how the flux system actually impacts the microstructural evolution of physically vapor deposited barium titanate thin films on sapphire substrates is explored. The flux-system utilized is the barium-borate system (BaOB2O3). It will be shown that the flux system results in large-grained, dense barium titanate thin films grown on sapphire. However, the evolution of the microstructure depends on a complex interaction between the liquid forming flux, a reaction between the sapphire substrate and barium titanate, the resulting reactionary phase of BaAl2O4, and {111}-barium titanate twins. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  8. Composition dependence of the ferroelectric properties of lanthanum-modified bismuth titanate thin films grown by using pulsed-laser deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Bu, S D; Park, B H; Noh, T W

    2000-01-01

    Lanthanum-modified bismuth titanate, Bi sub 4 sub - sub x La sub x Ti sub 3 O sub 1 sub 2 (BLT), thin films with a La concentration of 0.25<=x<=1.00 were grown on Pt/Ti/SiO sub 2 /Si substrates by using pulsed-laser deposition. The BLT films showed well-saturated polarization-electric field curves whose remnant polarizations were 16.1 mu C/cm sup 2 , 27.8 mu C/cm sup 2 , 19.6 mu C/cm sup 2 , and 2.7 mu C/cm sup 2 , respectively, for x=0.25, 0.05, 0.75, and 1.00. The fatigue characteristics became better with increasing x up to 0.75. The Au/BLT/Pt capacitor with a La concentration of 0.50 showed an interesting dependence of the remanent polarization on the number of repetitive read/write cycles. On the other hand, the capacitor with a La concentration of 0.75 showed fatigue-free characteristics.

  9. Self-patterning of arrays of ferroelectric capacitors: description by theory of substrate mediated strain interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawber, M; Szafraniak, I; Alexe, M; Scott, J F

    2003-01-01

    Self-patterning presents an appealing alternative to lithography for the production of arrays of nanoscale ferroelectric capacitors for use in high density non-volatile memory devices. However current levels of registration achieved experimentally are far from adequate for this application. To provide a guide for experiment we have applied the theories developed for self-patterning of semiconductor nanocrystals to two self-patterning systems of potential interest for ferroelectric memory applications, metallic bismuth oxide on bismuth titanate and ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate on strontium titanate. (letter to the editor)

  10. Route to enhance the efficiency of organic photovoltaic solar cells - by adding ferroelectric nanoparticles to P3HT/PCBM admixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black David

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that by adding ferroelectric nanoparticles to poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM photovoltaic devices the relative efficiency can be increased compared to the same blend without these nanoparticles. In this work samples of 20 mg/ml concentrations of P3HT and PCBM were prepared in a 1:1 ratio and the samples prepared using ferroelectric barium titanate (BT and strontium titanate (ST nanoparticles in a 1:1:0.5 ratio. The samples were spin coated onto ITO coated glass with a layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophenepoly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS. A top electrode of aluminium 1 cm2 was deposited. The current-voltage characteristics of the devices were determined using a solar simulator and the absorption characteristics by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The samples with BT and ST exhibited increased absorption around 490 nm and increased open circuit voltage and short circuit current compared to the control P3HT/PCBM sample. The possible mechanism that helps to understand the increase in open circuit voltage and short circuit current is also proposed in this work.

  11. Bichiral structure of ferroelectric domain walls driven by flexoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, P. V.; Tagantsev, A. K.; Eliseev, E. A.; Morozovska, A. N.; Setter, N.

    2012-10-01

    The influence of flexoelectric coupling on the internal structure of neutral domain walls in the tetragonal phase of perovskite ferroelectrics is studied. The effect is shown to lower the symmetry of 180∘ walls which are oblique with respect to the cubic crystallographic axes, while {100} and {110} walls stay “untouched.” Being of the Ising type in the absence of the flexoelectric interaction, the oblique domain walls acquire a new polarization component with a structure qualitatively different from the classical Bloch-wall structure. In contrast to the Bloch-type walls, where the polarization vector draws a helix on passing from one domain to the other, in the flexoeffect-affected wall, the polarization rotates in opposite directions on the two sides of the wall and passes through zero in its center. Since the resulting polarization profile is invariant upon inversion with respect to the wall center, it does not break the wall symmetry, in contrast to the classical Bloch-type walls. The flexoelectric coupling lowers the domain wall energy and gives rise to its additional anisotropy, which is comparable to that conditioned by elastic anisotropy. The atomic order-of-magnitude estimates shows that the new polarization component P2 may be comparable with spontaneous polarization Ps, thus suggesting that, in general, it is mandatory to include the flexoelectric coupling in domain wall simulations in ferroelectrics. Calculations performed for barium titanate yield the maximal value of P2, which is much smaller than that of the spontaneous polarization. This smallness is attributed to an anomalously small value of a component of the “strain-polarization” electrostrictive tensor in this material.

  12. A quantum informed continuum model for ferroelectric and flexoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, William S.

    2013-04-01

    Correlations between quantum mechanics and continuum mechanics are investigated by exploring relations based on the electron density and electrostatic forces within an atomic lattice in ferroelectric materials. Theoretically, it is shown that anisotropic stress is dependent upon electrostatic forces that originate from the quadrupole density. This relation is directly determined if the nuclear charge and electron density are known. The result is an extension of the Hellmann-Feynman theory used to quantify stresses based on electrostatics. Further, flexoelectricity is found to be proportional to the next two higher order poles. These relations are obtained by correlating a nucleus-nucleus potential and nucleus-electron potential with the deformation gradient and second order gradient. An example is given for barium titanate by solving the electron density using density function theory (DFT) calculations. Changes in energy and stress under different lattice geometric constraints are modeled and compared to nonlinear continuum mechanics to understand differences in formulating a model directly from DFT calculations versus a nonlinear continuum model that uses polarization versus the quadrupole density as the order parameter.

  13. Study of the effect of ionizing radiation on composites of wood flour in polypropylene matrix using barium titanate as coupling agent; Estudo do efeito da radiacao ionizante em compositos de polipropileno/po de madeira usando titanato de bario como agente de acoplagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulloa, Maritza Eliza Perez

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the effects of ionizing radiation on the properties of wood flour composites in polypropylene matrix, using barium titanate as a coupling agent and the reactive monomer tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPDGA). An electron accelerator was used in the study as the radiation source. The physical properties of virgin compounds and of the polypropylene/wood flour composite, with and without barium titanate and TPDGA addition, were investigated. The composites were developed from the load treatment, which first consisted of incorporating additives to the wood flour reinforcement and after that, the fusion process of polypropylene and composite mixing in a 'calander'. Subsequently, the samples to be irradiated and submitted to thermal and mechanical assays were molded by injection. The mechanical properties (hardness, impact resistance and molten fluidity index (MFI)), as well as the thermal properties (HDT and Vicat) of the composites were determined. The investigated compositions consisted of polypropylene/wood flour, polypropylene/wood flour with barium titanate and polypropylene/wood flour with barium titanate and TPDGA, using different wood flour concentrations of 10 por cent, 15 por cent and 20 por cent in the polypropylene matrix. The samples were separated in groups and irradiated to doses of 10 kGy and 20 kGy in the samples of the essays of traction. Besides these doses, it was also used doses of 15 kGy and 25 kGy to be observed the behavior of the sample of the sample due to the increase of the radiation. These doses were chosen to show that with low doses the composite material presents reticulation, what represents a viable commercial option. There was a reduction of the flow rate for the composites containing wood flour, being this reduction more effective in the presence of TiBa. The superficial treatment using TPDGA monomer influence in the composite samples because it acted as a plastic additive becoming the

  14. Barium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses a computer to put together x-ray images to create cross-sectional or three dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called radiopaque contrast media. It works by coating the esophagus, stomach, or ...

  15. Effect of manganese doping on the size effect of lead zirconate titanate thin films and the extrinsic nature of 'dead layers'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, X J; Wang, J

    2010-02-10

    We have investigated the size effect in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films with a range of manganese (Mn) doping concentrations. We found that the dynamic size effect in the conventional Pt/PZT/Pt thin-film capacitors could be systematically reduced and almost completely eliminated by increasing Mn doping concentration. The interfacial layer at the electrode-film interface appears to disappear almost entirely for the PZT films with ∼ 2% Mn doping levels, confirmed by the fits using the conventional 'in-series capacitor' model. Our work indicates that the dynamic size effect in ferroelectrics is extrinsic in nature, supporting the work by Saad et al. Other implications of our results have also been discussed. By comparing a variety of experimental studies in the literature we propose a scenario that the 'dead layer' between PZT (or barium strontium titanate, BST) and metal electrodes such as Pt and Au might have a defective pyrochlore/fluorite-like structure (possibly with a small portion of ferroelectric perovskite phase). This scenario is then generalized by including the effect of the grain-boundary dead layer on the collapse of the dielectric constant in thinner films.

  16. Ferroelectric devices

    CERN Document Server

    Uchino, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Updating its bestselling predecessor, Ferroelectric Devices, Second Edition assesses the last decade of developments-and setbacks-in the commercialization of ferroelectricity. Field pioneer and esteemed author Uchino provides insight into why this relatively nascent and interdisciplinary process has failed so far without a systematic accumulation of fundamental knowledge regarding materials and device development.Filling the informational void, this collection of information reviews state-of-the-art research and development trends reflecting nano and optical technologies, environmental regulat

  17. Electrical characterization of zirconium substituted barium titanate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports complex impedance analysis of polycrystalline complex perovskite structured BaZr0.025Ti0.975O3 prepared by solid state reaction method. XRD analysis reveals the formation of single phase perovskite structure. SEM has been used to investigate grain morphology of the material. Impedance plots have ...

  18. Oxygen diffusion in single crystal barium titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Markus; De Souza, Roger A; Martin, Manfred

    2015-05-21

    Oxygen diffusion in cubic, nominally undoped, (100) oriented BaTiO3 single crystals has been studied by means of (18)O2/(16)O2 isotope exchange annealing and subsequent determination of the isotope profiles in the solid by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Experiments were carried out as a function of temperature 973 < T/K < 1173, at an oxygen activity of aO2 = 0.200, and as a function of oxygen activity 0.009 < aO2 < 0.900 at T = 1073 K. The oxygen isotope profiles comprise two parts: slow diffusion through a space-charge zone at the surface depleted of oxygen vacancies followed by faster diffusion in a homogeneous bulk phase. The entire isotope profile can be described by a single solution to the diffusion equation involving only three fitting parameters: the surface exchange coefficient ks*, the space-charge potential Φ0 and the bulk diffusion coefficient D*(∞). Analysis of the temperature and oxygen activity dependencies of D*(∞) and Φ0 yields a consistent picture of both the bulk and the interfacial defect chemistry of BaTiO3. Values of the oxygen vacancy diffusion coefficient DV extracted from measured D*(∞) data are compared with literature data; consequently a global expression for the vacancy diffusivity in BaTiO3 for the temperature range 466 < T/K < 1273 is obtained, with an activation enthalpy of vacancy migration, ΔHmig,V = (0.70 ± 0.04) eV.

  19. Flexoelectricity in barium strontium titanate thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Seol Ryung; Huang, Wenbin; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Jiang, Xiaoning, E-mail: xjiang5@ncsu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Shu, Longlong [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi' an Jiao Tong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Maria, Jon-Paul [Department of Material Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Flexoelectricity, the linear coupling between the strain gradient and the induced electric polarization, has been intensively studied as an alternative to piezoelectricity. Especially, it is of interest to develop flexoelectric devices on micro/nano scales due to the inherent scaling effect of flexoelectric effect. Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} thin film with a thickness of 130 nm was fabricated on a silicon wafer using a RF magnetron sputtering process. The flexoelectric coefficients of the prepared thin films were determined experimentally. It was revealed that the thin films possessed a transverse flexoelectric coefficient of 24.5 μC/m at Curie temperature (∼28 °C) and 17.44 μC/m at 41 °C. The measured flexoelectric coefficients are comparable to that of bulk BST ceramics, which are reported to be 10–100 μC/m. This result suggests that the flexoelectric thin film structures can be effectively used for micro/nano-sensing devices.

  20. Flexoelectricity in barium strontium titanate thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Seol Ryung; Huang, Wenbin; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Jiang, Xiaoning; Shu, Longlong; Maria, Jon-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Flexoelectricity, the linear coupling between the strain gradient and the induced electric polarization, has been intensively studied as an alternative to piezoelectricity. Especially, it is of interest to develop flexoelectric devices on micro/nano scales due to the inherent scaling effect of flexoelectric effect. Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3 TiO 3 thin film with a thickness of 130 nm was fabricated on a silicon wafer using a RF magnetron sputtering process. The flexoelectric coefficients of the prepared thin films were determined experimentally. It was revealed that the thin films possessed a transverse flexoelectric coefficient of 24.5 μC/m at Curie temperature (∼28 °C) and 17.44 μC/m at 41 °C. The measured flexoelectric coefficients are comparable to that of bulk BST ceramics, which are reported to be 10–100 μC/m. This result suggests that the flexoelectric thin film structures can be effectively used for micro/nano-sensing devices.

  1. Electrical characterization of zirconium substituted barium titanate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nyquist (Cole–Cole) plots show both inter and intra grain boundary ... talline solids in a wide range of frequencies and temperature. ... measurements were carried out using a precision. LCR meter (HP 4284A) at an oscillation amplitude of 1 V. Impedance measurements were carried out in the tempera- ture range of 300.

  2. Synthesis of barium-zinc-titanate ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixtures of BaCO3, ZnO and TiO2 powders, with molar ratio of 1:2:4, were mechanically activated for 20, 40 and minutes in a planetary ball mill. The resulting powders were compacted into pellets and isothermally sintered at 1250°C for 2h with a heating rate of 10°C/min. X-ray diffraction analysis of obtained powders and sintered samples was performed in order to investigate changes of the phase composition. The microstructure of sintered samples was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The photoacoustic phase and amplitude spectra of sintered samples were measured as a function of the laser beam modulating frequency using a transmission detection configuration. Fitting of experimental data enabled determination of photoacoustic properties including thermal diffusivity. Based on the results obtained correlation between thermal diffusivity and experimental conditions, as well the samples microstructure characteristics, was discussed.

  3. Barite (Barium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Miller, M. Michael; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Barite (barium sulfate, BaSO4) is vital to the oil and gas industry because it is a key constituent of the mud used to drill oil and gas wells. Elemental barium is an additive in optical glass, ceramic glazes, and other products. Within the United States, barite is produced mainly from mines in Nevada. Imports in 2011 (the latest year for which complete data were available) accounted for 78 percent of domestic consumption and came mostly from China.Barite deposits can be divided into the following four main types: bedded-sedimentary; bedded-volcanic; vein, cavity-fill, and metasomatic; and residual. Bedded-sedimentary deposits, which are found in sedimentary rocks with characteristics of high biological productivity during sediment accumulation, are the major sources of barite production and account for the majority of reserves, both in the United States and worldwide. In 2013, China and India were the leading producers of barite, and they have large identified resources that position them to be significant producers for the foreseeable future. The potential for undiscovered barite resources in the United States and in many other countries is considerable, however. The expected tight supply and rising costs in the coming years will likely be met by increased production from such countries as Kazakhstan, Mexico, Morocco, and Vietnam.Barium has limited mobility in the environment and exposed barium in the vicinity of barite mines poses minimal risk to human or ecosystem health. Of greater concern is the potential for acidic metal-bearing drainage at sites where the barite ores or waste rocks contain abundant sulfide minerals. This risk is lessened naturally if the host rocks at the site are acid-neutralizing, and the risk can also be lessened by engineering measures.

  4. Transparent Ferroelectric Capacitors on Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Sette

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We deposited transparent ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate thin films on fused silica and contacted them via Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO transparent electrodes with an interdigitated electrode (IDE design. These layers, together with a TiO2 buffer layer on the fused silica substrate, are highly transparent (>60% in the visible optical range. Fully crystallized Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT films are dielectrically functional and exhibit a typical ferroelectric polarization loop with a remanent polarization of 15 μC/cm2. The permittivity value of 650, obtained with IDE AZO electrodes is equivalent to the one measured with Pt electrodes patterned with the same design, which proves the high quality of the developed transparent structures.

  5. Ferroelectric Thin Film Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harman, Taran V

    2003-01-01

    The long-term goal of the research project initiated with this thesis is the development of lead-free, fully-transparent ferroelectric devices, such as ferroelectric capacitors or ferroelectric-gate...

  6. The behaviour of the ferroelectric ceramics: BaTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and Pb(Sn,Zr,Ti)O3 When hit by a projectile from a 30 mm bore gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Jean

    1971-10-01

    The liberation of the electrical charges and energy stored in a ferroelectric material as a result of induced dynamic pressure was studied. The pressure was generated by the impact of a cylindrical projectile fired from a special 30 mm bore gun. A brief description of the gun, experimental set up, and the measurements made is given. It was shown that below a certain pressure P Emax , corresponding to the maximum energy liberated, barium titanate and PZT materials behave similarly. The maximum energy obtained with a PZT 95/5 material, was 700 mJ/cm 3 and was dissipated in a 5 Ω resistance. It is expected that improved material compositions will allow an energy density higher than 1 J /cm 3 to be reached [fr

  7. Magnetic enhancement of ferroelectric polarization in a self-grown ferroelectric-ferromagnetic composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Narayan, Bastola; Pachat, Rohit; Ranjan, Rajeev

    2018-02-01

    Ferroelectric-ferromagnetic multiferroic composites are of great interest both from the scientific and technological standpoints. The extent of coupling between polarization and magnetization in such two-phase systems depends on how efficiently the magnetostrictive and electrostrictive/piezoelectric strain gets transferred from one phase to the other. This challenge is most profound in the easy to make 0-3 ferroelectric-ferromagnetic particulate composites. Here we report a self-grown ferroelectric-ferromagnetic 0-3 particulate composite through controlled spontaneous precipitation of ferrimagnetic barium hexaferrite phase (BaF e12O19 ) amid ferroelectric grains in the multiferroic alloy system BiFe O3-BaTi O3 . We demonstrate that a composite specimen exhibiting merely ˜1% hexaferrite phase exhibits ˜34% increase in saturation polarization in a dc magnetic field of ˜10 kOe. Using modified Rayleigh analysis of the polarization field loop in the subcoercive field region we argue that the substantial enhancement in the ferroelectric switching is associated with the reduction in the barrier heights of the pinning centers of the ferroelectric-ferroelastic domain walls in the stress field generated by magnetostriction in the hexaferrite grains when the magnetic field is turned on. Our study proves that controlled precipitation of the magnetic phase is a good strategy for synthesis of 0-3 ferroelectric-ferromagnetic particulate multiferroic composite as it not only helps in ensuring a good electrical insulating character of the composite, enabling it to sustain high enough electric field for ferroelectric switching, but also the factors associated with the spontaneity of the precipitation process ensure efficient transfer of the magnetostrictive strain/stress to the surrounding ferroelectric matrix making domain wall motion easy.

  8. BARIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, R.E.

    1959-07-21

    A method of separating barium from nuclear fission products is described. In accordance with the invention, barium may be recovered from an acidic solution of neutron-irradiated fissionable material by carrying ihe barium cut of solution as a sulfate with lead as a carrier and then dissolving the barium-containing precipitate in an aqueous solution of an aliphatic diamine chelating reagent. The barium values together with certain other metallic values present in the diamine solution are then absorbed onto a cation exchange resin and the barium is selectively eluted from the resin bed with concentrated nitric acid.

  9. Structure and multiferroic properties of barium hexaferrite ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Guolong; Chen, Xiuna

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous occurrence of large ferroelectricity and strong ferromagnetism have been observed in barium hexaferrite ceramics. Barium hexaferrite (BaFe 12 O 19 ) powders with hexagonal crystal structure were successfully synthesized in a polymer precursor method using barium acetate and ferric acetylacetonate as the precursors. The powders were pressed into pellets which were sintered into ceramics at 1200 °C and 1300 °C for 1 h. The structure and morphology of the ceramics were examined using X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Large spontaneous polarization was observed in the BaFe 12 O 19 ceramics at room temperature, revealing a clear ferroelectric hysteresis loop. The maximum remanent polarization of the BaFe 12 O 19 ceramic was estimated approximately 11.8 μC cm −2 . The FeO 6 octahedron in its perovskite-like hexagonal unit cell and the shift of Fe 3+ off the center of octahedron are suggested to be the origin of the polarization in BaFe 12 O 19 . The BaFe 12 O 19 ceramics also showed strong ferromagnetism at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Ferroelectric hysteresis loops of BaFe 12 O 19 ceramics measured at a frequency of 120 Hz, which shows that the ceramics sintered at 1200 °C is ferroelectric with P r ∼11.8 μC/cm 2 . Highlights: ► Large ferroelectricity and strong ferromagnetism were observed in barium hexaferrite ceramics. ► The maximum remanent polarization of the BaFe 12 O 19 ceramic was estimated to be 11.8 μC cm −2 . ► The FeO 6 octahedron and off-center shift of Fe 3+ are suggested to be the origin of the polarization.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of nickel oxide doped barium strontium titanate ceramics Síntese e caracterização de cerâmicas de titanato de estrôncio e bário dopado com óxido de níquel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Banerjee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Barium strontium titanate (BST ceramics (Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 were synthesized by solid state sintering using barium carbonate, strontium carbonate and rutile as the precursor materials. The samples were doped with nickel oxide in different proportions. Different phases present in the sintered samples were determined from X-ray diffraction investigation and the distribution of different phases in the microstructure was assessed from scanning electron microscopy study. It was observed that the dielectric properties of BST were modified significantly with nickel oxide doping. These ceramics held promise for applications in tuned circuits.Cerâmicas de titanato de bário e estrôncio (TBS (Ba0,6Sr0,4TiO3 foram sintetizadas por sinterização do estado sólido usando carbonato de bário, carbonato de estrôncio e rutilo como materiais precursores. As amostras foram dopadas com diferentes proporções de óxido de níquel. Diferentes fases presentes nas amostras sinterizadas foram determinadas por difração de raios X e a distribuição de diferentes fases na microestrutura foi avaliada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Foi observado que as propriedades dielétricas do TBS foram modificadas significativamente com a dopagem do óxido de níquel. Essas cerâmicas são promissoras para aplicação em dispositivos.

  11. Barium enema (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A barium enema is performed to examine the walls of the colon. During the procedure, a well lubricated enema tube is inserted gently into the rectum. The barium, a radiopaque (shows up on X-ray) contrast ...

  12. Esophagram (Barium Swallow Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink 1 to 2 cups of barium. The barium is a contrast material that makes liquids show up on the ... MRI Intravenous Contrast Information MRI with or without Contrast Small Bowel Follow Through (SBFT) Tailored Barium Swallow Study The Upper GI Study (GI Series) ...

  13. Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy for the study of solid state reactions: synthesis of nanocrystalline barium titanate and thermal decomposition of ammonium hexachlorometallate compounds; Zeitaufgeloeste Roentgenabsorptionspektroskopie zur Untersuchung von Festkoerperreaktionen: Synthese von nanokristallinem Bariumtitanat und thermische Zersetzung von Ammoniumhexachlorometallat-Verbindungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumpf, H.

    2001-07-01

    This report presents investigations on the mechanism of two different types of solid-state reactions: At first, barium titanate nanopowders were prepared through a combined polymerization and pyrolysis of a metallo-organic precursor. The mean particle size d{sub m} could be adjusted by choosing appropriate reaction temperatures and tempering atmospheres. In the present in situ study of this particular solid-phase reaction, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the Ti K and Ba L{sub 3}-edges was applied in the preparation route of BaTiO{sub 3} nanopowders. A pronounced distortion of the lattice symmetry was found to occur in very fine BaTiO{sub 3} nanopowders (d{sub m} < 20 nm). Secondly, in situ XANES investigations were carried out at the Cl K, Pd L{sub 3}, Rh L{sub 3}, and Pt L{sub 3}-edges to study the mechanism of the thermal decomposition of ammonium hexachlorometallates. The results exceed structural information obtained by in situ X-ray diffraction methods and thermal analysis. Feff8 multiple scattering simulations have been carried out to disclose new intermediate phases of unknown reference compounds. (orig.)

  14. Ferroelectric ultrathin perovskite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappe, Andrew M; Kolpak, Alexie Michelle

    2013-12-10

    Disclosed herein are perovskite ferroelectric thin-film. Also disclosed are methods of controlling the properties of ferroelectric thin films. These films can be used in a variety materials and devices, such as catalysts and storage media, respectively.

  15. Synthesis of BaTiO3 powder from barium titanyl oxalate (BTO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Cubic barium titanate (BaTiO3) powder was synthesized by heating barium titanyl oxalate hydrate,. BaTiO(C2O4)2⋅4H2O (BTO) precursor in microwave heating system in air at 500°C. Heating BTO in micro- wave above 600°C yielded tetragonal form of BaTiO3. Experiments repeated in silicon carbide furnace ...

  16. Nanoscale phenomena in ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganpule, Chandan S.

    Ferroelectric materials are a subject of intense research as potential candidates for applications in non-volatile ferroelectric random access memories (FeRAM), piezoelectric actuators, infrared detectors, optical switches and as high dielectric constant materials for dynamic random access memories (DRAMs). With current trends in miniaturization, it becomes important that the fundamental aspects of scaling of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties in these devices be studied thoroughly and their impact on the device reliability assessed. In keeping with this spirit of miniaturization, the dissertation has two broad themes: (a) Scaling of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties and (b) The key reliability issue of retention loss. The thesis begins with a look at results on scaling studies of focused-ion-beam milled submicron ferroelectric capacitors using a variety of scanning probe characterization tools. The technique of piezoresponse microscopy, which is rapidly becoming an accepted form of domain imaging in ferroelectrics, has been used in this work for another very important application: providing reliable, repeatable and quantitative numbers for the electromechanical properties of submicron structures milled in ferroelectric films. This marriage of FIB and SPM based characterization of electromechanical and electrical properties has proven unbeatable in the last few years to characterize nanostructures qualitatively and quantitatively. The second half of this dissertation focuses on polarization relaxation in FeRAMs. In an attempt to understand the nanoscale origins of back-switching of ferroelectric domains, the time dependent relaxation of remnant polarization in epitaxial lead zirconate titanate (PbZr0.2Ti0.8O 3, PZT) ferroelectric thin films (used as a model system), containing a uniform 2-dimensional grid of 90° domains (c-axis in the plane of the film) has been examined using voltage modulated scanning force microscopy. A novel approach of

  17. Electrical and thermal properties of lead titanate glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, J.; Deshpande, V.K.

    2011-01-01

    Glass samples with composition of (50-X)PbO-(25+X)TiO 2 -25B 2 O 3 (where X=0, 5, 10 and 12.5 mol%) were prepared using conventional quenching technique. The glass transition temperature, T g and crystallization temperature T c were determined from the DTA. These glass samples were converted to glass ceramics by following two stage heat treatment schedule. The glass ceramic samples were characterized by XRD, SEM and dielectric constant measurements. The XRD results revealed the formation of ferroelectric lead titanate (PT) as a major crystalline phase in the glass ceramics. The density increases and the CTE decreases for all glass ceramics with increase in X (mol%). This may be attributed to increase in PT phase. The SEM results which show rounded crystallites of lead titanate, also supports other results. Hysteresis loops observed at room temperature confirms the ferroelectric nature of glass ceramics. The optimized glass ceramic sample exhibits high dielectric constant which is of technical importance. -- Research Highlights: →Lead titanate glass ceramics prepared by conventional quenching technique. →Lead titanate is a major crystalline phase in the glass ceramics. →The ferroelectric nature of glass ceramics is confirmed by the hysteresis study. →The high value of ε observed at room temperature is quite promising in the study.

  18. Tailored Barium Swallow Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Different textures of food are often given. The barium is a contrast material that makes the food and liquid show ... MRI Intravenous Contrast Information MRI with or without Contrast Small Bowel Follow Through (SBFT) Tailored Barium Swallow Study The Upper GI Study (GI Series) ...

  19. Multilayer-WS2:ferroelectric composite for ultrafast tunable metamaterial-induced transparency applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Jinghuan; Zhu, Yu; Yang, Hong; Hu, Xiaoyong; Gong, Qihuang

    2015-01-01

    An ultrafast and low-power all-optical tunable metamaterial-induced transparency is realized, using polycrystalline barium titanate doped gold nanoparticles and multilayer tungsten disulfide microsheets as nonlinear optical materials. Large nonlinearity enhancement is obtained associated with quantum confinement effect, local-field effect, and reinforced interaction between light and multilayer tungsten disulfide. Low threshold pump intensity of 20 MW/cm 2 is achieved. An ultrafast response time of 85 ps is maintained because of fast carrier relaxation dynamics in nanoscale crystal grains of polycrystalline barium titanate. This may be useful for the study of integrated photonic devices based on two-dimensional materials

  20. Synthesis of ferroelectric nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roervik, Per Martin

    2008-12-15

    The increasing miniaturization of electric and mechanical components makes the synthesis and assembly of nanoscale structures an important step in modern technology. Functional materials, such as the ferroelectric perovskites, are vital to the integration and utility value of nanotechnology in the future. In the present work, chemical methods to synthesize one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures of ferroelectric perovskites have been studied. To successfully and controllably make 1D nanostructures by chemical methods it is very important to understand the growth mechanism of these nanostructures, in order to design the structures for use in various applications. For the integration of 1D nanostructures into devices it is also very important to be able to make arrays and large-area designed structures from the building blocks that single nanostructures constitute. As functional materials, it is of course also vital to study the properties of the nanostructures. The characterization of properties of single nanostructures is challenging, but essential to the use of such structures. The aim of this work has been to synthesize high quality single-crystalline 1D nanostructures of ferroelectric perovskites with emphasis on PbTiO3 , to make arrays or hierarchical nanostructures of 1D nanostructures on substrates, to understand the growth mechanisms of the 1D nanostructures, and to investigate the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the 1D nanostructures. In Paper I, a molten salt synthesis route, previously reported to yield BaTiO3 , PbTiO3 and Na2Ti6O13 nanorods, was re-examined in order to elucidate the role of volatile chlorides. A precursor mixture containing barium (or lead) and titanium was annealed in the presence of NaCl at 760 degrees Celsius or 820 degrees Celsius. The main products were respectively isometric nanocrystalline BaTiO3 and PbTiO3. Nanorods were also detected, but electron diffraction revealed that the composition of the nanorods was

  1. Modified titanate perovskites in photocatalytic water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlodarczak, M.; Ludwiczak, M.; Laniecki, M. [A. Mickiewicz Univ. (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    Received materials have structure of perovskite, what was shown by XRD diffraction patterns. Perovskite structure is present in all samples with strontium, barium and one sample with calcium. Moreover, received barium and strontium titanate are very similar to pattern materials. XRD results show, that temperature 500 C is too low to create perovskite structure in CaTiO{sub 3}. However, it is high enough in case of SrTiO{sub 3} and BaTiO{sub 3}. One regularity is obvious, surface area increases for samples calcined in lower temperature. There is a connection between surface area and dispersion of platinum. Both of them reach the greatest value to the calcium titanate. Catalytic activity was shown by all of received samples. Measurable values were received to samples calcined in 700 C. Calcium titanate had the best catalytic activity, both an amount of hydrogen and a ratio of hydrogen to platinum. There is one regularity to all samples, the ration of hydrogen to platinum increase when amount of platinum decrease. (orig.)

  2. An approach to analyzing synthesis, structure and properties of bismuth titanate ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Z.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The family of bismuth titanate, Bi4Ti3O12 (BIT layered-structured ferroelectrics materials is attractive from the viewpoint of their application as electronic materials such as dielectrics, piezoelectrics and pyroelectrics, because they are characterized by good stability of piezoelectric properties, a high Curie temperature and a good resistance vs temperature. Bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12 powders can be prepared using different methods, depending if the creation will be film coating or ceramics. The structure and properties of bismuth titanate materials show a significance dependence on the applied synthesis method. In this review paper, we made an attempt to give an approach to analyzing the structure, synthesis methods and properties of bismuth titanate ferroelectrics materials. .

  3. Crystallinity and electrical properties of neodymium-substituted bismuth titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-C.; Hsiung, C.-P.; Chen, C.-Y.; Gan, J.-Y.; Sun, Y.-M.; Lin, C.-P.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the properties of Nd-substituted bismuth titanate Bi 4-x Nd x Ti 3 O 12 (BNdT) thin films for ferroelectric non-volatile memory applications. The Nd-substituted bismuth titanate thin films fabricated by modified chemical solution deposition technique showed much improved properties compared to pure bismuth titanate. A pyrochlore free crystalline phase was obtained at a low annealing temperature of 640 deg. C and grain size was found to be considerably increased as the annealing temperature increased. The film properties were found to be strongly dependent on the Nd content and annealing temperatures. The measured dielectric constant of BNdT thin films was in the range 172-130 for Bi 4-x Nd x Ti 3 O 12 with x 0.0-0.75. Ferroelectric properties of Nd-substituted bismuth titanate thin films were significantly improved compared to pure bismuth titanate. For example, the observed 2P r and E c for Bi 3.25 Nd 0.75 Ti 3 O 12 , annealed at 680 deg. C, were 38 μC/cm 2 and 98 kV/cm, respectively. The improved microstructural and ferroelectric properties of BNdT thin films suggest their suitability for high density ferroelectric random access memory applications

  4. Equivalent circuit analysis of a PbS/ferroelectric heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintilie, L.; Pintilie, I.; Botila, T.; Petre, D.; Licea, I.

    1997-02-01

    The frequency characteristic of the transverse photoelectric signal of a three electroded PbS/ferroelectric heterostructure is analyzed in this paper. The ferroelectric material is a lead titanate-zirconate ceramic obtained by hot pressing. It was found that the frequency characteristic of this signal is similar to a high-pass filter and depends on the properties of the ferroelectric substrates on which the PbS film was deposited. An equivalent circuit was proposed comparing the studied heterostructure with a metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) structure. The circuit elements were determined fitting the obtained formula for the output signal with the experimental data. Some of the circuit elements were determined experimentally using various measuring techniques. It was found that the experimentally determined values are close to the theoretically determined values. The studied heterostructure can be changed into a band-pass filter adding some external circuit elements such as resistors and capacitors.

  5. Two-dimensional ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinov, L M; Fridkin, Vladimir M; Palto, Sergei P [A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federaion (Russian Federation); Bune, A V; Dowben, P A; Ducharme, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Behlen Laboratory of Physics, Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska-Linkoln, Linkoln, NE (United States)

    2000-03-31

    The investigation of the finite-size effect in ferroelectric crystals and films has been limited by the experimental conditions. The smallest demonstrated ferroelectric crystals had a diameter of {approx}200 A and the thinnest ferroelectric films were {approx}200 A thick, macroscopic sizes on an atomic scale. Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of films one monolayer at a time has produced high quality ferroelectric films as thin as 10 A, made from polyvinylidene fluoride and its copolymers. These ultrathin films permitted the ultimate investigation of finite-size effects on the atomic thickness scale. Langmuir-Blodgett films also revealed the fundamental two-dimensional character of ferroelectricity in these materials by demonstrating that there is no so-called critical thickness; films as thin as two monolayers (1 nm) are ferroelectric, with a transition temperature near that of the bulk material. The films exhibit all the main properties of ferroelectricity with a first-order ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition: polarization hysteresis (switching); the jump in spontaneous polarization at the phase transition temperature; thermal hysteresis in the polarization; the increase in the transition temperature with applied field; double hysteresis above the phase transition temperature; and the existence of the ferroelectric critical point. The films also exhibit a new phase transition associated with the two-dimensional layers. (reviews of topical problems)

  6. Conformal growth method of ferroelectric materials for multifunctional composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowland, Christopher Charles

    Multifunctional composites are the next generation of composites and aim to simultaneously meet multiple performance objectives to create system-level performance enhancements. Current fiber-reinforced composites have offered improved efficiency and performance through weight reduction and increased strength. However, these composites satisfy singular performance objectives. Therefore, the concept of multifunctional composites was developed as an approach to create components in a system that serve multiple functions. These composites aim to reduce the required components in a system by integrating unifunctional components together thus reducing the weight and complexity of the system as a whole. This work offers an approach to create multifunctional composites through the development of a structural, multifunctional fiber. This is achieved by synthesizing a ferroelectric material on the surface of carbon fiber. In this work, a two-step hydrothermal reaction is developed for synthesizing a conformal film of barium titanate (BaTiO3) on the surface of carbon fiber. A fundamental understanding of this hydrothermal process is performed on planar substrates leading to the development of processing parameters that result in epitaxial-type growth of highly-aligned BaTiO3 nanowires. This work establishes the hydrothermal reaction as a powerful synthesis technique for generating nanostructured BaTiO3 on carbon fiber creating a novel, multifunctional fiber. A reaction optimization process leads to the development of parameters that stabilize tetragonal phase BaTiO3 without the need for subsequent heat treatments. The application potential of these fibers is illustrated with both single fibers and woven fabrics. Single fiber cantilever beams are fabricated and subjected to vibrations to determine its voltage output with the ultimate goal of producing an air flow sensor. Carbon fiber reinforced composite integration is carried out by scaling up the hydrothermal reaction to

  7. Aspiration of Barium Contrast

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Santos, Cristina; Steen, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    The aspiration of barium contrast is a rare complication that may occur during studies of the digestive tract. Barium is an inert material that can cause anywhere from an asymptomatic mechanical obstruction to serious symptoms of respiratory distress that can result in patient death. We present the case of a 79-year-old male patient in whom we observed the presence of contrast medium residue in the lung parenchyma as an incidental finding during hospitalization. When the patient’s medical fil...

  8. Nano-embossing technology on ferroelectric thin film Pb(Zr0.3,Ti0.7)O3 for multi-bit storage application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhenkui; Chen, Zhihui; Lu, Qian; Qiu, Zhijun; Jiang, Anquan; Qu, Xinping; Chen, Yifang; Liu, Ran

    2011-07-27

    In this work, we apply nano-embossing technique to form a stagger structure in ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate [Pb(Zr0.3, Ti0.7)O3 (PZT)] films and investigate the ferroelectric and electrical characterizations of the embossed and un-embossed regions, respectively, of the same films by using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and Radiant Technologies Precision Material Analyzer. Attributed to the different layer thickness of the patterned ferroelectric thin film, two distinctive coercive voltages have been obtained, thereby, allowing for a single ferroelectric memory cell to contain more than one bit of data.

  9. Nano-embossing technology on ferroelectric thin film Pb(Zr0.3,Ti0.7O3 for multi-bit storage application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Qian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, we apply nano-embossing technique to form a stagger structure in ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate [Pb(Zr0.3, Ti0.7O3 (PZT] films and investigate the ferroelectric and electrical characterizations of the embossed and un-embossed regions, respectively, of the same films by using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM and Radiant Technologies Precision Material Analyzer. Attributed to the different layer thickness of the patterned ferroelectric thin film, two distinctive coercive voltages have been obtained, thereby, allowing for a single ferroelectric memory cell to contain more than one bit of data.

  10. Titan Aerial Daughtercraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Saturn's giant moon Titan has become one of the most fascinating bodies in the Solar System. Titan is the richest laboratory in the solar system for studying...

  11. Titan Aerial Daughtercraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Saturn's giant moon Titan has become one of the most fascinating bodies in the Solar System. Titan is the richest laboratory in the solar system for studying...

  12. Modeling and minimization of barium sulfate scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the barium present in the pulping process exits the digester as barium carbonate. Barium carbonate dissolves in the bleach plant when the pH drops below 7 and, if barium and sulfate concentrations are too high, begins to precipitate as barium sulfate. Barium is difficult to control because a mill cannot avoid this carbonate-to-sulfate transition using...

  13. Ferroelectricity at the nanoscale basics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fridkin, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This book examines a wide range of ferroelectric materials. It explains the theoretical background of ultrathin ferroelectric films,  presents applications of ferroelectric materials, and displays the mechanism of switching of nanosized ferroelectric films.

  14. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  15. Aspiration of Barium Contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Fuentes Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aspiration of barium contrast is a rare complication that may occur during studies of the digestive tract. Barium is an inert material that can cause anywhere from an asymptomatic mechanical obstruction to serious symptoms of respiratory distress that can result in patient death. We present the case of a 79-year-old male patient in whom we observed the presence of contrast medium residue in the lung parenchyma as an incidental finding during hospitalization. When the patient’s medical file was reviewed, images were found of a barium swallow study that the patient had undergone months earlier, and we were able to observe the exact moment of the aspiration of the contrast material. The patient had been asymptomatic since the test.

  16. Magnetoelectric effect in cobalt ferrite–barium titanate composites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    relaxation process and resistivity of the materials. However, the conductivity behavior in. CoFe2O4–BaTiO3 composites has not been studied. In this paper we report the dc electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power (TEP) as a function of temperature for this system. Dielectric behavior is also studied to understand the ...

  17. Barium Titanate Film Interfaces for Hybrid Composite Energy Harvesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowland, Christopher C; Malakooti, Mohammad H; Sodano, Henry A

    2017-02-01

    Energy harvesting utilizing piezoelectric materials has become an attractive approach for converting mechanical energy into electrical power for low-power electronics. Structural composites are ideally suited for energy scavenging due to the large amount of mechanical energy they are subjected to. Here, a multifunctional composite with embedded sensing and energy harvesting is developed by integrating an active interface into carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. By modifying the composite matrix, both rigid and flexible multifunctional composites are fabricated. Through electromechanical testing of a cantilever beam of the rigid composite, it reveals a power density of 217 pW/cc from only 1 g root-mean-square acceleration when excited at its resonant frequency of 47 Hz. Electromechanical sensor testing of the flexible multifunctional composite reveals an average voltage generation of 23.5 mV/g at its resonant frequency of 96 Hz. This research introduces a route for integrating nonstructural functionality into structural fiber composites by utilizing BaTiO 3 coated woven carbon fiber fabrics with power scavenging and passive sensing capabilities.

  18. Magnetoelectric effect in cobalt ferrite–barium titanate composites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion is discussed on the basis of small polaron hopping model. The static value of magnetoelectric conversion factor has been studied as a function of magnetic field. Keywords. X-ray diffraction; CoFe2O4–BaTiO3, dielectric constant; ac conductivity; hopping model; magnetoelectric effect. PACS Nos 61.10.-I; 77.84.Lf; 77.84.

  19. Room-temperature synthetic pathways to barium titanate nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Christopher W; Cuevas, Marie A; Brutchey, Richard L

    2008-12-01

    Novel room-temperature pathways to BaTiO(3) nanocrystals have been recently developed, which stand in contrast to traditional high-temperature methods. Peptide-assisted, bio-facilitated routes have been developed for low-temperature nanocrystal growth, in addition to two low-temperature routes completely independent of biomolecules. These innovative methods lay the groundwork for the facile production of nanoscale BaTiO(3) in economical and energy-efficient ways.

  20. Dielectric Enhancement in Graphene/Barium Titanate Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bingcheng; Wang, Xiaohui; Tian, Enke; Gong, Huiling; Zhao, Qiancheng; Shen, Zhengbo; Xu, Yan; Xiao, Xiaoyue; Li, Longtu

    2016-02-10

    GN/BT nanocomposites were fabricated via colloidal processing methods, and ceramics were sintered through two-step sintering methods. The microstructure and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. XRD analysis shows that all samples are perovskite phases, and the lattice parameters a and c almost decrease linearly with the increase of graphene nanosheets. The dielectric properties were tested by using precision impedance. The maximum dielectric constant at the Curie temperature for the nanocomposites with graphene addition of 3 wt % is about 16,000, almost 2 times more than that of pure BaTiO3 ceramics. The relaxation, band structure, density of states, and charge density distribution of GN/BT superlattices were calculated using first-principles calculations for the first time, and results showed the strong hybrid interactions between C 2p states and O 2p and Ti 3d orbitals.

  1. Defect properties of cobalt-doped hexagonal barium titanate ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhammer, H T; Böttcher, R; Müller, T; Walther, T; Ebbinghaus, S G

    2015-07-29

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) powder spectra (9 and 34 GHz) and the magnetic susceptibility of BaTiO3 + 0.04 BaO + x/2 Co2O3 (0.001 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.02) ceramics were studied to investigate the incorporation of Co ions in the BaTiO3 lattice and their valence states as well as the development of the hexagonal phase (6H modification) in dependence on doping level x and sintering temperature Ts. At Ts = 1400 °C the 6H modification begins to occur at a nominal Co concentration x of about 0.001 and for x > 0.005 the samples are completely hexagonal at room temperature. Two different EPR spectra were observed in the 6H modification of BaTiO3, which were both assigned to paramagnetic Co(2+) ions located at the two crystallographically non-equivalent Ti sites in 6H-BaTiO3. The EPR g tensor values as well as the molar paramagnetic susceptibility, measured in the temperature range 5 K-300 K at a magnetic field of 9 T, were analyzed in the framework of the ligand field theory using the program CONCORD. The combination of EPR and magnetic measurements reveals that in air-sintered 6H BaTiO3, the incorporated Co occurs as a mixture of paramagnetic Co(2+) and diamagnetic Co(3+) ions, whereas in samples annealed in reducing atmosphere the majority of Co is in the divalent state. The occurrence of Co(4+) can be excluded for all investigated samples. The sample color caused by Co(2+) and Co(3+) ions is beige/light yellow and dark grey/black, respectively. The majority of the Co(2+) ions substitutes Ti in the exclusively corner-sharing oxygen octahedra possessing nearly cubic symmetry. The corresponding ligand field parameter [Formula: see text] amounts to about -28 000 cm(-1) (Wybourne notation, 10Dq ≈ 20 000 cm(-1)). In the reduced samples nearly 5% of the detected Co(2+) ions occupy the Ti site in the face-sharing oxygen octahedra, which are significantly trigonally distorted. The negative sign of the obtained ligand field parameter [Formula: see text] ≈ -7300 cm(-1) reflects a compression of this octahedron in direction of the hexagonal c-axis.

  2. Magnetoelectric effect in cobalt ferrite–barium titanate composites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CoFe2O4–BaTiO3 composites were prepared using conventional ceramic double sintering process with various compositions. Presence of two phases in the composites was confirmed using X-ray diffraction. The dc resistivity and thermoemf as a function of temperature in the temperature range 300 K to 600 K were ...

  3. Paramagnetic resonance study of nickel ions in hexagonal barium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, R.; Langhammer, H. T.; Müller, T.

    2011-03-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) powder spectra (9 and 34 GHz) of BaTiO3 + 0.04 BaO + xNiO (0.001 Ni ions and their valence states as well as the development of the hexagonal phase (6H modification) of Ni-doped material with respect to doping level x and sintering temperature Ts. The 6H modification begins to occur at a nominal Ni concentration of between x = 0.005 and 0.01 and its percentage increases with increasing sintering temperature. Ni-doped BaTiO3 with x = 0.02 sintered at Ts = 1400 °C is completely hexagonal. In the 3C modification, present in as-sintered ceramics with low nominal Ni concentrations, only one type of Ni EPR spectrum was observed. By comparing its principal values of the g tensor with data of single-crystal measurements the clear assignment of this spectrum to Ni + ions is possible. Two different EPR spectra with orthorhombic g tensors are observed in the as-sintered samples with hexagonal crystal structure. These spectra were assigned to Ni3 + ions with the electron spin S = 1/2 (electron configuration 3d7, strong crystal field) substituted at Ti lattice sites corresponding to the different distorted octahedra of the hexagonal modification. Measurements of the concentration reveal that only 5% of the doping material is in the state Ni3 + . No EPR spectra of Ni2 + ions have been detected in either 3C or 6H modification in as-sintered ceramics. Therefore, we suppose that the main part of nickel is substituted as Ni4 + ions on Ti4 + lattice sites. After heat treatment of the samples in H2/Ar atmosphere a single-line spectrum with g = 2.21 ± 0.01 at room temperature has been observed which is assigned to metallic Ni or antiferromagnetically coupled Ni2 + ions in secondary phases segregated at grain boundaries or triple points.

  4. The flexoelectricity of barium and strontium titanates from first principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiawang; Catalan, G; Scott, J F; Artacho, E

    2010-03-24

    We present ab initio calculations of the longitudinal flexoelectricity for BaTiO(3) and SrTiO(3) using a direct approach. The calculated value for SrTiO(3) agrees with recently reported measurements. For BaTiO(3), however, the theoretical values are smaller than the measured ones; possible reasons for the discrepancy are discussed.

  5. The flexoelectricity of barium and strontium titanates from first principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Jiawang; Catalan, G; Scott, J F; Artacho, E

    2010-01-01

    We present ab initio calculations of the longitudinal flexoelectricity for BaTiO 3 and SrTiO 3 using a direct approach. The calculated value for SrTiO 3 agrees with recently reported measurements. For BaTiO 3 , however, the theoretical values are smaller than the measured ones; possible reasons for the discrepancy are discussed. (fast track communication)

  6. The flexoelectricity of barium and strontium titanates from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Jiawang; Catalan, G; Scott, J F; Artacho, E [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-24

    We present ab initio calculations of the longitudinal flexoelectricity for BaTiO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3} using a direct approach. The calculated value for SrTiO{sub 3} agrees with recently reported measurements. For BaTiO{sub 3}, however, the theoretical values are smaller than the measured ones; possible reasons for the discrepancy are discussed. (fast track communication)

  7. Patterned solid state growth of barium titanate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugorek, Michael Stephen

    An understanding of microstructure evolution in ceramic materials, including single crystal development and abnormal/enhanced grain growth should enable more controlled final ceramic element structures. In this study, two different approaches were used to control single crystal development in a patterned array. These two methods are: (1) patterned solid state growth in BaTiO 3 ceramics, and (2) metal-mediated single crystal growth in BaTiO 3. With the patterned solid state growth technique, optical photolithography was used to pattern dopants as well as [001] and [110] BaTiO3 single crystal template arrays with a 1000 microm line pattern array with 1000 microm spacings. These patterns were subsequently used to control the matrix grain growth evolution and single crystal development in BaTiO3. It was shown that the growth kinetics can be controlled by a small initial grain size, atmosphere conditions, and the introduction of a dopant at selective areas/interfaces. By using a PO2 of 1x10-5 atm during high temperature heat treatment, the matrix coarsening has been limited (to roughly 2 times the initial grain size), while retaining single crystal boundary motion up to 0.5 mm during growth for dwell times up to 9 h at 1300°C. The longitudinal and lateral growth rates were optimized at 10--15 microm/h at 1300°C in a PO2 of 1x10 -5 atm for single crystal growth with limited matrix coarsening. Using these conditions, a patterned microstructure in BaTiO3 was obtained. With the metal-mediated single crystal growth technique, a novel approach for fabricating 2-2 single crystal/polymer composites with a kerf ceramic) composites were prepared. The piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites of the two compositions were measured. The d33 and d31 of the composites were similar to the polycrystalline ceramic of the same composition.

  8. A finite element model of ferroelectric/ferroelastic polycrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HWANG,STEPHEN C.; MCMEEKING,ROBERT M.

    2000-02-17

    A finite element model of polarization switching in a polycrystalline ferroelectric/ferroelastic ceramic is developed. It is assumed that a crystallite switches if the reduction in potential energy of the polycrystal exceeds a critical energy barrier per unit volume of switching material. Each crystallite is represented by a finite element with the possible dipole directions assigned randomly subject to crystallographic constraints. The model accounts for both electric field induced (i.e. ferroelectric) switching and stress induced (i.e. ferroelastic) switching with piezoelectric interactions. Experimentally measured elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric constants are used consistently, but different effective critical energy barriers are selected phenomenologically. Electric displacement versus electric field, strain versus electric field, stress versus strain, and stress versus electric displacement loops of a ceramic lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) are modeled well below the Curie temperature.

  9. Phenomenological theory of size effects in ultrafine ferroelectric particles (PbTiO3-type)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, B.; Bursill, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    A new phenomenological model is proposed and discussed to study the size effects on phase transitions in PbTiO 3 -type ferroelectric particles. This model, by taking size effects on the phenomenological Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire coefficients into consideration, can successfully explain the size effects on Curie temperature, c/a ratio, thermal and dielectric properties of lead-titanate-type ferroelectric particles. Theoretical and experimental results for PbTiO 3 fine particles are also compared and discussed. The relationship between the current model and the model of Zhong et al (Phys. Rev. B 50, 698 (1994)) is also presented. (authors)

  10. Flexoelectricity in Nanoscale Ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalan, Gustau

    2012-02-01

    All ferroelectrics are piezoelectric and thus have an intrinsic coupling between polarization and strain. There exists an additional electromechanical coupling, however, between polarization and strain gradients. Strain gradients are intrinsically vectorial fields and, therefore, they can in principle be used to modify both the orientation and the sign of the polarization, thanks to the coupling known as flexoelectricity. Flexoelectricity is possible even in paraelectric materials, but is generally stronger in ferroelectrics on account of their high permittivity (the flexoelectric coefficient is proportional to the dielectric constant). Moreover, strain gradients can be large at the nanoscale due to the smallness of the relaxation length and, accordingly, strong flexoelectric effects can be expected in nanoscale ferroelectrics. In this talk we will present two recent results that highlight the above features. In the first part, I will show how polarization tilting can be achieved in a nominally tetragonal ferroelectric (PbTiO3) thanks to the internal flexoelectric fields generated in nano-twinned epitaxial thin films. Flexoelectricity thus offers a purely physical means of achieving rotated polarizations, which are thought to be useful for enhanced piezoelectricity. In the second part, we will show how the large strain gradients generated by pushing the sharp tip of an atomic force microscope against the surface of a thin ferroelectric film can be used to actively switch its polarity by 180^o. This enables a new concept for ``multiferroic'' memory operation in which the memory bits are written mechanically and read electrically.

  11. Ferroelectric Properties of Nanoscale PbTiO3 Films by Hydrothemal Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Htet Htet Nwe; Than Than Win; Yin Maung Maung; Ko Ko Kyaw Soe

    2011-12-01

    Lead (II) nitride (Pb(NO3)2), titanium dioxide (TiO2) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) were used as starting materials. Lead titanate powder was formed by hydrothermal method at 150 C for 6h. The calcuim fluoride (CaF2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) were separately adapted as intermediate layer on p-Si (100) substrate. Lead titanate thin film was formed onto CaF2/Si and TiO2/Si substrates by spin processor. 100kHz C-V characteristics of PbTiO3 films were measured by impedance analyzer (LCR meter). Polarization-electric field (P-E) characteristics were measured for both MFIS (Metal/ Ferroelectric/ Insulator/ Semiconductor) structures by applying the same triangular wave electric field in order to allow their application in NVFRAM (Non Volatile Ferroelectric Random Access Memory).

  12. Ferroelectric quantum criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, S.; Spalek, L.; Scott, J.F.; Lonzarich, G.G.; Saxena, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Materials tuned to the neighbourhood of a zero temperature phase transition often show the emergence of novel quantum phenomena. Much of the effort to study these new emergent effects, like the break down of the conventional Fermi-liquid theory of metals, has been focused in narrow band electronic systems. Ferroelectric crystals provide another class of materials in which to study quantum criticality and its resulting effects. In many cases the ferroelectric phase can be tuned to absolute zero using hydrostatic pressure. Close to such a zero temperature phase transition, the dielectric constant and other quantities change into radically unconventional forms due to the fluctuations experienced in this region. Measurements in pure single crystals of SrTi1 6 O 3 and SrTi1 8 O 3 will be shown and a simple model for describing the Ferroelectric quantum critical point will be outlined. The expected 1/T 2 dependence of the dielectric constant in SrTi1 6 O 3 over a wide temperature range at low temperatures will be highlighted as well as some further novel features. Looking to the future, one might imagine that quantum paraelectric fluctuations could lead to new low temperature states and mediate novel interactions in ferroelectric crystals supporting itinerant electrons.(authors)

  13. Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... single-contrast lower GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast or air-contrast lower GI series, which uses ... to evenly coat the large intestine with the barium. If you are having a double-contrast lower GI series, the radiologist will inject air ...

  14. Barium toxicosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Fiona H; Noble, Peter J M; Swift, Simon T; Higgins, Brent M; Sieniawska, Christine E

    2010-09-01

    A 2-year-old 14.9-kg (32.8-lb) neutered female Shetland Sheepdog was admitted to the University of Liverpool Small Animal Teaching Hospital for evaluation of acute collapse. At admission, the dog was tachypneic and had reduced limb reflexes and muscle tone in all limbs consistent with diffuse lower motor neuron dysfunction. The dog was severely hypokalemic (1.7 mEq/L; reference range, 3.5 to 5.8 mEq/L). Clinical status of the dog deteriorated; there was muscle twitching, flaccid paralysis, and respiratory failure, which was considered a result of respiratory muscle weakness. Ventricular arrhythmias and severe acidemia (pH, 7.18; reference range, 7.35 to 7.45) developed. Intoxication was suspected, and plasma and urine samples submitted for barium analysis had barium concentrations comparable with those reported in humans with barium toxicosis. Analysis of barium concentrations in 5 control dogs supported the diagnosis of barium toxicosis in the dog. Fluids and potassium supplementation were administered IV. The dog recovered rapidly. Electrolyte concentrations measured after recovery were consistently unremarkable. Quantification of plasma barium concentration 56 days after the presumed episode of intoxication revealed a large decrease; however, the plasma barium concentration remained elevated, compared with that in control dogs. To our knowledge, this case represented the first description of barium toxicosis in the veterinary literature. Barium toxicosis can cause life-threatening hypokalemia; however, prompt supportive treatment can yield excellent outcomes. Barium toxicosis is a rare but important differential diagnosis in animals with hypokalemia and appropriate clinical signs.

  15. Ferroelectric memory based on molybdenum disulfide and ferroelectric hafnium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Wui Chung; Jiang, Hao; Xia, Qiangfei; Zhu, Wenjuan

    Recently, ferroelectric hafnium oxide (HfO2) was discovered as a new type of ferroelectric material with the advantages of high coercive field, excellent scalability (down to 2.5 nm), and good compatibility with CMOS processing. In this work, we demonstrate, for the first time, 2D ferroelectric memories with molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as the channel material and aluminum doped HfO2 as the ferroelectric gate dielectric. A 16 nm thick layer of HfO2, doped with 5.26% aluminum, was deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD), then subjected to rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 1000 °C, and the polarization-voltage characteristics of the resulting metal-ferroelectric-metal (MFM) capacitors were measured, showing a remnant polarization of 0.6 μC/cm2. Ferroelectric memories with embedded ferroelectric hafnium oxide stacks and monolayer MoS2 were fabricated. The transfer characteristics after program and erase pulses revealed a clear ferroelectric memory window. In addition, endurance (up to 10,000 cycles) of the devices were tested and effects associated with ferroelectric materials, such as the wake-up effect and polarization fatigue, were observed. This research can potentially lead to advances of 2D materials in low-power logic and memory applications.

  16. Titan's organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.; Thompson, W. R.; Khare, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    Voyager discovered nine simple organic molecules in the atmosphere of Titan. Complex organic solids, called tholins, produced by irradiation of the simulated Titanian atmosphere, are consistent with measured properties of Titan from ultraviolet to microwave frequencies and are the likely main constituents of the observed red aerosols. The tholins contain many of the organic building blocks central to life on earth. At least 100-m, and possibly kms thicknesses of complex organics have been produced on Titan during the age of the solar system, and may exist today as submarine deposits beneath an extensive ocean of simple hydrocarbons.

  17. On barium oxide solubility in barium-containing chloride melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Korzun, Iraida V. [Ural Federal Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High Temperature Electrochemistry

    2016-11-01

    Oxide solubility in chloride melts depends on temperature and composition of molten solvent. The solubility of barium oxide in the solvents with barium chloride content is essentially higher than that in molten alkali chlorides. Spectral data demonstrate the existence of oxychloride ionic groupings in such melts. This work presents the results of the BaO solubility in two molten BaCl{sub 2}-NaCl systems with different barium chloride content. The received data together with earlier published results revealed the main regularities of BaO solubility in molten BaO-BaCl{sub 2}-MCl systems.

  18. Ferroelectric Negative Capacitance Domain Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr$_{0.2}$Ti$_{0.8}$)O$_3$ capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transien...

  19. Ferroelectric materials and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Y

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the basic physical properties, structure, fabrication methods and applications of ferroelectric materials. These are widely used in various devices, such as piezoelectric/electrostrictive transducers and actuators, pyroelectric infrared detectors, optical integrated circuits, optical data storage, display devices, etc. The ferroelectric materials described in this book include a relatively complete list of practical and promising ferroelectric single crystals, bulk ceramics and thin films. Included are perovskite-type, lithium niobate, tungsten-bronze-type, water-soluable

  20. Titan's Lower Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Caitlin Ann

    2007-09-01

    Saturn's largest moon, Titan, sports an atmosphere 10 times thicker than Earth's. Like Earth, the moon's atmosphere is N2 based and possesses a rich organic chemistry. In addition, similar to the terrestrial hydrological cycle, Titan has a methane cycle, with methane clouds, rain and seas. Presently, there is a revolution in our understanding of the moon, as data flows in and is analyzed from the NASA and ESA Cassini-Huygens mission. For example, seas were detected only this year. Here I will discuss the evolution of our understanding of Titan's atmosphere, its composition, chemistry, dynamics and origin. Current open questions will also be presented. Studies of Titan's atmosphere began and evolved to the present state in less time than that of a single scientist's career. This short interlude of activity demonstrates the rigors of the scientific method, and raises enticing questions about the workings and evolution of an atmosphere.

  1. MR Colonography with fecal tagging: Barium vs. barium ferumoxsil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, M.P.; Chabanova, E.; Logager, V.B.

    2008-01-01

    and Methods. Twenty patients referred to CC underwent dark lumen MRC prior to the colonoscopy. Two groups of patients received two different oral contrast agents (barium sulfate and barium sulfate/ferumoxsil) as a laxative-free fecal tagging prior to the MRC. After MRC, the contrast agent was rated...... qualitatively (with the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio) and subjectively (using a visual analog scale [VAS]) by three different blinded observers. Results. Evaluated both qualitatively and subjectively, the tagging efficiency of barium sulfate/ferumoxsil was significantly better (P ... barium sulfate alone. The VAS method for evaluating the tagging efficiency of contrast agents showed a high correlation (observer 11, r = 0.91) to the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio and also a high interclass correlation (observer 11 and III = 0.89/0.85). MRC found I of 22 (5%) polyps

  2. Clash of the Titans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2010-01-01

    WebQuests and the 5E learning cycle are titans of the science classroom. These popular inquiry-based strategies are most often used as separate entities, but the author has discovered that using a combined WebQuest and 5E learning cycle format taps into the inherent power and potential of both strategies. In the lesson, "Clash of the Titans,"…

  3. Titan's Ammonia Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, W.; Nelson, R.; Boryta, M.; Choukroun, M.

    2011-01-01

    NH3 has long been considered an important component in the formation and evolution of the outer planet satellites. NH3 is particularly important for Titan, since it may serve as the reservoir for atmospheric nitrogen. A brightening seen on Titan starting in 2004 may arise from a transient low-lying fog or surface coating of ammonia. The spectral shape suggests the ammonia is anhydrous, a molecule that hydrates quickly in the presence of water.

  4. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: overview of titan-2 design; titan-2 fusion-power-core engineering; titan-2 divertor engineering; titan-2 tritium systems; titan-2 safety design and radioactive-waste disposal; and titan-2 maintenance procedures

  5. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: overview of titan-2 design; titan-2 fusion-power-core engineering; titan-2 divertor engineering; titan-2 tritium systems; titan-2 safety design and radioactive-waste disposal; and titan-2 maintenance procedures.

  6. Ferroelectricity the fundamentals collection

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Basilio

    2008-01-01

    This indispensable collection of seminal papers on ferroelectricity provides an overview over almost a hundred years of basic and applied research. Containing historic contributions from renowned authors, this book presents developments in an area of science that is still rapidly growing. Although primarily aimed at scientists and academics involved in research, this will also be of use to students as well as newcomers to the field.

  7. High Temperature Ferroelectrics for Actuators: Recent Developments and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehirlioglu, Alp; Kowalski, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    A variety of piezoelectric applications have been driving the research in development of new high temperature ferroelectrics; ranging from broader markets such as fuel and gas modulation and deep well oil drilling to very specific applications such as thermoacoustic engines and ultrasonic drilling on the surface of Venus. The focus has been mostly on increasing the Curie temperature. However, greater challenges for high temperature ferroelectrics limit the operating temperature to levels much below the Curie temperature. These include enhanced loss tangent and dc conductivity at high fields as well as depoling due to thermally activated domain rotation. The initial work by Eitel et al. [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 40 [10, Part 1] 59996002 (2001)] increased interest in investigation of Bismuth containing perovskites in solid solution with lead titanate. Issues that arise vary from solubility limits to increased tetragonality; the former one prohibits processing of morphotropic phase boundary, while the latter one impedes thorough poling of the polycrystalline ceramics. This talk will summarize recent advances in development of high temperature piezoelectrics and provide information about challenges encountered as well as the approaches taken to improve the high temperature behavior of ferroelectrics with a focus on applications that employ the converse piezoelectric effect.

  8. Nanoscale organic ferroelectric resistive switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khikhlovskyi, V.; Wang, R.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Gelinck, G.H.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Kemerink, M.

    2014-01-01

    Organic ferroelectric resistive switches function by grace of nanoscale phase separation in a blend of a semiconducting and a ferroelectric polymer that is sandwiched between metallic electrodes. In this work, various scanning probe techniques are combined with numerical modeling to unravel their

  9. Statistical properties of barium stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Barium stars are G- and K-giant stars with atmospheric excesses of s-process elements, and a broadband spectral depression in the blue portion of the spectrum. The strength of the λ4554 Ball line is used as a classification parameter known as the Barium Intensity. They have a mean absolute magnitude of 1.0 and a dispersion of 1.2 magnitudes (assuming a Gaussian distribution in absolute magnitude) as measured from secular and statistical parallaxes. These stars apparently belong to a young-disk population from analyses of both the solar reflex motion and their residual velocity distribution, which implies that they have an upper mass limit of around three solar masses. There is no apparent correlation of barium intensity with either luminosity or kinematic properties. The barium stars appear to be preferentially distributed in the direction of the local spiral arm, but show no preference to associate with or avoid the direction of the galactic center. They do not appear related to either the carbon or S-stars because of these tendencies and because of the stellar population to which each type of star belongs. The distribution in absolute magnitude combined with star count analyses implies that these stars are slightly less numerous than previously believed. Barium stars show infrared excesses that correlate with their barium intensities

  10. Barium light source method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, John J. (Inventor); MacDonagh-Dumler, Jeffrey (Inventor); Anderson, Heidi M. (Inventor); Lawler, James E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Visible light emission is obtained from a plasma containing elemental barium including neutral barium atoms and barium ion species. Neutral barium provides a strong green light emission in the center of the visible spectrum with a highly efficient conversion of electrical energy into visible light. By the selective excitation of barium ionic species, emission of visible light at longer and shorter wavelengths can be obtained simultaneously with the green emission from neutral barium, effectively providing light that is visually perceived as white. A discharge vessel contains the elemental barium and a buffer gas fill therein, and a discharge inducer is utilized to induce a desired discharge temperature and barium vapor pressure therein to produce from the barium vapor a visible light emission. The discharge can be induced utilizing a glow discharge between electrodes in the discharge vessel as well as by inductively or capacitively coupling RF energy into the plasma within the discharge vessel.

  11. Novel Photovoltaic Devices Using Ferroelectric Material and Colloidal Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Young Hun

    As the global concern for the financial and environmental costs of traditional energy resources increases, research on renewable energy, most notably solar energy, has taken center stage. Many alternative photovoltaic (PV) technologies for 'the next generation solar cell' have been extensively studied to overcome the Shockley-Queisser 31% efficiency limit as well as tackle the efficiency vs. cost issues. This dissertation focuses on the novel photovoltaic mechanism for the next generation solar cells using two inorganic nanomaterials, nanocrystal quantum dots and ferroelectric nanoparticles. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) materials are widely studied and easy to synthesize using solution based chemistry. One of the fascinating properties of the PZT material is a Bulk Photovoltaic effect (BPVE). This property has been spotlighted because it can produce very high open circuit voltage regardless of the electrical bandgap of the materials. However, the poor optical absorption of the PZT materials and the required high temperature to form the ferroelectric crystalline structure have been obstacles to fabricate efficient photovoltaic devices. Colloidal quantum dots also have fascinating optical and electrical properties such as tailored absorption spectrum, capability of the bandgap engineering due to the wide range of material selection and quantum confinement, and very efficient carrier dynamics called multiple exciton generations. In order to utilize these properties, many researchers have put numerous efforts in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic research and there has been remarkable progress in the past decade. However, several drawbacks are still remaining to achieve highly efficient photovoltaic device. Traps created on the large surface area, low carrier mobility, and lower open circuit voltage while increasing the absorption of the solar spectrum is main issues of the nanocrystal based photovoltaic effect. To address these issues and to take the advantages of

  12. Non-Resonant Magnetoelectric Energy Harvesting Utilizing Phase Transformation in Relaxor Ferroelectric Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Finkel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in phase transition transduction enabled the design of a non-resonant broadband mechanical energy harvester that is capable of delivering an energy density per cycle up to two orders of magnitude larger than resonant cantilever piezoelectric type generators. This was achieved in a [011] oriented and poled domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal, mechanically biased to a state just below the ferroelectric rhombohedral (FR-ferroelectric orthorhombic (FO phase transformation. Therefore, a small variation in an input parameter, e.g., electrical, mechanical, or thermal will generate a large output due to the significant polarization change associated with the transition. This idea was extended in the present work to design a non-resonant, multi-domain magnetoelectric composite hybrid harvester comprised of highly magnetostrictive alloy, [Fe81.4Ga18.6 (Galfenol or TbxDy1-xFe2 (Terfenol-D], and lead indium niobate–lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate (PIN-PMN-PT domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. A small magnetic field applied to the coupled device causes the magnetostrictive element to expand, and the resulting stress forces the phase change in the relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. We have demonstrated high energy conversion in this magnetoelectric device by triggering the FR-FO transition in the single crystal by a small ac magnetic field in a broad frequency range that is important for multi-domain hybrid energy harvesting devices.

  13. Early History of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Matson, D. L.; Johnson, T. V.; Atreya, S.; Lunine, J. I.

    2007-05-01

    We revisit models for the early history of Titan. Our models start a few My after the production of calcium- aluminum inclusions (CAIs), consistent with the dates required by our thermophysical-dynamical modeling of Saturn's medium-sized satellites. Depending on the time of formation with respect to CAIs, the accretion time scale, and the available accretional energy, models of Titan's interior after accretion are partially to fully differentiated. At one extreme of the models, Titan accretes incorporating a minimal amount of heat. This results in a relatively cold core that, over the long term, heats up and overturns, consistent with previous models of Titan. At the other extreme, accretional heat and heat fom the decay of short-lived radiogenic isotopes results in quick and complete differentiation. In this model there is no core overturn, and conditions soon develop for silicate serpentinization, and hydrothermal activity starts. We identify the periods during which conditions are suitable for hydrothermal geochemistry leading to the production of molecular nitrogen from ammonia decomposition and methane from the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Key questions include the availability of suitable metal catalysts and/or clay minerals, storage of the reactants and products in the interior of Titan, and mechanisms by which they are released to the atmosphere. Acknowledgements: This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory-California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA.

  14. Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler Jr., E. C.; Acuna, M.; Burchell, M. J.; Coates, A.; Farrell, W.; Flasar, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Gorevan, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Johnson, W. T. K.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a combined Titan orbiter and Titan Aerorover mission with an emphasis on both in situ and remote sensing measurements of Titan's surface, atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetospheric interaction. The biological aspect of the Titan environment will be emphasized by the mission (i.e., search for organic materials which may include simple organics to 'amono' analogues of amino acids and possibly more complex, lightening detection and infrared, ultraviolet, and charged particle interactions with Titan's surface and atmosphere). An international mission is assumed to control costs. NASA will provide the orbiter, launch vehicle, DSN coverage and operations, while international partners will provide the Aerorover and up to 30% of the cost for the scientific instruments through collaborative efforts. To further reduce costs we propose a single PI for orbiter science instruments and a single PI for Aerorover science instruments. This approach will provide single command/data and power interface between spacecraft and orbiter instruments that will have redundant central DPU and power converter for their instruments. A similar approach could be used for the Aerorover. The mission profile will be constructed to minimize conflicts between Aerorover science, orbiter radar science, orbiter radio science, orbiter imaging science, and orbiter fields and particles (FP) science. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  16. Dielectric properties of piezoelectric 3–0 composites of lithium ferrite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In the present work, piezoelectric 3–0 composites with lithium ferrite. (LiFe5O8) and barium titanate (BaTiO3) as the constituent phases, are synthesized. Barium titanate is a ferroelectric with widespread appli- cations as capacitor material because of its high dielectric constant. Dielectric properties are found to be dependent.

  17. Effect of working pressure and annealing temperature on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    roughness was found at higher temperatures as a result of a more heterogeneous growth and less tensions. Keywords. Barium strontium titanate; thin film; pulsed laser deposition; ferroelectric. 1. Introduction. Perovskite barium strontium titanate (BST) thin films are promising candidates for dynamic random access memory.

  18. The tides of Titan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iess, Luciano; Jacobson, Robert A; Ducci, Marco; Stevenson, David J; Lunine, Jonathan I; Armstrong, John W; Asmar, Sami W; Racioppa, Paolo; Rappaport, Nicole J; Tortora, Paolo

    2012-07-27

    We have detected in Cassini spacecraft data the signature of the periodic tidal stresses within Titan, driven by the eccentricity (e = 0.028) of its 16-day orbit around Saturn. Precise measurements of the acceleration of Cassini during six close flybys between 2006 and 2011 have revealed that Titan responds to the variable tidal field exerted by Saturn with periodic changes of its quadrupole gravity, at about 4% of the static value. Two independent determinations of the corresponding degree-2 Love number yield k(2) = 0.589 ± 0.150 and k(2) = 0.637 ± 0.224 (2σ). Such a large response to the tidal field requires that Titan's interior be deformable over time scales of the orbital period, in a way that is consistent with a global ocean at depth.

  19. Impact craters on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles A.; Lorenz, Ralph; Kirk, Randy; Lopes, Rosaly; Mitchell, Karl; Stofan, Ellen; ,

    2010-01-01

    Five certain impact craters and 44 additional nearly certain and probable ones have been identified on the 22% of Titan's surface imaged by Cassini's high-resolution radar through December 2007. The certain craters have morphologies similar to impact craters on rocky planets, as well as two with radar bright, jagged rims. The less certain craters often appear to be eroded versions of the certain ones. Titan's craters are modified by a variety of processes including fluvial erosion, mass wasting, burial by dunes and submergence in seas, but there is no compelling evidence of isostatic adjustments as on other icy moons, nor draping by thick atmospheric deposits. The paucity of craters implies that Titan's surface is quite young, but the modeled age depends on which published crater production rate is assumed. Using the model of Artemieva and Lunine (2005) suggests that craters with diameters smaller than about 35 km are younger than 200 million years old, and larger craters are older. Craters are not distributed uniformly; Xanadu has a crater density 2-9 times greater than the rest of Titan, and the density on equatorial dune areas is much lower than average. There is a small excess of craters on the leading hemisphere, and craters are deficient in the north polar region compared to the rest of the world. The youthful age of Titan overall, and the various erosional states of its likely impact craters, demonstrate that dynamic processes have destroyed most of the early history of the moon, and that multiple processes continue to strongly modify its surface. The existence of 24 possible impact craters with diameters less than 20 km appears consistent with the Ivanov, Basilevsky and Neukum (1997) model of the effectiveness of Titan's atmosphere in destroying most but not all small projectiles.

  20. Diurnal variations of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lavvas, P. P.; Mueller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    We present our analysis of the diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (between 1,000 and 1,400 km) based on a sample of Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements in the Open Source Ion (OSI) mode obtained from 8 close encounters of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan. Though there is an overall ion depletion well beyond the terminator, the ion content on Titan's nightside is still appreciable, with a density plateau of ~700 cm-3 below ~1,300 km. Such a plateau is associated with the combination of distinct diurnal variations of light and heavy ions. Light ions (e.g. CH5+, HCNH+, C2H5+) show strong diurnal variation, with clear bite-outs in their nightside distributions. In contrast, heavy ions (e.g. c-C3H3+, C2H3CNH+, C6H7+) present modest diurnal variation, with significant densities observed on the nightside. We propose that the distinctions between light and heavy ions are associated with their different chemical loss pathways, with the former primarily through "fast" ion-neutral chemistry and the latter through "slow" electron dissociative recombination. The INMS data suggest day-to-night transport as an important source of ions on Titan's nightside, to be distinguished from the conventional scenario of auroral ionization by magnetospheric particles as the only ionizing source on the nightside. This is supported by the strong correlation between the observed night-to-day ion density ratios and the associated ion lifetimes. We construct a time-dependent ion chemistry model to investigate the effects of day-to-night transport on the ionospheric structures of Titan. The predicted diurnal variation has similar general characteristics to those observed, with some apparent discrepancies which could be reconciled by imposing fast horizontal thermal winds in Titan's upper atmosphere.

  1. Characterization, Modeling, and Energy Harvesting of Phase Transformations in Ferroelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenda

    Solid state phase transformations can be induced through mechanical, electrical, and thermal loading in ferroelectric materials that are compositionally close to morphotropic phase boundaries. Large changes in strain, polarization, compliance, permittivity, and coupling properties are typically observed across the phase transformation regions and are phenomena of interest for energy harvesting and transduction applications where increased coupling behavior is desired. This work characterized and modeled solid state phase transformations in ferroelectric materials and assessed the potential of phase transforming materials for energy harvesting applications. Two types of phase transformations were studied. The first type was ferroelectric rhombohedral to ferroelectric orthorhombic observed in lead indium niobate lead magnesium niobate lead titanate (PIN-PMN-PT) and driven by deviatoric stress, temperature, and electric field. The second type of phase transformation is ferroelectric to antiferroelectric observed in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and driven by pressure, temperature, and electric field. Experimental characterizations of the phase transformations were conducted in both PIN-PMN-PT and PZT in order to understand the thermodynamic characteristics of the phase transformations and map out the phase stability of both materials. The ferroelectric materials were characterized under combinations of stress, electric field, and temperature. Material models of phase transforming materials were developed using a thermodynamic based variant switching technique and thermodynamic observations of the phase transformations. These models replicate the phase transformation behavior of PIN-PMN-PT and PZT under mechanical and electrical loading conditions. The switching model worked in conjunction with linear piezoelectric equations as ferroelectric/ferroelastic constitutive equations within a finite element framework that solved the mechanical and electrical field equations

  2. Study of the rheological properties of casting slips obtained from titanium oxide and bariun titanate in order to obtain pieces by means of casting in plaster moulds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarante Junior, A.

    1986-01-01

    The behaviour of titanium-oxide (TiO 2 ) and barium titanate used in slip casting with plaster moulds is studied. Some data in several tests, as well as materials and methods applied are presented. (M.J.C.) [pt

  3. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... No: 2010-8568] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium... determination to conduct a full five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from... antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  4. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject... order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review). By order of the Commission...

  5. Titan's icy scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, C. A.; Penteado, P. F.; Turner, J. D.; Neish, C. D.; Mitri, G.; Montiel, M. J.; Schoenfeld, A.; Lopes, R. M. C.

    2017-09-01

    We conduct a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of Cassini/VIMS [1] infrared spectral windows to identify and quantify weak surface features, with no assumptions on the haze and surface characteris- tics. This study maps the organic sediments, supplied by past atmospheres, as well as ice-rich regions that constitute Titan's bedrock.

  6. Weather on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, C. A.; Hall, J. L.; Geballe, T. R.

    2000-10-01

    Titan's atmosphere potentially sports a cycle similar to the hydrologic one on Earth with clouds, rain and seas, but with methane playing the terrestrial role of water. Over the past ten years many independent efforts indicated no strong evidence for cloudiness until some unique spectra were analyzed in 1998 (Griffith et al.). These surprising observations displayed enhanced fluxes of 14-200% on two nights at precisely the wavelengths (windows) that sense Titan's lower altitude where clouds might reside. The morphology of these enhancements in all 4 windows observed indicate that clouds covered ~6-9% of Titan's surface and existed at ~15 km altitude. Here I discuss new observations recorded in 1999 aimed to further characterize Titan's clouds. While we find no evidence for a massive cloud system similar to the one observed previously, 1%-4% fluctuations in flux occur daily. These modulations, similar in wavelength and morphology to the more pronounced ones observed earlier, suggest the presence of clouds covering evolutions. Their short lives point to the presence of rain. C. A. Griffith and J. L. Hall are supported by the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program NAG5-6790.

  7. Ferroelectric capacitor with reduced imprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jr., Joseph T.; Warren, William L.; Tuttle, Bruce A.; Dimos, Duane B.; Pike, Gordon E.

    1997-01-01

    An improved ferroelectric capacitor exhibiting reduced imprint effects in comparison to prior art capacitors. A capacitor according to the present invention includes top and bottom electrodes and a ferroelectric layer sandwiched between the top and bottom electrodes, the ferroelectric layer comprising a perovskite structure of the chemical composition ABO.sub.3 wherein the B-site comprises first and second elements and a dopant element that has an oxidation state greater than +4. The concentration of the dopant is sufficient to reduce shifts in the coercive voltage of the capacitor with time. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the ferroelectric element comprises Pb in the A-site, and the first and second elements are Zr and Ti, respectively. The preferred dopant is chosen from the group consisting of Niobium, Tantalum, and Tungsten. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the dopant occupies between 1 and 8% of the B-sites.

  8. Electric-field influence on the neutron diffuse scattering near the ferroelectric transition of Sr.sub.0.61./sub.Ba.sub.0.39./sub.Nb.sub.2./sub.O.sub.6./sub.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondrejkovič, Petr; Kempa, Martin; Savinov, Maxim; Bednyakov, Petr; Kulda, J.; Bourges, P.; Dec, J.; Hlinka, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 89, 7-8 (2016), s. 808-815 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-09142S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : relaxor ferroelectrics * lead-free * strontium barium niobate * neutron scattering * dielectric spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2016

  9. Nano-scale ferroelectric memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1986 there has been a minor renaissance in the study of ferroelectrics. Studied for a century in the form of single-crystals or bulk ceramics, ferroelectrics are now fully integrated in thin-film (100 nm or less) form in both Si and GaAs chips. Four embodiments have reached large-volume commercial production. A brief review of this field of device physics is given, emphasizing memory applications. (author)

  10. Flexible ferroelectric element based on van der Waals heteroepitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jie; Bitla, Yugandhar; Huang, Chun-Wei; Do, Thi Hien; Liu, Heng-Jui; Hsieh, Ying-Hui; Ma, Chun-Hao; Jang, Chi-Yuan; Lai, Yu-Hong; Chiu, Po-Wen; Wu, Wen-Wei; Chen, Yi-Chun; Zhou, Yi-Chun; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2017-06-01

    We present a promising technology for nonvolatile flexible electronic devices: A direct fabrication of epitaxial lead zirconium titanate (PZT) on flexible mica substrate via van der Waals epitaxy. These single-crystalline flexible ferroelectric PZT films not only retain their performance, reliability, and thermal stability comparable to those on rigid counterparts in tests of nonvolatile memory elements but also exhibit remarkable mechanical properties with robust operation in bent states (bending radii down to 2.5 mm) and cycling tests (1000 times). This study marks the technological advancement toward realizing much-awaited flexible yet single-crystalline nonvolatile electronic devices for the design and development of flexible, lightweight, and next-generation smart devices with potential applications in electronics, robotics, automotive, health care, industrial, and military systems.

  11. Switching kinetics of a relaxor ferroelectric Sr0.75Ba0.25Nb2O6 observed by the second harmonic generation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, Tatyana; Isakov, Dmitry; Belsley, Michael Scott; Ivleva, Lyudmila

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present a study of the ferroelectric switching kinetic process in strontium-barium niobate (SBN). The kinetics of polarization deduced from the dynamics of the diffuse second harmonic generation is in good qualitative agreement with thekinetics observed by more traditional polarization methods. Our work highlights the specific characteristics of polarization reversal in SBN, which is fundamentally different from that which occurs in model ferroelectrics. The presented optical measurements of the polarization processes provide several experimental advantages over traditional electrical measurements. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Fast ferroelectric phase shifters for energy recovery linacs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu Kazakov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fast phase shifters are described that use a novel barium strontium titanate ceramic that can rapidly change its dielectric constant as an external bias voltage is changed. These phase shifters promise to reduce by ∼10 times the power requirements for the rf source needed to drive an energy recovery linac (ERL. Such phase shifters will be coupled with superconducting radiofrequency cavities so as to tune them to compensate for phase instabilities, whether beam-driven or those caused by microphonics. The most promising design is presented, which was successfully cold tested and demonstrated a switching speed of ∼30  ns for 77 deg, corresponding to <0.5  ns per deg of rf phase. Other crucial issues (losses, phase shift values, etc. are discussed.

  13. Giant Magnetoelectric Energy Conversion Utilizing Inter-Ferroelectric Phase Transformations in Ferroics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Peter; Staruch, Margo

    Phase transition-based electromechanical transduction permits achieving a non-resonant broadband mechanical energy conversion see (Finkel et al Actuators, 5 [1] 2. (2015)) , the idea is based on generation high energy density per cycle , at least 100x of magnitude larger than linear piezoelectric type generators in stress biased [011]cut relaxor ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystal can generate reversible strain >0.35% at remarkably low fields (0.1 MV/m) for tens of millions of cycles. Recently we demonstrated that large strain and polarization rotation can be generated for over 40 x 106cycles with little fatigue by realization of reversible ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition in [011] cut PIN-PMN-PT relaxor ferroelectric single crystal while sweeping through the transition with a low applied electric field hybrid system comprised of highly magnetostrictive alloymFe81.4Ga18.6 (Galfenol), and lead indium niobate-lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PIN-PMN-PT) domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. A small time-varying magnetic field applied to this system causes the magnetostrictive element to expand, and the resulting stress forces the phase change in the relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. ME coupling coefficient was fond to achieve 80 V/cm Oe near the FR-FO phase transition that is at least 100X of magnitude higher than any currently reported values.

  14. Polarisation Dynamics in Ferroelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchacher, Till

    Ferroelectric materials have established themselves as indispensable in key applications such as piezoelectric transducers and energy storage devices. While the use of ferroelectrics in these fields dates back more than 50 years, little progress has been made to extend applications of ferroelectrics into new fields. To a large extend the observed slow progress is not caused by a lack of potential applications, but to by the inherent complexity associated with a structural phase transition, combined with strong coupling of polarisation, strain and temperature, and the strong modification of the phenomena by material defects. This thesis takes a look at prospective applications in energy storage for pulse power applications, solid state cooling and non-volatile random access memory and identifies key issues that need to be resolved. The thesis delivers time-domain based approaches to determine ferroelectric switching behaviour of bulk materials and thin films down to sub-ns time scales. The approach permitted study of how information written to a ferroelectric memory decays as a result of multiple non-destructive read operations. Furthermore simultaneous direct measurements of temperature and ferroelectric switching established a direct link between the retarded switching phenomenon observed in ferroelectrics and temperature changes brought by the electrocaloric effect. By comparison with analytical models and numerical simulation a large localised temperature change on the scale of individual domains is postulated. It implies a much larger coupling between switching and local temperature than has been previously considered. In extension of the model the frequency dependence of polarisation fatigue under bipolar conditions is explained by the occurrence of large temperature gradients in the material.

  15. Organic chemistry on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.; Scattergood, T.; Aronowitz, S.; Flores, J.

    1979-01-01

    Features taken from various models of Titan's atmosphere are combined in a working composite model that provides environmental constraints within which different pathways for organic chemical synthesis are determined. Experimental results and theoretical modeling suggest that the organic chemistry of the satellite is dominated by two processes: photochemistry and energetic particle bombardment. Photochemical reactions of CH4 in the upper atmosphere can account for the presence of C2 hydrocarbons. Reactions initiated at various levels of the atmosphere by cosmic rays, Saturn 'wind', and solar wind particle bombardment of a CH4-N2 atmospheric mixture can account for the UV-visible absorbing stratospheric haze, the reddish appearance of the satellite, and some of the C2 hydrocarbons. In the lower atmosphere photochemical processes will be important if surface temperatures are sufficiently high for gaseous NH3 to exist. It is concluded that the surface of Titan may contain ancient or recent organic matter (or both) produced in the atmosphere.

  16. Changes on Titan's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonidou, A.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Coustenis, A.; Malaska, M. J.; Sotin, C.; Rodriguez, S.; Janssen, M. A.; Drossart, P.; Lawrence, K. J.; Matsoukas, C. K.; Hirtzig, M.; Le Mouelic, S.; Jaumann, R.; Brown, R. H.; Bratsolis, E.

    2015-12-01

    Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) and the Titan Radar Mapper have investigated Titan's surface since 2004, unveiling a complex, dynamic and Earth-like surface. Understanding the distribution and interplay of geologic processes is important for constraining models of its interior, surface-atmospheric interactions, and climate evolution. We focus on understanding the origin of the major geomorphological units identified by Lopes et al. (2010, 2015) [1,2], Malaska et al. (2015) [3] and regions we studied in Solomonidou et al. (2014; 2015) [4,5]. Here, we investigate the nature of: Undifferentiated Plains, Hummocky/Mountainous terrains, candidate cryovolcanic sites, Labyrinth, and Dunes in terms of surface albedo behavior and spectral evolution with time to identify possible changes. Using a radiative transfer code, we find that temporal variations of surface albedo occur for some areas. Tui Regio and Sotra Patera, both candidate cryovolcanic regions, change with time, becoming darker and brighter respectively in surface albedo. In contrast, we find that the Undifferentiated Plains and the suggested evaporitic areas [6] in the equatorial regions do not present any significant changes. We are able to report the differences and similarities among the various regions and provide constraints on their chemical composition and specific processes of origin. Our results support the hypothesis that both endogenic and exogenic processes have played important roles in shaping Titan's geologic evolution. Such a variety of geologic processes and their relationship to the methane cycle make Titan important for astrobiology and habitability studies and particularly significant in solar system studies. [1] Lopes, R.M.C., et al.: Icarus, 205, 540-588, 2010; [2] Lopes, R.M.C., et al.: JGR, 118, 416-435, 2013; [3] Malaska, M., et al : Icarus, submitted, 2015;[4] Solomonidou et al.: JGR, 119, 1729-1747, 2014; [5] Solomonidou, A., et al.: In press, 2015; [6] Barnes

  17. Study of lead free ferroelectrics using overlay technique on thick film microstrip ring resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shridhar N. Mathad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The lead free ferroelectrics, strontium barium niobates, were synthesized via the low cost solid state reaction method and their fritless thick films were fabricated by screen printing technique on alumina substrate. The X band response (complex permittivity at very high frequencies of Ag thick film microstrip ring resonator perturbed with strontium barium niobates (SrxBa1-xNb2O6 in form of bulk and thick film was measured. A new approach for determination of complex permittivity (ε′ and ε′′ in the frequency range 8–12 GHz, using perturbation of Ag thick film microstrip ring resonator (MSRR, was applied for both bulk and thick film of strontium barium niobates (SrxBa1-xNb2O6. The microwave conductivity of the bulk and thick film lie in the range from 1.779 S/cm to 2.874 S/cm and 1.364 S/cm to 2.296 S/cm, respectively. The penetration depth of microwave in strontium barium niobates is also reported.

  18. Electron Emission from Ferroelectric/Antiferroelectric Cathodes Excited by Short High-Voltage Pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Benedek, G; Handerek, J; Riege, H

    1997-01-01

    Un-prepoled Lead Zirconate Titanate Lanthanum doped-PLZT ferroelectric cathodes have emitted intense current pulses under the action of a high voltage pulse of typically 8 kV/cm for PLZT of 8/65/35 composition and 25 kV/cm for PLZT of 4/95/5 composition. In the experiments described in this paper, the exciting electric field applied to the sample is directed from the rear surface towards the emitting surface. The resulting emission is due to an initial field emission from the metal of the grid deposited over the emitting surface with the consequent plasma formation and the switching of ferroelectric domains. These electrons may be emitted directly form the crystal or from the plasma. This emission requires the material in ferroelectric phase. In fact, PLZT cathodes of the 8/65/35 type, that is with high Titanium content, showing ferroelectric-paraelectric phase sequence, emit at room temperature, while PLZT cathodes of the 4/95/5 type, that is with low Titanium content, having antiferro-ferro-paraelectric pha...

  19. Hysteresis loop behaviors of ferroelectric thin films: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Bedoya-Hincapié, C.; H. Ortiz-Álvarez, H.; Restrepo-Parra, E.; J. Olaya-Flórez, J.; E. Alfonso, J.

    2015-11-01

    The ferroelectric response of bismuth titanate Bi4Ti3O12 (BIT) thin film is studied through a Monte Carlo simulation of hysteresis loops. The ferroelectric system is described by using a Diffour Hamiltonian with three terms: the electric field applied in the z direction, the nearest dipole-dipole interaction in the transversal (x-y) direction, and the nearest dipole-dipole interaction in the direction perpendicular to the thin film (the z axis). In the sample construction, we take into consideration the dipole orientations of the monoclinic and orthorhombic structures that can appear in BIT at low temperature in the ferroelectric state. The effects of temperature, stress, and the concentration of pinned dipole defects are assessed by using the hysteresis loops. The results indicate the changes in the hysteresis area with temperature and stress, and the asymmetric hysteresis loops exhibit evidence of the imprint failure mechanism with the emergence of pinned dipolar defects. The simulated shift in the hysteresis loops conforms to the experimental ferroelectric response. Project sponsored by the research departments of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia DIMA and DIB under Project 201010018227-“Crecimiento y caracterización eléctrica y estructural de películas delgadas de BixTiyOz producidas mediante Magnetrón Sputtering” and Project 12920-“Desarrollo teóricoexperimental de nanoestructuras basadas en Bismuto y materiales similares” and “Bisnano Project.”

  20. Growth and characterization of epitaxial thin films and multiferroic heterostructures of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Devajyoti

    Multiferroic materials exhibit unique properties such as simultaneous existence of two or more of coupled ferroic order parameters (ferromagnetism, ferroelectricity, ferroelasticity or their anti-ferroic counterparts) in a single material. Recent years have seen a huge research interest in multiferroic materials for their potential application as high density non-volatile memory devices. However, the scarcity of these materials in single phase and the weak coupling of their ferroic components have directed the research towards multiferroic heterostructures. These systems operate by coupling the magnetic and electric properties of two materials, generally a ferromagnetic material and a ferroelectric material via strain. In this work, horizontal heterostructures of composite multiferroic materials were grown and characterized using pulsed laser ablation technique. Alternate magnetic and ferroelectric layers of cobalt ferrite and lead zirconium titanate, respectively, were fabricated and the coupling effect was studied by X-ray stress analysis. It was observed that the interfacial stress played an important role in the coupling effect between the phases. Doped zinc oxide (ZnO) heterostructures were also studied where the ferromagnetic phase was a layer of manganese doped ZnO and the ferroelectric phase was a layer of vanadium doped ZnO. For the first time, a clear evidence of possible room temperature magneto-elastic coupling was observed in these heterostructures. This work provides new insight into the stress mediated coupling mechanisms in composite multiferroics.

  1. Non-resonant electromechanical energy harvesting using inter-ferroelectric phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Moyet, Richard; Rossetti, George A., E-mail: george.rossetti-jr@uconn.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Stace, Joseph; Amin, Ahmed [Sensors and Sonar Systems Department, Naval Undersea Warfare Center Newport, Newport, Rhode Island 02841 (United States); Finkel, Peter [Materials Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Non-resonant electromechanical energy harvesting is demonstrated under low frequency excitation (<50 Hz) using [110]{sub C}-poled lead indium niobate-lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate relaxor ferroelectric single crystals with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary. The efficiency of power generation at the stress-induced phase transition between domain-engineered rhombohedral and orthorhombic ferroelectric states is as much as four times greater than is obtained in the linear piezoelectric regime under identical measurement conditions but during loading below the coercive stress of the phase change. The phase transition mode of electromechanical transduction holds potential for non-resonant energy harvesting from low-frequency vibrations and does not require mechanical frequency up-conversion.

  2. Landscape Evolution of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Titan may have acquired its massive atmosphere relatively recently in solar system history. The warming sun may have been key to generating Titan's atmosphere over time, starting from a thin atmosphere with condensed surface volatiles like Triton, with increased luminosity releasing methane, and then large amounts of nitrogen (perhaps suddenly), into the atmosphere. This thick atmosphere, initially with much more methane than at present, resulted in global fluvial erosion that has over time retreated towards the poles with the removal of methane from the atmosphere. Basement rock, as manifested by bright, rough, ridges, scarps, crenulated blocks, or aligned massifs, mostly appears within 30 degrees of the equator. This landscape was intensely eroded by fluvial processes as evidenced by numerous valley systems, fan-like depositional features and regularly-spaced ridges (crenulated terrain). Much of this bedrock landscape, however, is mantled by dunes, suggesting that fluvial erosion no longer dominates in equatorial regions. High midlatitude regions on Titan exhibit dissected sedimentary plains at a number of localities, suggesting deposition (perhaps by sediment eroded from equatorial regions) followed by erosion. The polar regions are mainly dominated by deposits of fluvial and lacustrine sediment. Fluvial processes are active in polar areas as evidenced by alkane lakes and occasional cloud cover.

  3. Behavior of lanthanum containing barium stannate nanoparticles synthesized by cetyltriammonium bromide assisted wet chemistry route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Astakala Anil; Kumar, Ashok; Quamara, J. K.

    2018-02-01

    In present study, we report dielectric, ferroelectric and pyroelectric behavior of pristine and La3+ containing barium stannate nanoparticles synthesized via wet chemical route involving cetyltriammonium bromide assisted thermal decomposition of binary precursors. The X-ray diffraction patterns of pristine and La3+ (2, 4 and 6 at%) doped BaSnO3 nanoparticles showed the formation of cubic perovskite phase. On substitution of Ba2+ lattice sites by La3+ at the La content of 6 at%, the sample exhibited fourfold increase in conductivity in comparison to pristine BaSnO3. Polarization hysteresis (P-E) curves of La containing barium stannate nanoparticles showed anti-ferroelectric behavior. The pyroelectric coefficient of pristine and La (2, 4 and 6 at%) containing BaSnO3 nanoparticles at 473 K were found to be 7.8, 11.6, 14.1 and 17.2 μCm‑2K‑1, respectively. Further, the responsivity and detectivity values were higher in comparison to the materials, such as AlN, GaN, CdS and ZnO.

  4. Titan after Cassini Huygens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, P. M.; Lunine, J.; Lebreton, J.; Coustenis, A.; Matson, D.; Reh, K.; Erd, C.

    2008-12-01

    In 2005, the Huygens Probe gave us a snapshot of a world tantalizingly like our own, yet frozen in its evolution on the threshold of life. The descent under parachute, like that of Huygens in 2005, is happening again, but this time in the Saturn-cast twilight of winter in Titan's northern reaches. With a pop, the parachute is released, and then a muffled splash signals the beginning of the first floating exploration of an extraterrestrial sea-this one not of water but of liquid hydrocarbons. Meanwhile, thousands of miles away, a hot air balloon, a "montgolfiere," cruises 6 miles above sunnier terrain, imaging vistas of dunes, river channels, mountains and valleys carved in water ice, and probing the subsurface for vast quantities of "missing" methane and ethane that might be hidden within a porous icy crust. Balloon and floater return their data to a Titan Orbiter equipped to strip away Titan's mysteries with imaging, radar profiling, and atmospheric sampling, much more powerful and more complete than Cassini was capable of. This spacecraft, preparing to enter a circular orbit around Saturn's cloud-shrouded giant moon, has just completed a series of flybys of Enceladus, a tiny but active world with plumes that blow water and organics from the interior into space. Specialized instruments on the orbiter were able to analyze these plumes directly during the flybys. Titan and Enceladus could hardly seem more different, and yet they are linked by their origin in the Saturn system, by a magnetosphere that sweeps up mass and delivers energy, and by the possibility that one or both worlds harbor life. It is the goal of the NASA/ESA Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) to explore and investigate these exotic and inviting worlds, to understand their natures and assess the possibilities of habitability in this system so distant from our home world. Orbiting, landing, and ballooning at Titan represent a new and exciting approach to planetary exploration. The TSSM mission

  5. Mechanical writing of ferroelectric polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H; Bark, C-W; Esque de los Ojos, D; Alcala, J; Eom, C B; Catalan, G; Gruverman, A

    2012-04-06

    Ferroelectric materials are characterized by a permanent electric dipole that can be reversed through the application of an external voltage, but a strong intrinsic coupling between polarization and deformation also causes all ferroelectrics to be piezoelectric, leading to applications in sensors and high-displacement actuators. A less explored property is flexoelectricity, the coupling between polarization and a strain gradient. We demonstrate that the stress gradient generated by the tip of an atomic force microscope can mechanically switch the polarization in the nanoscale volume of a ferroelectric film. Pure mechanical force can therefore be used as a dynamic tool for polarization control and may enable applications in which memory bits are written mechanically and read electrically.

  6. Ferroelectrics as Smart Mechanical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Edwards, Kumara; Domingo, Neus; Abdollahi, Amir; Sort, Jordi; Catalan, Gustau

    2017-10-01

    The mechanical properties of materials are insensitive to space inversion, even when they are crystallographically asymmetric. In practice, this means that turning a piezoelectric crystal upside down or switching the polarization of a ferroelectric should not change its mechanical response. Strain gradients, however, introduce an additional source of asymmetry that has mechanical consequences. Using nanoindentation and contact-resonance force microscopy, this study demonstrates that the mechanical response to indentation of a uniaxial ferroelectric (LiNbO 3 ) does change when its polarity is switched, and use this mechanical asymmetry both to quantify its flexoelectricity and to mechanically read the sign of its ferroelectric domains. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Strain gradients in epitaxial ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalan, G.; Noheda, B.; McAneney, J.; Sinnamon, L.J.; Gregg, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray analysis of ferroelectric thin layers of Ba 1/2 Sr 1/2 TiO 3 with different thicknesses reveals the presence of strain gradients across the films and allows us to propose a functional form for the internal strain profile. We use this to calculate the influence of strain gradient, through flexoelectric coupling, on the degradation of the ferroelectric properties of films with decreasing thickness, in excellent agreement with the observed behavior. This paper shows that strain relaxation can lead to smooth, continuous gradients across hundreds of nanometers, and it highlights the pressing need to avoid such strain gradients in order to obtain ferroelectric films with bulklike properties

  8. Mechanical Writing of Ferroelectric Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H.; Bark, C.-W.; Esque de los Ojos, D.; Alcala, J.; Eom, C. B.; Catalan, G.; Gruverman, A.

    2012-04-01

    Ferroelectric materials are characterized by a permanent electric dipole that can be reversed through the application of an external voltage, but a strong intrinsic coupling between polarization and deformation also causes all ferroelectrics to be piezoelectric, leading to applications in sensors and high-displacement actuators. A less explored property is flexoelectricity, the coupling between polarization and a strain gradient. We demonstrate that the stress gradient generated by the tip of an atomic force microscope can mechanically switch the polarization in the nanoscale volume of a ferroelectric film. Pure mechanical force can therefore be used as a dynamic tool for polarization control and may enable applications in which memory bits are written mechanically and read electrically.

  9. Ferroelectric Fluid Flow Control Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An active valve is controlled and driven by external electrical actuation of a ferroelectric actuator to provide for improved passage of the fluid during certain time periods and to provide positive closure of the valve during other time periods. The valve provides improved passage in the direction of flow and positive closure in the direction against the flow. The actuator is a dome shaped internally prestressed ferroelectric actuator having a curvature, said dome shaped actuator having a rim and an apex. and a dome height measured from a plane through said rim said apex that varies with an electric voltage applied between an inside and an outside surface of said dome shaped actuator.

  10. Barium aspiration and alveolarisation of barium in an infant: A case report and review of management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F. Isles

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of bilateral inhalation and alveolarisation of barium in an infant following a barium swallow for investigation of dusky spells associated with feeds. A bronchoscopy subsequently revealed the presence of a mid-tracheal tracheo-oesophageal cleft. We review the literature on barium aspiration, its consequences and make recommendations for management.

  11. Acetylene on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sandeep; McCord, Thomas B.; Combe, Jean-Philippe; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Cornet, Thomas; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Clark, Roger Nelson; Maltagliati, Luca; Chevrier, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    Saturn's moon Titan possesses a thick atmosphere that is mainly composed of N2 (98%), CH4 (2 % overall, but 4.9% close to the surface) and less than 1% of minor species, mostly hydrocarbons [1]. A dissociation of N2 and CH4 forms complex hydrocarbons in the atmsophere and acetylene (C2H2) and ethane (C2H6) are produced most abundently. Since years, C2H2 has been speculated to exist on the surface of Titan based on its high production rate in the stratosphere predicted by photochemical models [2,3] and from its detection as trace gas sublimated/evaporated from the surface after the landing of the Huygens probe by the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) [1]. Here we show evidence of acetylene (C2H2) on the surface of Titan by detecting absorption bands at 1.55 µm and 4.93 µm using Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) [4] at equatorial areas of eastern Shangri-La, and Fensal-Aztlan/Quivira.An anti-correlation of absorption band strength with albedo indicates greater concentrations of C2H2 in the dark terrains, such as sand dunes and near the Huygens landing site. The specific location of the C2H2 detections suggests that C2H2 is mobilized by surface processes, such as surface weathering by liquids through dissolution/evaporation processes.References:[1]Niemann et al., Nature 438, 779-784 (2005).[2]Lavvas et al., Planetary and Space Science 56, 67 - 99 (2008).[3]Lavvas et al., Planetary and Space Science 56, 27 - 66 (2008).[4] Brown et al., The Cassini-Huygens Mission 111-168 (Springer, 2004).

  12. The Tides of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iess, L.; Jacobson, R.; Ducci, M.; Stevenson, D. J.; Lunine, J. I.; Armstrong, J. W.; Asmar, S.; Racioppa, P.; Rappaport, N. J.; Tortora, P.

    2012-12-01

    Titan has long been thought to host a subsurface water ocean. A liquid water or water-ammonia layer underneath the outer icy shell was invoked to explain the Voyager and Cassini observations of abundant methane (an easily dissociated species) in the atmosphere of the satellite. Given the paucity of surface hydrocarbon reservoirs, the atmospheric methane must be supplied by the interior, and an ocean can both provide a large storage volume and facilitate the outgassing from the deeper layers of the satellite to the surface. Huygens probe observations of a Schumann-like resonance point to the presence of an electrically conductive layer at a depth of 50-100 km, which has been interpreted to be the top of an ammonia-doped ocean [1]. Cassini gravity observations provide stronger evidence of the existence of such subsurface ocean. By combining precise measurements of the spacecraft range rate during six flybys, suitably distributed along Titan's orbit (three near pericenter, two near apocenter one near quadrature), we have been able to determine the k2 Love number to be k2 = 0.589±0.150 and k2 = 0.637±0.224 in two independent so-lutions (quoted uncertainties are 2-sigma) [2]. Such a large value indicates that Titan is highly deformable over time scales of days, as one would expect if a global ocean were hidden beneath the outer icy shell. The inclusion of time-variable gravity in the solution provided also a more reliable estimate of the static field, including an updated long-wavelength geoid. We discuss the methods adopted in our solutions and some implications of our results for the interior structure of Titan, and outline the expected improvements from the additional gravity flybys before the end of mission in 2017. [1] C. Beghin, C. Sotin, M. Hamelin, Comptes Rendue Geoscience, 342, 425 (2010). [2] L. Iess, R.A. Jacobson, M. Ducci, D.J. Stevenson, J.I. Lunine, J.W. Armstrong, S.W. Asmar, P. Racioppa, N.J. Rappaport, P. Tortora, Science, 337, 457 (2012).

  13. Titan Airship Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzhanovich, V.; Yavrouian, A.; Cutts, J.; Colozza, A.; Fairbrother, D.

    2001-01-01

    Saturn's moon Titan is considered to be one of the prime candidates for studying prebiotic materials - the substances that precede the formation of life but have disappeared from the Earth as a result of the evolution of life. A unique combination of a dense, predominantly nitrogen, atmosphere (more than four times that of the Earth), low gravity (six times less than on the Earth) and small temperature variations makes Titan the almost ideal planet for studies with lighter-than-air aerial platforms (aerobots). Moreover, since methane clouds and photochemical haze obscure the surface, low-altitude aerial platforms are the only practical means that can provide global mapping of the Titan surface at visible and infrared wavelengths. One major challenge in Titan exploration is the extremely cold atmosphere (approx. 90 K). However, current material technology the capability to operate aerobots at these very low temperatures. A second challenge is the remoteness from the Sun (10 AU) that makes the nuclear (radioisotopic) energy the only practical source of power. A third challenge is remoteness from the Earth (approx. 10 AU, two-way light-time approx. 160 min) which imposes restrictions on data rates and makes impractical any meaningful real-time control. A small-size airship (approx. 25 cu m) can carry a payload approximately 100 kg. A Stirling engine coupled to a radioisotope heat source would be the prime choice for producing both mechanical and electrical power for sensing, control, and communications. The cold atmospheric temperature makes Stirling machines especially effective. With the radioisotope power source the airship may fly with speed approximately 5 m/s for a year or more providing an excellent platform for in situ atmosphere measurements and a high-resolution remote sensing with unlimited access on a global scale. In a station-keeping mode the airship can be used for in situ studies on the surface by winching down an instrument package. Floating above the

  14. Optical planar waveguide in sodium-doped calcium barium niobate crystals by carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jin-Hua, E-mail: zhaojinhuazjh@gmail.com [School of Science, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101 (China); Qin, Xi-Feng; Wang, Feng-Xiang; Fu, Gang; Wang, Hui-Lin [School of Science, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101 (China); Wang, Xue-Lin [School of Physics, Key Laboratory of Particle Physics and Particle Irradiation, Ministry of Education, and State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2013-07-15

    There is great interest in niobate crystals which belong to the tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) families owing to their intriguing properties. As one representative of such crystals, CBN (calcium barium niobate) has attracted rapidly growing attention. Because it has a higher Curie temperature than SBN (strontium barium niobate), possesses outstanding ferroelectric and it possesses optical properties. In addition, doped with sodium, CBN will show a higher Curie temperature than pure CBN. We report on the fabrication and characterization of optical planar waveguide in x-cut sodium-doped calcium barium niobate crystal by using C ion implantation. The guided-mode properties at the wavelength of 633 and 1539 nm are investigated through prism-coupling measurements, respectively. By applying direct end-face coupling arrangement, the near-field optical intensity distribution of waveguide modes is measured at 633 nm. For comparison, the modal profile of the same guided mode is also numerically calculated by the finite difference beam-propagation method via computer software BeamPROP. The transmission spectra of the waveguide before and after ion implantation treatments were investigated also. Our experiment results reveal that the waveguide could propagate light with transverse magnetic polarized direction only and it is assumed that the polarization selectivity of CBN crystal may responsible for this phenomenon.

  15. Surface bond contraction and its effect on the nanometric sized lead zirconate titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haitao Huang; Sun, Chang Q.; Hing, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The grain size effect of lead zirconate titanate PbZr 1-x Ti x O 3 (PZT, x≥0.6) caused by surface bond contraction has been investigated by using the Landau-Ginsburg-Devonshire (LGD) phenomenological theory. It has been shown that, due to the surface bond contraction, both the Curie temperature and the spontaneous polarization of tetragonal PZT decrease with decreasing grain size. These effects become more significant when the grain size is in the nanometre range. A dielectric anomaly appears with decreasing grain size, which corresponds to a size dependent phase transformation. The ferroelectric critical size below which a loss of ferroelectricity will happen is estimated from the results obtained. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  16. Barium Depletion in Hollow Cathode Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the ow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  17. Graded ferroelectrics, transpacitors and transponents

    CERN Document Server

    Mantese, Joseph V

    2005-01-01

    The text details the experimental and theoretical aspects of newly emerging ferroelectric devices, and their extensions to other ferroic systems such as: ferromagnetics, ferroelastics, piezoelectrics, etc. The theory and experimental results pertaining to non-homogeneous active ferroic devices and structures are presented.

  18. Surface Acoustic Waves in ferroelectrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarasenko A., Nataliya; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Tarasenko, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 298, - (2004), s. 325-333 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS1010203 Keywords : Rayleigh waves * ferroelectric films * phase transition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.517, year: 2004

  19. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  20. Titan's Gravitational Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, G.; Anderson, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Titan's gravitational field is inferred from an analysis of archived radio Doppler data for six Cassini flybys. The analysis considers each flyby separately in contrast to the approach of lumping all the data together in a massive inversion. In this way it is possible to gain an improved understanding of the character of each flyby and its usefulness in constraining the gravitational coefficient C22 . Though our analysis is not yet complete and our final determination of C22 could differ from the result we report here by 1 or 2 sigma, we find a best-fit value of C22 equal to (13.21 × 0.17) × 10-6, significantly larger than the value of 10.0 × 10-6 obtained from an inversion of the lumped Cassini data. We also find no determination of the tidal Love number k2. The larger value of C22 implies a moment of inertia factor equal to 0.3819 × 0.0020 and a less differentiated Titan than is suggested by the smaller value. The larger value of C22 is consistent with an undifferentiated model of the satellite. While it is not possible to rule out either value of C22 , we prefer the larger value because its derivation results from a more hands on analysis of the data that extracts the weak hydrostatic signal while revealing the effects of gravity anomalies and unmodeled spacecraft accelerations on each of the six flybys.

  1. The Geology of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, Ralf

    Titan, the largest and most complex satellite in the solar system exhibits an organic dominated surface chemistry and shares surface features with other large icy satellites as well as the terrestrial planets. It is subject to tidal stresses, and its surface appears to have been modified tectonically. Cassini's global observations at infrared and radar wavelengths as well as local investigations by the instruments on the Huygens probe has revealed that Titan has the largest known abundance of organic material in the solar system apart from Earth, and that its active hydrological cycle is analogous to that of Earth, but with methane replacing water. The surface of Titan exhibits morphological features of different sizes and origins created by geological processes that span the entire dynamic range of aeolian, fluvial and tectonic activities, with likely evidence that cryovolcanism might exists where liquid water, perhaps in concert with ammonia, methane and carbon dioxide, makes its way to the surface from the interior [e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18]. Extended dune fields, lakes, mountainous terrain, dendritic erosion patterns and erosional remnants indicate dynamic surface processes. Valleys, small-scale gullies and rounded cobbles require erosion by extended energetic flow of liquids. There is strong evidence that liquid hydrocarbons are ponded on the surface in lakes, predominantly, but not exclusively, at high northern latitudes. A variety of features including extensive flows and caldera-like constructs are interpreted to be cryovolcanic in origin. Chains and isolated blocks of rugged terrain rising from smoother areas are best described as mountains and might be related to tectonic processes. Impact craters form on all solid bodies in the solar system, and have been detected on Titan. But very few have been observed so they must be rapidly destroyed or buried by other geologic processes The morphologies of the impact

  2. Laser cooling and trapping of barium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De, Subhadeep

    2008-01-01

    Laser cooling and trapping of heavy alkaline-earth element barium have been demonstrated for the first time ever. For any possible cycling transition in barium that could provide strong cooling forces, the excited state has a very large branching probability to metastable states. Additional lasers

  3. Titan's greenhouse and antigreenhouse effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Courtin, Regis

    1992-01-01

    Thermal mechanisms active in Titan's atmosphere are discussed in a brief review of data obtained during the Voyager I flyby in 1980. Particular attention is given to the greenhouse effect (GHE) produced by atmospheric H2, N2, and CH4; this GHE is stronger than that on earth, with CH4 and H2 playing roles similar to those of H2O and CO2 on earth. Also active on Titan is an antigreenhouse effect, in which dark-brown and orange organic aerosols block incoming solar light while allowing IR radiation from the Titan surface to escape. The combination of GHE and anti-GHE leads to a surface temperature about 12 C higher than it would be if Titan had no atmosphere.

  4. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtle, E. P.; DelGenio, A. D.; Barbara, J. M.; Perry, J. E.; Schaller, E. L.; McEwen, A. S.; West, R. A.; Ray, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem has observed Titan for 1/4 Titan year, and we report here the first evidence of seasonal shifts in preferred locations of tropospheric methane clouds. South \\polar convective cloud activity, common in late southern summer, has become rare. North \\polar and northern mid \\latitude clouds appeared during the approach to the northern spring equinox in August 2009. Recent observations have shown extensive cloud systems at low latitudes. In contrast, southern mid \\latitude and subtropical clouds have appeared sporadically throughout the mission, exhibiting little seasonality to date. These differences in behavior suggest that Titan s clouds, and thus its general circulation, are influenced by both the rapid temperature response of a low \\thermal \\inertia surface and the much longer radiative timescale of Titan s cold thick troposphere. North \\polar clouds are often seen near lakes and seas, suggesting that local increases in methane concentration and/or lifting generated by surface roughness gradients may promote cloud formation. Citation

  5. Life on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potashko, Oleksandr

    Volcanoes engender life on heavenly bodies; they are pacemakers of life. All planets during their period of formation pass through volcanism hence - all planets and their satellites pass through the life. Tracks of life If we want to find tracks of life - most promising places are places with volcanic activity, current or past. In the case of just-in-time volcanic activity we have 100% probability to find a life. Therefore the most perspective “search for life” are Enceladus, Io and comets, further would be Venus, Jupiter’s satellites, Saturn’s satellites and first of all - Titan. Titan has atmosphere. It might be result of high volcanic activity - from one side, from other side atmosphere is a necessary condition development life from procaryota to eucaryota. Existence of a planet means that all its elements after hydrogen formed just there inside a planet. The forming of the elements leads to the formation of mineral and organic substances and further to the organic life. Development of the life depends upon many factors, e.g. the distance from star/s. The intensity of the processes of the element formation is inversely to the distance from the star. Therefore we may suppose that the intensity of the life in Mercury was very high. Hence we may detect tracks of life in Mercury, particularly near volcanoes. The distance from the star is only one parameter and now Titan looks very active - mainly due to interior reason. Its atmosphere compounds are analogous to comet tail compounds. Their collation may lead to interesting result as progress occurs at one of them. Volcanic activity is as a source of life origin as well a reason for a death of life. It depends upon the thickness of planet crust. In the case of small thickness of a crust the probability is high that volcanoes may destroy a life on a planet - like Noachian deluge. Destroying of the life under volcano influences doesn’t lead to full dead. As result we would have periodic Noachian deluge or

  6. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research on the titan-1 fusion power core. The major topics covered are: titan-1 fusion-power-core engineering; titan-1 divertor engineering; titan-1 tritium systems; titan-1 safety design and radioactive-waste disposal; and titan-1 maintenance procedures.

  7. Percolation Magnetism in Ferroelectric Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovina, Iryna S.; Lemishko, Serhii V.; Morozovska, Anna N.

    2017-06-01

    Nanoparticles of potassium tantalate (KTaO3) and potassium niobate (KNbO3) were synthesized by oxidation of metallic tantalum in molten potassium nitrate with the addition of potassium hydroxide. Magnetization curves obtained on these ferroelectric nanoparticles exhibit a weak ferromagnetism, while these compounds are nonmagnetic in a bulk. The experimental data are used as a start point for theoretical calculations. We consider a microscopic mechanism that leads to the emerging of a ferromagnetic ordering in ferroelectric nanoparticles. Our approach is based on the percolation of magnetic polarons assuming the dominant role of the oxygen vacancies. It describes the formation of surface magnetic polarons, in which an exchange interaction between electrons trapped in oxygen vacancies is mediated by magnetic impurity Fe3+ ions. The dependences of percolation radius on concentration of the oxygen vacancies and magnetic defects are determined in the framework of percolation theory.

  8. Percolation Magnetism in Ferroelectric Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovina, Iryna S; Lemishko, Serhii V; Morozovska, Anna N

    2017-12-01

    Nanoparticles of potassium tantalate (KTaO 3 ) and potassium niobate (KNbO 3 ) were synthesized by oxidation of metallic tantalum in molten potassium nitrate with the addition of potassium hydroxide. Magnetization curves obtained on these ferroelectric nanoparticles exhibit a weak ferromagnetism, while these compounds are nonmagnetic in a bulk. The experimental data are used as a start point for theoretical calculations. We consider a microscopic mechanism that leads to the emerging of a ferromagnetic ordering in ferroelectric nanoparticles. Our approach is based on the percolation of magnetic polarons assuming the dominant role of the oxygen vacancies. It describes the formation of surface magnetic polarons, in which an exchange interaction between electrons trapped in oxygen vacancies is mediated by magnetic impurity Fe 3+ ions. The dependences of percolation radius on concentration of the oxygen vacancies and magnetic defects are determined in the framework of percolation theory.

  9. A new double contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Sang; Cho, Won Sik; Lee, Sung Woo; Lee, Mun Gyu; Jeon, Jeong Dong; Jaun, Woo Ki; Han, Chung Yul

    1987-01-01

    A new technic of the barium enema was proposed for the better colonic double contrast study with the average 204ml of 50w/v% barium, applied to 109 serial patients. The barium was introduced to sigmoid colon, and then pushed to a mid transverse colon by the air insufflation through an enema syringe, a new device. An advance to cecum is accomplished by the air insufflation and/or the position change of the patient. The barium transfer method was developed for the best spot film exposure, through colon, by the position change of the patient, the tilting of the x-ray table and the air insufflation with the enema syringe. The mean angle of the x-ray table tilted was -10 .deg. at the beginning the barium enema till the barium sent past the splenic flexure, -15 . deg. for the best lateral view of rectum and -18 .deg. for the bet prone PA view of rectosigmoid colon. This was a simple, better and economic double contrast barium enema for the cooperative patients

  10. Enhancement of ferroelectricity in nanocones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bykov, Pavlo; Suchaneck, G.; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Gerlach, G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 246, č. 10 (2009), s. 2396-2396 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN301370701; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : ferroelectric size effect of cone-shaped nanoparticles * phase transition temperature dependence on nanocone volume Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.150, year: 2009

  11. Tailoring ferroelectric interfaces: surface modification of PZT mediated through functionalized thiophene derivates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milde, Peter; Koehler, Denny; Zerweck, Ulrich; Eng, Lukas M. [Department of Applied Photophysics, TU Dresden (Germany); Haubner, Kinga [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, TU Dresden (Germany); Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry and Textile Chemistry, TU Dresden (Germany); Jaehne, Evelyn [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry and Textile Chemistry, TU Dresden (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Organic field effect transistors (OFETs) with a gate ''electrode'' that is made out of a ferroelectric (FE) have become a field of intense research. Non-volatile memory functionality is expected due to the strong and remanent electric field arising from bound surface charges at the FE/molecular interface. In order to achieve excellent electric transport properties, a high degree of intermolecular ordering is inevitable. In our approach, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is used as material of choice for the design of an ultra-thin ferroelectric gate electrode in a Ferroelectric-OFET. The focus of the present work lays on the growth process of the molecularly thin organic conduction layer, based on {alpha},{omega}-dicyano-{beta},{beta}*-dibutylquaterthiophene (DCNDBQT). Film formation is effectively promoted through specifically designed, bifunctional self-assembling molecules (CNBTPA: 5-cyano-2-(butyl-4-phosphonic acid)-3-butylthiophene) which act as template layer. We report on nc-AFM and KPFM investigation of the template layer's structural and electronic properties.

  12. Unveiling the Role of CNTs on the Phase Formation of 1D Ferroelectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Mahajan, Amit

    2015-05-21

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential to act as templates or bottom electrodes for three dimension (3D) capacitor arrays, which utilise one dimension (1D) ferroelectric nanostructures to increase memory size and density. However, growing a ferroelectric on the surface of CNTs is non-trivial. Here, we demonstrate that multi-walled (MW) CNTs decrease the time and temperature for formation of lead zirconium titanate Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) by ~100 ºC commensurate with a decrease in activation energy from 68±15 kJ/mol to 27±2 kJ/mol. As a consequence, monophasic PZT was obtained at 575 ºC for MWCNTs/PZT whereas for pure PZT traces of pyrochlore were still present at 650 ºC, where PZT phase formed due to homogeneous nucleation. The piezoelectric nature of MWCNT/PZT synthesised at 500 ºC for 1 h was proved. Although further work is required to prove the concept of 3D capacitor arrays, our result suggests that it is feasible to utilise MWCNTs as templates/electrodes for the formation of 1D PZT nano ferroelectrics.

  13. Thin PZT-Based Ferroelectric Capacitors on Flexible Silicon for Nonvolatile Memory Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2015-04-24

    A flexible version of traditional thin lead zirconium titanate ((Pb1.1Zr0.48Ti0.52O3)-(PZT)) based ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) on silicon shows record performance in flexible arena. The thin PZT layer requires lower operational voltages to achieve coercive electric fields, reduces the sol-gel coating cycles required (i.e., more cost-effective), and, fabrication wise, is more suitable for further scaling of lateral dimensions to the nano-scale due to the larger feature size-to-depth aspect ratio (critical for ultra-high density non-volatile memory applications). Utilizing the inverse proportionality between substrate\\'s thickness and its flexibility, traditional PZT based FeRAM on silicon is transformed through a transfer-less manufacturable process into a flexible form that matches organic electronics\\' flexibility while preserving the superior performance of silicon CMOS electronics. Each memory cell in a FeRAM array consists of two main elements; a select/access transistor, and a storage ferroelectric capacitor. Flexible transistors on silicon have already been reported. In this work, we focus on the storage ferroelectric capacitors, and report, for the first time, its performance after transformation into a flexible version, and assess its key memory parameters while bent at 0.5 cm minimum bending radius.

  14. Effect of PVP on the synthesis of high-dispersion core–shell barium-titanate–polyvinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Jinhui Li; Koji Inukai; Yosuke Takahashi; Akihiro Tsuruta; Woosuck Shin

    2017-01-01

    Monodispersed nanoparticles consisting of barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT) as the core and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the shell were synthesized in a PVP-assisted low-temperature process in an aqueous solution at ambient pressure. In order to clarify the mechanism of this unique BT–PVP nanoparticle growth and the origin of the dispersion, the concentration and molecular weight of PVP used in the synthesis were varied, and the size and dispersion of the resulting nanoparticles in water were inv...

  15. Polymer Ferroelectric Memory for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohd Adnan

    2013-11-01

    With the projected growth of the flexible and plastic electronics industry, there is renewed interest in the research community to develop high performance all-polymeric memory which will be an essential component of any electronic circuit. Some of the efforts in polymer memories are based on different mechanisms such as filamentary conduction, charge trapping effects, dipole alignment, and reduction-oxidation to name a few. Among these the leading candidate are those based on the mechanism of ferroelectricity. Polymer ferroelectric memory can be used in niche applications like smart cards, RFID tags, sensors etc. This dissertation will focus on novel material and device engineering to fabricate high performance low temperature polymeric ferroelectric memory for flexible electronics. We address and find solutions to some fundamental problems affecting all polymer ferroelectric memory like high coercive fields, fatigue and thermal stability issues, poor breakdown strength and poor p-type hole mobilities. Some of the strategies adopted in this dissertation are: Use of different flexible substrates, electrode engineering to improve charge injection and fatigue properties of ferroelectric polymers, large area ink jet printing of ferroelectric memory devices, use of polymer blends to improve insulating properties of ferroelectric polymers and use of oxide semiconductors to fabricate high mobility p-type ferroelectric memory. During the course of this dissertation we have fabricated: the first all-polymer ferroelectric capacitors with solvent modified highly conducting polymeric poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) [PEDOT:PSS] electrodes on plastic substrates with performance as good as devices with metallic Platinum-Gold electrodes on silicon substrates; the first all-polymer high performance ferroelectric memory on banknotes for security applications; novel ferroelectric capacitors based on blends of ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride

  16. Double contrast barium meal and acetylcysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, J.; Pietilae, J.; Ahovuo, J.; Mankinen, P.; Tervahartiala, P.

    1989-01-01

    In a prospective double blind study, acetylcysteine, a local and systemic respiratory tract mucolytic agent, or a placebo, were given to 100 patients prior to a double contrast barium meal to decrease the gastric mucus viscosity and to make the mucus layer thinner, in order to permit barium to outline the furrows surrounding the areae gastricae instead of the overlying thick mucus. However, acetylcysteine failed to improve either visualization of the areae gastricae or the general quality of the double contrast barium meal. (orig.)

  17. Mapping of Titan: Results from the first Titan radar passes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofan, E.R.; Lunine, J.I.; Lopes, R.; Paganelli, F.; Lorenz, R.D.; Wood, C.A.; Kirk, R.; Wall, S.; Elachi, C.; Soderblom, L.A.; Ostro, S.; Janssen, M.; Radebaugh, J.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H.; Anderson, Y.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Stiles, B.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.

    2006-01-01

    The first two swaths collected by Cassini's Titan Radar Mapper were obtained in October of 2004 (Ta) and February of 2005 (T3). The Ta swath provides evidence for cryovolcanic processes, the possible occurrence of fluvial channels and lakes, and some tectonic activity. The T3 swath has extensive areas of dunes and two large impact craters. We interpret the brightness variations in much of the swaths to result from roughness variations caused by fracturing and erosion of Titan's icy surface, with additional contributions from a combination of volume scattering and compositional variations. Despite the small amount of Titan mapped to date, the significant differences between the terrains of the two swaths suggest that Titan is geologically complex. The overall scarcity of impact craters provides evidence that the surface imaged to date is relatively young, with resurfacing by cryovolcanism, fluvial erosion, aeolian erosion, and likely atmospheric deposition of materials. Future radar swaths will help to further define the nature of and extent to which internal and external processes have shaped Titan's surface. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Titan Montgolfiere Terrestrial Test Bed, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the Titan Saturn System Mission, NASA is proposing to send a Montgolfiere balloon to probe the atmosphere of Titan. To better plan this mission and create a...

  19. Titan Montgolfiere Terrestrial Test Bed, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the Titan Saturn System Mission, NASA is proposing to send a Montgolfiere balloon to probe the atmosphere of Titan. In order to better plan this mission and...

  20. Role of flexoelectric coupling in polarization rotations at the a-c domain walls in ferroelectric perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ye; Chen, Long-Qing; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2017-05-01

    Ferroelectric and ferroelastic domain walls play important roles in ferroelectric properties. However, their couplings with flexoelectricity have been less understood. In this work, we applied phase-field simulation to investigate the flexoelectric coupling with ferroelectric a/c twin structures in lead ziconate titanate thin films. Local stress gradients were found to exist near twin walls that created both lateral and vertical electric fields through the flexoelectric effect, resulting in polarization inclinations from either horizontal or normal orientation, polarization rotation angles deviated from 90°, and consequently highly asymmetric a/c twin walls. By tuning the flexoelectric strengths in a reasonable range from first-principles calculations, we found that the transverse flexoelectric coefficient has a larger influence on the polarization rotation than longitudinal and shear coefficients. As polar rotations that commonly occur at compositional morphotropic phase boundaries contribute to the piezoelectric enhancement, this work calls for further exploration of alternative strain-engineered polar rotations via flexoelectricity in ferroelectric thin films.

  1. Multilevel information storage in ferroelectric polymer memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tripathi, A.K.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Shen, J.; Gao, Q.; Ivan, M.G.; Reimann, K.; Meinders, E.R.; Gelinck, G.H.

    2011-01-01

    Multibit memory devices based on the ferroelectric copolymer P(VDF-TrFE) (poly-(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene)) are presented. Multilevel microstructures are fabricated by thermal imprinting of spin-coated ferroelectric polymer film using a rigid Si template. Multibit storage in capacitors

  2. A ferroelectric transparent thin-film transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, MWJ; GrosseHolz, KO; Muller, G; Cillessen, JFM; Giesbers, JB; Weening, RP; Wolf, RM

    1996-01-01

    Operation is demonstrated of a field-effect transistor made of transparant oxidic thin films, showing an intrinsic memory function due to the usage of a ferroelectric insulator. The device consists of a high mobility Sb-doped n-type SnO2 semiconductor layer, PbZr0.2Ti0.8Os3 as a ferroelectric

  3. Organic chemistry on Titan: Surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Sagan, Carl

    1992-01-01

    The interaction of Titan's organic sediments with the surface (solubility in nonpolar fluids) is discussed. How Titan's sediments can be exposed to an aqueous medium for short, but perhaps significant, periods of time is also discussed. Interactions with hydrocarbons and with volcanic magmas are considered. The alteration of Titan's organic sediments over geologic time by the impacts of meteorites and comets is discussed.

  4. Time requirement for barium reduction in intussusception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Hye Eun; Kim, Seung Ho; Kang, In Young; Park, Byoung Lan; Kim, Byoung Geun

    1988-01-01

    During the period between January 1985 and December 1987, barium reduction was performed in 146 cases of intussusception who were admitted to Kwangju Christian Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. Success rate to the symptom duration is relatively constant. 2. The success rate in infants with severe dehydration was 50% but it was gradually increased in infants with moderate dehydration and in infants with mild dehydration, 83.3% and 100% respectively. 3. The success rate of 12 cases in severely dehydrated infants with positive dissection sign was 16.7%. 4. The success rate of 15 cases in moderately dehydrated infants with positive dissection sign was 66.7%. 5. The average time requirement for barium reduction was 58.3 minutes. No serious complications were noted during barium reduction, except mild vomiting. 6. With above results, it is desirable that barium reduction should be performed according to the patient's physical status and radiologic findings.

  5. Barium Isotopes in Single Presolar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellin, M. J.; Davis, A. M.; Savina, M. R.; Kashiv, Y.; Clayton, R. N.; Lewis, R. S.; Amari, S.

    2001-01-01

    Barium isotopic compositions of single presolar grains were measured by laser ablation laser resonant ionization mass spectrometry and the implications of the data for stellar processes are discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Barium appendicitis after upper gastrointestinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Nathan M; Lillemoe, Keith D; Falimirski, Mark E

    2010-02-01

    Barium appendicitis (BA) is a rarely seen entity with fewer than 30 reports in the literature. However, it is a known complication of barium imaging. To report a case of BA in a patient whose computed tomography (CT) scan was initially read as foreign body ingestion. An 18-year-old man presented with right lower quadrant pain after upper gastrointestinal imaging 2 weeks prior. A CT scan was obtained of his abdomen and pelvis that revealed a finding that was interpreted as a foreign body at the area of the terminal ileum. A plain X-ray study of the abdomen revealed radiopaque appendicoliths. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of barium appendicitis. BA is a rare entity and the pathogenesis is unclear. Shorter intervals between barium study and presentation with appendicitis usually correlate with fewer complications. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fatigue and retention in ferroelectric Y-Ba-Cu-O/Pb-Zr-Ti-O/Y-Ba-Cu-O heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, R.; Chan, W. K.; Wilkens, B.; Gilchrist, H.; Sands, T.; Tarascon, J. M.; Keramidas, V. G.; Fork, D. K.; Lee, J.; Safari, A.

    1992-09-01

    Fatigue and retention characteristics of ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate thin films grown with Y-Ba-Cu-O(YBCO) thin-film top and bottom electrodes are found to be far superior to those obtained with conventional Pt top electrodes. The heterostructures reported here have been grown in situ by pulsed laser deposition on yttria-stabilized ZrO2 buffer [100] Si and on [001] LaAlO3. Both the a- and c-axis orientations of the YBCO lattice have been used as electrodes. They were prepared using suitable changes in growth conditions.

  8. Local symmetry approach to relaxor ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, Y.; Kornev, I.

    2013-08-01

    We propose a theoretical framework based on local gauge symmetries and develop a first-principles-derived effective Hamiltonian to study relaxor ferroelectrics. The approach is applied to PLZT relaxor and i) qualitatively reproduces many of its generic features, such as all the characteristic temperatures inherent to relaxor ferroelectrics and their dependence on the La concentration, ii) yields a rich variety of ferroelectric phases, depending on La content, iii) reveals the existence of non-perfectly ordered regions even in the ferroelectric state, iv) allows, for the first time, to compute the critical exponent γ in a relaxor ferroelectric, and v) clearly elucidates how the relaxor behavior, such as a diffusive phase transition, arises due to the disorder-induced non-trivial interplay between local and global scales.

  9. Ferroelectric Electron Emission Principles and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Riege, H

    1997-01-01

    The spontaneous electrical polarization of ferroelectric materials can be changed either by reversal or by phase transition from a ferroelectric into a non-ferroelectric state or vice versa. If spontaneous polarization changes are induced with fast heat, mechanical pressure, laser or electric field pulses on a submicrosecond time scale, strong uncompensated surface charge densities and related polarization fields are generated, which may lead to the intense self-emission of electrons from the negatively charged free surface areas of the ferroelectric sample. Hence, electron guns can be built with extraction-field-free ferroelectric cathodes, which may be easily separated from the high-field regions of post-accelerating gap structures. The intensity, the energy, the temporal and spatial distribution, and the repetitition rate of the emitted electron beams can be controlled within wide limits via the excitation pulses and external focusing and accelerating electromagnetic fields. The technological advantages an...

  10. Features and Technology of Ferroelectric Electron Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Boscolo, I; Herleb, U; Riege, H

    1998-01-01

    Spontaneous electrical polarization of ferroelectric materials can be changed either by reversal or by phase transition from a ferroelectric into a non-polar state or vice versa. If spontaneous polarization changes are induced at a submicrosecond time-scale, strong uncompensated surface charge densities and related fields are generated, which may lead to the intense self-emission of electrons from the negatively-charged free surface areas of the ferroelectric cathode. The nature of this self-emission differs essentially from other methods of ferroelectric electron emission and from conventional electron emission in that the latter methods are only achieved by extracting electrons with externally applied electric fields. When electron guns are constructed with ferroelectric cathodes, new design criteria have to be taken into account. The intensity, the energy, the temporal and spatial distribution and the repetition rate of the emitted electron beams can be adjusted within wide limits. The advantages of ferroe...

  11. Aurivillius BaBi4Ti4O15 based compounds: Structure, synthesis and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena D. Bobić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of some Aurivillius materials with high Curie temperature or fatigue-free character suggests possible applications in high temperature piezoelectric devices or non-volatile ferroelectric random access memories. Furthermore, increasing concerns for environmental issues have promoted the study of new lead- free piezoelectric materials. Barium bismuth titanate (BaBi4Ti4O15 , an Aurivillius compound, is promising candidate to replace lead-based materials, both as lead-free ferroelectric and high temperature piezoelectric. In this review paper, we report a detailed overview of crystal structure, different synthesis methods and char- acteristic properties of barium bismuth titanate ferroelectric materials.

  12. An experimental study on barium peritonitis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1985-01-01

    Barium sulfate is universally used contrast media in gastrointestinal roentgenology, and spillage of barium into peritoneal cavity can occur. The references on effect of barium sulfate in the peritoneal cavity have been scattered and the results are varied. In 80 rats, body weight of 130 gm to 150 gm, sterile pure barium, sterile commercial barium, intestinal content, and mixed pure barium and intestinal content were experimentally injected into the peritoneal cavity. Consecutive weekly laparotomy and microscopic examination were done for 4 weeks. The results are as followings: 1. Mind inflammatory reaction and mild adhesion after sterile pure barium injection. 2. Mild inflammatory reaction and moderate adhesion after sterile commercial barium injection. 3. Acute peritonitis and abscess formation after intestinal content injection. 4. High mortality due to severe acute peritonitis, and severe adhesion in survivors after injection of both pure barium and intestinal content.

  13. Bacterial Reduction Of Barium Sulphate By Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luptáková Alena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a worldwide problem leading to contamination of water sources. AMD are characterized by low pH and high content of heavy metals and sulphates. The barium salts application presents one of the methods for the sulphates removing from AMD. Barium chloride, barium hydroxide and barium sulphide are used for the sulphates precipitation in the form of barium sulphate. Because of high investment costs of barium salts, barium sulphide is recycled from barium sulphate precipitates. It can be recycled by thermic or bacterial reduction of barium sulphate. The aim of our study was to verify experimentally the possibility of the bacterial transformation of BaSO4 to BaS by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Applied BaSO4 came from experiments of sulphates removal from Smolnik AMD using BaCl2.

  14. Diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lavvas, P. P.; Müller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Cravens, T. E.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.

    2009-06-01

    We present our analysis of the diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (between 1000 and 1300 km) based on a sample of Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements in the Open Source Ion (OSI) mode obtained from eight close encounters of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan. Although there is an overall ion depletion well beyond the terminator, the ion content on Titan's nightside is still appreciable, with a density plateau of ˜700 cm-3 below ˜1300 km. Such a plateau is a combined result of significant depletion of light ions and modest depletion of heavy ones on Titan's nightside. We propose that the distinctions between the diurnal variations of light and heavy ions are associated with their different chemical loss pathways, with the former primarily through “fast” ion-neutral chemistry and the latter through “slow” electron dissociative recombination. The strong correlation between the observed night-to-day ion density ratios and the associated ion lifetimes suggests a scenario in which the ions created on Titan's dayside may survive well to the nightside. The observed asymmetry between the dawn and dusk ion density profiles also supports such an interpretation. We construct a time-dependent ion chemistry model to investigate the effect of ion survival associated with solid body rotation alone as well as superrotating horizontal winds. For long-lived ions, the predicted diurnal variations have similar general characteristics to those observed. However, for short-lived ions, the model densities on the nightside are significantly lower than the observed values. This implies that electron precipitation from Saturn's magnetosphere may be an additional and important contributor to the densities of the short-lived ions observed on Titan's nightside.

  15. Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine and recovery of barium as a barium salt mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Zvimba, John N; Mulopo, Jean; Motaung, Solly

    2013-01-01

    Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine using barium hydroxide and recovery of the barium salts has been investigated. The sodium sulphate-rich brine treated with different dosages of barium hydroxide to precipitate barium sulphate showed sulphate removal from 13.5 g/L to less than 400 mg/L over 60 min using a barium to sulphate molar ratio of 1.1. The thermal conversion of precipitated barium sulphate to barium sulphide achieved a conversion yield of 85% using coal as both a reducing agent and an energy source. The recovery of a pure mixture of barium salts from barium sulphide, which involved dissolution of barium sulphide and reaction with ammonium hydroxide resulted in recovery of a mixture of barium carbonate (62%) and barium hydroxide (38%), which is a critical input raw material for barium salts based acid mine drainage (AMD) desalination technologies. Under alkaline conditions of this barium salt mixture recovery process, ammonia gas is given off, while hydrogen sulfide is retained in solution as bisulfide species, and this provides basis for ammonium hydroxide separation and recovery for reuse, with hydrogen sulfide also recoverable for further industrial applications such as sulfur production by subsequent stripping.

  16. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    materials, the choice of pyroelectric materials has increased. In the beginning, the materials that were examined for pyroelectric detection included triglycine sulphate and barium titanate, which were among the few well-known ferroelectrics at that time. In recent years, a number of titanates, niobates, tantalates, zirconates, ...

  17. Subtractive fabrication of ferroelectric thin films with precisely controlled thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ievlev, Anton V.; Chyasnavichyus, Marius; Leonard, Donovan N.; Agar, Joshua C.; Velarde, Gabriel A.; Martin, Lane W.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Maksymovych, Petro; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2018-04-01

    The ability to control thin-film growth has led to advances in our understanding of fundamental physics as well as to the emergence of novel technologies. However, common thin-film growth techniques introduce a number of limitations related to the concentration of defects on film interfaces and surfaces that limit the scope of systems that can be produced and studied experimentally. Here, we developed an ion-beam based subtractive fabrication process that enables creation and modification of thin films with pre-defined thicknesses. To accomplish this we transformed a multimodal imaging platform that combines time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry with atomic force microscopy to a unique fabrication tool that allows for precise sputtering of the nanometer-thin layers of material. To demonstrate fabrication of thin-films with in situ feedback and control on film thickness and functionality we systematically studied thickness dependence of ferroelectric switching of lead-zirconate-titanate, within a single epitaxial film. Our results demonstrate that through a subtractive film fabrication process we can control the piezoelectric response as a function of film thickness as well as improve on the overall piezoelectric response versus an untreated film.

  18. Negative capacitance in multidomain ferroelectric superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubko, Pavlo; Wojdeł, Jacek C; Hadjimichael, Marios; Fernandez-Pena, Stéphanie; Sené, Anaïs; Luk'yanchuk, Igor; Triscone, Jean-Marc; Íñiguez, Jorge

    2016-06-23

    The stability of spontaneous electrical polarization in ferroelectrics is fundamental to many of their current applications, which range from the simple electric cigarette lighter to non-volatile random access memories. Research on nanoscale ferroelectrics reveals that their behaviour is profoundly different from that in bulk ferroelectrics, which could lead to new phenomena with potential for future devices. As ferroelectrics become thinner, maintaining a stable polarization becomes increasingly challenging. On the other hand, intentionally destabilizing this polarization can cause the effective electric permittivity of a ferroelectric to become negative, enabling it to behave as a negative capacitance when integrated in a heterostructure. Negative capacitance has been proposed as a way of overcoming fundamental limitations on the power consumption of field-effect transistors. However, experimental demonstrations of this phenomenon remain contentious. The prevalent interpretations based on homogeneous polarization models are difficult to reconcile with the expected strong tendency for domain formation, but the effect of domains on negative capacitance has received little attention. Here we report negative capacitance in a model system of multidomain ferroelectric-dielectric superlattices across a wide range of temperatures, in both the ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. Using a phenomenological model, we show that domain-wall motion not only gives rise to negative permittivity, but can also enhance, rather than limit, its temperature range. Our first-principles-based atomistic simulations provide detailed microscopic insight into the origin of this phenomenon, identifying the dominant contribution of near-interface layers and paving the way for its future exploitation.

  19. Barium nucleosynthesis in the disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twarog, B.A.

    1981-11-15

    The history of Ba production in the disk is discussed, particularly with regard to the apparent constancy of the production rate of Ba relative to Fe over the lifetime of the disk. An infall model of the chemical evolution of Ba/Fe within the disk is constructed under the assumption that the mass function and star formation rate are independent of time and Ba is produced as purely a secondary element. The model not only satisfies the present constraints for the disk, but produces a (Ba/H)-(Fe/H) relation which is consistent with the available observational data. It is shown that the apparent constancy of the Ba/Fe ratio is an artifact of (1) an inadequate and insufficiently accurated data sample, and (2) secondary production of Ba within the disk which is 20 to 80 times less efficient relative to Fe than the production ratio for the halo. The model predicts that stars formed during the transition period between halo and disk should show a Ba/Fe excess relative to the Sun of about a factor of 2. It is concluded that the possible sources of the Ba/Fe overproduction in the halo relative to the disk are incompatible with present theoretical limits on the mass ranges for iron and barium production by stars.

  20. Warming barium sulfate improves esophageal leak detection in pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Vignesh; MacGlaflin, Caitlyn E; Moodie, Karen L; Kaiser, Larry R; Erkmen, Cherie P

    2015-12-01

    Barium esophagograms have poor sensitivity in detecting leaks. We hypothesized that heating barium would decrease viscosity, facilitate extravasation, and enhance its sensitivity in detecting esophageal leaks. We characterized the viscosity of barium at increasing temperatures. We measured the radiopacity of barium at 25°C and 50°C. We determined the smallest diameter defect in esophagus that barium can detect by perforating a porcine esophageal segment with angiocatheters of various diameters, injecting barium at 25°C, and observing extravasation of contrast. We repeated this with barium heated to 30°C, 40°C, 50°C, and 70°C. To determine the ability of barium to detect a staple line leak, we perforated a stapled esophageal segment by air insufflation, injected barium at different temperatures, and monitored extravasation. We used Visipaque, a water-soluble contrast agent, for comparison in all experiments. The viscosity of barium decreased with increasing temperature. The radiopacity of barium did not change with increasing temperature and was higher than that of Visipaque (P detectable leak decreased from 2.1 mm with barium at 25°C to 1.3 mm at 40°C and 1.1 mm with Visipaque (P leak detection increased from 0% for barium at 25°C to 80% (P = 0.02) with barium at 40°C. There was no significant difference in sensitivity between barium at 40°C and Visipaque. Barium warmed to 40°C offers the best sensitivity of esophageal leak detection without compromising radiopacity. Barium at 40°C may be the optimum choice for swallow study to detect esophageal leaks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterisation of lead barium zirconate thin films for utilisation of the electrocaloric effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, C.P., E-mail: c.p.shaw@cranfield.ac.uk [Surface Engineering and Nanotechnology Institute, Manufacturing and Materials Department, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Zhang, Qi, E-mail: q.zhang@cranfield.ac.uk [Surface Engineering and Nanotechnology Institute, Manufacturing and Materials Department, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Correia, T.M., E-mail: Tatiana.correia@ktn-uk.org [Knowledge Transfer Network (United Kingdom); Weaver, P.M., E-mail: paul.weaver@innotecuk.com [InotekUK (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-01

    Characterisation of a composition of Lead Barium Zirconate thin films deposited by a spin coating sol-gel process onto platinised silicon substrates has been undertaken to investigate a potential application utilising the reported electrocaloric properties of the material. Xray diffraction studies revealed that above 700 °C the presence of pyrochlore phase was replaced by ferroelectric phase but the identification of antiferroelectric phases previously reported could not be identified. Wet etching of the films produced an insoluble residue containing only evidence of zirconium out of the original three metals, which resembled a skeletal structure similar to the original rosette morphology of the annealed films. Elemental analysis of the annealed films using EDX indicated a non-target Pb:Ba:Zr ratio, which suggested a reduced Zr content of the films. “Solution-like” rather than “sol-like” nature of the spin coated sol and phase boundary proximity are proposed for reported observations, and a mechanism is proposed to account for the unusual observed trend in dielectric constant. - Highlights: • Characterisation of sol-gel deposited Lead barium zirconnate films. • Absence of previously reported antiferroelectric phase. • Identification of proposed non-PBZ phase. • Anomalous increase in film capacitance with thickness interpreted.

  2. Structural consequences of ferroelectric nanolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Ji Young; Chen, Pice; Sichel, Rebecca J; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Smith, Ryan T; Balke, Nina; Kalinin, Sergei V; Holt, Martin V; Maser, Jörg; Evans-Lutterodt, Kenneth; Eom, Chang-Beom; Evans, Paul G

    2011-08-10

    Domains of remnant polarization can be written into ferroelectrics with nanoscale precision using scanning probe nanolithography techniques such as piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). Understanding the structural effects accompanying this process has been challenging due to the lack of appropriate structural characterization tools. Synchrotron X-ray nanodiffraction provides images of the domain structure written by PFM into an epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O(3) thin film and simultaneously reveals structural effects arising from the writing process. A coherent scattering simulation including the superposition of the beams simultaneously diffracted by multiple mosaic blocks provides an excellent fit to the observed diffraction patterns. Domains in which the polarization is reversed from the as-grown state have a strain of up to 0.1% representing the piezoelectric response to unscreened surface charges. An additional X-ray microdiffraction study of the photon-energy dependence of the difference in diffracted intensity between opposite polarization states shows that this contrast has a crystallographic origin. The sign and magnitude of the intensity contrast between domains of opposite polarization are consistent with the polarization expected from PFM images and with the writing of domains through the entire thickness of the ferroelectric layer. The strain induced by writing provides a significant additional contribution to the increased free energy of the written domain state with respect to a uniformly polarized state.

  3. Differential voltage amplification from ferroelectric negative capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif I.; Hoffmann, Michael; Chatterjee, Korok; Lu, Zhongyuan; Xu, Ruijuan; Serrao, Claudy; Smith, Samuel; Martin, Lane W.; Hu, Chenming; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate that a ferroelectric can cause a differential voltage amplification without needing an external energy source. As the ferroelectric switches from one polarization state to the other, a transfer of energy takes place from the ferroelectric to the dielectric, determined by the ratio of their capacitances, which, in turn, leads to the differential amplification. This amplification is very different in nature from conventional inductor-capacitor based circuits where an oscillatory amplification can be observed. The demonstration of differential voltage amplification from completely passive capacitor elements only has fundamental ramifications for next generation electronics.

  4. Static Characteristics of the Ferroelectric Transistor Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cody; Laws, crystal; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    The inverter is one of the most fundamental building blocks of digital logic, and it can be used as the foundation for understanding more complex logic gates and circuits. This paper presents the characteristics of an inverter circuit using a ferroelectric field-effect transistor. The voltage transfer characteristics are analyzed with respect to varying parameters such as supply voltage, input voltage, and load resistance. The effects of the ferroelectric layer between the gate and semiconductor are examined, and comparisons are made between the inverters using ferroelectric transistors and those using traditional MOSFETs.

  5. Probing nanoscale ferroelectricity by ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenne, D A; Bruchhausen, A; Lanzillotti-Kimura, N D; Fainstein, A; Katiyar, R S; Cantarero, A; Soukiassian, A; Vaithyanathan, V; Haeni, J H; Tian, W; Schlom, D G; Choi, K J; Kim, D M; Eom, C B; Sun, H P; Pan, X Q; Li, Y L; Chen, L Q; Jia, Q X; Nakhmanson, S M; Rabe, K M; Xi, X X

    2006-09-15

    We demonstrated that ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy is an effective technique to measure the transition temperature (Tc) in ferroelectric ultrathin films and superlattices. We showed that one-unit-cell-thick BaTiO3 layers in BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices are not only ferroelectric (with Tc as high as 250 kelvin) but also polarize the quantum paraelectric SrTiO3 layers adjacent to them. Tc was tuned by approximately 500 kelvin by varying the thicknesses of the BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 layers, revealing the essential roles of electrical and mechanical boundary conditions for nanoscale ferroelectricity.

  6. Organic chemistry in Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattergood, T.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory photochemical simulations and other types of chemical simulations are discussed. The chemistry of methane, which is the major known constituent of Titan's atmosphere was examined with stress on what can be learned from photochemistry and particle irradiation. The composition of dust that comprises the haze layer was determined. Isotope fractionation in planetary atmospheres is also discussed.

  7. Barium ferrite nanoparticles prepared by self-propagating low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    temperature combustion method using ... talline barium ferrite. Keywords. Barium ferrite; self-propagating combustion method; magnetic property; X-ray diffraction; morphology. 1. Introduction .... known that γ-Fe2O3 is a cubic spinel, whose chemical.

  8. Negative capacitance in a ferroelectric capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif Islam; Chatterjee, Korok; Wang, Brian; Drapcho, Steven; You, Long; Serrao, Claudy; Bakaul, Saidur Rahman; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2015-02-01

    The Boltzmann distribution of electrons poses a fundamental barrier to lowering energy dissipation in conventional electronics, often termed as Boltzmann Tyranny. Negative capacitance in ferroelectric materials, which stems from the stored energy of a phase transition, could provide a solution, but a direct measurement of negative capacitance has so far been elusive. Here, we report the observation of negative capacitance in a thin, epitaxial ferroelectric film. When a voltage pulse is applied, the voltage across the ferroelectric capacitor is found to be decreasing with time--in exactly the opposite direction to which voltage for a regular capacitor should change. Analysis of this 'inductance'-like behaviour from a capacitor presents an unprecedented insight into the intrinsic energy profile of the ferroelectric material and could pave the way for completely new applications.

  9. Four-state ferroelectric spin-valve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quindeau, A.; Fina, I.; Martí, Xavier; Apachitei, G.; Ferrer, P.; Nicklin, C.; Pippel, E.; Hesse, D.; Alexe, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, May (2015), 09749 ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electronic and spintronic devices * ferroelectrics and multiferroics Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2015

  10. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium calcium...

  11. Ferroelectricity in the multiferroic hexagonal manganites

    OpenAIRE

    Lilienblum, Martin; Lottermoser, Thomas; Manz, Sebastian; Selbach, Sverre Magnus; Cano, Andres; Fiebig, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Since their discovery in 1963 the hexagonal manganites have consolidated their role as exotic ferroelectrics with astonishing functionalities. Their introduction as room-temperature device ferroelectrics was followed by observations of giant flexoelectricity, multiferroicity with magnetoelectric domain and domain-wall coupling, protected vortex domain structures, topological domain-scaling behaviour and domain walls with tunable conductance and magnetism. Even after half a century, however, t...

  12. Ferroelectric Phase Diagram of PVDF:PMMA

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Mengyuan; Stingelin, Natalie; Michels, Jasper J.; Spijkman, Mark-Jan; Asadi, Kamal; Feldman, Kirill; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the ferroelectric phase diagram of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The binary nonequilibrium temperature composition diagram was determined and melting of alpha- and beta-phase PVDF was identified. Ferroelectric beta-PVDF:PMMA blend films were made by melting, ice quenching, and subsequent annealing above the glass transition temperature of PMMA, close to the melting temperature of PVDF. Addition of PMMA suppresses the crystallizatio...

  13. Ferroelectric domain continuity over grain boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantri, Sukriti; Oddershede, Jette; Damjanovic, Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Formation and mobility of domain walls in ferroelectric materials is responsible for many of their electrical and mechanical properties. Domain wall continuity across grain boundaries has been observed since the 1950's and is speculated to affect the grain boundary-domain interactions, thereby...... techniques in manipulating the micro-structure and domain structure to result in desired interactions between neighbouring grains could prove to be beneficial for future polycrystalline ferroelectric materials....

  14. An epitaxial ferroelectric tunnel junction on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Guo, Xiao; Lu, Hui-Bin; Zhang, Zaoli; Song, Dongsheng; Cheng, Shaobo; Bosman, Michel; Zhu, Jing; Dong, Zhili; Zhu, Weiguang

    2014-11-12

    Epitaxially grown functional perovskites on silicon (001) and the ferroelectricity of a 3.2 nm thick BaTiO3 barrier layer are demonstrated. The polarization-switching-induced change in tunneling resistance is measured to be two orders of magnitude. The obtained results suggest the possibility of integrating ferroelectric tunnel junctions as binary data storage media in non-volatile memory cells on a silicon platform. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Metalorganic solution deposition of lead zirconate titanate films onto an additively manufactured Ni-based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, T.; Khassaf, H.; Vijayan, S.; Bassiri-Gharb, N.; Aindow, M.; Alpay, S.P.; Hebert, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in additive manufacturing of high-temperature alloys for structural aerospace applications has led to interest in integrating additional functionality into such parts. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is a prototypical ferroelectric ceramic used as the electro-active material in many piezoelectric sensors and actuators. In this study, 300 nm thick PbZr 0.2 Ti 0.8 O 3 (PZT 20/80) films were grown using metalorganic solution deposition onto additively manufactured substrates of Inconel 718. The microstructures of the films and the nature of the film/substrate interfaces were characterized using a combination of X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy techniques. Electrical measurements were performed to determine the ferroelectric, dielectric, and conductive responses of the PZT films. Our findings show that the PZT films exhibit robust ferroelectricity characterized by well-defined polarization-applied electric field (P-E) hysteresis loops. The samples display internal bias of up to ∼40 kV/cm. The room temperature remnant polarization and the small signal dielectric permittivity are ∼70 μC/cm 2 and 205, respectively. The dielectric loss (tan δ) and the leakage current at 1 kHz are 9% and 1 nA at 1 V, respectively. We attribute the internal bias observed in the hysteresis loops and the overall large dielectric losses to the presence of an intermediate oxide layer at the PZT/Inconel interface, which forms during the high temperature crystallization of the ferroelectric film. These results show that it is possible to grow functional oxides with promising electrical properties onto additively manufactured metallic substrates.

  16. Thermally-treated Pt-coated silicon AFM tips for wear resistance in ferroelectric data storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Palacio, Manuel; Kwak, Kwang Joo

    2008-01-01

    In ferroelectric data storage, a conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe with a noble metal coating is placed in contact with a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film. The understanding and improvement of probe tip wear, particularly at high velocities, is needed for high data rate recording. A commercial Pt-coated silicon AFM probe was thermally treated in order to form platinum silicide at the near-surface. Nanoindentation, nanoscratch and wear experiments were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties and wear performance at high velocities. The thermally treated tip exhibited lower wear than the untreated tip. The tip wear mechanism is adhesive and abrasive wear with some evidence of impact wear. The enhancement in mechanical properties and wear resistance in the thermally treated film is attributed to silicide formation in the near-surface. Auger electron spectroscopy and electrical resistivity measurements confirm the formation of platinum silicide. This study advances the understanding of thin film nanoscale surface interactions

  17. Amino acidis derived from Titan tholins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Bishun N.; Sagan, Carl; Ogino, Hiroshi; Nagy, Bartholomew; Er, Cevat

    1986-01-01

    The production of amino acids by acid treatment of Titan tholin is experimentally investigated. The synthesis of Titan tholin and the derivatization of amino acids to N-trifluoroacetyl isopropyl esters are described. The gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis of the Titan tholins reveals the presence of glycine, alpha and beta alainine, and aspartic acid, and the total yield of amino acids is about 0.01.

  18. Synthesis of barium-strontium titanate hollow tubes using Kirkendall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuncai; Im, SangHyuk; Kim, Jinsoo; Kim, Woo-Sik

    2018-02-01

    (BaSr)TiO3 hexagonal hollow tubes was fabricated by a solid-state interfacial reaction including a Kirkendall diffusion. Using a co-precipitation and sol-gel process, a core@shell structure of (BaSr)CO3@TiO2 rods were prepared, and then converted to (BaSr)TiO3 hollow tubes at 750 °C. This was a first achievement of single-phase crystal hollow tube. Here, the inner diameter and wall thickness of hollow tube were about 700 nm and 130 nm, respectively. The fabrication of (BaSr)TiO3 hollow tubes was monitored with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to investigate their formation mechanism. The present synthetic approach would provide a new insight into the design and fabrication of hollow architectures of many perovskite oxides.

  19. Synthesis of strontium substituted barium titanate nanoparticles by mechanical alloying and high power ultrasonication destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yustanti, Erlina, E-mail: erlina.yustanti@ui.ac.id [Graduate Program of Material Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences University of Indonesia Jl. Salemba Raya No. 04 Jakarta 10430 (Indonesia); Department of Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering University of Sultan AgengTirtayasa Jl. Jenderal Sudirman KM 03 Cilegon-Banten 65134 (Indonesia); Hafizah, Mas Ayu Elita, E-mail: kemasayu@yahoo.com; Manaf, Azwar, E-mail: azwar@ui.ac.id [Graduate Program of Material Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences University of Indonesia Jl. Salemba Raya No. 04 Jakarta 10430 (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    This paper reports the particle and crystallite size characterizations of mechanically alloyed Ba{sub (1-x)}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3} (BST) with x = 0.3 and 0.7 prepared with the assistance of a high-power sonicator. Analytical grade BaCO{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2} and SrCO{sub 3} precursors with a purity of greater than 99 wt.% were mixed and milled using a planetary ball mill to a powder weight ratio of 10:1. Powders obtained after 20 hours of milling time were then sintered at 1200°C for 4 hours to form crystalline powders.These powders were further treated ultrasonically under a fixed 6.7 gr/l particle concentration in demineralized water for 1, 3, 5, 7 hours and a fixed ultrasonic irradiation time of 1 hour to the dispersion of 6.7; 20; 33.3 gr/l concentrations. As to the results of crystallite size characterization, it is demonstrated that the mean crystallite size of BST with x = 0.3 and 0.7 undergo a slight change after the first 1 hour irradiation time and then remain almost unchanged. This was in contrary to the particle size in which the mean particle size of BST with x = 0.3 increased from 765 nm to 1405 nm after 7 hours irradiation time, while that of x = 0.7 increased from 505 nm to 1298 nm after 3 hours and then reduced back to the initial size after 7 hours ultra sonication time. The increase in particle size was due to large of cohesive forces among fine particles. It is also demonstrated that the concentration of particles in a dispersion with anionic surfactant do not effective to reduce the particle sizes ultrasonically. Nanoparticles with the mean size respectively 40 and 10 times larger than their respective crystallite size were successfully obtained respectively in x = 0.3 and x = 0.7.

  20. 3D printed barium titanate/poly-(vinylidene fluoride) nano-hybrid with anisotropic dielectric properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phatharapeetranun, N.; Ksapabutr, B.; Marani, D.

    2017-01-01

    Electrospun BaTiO3 nanofibers (BTNFs) are synthesized and blended in a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix to obtain a flexible nano-hybrid composite with high dielectric constant (flexible high-k). The blending is performed with different BTNF contents (0.6, 4.5, 20 vol%). The rheological...... material. The dielectric properties of the nano-hybrid are controlled by anisotropy with an enhancement in the nanofiber cross direction (⊥), where the dielectric constant k⊥ at 1 kHz is increased to ca. 200 from 13 of the PVDF matrix....