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Sample records for ferroelectric antiferromagnetic bifeo

  1. Evolution of the antiferromagnetism vector of a multiferroic BiFeO3 during switching its ferroelectric polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzin, A. A.; Vinokurov, D. L.; Morosov, A. I.

    2016-11-01

    The evolution of the antiferromagnetism vector of multiferroic BiFeO3 during switching of its ferroelectric polarization by an electric field has been studied by numerical simulation in the framework of the phenomenological model for the magnetic anisotropy energy. Optimal variants have been found for the cut of electrosensitive BiFeO3 layer, the deformation induced by a substrate, and the direction of applying electric field for the development of prototypes of new-generation marnetoresistive memory.

  2. Effect of spatial spin modulation on relaxation and NMR frequencies of sup 5 sup 7 Fe nuclei in ferroelectric antiferromagnetic BiFeO sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Zalessky, A V; Zvezdin, A K; Gippius, A A; Morozova, E N; Khozeev, D F; Bush, A S; Pokatilov, V S

    2002-01-01

    The NMR spectra on the iron nuclei in the BiFeO sub 3 antiferromagnetic sample enriched by the sup 5 sup 7 Fe (95.43%) with the spatially-modulated magnetic structure are studied. It is established that the cycloid-type spin modulation in the BiFeO sub 3 produces spatial modulation of the nuclear spin-spin relaxation velocity and leads to the spectral nonuniform widening of the NMR local line. It is determined also that the local magnetic moments of the iron ions on various cycloid sections differently depend on temperature which testifies to different character of the spin waves excitation. The analogy of the experimental results with the NMR regularities in the Bloch wall is discussed

  3. Epitaxial ferroelectric BiFeO3 thin films for unassisted photocatalytic water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Yao, Kui; Lim, Yee-Fun; Liang, Yung C.; Suwardi, Ady

    2013-08-01

    Considering energy band alignment and polarization effect, ferroelectric BiFeO3 thin films are proposed as the photoanode in a monolithic cell to achieve unassisted photocatalytic water splitting. Significant anodic photocurrent was observed in our epitaxial ferroelectric BiFeO3 films prepared from sputter deposition. Both negative polarization charges and thinner films were found to promote the anodic photocatalytic reaction. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy proved that the conduction and valence band edges of BiFeO3 straddle the water redox levels. Theoretical analyses show that the large switchable polarization can modify the surface properties to promote the hydrogen and oxygen evolutions on the surfaces with positive and negative polarization charges, respectively.

  4. Ferroelectric size effects in multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chu, Y.-H.; Zhao, T.; Cruz, M.P.; Zhan, Q.; Yang, P.L.; Martin, L.W.; Huijben, M.; Yang, C.H.; Zavaliche, F.; Zheng, H.; Ramesh, R.

    2007-01-01

    Ferroelectric size effects in multiferroic BiFeO3 have been studied using a host of complementary measurements. The structure of such epitaxial films has been investigated using atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The crystal structure of the films has b

  5. Local Weak Ferromagnetism in Single-Crystalline Ferroelectric BiFeO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramazanoglu, M.; Laver, Mark; Ratcliff, W.;

    2011-01-01

    Polarized small-angle neutron scattering studies of single-crystalline multiferroic BiFeO3 reveal a long-wavelength spin density wave generated by ∼1° spin canting of the spins out of the rotation plane of the antiferromagnetic cycloidal order. This signifies weak ferromagnetism within mesoscopic...

  6. Tunneling electroresistance effect in ultrathin BiFeO3-based ferroelectric tunneling junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong, Herng Yau; Wang, Han; Xiao, Juanxiu; Guo, Rui; Yang, Ping; Yang, Yi; Lim, Sze Ter; Wang, John; Venkatesan, T.; Chen, Jingsheng

    2016-12-01

    Tunneling electroresistance (TER) effect has been observed in high quality ultrathin BiFeO3 thin films. The growth quality of the ultrathin BiFeO3 films was confirmed using the synchrotron high resolution X-ray diffraction techniques as well as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Ferroelectric-based resistive switching behavior is observed down to 2 u.c. of BiFeO3 ultrathin film, which is way below the critical thickness of BiFeO3 thin films exhibiting ferroelectricity reported in the previous research works. Upon fitting mathematically using the direct tunneling model, it could be seen that there is an increase in the change in the average potential barrier height when the barrier thickness increases from 2 u.c. to 10 u.c., which also results in an increase in the TER ratio by one order of magnitude. These results are promising and pave the way for developing ultrathin BiFeO3 films to be adopted in the non-volatile memory applications.

  7. Ferroelectric strain modulation of antiferromagnetic moments in Ni/NiO ferromagnet/antiferromagnet heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jun; Chen, Jia-Hui; Li, Liang-Liang; Ma, Jing; Nan, Ce-Wen; Lin, Yuan-Hua

    2017-05-01

    Electric field manipulation of magnetic properties has attracted a lot of research interest recently in solid-state physics. However, ferroelectric strain modulation of antiferromagnetic (AFM) layer is rarely studied in ferromagnet/antiferromagnet/ferroelectric heterostructures. In this paper, we prepared a Ni/NiO(001) heterostructure on ferroelectric Pb (Mg1/3N b2 /3 ) 0.7T i0.3O3(001 ) substrates and observed an out-of-plane electric field modulation of exchange bias and magnetic anisotropy in the Ni layer. The exchange bias was easily eliminated by an electric field cycle, which was due to the AFM domain switching induced by piezoelectric strain in the NiO layer. Synchrotron x ray linear dichroism results confirmed the AFM moment alignment induced by ferroelectric strain as well. Our work showed a promising strategy to manipulate AFM moments and domains, serving the blooming AFM spintronics.

  8. Ferroelectric and electrical characterization of multiferroic BiFeO3 at the single nanoparticle level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, R. K.; Bogle, K. A.; Kumar, A.; Jesse, S.; Magaraggia, R.; Stamps, R.; Ogale, S. B.; Potdar, H. S.; Nagarajan, V.

    2011-12-01

    Ferroelectric BiFeO3 (BFO) nanoparticles deposited on epitaxial substrates of SrRuO3 (SRO) and La1-xSrxMnO3 (LSMO) were studied using band excitation piezoresponse spectroscopy (BEPS), piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). BEPS confirms that the nanoparticles are ferroelectric in nature. Switching behavior of nanoparticle clusters were studied and showed evidence for inhomogeneous switching. The dimensionality of domains within nanoparticles was found to be fractal in nature, with a dimensionality constant of ˜1.4, on par with ferroelectric BFO thin-films under 100 nm in thickness. Ferromagnetic resonance studies indicate BFO nanoparticles only weakly affect the magnetic response of LSMO.

  9. Ferroelectric and electrical characterization of multiferroic BiFeO3 at the single nanoparticle level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, Rama K [ORNL; Bogle, K A [University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Kumar, Amit [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Magaraggia, R [University of Glasgow; Stamps, R [University of Glasgow; Ogale, S [National Chemical Laboratory, India; Potdar, H S [National Chemical Laboratory, India

    2011-01-01

    Ferroelectric BiFeO3 (BFO) nanoparticles deposited on epitaxial substrates of SrRuO3 (SRO) and La1xSrxMnO3 (LSMO) were studied using band excitation piezoresponse spectroscopy (BEPS), piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). BEPS confirms that the nanoparticles are ferroelectric in nature. Switching behavior of nanoparticle clusters were studied and showed evidence for inhomogeneous switching. The dimensionality of domains within nanoparticles was found to be fractal in nature, with a dimensionality constant of 1.4, on par with ferroelectric BFO thin-films under 100 nm in thickness. Ferromagnetic resonance studies indicate BFO nanoparticles only weakly affect the magnetic response of LSMO.

  10. The magnetoelectric properties study for system with the coexistence of the ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic orders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Qing; Zhong Chonggui

    2002-12-30

    Soft-mode theory based on DIFFOUR model for ferroelectric interaction and the mean-field theory of high spin Ising model for antiferromagnetic interaction are used to investigate the ferroelectric, antiferromagnetic, magnetoelectric properties in ferroelectromagnetic lattice in which the ferroelectric order and antiferromagnetic order coexist simultaneously below a certain temperature. Ferroelectric polarization, spin moment, and magnetoelectric susceptibility as well, as a function of temperature for system, are calculated and compared with the different coupling coefficient. It is found that an anomaly appears in curve of the polarization susceptibility as a function of temperature due to the coupling between the ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic orders in the ferroelectromagnetic lattice. At the same time, we also considered the influence of magnetoelectric effect on polarization susceptibility by applying the external field including electric and magnetic.

  11. Enhancement of Local Photovoltaic Current at Ferroelectric Domain Walls in BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Min; Bhatnagar, Akash; Luo, Zheng-Dong; Alexe, Marin

    2017-02-01

    Domain walls, which are intrinsically two dimensional nano-objects exhibiting nontrivial electronic and magnetic behaviours, have been proven to play a crucial role in photovoltaic properties of ferroelectrics. Despite this recognition, the electronic properties of domain walls under illumination until now have been accessible only to macroscopic studies and their effects upon the conduction of photovoltaic current still remain elusive. The lack of understanding hinders the developing of nanoscale devices based on ferroelectric domain walls. Here, we directly characterize the local photovoltaic and photoconductive properties of 71° domain walls on BiFeO3 thin films with a nanoscale resolution. Local photovoltaic current, proven to be driven by the bulk photovoltaic effect, has been probed over the whole illuminated surface by using a specially designed photoelectric atomic force microscopy and found to be significantly enhanced at domain walls. Additionally, spatially resolved photoconductive current distribution reveals a higher density of excited carriers at domain walls in comparison with domains. Our measurements demonstrate that domain wall enhanced photovoltaic current originates from its high conduction rather than the internal electric field. This photoconduction facilitated local photovoltaic current is likely to be a universal property of topological defects in ferroelectric semiconductors.

  12. Observation of room temperature saturated ferroelectric polarization in Dy substituted BiFeO3 ceramics

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Shuxia

    2012-04-06

    High quality Bi1− x Dy x FeO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) ceramics have been fabricated by sintering Dy-doped BiFeO3 (BFO) precursor powders at a low temperature of 780 °C. The magnetic properties of BFO were improved by the introduction of Dy on the Bi-site. More importantly, well saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loops and polarization switching currents have been observed at room temperature. A large remnant polarization (2P r) value of 62 μC/cm2 is achieved, which is the highest value reported so far for rare-earth-doped BFO ceramics. Moreover, mechanisms for improved multiferroic properties depending on chemical doping-caused structure evolutions have also been discussed.

  13. Dependence of ferroelectric and magnetic properties on measuring temperatures for polycrystalline BiFeO(3) films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, H; Inoue, Y; Okamura, S

    2008-05-01

    A multiferroic BiFeO(3) film was fabricated on a Pt/Ti/SiO(3)/Si(100) substrate by a chemical solution deposition (CSD) method, and this was followed by postdeposition annealing at 923 K for 10 min in air. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the formation of the polycrystalline single phase of the BiFeO(3) film. A high remanent polarization of 89 microC/cm(2) was observed at 90 K together with a relatively low electric coercive field of 0.32 MV/cm, although the ferroelectric hysteresis loops could not be observed at room temperature due to a high leakage current density. The temperature dependence of the ferroelectric hysteresis loops indicated that these hysteresis loops lose their shape above 165 K, and the nominal remanent polarization drastically increased due to the leakage current. Magnetic measurements indicated that the saturation magnetization was less than 1 emu/cm(3) at room temperature and increased to approximately 2 emu/cm(3) at 100 K, although the spontaneous magnetization could not appear. The magnetization curves of polycrystalline BiFeO3 film were nonlinear at both temperatures, which is different with BiFeO3 single crystal.

  14. Temperature dependent dielectric and ferroelectric studies of BiFeO3 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Anand P. S.; Barik, Sujit K.; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2013-03-01

    Although BiFeO3 (BFO) has received a lot of interest due to its good multiferroic properties at room temperature, high leakage current limit its usage for practical applications. Recently, it is found that these properties in thin films can be different due to strain effect induced by substrate, preparation conditions and electrode effects, etc. In this context, we have studied the temperature dependence of polarization and dielectric properties of BFO thin film by varying the bottom electrode thickness and using different electrodes. The strain dependent ferroelectric switching behaviors have also been investigated with a traditional ferroelectric tester and switching spectroscopy piezoresponse force microscopy (SS-PFM), respectively. We used pulsed laser deposition to fabricate thin films of BFO using Si (100) substrate and SrTiO3(STO) as buffer layer with different bottom electrodes such as SrRuO3(SRO), LaNiO3(LNO) and Pt/Si. The thickness of STO layer is kept fixed around 70 nm and the thicknesses of BFO and electrode layer were varied from 70 nm to 200nm. The layers were grown under optimized conditions and polycrystalline nature is found from room temperature XRD. A large enhancement of polarization is found while using LNO electrode and also with reducing the thickness of BFO layer. The remnant polarization and cohesivity also shows large increase with increaisng temperature, although leakage current increases significantly. NSF

  15. Magnetic and ferroelectric characteristics of Gd$^{3+}$ and Ti$^{4+}$ co-doped BiFeO$_3$ ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SHIVANAND MADOLAPPA; A V ANUPAMA; P W JASCHIN; K B R VARMA; B SAHOO

    2016-04-01

    Polycrystalline BiFeO3 and Bi$_{0.9}$Gd$_{0.1}$Fe$_{1−x}$Ti$_x$O$_3$ ($x = 0$, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1) samples were synthesized by solid-state reaction route. Structural, magnetic and ferroelectric properties of these samples were investigated. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) results confirmed the presence of a significant amount of Bi$_2$Fe$_4$O$_9$ impurity phase in the undoped BiFeO$_3$ sample. Mössbauer spectroscopy studies corroborated the XRD studies to confirm the presence of impurity phase.We have observed that gadolinium (Gd$^{3+}$) and titanium (Ti$^{4+}$) doping, respectively, on Bi$^{3+}$ and Fe$^{3+}$ sites facilitated a significant reduction in the impurity phase formation in BiFeO$_3$. Interestingly, Gd$^{3+}$-doping significantly reduced the impurity phase formation as compared to the undoped BiFeO$_3$ sample. This impurity phase formation was further overcome by doping higher ($x \\ge 0.05$) amounts of Ti in BiFeO$_3$. The crystallographicsite occupancies of Gd and Ti were confirmed by Rietveld refinement of XRD data,Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. An enhancement in ferromagnetic properties along with moderate ferroelectricproperties have been observed after co-doping. There was an increasing trend in remnant polarization (Pr) with the increase in Ti concentration besides an improvement in the characteristic saturation magnetization. Our resultsdemonstrate that Gd$^{3+}$ and Ti$^{4+}$ doping could be used to enhance multifunctional properties of BiFeO3 ceramics to enable them as potential material for various devices.

  16. Effect of surface modification of BiFeO3 on the dielectric, ferroelectric, magneto-dielectric properties of polyvinylacetate/BiFeO3 nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Bajpai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3 is considered as one of the most promising materials in the field of multiferroics. In this work, a simple green route as well as synthetic routes has been used for the preparation of pure phase BiFeO3. An extract of Calotropis Gigantea flower was used as a reaction medium in green route. In each case so formed BiFeO3 particles are of comparable quality. These particles are in the range of 50–60 nm and exhibit mixed morphology (viz., spherical and cubic as confirmed by TEM analysis. These pure phase BiFeO3 nanoparticles were first time surface modified effectively by mean of two silylating agent’s viz., tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS and (3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES. Modified and unmodified BiFeO3 nanoparticles were efficiently introduced into polyvinylacetate (PVAc matrix. It has been shown that nanocomposite prepared by modified BiFeO3 comprise superior dispersion characteristics, improved ferroelectric properties and favorable magneto-dielectric properties along with excellent wettability in compare to nanocomposite prepared by unmodified BiFeO3. These preliminary results demonstrate possible applications of this type of nanocomposites particularly in the field of multiferroic coating and adhesives.

  17. Clamping of ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic order parameters of YMnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanamura, Eiichi [Chitose Institute of Science and Technology, 758-65 Bibi, Chitose, Hokkaido (Japan); Hagita, Katsumi [Japan Science and Technology Corporation (CREST), 758-65 Bibi, Chitose, Hokkaido (Japan); Tanabe, Yukito [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-01-29

    It was observed that a ferroelectric domain boundary (DB) is always accompanied by an antiferromagnetic DB in hexagonal YMnO{sub 3}, by means of interference effects of the second-harmonic signal. The clamping of these two order parameters at the ferroelectric DB is shown theoretically to originate from Dzyaloshinski-Moriya interaction. This interaction favouring a right angle between the neighbouring spins is found to be operative within the DB and to reverse the direction of the spins across the ferroelectric DB. (letter to the editor)

  18. Temperature dependences of ferroelectricity and resistive switching behavior of epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦增星; 高兴森; 严志波; 刘俊明; 宋骁; 赵丽娜; 李忠文; 林远彬; 曾敏; 张璋; 陆旭兵; 吴素娟

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the resistive switching and ferroelectric polarization properties of high-quality epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films in various temperature ranges. The room temperature current–voltage (I–V ) curve exhibits a well-established polarization-modulated memristor behavior. At low temperatures (253 K), the I–V behaviors are governed by both space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC) and Ohmic behavior. The polarization reversal is able to trigger the conduc-tion switching from Ohmic to SCLC behavior, leading to the observed ferroelectric resistive switching. At a temperature of>298 K, there occurs a new resistive switching hysteresis at high bias voltages, which may be related to defect-mediated effects.

  19. Domain-wall conduction in ferroelectric BiFeO3 controlled by accumulation of charged defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojac, Tadej; Bencan, Andreja; Drazic, Goran; Sakamoto, Naonori; Ursic, Hana; Jancar, Bostjan; Tavcar, Gasper; Makarovic, Maja; Walker, Julian; Malic, Barbara; Damjanovic, Dragan

    2016-11-01

    Mobile charged defects, accumulated in the domain-wall region to screen polarization charges, have been proposed as the origin of the electrical conductivity at domain walls in ferroelectric materials. Despite theoretical and experimental efforts, this scenario has not been directly confirmed, leaving a gap in the understanding of the intriguing electrical properties of domain walls. Here, we provide atomic-scale chemical and structural analyses showing the accumulation of charged defects at domain walls in BiFeO3. The defects were identified as Fe4+ cations and bismuth vacancies, revealing p-type hopping conduction at domain walls caused by the presence of electron holes associated with Fe4+. In agreement with the p-type behaviour, we further show that the local domain-wall conductivity can be tailored by controlling the atmosphere during high-temperature annealing. This work has possible implications for engineering local conductivity in ferroelectrics and for devices based on domain walls.

  20. Etude des propriétés photoélectriques et magnétiques des parois de domaines multiferroïques dans BiFeO3

    OpenAIRE

    Blouzon, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Among all multiferroics, BiFeO3 is a material of choice because its two ordering temperatures are well above 300K. It is a ferroelectric antiferromagnet, and magnetoelectric coupling has been demonstrated in bulk and in thin films. Remarkably, BiFeO3 has the largest polarization of all known ferroelectrics (100µC/cm²). A huge research effort is carried out worldwide to understand and exploit the physical properties of this material which requires to design and tailor BiFeO3 on many scales. In...

  1. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATIONS OF PURE AND DOPED NANOCRYSTALLINE BiFeO3 CERAMICS BY SHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOGESH A. CHAUDHARI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The pure and Zn incorporated BiFeO3 ceramics were synthesized by self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD studies revealed that, both BiFeO3 and BiFe0.95Zn0.05O3 ceramics crystallizes in a single phase rhombhohedral structure. The room temperature ferroelectric and magnetic hysteresis loop evidenced coexistence of ferroelectricity and magnetism in single phase undoped and Zn doped BiFeO3. The M-H hysteresis loop of BiFe0.95Zn0.05O3 sample demonstrated a weak ferromagnetism at 300 K and 5 K respectively. The room temperature ferroelectric P-E hysteresis loops of BiFeO3 and BiFe0.95Zn0.05O3 exhibited an unsaturated behavior and suggests a partial reversal of polarization. A variation of dielectric constant with respect to temperature in BiFeO3 and BiFe0.95Zn0.05O3 ceramic delivers a dielectric anomaly around 480 and 450°C which is a consequence of antiferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition (TN. Moreover, for BiFeO3 the anomaly manifests a possible coupling between electric and magnetic dipole moments.

  2. Improvement of magnetic and ferroelectric properties of BiFeO3 nanoparticles on Tb and Co substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A.; De, S.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Das, D.

    2016-05-01

    Tb and Co substituted bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) with chemical composition Bi1-xTbxFe1-yCoyO3 (x = 0, 0.05; y = 0, 0.05) have been synthesized by a sol-gel method and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer spectroscopy, dc magnetization and electric polarization measurements. The aim of the present work is to improve ferroelectric properties of BiFeO3 by substitution of Tb3+ ions in Bi3+ site and magnetic properties by substitution of Co2+ in Fe3+ site. The XRD patterns of all prepared samples show formation of the desired phase along with a small amount of impurity. Room temperature Mossbauer spectroscopic studies reveal that all samples are in magnetically ordered state. Magnetic hysteresis loops of all samples indicate a significant enhancement of magnetic moment and coercivity whereas electric polarization measurements at room temperature reveal an improvement of ferroelectric properties in the co-substituted sample.

  3. Enhanced photovoltaic effect in BiVO4 semiconductor by incorporation with an ultrathin BiFeO3 ferroelectric layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen; Guo, Yiping; Guo, Bing; Li, Hua; Liu, Hezhou; Joel, Thia Weikang

    2013-08-14

    The photovoltaic effect of BiVO4 semiconductor was investigated by incorporating an ultrathin BiFeO3 ferroelectric layer. It is found that the ultrathin ferroelectric layer with strong self-polarization and high carrier density is desirable to enhance the photovoltaic effect and to manipulate the photovoltaic polarity of the semiconductors. The photovoltage increases by 5-fold to 1 V, and the photocurrent density increases by 2-fold to 140 μA/cm(2), in which the photovoltage is the highest compared with the reported values in polycrystalline and epitaxial ferroelectric thin film solar cells. The mechanism for the observed effect is discussed on the basis of a polarization-induced Schottky-like barrier at the BiFeO3/fluorine doped tin oxide interface. Our work provides good guidance for fabrication of cost-effective semiconductor photovoltaic devices with high performance, and this kind of ultrathin ferroelectric film may also have promising applications in copper indium gallium selenide solar cell, dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cell, lighting emitting diode, and other photoelectron related devices.

  4. Electrical Control of Antiferromagnetic Domains in Multiferroic BiFeO3 Films at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-03

    Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California 94720, USA 3Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada (CCMC)-UNAM Km 107, Carretera...b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 ARTICLES O Fe Bi 18 0° 109° 71...antiferromagnetic ordering is G-type; that is nearest- neighbour Fe moments are aligned antiparallel to each other in all three cartesian directions13. In bulk

  5. Ferroelectric BiFeO3as an Oxide Dye in Highly Tunable Mesoporous All-Oxide Photovoltaic Heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Lingfei

    2016-10-12

    As potential photovoltaic materials, transition-metal oxides such as BiFeO3 (BFO) are capable of absorbing a substantial portion of solar light and incorporating ferroic orders into solar cells with enhanced performance. But the photovoltaic application of BFO has been hindered by low energy-conversion efficiency due to poor carrier transport and collection. In this work, a new approach of utilizing BFO as a light-absorbing sensitizer is developed to interface with charge-transporting TiO2 nanoparticles. This mesoporous all-oxide architecture, similar to that of dye-sensitized solar cells, can effectively facilitate the extraction of photocarriers. Under the standard AM1.5 (100 mW cm−2) irradiation, the optimized cell shows an open-circuit voltage of 0.67 V, which can be enhanced to 1.0 V by tailoring the bias history. A fill factor of 55% is achieved, which is much higher than those in previous reports on BFO-based photovoltaic devices. The results provide here a new viable approach toward developing highly tunable and stable photovoltaic devices based on ferroelectric transition-metal oxides.

  6. Ferroelectric BiFeO3 as an Oxide Dye in Highly Tunable Mesoporous All-Oxide Photovoltaic Heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingfei; Ma, He; Chang, Lei; Ma, Chun; Yuan, Guoliang; Wang, Junling; Wu, Tom

    2017-01-01

    As potential photovoltaic materials, transition-metal oxides such as BiFeO3 (BFO) are capable of absorbing a substantial portion of solar light and incorporating ferroic orders into solar cells with enhanced performance. But the photovoltaic application of BFO has been hindered by low energy-conversion efficiency due to poor carrier transport and collection. In this work, a new approach of utilizing BFO as a light-absorbing sensitizer is developed to interface with charge-transporting TiO2 nanoparticles. This mesoporous all-oxide architecture, similar to that of dye-sensitized solar cells, can effectively facilitate the extraction of photocarriers. Under the standard AM1.5 (100 mW cm(-2) ) irradiation, the optimized cell shows an open-circuit voltage of 0.67 V, which can be enhanced to 1.0 V by tailoring the bias history. A fill factor of 55% is achieved, which is much higher than those in previous reports on BFO-based photovoltaic devices. The results provide here a new viable approach toward developing highly tunable and stable photovoltaic devices based on ferroelectric transition-metal oxides.

  7. Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of photo-induced structural changes in BiFeO3 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Marcus C.; Parsons, Aaron; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Multiferroic materials that exhibit coupling between ferroelectric and magnetic properties are of considerable utility for technological applications and are also interesting from a fundamental standpoint. When reduced to the nanoscale, multiferroic materials often display additional functionality that is dominated by interfacial and confinement effects. Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) is one such material with room temperature anti-ferromagnetic and ferroelectric ordering. Optical excitation of BiFeO3 crystals results in an elastic structural deformation of the lattice with a fast response on the pico-second time scale. Here we report on dynamic measurements to investigate the structural properties of BiFeO3 nanoscale crystals using laser excitation and three-dimensional Bragg coherent x-ray diffraction imaging. Tensile strain beyond 8 × {10}-2 was observed predominantly at the surface of the nanoscale crystal as evidenced in the reconstructed phase information and was correlated to photo-induced lattice deformation.

  8. Effect of cooling rate on phase transitions and ferroelectric properties in 0.75BiFeO3-0.25BaTiO3 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Su; Cheon, Chae Il; Lee, Seong Su; Kim, Jeong Seog

    2016-11-01

    The effect of the cooling rate on the electrical properties was investigated in the 0.75BiFeO3-0.25BaTiO3 ceramics. The air-quenched samples had superior ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties to the slowly cooled samples. The quenching effect weakened when the quenching temperature was less than 700 °C and eventually disappeared at 500 °C and below. The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that the cooling rate had a significant effect on the crystal structure and domain structure. The slowly cooled sample showed a very small rhombohedral distortion and a poorly developed domain structure, which leads to weak ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties at room temperature. The quenched and slowly cooled samples had a ferroelectric rhombohedral structure (R3c) at room temperature and a paraelectric cubic structure (Pm-3m) at temperatures above 650 °C. On the other hand, the slowly cooled sample had a centro-symmetric orthorhombic (Pbnm) structure at intermediate temperatures, while the quenched sample had a noncentrosymmetric orthorhombic structure (Amm2). The diffusion of oxygen vacancies in the slowly cooled sample is believed to lead to a more symmetric orthorhombic structure at intermediate temperatures between 500 °C and 650 °C during the slow-cooling process and consequently very small rhombohedral distortion at room temperature.

  9. Influence of Ti substitution on the electrical properties of metal-ferroelectric (BiFeO3)-insulator (HfO2)-silicon structures for nonvolatile memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi-Chun Juan, Trevor; Liu, Yu-Wei

    2011-05-01

    Metal-ferroelectric (Ti-substituted BiFeO3)-insulator (HfO2)-semiconductor structures have been fabricated via the cosputtering technique. Ti4+ substitution at the Fe site was investigated through x-ray photoelectron spectra and x-ray diffraction patterns at postannealing temperatures of 500 to 700 °C. The capacitance-voltage memory windows as functions of the insulator film thickness and the dc power for Ti were measured and compared. A memory window of 3.1 V was obtained at a sweep voltage of 8 V under O2-rich conditions. The leakage current and the charge injection effect, especially gate injection, can be greatly improved by Ti substitution. The effects of the postannealing temperature and the substitution amount on the leakage current can be well explained by the defect reaction model.

  10. Structural, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of Lead-Free Ferroelectric Bi0.5K0.5TiO3 Solid Solution with BiFeO3 Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Nguyen Hoang; Bac, Luong Huu; Cuong, Le Viet; Van Thiet, Duong; Van Tam, Tran; Dung, Dang Duc

    2017-02-01

    A solid solution of Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-BiFeO3 was fabricated by a sol-gel technique. The pure Bi0.5K0.5TO3 samples exhibited weak room-temperature ferromagnetism. The room-temperature ferromagnetism was observed in BiFeO3 solid solution in Bi0.5K0.5TiO3. The optical band gap of Bi0.5K0.5TiO3 was reduced from 3.22 eV to 1.39 eV with the increase in the amount of BiFeO3 solid solution. The room-temperature ferromagnetism and band gap reduction were attributed to the diffusion of BiFeO3 into Bi0.5K0.5TiO3 to form a solid solution. Our work provided a simple method of realizing room-temperature ferromagnetism in lead-free ferroelectric materials.

  11. Structural and electronic transformation pathways in morphotropic BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P.; Heo, Y.; Jang, B.-K.; Liu, Y. Y.; Li, J. Y.; Yang, C.-H.; Seidel, J.

    2016-09-01

    Phase boundaries in multiferroics, in which (anti-)ferromagnetic, ferroelectric and ferroelastic order parameters coexist, enable manipulation of magnetism and electronic properties by external electric fields through switching of the polarization in the material. It has been shown that the strain-driven morphotropic phase boundaries in a single-phase multiferroic such as BiFeO3 (BFO) can exhibit distinct electronic conductivity. However, the control of ferroelectric and phase switching and its correlation with phase boundary conductivity in this material has been a significant challenge. Supported by a thermodynamic approach, here we report a concept to precisely control different switching pathways and the associated control of electronic conductivity in mixed phase BFO. This work demonstrates a critical step to control and use non-volatile strain-conductivity coupling at the nanoscale. Beyond this observation, it provides a framework for exploring a route to control multiple order parameters coupled to ferroelastic and ferroelectric order in multiferroic materials.

  12. Multi-stimuli manipulation of antiferromagnetic domains assessed by second-harmonic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauleau, J.-Y.; Haltz, E.; Carrétéro, C.; Fusil, S.; Viret, M.

    2017-08-01

    Among the variety of magnetic textures available in nature, antiferromagnetism is one of the most `discrete' because of the exact cancellation of its staggered internal magnetization. It is therefore very challenging to probe. However, its insensitivity to external magnetic perturbations, together with the intrinsic sub-picosecond dynamics, make it very appealing for tomorrow's information technologies. Thus, it is essential to understand the microscopic mechanisms governing antiferromagnetic domains to achieve accurate manipulation and control. Using optical second-harmonic generation, a unique and laboratory-available tool, we succeeded in imaging with sub-micrometre resolution both electric and antiferromagnetic orders in the model multiferroic BiFeO3. We show here that antiferromagnetic domains can be manipulated with low power consumption, using sub-coercive electric fields and sub-picosecond light pulses. Interestingly, we also show that antiferromagnetic and ferroelectric domains can behave independently, thus revealing that magneto-electric coupling can lead to various arrangements of the two orders.

  13. Strain Effects of the Structural Characteristics of Ferroelectric Transition in Single-Domain Epitaxial BiFeO3 Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yang; PENG Xing-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Structural characteristics of phase transition in single-domain epitaxial BiFeOz films are studied by the Landau-Devonshire theory. It is predicted that remanent polarization shows strong strain dependence for different temperatures while spontaneous polarization is almost independent of strain over a wide temperature (0-500 °C). We also obtain the thickness dependence of the c-axis lattice parameter and Curie temperature, and make a comparison between the polarization rotation angle and the angle attributed to the structural evolution in epitaxial (001)p BiFeOa h'lms grown on SrTiO3 substrates. The theoretical results are in agreement with recent experimental and theoretical data. Our calculations show that the clamping effect should also be taken into account in order to depict the mechanism of the polarization rotation completely.%@@ Structural characteristics of phase transition in single-domain epitaxial BiFeO films are studied by the Landau- Devonshire theory.It is predicted that remanent polarization shows strong strain dependence for different tem- peratures while spontaneous polarization is almost independent of strain over a wide temperature (0-500 ℃).We also obtain the thickness dependence of the c-axis lattice parameter and Curie temperature, and make a compari- son between the polarization rotation angle and the angle attributed to the structural evolution in epitaxial (001) BiFeO films grown on SrTiO substrates.The theoretical results are in agreement with recent experimental and theoretical data.Our calculations show that the damping effect should also be taken into account in order to depict the mechanism of the poIarization rotation completely.

  14. Antiferromagnetic spin cantings as a driving force of ferroelectricity in multiferroic Cu2OSeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhikov, Viacheslav A.; Dmitrienko, Vladimir E.

    2017-04-01

    Ferroelectric properties of cubic chiral magnet Cu2OSeO3 can emerge due to the spin noncollinearity induced by antiferromagnetic cantings. The cantings are the result of the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction and in many ways similar to the ferromagnetic cantings in weak ferromagnets. An expression for the local electric polarization is derived, including terms with gradients of magnetization \\mathbf{M}≤ft(\\mathbf{r}\\right) . When averaged over the crystal the electric polarization has a non-vanishing part associated with the anisotropy of the crystal point group 23. In the framework of the microscopic theory, it is shown that both scalar and vector products of spins, ≤ft({{\\mathbf{s}}1}\\cdot {{\\mathbf{s}}2}\\right) and ≤ft[{{\\mathbf{s}}1}× {{\\mathbf{s}}2}\\right] , can give contributions of the same order of magnitude into the electric polarization.

  15. Optical, ferroelectric and magnetic properties of multiferroelectric BiFeO3-(K0.5Na0.5)0.4(Sr 0.6Ba0.4)0.8Nb2O6 thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yingbang

    2014-02-01

    Multiferroic BiFeO3-(K0.5Na0.5) 0.4(Sr0.6Ba0.4)0.8Nb 2O6 (BFO-KNSBN) trilayer thin films, were epitaxially grown on MgO(0 0 1) and SrTiO3(0 0 1) by using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Their ferroelectric, magnetic, dielectric and optical properties were investigated. It was found that both ferroelectric polarization and dielectric constant of the films were enhanced by introducing KNSBN as a barrier layer. Meanwhile, ferromagnetism of BFO was maintained. More interestingly, a double hysteresis magnetic loop was observed in the KNSBN-BFO-KNSBN trilayer films, where exchange bias and secondary phase in the BFO layer played crucial roles. Interactions between adjacent layers were revealed by temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopic measurements. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of electromagnetic properties of BiFeO3 by Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation (TDPAC) technique at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Efe, Ipek

    2017-01-01

    Time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) technique is one of the most sensitive techniques to study about the electric and magnetic fields at the individual lattice points. It benefits from the hyperfine interactions between the probe atom and its neighborhood. Multiferroic materials have been intensively studied to promote and understand the possibility of controlling magnetic properties by electric fields instead of magnetic fields which opens the path to faster, smaller, and more energy-efficient spintronic devices, such as memory elements, high-frequency magnetic devices, and micro-electro-mechanical systems, for data-storage technologies. BiFeO3 is one of the famous and important multiferroic materials since it shows both antiferromagnetic and ferroelectric behavior at room temperature. In this study, we report on the first time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) measurements carried out on polycrystalline BiFeO3 samples using the nuclear probe 181Hf(181Ta) after implantati...

  17. Electrical conductivity and thermopower of (1 - x) BiFeO(3) - xBi(0.5)K(0.5)TiO3 (x = 0.1, 0.2) ceramics near the ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefring, E T; Einarsrud, M-A; Grande, T

    2015-04-14

    Ferroelectric BiFeO3 has attractive properties such as high strain and polarization, but a wide range of applications of bulk BiFeO3 are hindered due to high leakage currents and a high coercive electric field. Here, we report on the thermal behaviour of the electrical conductivity and thermopower of BiFeO3 substituted with 10 and 20 mol% Bi0.5K0.5TiO3. A change from p-type to n-type conductivity in these semi-conducting materials was demonstrated by the change in the sign of the Seebeck coefficient and the change in the slope of the isothermal conductivity versus partial pressure of O. A minimum in the isothermal conductivity was observed at ∼10(-2) bar O2 partial pressure for both solid solutions. The strong dependence of the conductivity on the partial pressure of O2 was rationalized by a point defect model describing qualitatively the conductivity involving oxidation/reduction of Fe(3+), the dominating oxidation state of Fe in stoichiometric BiFeO3. The ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition of 80 and 90 mol% BiFeO3 was observed at 648 ± 15 and 723 ± 15 °C respectively by differential thermal analysis and confirmed by dielectric spectroscopy and high temperature powder X-ray diffraction.

  18. Electrical conduction mechanism in BiFeO3-based ferroelectric thin-film capacitors: Impact of Mn doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Matsuo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical conduction properties of SrRuO3(SRO/BiFeO3(BFO/SRO and SRO/10% Mn-doped BFO(BFMO/SRO ferroelectric thin-film capacitors are investigated. The BFO capacitors exhibit a switchable diode effect accompanied by a conduction change from ohmic to space-charge-limited current with increasing external field. In contrast, the BFMO capacitors show only an ohmic conduction, arising from a considerable reduction in depletion layer width at the SRO/BFMO interfaces. These results suggest that the diode property can be tuned by Mn content in the BFO film. Our study opens the possibility of controlling the diode effect in BFO-based devices by a dilute Mn doping.

  19. Inversion of Ferrimagnetic Magnetization by Ferroelectric Switching via a Novel Magnetoelectric Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yakui; Lin, Lingfang; Dagotto, Elbio; Dong, Shuai

    2016-07-01

    Although several multiferroic materials or heterostructures have been extensively studied, finding strong magnetoelectric couplings for the electric field control of the magnetization remains challenging. Here, a novel interfacial magnetoelectric coupling based on three components (ferroelectric dipole, magnetic moment, and antiferromagnetic order) is analytically formulated. As an extension of carrier-mediated magnetoelectricity, the new coupling is shown to induce an electric-magnetic hysteresis loop. Realizations employing BiFeO3 bilayers grown along the [111] axis are proposed. Without involving magnetic phase transitions, the magnetization orientation can be switched by the carrier modulation driven by the field effect, as confirmed using first-principles calculations.

  20. Effects of Nb doping on the microstructure, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of 0.7BiFeO$_3$–0.3BaTiO$_3$ lead-free ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    XIAOLAN WU; LINGLING LUO; NA JIANG; XIAOCHUN WU; QIAOJI ZHENG

    2016-06-01

    Donor-doped lead-free Bi$_{0.7}$Ba$_{0.3}$(Fe$_{0.7}$Ti$_{0.3}$)$_{1−x}$Nb$_{0.66x}$O$_{3}$ + 1 mol% MnO$_2$ ceramics were prepared by a conventional oxide-mixed method and the effects of Nb-doping on microstructure, piezoelectric and ferroelectricproperties of the ceramics were investigated. All the ceramics exhibit a pure perovskite structure with rhombohedral symmetry. The grain growth of the ceramics is inhibited after the addition of Nb doping. High electricinsulation ($R = 10^9–10^{10}$ $\\Omega$·cm) and the poor piezoelectric performance and weak ferroelectricity are observed after the addition of Nb$_2$O$_5$ in the ceramics. Different from the donor effect of Pb-based perovskite ceramics, the introduction of Nb into 0.7BiFeO$_3$–0.3BaTiO$_3$ degrades the piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity of the ceramics. The Bi$_{0.7}$Ba$_{0.3}$(Fe$_{0.7}$Ti$_{0.3}$)$_{1−x}$Nb$_{0.66}$xO$_3$ + 1 mol% MnO2 ceramic with $x = 0$ exhibits the optimum piezoelectric properties with $d_{33} = 133$ pN C$^{−1}$ and $k_p = 0.29$ and high Curie temperature ($T_C = 603^{\\circ}$C).

  1. The Effect of Gd/Nd Doping on Phase Structure and Ferroelectric Properties of BiFeO3 Ceramics%Gd/Nd掺杂对BiFeO3结构和铁电性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海宁; 陈镇平; 王春梅; 李涛; 代海洋

    2011-01-01

    采用快速液相烧结工艺制备了多铁陶瓷材料Bi1-xGdxFeO3(x=0.00,0.05,0.10,0.15)和Bi1-xNdxFeO3(x=0.00,0.05,0.10),研究了稀土离子Gd/Nd掺杂对多铁材料BiFeO3相结构和铁电性能的影响.X射线衍射谱显示对于Gd/Nd掺杂Bi1-xRxFeO3体系,适量掺杂有助于消除体系中的杂相;随着掺杂量的增加,体系的相结构有从菱方钙钛矿向三斜转变的趋势.电滞回线测试结果表明稀土掺杂改善了BiFeO3的铁电性能,掺杂后样品的剩余极化强度均有不同程度的提高.通过比较Gd/Nd掺杂体系的剩余极化强度,分析了样品铁电性的改善与掺杂稀土离子半径之间的关联.%Multiferroic ceramic samples of Bi1-xGdxFeO3(x=0. 00,0. 05,0. 10,0. 15) and Bi1-xNdxFeO3 (x = 0. 00,0. 05,0. 10) have been prepared by the rapid liquid phase sintering technique. The effects of Gd/Nd substitution on phase structure and ferroelectric properties of multiferroic BiFeO3 ceramics are investigated. XRD results show that the appropriate doping content of Gd/Nd could be helpful to reduce impurity phases for Bi1-xRxFeO3 samples. The phase structure has a tendency from rhombohedral structure to triclinic structure with increasing x. Experimental results of hysteresis loop suggest that the ferroelectric properties of BiFeO3 are improved and the remanent polarization is increased by doping. By comparing the the rem-anent polarization of Gd and Nd doping samples, the relationship between the ferroelectric properties and the radius of rare-earth ions is analyzed.

  2. Improved multiferroic properties of La-doped 0.6BiFeO3-0.4SrTiO3 solid solution ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Zheng-Zheng; Li Jian-Qing; Tian Zhao-Ming; Qiu Yang; Yuan Song-Liu

    2012-01-01

    The 0.6(Bi1-xLax)FeO3-0.4SrTiO3 (x =0,0.1) multiferroic ceramics are prepared by a modified Pechini method to study the effect of substitution of SrTiO3 and La in BiFeO3.The X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the single phase characteristics of all the compositions each with a rhombohedral structure. The magnetic properties of the ceramics are significantly improved by a solid solution with SrTiO3 and substitution of La.The values of the dielectric constant εr and loss tangent tan δ of all the samples decrease with increasing frequency and become constant at room temperature.The La-doped 0.6BiFeO3-0.4SrTiO3 ceramics exhibit improved dielectric and ferroelectric properties,with higher dielectric constant enhanced remnant polarization (Pr) and lower leakage current at room temperature.Compared with a anti-ferromagnetic BiFeO3 compound,the 0.6(Bi0.9La0.1)FeO3-0.4SrTiO3 sample shows the optimal ferromagnetism with remnant magnetization Mr ~ 0.135 emμ/g and ferroelectricity with Pr ~ 5.94 μC/cm2 at room temperature.

  3. Thickness-dependent retention behaviors and ferroelectric properties of BiFeO3 thin films on BaPbO3 electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Ching; Wu, Jenn-Ming

    2007-09-01

    BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films produced with varied film thicknesses ranging from 100to230nm were fabricated on BaPbO3(BPO )/Pt/Ti/SiOx/Si substrates by rf-magnetron sputtering. Saturated polarization-electrical field hysteresis loops, polarization response by pulse measurement, and retention properties were obtained for BFO films with various thicknesses on BPO. The retention behaviors of BFO demonstrate logarithmic time dependence and stretched exponential law. When the thicknesses of BFO films increase, the contribution of logarithmic time dependence to retention, the stretched exponential law becomes dominant. BFO films with thinner thickness exhibit better retention properties but possess smaller remnant polarization.

  4. Variation of Piezoelectric properties and mechanisms across the relaxor-like/Ferroelectric continuum in BiFeO3- (K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-PbTiO3 ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, James; Shrout, Thomas R; Zhang, Shujun; Owston, Heather E; Stevenson, Tim J; Esat, Faye; Bell, Andrew J; Comyn, T P

    2015-01-01

    1- x - y)BiFeO3-x(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-yPbTiO3 (BFKBT- PT) piezoelectric ceramics were investigated across the compositional space and contrasted against the xBiFeO3- (1-x)(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 (BF-KBT) system, whereby a range of relaxor-like/ferroelectric behavior was observed. Structural and piezoelectric properties were closely related to the PbTiO3 concentration; below a critical concentration, relaxor-like behavior was identified. The mechanisms governing the piezoelectric behavior were investigated with structural, electrical, and imaging techniques. X-ray diffraction established that longrange non-centrosymmetric crystallographic order was evident above a critical PbTiO3 concentration, y > 0.1125. Commensurate with the structural analysis, electric-field-induced strain responses showed electrostrictive behavior in the PbTiO3-reduced compositions, with increased piezoelectric switching in PbTiO3-rich compositions. Positive-up-negative-down (PUND) analysis was used to confirm electric-field-induced polarization measurements, elucidating that the addition of PbTiO3 increased the switchable polarization and ferroelectric ordering. Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) of the BF-KBT-PT system exhibited typical domain patterns above a critical PbTiO3 threshold, with no ferroelectric domains observed in the BF-KBT system in the pseudocubic region. Doping of BiFeO3-PbTiO3 has been unsuccessful in the search for hightemperature materials that offer satisfactory piezoelectric properties; however, this system demonstrates that the partial substitution of alternative end-members can be an effective method. The partial substitution of PbTiO3 into BF-KBT enables long-range non-centrosymmetric crystallographic order, resulting in increased polar order and TC, compared with the pseudocubic region. The search for novel high-temperature piezoelectric ceramics can therefore exploit the accommodating nature of the perovskite family, which allows significant variance in chemical and physical

  5. Magnetoelectric properties of flexible BiFeO3/Ni tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, L.; Zhuo, M.; Wang, Z.; Yao, J.; Haberkorn, N.; Zhang, S.; Civale, L.; Li, J.; Viehland, D.; Jia, Q. X.

    2012-07-01

    We report ferroelectric (FE), ferromagnetic, and magnetoelectric (ME) properties of BiFeO3 films directly deposited on flexible magnetic Ni tapes. Without use of metal-oxide and/or noble metal buffer layer between the BiFeO3 and the Ni, both ferroelectric and magnetic properties of the film and the substrate are preserved. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses confirm the formation of preferentially oriented (110) BiFeO3 film on Ni tapes. The BiFeO3 film has a saturation polarization and a piezoelectric d33 coefficient of 69 μC/cm2 and 52 pm/V, respectively. The BiFeO3/Ni tape shows a magnetoelectric coefficient of 3.5 mV/cm.Oe.

  6. Ferroelectric polarization in the magnetic world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hee

    2011-03-01

    Switchable spontaneous polarization in ferroelectrics is produced by a structural distortion of a high-symmetry reference phase which lowers the symmetry to a polar space group. Under certain conditions, this structural distortion and symmetry breaking can also induce ferromagnetism and other changes, such as a metal-insulator transition, allowing the possibility of electric and magnetic field control. In this talk, I will present first-principles illustrations of specific materials realizations of the rich variety of this behavior in magnetic perovskite oxides, identified using a database of first-principles calculations of the full phonon dispersions of a range of magnetic perovskites, including the d3 compounds SrMnO3and SrCaO3, the d5 compounds BiFeO3, and the series SrMO3 (M= V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co). First, I will discuss an epitaxial-strain-induced multiferroic phase produced by large spin-phonon coupling in SrMnO3. Then, I will turn to colossal magnetoresistance based on a ferromagnetic- metal/antiferromagnetic-ferroelectric phase boundary with epitaxial strain in SrCoO3, which exhibits typical ferromagnetic metallic character in room-temperature but with a large spin-phonon coupling by which antiferromagnetic ordering favors a polar distortion. Lastly, I will discuss the identification of perovskite superlattice systems in which the symmetry lowering produced layer-by-layer ordering produces a phase with ferroelectrically-induced weak ferromagnetism. I will present first-principles calculations demonstrating these behaviors in BaMnO3/SrMnO3 superlattices and other systems which could provide robust experimental realizations.

  7. Domain Selectivity in BiFeO3 Thin Films by Modified Substrate Termination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solmaz, Alim; Huijben, Mark; Koster, Gertjan; Egoavil, Ricardo; Gauquelin, Nicolas; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Verbeeck, Jo; Noheda, Beatriz; Rijnders, Guus

    2016-01-01

    Ferroelectric domain formation is an essential feature in ferroelectric thin films. These domains and domain walls can be manipulated depending on the growth conditions. In rhombohedral BiFeO3 thin films, the ordering of the domains and the presence of specific types of domain walls play a crucial r

  8. Enhanced Magnetic and Ferroelectric Properties and Current-Voltage Hysteresis by Addition of La and Ti to BiFeO3 on 0.7%Nb-SrTiO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Hong; ZHAO Yong-Gang

    2011-01-01

    By adding La and Ti, we improve the magnetic and ferroelectric properties of BiQ.sLa0.2Feo.g2Ti0.08O3 and Bio.sLa0.2FeO3 Rims on 0.7%Nb-SrTiO3. In Bio.8La0.2Feo.92Ti0.08O3 and Bio.sLa0.2FeOa, the saturation magnetization and the coercivity are several times higher than those in BiFeO3. The La and Ti additions reduce the leakage current, and increase the remnant electric polarization. A resistance switching is observed in Bio.8Lao.2Feo.92Tio.o803/0.7%Nb-SrTi03 and Bi0.8La0.2FeO3/0.7%Nb-SrTiO3 interfaces. Also, it is observed that Bio.sLao.2Feo.92 Ti0.08O3/0.7%Nb-SrTiO3 has a wider current-voltage hysteresis and a larger resistance difference than Bi0.sLao.2Fe03/0.7%Nb-SrTi03. In the interface of Bi0.8Lao.2Fe0.92Ti0.08 O3/0.7%JVb-SrTiO3, the ratio of high to low resistance is 103 and 105 times, at 300K and 10 K, respectively. The voltage pulses can switch the resistance to vary in the 2 states. The transport mechanisms show that a trap-controlled space-charge-limited current induces current-voltage hysteresis and resistance switching. The current of Bio.8Lao.2Feo.g2 Tio.os O3/0.7%Nb-SrTiO3 decays with the Curie-Von Schweidler law.%@@ By adding La and Ti, we improve the magnetic and ferroelectric properties of BiLaFeTiO and BiLaFeO films on 0.7%Nb-SrTiO.In BiLaFeTiO and BiLaFeO, the saturation mag- netization and the coercivity are several times higher than those in BiFeO.The La and Ti additions re- duce the leakage current, and increase the remnant electric polarization.A resistance switching is observed in BiLaFe TiO/0.7%Nb-SrTiO and BiLaFeO/0.7%Nb-SrTiO interfaces.Also, it is observed that BiLaFe TiO/0.7%Nb-SrTiO has a wider current-voltage hysteresis and a larger resistance differ- ence than BiLaFeO/0.7%Nb-SrTiO.In the interface of BiLaFeTiO/0.7%Nb-SrTiO, the ratio of high to low resistance is 10 and 10 times, at 300 K and 10K, respectively.The voltage pulses can switch the resistance to vary in the 2 states.The transport mechanisms show that a trap

  9. BiFeO3 thin films: Novel effects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V R Palkar; R Pinto

    2002-05-01

    In this paper we report synthesis of phase-pure highly resistive magnetoelectric BiFeO3 thin films on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate by using pulsed laser deposition technique. For the first time saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loop has been observed. It has confirmed the presence of ferroelectricity in BiFeO3 compound. The films exhibit dielectric anomaly near Neel temperature. This anomaly is related to the influence of vanishing magnetic order on the electric order. In situ domain alignment occurs during observation of the films under transmission electron microscope.

  10. 多铁性材料BiFeO3的磁学、电学性质及磁电耦合效应%Magnetism, Ferroelectricity and Magnetoelectric Coupling of Multiferroic BiFeO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金星; 于浦

    2013-01-01

    The coexistence and coupling of the electric and magnetic order parameters can provide a novel platform to probe magne-toelectric effects in multiferroics. The potential applications of magnetoelectric coupling on future high-density, high-speed and low-energy-cost electronic devices stimulate material scientists and condense matter physicists to revisit multiferroic systems over the past decades. Owing to the high ferroelectric and Néel transition temperatures, BiFeO3 (BFO) appears to be one of the most promising candidates in the on-chip integrated magnetoelectronic devices and attracts people’s interests since 1960s. Especially, the appearance of high-quality BFO epitaxial thin films in 2003 has triggered the study of its intrinsic properties and physics behind. This article re-views the BFO research history and focuses on the cutting-edge achievements in BFO-related projects in the past decade. We mainly introduce the emerging physical phenomena from the aspects of crystalline structures, electrical/magnetic behaviors and magnetoelec-tric coupling in this multiferroic BFO, accompanying with a brief outlook in the conclusion.%  磁电多铁性材料中电荷和自旋序参量共存,并相互耦合在一起,产生磁电耦合效应。由于磁电耦合效应在未来高密度、低能耗、高读写速率器件的重要应用前景,近10年来,多铁性材料的研究成为了材料科学以及凝聚态物理领域的热点之一。BiFeO3不仅是为数不多的铁电反铁磁的多铁性材料之一,更难能可贵的是它的铁电Curie温度和反铁磁Néel温度都远高于室温。正因为如此,BiFeO3早在60多年前就受到人们的关注;但是直到2003年高质量外延薄膜的出现,才真正掀起了人们对其卓越性能和新奇物理现象研究的热潮。正是在这个背景下回顾BiFeO3的发展历史,着重介绍近10年此领域的研究成果:从晶体结构、电学性质(巨大铁电极化、电致阻

  11. Epitaxial integration of tetragonal BiFeO3 with silicon for nonvolatile memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingbin; Yin, Zhigang; Fu, Zhen; Zhao, Yajuan; Zhang, Xingwang; Liu, Xin; You, Jingbi; Li, Xingxing; Meng, Junhua; Liu, Heng; Wu, Jinliang

    2017-02-01

    Ferroelectric field-effect transistor has long been considered as a promising nonvolatile memory technology, but its application is limited by the poor scalability. Here we show that this problem can be solved by epitaxially integrating tetragonal BiFeO3, a stress-induced metastable phase which exhibits remarkably low dielectric permittivity and high coercive field, on the silicon platform. Tetragonal BiFeO3 was stabilized on (001)-oriented silicon by using Bi2SiO5, which is chemically and structurally compatible with both silicon and tetragonal BiFeO3, as the buffer layer. Unlike the commonly observed MC structure, the obtained BiFeO3 layer exhibits a true tetragonal symmetry. An unprecedented high memory window of 6.5 V was observed for the Au/BiFeO3/Bi2SiO5/Si capacitor with BiFeO3 thickness of 135 nm. The epitaxial integration of tetragonal BiFeO3 with silicon may pave a possible avenue for nanosized, power-efficient ferroelectric nonvolatile memories.

  12. Reinforced magnetic properties of Ni-doped BiFeO3 ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J. S.; Yoo, Y. J.; Lee, Y. P.; Kang, J.-H.; Lee, K. H.; Lee, B. W.; Park, S. Y.

    2016-08-01

    Multiferroic materials attract considerable interest because of the wide range of potential applications such as spintronic devices, data storage devices and sensors. As a strong candidate for the applications among the limited list of single-phase multiferroic materials, BiFeO3 (BFO) is a quite attractive material due to its multiferroic properties at room temperature (RT). However, BFO is widely known to have large leakage current and small spontaneous polarization due to the existence of crystalline defects such as oxygen vacancies. Furthermore, the magnetic moment of pure BFO is very weak owing to its antiferromagnetic nature. In this paper, the effects of Ni2+ substitution on the magnetic properties of bulk BFO were investigated. BFO, and BiFe0.99Ni0.01O3, BiFe0.98Ni0.02O3 and BiFe0.97Ni0.03O3 (BFNO: Ni-doped BFO) ceramics were prepared by solid-state reaction and rapid sintering, and analyzed by structural and magnetic-property measurements. The leakage current density was measured at RT by using a standard ferroelectric tester. All the Ni-doped BFO samples exhibited the similar rhombohedral perovskite structure ( R3c) to that of BFO. The magnetic properties of Ni-doped BFO were much enhanced with respect to BFO prepared at the same conditions, because the enhanced ferromagnetic interaction is caused by the Fe/Ni coupling.

  13. Multiferroic, magnetoelectric and optical properties of Mn doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Sunil; Kumar, Manoj; Chhoker, Sandeep; Katyal, S. C.; Singh, Hemant; Jewariya, Mukesh; Yadav, K. L.

    2012-03-01

    Mn doped BiFeO3 (5, 10 and 15 mol%) nanoparticles were synthesized using sol-gel technique. The influence of Mn doping on structural, dielectric, magnetic, magnetoelectric and optical properties of BiFeO3 was studied. Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns showed rhombohedral to orthorhombic phase transition for 15 mol% Mn doped BiFeO3 sample. Magnetic measurements revealed the enhancement of ferromagnetic property with increasing Mn doping in BiFeO3. The characteristic dielectric anomaly, expected in the vicinity of antiferromagnetic transition temperature TN (Neel temperature) was found in all Mn doped BiFeO3 samples. The magnetoelectric coupling was evidenced by the change in capacitance with the change in the applied magnetic field. On increasing Mn concentration from 5 to 15 mol% in BiFeO3, a change in magnetocapacitance from 1.46% to 2.6% showed the improvement of multiferroic properties. In order to explore the optical properties of Mn doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles, their photoluminescent properties were also investigated.

  14. Ferroelectric Domain Structure and Local Piezoelectric Properties of Lead-Free (Ka0.5Na0.5)NbO3 and BiFeO3-Based Piezoelectric Ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Alikin; Anton Turygin; Andrei Kholkin; Vladimir Shur

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of novel methods for the local characterization of ferroelectric domains open up new opportunities not only to image, but also to control and to create desired domain configurations (domain engineering). The morphotropic and polymorphic phase boundaries that are frequently used to increase the electromechanical and dielectric performance of ferroelectric ceramics have a tremendous effect on the domain structure, which can serve as a signature of complex pola...

  15. Dielectric and magnetic properties of Ta sub 2 O sub 5 -doped PrFeO sub 3 -PbTiO sub 3 and PrFeO sub 3 -BiFeO sub 3 ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, J S; Choi, Y N; Jang, P W

    2003-01-01

    Polarization-electric field (P-E) and magnetization-magnetic field (M-H) hysteresis curves have been characterized in the solid solutions of (1-x)PrFeO sub 3 -xPbTiO sub 3 +yTa sub 2 O sub 5 (y = 0-0.015 mole) and 0.2PrFeO sub 3 -0.8BiFeO sub 3. Neutron and X-ray diffraction data were collected for crystal structural analysis. The (1-x)PrFeO sub 3 -xPbTiO sub 3 were ferromagnetic at 0.2 = 0.7 from Pbnm (a = 5.552, b = 5.540 A, c = 7.833 A) to I4cm (a = b = 5.54 A, c = 7.841A) The structural analysis indicates that the solid solutions are ferroelectric only at x > 0.6. The 0.2PrFeO sub 3 -0.8BiFeO sub 3 showed a spontaneous magnetization of 0.3 emu/g at room temperature and remanent polarization P sub r of 0.6 mu C/cm sup 2. Addition of Ta sub 2 O sub 5 substantially changed the magnetic properties. The antiferromagnetic ordering is considered not to have a direct relationship with the weak ferromagnetism observed in this system. (author)

  16. Ferroelectric control of a Mott insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Marinova, Maya; Altuntas, Philippe; Crassous, Arnaud; Bégon-Lours, Laura; Fusil, Stéphane; Jacquet, Eric; Garcia, Vincent; Bouzehouane, Karim; Gloter, Alexandre; Villegas, Javier E; Barthélémy, Agnès; Bibes, Manuel

    2013-10-03

    The electric field control of functional properties is an important goal in oxide-based electronics. To endow devices with memory, ferroelectric gating is interesting, but usually weak compared to volatile electrolyte gating. Here, we report a very large ferroelectric field-effect in perovskite heterostructures combining the Mott insulator CaMnO3 and the ferroelectric BiFeO3 in its "supertetragonal" phase. Upon polarization reversal of the BiFeO3 gate, the CaMnO3 channel resistance shows a fourfold variation around room temperature, and a tenfold change at ~200 K. This is accompanied by a carrier density modulation exceeding one order of magnitude. We have analyzed the results for various CaMnO3 thicknesses and explain them by the electrostatic doping of the CaMnO3 layer and the presence of a fixed dipole at the CaMnO3/BiFeO3 interface. Our results suggest the relevance of ferroelectric gates to control orbital- or spin-ordered phases, ubiquitous in Mott systems, and pave the way toward efficient Mott-tronics devices.

  17. Effect of KNbO3 modification on structural, electrical and magnetic properties of BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Swagatika; Choudhary, R. N. P.; Das, Piyush R.; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-03-01

    The polycrystalline samples of (Bi1- x K x ) (Fe1- x Nb x ) O3 (BKFN) for x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 were synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. The X-ray diffraction patterns of BKFN exhibit that the addition of KNbO3 in BiFeO3 gradually changes its structure from rhombohedral to pseudocubic. The analysis of scanning electron micrograph clearly showed that the sintered samples have well-defined and uniformly distributed grains. Addition of KNbO3 to BiFeO3 enhances the dielectric, ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties of BiFeO3. Detailed studies of impedance and related parameters of BKFN using the complex impedance spectroscopic technique exhibit the significant contributions of grain and grain boundaries in the resistive and transport properties of the materials. Some oxygen vacancies created in the ceramic samples during high-temperature processing play an important role in the conduction mechanism. The leakage current or tangent loss of BiFeO3 is greatly reduced on addition of KNbO3 to the parent compound BiFeO3. Preliminary studies of ferroelectric and magnetic characteristics of the samples reveal the existence of ferroelectric, and weak ferromagnetic ordered ceramics.

  18. Anomalous sound velocity in multiferroic BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xian-Sheng; Ji, Gao-Feng; Jiang, Xing-Fang

    2016-11-01

    The sound velocity in multiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO) is studied with using Green's function technology on the basis of the magnetoelectric coupling, the spin-phonon interaction and the anharmonic phonon-phonon interaction. The Heisenberg-like model is employed to describe the magnetic subsystem, and the transverse Ising model is used to explain the ferroelectric subsystem. The reduced velocity is obtained in the limit of zero wave vectors. It is shown that the reduced velocity of sound in BiFeO3 exhibits a kink at the magnetic phase transition temperature TN. This anomaly in reduced velocity can be explained as an influence of vanishing magnetic ordering above TN and the ferroelectric subsystem can not be influenced by the magnetic subsystem above TN due to TN≪TC in the BFO. It is shown that the influence of the RM is only below TN in the phase where ferroelectric and magnetic properties exist together, whereas the RE influences the properties of the reduced velocity in the whole temperature region (T

  19. Antiferromagnetic spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungwirth, T; Marti, X; Wadley, P; Wunderlich, J

    2016-03-01

    Antiferromagnetic materials are internally magnetic, but the direction of their ordered microscopic moments alternates between individual atomic sites. The resulting zero net magnetic moment makes magnetism in antiferromagnets externally invisible. This implies that information stored in antiferromagnetic moments would be invisible to common magnetic probes, insensitive to disturbing magnetic fields, and the antiferromagnetic element would not magnetically affect its neighbours, regardless of how densely the elements are arranged in the device. The intrinsic high frequencies of antiferromagnetic dynamics represent another property that makes antiferromagnets distinct from ferromagnets. Among the outstanding questions is how to manipulate and detect the magnetic state of an antiferromagnet efficiently. In this Review we focus on recent works that have addressed this question. The field of antiferromagnetic spintronics can also be viewed from the general perspectives of spin transport, magnetic textures and dynamics, and materials research. We briefly mention this broader context, together with an outlook of future research and applications of antiferromagnetic spintronics.

  20. Ultrathin limit and dead-layer effects in local polarization switching of BiFeO3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maksymovych, P.; Huijben, Mark; Pan, M.; Jesse, S.; Balke, N.; Chu, Y.H.; Chang, H.J.; Borisevich, A.Y.; Baddorf, A.P.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Blank, David H.A.; Ramesh, R.; Kalinin, S.V.

    2012-01-01

    Using piezoresponse force microscopy in an ultrahigh vacuum, polarization switching has been detected and quantified in epitaxial BiFeO3 films from 200 to about 4 unit cells thick. Local remnant piezoresponse was utilized to probe both ferroelectric properties and effects of imperfect electrical

  1. Local leakage current behaviours of BiFeO3 films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Cheng; Chen Bin; Zhu Xiao-Jian; Zuo Zheng-Hu; Liu Yi-Wei; Chen Yuan-Fu; Zhan Qing-Feng; Li Run-Wei

    2011-01-01

    The leakage current behaviours of polycrystalline BiFeO3 thin films are investigated by using both conductive atomic force microscopy and current-voltage characteristic measurements.The local charge transport pathways are found to be located mainly at the grain boundaries of the films.The leakage current density can be tuned by changing the post-annealing temperature,the annealing time,the bias voltage and the light illumination,which can be used to improve the performances of the ferroelectric devices based on the BiFeO3 films.A possible leakage mechanism is proposed to interpret the charge transports in the polycrystalline BiFeO3 films.

  2. Spontaneous vortex nanodomain arrays at ferroelectric heterointerfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Christopher T; Winchester, Benjamin; Zhang, Yi; Kim, Sung-Joo; Melville, Alexander; Adamo, Carolina; Folkman, Chad M; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Eom, Chang-Beom; Schlom, Darrell G; Chen, Long-Qing; Pan, Xiaoqing

    2011-02-09

    The polarization of the ferroelectric BiFeO(3) sub-jected to different electrical boundary conditions by heterointerfaces is imaged with atomic resolution using a spherical aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope. Unusual triangular-shaped nanodomains are seen, and their role in providing polarization closure is understood through phase-field simulations. Heterointerfaces are key to the performance of ferroelectric devices, and this first observation of spontaneous vortex nanodomain arrays at ferroelectric heterointerfaces reveals properties unlike the surrounding film including mixed Ising-Néel domain walls, which will affect switching behavior, and a drastic increase of in-plane polarization. The importance of magnetization closure has long been appreciated in multidomain ferromagnetic systems; imaging this analogous effect with atomic resolution at ferroelectric heterointerfaces provides the ability to see device-relevant interface issues. Extension of this technique to visualize domain dynamics is envisioned.

  3. Induced Ferromagnetism at BiFeO3/YBa2Cu3O7 Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jian-Xin; WEN, XIAO-DONG; Haraldsen, J. T.; He, Mi; C. Panagopoulos; Chia, Elbert E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Transition metal oxides (TMOs) exhibit many emergent phenomena ranging from high-temperature superconductivity and giant magnetoresistance to magnetism and ferroelectricity. In addition, when TMOs are interfaced with each other, new functionalities can arise, which are absent in individual components. Here, we report results from first-principles calculations on the magnetism at the BiFeO3/YBa2Cu3O7 interfaces. By comparing the total energy for various magnetic spin configurations inside BiFe...

  4. Epitaxial integration of a nanoscale BiFeO3 phase boundary with silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wen-I; Peng, Chun-Yen; Huang, Rong; Kuo, Wei-Cheng; Huang, Yen-Chin; Adamo, Carolina; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chang, Li; Juang, Jenh-Yih; Schlom, Darrel G; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2016-01-21

    The successful integration of the strain-driven nanoscale phase boundary of BiFeO3 onto a silicon substrate is demonstrated with extraordinary ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism. The detailed strain history is delineated through a reciprocal space mapping technique. We have found that a distorted monoclinic phase forms prior to a tetragonal-like phase, a phenomenon which may correlates with the thermal strain induced during the growth process.

  5. Adsorption-controlled growth of BiFeO3 by MBE and integration with wide band gap semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon F; Tian, Wei; Liu, Zi-Kui; Doolittle, W Alan; Bernhagen, Margitta; Reiche, Peter; Uecker, Reinhard; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Schlom, Darrell G

    2009-08-01

    BiFeO3 thin films have been deposited on (001) SrTiO3, (101) DyScO3, (011) DyScO3, (0001) AlGaN/GaN, and (0001) 6H-SiC single crystal substrates by reactive molecular beam epitaxy in an adsorption-controlled growth regime. This is achieved by supplying a bismuth over-pressure and utilizing the differential vapor pressures between bismuth oxides and BiFeO3 to control stoichiometry in accordance with thermodynamic calculations. Four-circle x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reveal phase-pure, epitaxial films with rocking curve full width at half maximum values as narrow as 7.2 arc seconds (0.002 degrees). Epitaxial growth of (0001)-oriented BiFeO3 thin films on (0001) GaN, including AlGaN HEMT structures, and (0001) SiC has been realized using intervening epitaxial (111) SrTiO3 / (100) TiO2 buffer layers. The epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films have 2 in-plane orientations: [1120] BiFeO3 || [1120] GaN (SiC) plus a twin variant related by a 180 degrees in-plane rotation. This epitaxial integration of the ferroelectric with the highest known polarization, BiFeO3, with high bandgap semiconductors is an important step toward novel field-effect devices.

  6. Research progress of photovoltaic effects of ferroelectric BiFeO3 material%BiFeO 3铁电材料的光伏效应研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海敏; 朱建国; 庄稼; 林元华; 武元鹏; 周莹

    2014-01-01

    The photoelectric conversion efficiency was low because of the light induced voltage of traditional p-n j unction solar cells was limited by the built-in electric field,which makes it very difficult to put on the market. Ferroelectric materials photovoltaic effect wais different from the p-n j unction solar cells,in which very high open circuit voltage can be test.But at the moment,the photoelectric mechanism of ferroelectric materials was unclear.If the mechanism can be discovered and the ferroelectric materials can be used in solar cells,the photo-electric conversion efficiency can be effectively improved in solar cells.BiFeO3 (BFO)was a very special multi-ferroic material.In recent years,the photoelectric properties of BFO have been in-depth researched.This paper reviewed latest progress of photovoltaic effect of BFO.%由于传统pn结太阳能电池光生电压受到内建电场大小的限制,光电转换效率低,难以投入市场化运营.铁电材料的光伏效应不同于pn结太阳能电池,在铁电材料中可以测试出极高的开路电压.但目前对于铁电材料的光电过程产生机制尚不清楚.如果能够理解这一机制并应用于太阳能电池,将能有效地提高太阳能电池的效率.BiFeO3(BFO)是一种非常特殊的多铁性材料,近几年来,研究者对 BFO 材料的光电特性进行了深入的研究,综述了近几年BFO 在光伏效应方面的研究进展.

  7. Probing the evolution of antiferromagnetism in multiferroics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, M.; Martin, L.; Scholl, A.; He, Q.; Yu, P.; Yang, C.-H.; Yang, S.; Glans, P.-A.; Valvidares, M.; Huijben, M.; Kortright, J.; Guo,, J.; Chu, Y.-H.; Ramesh, R.

    2010-06-09

    This study delineates the evolution of magnetic order in epitaxial films of the room-temperature multiferroic BiFeO3 system. Using angle- and temperature-dependent dichroic measurements and spectromicroscopy, we have observed that the antiferromagnetic order in the model multiferroic BiFeO3 evolves systematically as a function of thickness and strain. Lattice-mismatch-induced strain is found to break the easy-plane magnetic symmetry of the bulk and leads to an easy axis of magnetization which can be controlled through strain. Understanding the evolution of magnetic structure and how to manipulate the magnetism in this model multiferroic has significant implications for utilization of such magnetoelectric materials in future applications.

  8. Pillar shape modulation in epitaxial BiFeO3–CoFe2O4 vertical nanocomposite films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hun Kim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembled epitaxial CoFe2O4-BiFeO3 nanocomposite films, in which pillars of CoFe2O4 grow within a single crystal BiFeO3 matrix, show both ferrimagnetism and ferroelectricity. The pillars typically have a uniform cross-section, but here two methods are demonstrated to produce a width modulation during growth by pulsed laser deposition. This was achieved by growing a blocking layer of BiFeO3 to produce layers of separated pillars or pillars with constrictions, or by changing the temperature during growth to produce bowling-pin shaped pillars. Modulated nanocomposites showed changes in their magnetic anisotropy compared to nanocomposites with uniform width. The magnetic anisotropy was interpreted as a result of magnetoelastic and shape anisotropies.

  9. Ferroelectric Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A ferroelectric pump has one or more variable volume pumping chambers internal to a housing. Each chamber has at least one wall comprising a dome shaped internally prestressed ferroelectric actuator having a curvature and a dome height that varies with an electric voltage applied between an inside and outside surface of the actuator. A pumped medium flows into and out of each pumping chamber in response to displacement of the ferroelectric actuator. The ferroelectric actuator is mounted within each wall and isolates each ferroelectric actuator from the pumped medium, supplies a path for voltage to be applied to each ferroelectric actuator, and provides for positive containment of each ferroelectric actuator while allowing displacement of the entirety of each ferroelectric actuator in response to the applied voltage.

  10. Controllable Photovoltaic Effect of Microarray Derived from Epitaxial Tetragonal BiFeO3 Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zengxing; Li, Peilian; Wan, Jian-Guo; Huang, Zhifeng; Tian, Guo; Pan, Danfeng; Fan, Zhen; Gao, Xingsen; Liu, Jun-Ming

    2017-08-16

    Recently, the ferroelectric photovoltaic (FePV) effect has attracted great interest due to its potential in developing optoelectronic devices such as solar cell and electric-optical sensors. It is important for actual applications to realize a controllable photovoltaic process in ferroelectric-based materials. In this work, we prepared well-ordered microarrays based on epitaxially tetragonal BiFeO3 (T-BFO) films by the pulsed laser deposition technique. The polarization-dependent photocurrent image was directly observed by a conductive atomic force microscope under ultraviolet illumination. By choosing a suitable buffer electrode layer and controlling the ferroelectric polarization in the T-BFO layer, we realized the manipulation of the photovoltaic process. Moreover, based on the analysis of the band structure, we revealed the mechanism of manipulating the photovoltaic process and attributed it to the competition between two key factors, i.e., the internal electric field caused by energy band alignments at interfaces and the depolarization field induced by the ferroelectric polarization in T-BFO. This work is very meaningful for deeply understanding the photovoltaic process of BiFeO3-based devices at the microscale and provides us a feasible avenue for developing data storage or logic switching microdevices based on the FePV effect.

  11. Self-Poling of BiFeO3 Thick Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomyakova, Evgeniya; Sadl, Matej; Ursic, Hana; Daniels, John; Malic, Barbara; Bencan, Andreja; Damjanovic, Dragan; Rojac, Tadej

    2016-08-01

    Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) is difficult to pole because of the combination of its high coercive field and high electrical conductivity. This problem is particularly pronounced in thick films. The poling, however, must be performed to achieve a large macroscopic piezoelectric response. This study presents evidence of a prominent and reproducible self-poling effect in few-tens-of-micrometer-thick BiFeO3 films. Direct and converse piezoelectric measurements confirmed that the as-sintered BiFeO3 thick films yield d33 values of up to ∼20 pC/N. It was observed that a significant self-poling effect only appears in cases when the films are heated and cooled through the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition (Curie temperature TC ∼ 820 °C). These self-poled films exhibit a microstructure with randomly oriented columnar grains. The presence of a compressive strain gradient across the film thickness cooled from above the TC was experimentally confirmed and is suggested to be responsible for the self-poling effect. Finally, the macroscopic d33 response of the self-poled BiFeO3 film was characterized as a function of the driving-field frequency and amplitude.

  12. The Evidence of Giant Surface Flexoelectric Field in (111) Oriented BiFeO3 Thin Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tieying; Zhang, Xingmin; Chen, Bin; Guo, Haizhong; Jin, Kuijuan; Wu, Xiaoshan; Gao, Xingyu; Li, Zhong; Wang, Can; Li, Xiaolong

    2017-02-15

    In this work, the surface structure of a single-domain epitaxial BiFeO3 film with (111) orientation was investigated by in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity. We found that a large strain gradient exists in the surface region (2-3 nm) of the BiFeO3 film. The strain gradient is approximately 10(7) m(-1), which is 2 or 3 orders of magnitude larger than the value inside the film. Moreover, we found that a surface layer with a lower electron density compared with the underlying BiFeO3 layer exists on the surface of BiFeO3 film, and this layer exhibits an irreversible surface structure transition occurs at 500 K, which should be associated with the surface flexoelectric field. We considered that this large strain gradient is originated from the surface depolarization field of ferroelectrics. Our results suggest a coupling between the surface structure and the flexoelectricity and imply that the surface layer and properties would be controlled by the strain gradient in ferroelectric films.

  13. Induced Ferromagnetism at BiFeO3/YBa2Cu3O7 Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian-Xin; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Haraldsen, J. T.; He, Mi; Panagopoulos, C.; Chia, Elbert E. M.

    2014-06-01

    Transition metal oxides (TMOs) exhibit many emergent phenomena ranging from high-temperature superconductivity and giant magnetoresistance to magnetism and ferroelectricity. In addition, when TMOs are interfaced with each other, new functionalities can arise, which are absent in individual components. Here, we report results from first-principles calculations on the magnetism at the BiFeO3/YBa2Cu3O7 interfaces. By comparing the total energy for various magnetic spin configurations inside BiFeO3, we are able to show that a metallic ferromagnetism is induced near the interface. We further develop an interface exchange-coupling model and place the extracted exchange coupling interaction strengths, from the first-principles calculations, into a resultant generic phase diagram. Our conclusion of interfacial ferromagnetism is confirmed by the presence of a hysteresis loop in field-dependent magnetization data. The emergence of interfacial ferromagnetism should have implications to electronic and transport properties.

  14. Engineering ferroelectric tunnel junctions through potential profile shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Boyn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We explore the influence of the top electrode materials (W, Co, Ni, Ir on the electronic band profile in ferroelectric tunnel junctions based on super-tetragonal BiFeO3. Large variations of the transport properties are observed at room temperature. In particular, the analysis of current vs. voltage curves by a direct tunneling model indicates that the metal/ferroelectric interfacial barrier height increases with the top-electrode work function. While larger metal work functions result in larger OFF/ON ratios, they also produce a large internal electric field which results in large and potentially destructive switching voltages.

  15. Superior Properties of Energetically Stable La2/3Sr1/3MnO3/Tetragonal BiFeO3 Multiferroic Superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Nan

    2015-04-30

    The superlattice of energetically stable La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 and tetragonal BiFeO3 is investigated by means of density functional theory. The superlattice as a whole exhibits a half-metallic character, as is desired for spintronic devices. The interfacial electronic states and exchange coupling are analyzed in details. We demonstrate that the interfacial O atoms play a key role in controlling the coupling. The higher ferroelectricity of tetragonal BiFeO3 and stronger response to the magnetic moment in La2/3Sr1/3MnO3/BiFeO3 superlattice show a strongly enhanced electric control of the magnetism as compared to the rhombohedral one. Therefore, it is particularly practical interest in the magnetoelectric controlled spintronic devices.

  16. The Photovoltaic Properties of BiFeO3Lao.7Sro.3MnO3 Heterostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Bing-Cheng; CHEN Chang-Le; FAN Fei; JIN Ke-Xin

    2012-01-01

    An epitaxial BiFeO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (BFO/LSMO) multiferroic heterostructure is grown on an LaAlO3 (001) substrate by laser molecular beam epitaxy,and its photovoltaic properties are investigated.It is found that the photocurrent is significantly increased under illumination,and the short-circuit photocurrent has a linear relationship with the laser intensity.Furthermore,when the ferroelectric polarization of the BFO layer is switched,the short-circuit photocurrent and open-circuit voltage can be switched.These results are discussed by considering the contributions from the ferroelectric polarization and the electrode/film interface.%An epitaxial BifeO3/La0.7Sr0.3Mno3 (BFO/LSMO) multiferroic heterostructure is grown on an LaAIO3. Substrate by laser molecular beam epitaxy, and its photovoltaic properties are investigated. It is found that the photocurrent is significantly increased under illumination, and the short-circuit photocurrent has a linear relationship with the laser intensity. Furthermore, when the ferroelectric polarization of the BFO layer is switched, the short-circuit photocurrent and open-circuit voltage can be switched. These results are discussed by considering the contributions from the ferroelectric polarization and the electrode/rim interface.

  17. A lead-halide perovskite molecular ferroelectric semiconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Qiang; Zhang, Yi; Hu, Chun-Li; Mao, Jiang-Gao; Ye, Heng-Yun; Li, Peng-Fei; Huang, Songping D; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2015-05-29

    Inorganic semiconductor ferroelectrics such as BiFeO3 have shown great potential in photovoltaic and other applications. Currently, semiconducting properties and the corresponding application in optoelectronic devices of hybrid organo-plumbate or stannate are a hot topic of academic research; more and more of such hybrids have been synthesized. Structurally, these hybrids are suitable for exploration of ferroelectricity. Therefore, the design of molecular ferroelectric semiconductors based on these hybrids provides a possibility to obtain new or high-performance semiconductor ferroelectrics. Here we investigated Pb-layered perovskites, and found the layer perovskite (benzylammonium)2PbCl4 is ferroelectric with semiconducting behaviours. It has a larger ferroelectric spontaneous polarization Ps=13 μC cm(-2) and a higher Curie temperature Tc=438 K with a band gap of 3.65 eV. This finding throws light on the new properties of the hybrid organo-plumbate or stannate compounds and provides a new way to develop new semiconductor ferroelectrics.

  18. Flexible Lead-Free BiFeO3/PDMS-Based Nanogenerator as Piezoelectric Energy Harvester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaohu; Fan, Huiqing; Zhao, Yuwei; Liu, Zhiyong

    2016-10-05

    Perovskite ferroelectric BiFeO3 has been extensively researched in many application fields, but has rarely been investigated for the energy conversion of tiny mechanical motions in electricity in spite of its large theoretical remnant polarization. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a flexible piezoelectric nanogenerator based on BiFeO3 nanoparticles (NPs), which were synthesized using a sol-gel process. The BiFeO3 NPs-PDMS composite device exhibits an output open circuit voltage of ∼3 V and short circuit current of ∼250 nA under repeated hand pressing. The output generation mechanism from the PNG is discussed on the basis of the alignment of electric dipoles in the composite film. It is demonstrated that the output power from the PNG can directly drive the light-emitting diode (LED) and charge capacitor. These results demonstrate that BiFeO3 nanomaterials have the potential for large-scale lead-free piezoelectric nanogenerator applications.

  19. Size dependent magnetic and electrical properties of Ba-doped nanocrystalline BiFeO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehedi Hasan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in magnetic and electrical properties of multiferroic BiFeO3 in conjunction with their dependence on particle size is crucial due to its potential applications in multifunctional miniaturized devices. In this investigation, we report a study on particle size dependent structural, magnetic and electrical properties of sol-gel derived Bi0.9Ba0.1FeO3 nanoparticles of different sizes ranging from ∼ 12 to 49 nm. The substitution of Bi by Ba significantly suppresses oxygen vacancies, reduces leakage current density and Fe2+ state. An improvement in both magnetic and electrical properties is observed for 10 % Ba-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles compared to its undoped counterpart. The saturation magnetization of Bi0.9Ba0.1FeO3 nanoparticles increase with reducing particle size in contrast with a decreasing trend of ferroelectric polarization. Moreover, a first order metamagnetic transition is noticed for ∼ 49 nm Bi0.9Ba0.1FeO3 nanoparticles which disappeared with decreasing particle size. The observed strong size dependent multiferroic properties are attributed to the complex interaction between vacancy induced crystallographic defects, multiple valence states of Fe, uncompensated surface spins, crystallographic distortion and suppression of spiral spin cycloid of BiFeO3.

  20. Interface magnetism in epitaxial BiFeO3-La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 heterostructures integrated on Si(100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S S; Prater, J T; Wu, Fan; Shelton, C T; Maria, J-P; Narayan, J

    2013-01-01

    We report on the heteroepitaxial growth of ferroelectric (FE)-antiferromagnetic (AFM) BiFeO3 (BFO) on ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO), integrated on Si(100) using pulsed laser deposition via the domain matching epitaxy paradigm. The BFO/LSMO films were epitaxially grown on Si(100) by introducing epitaxial layers of SrTiO3/MgO/TiN. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photo absorption spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed to fully characterize the samples. Furthermore, we have investigated the magnetic behavior of this five layer heterostructure, in which a d(5) system (Fe(3+)) manifested in FE-AFM BFO is epitaxially conjoined at the interface to a multivalent transition metal ion such as Mn(3+)/Mn(4+) in LSMO. The temperature- and magnetic field-dependent magnetization measurements reveal an unexpected enhancement in magnetic moment and improved magnetic hysteresis squareness originating from the BFO/LSMO interface. We observe a stronger temperature dependence of HEB when the polarity of field cooling is negative as compared to positive field cooling. We believe such an enhancement in magnetic moment and magnetic coupling is likely directly related to an electronic orbital reconstruction at the interface and complex interplay between orbital and spin degrees of freedom, similar to what has previously been reported in the literature. Future work will involve the linearly polarized X-ray absorption measurements to prove this hypothesis. This work represents a starting step toward the realization of magneto-electronic devices integrated with Si(100).

  1. Ferroelectric devices

    CERN Document Server

    Uchino, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Updating its bestselling predecessor, Ferroelectric Devices, Second Edition assesses the last decade of developments-and setbacks-in the commercialization of ferroelectricity. Field pioneer and esteemed author Uchino provides insight into why this relatively nascent and interdisciplinary process has failed so far without a systematic accumulation of fundamental knowledge regarding materials and device development.Filling the informational void, this collection of information reviews state-of-the-art research and development trends reflecting nano and optical technologies, environmental regulat

  2. BiFeO3-doped (Na0.5K0.5NbO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyi Sun et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (1−x(Na0.5K0.5NbO3-xBiFeO3 (x=0~0.07 were synthesized by the solid-state reaction. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC measurements revealed that an increase in the amount of BiFeO3 dopant resulted in a decrease in the orthorhombic-tetragonal and tetragonal-cubic phase transition temperature of the material. One percent BiFeO3 additive suppressed grain growth, which not only benefits the sintering of ceramics but also enhances the piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties, where d33=145pC/N, kp=0.31, Qm=80, Pr=11.3 μC cm−2 and Ec=16.5 kV cm−1. As xBF>0.01, both piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties decreased rapidly with an increasing amount of dopant.

  3. Structural and Ferroic Properties of La, Nd, and Dy Doped BiFeO3 Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline samples of Bi0.8RE0.2FeO3 (RE = La, Nd, and Dy have been synthesized by solid-state reaction route. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns of Bi0.8La0.2FeO3 and Bi0.8Nd0.2FeO3 were indexed in rhombohedral (R3c and triclinic (P1 structure, respectively. Rietveld refined XRD pattern of Bi0.8Dy0.2FeO3 confirms the biphasic (Pnma + R3c space groups nature. Raman spectroscopy reveals the change in BiFeO3 mode positions and supplements structural change with RE ion substitution. Ferroelectric and ferromagnetic loops have been observed in the Bi0.8RE0.2FeO3 ceramics at room temperature, indicating that ferroelectric and ferromagnetic ordering coexist in the ceramics at room temperature. The magnetic measurements at room temperature indicate that rare-earth substitution induces ferromagnetism and discerns large and nonzero remnant magnetization as compared to pristine BiFeO3.

  4. Microstructure and properties of Sm-substituted BiFeO3 ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Haiyang; CHEN Zhenping; LI Tao; LI Yong

    2012-01-01

    Bi1-xSmxFeO3 (x=0.00-0.15) ceramics were synthesized by sol-gel technique with rapid liquid phase sintering process to study the effects of samarium (Sm) substitution on their microstructure and properties.X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman studies showed that the structure of BiFeO3 was changed from rhombohedral to orthorhombic at the samarium substitution concentration about x=0.10.The SEM investigation suggested that the Sm substitution hindered the grain growth.Magnetic measurements showed that all the samples studied had a weak ferromagnetism,and the ferromagnetic property of BiFeO3 was improved by Sm substitution due to the suppressed or broken cycloid spin structure caused by the changes in the crystalline structure and size effect.The leakage current was found to be reduced with increasing Sm concentration.The dielectric and ferroelectric measurements showed that dielectric constant,dielectric loss and ferroelectric properties were strongly dependent on the Sm content,Sm substitution could significantly improve the dielectric constant,remnant polarization and decrease the dielectric loss due to the significant decrease of the electric leakage of the samples.

  5. Photoinduced magnetoresistance and magnetic-field-modulated photoelectric response in BiFeO3/Si heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jianfeng; Ni, Hao; Zhao, Kun; Lu, Huibin; Guo, Erjia; He, Meng; Jin, Kuijuan; Zhou, Yueliang; Yang, Guozhen; Xiao, Lizhi; Zhang, Zhenwei

    2016-05-01

    The BiFeO3 film grown on Si substrate without template exhibits a diode-like effect, and the forward direction of the diode can be switched by external electric fields. The laser irradiation and the magnetic field can induce polarization, thus modulating the photovoltaic effect. The magnetoresistance values change from -1.19 to -5.79 and to -35.48 % dramatically under 50 μA current in 770 Oe when the junction is irradiated by 532 and 1064 nm lasers, respectively. These results reveal unusual and interesting charge conduction behavior in leaky ferroelectrics and should promote the study of BiFeO3 based on multifunctional materials.

  6. Thickness dependence of piezoelectric properties of BiFeO3 films fabricated using rf magnetron sputtering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramaki, Masaaki; Kariya, Kento; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Murakami, Shuichi; Fujimura, Norifumi

    2016-10-01

    The piezoelectric property of BiFeO3 films prepared on a (100) LaNiO3/Si(100) substrate using an rf magnetron sputtering system was investigated for their applications in MEMS vibration energy harvesters. The X-ray diffraction profiles indicate that (100)-oriented BiFeO3 films with thicknesses from 450 to 1750 nm were obtained at a deposition temperature of 510 °C. All the films showed well-defined ferroelectric hysteresis loops at room temperature. The thickness dependence of crystallinity and electrical properties indicated that the films have a bottom layer with a high defect density. The e 31,f piezoelectric coefficient and electromechanical coupling factor (k\\text{31,f}2) increase with increasing film thickness and reach -3.2 C/m2 and 3.3%, respectively, at a thickness of 1750 nm, which is considered to be caused by the decrease in defect density.

  7. Poling-Written Ferroelectricity in Bulk Multiferroic Double-Perovskite BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmonte, Davide; Mezzadri, Francesco; Gilioli, Edmondo; Solzi, Massimo; Calestani, Gianluca; Bolzoni, Fulvio; Cabassi, Riccardo

    2016-06-20

    We present a comprehensive study of the electrical properties of bulk polycrystalline BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3, a double perovskite synthesized in high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3 shows an antiferromagnetic character with TN = 288 K overlapped with an intrinsic antiferroelectricity due to the Bi(3+) stereochemical effect. Beyond this, the observation of a semiconductor-insulator transition at TP ≈ 140 K allows one to define three distinct temperature ranges with completely different electrical properties. For T > TN, electric transport follows an ordinary thermally activated Arrhenius behavior; the system behaves as a paramagnetic semiconductor. At intermediate temperatures (TP perovskite. Finally, for T < TP, the material becomes a dielectric insulator, showing very unusual poling-induced soft ferroelectricity with high saturation polarization, similar to the parent compound BiFeO3. Under external electric poling, the system irreversibly evolves from antiferroelectric to polar arrangement.

  8. Advanced ferroelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Blinc, R

    2011-01-01

    Advances in the field of ferroelectricity have implications both for basic physics and for technological applications such as memory devices, spintronic applications and electro-optic devices, as well as in acoustics, robotics, telecommunications and medicine. This book provides an account of recent developments in the field.

  9. The Ultrathin Limit and Dead-layer Effects in Local Polarization Switching of BiFeO3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksymovych, Petro [ORNL; Huijben, Mark [University of Twente, Netherlands; Pan, Minghu [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Balke, Nina [ORNL; Chang, Hye Jung [ORNL; Borisevich, Albina Y [ORNL; Baddorf, Arthur P [ORNL; Rijnders, Guus [MESA+ University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands; Blank, Dave H. A. [University of Twente, Netherlands; Ramesh, R. [University of California, Berkeley; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Using piezoresponse force microscopy in ultra-high vacuum, polarization switching has been detected and quantified in epitaxial BiFeO3 films from 200 down to ~ 4 unit cells. Local remnant piezoresponse was used to infer the applied electric field inside the ferroelectric volume, and account for the elusive effect of dead-layers in ultrathin films. The dead-layer manifested itself in the slower than anticipated decrease of the switching bias with film thickness, yielding apparent Kay-Dunn scaling of the switching field, while the statistical analysis of hysteresis loops revealed lateral variation of the dead-layer with sub-10 nm resolution.

  10. 稀土元素Gd掺杂BiFeO3的第一性原理研究%First-principles study of rare-earth-element Gd doped BiFeO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 徐凯宇; 刘廷禹; 陈腾

    2011-01-01

    采用基于密度泛函理论的局域自旋密度近似加U法(LSDA+U:Hubbard参数)计算了多铁材料BiFeO3铁电相以及稀土元素Gd掺杂BiFeO3材料的能带结构、态密度(DOS)、原子轨道占据数和净电荷分布等,对稀土元素Gd掺杂BiFeO3可能引起的电子结构、介电常数和铁磁性的改变进行了第一性原理研究.计算结果表明:Gd掺杂对材料钙铁矿结构影响不大,BiFeO3铁电性主要来源于Fe原子3d轨道和O原子2p轨道杂化;掺杂Gd后材料中的Fe原子和O原子的共价性减弱,Bi原子和O原子的离子性增强,禁带宽度变窄,绝缘性减弱,铁磁性明显增强;计算得到的光学性质表明材料的静态介电常数有所增加.%The band structure, density of states (DOS) , Mulliken charge population etc. Of ferroelectric (FE) BiFeO3 and rare-earth-element Gd doped BiFeO3 have been studied by first-principles calculations within the local spin density approximation plus Hubbard U (LSDA+U) approach. Our result turns out that the perovskite structure of BiFeO3 is not significantly affected by Gd doped. The ferroelectric stability of BiFeO3 is found to be attributed to the hybridization between 3d orbit of Fe and 2p orbit of O atom. And the strength of covalent bonds between Fe atom and O atom becomes weaker while the strength of ionic bonds between Bi and O becomes stronger. Meanwhile the insulativity becomes weaker since the band gap of Gd doped BiFeO3 is narrower than that of ferroelectric BiFeO3. However, the fer-romagnetism improved significantly. Furthermore, the absorption coefficient and dielectric function were calculated and the corresponding numerical results show that the static dielectric constant of Gd doped BiFeO3 is higher than that of pure BiFeO3.

  11. The abnormal photovoltaic effect in BiFeO3 thin films modulated by bipolar domain orientations and oxygen-vacancy migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zilong; Geng, Wenping; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Shuaiqi; Guo, Huizhen; Jiang, Anquan

    2017-08-01

    SrRuO3/BiFeO3/SrRuO3 thin-film capacitors were fabricated to investigate the role of mobile oxygen vacancies in a switchable photovoltaic (PV) effect that depends on ferroelectric domain orientations. Normally, the flowing direction of the stabilized photocurrent is opposite to ferroelectric polarization orientation. However, an abnormal overshoot of initial positive transient photocurrent parallel to the ferroelectric polarization could be observed under light illumination for a poled BiFeO3 thin film with the polarization pointing to the bottom electrode. Moreover, the photocurrent has a strong response with respect to voltage poling time and relaxation time after poling, which seems to be correlated with time-dependent migration of oxygen vacancies and concurrent charge trapping effect. Our results not only reveal the scenario how oxygen-vacancy migration and charge trapping effect affect the switchable PV effect, besides ferroelectric polarization, but also are helpful for the understanding and designing of new switchable photoelectric devices.

  12. Effects of magnetic annealing on structure and multiferroic properties of pure and dysprosium substituted BiFeO 3

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Shuxia

    2012-07-01

    In this work, the effects of magnetic annealing on crystal structure and multiferroic properties of BiFeO 3 and Bi 0.85Dy 0.15FeO 3 have been investigated. It is found that the X-ray diffraction patterns of pure BiFeO 3 samples are obviously broadened after magnetic annealing, whereas those of Bi 0.85Dy 0.15FeO 3 samples are almost unchanged. Magnetic field annealing did not affect the magnetic properties of these two kinds of samples much. However, ferroelectric properties of the two materials exhibited different behaviors after magnetic field annealing. For pure BiFeO 3 samples, the remnant polarizations (P r) are suppressed; in contrast, for Bi 0.85Dy 0.15FeO 3 samples, P r is greatly enhanced. Possible mechanisms for the effects of magnetic field annealing have been discussed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy and High Spin Polarization in Tetragonal Fe4N /BiFeO3 Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li; Mi, Wenbo; Wang, Xiaocha

    2016-12-01

    The tetragonal Fe4N /BiFeO3(001 ) heterostructures aimed at simultaneously gaining the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and high spin polarization have been investigated by the first-principles method. It is found that Fe4N with FeAFeB termination is better for achieving interfacial and inner PMA simultaneously than (FeB)2N termination. When the positions of interfacial FeA and FeB relative to Fe in BiFeO3 are changed, the PMA in Fe4N transforms into the in-plane magnetic anisotropy. Especially, PMA in Fe4N near the heterointerfaces depends on the direction of ferroelectric polarization in BiFeO3 . Finally, the interfacial and inner PMA of Fe4N along with high spin polarization appear in the stable FeAFeB/Fe -O2 case owing to the 3 d -3 d orbital hybridization. These results provide the opportunities for developing multifunctional spintronic devices.

  14. Coupling of Magnetization and Structural Distortions in Multiferroic BiFeO3:an Ab Initio Density Functional Theory Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Hong-Jian; LIU Fa-Min

    2008-01-01

    The coupling between magnetism and structural distortions in BiFeO3 (BFO) is investigated using density functional theory by considering the spin-orbit effect.Computational results show that the resulting magnetization M is rotated by reversal of sense of rotation of the oxygen octahedra in the double cell.The resulting magnetization is determined by the antiferrodistortive (AFD) distortions and ferroelectric (FE) displacements.This work clarifies the previous view that magnetism is only coupled with,and determined by,FE displacements.The excellent ferroelectricity is attributed significantly to the anomaly of Born effective charge of Bi,which is caused by the stereochemically active long pair of Bi 6s.

  15. Composition-driven enhanced magnetic properties and magnetoelectric coupling in Gd substituted BiFeO3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasundaram, S. V.; Suresh, G.; Mondal, R. A.; Kanagadurai, R.

    2016-11-01

    Bi1-xGdxFeO3 (x=0, 0.05 and 0.1) samples were synthesized by modified sol-gel process. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed that the crystal structures of Gd substituted samples remain stable for xmagnetization (0.36 emu/g) under 40 kOe for BiFeO3, the sample with 10% Gd exhibited appreciable enhancement of magnetization (1.88 emu/g). A leaky type P-E hysteresis loop was observed for the pure one, whereas concave-like ferroelectric loops were obtained for Gd substituted samples. The possible origins of enhanced multiferroic properties have been explained on the basis of substituent, its concentration, phase purity, particle size, structural distortion and the modified magnetic structure. The measurement of magnetoelectric studies at room temperature revealed the coupling between magnetic and ferroelectric ordering, which is desirable for multifunctional device applications of multiferroics.

  16. Synthesis of BiFeO3 thin films on single-terminated Nb : SrTiO3 (111 substrates by intermittent microwave assisted hydrothermal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Velasco-Davalos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on a simple and fast procedure to create arrays of atomically flat terraces on single crystal SrTiO3 (111 substrates and the deposition of ferroelectric BiFeO3 thin films on such single-terminated surfaces. A microwave-assisted hydrothermal method in deionized water and ammonia solution selectively removes either (SrO34− or Ti4+ layers to ensure the same chemical termination on all terraces. Measured step heights of 0.225 nm (d111 and uniform contrast in the phase image of the terraces confirm the single termination in pure and Nb doped SrTiO3 single crystal substrates. Multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films were then deposited by the same microwave assisted hydrothermal process on Nb : SrTiO3 (111 substrates. Bi(NO33 and Fe(NO33 along with KOH served as the precursors solution. Ferroelectric behavior of the BiFeO3 films on Nb : SrTiO3 (100 substrates was verified by piezoresponse force microscopy.

  17. Nanoscale phase mixture in uniaxial strained BiFeO3 (110) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huajun; Yang, Ping; You, Lu; Zhou, Yang; Fan, Zhen; Tan, Hui Ru; Wang, Junling; Wang, John; Yao, Kui

    2015-09-01

    A strain-induced nanoscale phase mixture in epitaxial BiFeO3 (110) films is investigated. High resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction shows that a monoclinic M2 phase (orthorhombic-like, with a c/a ˜ 1.01) coexists as the intermediate phase between monoclinic M1 phase (tetragonal-like, with a c/a ˜ 1.26) and monoclinic M3 phase (rhombohedral-like, with a c/a ˜ 1.00), as the film thickness increases from 10 to 190 nm. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images reveal the evolution of domain patterns with coexistence of multiple phases. The different ferroelectric polarization directions of these phases, as shown by piezoelectric force microscopy, indicate a strong potential for high electromechanical response. The shear strain ɛ 13 is found to be a significant driving factor to reduce strain energy as film thickness increases, according to our theoretical calculations based on the measured lattice parameters. The nanoscale mixed phases, large structure distortions, and polarization rotations among the multiple phases indicate that (110)-oriented epitaxial films provide a promising way to control multifunctionalities of BiFeO3 and an alternative direction to explore the rich physics of perovskite system.

  18. Heteroepitaxial growth and characterization of BiFeO3 thin films on GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiqur Rahman, Md; Ghose, Susmita; Gatabi, Javad R.; Rojas-Ramirez, Juan S.; Pandey, R. K.; Droopad, Ravi

    2016-10-01

    The paper deals with the integration of well-known bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) multiferroic oxide with GaAs semiconductor. First 5 nm ultrathin SrTiO3 films were grown on GaAs (001) substrates as an intermediate buffer layer by molecular beam epitaxy. Then, room temperature multiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction measurement showed high quality epitaxial BFO films with pure (00l) orientation. The dielectric loss has been effectively suppressed and the saturated polarization-voltage (P-V) hysteresis loops were obtained. The ferroelectric domains switching was affirmed by piezo-response force microscopic studies. A large remnant polarization P r (˜80 μC cm-2) combined with the enhanced magnetization (72 emu cm-3) at 300 K was achieved for the optimal growth conditions. The optical properties were measured using the ellipsometry technique for the BFO thin films. The thickness and optical constants of the BFO films were obtained by taking into consideration the dielectric parameters as described by the Tauc-Lorentz model. Finally, direct bandgap was estimated at 2.70 eV which is highly comparable to BFO films grown on different substrates.

  19. Polarization-tuned diode behaviour in multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yingbang

    2012-12-28

    Asymmetric rectifying I-V behaviour of multiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films grown on transparent ITO-coated glass was quantitatively studied as a function of ferroelectric polarization. Different polarized states were established by unipolar or bipolar poling with various applied electric fields. The effects of polarization relaxation and fatigue on the currents were also investigated. We found that the conduction currents and the associated rectifications were controlled by the amplitude and direction of the polarization. We clearly observed the linear dependence of the current on the polarization. It is suggested that the space-charge-limited conduction and the charge injection at the Schottky interface between the film and the electrodes dominate the current. The electrically controlled rectifying behaviour observed in this study may be useful in nonvolatile resistance memory devices or tunable diodes. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. Tetragonal BiFeO3 on yttria-stabilized zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Jui Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High structural susceptibility of multiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO makes it a potential replacement of current Pb-based piezoelectrics. In this study, a tetragonal phase is identified based on a combination of x-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electronic microscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy when BFO is grown on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ substrates. To distinguish the discrepancy between this tetragonal phase and common cases of monoclinic BFO, piezoelectric force microscopy images and optical property are also performed. It shows a lower electrostatic energy of ferroelectric domains and a large reduction of band gap for BFO grown on YSZ substrate comparing to the well-known one grown on LaAlO3 substrate. Our findings in this work can provide more insights to understand the structural diversity of multiferroic BFO system for further applications.

  1. Unusual transformation from strong negative to positive thermal expansion in PbTiO3-BiFeO3 perovskite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Fan, Longlong; Ren, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Deng, Jinxia; Yu, Ranbo; Xing, Xianran

    2013-03-15

    Tetragonal PbTiO(3)-BiFeO(3) exhibits a strong negative thermal expansion in the PbTiO(3)-based ferroelectrics that consist of one branch in the family of negative thermal expansion materials. Its strong negative thermal expansion is much weakened, and then unusually transforms into positive thermal expansion as the particle size is slightly reduced. This transformation is a new phenomenon in the negative termal expansion materials. The detailed structure, temperature dependence of unit cell volume, and lattice dynamics of PbTiO(3)-BiFeO(3) samples were studied by means of high-energy synchrotron powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Such unusual transformation from strong negative to positive thermal expansion is highly associated with ferroelectricity weakening. An interesting zero thermal expansion is achieved in a wide temperature range (30-500 °C) by adjusting particle size due to the negative-to-positive transformation character. The present study provides a useful method to control the negative thermal expansion not only for ferroelectrics but also for those functional materials such as magnetics and superconductors.

  2. Ferroelectric ultrathin perovskite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappe, Andrew M; Kolpak, Alexie Michelle

    2013-12-10

    Disclosed herein are perovskite ferroelectric thin-film. Also disclosed are methods of controlling the properties of ferroelectric thin films. These films can be used in a variety materials and devices, such as catalysts and storage media, respectively.

  3. Surface reconstructions and related local properties of a BiFeO3 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L.; Xu, P. X.; Zeng, Y.; Lu, L.; Barthel, J.; Schulthess, T.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Wang, H.; Jia, C. L.

    2017-01-01

    Coupling between lattice and order parameters, such as polarization in ferroelectrics and/or polarity in polar structures, has a strong impact on surface relaxation and reconstruction. However, up to now, surface structures that involve the termination of both matrix polarization and polar atomic planes have received little attention, particularly on the atomic scale. Here, we study surface structures on a BiFeO3 thin film using atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Two types of surface structure are found, depending on the polarization of the underlying ferroelectric domain. On domains that have an upward polarization component, a layer with an Aurivillius-Bi2O2-like structural unit is observed. Dramatic changes in local properties are measured directly below the surface layer. On domains that have a downward polarization component, no reconstructions are visible. Calculations based on ab initio density functional theory reproduce the results and are used to interpret the formation of the surface structures. PMID:28102296

  4. Stabilisation of Fe2O3-rich Perovskite Nanophase in Epitaxial Rare-earth Doped BiFeO3 Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huairuo; Reaney, Ian M; Marincel, Daniel M; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Ramasse, Quentin M; MacLaren, Ian; Findlay, Scott D; Fraleigh, Robert D; Ross, Ian M; Hu, Shunbo; Ren, Wei; Rainforth, W Mark

    2015-08-14

    Researchers have demonstrated that BiFeO3 exhibits ferroelectric hysteresis but none have shown a strong ferromagnetic response in either bulk or thin film without significant structural or compositional modification. When remanent magnetisations are observed in BiFeO3 based thin films, iron oxide second phases are often detected. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic resolution electron energy loss spectrum-mapping and quantitative energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, we reveal the existence of a new Fe2O3-rich perovskite nanophase, with an approximate formula (Fe0.6Bi0.25Nd0.15)(3+) Fe(3+)O3, formed within epitaxial Ti and Nd doped BiFeO3 perovskite films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The incorporation of Nd and Bi ions on the A-site and coherent growth with the matrix stabilise the Fe2O3-rich perovskite phase and preliminary density functional theory calculations suggest that it should have a ferrimagnetic response. Perovskite-structured Fe2O3 has been reported previously but never conclusively proven when fabricated at high-pressure high-temperature. This work suggests the incorporation of large A-site species may help stabilise perovskite-structured Fe2O3. This finding is therefore significant not only to the thin film but also to the high-pressure community.

  5. Structural, dielectric and multiferroic properties of Er and La substituted BiFeO3 ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pragya Pandit; S Satapathy; Poorva Sharma; P K Gupta; S M Yusuf; V G Sathe

    2011-07-01

    Erbium (Er) and lanthanum (La) substituted BiFeO3 (BFO) ceramics have been prepared through conventional solid solution route. X-ray diffraction data indicated a gradual phase transition from rhombohedral to monoclinic structure in Bi0.9– La0.1Er FeO3 ( = 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1) (BLEFO = 0.05, 0.07,0.1) ceramics. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) measurements of BFO samples showed a ferroelectric transition at 835°C, whereas it is shifted to 792°C for BLEFO = 0.1. The Raman spectra of BLEFO = 0.05,0.07,0.1 samples showed the shift of Raman modes to higher wavenumbers and suppression of A1 modes indicating decrease in ferroelectricity. The Raman spectra also indicated the structural transformation due to Er and La substitution in BFO. On subsequent erbium doping, the intrinsic dielectric constant is found to decrease from 68 (for pure BFO) to 52 for BLEFO = 0.05 to 43 for BLEFO = 0.07 but increased to 89 for BLEFO = 0.1 when compared to pure BFO. The increase in Er content resulted in the increase in spontaneous magnetization (0.1178 emu/g at 8T for BLEFO = 0.1) due to collapse of spin cycloid structure. Ferroelectric remnant polarization of BLEFO = 0.05 and BLEFO = 0.07 decreases when compared to pure BFO while small remnant polarization (close to paraelectric behaviour) is evident for BLEFO = 0.1.

  6. Effects of BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 as the buffer layers of epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu; Wang, Can; Tian, ShiLu; Zhou, Yong; Ge, Chen; Guo, HaiZhong; He, Meng; Jin, KuiJuan; Yang, GuoZhen

    2017-06-01

    BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films with BaTiO3 (BTO) or SrTiO3 (STO) as buffer layer were epitaxially grown on SrRuO3-covered SrTiO3 substrates. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the BTO buffer causes tensile strain in the BFO films, whereas the STO buffer causes compressive strain. Different ferroelectric domain structures caused by these two strain statuses are revealed by piezoelectric force microscopy. Electrical and magnetical measurements show that the tensile-strained BFO/BTO samples have reduced leakage current and large ferroelectric polarization and magnetization, compared with compressively strained BFO/STO. These results demonstrate that the electrical and magnetical properties of BFO thin films can be artificially modified by using a buffer layer.

  7. Ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism in EuTiO3 nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Morozovska, Anna N.; Glinchuk, Maya D.; Behera, Rakesh K.; Zaylichniy, Basyl Y.; Deo, Chaitanya S.; Eliseev, Eugene A.

    2011-01-01

    We predicted the ferroelectric-ferromagnetic multiferroic properties of EuTiO3 nanowires and generated the phase diagrams in coordinates of temperature and wire radii. The calculations were performed within the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory with phenomenological parameters extracted from tabulated experimental data and first principles calculations. Since bulk EuTiO3 is antiferromagnetic at temperatures lower than 5.5 K and paraelectric at all temperatures, our goal was to investigate the...

  8. Size dependent structural, vibrational and magnetic properties of BiFeO3 and core-shell structured BiFeO3@SiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Sunil; Kumar, Manoj; Chhoker, Sandeep; Katyal, S. C.

    2014-04-01

    Bulk BiFeO3, BiFeO3 nanoparticles and core-shell structured BiFeO3@SiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by solid state reaction method, sol-gel and Stöber process (SiO2 shell) respectively. Transmission electron microscopy image confirmed the core-shell structure of BiFeO3@SiO2 nanoparticles with BiFeO3 core ˜50-90 nm and SiO2 shell ˜16 nm. X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy results showed the presence of distorted rhombohedral structure with R3c space group in all three samples. The magnetic measurement indicated the existence of room-temperature weak ferromagnetism in core-shell BiFeO3@SiO2 nanoparticles and BiFeO3 nanoparticles, whereas bulk BiFeO3 showed antiferromagnteic nature. Electron Spin Resonance results confirmed the enhancement in magnetic properties of coreshell structured BiFeO3@SiO2 nanoparticles in comparison with BiFeO3 nanoparticles and bulk BiFeO3.

  9. Landau model for the multiferroic delafossite antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J. L.; Perez-Mato, J. M.; Vieira, L. G.

    2016-10-01

    A symmetry based framework is used to describe the complex phase diagrams observed in the multiferroic delafossite compounds. A free energy Landau functional is derived from the analysis of the transformation properties of the most general incommensurate magnetic spin order parameter. A principle of maximal symmetry is invoked and the stability of each of the different higher symmetry phases considered. The competition between different potential ground states is analysed within the scope of a simplified model, which emphasizes the role of the symmetry allowed phase dependent biquadratic couplings. The cross-over between the different competing states is also discussed. The results show that the diverse set of phase diagrams that are experimentally observed in this class of triangular lattice antiferromagnets and, in particular, the stabilization of magnetically induced ferroelectric states, can be well interpreted and described within this integrated phenomenological approximation.

  10. Synthesis of BiFeO3 by carbonate precipitation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Kothai; Rajeev Ranjan

    2012-04-01

    Magnetoelectric multiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO) was synthesized by a simple carbonate precipitation technique of metal nitrate solutions. X-ray powder diffraction and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the precipitate consists of an intimate mixture of crystalline bismuth carbonate and an amorphous hydroxide of iron. The precipitate yielded BiFeO3 at an optimal calcination temperature of ∼560°C. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis showed 1:1 ratio between Bi and Fe in the oxide. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies confirmed that Fe to be in +3 oxidation states both in the precipitated powder and BiFeO3. The synthesized BFO exhibits a very weak ferromagnetic correlation at room temperature and the degree of which increases slightly on cooling down to 10 K suggesting alteration in the long range spatial modulation of the spins arrangement as compared to the bulk BiFeO3.

  11. Induced Ferromagnetism at Interfaces between BiFeO3 and YBa2Cu3O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian-Xin; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Haraldsen, J. T.; Panagopoulos, C.; Chia, E. E. M.

    2014-03-01

    Transition metal oxides (TMOs) exhibit many emergent phenomena ranging from high-temperature superconductivity and giant magnetoresistance to magnetism and ferroelectricity. In addition, when TMOs are interfaced with each other, new functionalities can arise, which are absent in individual components. Here, we report results from first-principles calculations on the magnetism at the BiFeO3/YBa2Cu3O7 interfaces. By comparing the total energy for various magnetic spin configurations inside BiFeO3, we are able to show that the ferromagnetism is induced near the interface. We further develop an interface exchange-coupling model and place the extracted exchange coupling interaction strengths from the first-principles calculations, into a resultant generic phase diagram. The emergence of interfacial ferromagnetism should have implications to electronic and transport properties. This work was supported by U.S. DOE at LANL under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396, LANL LDRD-DR Program, and in part by the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility.

  12. Multidomains made of different structural phases in multiferroic BiFeO3: A first-principles-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dawei; Salje, Ekhard K. H.; Mi, Shao-Bo; Jia, Chun-Lin; Bellaiche, L.

    2013-10-01

    An effective Hamiltonian scheme is used to reveal the properties of a multidomain structure in BiFeO3 consisting of alternating domains that are initially made of two phases, namely, R3c (ferroelectric with antiphase oxygen octahedral tilting) versus Pnma (antiferroelectric with in-phase and antiphase oxygen octahedral tiltings). These two types of domains dramatically modify their properties as a result of their cohabitation. The weak ferromagnetic vector and polarization rotate, and significantly change their magnitude, in the R3c-like region, while the Pnma-like region becomes polar along the direction of domain propagation. Moreover, the domain walls possess distinct polar and oxygen octahedral tilting patterns that facilitate the transition between these two regions. The studied multidomain is also predicted to exhibit other anomalous properties, such as its strain adopting several plateaus and steps when increasing the magnitude of an applied electric field.

  13. Non-reciprocal directional dichroism in the AFM phase of BiFeO3 at THz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Urmas; Rõõm, T.; Farkas, D.; Szaller, D.; Bordács, S.; Kézsmárki, I.; Engelkamp, H.; Ozaki, Y.; Tomiaki, Y.; Ito, T.; Fishman, Randy S.

    We did THz absorption spectroscopy of BiFeO3 single crystals in the AFM phase, where the spin cycloid is destroyed in magnetic fields between 18 T and 32 T in Voigt geometry at 1.6 K. If B0 ∥ [ 1 1 0 ] , we see strong directional dichroism (DD) of absorption of the magnon mode with light propagating along the direction of the ferroelectric polarization k ∥ P ∥ [ 111 ] and eω ∥ [ 1 1 0 ] , bω ∥ [ 1 1 2 ] . The sign of DD can be reversed (i) by reversing the direction of B0 or (ii) by flipping the sample, thus reversing the propagation direction of light. The observed effect is caused by the strong magneto-electric coupling in the collinear AFM phase. Research sponsored by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (IUT23-3).

  14. Wireless ferroelectric resonating sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari, Ville; Seppa, Heikki; Mattila, Tomi; Alastalo, Ari

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a passive wireless resonating sensor that is based on a ferroelectric varactor. The sensor replies with its data at an intermodulation frequency when a reader device illuminates it at 2 closely located frequencies. The paper derives a theoretical equation for the response of such a sensor, verifies the theory by simulations, and demonstrates a temperature sensor based on a ferroelectric varactor.

  15. Ferroelectricity in spiral magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostovoy, M

    2006-01-01

    It was recently observed that the ferroelectrics showing the strongest sensitivity to an applied magnetic field are spiral magnets. We present a phenomenological theory of inhomogeneous ferroelectric magnets, which describes their thermodynamics and magnetic field behavior, e.g., dielectric suscepti

  16. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-10-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity--the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice--but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals.

  17. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-01-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity—the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice—but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals. PMID:27734829

  18. Antiferromagnetic spin-orbitronics

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2015-05-01

    Antiferromagnets have long remained an intriguing and exotic state of matter, whose application has been restricted to enabling interfacial exchange bias in metallic and tunneling spin-valves [1]. Their role in the expanding field of applied spintronics has been mostly passive and the in-depth investigation of their basic properties mostly considered from a fundamental perspective.

  19. Nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Daniel Esmarch

    2008-01-01

    I denne Ph.D. afhandling studeres forskellige egenskaber ved antiferromagnetiske nanopartikler. I en ideel antiferromagnet er spinnene orienteret således at der ikke er et resulterende magnetisk moment. I nanopartikler af antiferromagnetiske materialer er denne kompensation på grund af forskellig...

  20. Three theoretical studies of ferroelectric materials in different geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palova, Lucia

    Using a combination of numerical and analytical techniques, I present characterizations of ferroelectric materials in bulk, thin-film and nanostructure geometries. My results have impact on ongoing research and on design for nanodevices. Size-dependent effects in ferroelectrics are important due to their long-range electrostatic interactions; thus their dielectric properties depend on electromechanical boundary conditions. In my first study, I address the effects of strain on the measured properties of thin-film (TF) ferroelectrics. It has been suggested that the observed suppression of many TF dielectric characteristics implies underlying strain gradients in the film. I show that the same effects can be explained by a simpler model with homogeneous strain, and I suggest a "smoking gun" benchtop probe. The quantum paraelectric-ferroelectric transition (QPFT) is the topic of my second study. Using methods including finite-size scaling and self-consistent Gaussian theory, I calculate the classical-quantum crossover in the dielectric susceptbility and the resulting temperature-pressure phase diagram; comparison with current experiment is excellent and predictions are made for future measurements. Here, temperature can be considered a "finite-size effet" in time, and previous results on the QPFT using diagrammatic techniques are recovered and extended using this approach. Recent synthesis of artificially structured oxides with "checkerboard" patterning at the nanoscale has been reported, and this serves as motivation for my third study. Here, I use first-principles methods to characterize an atomic-scale BiFeO3-BiMnO3 nanocheckerboard, and find that it has properties that are distinctive from those of either parent compound. More specifically, it has both a spontaneous polarization and magnetization, and also displays a magnetostructural effect. My work on this prototypical multiferroic nanocheckerboard motivates further theoretical and experimental studies of new

  1. The Effect of Niobium Doping on the Electrical Properties of 0.4(Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-0.6BiFeO3 Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Fisher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceramics in the system (Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-BiFeO3 have good electromechanical properties and temperature stability. However, the high conductivity inherent in BiFeO3-based ceramics complicates measurement of the ferroelectric properties. In the present work, doping with niobium (Nb is carried out to reduce the conductivity of (Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-BiFeO3. Powders of composition 0.4(K0.5Bi0.5Ti1−xNbxO3-0.6BiFe1−xNbxO3 (x = 0, 0.01 and 0.03 are prepared by the mixed oxide method and sintered at 1050 °C for 1 h. The effect of Nb doping on the structure is examined by X-ray diffraction. The microstructure is examined by scanning electron microscopy. The variation in relative permittivity with temperature is measured using an impedance analyzer. Ferroelectric properties are measured at room temperature using a Sawyer Tower circuit. Piezoelectric properties are measured using a d33 meter and a contact type displacement sensor. All the samples have high density, a rhombohedral unit cell and equiaxed, micron-sized grains. All the samples show relaxor-like behavior. Nb doping causes a reduction in conductivity by one to two orders of magnitude at 200 °C. The samples have narrow P-E loops reminiscent of a linear dielectric. The samples all possess bipolar butterfly S-E loops characteristic of a classic ferroelectric material. Nb doping causes a decrease in d33 and Smax/Emax.

  2. Ferroelectricity at the nanoscale basics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fridkin, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This book examines a wide range of ferroelectric materials. It explains the theoretical background of ultrathin ferroelectric films,  presents applications of ferroelectric materials, and displays the mechanism of switching of nanosized ferroelectric films.

  3. Robust polarization and strain behavior of Sm-modified BiFeO3 piezoelectric ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Julian; Budic, Bojan; Bryant, Peter; Kurusingal, Valsala; Sorrell, Charles C; Bencan, Andreja; Rojac, Tadej; Valanoor, Nagarajan

    2015-01-01

    The route to phase-pure BiFeO3 (BFO) ceramics with excellent ferroelectric and electromechanical properties is severely impeded by difficulties associated with the perovskite phase stability during synthesis. This has meant that dopants and solid solutions with BFO have been investigated as a means of not only improving the functional properties, but also of improving the perovskite phase formation of BFO-based ceramics. The present work focuses on Sm-modified BFO ceramics of composition Bi0.88Sm0.12FeO3. The polarization and strain behaviors were investigated as a function of the phase composition, microstructure, and chemical composition. Addition of Sm reduces the susceptibility of the BFO perovskite to phase degradation by Si impurities. Si was observed to react into Sm-rich grains dispersed within the microstructure, with no large increases in the amount of bismuth-parasitic phases, namely Bi25FeO39 and Bi2Fe4O9. These as-prepared ceramics exhibited robust polarization behavior showing maximum remnant polarizations of ~40 to 50 μC/cm(2). The electric-fieldinduced strain showed an appreciable stability in terms of the driving field frequency with maximum peak-to-peak strains of ~0.3% and a coercive field of ~130 kV/cm.

  4. The origin of photovoltaic responses in BiFeO3 multiferroic ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, C-S; Hung, C-M; Schmidt, V H; Chien, R R; Jiang, M-D; Anthoninappen, J

    2012-12-12

    Multiferroic BiFeO(3) (BFO) ceramics with electrodes of indium tin oxide (ITO) and Au thin films exhibit significant photovoltaic effects under near-ultraviolet illumination (λ = 405 nm) and show strong dependences on light wavelength, illumination intensity, and sample thickness. The correlation between photovoltaic responses and illumination intensity can be attributed to photo-excited and thermally generated charge carriers in the interface depletion region between BFO ceramic and ITO thin film. A theoretical model is developed to describe the open-circuit photovoltage and short-circuit photocurrent density as a function of illumination intensity. This model can be applied to the photovoltaic effects in p-n junction type BFO thin films and other systems. The BFO ceramic exhibits stronger photovoltaic responses than the ferroelectric Pb(1-x)La(x)(Zr(y)Ti(1-y))(1-x/4)O(3) (PLZT) ceramics under near-ultraviolet illumination. Comparisons are made with other systems and models for the photovoltaic effect.

  5. Holes in Heisenberg antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang

    1990-05-01

    In this Brief Report we show that a recent model proposed by Shankar [Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 203 (1989)], describing the motion of holes in quantum antiferromagnets is equivalent to the Schwinger model [Phys. Rev. 128, 2425 (1962)] in 1+1 dimensions. Some exact results are deduced. In addition to the superconducting long-range order found by Shankar, it is shown that there is a 2pF hole density wave existing with the superconducting pairing instability.

  6. Ultrafast acousto-optic mode conversion in optically birefringent ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejman, Mariusz; Vaudel, Gwenaelle; Infante, Ingrid C.; Chaban, Ievgeniia; Pezeril, Thomas; Edely, Mathieu; Nataf, Guillaume F.; Guennou, Mael; Kreisel, Jens; Gusev, Vitalyi E.; Dkhil, Brahim; Ruello, Pascal

    2016-08-01

    The ability to generate efficient giga-terahertz coherent acoustic phonons with femtosecond laser makes acousto-optics a promising candidate for ultrafast light processing, which faces electronic device limits intrinsic to complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. Modern acousto-optic devices, including optical mode conversion process between ordinary and extraordinary light waves (and vice versa), remain limited to the megahertz range. Here, using coherent acoustic waves generated at tens of gigahertz frequency by a femtosecond laser pulse, we reveal the mode conversion process and show its efficiency in ferroelectric materials such as BiFeO3 and LiNbO3. Further to the experimental evidence, we provide a complete theoretical support to this all-optical ultrafast mechanism mediated by acousto-optic interaction. By allowing the manipulation of light polarization with gigahertz coherent acoustic phonons, our results provide a novel route for the development of next-generation photonic-based devices and highlight new capabilities in using ferroelectrics in modern photonics.

  7. Mixed electrochemical-ferroelectric states in nanoscale ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sang Mo; Morozovska, Anna N.; Kumar, Rajeev; Eliseev, Eugene A.; Cao, Ye; Mazet, Lucie; Balke, Nina; Jesse, Stephen; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Dubourdieu, Catherine; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2017-08-01

    Ferroelectricity on the nanoscale has been the subject of much fascination in condensed-matter physics for over half a century. In recent years, multiple reports claiming ferroelectricity in ultrathin ferroelectric films based on the formation of remnant polarization states, local electromechanical hysteresis loops, and pressure-induced switching were made. However, similar phenomena were reported for traditionally non-ferroelectric materials, creating a significant level of uncertainty in the field. Here we show that in nanoscale systems the ferroelectric state is fundamentally inseparable from the electrochemical state of the surface, leading to the emergence of a mixed electrochemical-ferroelectric state. We explore the nature, thermodynamics, and thickness evolution of such states, and demonstrate the experimental pathway to establish its presence. This analysis reconciles multiple prior studies, provides guidelines for studies of ferroelectric materials on the nanoscale, and establishes the design paradigm for new generations of ferroelectric-based devices.

  8. Magnetic ordering induced giant optical property change in tetragonal BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wen-Yi; Ding, Hang-Chen; Gong, Shi Jing; Wan, Xiangang; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic ordering could have significant influence on band structures, spin-dependent transport, and other important properties of materials. Its measurement, especially for the case of antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering, however, is generally difficult to be achieved. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of magnetic ordering detection using a noncontact and nondestructive optical method. Taking the tetragonal BiFeO3 (BFO) as an example and combining density functional theory calculations with tight-binding models, we find that when BFO changes from C1-type to G-type AFM phase, the top of valance band shifts from the Z point to Γ point, which makes the original direct band gap become indirect. This can be explained by Slater-Koster parameters using the Harrison approach. The impact of magnetic ordering on band dispersion dramatically changes the optical properties. For the linear ones, the energy shift of the optical band gap could be as large as 0.4 eV. As for the nonlinear ones, the change is even larger. The second-harmonic generation coefficient d33 of G-AFM becomes more than 13 times smaller than that of C1-AFM case. Finally, we propose a practical way to distinguish the two AFM phases of BFO using the optical method, which is of great importance in next-generation information storage technologies.

  9. Reinforced magnetic properties of Ni-doped BiFeO3 ceramic

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, J S; Kang, J -H; Lee, K H; Lee, B W; Park, S Y; Lee, Y P

    2016-01-01

    Multiferroic materials attract considerable interest because of the wide range of potential applications such as spintronic devices, data storage and sensors. As a strong candidate for the applications among the limited list of single-phase multiferroic materials, BiFeO3 (BFO) is a quite attractive material due to its multiferroic properties at room temperature (RT). However, BFO is widely known to have large leakage current and small spontaneous polarization due to the existence of crystalline defects such as oxygen vacancies. Furthermore, the magnetic moment of pure BFO is very weak owing to its antiferromagnetic nature. In this paper, the effects of Ni2+ substitution on the magnetic properties of bulk BFO have been investigated. BFO, and BiFe0.99Ni0.01O3, BiFe0.98Ni0.02O3 and BiFe0.97Ni0.03O3 (BFNO: Ni-doped BFO) ceramics were prepared by solid-state reaction and rapid sintering, and analyzed by structural and magnetic-property measurements. The leakage current density was measured at RT by using a standar...

  10. Losses in Ferroelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials are the best dielectric and piezoelectric materials known today. Since the discovery of barium titanate in the 1940s, lead zirconate titanate ceramics in the 1950s and relaxor-PT single crystals (such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate and lead zinc niobate-lead titanate) in the 1980s and 1990s, perovskite ferroelectric materials have been the dominating piezoelectric materials for electromechanical devices, and are widely used in sensors, actuators and ultrasonic transducers. Energy losses (or energy dissipation) in ferroelectrics are one of the most critical issues for high power devices, such as therapeutic ultrasonic transducers, large displacement actuators, SONAR projectors, and high frequency medical imaging transducers. The losses of ferroelectric materials have three distinct types, i.e., elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric losses. People have been investigating the mechanisms of these losses and are trying hard to control and minimize them so as to reduce performance degradation in electromechanical devices. There are impressive progresses made in the past several decades on this topic, but some confusions still exist. Therefore, a systematic review to define related concepts and clear up confusions is urgently in need. With this objective in mind, we provide here a comprehensive review on the energy losses in ferroelectrics, including related mechanisms, characterization techniques and collections of published data on many ferroelectric materials to provide a useful resource for interested scientists and engineers to design electromechanical devices and to gain a global perspective on the complex physical phenomena involved. More importantly, based on the analysis of available information, we proposed a general theoretical model to describe the inherent relationships among elastic, dielectric, piezoelectric and mechanical losses. For multi-domain ferroelectric single crystals and ceramics, intrinsic and extrinsic energy

  11. Losses in Ferroelectric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-03-01

    Ferroelectric materials are the best dielectric and piezoelectric materials known today. Since the discovery of barium titanate in the 1940s, lead zirconate titanate ceramics in the 1950s and relaxor-PT single crystals (such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate and lead zinc niobate-lead titanate) in the 1980s and 1990s, perovskite ferroelectric materials have been the dominating piezoelectric materials for electromechanical devices, and are widely used in sensors, actuators and ultrasonic transducers. Energy losses (or energy dissipation) in ferroelectrics are one of the most critical issues for high power devices, such as therapeutic ultrasonic transducers, large displacement actuators, SONAR projectors, and high frequency medical imaging transducers. The losses of ferroelectric materials have three distinct types, i.e., elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric losses. People have been investigating the mechanisms of these losses and are trying hard to control and minimize them so as to reduce performance degradation in electromechanical devices. There are impressive progresses made in the past several decades on this topic, but some confusions still exist. Therefore, a systematic review to define related concepts and clear up confusions is urgently in need. With this objective in mind, we provide here a comprehensive review on the energy losses in ferroelectrics, including related mechanisms, characterization techniques and collections of published data on many ferroelectric materials to provide a useful resource for interested scientists and engineers to design electromechanical devices and to gain a global perspective on the complex physical phenomena involved. More importantly, based on the analysis of available information, we proposed a general theoretical model to describe the inherent relationships among elastic, dielectric, piezoelectric and mechanical losses. For multi-domain ferroelectric single crystals and ceramics, intrinsic and extrinsic energy

  12. Antiferromagnetic hedgehogs with superconducting cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldbart, P.M.; Sheehy, D.E. [Department of Physics and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Excitations of the antiferromagnetic state that resemble antiferromagnetic hedgehogs at large distances but are predominantly superconducting inside a core region are discussed within the context of Zhang{close_quote}s SO(5)-symmetry-based approach to the physics of high-temperature superconducting materials. Nonsingular, in contrast with their hedgehog cousins in pure antiferromagnetism, these texture excitations are what hedgehogs become when the antiferromagnetic order parameter is permitted to {open_quotes}escape{close_quotes} into superconducting directions. The structure of such excitations is determined in a simple setting, and a number of their experimental implications are examined. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Effect of strain on voltage-controlled magnetism in BiFeO₃-based heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J J; Hu, J M; Yang, T N; Feng, M; Zhang, J X; Chen, L Q; Nan, C W

    2014-04-01

    Voltage-modulated magnetism in magnetic/BiFeO3 heterostructures can be driven by a combination of the intrinsic ferroelectric-antiferromagnetic coupling in BiFeO3 and the antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic exchange interaction across the heterointerface. However, ferroelectric BiFeO3 film is also ferroelastic, thus it is possible to generate voltage-induced strain in BiFeO3 that could be applied onto the magnetic layer across the heterointerface and modulate magnetism through magnetoelastic coupling. Here, we investigated, using phase-field simulations, the role of strain in voltage-controlled magnetism for these BiFeO3-based heterostructures. It is predicted, under certain condition, coexistence of strain and exchange interaction will result in a pure voltage-driven 180° magnetization reversal in BiFeO3-based heterostructures.

  14. Microstructure and properties of Ga-modified 0.7BiFeO3-0.3BaTiO3 solid solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Binary solid solutions 0.7Bi (GaxFe1-x)O3-0.3BaTiO3 (χ = 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1) ceramics were prepared by traditional ceramic process. All the ceramic samples showed single perovskite phase except the sample with χ = 0.1. The effects of gallium doping on microstructure, ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, dielectric properties and conductivity were investigated. The results indicated that Ga-dopant could improve the sintering ability of the solid solution when the Ga content x was below 0.05. When x was over 0.05, the sintering ability of the solid solution was weakened, and the phase structure of 0.7BiFeO3-0.3BaTiO3 solid solution changed from rhombohedral phase into tetragonal ferroelectric phase. The electrical resistivity increased with the Ga content increasing. Both ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism were observed in all the ceramic samples. With the Ga content increasing, the remanent magnetization Mr increased and the magnetic coercive field Hc decreased. However, the remanent polarization Pr fluctuated, increasing firstly and decreasing later.

  15. Ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism in EuTiO3 nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozovska, Anna N.; Glinchuk, Maya D.; Behera, Rakesh K.; Zaulychny, Basil; Deo, Chaitanya S.; Eliseev, Eugene A.

    2011-11-01

    We predicted the ferroelectric-ferromagnetic multiferroic properties of EuTiO3 nanowires and generated the phase diagrams in coordinates of temperature and wire radii. The calculations were performed within the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory with phenomenological parameters extracted from tabulated experimental data and first-principles calculations. Since bulk EuTiO3 is antiferromagnetic at temperatures lower than 5.5 K and paraelectric at all temperatures, our goal was to investigate the possibility of inducing the ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties of EuTiO3 by reducing the bulk to nanosystems. Our results indicate that ferroelectric spontaneous polarization of ˜0.1-0.5 C/m2 is induced in EuTiO3 nanowires due to the intrinsic surface stress, which is inversely proportional to the nanowire radius. Spontaneous polarization exists at temperatures lower than 300 K for wire diameter of ˜4 lattice constants with 10 N/m surface stress coefficient. Due to the strong biquadratic magnetoelectric coupling, the spontaneous polarization in turn induces the ferromagnetic phase at temperatures lower than 30 K for 2-nm nanowire and at temperatures lower than 10 K for 4-nm nanowire in EuTiO3. Thus, we predicted that the EuTiO3 nanowires can be the new ferroelectric-ferromagnetic multiferroic.

  16. First-principles approach to the dynamic magnetoelectric couplings for the non-reciprocal directional dichroism in BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hee; Kézsmáki, István; Fishman, Randy S.

    2016-04-01

    Due to the complicated magnetic and crystallographic structures of BiFeO3, its magnetoelectric (ME) couplings and microscopic model Hamiltonian remain poorly understood. By employing a first-principles approach, we uncover all possible ME couplings associated with the spin-current (SC) and exchange-striction (ES) polarizations, and construct an appropriate Hamiltonian for the long-range spin-cycloid in BiFeO3. First-principles calculations are used to understand the microscopic origins of the ME couplings. We find that inversion symmetries broken by ferroelectric and antiferroelectric distortions induce the SC and the ES polarizations, which cooperatively produce the dynamic ME effects in BiFeO3. A model motivated by first principles reproduces the absorption difference of counter-propagating light beams called non-reciprocal directional dichroism. The current paper focuses on the spin-driven (SD) polarizations produced by a dynamic electric field, i.e. the dynamic ME couplings. Due to the inertial properties of Fe, the dynamic SD polarizations differ significantly from the static SD polarizations. Our systematic approach can be generally applied to any multiferroic material, laying the foundation for revealing hidden ME couplings on the atomic scale and for exploiting optical ME effects in the next generation of technological devices such as optical diodes. This manuscript has been written by UT-Battelle, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes. The Department of Energy will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan.

  17. Micromechanism of Ferroelectrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiCHEN; Dai-NingFANG; 等

    1997-01-01

    As one of the most important advanced electronic materials,ferroelectric and its nonlinear behavior have always been an interesting subject of study in the field of physics and materials science.Recently ferroelectrics has been applied more widely with the rapid development of the Smart/Intelligent materials,As the elementary components of sensors and actuators,ferroelectrics may be subjected to high stresses and electric fields and performance failure may rasult due to the complexity of the environment where the Smart/Intelligent materials are used.Therefore,it is very important to describe the constitutive behavior of the feroelectrics,which can serve as important basis for the design and application of the Smart/Intelligent materials.The main attempt here is to establish the explicit form of constitutive laws of ferroelectric single crystal in the framework of the micromechanics internal variable theory[1],After the “soft” approximation.this model can also be used to exhibit the nonlinear properties of ferroelectric ceramics.

  18. Antiferromagnetic spin Seebeck effect.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Stephen M.; Zhang, Wei; KC, Amit; Borisov, Pavel; Pearson, John E.; Jiang, J. Samuel; Lederman, David; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2016-03-03

    We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF2. A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF2 (110) (30nm)/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF2(110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF2 through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2–80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop transition corresponding to the sudden rotation of antiferromagnetic spins out of the easy axis is observed in the spin Seebeck signal when large magnetic fields (>9T) are applied parallel to the easy axis of the MnF2 thin film. When the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis, the spin-flop transition is absent, as expected.

  19. Antiferromagnetic Spin Seebeck Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Stephen M.; Zhang, Wei; KC, Amit; Borisov, Pavel; Pearson, John E.; Jiang, J. Samuel; Lederman, David; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2016-03-01

    We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF2 . A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF2 (110) (30 nm )/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF2 (110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF2 through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2-80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop transition corresponding to the sudden rotation of antiferromagnetic spins out of the easy axis is observed in the spin Seebeck signal when large magnetic fields (>9 T ) are applied parallel to the easy axis of the MnF2 thin film. When the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis, the spin-flop transition is absent, as expected.

  20. Orientation control and domain structure analysis of {100}-oriented epitaxial ferroelectric orthorhombic HfO2-based thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Kiliha; Shimizu, Takao; Sakata, Osami; Shiraishi, Takahisa; Nakamura, Shogo; Kiguchi, Takanori; Akama, Akihiro; Konno, Toyohiko J.; Uchida, Hiroshi; Funakubo, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Orientation control of {100}-oriented epitaxial orthorhombic 0.07YO1.5-0.93HfO2 films grown by pulsed laser deposition was investigated. To achieve in-plane lattice matching, indium tin oxide (ITO) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were selected as underlying layers. We obtained (100)- and (001)/(010)-oriented films on ITO and YSZ, respectively. Ferroelastic domain formation was confirmed for both films by X-ray diffraction using the superlattice diffraction that appeared only for the orthorhombic symmetry. The formation of ferroelastic domains is believed to be induced by the tetragonal-orthorhombic phase transition upon cooling the films after deposition. The present results demonstrate that the orientation of HfO2-based ferroelectric films can be controlled in the same manner as that of ferroelectric films composed of conventional perovskite-type material such as Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 and BiFeO3.

  1. Ferroelectrics based absorbing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jianping; Sadaune, Véronique; Burgnies, Ludovic; Lippens, Didier

    2014-07-01

    We show that ferroelectrics-based periodic structure made of BaSrTiO3 (BST) cubes, arrayed onto a metal plate with a thin dielectric spacer film exhibit a dramatic enhancement of absorbance with value close to unity. The enhancement is found around the Mie magnetic resonance of the Ferroelectrics cubes with the backside metal layer stopping any transmitted waves. It also involves quasi-perfect impedance matching resulting in reflection suppression via simultaneous magnetic and electrical activities. In addition, it was shown numerically the existence of a periodicity optimum, which is explained from surface waves analysis along with trade-off between the resonance damping and the intrinsic loss of ferroelectrics cubes. An experimental verification in a hollow waveguide configuration with a good comparison with full-wave numerical modelling is at last reported by measuring the scattering parameters of single and dual BST cubes schemes pointing out coupling effects for densely packed structures.

  2. Electrical switching of an antiferromagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadley, P; Howells, B; Železný, J; Andrews, C; Hills, V; Campion, R P; Novák, V; Olejník, K; Maccherozzi, F; Dhesi, S S; Martin, S Y; Wagner, T; Wunderlich, J; Freimuth, F; Mokrousov, Y; Kuneš, J; Chauhan, J S; Grzybowski, M J; Rushforth, A W; Edmonds, K W; Gallagher, B L; Jungwirth, T

    2016-02-05

    Antiferromagnets are hard to control by external magnetic fields because of the alternating directions of magnetic moments on individual atoms and the resulting zero net magnetization. However, relativistic quantum mechanics allows for generating current-induced internal fields whose sign alternates with the periodicity of the antiferromagnetic lattice. Using these fields, which couple strongly to the antiferromagnetic order, we demonstrate room-temperature electrical switching between stable configurations in antiferromagnetic CuMnAs thin-film devices by applied current with magnitudes of order 10(6) ampere per square centimeter. Electrical writing is combined in our solid-state memory with electrical readout and the stored magnetic state is insensitive to and produces no external magnetic field perturbations, which illustrates the unique merits of antiferromagnets for spintronics.

  3. Ferroelectrics principles, structure and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Merchant, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Ferroelectric physics is a theory on ferroelectric phase transition for explaining various related phenomena, which is different from dielectric physics. Ferroelectric materials are important functional materials for various applications such as NVRAMs, high energy density capacitors, actuators, MEMs, sonar sensors, microphones and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). This book investigates the dielectric, ferroelectric and energy storage properties of barium zirconate-titanate/barium calcium-titanate (BZT-BCT) based ceramic for high energy density capacitors. It also compares the energy storage capabilities of ceramic powders with polymer-ceramic nanocomposites; and discusses dielectric properties of ferroelectricity in composition distributions.

  4. Electric Field Control of the Resistance of Multiferroic Tunnel Junctions with Magnetoelectric Antiferromagnetic Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merodio, P.; Kalitsov, A.; Chshiev, M.; Velev, J.

    2016-06-01

    Based on model calculations, we predict a magnetoelectric tunneling electroresistance effect in multiferroic tunnel junctions consisting of ferromagnetic electrodes and magnetoelectric antiferromagnetic barriers. Switching of the antiferromagnetic order parameter in the barrier in applied electric field by means of the magnetoelectric coupling leads to a substantial change of the resistance of the junction. The effect is explained in terms of the switching of the orientations of local magnetizations at the barrier interfaces affecting the spin-dependent interface transmission probabilities. Magnetoelectric multiferroic materials with finite ferroelectric polarization exhibit an enhanced resistive change due to polarization-induced spin-dependent screening. These results suggest that devices with active barriers based on single-phase magnetoelectric antiferromagnets represent an alternative nonvolatile memory concept.

  5. Highly (110)- and (111)-oriented BiFeO3 films on BaPbO3 electrode with Ru or Pt /Ru barrier layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Ching; Wu, Jenn-Ming; Hsiung, Chang-Po

    2007-04-01

    Highly (110)- and (111)-oriented BiFeO3 (BFO) films were fabricated with BaPbO3 (BPO )/Ru and BPO /Pt/Ru as electrode/barrier on Si substrates by rf-magnetron sputtering. The BPO /Ru and BPO /Pt/Ru stacks both induce oriented BFO films and act as diffusion barriers. The (110)- and (111)-oriented BFO films possess excellent ferroelectric properties with only minor leakage. The values of remnant polarization are almost the same, about 42μC/cm2, for (110)- and (111)-oriented BFO films. However, polarization measured under varying pulse widths demonstrates that the switching polarization in (111)-oriented BFO films is higher than in (110)-oriented films. Additionally, (111)-oriented BFO films exhibit better retention properties than (110)-oriented films.

  6. Robust ferromagnetism carried by antiferromagnetic domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Hishiro T.; Yamaura, Jun-Ichi; Hiroi, Zenji

    2017-02-01

    Ferroic materials, such as ferromagnetic or ferroelectric materials, have been utilized as recording media for memory devices. A recent trend for downsizing, however, requires an alternative, because ferroic orders tend to become unstable for miniaturization. The domain wall nanoelectronics is a new developing direction for next-generation devices, in which atomic domain walls, rather than conventional, large domains themselves, are the active elements. Here we show that atomically thin magnetic domain walls generated in the antiferromagnetic insulator Cd2Os2O7 carry unusual ferromagnetic moments perpendicular to the wall as well as electron conductivity: the ferromagnetic moments are easily polarized even by a tiny field of 1 mT at high temperature, while, once cooled down, they are surprisingly robust even in an inverse magnetic field of 7 T. Thus, the magnetic domain walls could serve as a new-type of microscopic, switchable and electrically readable magnetic medium which is potentially important for future applications in the domain wall nanoelectronics.

  7. Landau model for the multiferroic delafossite antiferromagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J.L, E-mail: jlr@fisica.uminho.pt [Centro de Física da Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Perez-Mato, J.M [Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Vieira, L.G [Centro de Física da Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2016-10-15

    A symmetry based framework is used to describe the complex phase diagrams observed in the multiferroic delafossite compounds. A free energy Landau functional is derived from the analysis of the transformation properties of the most general incommensurate magnetic spin order parameter. A principle of maximal symmetry is invoked and the stability of each of the different higher symmetry phases considered. The competition between different potential ground states is analysed within the scope of a simplified model, which emphasizes the role of the symmetry allowed phase dependent biquadratic couplings. The cross-over between the different competing states is also discussed. The results show that the diverse set of phase diagrams that are experimentally observed in this class of triangular lattice antiferromagnets and, in particular, the stabilization of magnetically induced ferroelectric states, can be well interpreted and described within this integrated phenomenological approximation. - Highlights: • Symmetry considerations are used to analyze the phase diagrams of the compounds. • The competition between possible ground states is discussed. • The field induced transitions between competing states are described.

  8. James C. McGroddy Prize for New Materials Talk: What is new in multiferroicity?: Mott ferroelectrics!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Sang-Wook

    2010-03-01

    Multiferroicity is an old topic. For example, linear magnetoelectric effect in materials such as Cr2O3 with broken time reversal and space inversion symmetry has been known since 1960's. However, giant cross-coupling effects such as flipping polarization or enormous change of dielectric constant by applied magnetic fields have been recently observed in systems such as Tb(Dy)MnO3 and Tb(Dy)Mn2O5 [1-3]. The important ingredient for these giant magnetoelectric effects turns out to be associated with the presence of non-zero d electrons and their mutual interactions, leading to the Mott-insulator-type charge gap, magnetism, and collective phase transitions. Particularly, the collective nature of simultaneous magnetic-ferroelectric phase transitions results in the giant magnetoelectric effects. In addition, fascinating charge transport properties such as a switchable photovoltaic effect and characteristic conduction properties at domain walls stem from the (carrier-doped) Mott insulating nature of compounds such as BiFeO3 and hexagonal YMnO3 [4,5]. [4pt] [1] Kimura, T. et al. Magnetic control of ferroelectric polarization. Nature 426, 55--58 (2003).[0pt] [2] Hur, N. et al. Electric polarization reversal and memory in a multiferroic material induced by magnetic fields. Nature 429, 392--395 (2004).[0pt] [3] Cheong, S.-W. & Mostovoy, M. Multiferroics: a magnetic twist for ferroelectricity. Nature Mater. 6, 13--20 (2007).[0pt] [4] Seidel, J. et al. Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics. Nature Mater. 8, 229--234 (2009).[0pt] [5] Choi, T., Lee, S., Choi, Y.J., Kiryukhin, V. & Cheong, S.-W. Switchable ferroelectric diode and photovoltaic effect in BiFeO3. Science 324, 63--66 (2009)

  9. Antiferromagnetic spin Seebeck Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, SM; W. Zhang; Kc, A; Borisov, P.; Pearson, JE; Jiang, JS; Lederman, D.; Hoffmann, A.; Bhattacharya, A

    2015-01-01

    We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF_{2}. A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF_{2} (110) (30  nm)/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF_{2} (110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF_{2} through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2-80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop t...

  10. Domains in Ferroelectric Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Marty

    2010-03-01

    Ferroelectric materials have great potential in influencing the future of small scale electronics. At a basic level, this is because ferroelectric surfaces are charged, and so interact strongly with charge-carrying metals and semiconductors - the building blocks for all electronic systems. Since the electrical polarity of the ferroelectric can be reversed, surfaces can both attract and repel charges in nearby materials, and can thereby exert complete control over both charge distribution and movement. It should be no surprise, therefore, that microelectronics industries have already looked very seriously at harnessing ferroelectric materials in a variety of applications, from solid state memory chips (FeRAMs) to field effect transistors (FeFETs). In all such applications, switching the direction of the polarity of the ferroelectric is a key aspect of functional behavior. The mechanism for switching involves the field-induced nucleation and growth of domains. Domain coarsening, through domain wall propagation, eventually causes the entire ferroelectric to switch its polar direction. It is thus the existence and behavior of domains that determine the switching response, and ultimately the performance of the ferroelectric device. A major issue, associated with the integration of ferroelectrics into microelectronic devices, has been that the fundamental properties associated with ferroelectrics, when in bulk form, appear to change quite dramatically and unpredictably when at the nanoscale: new modes of behaviour, and different functional characteristics from those seen in bulk appear. For domains, in particular, the proximity of surfaces and boundaries have a dramatic effect: surface tension and depolarizing fields both serve to increase the equilibrium density of domains, such that minor changes in scale or morphology can have major ramifications for domain redistribution. Given the importance of domains in dictating the overall switching characteristics of a device

  11. Superconductivity, antiferromagnetism, and neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranquada, John M., E-mail: jtran@bnl.gov; Xu, Guangyong; Zaliznyak, Igor A.

    2014-01-15

    High-temperature superconductivity in both the copper-oxide and the iron–pnictide/chalcogenide systems occurs in close proximity to antiferromagnetically ordered states. Neutron scattering has been an essential technique for characterizing the spin correlations in the antiferromagnetic phases and for demonstrating how the spin fluctuations persist in the superconductors. While the nature of the spin correlations in the superconductors remains controversial, the neutron scattering measurements of magnetic excitations over broad ranges of energy and momentum transfers provide important constraints on the theoretical options. We present an overview of the neutron scattering work on high-temperature superconductors and discuss some of the outstanding issues. - Highlights: • High-temperature superconductivity is closely associated with antiferromagnetism. • Antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations coexist with the superconductivity. • Neutron scattering is essential for characterising the full spectrum of spin excitations.

  12. Evidence of non-Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya ferromagnetism in epitaxial BiFeO3 films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prokhorov, V.G.; Kaminsky, G.G.; Kim, J.M.; Eom, T.W.; Park, J.S.; Lee, Y.P.; Svetchnikov, V.L.; Levtchenko, G.G.; Nikolaenko, Y.M.; Khokhlov, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray diffraction analysis and high-resolution electron microscopy of BiFeO3 films prepared by dc magnetron sputtering on single-crystal LaAlO3 (001) substrates reveal that the films have a highly c-oriented orthorhombic crystalline structure. The magnetic properties of the BiFeO3 films are typical

  13. Molecular ferroelectrics: where electronics meet biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangyu; Liu, Yuanming; Zhang, Yanhang; Cai, Hong-Ling; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2013-12-28

    In the last several years, we have witnessed significant advances in molecular ferroelectrics, with the ferroelectric properties of molecular crystals approaching those of barium titanate. In addition, ferroelectricity has been observed in biological systems, filling an important missing link in bioelectric phenomena. In this perspective, we will present short historical notes on ferroelectrics, followed by an overview of the fundamentals of ferroelectricity. The latest developments in molecular ferroelectrics and biological ferroelectricity will then be highlighted, and their implications and potential applications will be discussed. We close by noting molecular ferroelectric as an exciting frontier between electronics and biology, and a number of challenges ahead are also described.

  14. Ferroelectric materials and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Y

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the basic physical properties, structure, fabrication methods and applications of ferroelectric materials. These are widely used in various devices, such as piezoelectric/electrostrictive transducers and actuators, pyroelectric infrared detectors, optical integrated circuits, optical data storage, display devices, etc. The ferroelectric materials described in this book include a relatively complete list of practical and promising ferroelectric single crystals, bulk ceramics and thin films. Included are perovskite-type, lithium niobate, tungsten-bronze-type, water-soluable

  15. Layered bismuth vanadate ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipyan, V.G.; Savchenko, L.M.; Elbakyan, V.L.; Avakyan, P.B.

    1987-08-01

    The authors synthesize new layered bismuth vanadate ferroelectrics. The x-ray diffraction characteristics of Bi/sub 2/VO/sub 5.5/ are shown. Thermal expansion of ceramics with various compositions are presented, as are the temperature dependences of the dielectric constant of the ceramic with various compositions. Unit-cell parameters, Curie temperature, electrical conductivity and the dielectric characteristics of the compositions studied are shown.

  16. Ferroelectricity the fundamentals collection

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Basilio

    2008-01-01

    This indispensable collection of seminal papers on ferroelectricity provides an overview over almost a hundred years of basic and applied research. Containing historic contributions from renowned authors, this book presents developments in an area of science that is still rapidly growing. Although primarily aimed at scientists and academics involved in research, this will also be of use to students as well as newcomers to the field.

  17. COMPUTER SIMULATION OF ANTIFERROMAGNETIC STRUCTURES DESCRIBED BY THE THREE-VERTEX ANTIFERROMAGNETIC POTTS MODEL

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yarash K. Abuev; Albert B. Babaev; Pharkhat E. Esetov

    2017-01-01

    Objectives A computer simulation of the antiferromagnetic structures described by the three-vertex Potts model on a triangular lattice is performed, taking into account the antiferromagnetic exchange...

  18. Aging effect evolution during ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition: A mechanism study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuyong Feng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging can significantly modify the dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric performance of ferroelectrics. However, little attention has been paid to the aging effect during ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transitions that is essentially correlated with real applications. In this letter, the authors report the aging effect evolution between two ferroelectric phases in an acceptor-doped piezoceramics. The results show that aging-induced double hysteresis loops were exhibited in different ferroelectric phases, but disappeared during ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transitions, suggesting the mechanism that the intrinsic restoring force for the reversible switching of domains caused by the alignment of defect dipoles was weakened due to ferroelectric dipole reorientation.

  19. Creation of an antiferromagnetic exchange spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholl, A.; Liberati, M.; Arenholz, E.; Ohldag, H.; Stohr, J.

    2004-04-06

    We present evidence for the creation of an exchange spring in an antiferromagnet due to exchange coupling to a ferromagnet. X-ray magnetic linear dichroism spectroscopy on single crystal Co/NiO(001) shows that a partial domain wall is wound up at the surface of the antiferromagnet when the adjacent ferromagnet is rotated by a magnetic field. We determine the interface exchange stiffness and the antiferromagnetic domain wall energy from the field dependence of the direction of the antiferromagnetic axis, the antiferromagnetic pendant to a ferromagnetic hysteresis loop. The existence of a planar antiferromagnetic domain wall, proven by our measurement, is a key assumption of most exchange bias models.

  20. Stress induced enhanced polarization in multilayer BiFeO3/BaTiO3 structure with improved energy storage properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Sharma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Present work reports the fabrication of a multilayer (5-layer structure of BiFeO3(BFO/BaTiO3(BTO using spin-coating technique. The crystallographic structure, surface morphology and ferroelectric behavior of multilayer structure in metal-ferroelectric-metal capacitor have been studied. Le-Bail refinement of X-ray diffraction data revealed the formation of polycrystalline pure perovskite phase with induced stress. The values of remnant (Pr and saturation polarization (Ps for BFO/BTO multilayer structure are found to be 38.14 μC/cm2 and 71.54 μC/cm2 respectively, which are much higher than the corresponding values reported for bare BFO thin film. A large value of dielectric constant of 187 has been obtained for multilayer structure with a low leakage current density of 1.09 × 10−7 A/cm2 at applied bias of 10 V. The BFO/BTO multilayer structure favors the enhanced energy storage capacity as compared to bare BFO thin film with improved values of energy-density and charge-discharge efficiency as 121 mJ/cm3 and 59% respectively, suggesting futuristic energy storage applications.

  1. Growth of epitaxial Mn and Zn codoped BiFeO3 thin films and an enhancement of photovoltage generated by a bulk photovoltaic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Seiji; Takayama, Kota; Shigematsu, Koji; Fujisawa, Hironori; Shimizu, Masaru

    2016-10-01

    Recently, the bulk photovoltaic effect of BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films has attracted much attention because of its above bandgap photovoltage for realizing novel photovoltaic devices. In this study, the epitaxial growth of 1-µm-thick Mn and Zn codoped BFO thin films has been demonstrated, and the effects of Mn and Zn codoping on the ferroelectric and bulk photovoltaic properties of the BFO thin films have been investigated. A 0.5% Mn and 0.5% Zn codoped BFO (BFMZO050) thin film on a SrRuO3-buffered vicinal-SrTiO3(001) substrate showed an atomically flat surface with a step-and-terrace structure, a low leakage current of 1.5 × 10-6 A/cm2 at 100 kV/cm, and well-saturated ferroelectric electric displacement-electric field (D-E) hysteresis loops. In addition, a Pt/BFMZO/Pt coplanar capacitor with an interelectrode distance of 260 µm illuminated by a violet laser (λ = 405 nm) showed an enhanced photovoltage of 145 V owing to the reduction in photoconductance by Mn and Zn codoping.

  2. 柠檬酸自燃烧法制备BiFeO3工艺及性能研究%Study on Technique and Properties of BiFeO3 Prepared by Citrate Self-Combustion Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春梅; 刘世江; 郝俊红; 李涛; 赵猛; 陈镇平

    2011-01-01

    BiFeO3 powder with distorted rhombohedral perovskite structures were synthesized by the citrate self - combustion method using citric acid as chelating, nitrate as oxidant. XRD and DTA - TG were employed for the obtained powder. The crystal structure and physical properties of BiFeO3 powder and ceramics were investigated. The results show that precursor prepared by citrate sol - gel has self - combustion characteristics and the structure of BiFeO3 has improved after sintering. All samples show good ferroelectricity. BiFeO3 prepared by citrate sol - gel method possesses larger remanent polarization, because of the highly dispersed state of the precursor during the reaction, which will help the formation of BiFeO3.%以柠檬酸做络合剂,硝酸盐做氧化剂,采用柠檬酸-硝酸盐自燃烧法一步合成了具有扭曲菱方钙钛矿结构的BiFeO3粉体.利用X射线衍射(XRD)、差热-热重(DTA -TG)等技术分析了所得BiFeO3粉体,并研究了粉体烧结后BiFeO3陶瓷的相结构和电性能.结果表明,柠檬酸盐溶胶-凝胶法制备的前驱体具有自燃烧特性,自燃烧后BiFeO3粉体的菱方钙钛矿结构已经形成,经压片烧结后,材料的相结构更趋完善.所有样品均表现出较好的铁电性,柠檬酸盐溶胶-凝胶法制备的BiFeO3,因前驱体在反应过程中处于高度均匀分散状态,利于BiFeO3的成相,样品的剩余极化强度较大.

  3. Pathways towards ferroelectricity in hafnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Tran Doan; Sharma, Vinit; Rossetti, George A.; Ramprasad, Rampi

    2014-08-01

    The question of whether one can systematically identify (previously unknown) ferroelectric phases of a given material is addressed, taking hafnia (HfO2) as an example. Low free energy phases at various pressures and temperatures are identified using a first-principles based structure search algorithm. Ferroelectric phases are then recognized by exploiting group theoretical principles for the symmetry-allowed displacive transitions between nonpolar and polar phases. Two orthorhombic polar phases occurring in space groups Pca21 and Pmn21 are singled out as the most viable ferroelectric phases of hafnia, as they display low free energies (relative to known nonpolar phases), and substantial switchable spontaneous electric polarization. These results provide an explanation for the recently observed surprising ferroelectric behavior of hafnia, and reveal pathways for stabilizing ferroelectric phases of hafnia as well as other compounds.

  4. Thermophoresis of an antiferromagnetic soliton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Kwon; Tchernyshyov, Oleg; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2015-07-01

    We study the dynamics of an antiferromagnetic soliton under a temperature gradient. To this end, we start by phenomenologically constructing the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for an antiferromagnet with the aid of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. We then derive the Langevin equation for the soliton's center of mass by the collective coordinate approach. An antiferromagentic soliton behaves as a classical massive particle immersed in a viscous medium. By considering a thermodynamic ensemble of solitons, we obtain the Fokker-Planck equation, from which we extract the average drift velocity of a soliton. The diffusion coefficient is inversely proportional to a small damping constant α , which can yield a drift velocity of tens of m/s under a temperature gradient of 1 K/mm for a domain wall in an easy-axis antiferromagnetic wire with α ˜10-4 .

  5. A spin-1 kagome antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Mayra; Shtengel, Kirill; Refael, Gil

    2010-03-01

    We study a spin-1 antiferromagnet on the kagom'e lattice. We start by constructing a Klein-type SU(2) symmetric Hamiltonian which contains Heisenberg interactions between nearest and next-nearest neighbors as well as three-body terms. Our model Hamiltonian has an extensive degenerate ground state whose manifold is spanned by the AKLT-like valence bond states. We also perturb the parent Hamiltonian by introducing an enhancement to the nearest neighbor antiferromagnetic Heisenberg interactions. By projecting this perturbation onto the basis spanned by the unperturbed ground states, we derive an effective Hamiltonian which is dual to that of the transverse field antiferromagnetic Ising model on the triangular lattice. Based on the parameters of our model, we find it to be in the order-by-disorder phase. The ground state is a valence bond crystal stabilized by quantum fluctuations. We also discuss excitations, both magnetic and non-magnetic, and address their possible relevance to experiment.

  6. Piezoelectric response of BiFeO3 ceramics at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojac, Tadej; Makarovic, Maja; Walker, Julian; Ursic, Hana; Damjanovic, Dragan; Kos, Tomaz

    2016-07-01

    The high Curie temperature (TC ˜ 825 °C) of BiFeO3 has made this material potentially attractive for the development of high-TC piezoelectric ceramics. Despite significant advances in the search of new BiFeO3-based compositions, the piezoelectric behavior of the parent BiFeO3 at elevated temperatures remains unexplored. We present here a systematic analysis of the converse, longitudinal piezoelectric response of BiFeO3 measured in situ as a function of temperature (25-260 °C), driving-field frequency, and amplitude. Earlier studies performed at room temperature revealed that the frequency and field dependence of the longitudinal response of BiFeO3 is dominated by linear and nonlinear piezoelectric Maxwell-Wagner mechanisms, originating from the presence of local conductive paths along domain walls and grain boundaries within the polycrystalline matrix. This study shows that the same mechanisms are responsible for the distinct temperature dependence of the piezoelectric coefficient and phase angle and thus identifies the local electrical conductivity as the key for controlling the temperature dependent piezoelectric response of BiFeO3 and possibly other, more complex BiFeO3-based compositions.

  7. One-dimensional BiFeO3 nanotubes: Preparation, characterization, improved magnetic behaviors, and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Sui, Wenbo; Dong, Chunhui; Zhang, Chao; Jiang, Changjun

    2016-10-01

    With the progress of science and technology, the growing demands for practical applications make low-dimensional multiferroics more appealing in areas such as chemical and bio-sensors, nanoelectronic, high-density data storage devices. One-dimensional BiFeO3 nanotubes were successfully synthesized by sol-gel-based electrospinning process. The images of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy collectively demonstrate that BiFeO3 nanotubes with long slender structure and virtually uniform diameter of approximately 100 nm were observed at 500 °C annealing temperature. By compared with BiFeO3 bulks observed at 800 °C annealing temperature, enhanced room temperature ferromagnetism was successfully realized in BiFeO3 nanotubes at room temperature. The results of electron spin resonance measurement further confirm that ferromagnetic resonances were detected in BiFeO3 nanotubes at different temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study proves the existence of plentiful oxygen vacancies in BiFeO3 nanotubes, which will play a key role in terms of enhanced ferromagnetism. The results will contribute to expand the applications of BiFeO3 into the new field of spintronic devices and high-density data storage media.

  8. Photoelectrochemical Performance Observed in Mn-Doped BiFeO3 Heterostructured Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Min Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pure BiFeO3 and heterostructured BiFeO3/BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 (5% Mn-doped BiFeO3 thin films have been prepared by a chemical deposition method. The band structures and photosensitive properties of these films have been investigated elaborately. Pure BiFeO3 films showed stable and strong response to photo illumination (open circuit potential kept −0.18 V, short circuit photocurrent density was −0.023 mA·cm−2. By Mn doping, the energy band positions shifted, resulting in a smaller band gap of BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 layer and an internal field being built in the BiFeO3/BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 interface. BiFeO3/BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 and BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 thin films demonstrated poor photo activity compared with pure BiFeO3 films, which can be explained by the fact that Mn doping brought in a large amount of defects in the BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 layers, causing higher carrier combination and correspondingly suppressing the photo response, and this negative influence was more considerable than the positive effects provided by the band modulation.

  9. Superconductivity, antiferromagnetism, and neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquada, John M.; Xu, Guangyong; Zaliznyak, Igor A.

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature superconductivity in both the copper-oxide and the iron-pnictide/chalcogenide systems occurs in close proximity to antiferromagnetically ordered states. Neutron scattering has been an essential technique for characterizing the spin correlations in the antiferromagnetic phases and for demonstrating how the spin fluctuations persist in the superconductors. While the nature of the spin correlations in the superconductors remains controversial, the neutron scattering measurements of magnetic excitations over broad ranges of energy and momentum transfers provide important constraints on the theoretical options. We present an overview of the neutron scattering work on high-temperature superconductors and discuss some of the outstanding issues.

  10. Ferroelectric HfO2 for Emerging Ferroelectric Semiconductor Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florent, Karine

    The spontaneous polarization in ferroelectrics (FE) makes them particularly attractive for non-volatile memory and logic applications. Non-volatile FRAM memories using perovskite structure materials, such as Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) and Strontium Bismuth Tantalate (SBT) have been studied for many years. However, because of their scaling limit and incompatibility with CMOS beyond 130 nm node, floating gate Flash memory technology has been preferred for manufacturing. The recent discovery of ferroelectricity in doped HfO2 in 2011 has opened the door for new ferroelectric based devices compatible with CMOS technology, such as Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor (FeFET) and Ferroelectric Tunnel Junctions (FTJ). This work began with developing ferroelectric hysteresis characterization capabilities at RIT. Initially reactively sputtered aluminum doped HfO 2 films were investigated. It was observed that the composition control using co-sputtering was not achievable within the existing capabilities. During the course of this study, collaboration was established with the NaMLab group in Germany to investigate Si doped HfO2 deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). Metal Ferroelectric Metal (MFM) devices were fabricated using TiN as the top and bottom electrode with Si:HfO2 thickness ranging from 6.4 nm to 22.9 nm. The devices were electrically tested for P-E, C-V and I-V characteristics. Structural characterizations included TEM, EELS, XRR, XRD and XPS/Auger spectroscopy. Higher remanant polarization (Pr) was observed for films of 9.3 nm and 13.1 nm thickness. Thicker film (22.9 nm) showed smaller Pr. Devices with 6.4 nm thick films exhibit tunneling behavior showing a memristor like I-V characteristics. The tunnel current and ferroelectricity showed decrease with cycling indicating a possible change in either the structure or the domain configurations. Theoretical simulations using the improved FE model were carried out to model the ferroelectric behavior of

  11. Magnetization Reversal by Electric-Field Decoupling of Magnetic and Ferroelectric Domain Walls in Multiferroic-Based Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skumryev, V.; Laukhin, V.; Fina, I.; Martí, X.; Sánchez, F.; Gospodinov, M.; Fontcuberta, J.

    2011-02-01

    We demonstrate that the magnetization of a ferromagnet in contact with an antiferromagnetic multiferroic (LuMnO3) can be speedily reversed by electric-field pulsing, and the sign of the magnetic exchange bias can switch and recover isothermally. As LuMnO3 is not ferroelastic, our data conclusively show that this switching is not mediated by strain effects but is a unique electric-field driven decoupling of the ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic domain walls. Their distinct dynamics are essential for the observed magnetic switching.

  12. Structural, spectroscopic, and dielectric characterizations of Mn-doped 0.67BiFeO3-0.33BaTiO3 multiferroic ceramics

    KAUST Repository

    Hang, Qiming

    2013-09-07

    0.67BiFeO3-0.33BaTiO3 multiferroic ceramics doped with x mol% MnO2 (x = 2–10) were synthesized by solid-state reaction. The formation of a perovskite phase with rhombohedral symmetry was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The average grain sizes were reduced from 0.80 μm to 0.50 μm as increasing the Mn-doped levels. Single crystalline nature of the grains was revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images and electron diffraction patterns. Polar nano-sized ferroelectric domains with an average size of 9 nm randomly distributed in the ceramic samples were revealed by TEM images. Ferroelectric domain lamellae (71° ferroelectric domains) with an average width of 5 nm were also observed. Vibrational modes were examined by Raman spectra, where only four Raman peaks at 272 cm−1 (E-4 mode), 496 cm−1 (A 1-4 mode), 639 cm−1, and 1338 cm−1 were observed. The blue shifts in the E-4 and A 1-4 Raman mode frequencies were interpreted by a spring oscillator model. The dieletric constants of the present ceramics as a function of the Mn-doped levels exhibited a V-typed curve. They were in the range of 350–700 measured at 103 Hz, and the corresponding dielectric losses were in range of 0.43–0.96, approaching to 0.09 at 106 Hz.

  13. Mecanosíntese do composto BiFeO3 Mechanosynthesis of the BiFeO3 compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Freitas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Os compostos cerâmicos BiFeO3 puro e modificado (Bi0,95R0,05FeO3, com terras raras R = Gd ou Eu, foram sintetizados por moagem em altas energias. As amostras foram analisadas por difração de raios X, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e espectroscopia por energia dispersiva de raios X. A difração de raios X indicou que as amostras modificadas com Eu são monofásicas, enquanto que as amostras puras e modificadas com Gd apresentaram majoritariamente a fase BiFeO3, com uma pequena quantidade de outras fases. A espectroscopia por energia dispersiva de raios X revelou a presença dos átomos modificantes na amostra e o mapeamento destes átomos indicou uma distribuição homogênea deles em toda a amostra. A microscopia eletrônica de varredura mostrou uma significante diminuição no tamanho das partículas, estando estas com dimensões sub-micrométricas e com diâmetro médio em torno de 500 nm. Estudos de densificação dos corpos cerâmicos indicaram compostos altamente densos, com densidades relativas acima de 0,9 sendo que o composto modificado com Eu alcançou a densidade relativa ρ/ρ0 = 0,98.The, pure and rare earth modified (Bi0.95R0.05FeO3 / R = Gd or Eu BiFeO3 compounds were synthesized by high-energy ball milling. The samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction results indicated single phase Eu modified samples, while the pure and Gd modified ones presented the BiFeO3 as majority phase, and small amount of the spurious phase. The energy dispersive spectroscopy revealed the presence of the modifiers atoms in the sample and the mapping of these atoms indicated the homogeneous distribution of them in the whole samples. The scanning electron microscopy showed a decrease significant on the particle size, with medium diameter around 500 nm. Densification studies indicated high-dense ceramics body, with relative density above of 0.9, were Eu

  14. Nanomechanics of Ferroelectric Thin Films and Heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Chen , L.Q.

    2016-08-31

    The focus of this chapter is to provide basic concepts of how external strains/stresses altering ferroelectric property of a material and how to evaluate quantitatively the effect of strains/stresses on phase stability, domain structure, and material ferroelectric properties using the phase-field method. The chapter starts from a brief introduction of ferroelectrics and the Landau-Devinshire description of ferroelectric transitions and ferroelectric phases in a homogeneous ferroelectric single crystal. Due to the fact that ferroelectric transitions involve crystal structure change and domain formation, strains and stresses can be produced inside of the material if a ferroelectric transition occurs and it is confined. These strains and stresses affect in turn the domain structure and material ferroelectric properties. Therefore, ferroelectrics and strains/stresses are coupled to each other. The ferroelectric-mechanical coupling can be used to engineer the material ferroelectric properties by designing the phase and structure. The followed section elucidates calculations of the strains/stresses and elastic energy in a thin film containing a single domain, twinned domains to complicated multidomains constrained by its underlying substrate. Furthermore, a phase field model for predicting ferroelectric stable phases and domain structure in a thin film is presented. Examples of using substrate constraint and temperature to obtain interested ferroelectric domain structures in BaTiO3 films are demonstrated b phase field simulations.

  15. Displacement-type ferroelectricity with off-center magnetic ions in perovskite Sr(1-x)Ba(x)MnO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, H; Fujioka, J; Fukuda, T; Okuyama, D; Hashizume, D; Kagawa, F; Nakao, H; Murakami, Y; Arima, T; Baron, A Q R; Taguchi, Y; Tokura, Y

    2011-09-23

    We report a ferroelectric transition driven by the off-centering of magnetic Mn(4+) ions in antiferromagnetic Mott insulators Sr(1-x)Ba(x)MnO(3) with a perovskite structure. As x increases, the perovskite lattice shows the typical soft-mode dynamics, as revealed by the momentum-resolved inelastic x-ray scattering and far-infrared spectroscopy, and the ferroelectricity shows up for x ≥ 0.45. The observed polarization is comparable to that for a prototypical ferroelectric BaTiO(3). We further demonstrate that the magnetic order suppresses the ferroelectric lattice dilation by ∼70% and increases the soft-phonon energy by ∼50%, indicating the largest magnetoelectric effects yet attained.

  16. Tunnel electroresistance through organic ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, B. B.; Wang, J. L.; Fusil, S.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, X. L.; Sun, S.; Shen, H.; Lin, T.; Sun, J. L.; Duan, C. G.; Bibes, M.; Barthélémy, A.; Dkhil, B.; Garcia, V.; Meng, X. J.; Chu, J. H.

    2016-05-01

    Organic electronics is emerging for large-area applications such as photovoltaic cells, rollable displays or electronic paper. Its future development and integration will require a simple, low-power organic memory, that can be written, erased and readout electrically. Here we demonstrate a non-volatile memory in which the ferroelectric polarisation state of an organic tunnel barrier encodes the stored information and sets the readout tunnel current. We use high-sensitivity piezoresponse force microscopy to show that films as thin as one or two layers of ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) remain switchable with low voltages. Submicron junctions based on these films display tunnel electroresistance reaching 1,000% at room temperature that is driven by ferroelectric switching and explained by electrostatic effects in a direct tunnelling regime. Our findings provide a path to develop low-cost, large-scale arrays of organic ferroelectric tunnel junctions on silicon or flexible substrates.

  17. Ferroelectric capacitor with reduced imprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Jr., Joseph T. (13609 Verbena Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Warren, William L. (7716 Wm. Moyers Ave., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Tuttle, Bruce A. (12808 Lillian Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Dimos, Duane B. (6105 Innsbrook Ct., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Pike, Gordon E. (1609 Cedar Ridge, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112)

    1997-01-01

    An improved ferroelectric capacitor exhibiting reduced imprint effects in comparison to prior art capacitors. A capacitor according to the present invention includes top and bottom electrodes and a ferroelectric layer sandwiched between the top and bottom electrodes, the ferroelectric layer comprising a perovskite structure of the chemical composition ABO.sub.3 wherein the B-site comprises first and second elements and a dopant element that has an oxidation state greater than +4. The concentration of the dopant is sufficient to reduce shifts in the coercive voltage of the capacitor with time. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the ferroelectric element comprises Pb in the A-site, and the first and second elements are Zr and Ti, respectively. The preferred dopant is chosen from the group consisting of Niobium, Tantalum, and Tungsten. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the dopant occupies between 1 and 8% of the B-sites.

  18. Pathways Towards Ferroelectricity in Hafnia

    OpenAIRE

    Huan, Tran Doan; Sharma, Vinit; Rossetti, Jr., George A.; Ramprasad, Rampi

    2014-01-01

    The question of whether one can systematically identify (previously unknown) ferroelectric phases of a given material is addressed, taking hafnia (HfO$_2$) as an example. Low free energy phases at various pressures and temperatures are identified using a first-principles based structure search algorithm. Ferroelectric phases are then recognized by exploiting group theoretical principles for the symmetry-allowed displacive transitions between non-polar and polar phases. Two orthorhombic polar ...

  19. Ferroelectric infrared detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashley, Jason Charles; Opeil, Cyril P.; Smith, James Lawrence

    2010-03-30

    An apparatus and method are provided for sensing infrared radiation. The apparatus includes a sensor element that is positioned in a magnetic field during operation to ensure a .lamda. shaped relationship between specific heat and temperature adjacent the Curie temperature of the ferroelectric material comprising the sensor element. The apparatus is operated by inducing a magnetic field on the ferroelectric material to reduce surface charge on the element during its operation.

  20. Magnetic fingerprint of interfacial coupling between CoFe and nanoscale ferroelectric domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qintong; Murray, Peyton; You, Lu; Wan, Caihua; Zhang, Xuan; Li, Wenjing; Khan, Usman; Wang, Junling; Liu, Kai; Han, Xiufeng

    2016-08-01

    Magnetoelectric coupling in ferromagnetic/multiferroic systems is often manifested in the exchange bias effect, which may have combined contributions from multiple sources, such as domain walls, chemical defects, or strain. In this study we magnetically "fingerprint" the coupling behavior of CoFe grown on epitaxial BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films by magnetometry and the first-order-reversal-curves (FORC). The contribution to exchange bias from 71°, 109° and charged ferroelectric domain walls (DWs) was elucidated by the FORC distribution. CoFe samples grown on BFO with 71° DWs only exhibit an enhancement of the coercivity, but little exchange bias. Samples grown on BFO with 109° DWs and mosaic DWs exhibit a much larger exchange bias, with the main enhancement attributed to 109° and charged DWs. Based on the Malozemoff random field model, a varying-anisotropy model is proposed to account for the exchange bias enhancement. This work sheds light on the relationship between the exchange bias effect of the CoFe/BFO heterointerface and the ferroelectric DWs, and provides a path for multiferroic device analysis and design.

  1. Electrical and piezoelectric properties of BiFeO3 thin films grown on SrxCa1−xRuO3-buffered SrTiO3 substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yingbang

    2012-06-01

    (001)-oriented BiFeO 3 (BFO) thin films were grown on Sr xCa 1-xRuO 3- (SCRO; x = 1, 0.67, 0.33, 0) buffered SrTiO 3 (001) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The microstructural, electrical, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of the thin films were considerably affected by the buffer layers. The interface between the BFO films and the SCRO-buffer layer was found to play a dominant role in determining the electrical and piezoelectric behaviors of the films. We found that films grown on SrRuO 3-buffer layers exhibited minimal electrical leakage while films grown on Sr 0.33Ca 0.67RuO 3-buffer layers had the largest piezoelectric response. The origin of this difference is discussed. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Fabrication, Characterization, Properties, and Applications of Low-Dimensional BiFeO3 Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-dimensional BiFeO3 nanostructures (e.g., nanocrystals, nanowires, nanotubes, and nanoislands have received considerable attention due to their novel size-dependent properties and outstanding multiferroic properties at room temperature. In recent years, much progress has been made both in fabrications and (microstructural, electrical, and magnetic in characterizations of BiFeO3 low-dimensional nanostructures. An overview of the state of art in BiFeO3 low-dimensional nanostructures is presented. First, we review the fabrications of high-quality BiFeO3 low-dimensional nanostructures via a variety of techniques, and then the structural characterizations and physical properties of the BiFeO3 low-dimensional nanostructures are summarized. Their potential applications in the next-generation magnetoelectric random access memories and photovoltaic devices are also discussed. Finally, we conclude this review by providing our perspectives to the future researches of BiFeO3 low-dimensional nanostructures and some key problems are also outlined.

  3. Induced modifications in the properties of Sr doped BiFeO3 multiferroics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tanvir Hussain; Saadat A. Siddiqi; Shahid Atiq; M.S. Awan

    2013-01-01

    Multiferroics exhibit unique combination of ferroic properties, simultaneously. For instance, in BiFeO3, magnetic and electric properties co-exist. In this work, BiFeO3 and Sr-doped BiFeO3 samples with general formula, Bi1 ? xSrxFeO3 (x ¼ 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30) were synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion technique, in order to investigate these ferroic properties. The samples were confirmed to have perovskite type rhombohedral structure, characteristic of BiFeO3. A dilute phase of Bi2Fe4O9 was also found in all the Sr-doped samples. The micrographs of the palletized samples revealed that minutely doped Sr might not have any effect on the morphology of the samples. Frequency dependent dielectric measurements were carried out at room temperature for all the samples from 100 Hz to 1 MHz. The dielectric constant of un-doped sample at low frequency was 52 which decreased with increasing Sr doping. An enhancement of magnetic properties was observed with increasing the Sr contents. Pure BiFeO3 material was observed to have the least value of remanent magnetization. As the Sr2þ ions were doped in BiFeO3, its magnetization and remanence were increased to 0.867 emu/g and 0.175 emu/g, respectively, at x ¼ 0.30.

  4. Programmable ferroelectric tunnel memristor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy eQuindeau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report an analogously programmable memristor based on genuine electronic resistive switching combining ferroelectric switching and electron tunneling. The tunnel current through an 8 unit cell thick epitaxial Pb(Zr[0.2]Ti[0.8]O[3] film sandwiched between La[0.7]Sr[0.3]MnO[3] and cobalt electrodes obeys the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi model for bidimensional growth with a characteristic switching time in the order of 10^-7 seconds. The analytical description of switching kinetics allows us to develop a characteristic transfer function that has only one parameter viz. the characteristic switching time and fully predicts the resistive states of this type of memristor.

  5. Synthesis of ferroelectric nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roervik, Per Martin

    2008-12-15

    The increasing miniaturization of electric and mechanical components makes the synthesis and assembly of nanoscale structures an important step in modern technology. Functional materials, such as the ferroelectric perovskites, are vital to the integration and utility value of nanotechnology in the future. In the present work, chemical methods to synthesize one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures of ferroelectric perovskites have been studied. To successfully and controllably make 1D nanostructures by chemical methods it is very important to understand the growth mechanism of these nanostructures, in order to design the structures for use in various applications. For the integration of 1D nanostructures into devices it is also very important to be able to make arrays and large-area designed structures from the building blocks that single nanostructures constitute. As functional materials, it is of course also vital to study the properties of the nanostructures. The characterization of properties of single nanostructures is challenging, but essential to the use of such structures. The aim of this work has been to synthesize high quality single-crystalline 1D nanostructures of ferroelectric perovskites with emphasis on PbTiO3 , to make arrays or hierarchical nanostructures of 1D nanostructures on substrates, to understand the growth mechanisms of the 1D nanostructures, and to investigate the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the 1D nanostructures. In Paper I, a molten salt synthesis route, previously reported to yield BaTiO3 , PbTiO3 and Na2Ti6O13 nanorods, was re-examined in order to elucidate the role of volatile chlorides. A precursor mixture containing barium (or lead) and titanium was annealed in the presence of NaCl at 760 degrees Celsius or 820 degrees Celsius. The main products were respectively isometric nanocrystalline BaTiO3 and PbTiO3. Nanorods were also detected, but electron diffraction revealed that the composition of the nanorods was

  6. Spin diffusion and torques in disordered antiferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a drift-diffusion equation of spin transport in collinear bipartite metallic antiferromagnets. Starting from a model tight-binding Hamiltonian, we obtain the quantum kinetic equation within Keldysh formalism and expand it to the lowest order in spatial gradient using Wigner expansion method. In the diffusive limit, these equations track the spatio-temporal evolution of the spin accumulations and spin currents on each sublattice of the antiferromagnet. We use these equations to address the nature of the spin transfer torque in (i) a spin-valve composed of a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet, (ii) a metallic bilayer consisting of an antiferromagnet adjacent to a heavy metal possessing spin Hall effect, and in (iii) a single antiferromagnet possessing spin Hall effect. We show that the latter can experience a self-torque thanks to the non-vanishing spin Hall effect in the antiferromagnet.

  7. Structure, synthesis and multiferroic nature of BiFeO3 and 0.9BiFeO3–0.1BaTiO3: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dhananjai Pandey; Anar Singh

    2009-06-01

    A brief review of the crystal structure and multiferroic nature of pure BiFeO3 and 0.9BiFeO3–0.1BaTiO3 (BF–0.1BT) is presented. An atomic level evidence for magnetoelectric coupling of intrinsic multiferroic origin in BF–0.1BT is presented.

  8. Thermoinduced magnetization in nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2004-01-01

    We show that there is a thermoinduced contribution to the magnetic moment of nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials. It arises from thermal excitations of the uniform spin-precession mode, and it has the unusual property that its magnitude increases with increasing temperature. This has...... the consequence that antiferromagnetism is nonexistent in nanoparticles at finite temperatures and it explains magnetic anomalies, which recently have been reported in a number of studies of nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials....

  9. Modulation of ultrafast laser-induced magnetization precession in BiFeO3-coated La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qian; Jin, KuiJuan; Wang, JieSu; Yao, HongBao; Gu, JunXing; Guo, HaiZhong; Xu, XiuLai; Yang, GuoZhen

    2017-04-01

    The ultrafast laser-excited magnetization dynamics of ferromagnetic (FM) La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) thin films with BiFeO3 (BFO) coating layers grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy are investigated using the optical pump-probe technique. Uniform magnetization precessions are observed in the films under an applied external magnetic field by measuring the time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect. The magnetization precession frequencies of the LSMO thin films with the BFO coating layers are lower than those of uncoated LSMO films, which is attributed to the suppression of the anisotropy field induced by the exchange interaction at the interface between the antiferromagnetic order of BFO and the FM order of LSMO.

  10. Ferroelectricity and Self-Polarization in Ultrathin Relaxor Ferroelectric Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Peixian; Zhao, Yonggang; Luo, Nengneng; Zhao, Diyang; Chen, Aitian; Sun, Zhong; Guo, Meiqi; Zhu, Meihong; Zhang, Huiyun; Li, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We report ferroelectricity and self-polarization in the (001) oriented ultrathin relaxor ferroelectric PMN-PT films grown on Nb-SrTiO3, SrRuO3 and La0.7Sr0.3MnO3, respectively. Resistance-voltage measurements and AC impedance analysis suggest that at high temperatures Schottky depletion width in a 4 nm thick PMN-PT film deposited on Nb-SrTiO3 is smaller than the film thickness. We propose that Schottky interfacial dipoles make the dipoles of the nanometer-sized polar nanoregions (PNRs) in PMN-PT films grown on Nb-SrTiO3 point downward at high temperatures and lead to the self-polarization at room temperature with the assistance of in-plane compressive strain. This work sheds light on the understanding of epitaxial strain effects on relaxor ferroelectric films and self-polarization mechanism.

  11. Controlling magnetism with multiferroics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hao Chu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiferroics, materials combining multiple order parameters, offer an exciting way of coupling phenomena such as electronic and magnetic order. Using epitaxial growth and heteroepitaxy, researchers have grown high-quality thin films and heterostructures of the multiferroic BiFeO3. The ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic domain structure and coupling between these two order parameters in BiFeO3 is now being studied. We describe the evolution of our understanding of the connection between structure, properties, and new functionalities (including electrical control of magnetism using BiFeO3 as a model system.

  12. Ferroelectric or non-ferroelectric: Why so many materials exhibit "ferroelectricity" on the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Rama K.; Balke, Nina; Maksymovych, Peter; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2017-06-01

    Ferroelectric materials have remained one of the major focal points of condensed matter physics and materials science for over 50 years. In the last 20 years, the development of voltage-modulated scanning probe microscopy techniques, exemplified by Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and associated time- and voltage spectroscopies, opened a pathway to explore these materials on a single-digit nanometer level. Consequently, domain structures and walls and polarization dynamics can now be imaged in real space. More generally, PFM has allowed studying electromechanical coupling in a broad variety of materials ranging from ionics to biological systems. It can also be anticipated that the recent Nobel prize ["The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016," http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/2016/ (Nobel Media, 2016)] in molecular electromechanical machines will result in rapid growth in interest in PFM as a method to probe their behavior on single device and device assembly levels. However, the broad introduction of PFM also resulted in a growing number of reports on the nearly ubiquitous presence of ferroelectric-like phenomena including remnant polar states and electromechanical hysteresis loops in materials which are non-ferroelectric in the bulk or in cases where size effects are expected to suppress ferroelectricity. While in certain cases plausible physical mechanisms can be suggested, there is remarkable similarity in observed behaviors, irrespective of the materials system. In this review, we summarize the basic principles of PFM, briefly discuss the features of ferroelectric surfaces salient to PFM imaging and spectroscopy, and summarize existing reports on ferroelectric-like responses in non-classical ferroelectric materials. We further discuss possible mechanisms behind observed behaviors and possible experimental strategies for their identification.

  13. Synthesis of ferroelectric nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roervik, Per Martin

    2008-12-15

    The increasing miniaturization of electric and mechanical components makes the synthesis and assembly of nanoscale structures an important step in modern technology. Functional materials, such as the ferroelectric perovskites, are vital to the integration and utility value of nanotechnology in the future. In the present work, chemical methods to synthesize one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures of ferroelectric perovskites have been studied. To successfully and controllably make 1D nanostructures by chemical methods it is very important to understand the growth mechanism of these nanostructures, in order to design the structures for use in various applications. For the integration of 1D nanostructures into devices it is also very important to be able to make arrays and large-area designed structures from the building blocks that single nanostructures constitute. As functional materials, it is of course also vital to study the properties of the nanostructures. The characterization of properties of single nanostructures is challenging, but essential to the use of such structures. The aim of this work has been to synthesize high quality single-crystalline 1D nanostructures of ferroelectric perovskites with emphasis on PbTiO3 , to make arrays or hierarchical nanostructures of 1D nanostructures on substrates, to understand the growth mechanisms of the 1D nanostructures, and to investigate the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the 1D nanostructures. In Paper I, a molten salt synthesis route, previously reported to yield BaTiO3 , PbTiO3 and Na2Ti6O13 nanorods, was re-examined in order to elucidate the role of volatile chlorides. A precursor mixture containing barium (or lead) and titanium was annealed in the presence of NaCl at 760 degrees Celsius or 820 degrees Celsius. The main products were respectively isometric nanocrystalline BaTiO3 and PbTiO3. Nanorods were also detected, but electron diffraction revealed that the composition of the nanorods was

  14. Integration of Ferroelectrics, Ferromagnets, and Multiferroics with Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlom, Darrell

    2009-03-01

    In this talk I will describe the epitaxial integration of ferroelectrics, ferromagnets, and materials that are both at the same time, with silicon. Until recently, ``oxide'' could only mean one thing to anyone working in the semiconductor industry---SiO2. But oxides are an exciting class of electronic materials in their own right. Oxides exhibit the full spectrum of electronic, optical, and magnetic behavior including many functionalities not found in conventional semiconductors. Further, such oxides can be combined epitaxially not only with each other, but epitaxially with the workhorse of semiconductor technology, silicon, enabling the unparalleled variety of physical properties of oxides to be exploited in new ways for electronic applications. The specific oxides that my collaborators* and I have integrated epitaxially with silicon include EuO, ZnO, CaTiO3, SrTiO3, BaTiO3, BiFeO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, and PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3. Highlights from these systems will be presented. * The work reported was performed in collaboration with the groups of Jochen Mannhart (U. Augsburg), Chang-Beom Eom (U. Wisconsin-Madison), Ramamoorthy Ramesh (Berkeley), Jeremy Levy (U. Pittsburgh), David Muller (Cornell), Xiaoqing Pan (U. Michigan), J"urgen Schubert (J"ulich), Long-Qing Chen (Penn State), Susan Trolier-McKinstry (Penn State), Yves Idzerda (Montana State), Peter B"oni (TU M"unchen), Joseph Woicik (NIST), Philip Ryan (Ames), Michael Bedzyk (Northwestern), Yuri Barash (Russian Acad. Sci.), Qing Ma (Intel), and Hao Li (Motorola).

  15. Quantum Entanglement in Heisenberg Antiferromagnets

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, V

    2004-01-01

    Entanglement sharing among pairs of spins in Heisenberg antiferromagnets is investigated using the concurrence measure. For a nondegenerate S=0 ground state, a simple formula relates the concurrence to the diagonal correlation function. The concurrence length is seen to be extremely short. A few finite clusters are studied numerically, to see the trend in higher dimensions. It is argued that nearest-neighbour concurrence is zero for triangular and Kagome lattices. The concurrences in the maximal-spin states are explicitly calculated, where the concurrence averaged over all pairs is larger than the S=0 states.

  16. Quasiparticle excitations in frustrated antiferromagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumper, Adolfo E. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET) Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Boulevard 27 de Febrero 210 bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)]. E-mail: trumper@ifir.edu.ar; Gazza, Claudio J. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET) Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Boulevard 27 de Febrero 210 bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Manuel, Luis O. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET) Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Boulevard 27 de Febrero 210 bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)]. E-mail: manuel@ifir.edu.ar

    2004-12-31

    We have computed the quasiparticle wave function corresponding to a hole injected in a triangular antiferromagnet. We have taken into account multi-magnon contributions within the self-consistent Born approximation. We have found qualitative differences, under sign reversal of the integral transfer t, regarding the multi-magnon components and the own existence of the quasiparticle excitations. Such differences are due to the subtle interplay between magnon-assisted and free hopping mechanisms. We conclude that the conventional quasiparticle picture can be broken by geometrical frustration without invoking spin liquid phases.

  17. Synthesis, microstructure and properties of BiFeO3-based multiferroic materials: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo, M. S.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BiFeO3-based materials are currently one of the most studied multiferroics due to their possible applications at room temperature. However, among the large number of published papers there is much controversy. For example, possibility of synthesizing a pure BiFeO3 phase is still source of discussion in literature. Not even the nature of the binary Bi2O3-Fe2O3 diagram has been clarified yet. The difficulty in controlling the formation of parasite phases reaches the consolidation step. Accordingly, the sintering conditions must be carefully determined both to get dense materials and to avoid bismuth ferrite decomposition. However, the precise conditions to attain dense bismuth ferrite materials are frequently contradictory among different works. As a consequence, the reported properties habitually result opposed and highly irreproducible hampering the preparation of BiFeO3 materials suitable for practical applications. In this context, the purpose of the present review is to summarize the main researches regarding BiFeO3 synthesis, microstructure and properties in order to provide an easier understanding of these materials.Los materiales basados en BiFeO3 son en la actualidad uno de los multiferroicos más estudiados debido a sus posibles aplicaciones a temperatura ambiente. Sin embargo, entre la multitud de trabajos publicados referentes a estos materiales existe mucha controversia. Por ejemplo, la posibilidad de sintetizar una fase BiFeO3 pura es aún objeto de discusión en la bibliografía y la naturaleza de los diagramas de fases del sistema Bi2O3-Fe2O3 aún no está clara. La dificultad para controlar las fases parásitas se extiende al proceso de consolidación por lo que las condiciones de sinterización deben ser cuidadosamente controladas para obtener materiales densos y al mismo tiempo evitar la descomposición de la ferrita. No obstante, las condiciones precisas para obtener materiales densos de BiFeO3 son frecuentemente

  18. Purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosub, Tobias; Kopte, Martin; Hühne, Ruben; Appel, Patrick; Shields, Brendan; Maletinsky, Patrick; Hübner, René; Liedke, Maciej Oskar; Fassbender, Jürgen; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Makarov, Denys

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic random access memory schemes employing magnetoelectric coupling to write binary information promise outstanding energy efficiency. We propose and demonstrate a purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory (AF-MERAM) that offers a remarkable 50-fold reduction of the writing threshold compared with ferromagnet-based counterparts, is robust against magnetic disturbances and exhibits no ferromagnetic hysteresis losses. Using the magnetoelectric antiferromagnet Cr2O3, we demonstrate reliable isothermal switching via gate voltage pulses and all-electric readout at room temperature. As no ferromagnetic component is present in the system, the writing magnetic field does not need to be pulsed for readout, allowing permanent magnets to be used. Based on our prototypes, we construct a comprehensive model of the magnetoelectric selection mechanisms in thin films of magnetoelectric antiferromagnets, revealing misfit induced ferrimagnetism as an important factor. Beyond memory applications, the AF-MERAM concept introduces a general all-electric interface for antiferromagnets and should find wide applicability in antiferromagnetic spintronics.

  19. Absence of morphotropic phase boundary effects in BiFeO3-PbTiO3 thin films grown via a chemical multilayer deposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shashaank; Bhattacharjee, Shuvrajyoti; Pandey, Dhananjai; Bansal, Vipul; Bhargava, Suresh K.; Peng, Ju Lin; Garg, Ashish

    2011-07-01

    We report an unusual behavior observed in (BiFeO3)1- x -(PbTiO3) x (BF- xPT) thin films prepared using a multilayer chemical solution deposition method. Films of different compositions were grown by depositing several bilayers of BF and PT precursors of varying BF and PT layer thicknesses followed by heat treatment in air. X-ray diffraction showed that samples of all compositions show mixing of two compounds resulting in a single-phase mixture, also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In contrast to bulk compositions, samples show a monoclinic (MA-type) structure suggesting disappearance of the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) at x=0.30 as observed in the bulk. This is accompanied by the lack of any enhancement of the remanent polarization at the MPB, as shown by the ferroelectric measurements. Magnetic measurements showed an increase in the magnetization of the samples with increasing BF content. Significant magnetization in the samples indicates melting of spin spirals in the BF- xPT films, arising from a random distribution of iron atoms. Absence of Fe2+ ions was corroborated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The results illustrate that thin film processing methodology significantly changes the structural evolution, in contrast to predictions from the equilibrium phase diagram, besides modifying the functional characteristics of the BP- xPT system dramatically.

  20. Multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films for multifunctional devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manish K; Yang, Yi; Takoudis, Christos G; Tatarenko, A; Srinivasan, G; Kharel, P; Lawes, G

    2010-09-01

    We report the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of crystalline BiFeO3 films on platinized silicon substrates using n-butylferrocene, triphenylbismuth and oxygen. Based on thermogravimetric analysis data, the suitability of these two precursors for depositing BiFeO3 is discussed. The deposited films were characterized for structure and morphology using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Composition analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the films were stoichiometric BiFeO3. Electrostatic force microscopy indicated that the film had polarizable domains that showed no deterioration in polarization over time long after electric poling. The film showed a saturation magnetization of 10 +/- 1 emu/cm3 at room temperature.

  1. Nonlinear Evolution of Ferroelectric Domains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WeiLU; Dai-NingFANG; 等

    1997-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of ferroelectric domains is investigated in the paper and amodel is proposed which can be applied to numerical computation.Numerical results show that the model can accurately predict some nonlinear behavior and consist with those experimental results.

  2. Femtosecond optomagnetism in dielectric antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossini, D.; Rasing, Th

    2017-02-01

    Optical femtosecond manipulation of magnetic order is attractive for the development of new concepts for ultrafast magnetic recording. Theoretical and experimental investigations in this research area aim at establishing a physical understanding of magnetic media in light-induced non-equilibrium states. Such a quest requires one to adjust the theory of magnetism, since the thermodynamical concepts of elementary excitations and spin alignment determined by the exchange interaction are not applicable on the femtosecond time-scale after the photo-excitation. Here we report some key milestones concerning the femtosecond optical control of spins in dielectric antiferromagnets, whose spin dynamics is by nature faster than that of ferromagnets and can be triggered even without any laser heating. The recent progress of the opto-magnetic effect in the sub-wavelength regime makes this exciting research area even more promising, in terms of both fundamental breakthroughs and technological perspectives.

  3. Antiferromagnetic topological nodal line semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing

    2017-08-01

    We study three-dimensional nodal line semimetals (NLSMs) with magnetic ordering and strong spin-orbit interaction. Two distinct classes of magnetic NLSMs are proposed. The first class is band-inversion NLSM where the accidental line node is induced by band inversion and locally protected by glide mirror plane and the combined time-reversal and inversion symmetries. This can be viewed as a trivial stacking of the two-dimensional antiferromagnetic Dirac semimetals. The second class is essential NLSM where the nodal features are filling enforced by specific magnetic symmetry group. We further provide two concrete tight-binding models for magnetic NLSMs which belong to these two different classes, respectively. We conclude with a brief discussion on the possible material venues and the experimental implications for such phases.

  4. Spatially anisotropic Heisenberg kagome antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, W.; Yavors'kii, T.; Everts, H.-U.

    2007-04-01

    In the search for spin-1/2 kagome antiferromagnets, the mineral volborthite has recently been the subject of experimental studies (Hiroi et al 2001 J. Phys. Soc. Japan 70 3377; Fukaya et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 207603; Bert et al 2004 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16 S829; Bert et al 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 087203). It has been suggested that the magnetic properties of this material are described by a spin-1/2 Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice with spatially anisotropic exchange couplings. We report on investigations of the {\\mathrm {Sp}}(\\mathcal {N}) symmetric generalization of this model in the large \\mathcal {N} limit. We obtain a detailed description of the dependence of possible ground states on the anisotropy and on the spin length S. A fairly rich phase diagram with a ferrimagnetic phase, incommensurate phases with and without long-range order and a decoupled chain phase emerges.

  5. Resistive memory effects in BiFeO3 single crystals controlled by transverse electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, S.; Kuroe, H.; Ito, T.; Miyake, A.; Tokunaga, M.

    2016-04-01

    The effects of electric fields perpendicular to the c-axis of the trigonal cell in single crystals of BiFeO3 are investigated through magnetization and resistance measurements. Magnetization and resistance exhibit hysteretic changes under applied electric fields, which can be ascribed to the reorientation of the magnetoelectric domains. Samples are repetitively switched between high- and low-resistance states by changing the polarity of the applied electric fields over 20 000 cycles at room temperature. These results demonstrate the potential of BiFeO3 for use in non-volatile memory devices.

  6. Size effect study in magnetoelectric BiFeO3 system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shwetha Shetty; V R Palkar; R Pinto

    2002-05-01

    In this paper, we report for the first time finite size effects on Néel temperature (N) of magnetoelectric BiFeO3 system. Novel wet chemical route has been developed to produce fine particles of BiFeO3 with controlled size and size distribution. Unlike other oxide systems, lattice volume contraction has been observed with decrease in particle size. The decrease in N is co-related to unit cell volume contraction occurring with reduction in particle size.

  7. Terahertz-Range Polar Modes in Domain-Engineered BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlinka, Jirka; Paściak, Marek; Körbel, Sabine; Marton, Pavel

    2017-08-01

    The dielectric permittivity and properties of electrically active lattice resonances in nanotwinned BiFeO3 crystals have been studied theoretically using an earlier established interatomic potential. The results suggest that an array of 71° domain walls with about 2-5 nm spacing enhances the static permittivity of BiFeO3 by more than an order of magnitude. This enhancement is associated with an electrically active excitation, corresponding to a collective vibration of pinned domain walls at a remarkably high frequency of about 0.3 THz.

  8. Multiferroic tunnel junctions and ferroelectric control of magnetic state at interface (invited)

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Y. W.

    2015-03-03

    As semiconductor devices reach ever smaller dimensions, the challenge of power dissipation and quantum effect place a serious limit on the future device scaling. Recently, a multiferroic tunnel junction (MFTJ) with a ferroelectric barrier sandwiched between two ferromagnetic electrodes has drawn enormous interest due to its potential applications not only in multi-level data storage but also in electric field controlled spintronics and nanoferronics. Here, we present our investigations on four-level resistance states, giant tunneling electroresistance (TER) due to interfacial magnetoelectric coupling, and ferroelectric control of spin polarized tunneling in MFTJs. Coexistence of large tunneling magnetoresistance and TER has been observed in manganite/(Ba, Sr)TiO3/manganite MFTJs at low temperatures and room temperature four-resistance state devices were also obtained. To enhance the TER for potential logic operation with a magnetic memory, La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/BaTiO3/La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 /La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 MFTJs were designed by utilizing a bilayer tunneling barrier in which BaTiO3 is ferroelectric and La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 is close to ferromagnetic metal to antiferromagnetic insulator phase transition. The phase transition occurs when the ferroelectric polarization is reversed, resulting in an increase of TER by two orders of magnitude. Tunneling magnetoresistance can also be controlled by the ferroelectric polarization reversal, indicating strong magnetoelectric coupling at the interface.

  9. Evolution of structural distortion in BiFeO3 thin films probed by second-harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie-Su; Jin, Kui-Juan; Guo, Hai-Zhong; Gu, Jun-Xing; Wan, Qian; He, Xu; Li, Xiao-Long; Xu, Xiu-Lai; Yang, Guo-Zhen

    2016-12-01

    BiFeO3 thin films have drawn much attention due to its potential applications for novel magnetoelectric devices and fundamental physics in magnetoelectric coupling. However, the structural evolution of BiFeO3 films with thickness remains controversial. Here we use an optical second-harmonic generation technique to explore the phase-related symmetry evolution of BiFeO3 thin films with the variation of thickness. The crystalline structures for 60 and 180-nm-thick BiFeO3 thin films were characterized by high-resolution X-ray diffractometry reciprocal space mapping and the local piezoelectric response for 60-nm-thick BiFeO3 thin films was characterized by piezoresponse force microscopy. The present results show that the symmetry of BiFeO3 thin films with a thickness below 60 nm belongs to the point group 4 mm. We conclude that the disappearance of fourfold rotational symmetry in SHG s-out pattern implies for the appearance of R-phase. The fact that the thinner the film is, the closer to 1 the tensor element ratio χ31/χ15 tends, indicates an increase of symmetry with the decrease of thickness for BiFeO3 thin films.

  10. Evolution of structural distortion in BiFeO3 thin films probed by second-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie-su; Jin, Kui-juan; Guo, Hai-zhong; Gu, Jun-xing; Wan, Qian; He, Xu; Li, Xiao-long; Xu, Xiu-lai; Yang, Guo-zhen

    2016-01-01

    BiFeO3 thin films have drawn much attention due to its potential applications for novel magnetoelectric devices and fundamental physics in magnetoelectric coupling. However, the structural evolution of BiFeO3 films with thickness remains controversial. Here we use an optical second-harmonic generation technique to explore the phase-related symmetry evolution of BiFeO3 thin films with the variation of thickness. The crystalline structures for 60 and 180-nm-thick BiFeO3 thin films were characterized by high-resolution X-ray diffractometry reciprocal space mapping and the local piezoelectric response for 60-nm-thick BiFeO3 thin films was characterized by piezoresponse force microscopy. The present results show that the symmetry of BiFeO3 thin films with a thickness below 60 nm belongs to the point group 4 mm. We conclude that the disappearance of fourfold rotational symmetry in SHG s-out pattern implies for the appearance of R-phase. The fact that the thinner the film is, the closer to 1 the tensor element ratio χ31/χ15 tends, indicates an increase of symmetry with the decrease of thickness for BiFeO3 thin films. PMID:27905565

  11. Evolution of structural distortion in BiFeO3 thin films probed by second-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie-Su; Jin, Kui-Juan; Guo, Hai-Zhong; Gu, Jun-Xing; Wan, Qian; He, Xu; Li, Xiao-Long; Xu, Xiu-Lai; Yang, Guo-Zhen

    2016-12-01

    BiFeO3 thin films have drawn much attention due to its potential applications for novel magnetoelectric devices and fundamental physics in magnetoelectric coupling. However, the structural evolution of BiFeO3 films with thickness remains controversial. Here we use an optical second-harmonic generation technique to explore the phase-related symmetry evolution of BiFeO3 thin films with the variation of thickness. The crystalline structures for 60 and 180-nm-thick BiFeO3 thin films were characterized by high-resolution X-ray diffractometry reciprocal space mapping and the local piezoelectric response for 60-nm-thick BiFeO3 thin films was characterized by piezoresponse force microscopy. The present results show that the symmetry of BiFeO3 thin films with a thickness below 60 nm belongs to the point group 4 mm. We conclude that the disappearance of fourfold rotational symmetry in SHG s-out pattern implies for the appearance of R-phase. The fact that the thinner the film is, the closer to 1 the tensor element ratio χ31/χ15 tends, indicates an increase of symmetry with the decrease of thickness for BiFeO3 thin films.

  12. Polarized Raman study on the lattice structure of BiFeO3 films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yang

    2014-11-01

    Polarized Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice structure of BiFeO3 films on different substrates prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Interestingly, the Raman spectra of BiFeO3 films exhibit distinct polarization dependences. The symmetries of the fundamental Raman modes in 50-700 cm-1 were identified based on group theory. The symmetries of the high order Raman modes in 900-1500 cm-1 of BiFeO3 are determined for the first time, which can provide strong clarifications to the symmetry of the fundamental peaks in 400-700 cm-1 in return. Moreover, the lattice structures of BiFeO3 films are identified consequently on the basis of Raman spectroscopy. BiFeO3 films on SrRuO3 coated SrTiO3 (0 0 1) substrate, CaRuO3 coated SrTiO3 (0 0 1) substrate and tin-doped indium oxide substrate are found to be in the rhombohedral structure, while BiFeO3 film on SrRuO3 coated Nb: SrTiO3 (0 0 1) substrate is in the monoclinic structure. Our results suggest that polarized Raman spectroscopy would be a feasible tool to study the lattice structure of BiFeO3 films.

  13. Spin-phonon interaction in antiferromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorashchuk, I.M.; Nitsovich, V.M.; Tovstyuk, K.D.

    1975-01-01

    The vibrational spectrum and the sound velocity in antiferromagnetics are obtained in the general form in pseudoharmonic approximation with allowance for the anharmonisms of all orders. Starting from experimentally defined dependence of the Debye-Waller factor on the temperature a corollary is put forward that in some antiferromagnetics under the temperature lower than T/subN/ the appearance of the narrow band of paramagnetic states is possible. In antiferromagnetics where the transition metal-dielectric described by the Habbard model is possible this results in the appearance of the additional transition dielectric-metal-dielectric. (auth)

  14. Ferroelectricity in Si-doped HfO2 revealed: a binary lead-free ferroelectric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Dominik; Müller, Johannes; Schenk, Tony; Arruda, Thomas M; Kumar, Amit; Strelcov, Evgheni; Yurchuk, Ekaterina; Müller, Stefan; Pohl, Darius; Schröder, Uwe; Kalinin, Sergei V; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2014-12-23

    Static domain structures and polarization dynamics of silicon doped HfO2 are explored. The evolution of ferroelectricity as a function of Si-doping level driving the transition from paraelectricity via ferroelectricity to antiferroelectricity is investigated. Ferroelectric and antiferroelectric properties can be observed locally on the pristine, poled and electroded surfaces, providing conclusive evidence to intrinsic ferroic behavior.

  15. The rotational anisotropies in the ferromagnetism/antiferromagnetism 1/antiferromagnetism 2 exchange bias structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Jing-Guo; Stamps R L

    2006-01-01

    The rotational anisotropies in the exchange bias structures of ferromagnetism/antiferromagnetism 1/antiferromagnetism 2 are studied in this paper. Based on the model, in which the antiferromagnetism is treated with an Ising mean field theory and the rotational anisotropy is assumed to be related to the field created by the moment induced on the antiferromagnetic layer next to the ferromagnetic layer, we can explain why in experiments for ferromagnetism (FM)/antiferromagntism 1 (AFM1)/antiferromagnetism 2 (AFM2) systems the thickness-dependent rotational anisotropy value is non-monotonic, i.e. it reaches a minimum for this system at a specific thickness of the first antiferromagnetic layer and exhibits oscillatory behaviour. In addition, we find that the temperature-dependent rotational anisotropy value is in good agreement with the experimental result.

  16. Dynamic rotor mode in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefmann, Kim; Jacobsen, H.; Garde, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present experimental, numerical, and theoretical evidence for an unusual mode of antiferromagnetic dynamics in nanoparticles. Elastic neutron scattering experiments on 8-nm particles of hematite display a loss of diffraction intensity with temperature, the intensity vanishing around 150 K...

  17. Ferroelectric Stirling-Cycle Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A Stirling-cycle refrigerator has a three-pump configuration and pumping sequence, in which one pump serves as a compressor. one pump serves as an expander, and one pump serves as a displacer. The pumps are ferroelectrically actuated diaphragm pumps which are coordinated by synchronizing the ferroelectric-actuator voltages in such a way that the net effect of the displacer is to reduce the deleterious effect of dead space; that is, to circulate a greater fraction of the working fluid through the heat exchangers than would be possible by use of the compressor and expander alone. In addition. the displacer can be controlled separately to make the flow of working fluid in the heat exchangers turbulent (to increase the rate of transfer of heat at the cost of greater resistance to flow) or laminar (to decrease the resistance to flow at the cost of a lower heat-transfer rate).

  18. Guest Editoria, Ferroelectrics, 323, 1

    OpenAIRE

    Krupanidhi, SB

    2005-01-01

    The Fourth Asian Meeting on Ferroelectricity (AMF-4)was organized at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, INDIA during December 12–15, 2003. The organization of the conferencewas cosponsored by various agencies which included the Department of Science & Technology (DST), Defense R&D Organization (DRDO), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Materials Research Society of India (MRSI), Indian Institute of Science (IISC), IEEE UFFC (USA), Taylor and Francis Scientific P...

  19. Tuning the atomic and domain structure of epitaxial films of multiferroic BiFeO3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daumont, C. J. M.; Farokhipoor, S.; Ferri, A.; Wojdel, J. C.; Iniguez, Jorge; Kooi, B. J.; Noheda, Beatriz; Wojdeł, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent works have shown that the domain walls of room-temperature multiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films can display distinct and promising functionalities. It is thus important to understand the mechanisms underlying domain formation in these films. High-resolution x-ray diffraction and piezoforce mi

  20. Electric and Magnetic Properties of Sputter Deposited BiFeO3 Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Siadou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline BiFeO3 films have been magnetron sputter deposited at room temperature and subsequently heat-treated ex situ at temperatures between 400 and 700°C. The deposition was done in pure Ar atmosphere, as the use of oxygen-argon mixture was found to lead to nonstoichiometric films due to resputtering effects. At a target-to-substrate distance d=2′′ the BiFeO3 structure can be obtained in larger range process gas pressures (2–7 mTorr but the films do not show a specific texture. At d=6′′ codeposition from BiFeO3 and Bi2O3 has been used. Films sputtered at low rate tend to grow with the (001 texture of the pseudo-cubic BiFeO3 structure. As the film structure does not depend on epitaxy similar results are obtained on different substrates. A result of the volatility of Bi, Bi rich oxide phases occur after heat treatment at high temperatures. A Bi2SiO5 impurity phase forms on the substrate side, and does not affect the properties of the main phase. Despite the deposition on amorphous silicon oxide substrate weak ferromagnetism phenomena and displaced loops have been observed at low temperatures showing that their origin is not strain. Ba, La, Ca, and Sr doping suppress the formation of impurity phases and leakage currents.

  1. Ferroelectric Graphene-Perovskite Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volonakis, George; Giustino, Feliciano

    2015-07-02

    Owing to their record-breaking energy conversion efficiencies, hybrid organometallic perovskites have emerged as the most promising light absorbers and ambipolar carrier transporters for solution-processable solar cells. Simultaneously, due to its exceptional electron mobility, graphene represents a prominent candidate for replacing transparent conducting oxides. Thus, it is possible that combining these wonder materials may propel the efficiency toward the Schokley-Queisser limit. Here, using first-principles calculations on graphene-CH3NH3PbI3 interfaces, we find that graphene suppresses the octahedral tilt in the very first perovskite monolayer, leading to a nanoscale ferroelectric distortion with a permanent polarization of 3 mC/m(2). This interfacial ferroelectricity drives electron extraction from the perovskite and hinders electron-hole recombination by keeping the electrons and holes separated. The interfacial ferroelectricity identified here simply results from the interplay between graphene's planar structure and CH3NH3PbI3's octahedral connectivity; therefore, this mechanism may be effective in a much broader class of perovskites, with potential applications in photovoltaics and photocatalysis.

  2. Structural transition and its effect in La, Zr co-substituted mono-domain BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usama, Hasan M.; Sharif, Ahmed; Zubair, M. A.; Gafur, M. A.; Hoque, Sheikh Manjura

    2016-12-01

    A new approach was employed in explaining the weak ferromagnetic behavior of conventionally synthesized Zr4+ modified Bi0.8La0.2FeO3. Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns revealed a polar-to-non-polar R3c → Pnma structural transition in Zr4+substituted samples. Magnetic properties were discovered to be remarkably enhanced, with extracted coercivity and remanence as high as 14 kOe and 0.2 emu/g, respectively. More importantly, an answer to the essential question of the magnetic domain state of the samples has been put forward. Our analysis established, nearly without doubt, the presence of grains consisting of a single magnetic domain. Separated ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic components of the total M-H curves helped to reveal an immense effect of the structural transition on the shape of the hysteresis loops. The orthorhombic magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the Pnma phase has been primarily deemed responsible for the high coercivity and remanence of the Zr4+ modified samples. The effect of the grain size and Fe-O-Fe bond angle on the magnetic properties of the samples has also been discussed. Ferroelectricity was found to be absent in Zr-substituted samples because of their non-polar structure. However, the leakage current was reduced by up to two orders of magnitude compared to Bi0.8La0.2FeO3 upon addition of Zr4+. Dielectric measurements conformed to the ferroelectric and leakage current characteristics, and Zr4+ substitution was again found to be beneficial.

  3. Polymer Ferroelectric Memory for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohd Adnan

    2013-11-01

    With the projected growth of the flexible and plastic electronics industry, there is renewed interest in the research community to develop high performance all-polymeric memory which will be an essential component of any electronic circuit. Some of the efforts in polymer memories are based on different mechanisms such as filamentary conduction, charge trapping effects, dipole alignment, and reduction-oxidation to name a few. Among these the leading candidate are those based on the mechanism of ferroelectricity. Polymer ferroelectric memory can be used in niche applications like smart cards, RFID tags, sensors etc. This dissertation will focus on novel material and device engineering to fabricate high performance low temperature polymeric ferroelectric memory for flexible electronics. We address and find solutions to some fundamental problems affecting all polymer ferroelectric memory like high coercive fields, fatigue and thermal stability issues, poor breakdown strength and poor p-type hole mobilities. Some of the strategies adopted in this dissertation are: Use of different flexible substrates, electrode engineering to improve charge injection and fatigue properties of ferroelectric polymers, large area ink jet printing of ferroelectric memory devices, use of polymer blends to improve insulating properties of ferroelectric polymers and use of oxide semiconductors to fabricate high mobility p-type ferroelectric memory. During the course of this dissertation we have fabricated: the first all-polymer ferroelectric capacitors with solvent modified highly conducting polymeric poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) [PEDOT:PSS] electrodes on plastic substrates with performance as good as devices with metallic Platinum-Gold electrodes on silicon substrates; the first all-polymer high performance ferroelectric memory on banknotes for security applications; novel ferroelectric capacitors based on blends of ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride

  4. First principles study on the ferroelectricity of the perovskite ABO3 ferroelectrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王渊旭; 钟维烈; 王春雷; 张沛霖; 苏绚涛

    2002-01-01

    In order to understand well the different ferroelectric behaviour of quantum paraelectrics and ferroelectrics andthe origin of the ferroelectricity of the solid solution KTa0.5Nb0.5O3(KTN), we calculated the electronic structure ofCaTiO3, BaTiO3 and KTN by first principles calculation. From total energy analysis, it is shown that, with increasingcell volume, the crystals (CaTiO3, SrTiO3) will have a ferroelectric instability. For BaTiO3, the ferroelectricity willdisappear as the cell volume is decreased. From the density of states analysis, it is shown that the hybridization betweenB d and O p is very important for the ferroelectric stability of ABO3 perovskite ferroelectrics. This is consistent withthe analysis of band structure.

  5. Gd-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles - A novel material for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotey, Gurmeet Singh; Verma, N. K.

    2013-06-01

    This communication reports a novel idea on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated using Gd-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles with particle size between 26 and 30 nm. The effect of Gd-doping and smaller size of synthesized nanoparticles on the structural, morphological, optical and photo-electrochemical properties have been investigated. The high energy-conversion efficiency, 3.85%, has been achieved for 12% Gd-doped BiFeO3 DSSCs, which is more than 100% higher than the undoped BiFeO3. The possible origin of the observed performance of DSSCs has been explained on the basis of smaller size of the synthesized nanoparticles, doping of Gd and structural transformation with doping in BiFeO3.

  6. Templated assembly of BiFeO3 nanocrystals into 3D mesoporous networks for catalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadas, I. T.; Subrahmanyam, K. S.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Armatas, G. S.

    2015-03-01

    The self-assembly of uniform nanocrystals into large porous architectures is currently of immense interest for nanochemistry and nanotechnology. These materials combine the respective advantages of discrete nanoparticles and mesoporous structures. In this article, we demonstrate a facile nanoparticle templating process to synthesize a three-dimensional mesoporous BiFeO3 material. This approach involves the polymer-assisted aggregating assembly of 3-aminopropanoic acid-stabilized bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) nanocrystals followed by thermal decomposition of the surfactant. The resulting material consists of a network of tightly connected BiFeO3 nanoparticles (~6-7 nm in diameter) and has a moderately high surface area (62 m2 g-1) and uniform pores (ca. 6.3 nm). As a result of the unique mesostructure, the porous assemblies of BiFeO3 nanoparticles show an excellent catalytic activity and chemical stability for the reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol with NaBH4.The self-assembly of uniform nanocrystals into large porous architectures is currently of immense interest for nanochemistry and nanotechnology. These materials combine the respective advantages of discrete nanoparticles and mesoporous structures. In this article, we demonstrate a facile nanoparticle templating process to synthesize a three-dimensional mesoporous BiFeO3 material. This approach involves the polymer-assisted aggregating assembly of 3-aminopropanoic acid-stabilized bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) nanocrystals followed by thermal decomposition of the surfactant. The resulting material consists of a network of tightly connected BiFeO3 nanoparticles (~6-7 nm in diameter) and has a moderately high surface area (62 m2 g-1) and uniform pores (ca. 6.3 nm). As a result of the unique mesostructure, the porous assemblies of BiFeO3 nanoparticles show an excellent catalytic activity and chemical stability for the reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol with NaBH4. Electronic supplementary information (ESI

  7. Coupling-induced ferromagnetic transitions in ferroelectromagnets of weak antiferromagnetic order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qichang; LIU Junming

    2006-01-01

    A Monte-Carlo simulation on phase transitions in ferroelectromagnets (FEMs) in which a weak antiferromagnetic ordering occurs at the Neel point TN far below the ferroelectric ordering point TE was performed. It is revealed that an intrinsic coupling between spins and electric-dipoles ( mp -coupling) does result in a weak ferromagnetic transition from the paramagnetic state at a temperature far above TN, as long as the coupling is strong enough. The magnetoelectric properties as a function of temperature, mp -coupling strength and external electric and magnetic fields were investigated. A mean-field calculation based on the Heisenberg model was performed and a rough consistency between the simulated and calculated ferromagnetic transitions was shown.

  8. Role of an ultrathin platinum seed layer in antiferromagnet-based perpendicular exchange coupling and its electrical manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Y.; Song, C.; Zhang, J. Y.; Pan, F.

    2017-04-01

    The requirement for low-power consumption advances the development of antiferromagnetic (AFM) spintronics manipulated by electric fields. Here we report an electrical manipulation of metallic AFM moments within IrMn/[Co/Pt] by interface engineering, where ultrathin non-magnetic metals are highlighted between IrMn and ferroelectric substrates. Ultrathin Pt seed layers are proved to be vital in elevating the blocking temperature and enhancing the perpendicular exchange coupling through modulating the domain structures of as-prepared IrMn AFM. Further electrical manipulations of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy crucially verify the indispensable role of pre-deposited ultrathin Pt layers in modulating IrMn antiferromagnetic moments, which is confirmed by the intimate correlation between the electrically manipulating AFM and improving its blocking temperature. Instead of immediate contact between IrMn AFM and ferroelectric substrates in a conventional way, interface engineering by adopting ultrathin seed layers here adds a new twist to the electrical modulation of AFM metals. This would provide scientific basis on how to manipulate AFM moments and optimize the design of practical AFM spintronics.

  9. Ferroelectric phase diagram of PVDF:PMMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, M.; Stingelin, N.; Michels, J.J.; Spijkman, M.-J.; Asadi, K.; Feldman, K.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the ferroelectric phase diagram of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The binary nonequilibrium temperature composition diagram was determined and melting of α- and β-phase PVDF was identified. Ferroelectric β-PVDF:PMMA blend films were made b

  10. Ferroelectric Phase Diagram of PVDF : PMMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Mengyuan; Stingelin, Natalie; Michels, Jasper J.; Spijkman, Mark-Jan; Asadi, Kamal; Feldman, Kirill; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the ferroelectric phase diagram of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The binary nonequilibrium temperature composition diagram was determined and melting of alpha- and beta-phase PVDF was identified. Ferroelectric beta-PVDF:PMMA blend films w

  11. Predictive modelling of ferroelectric tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, Julian P.; Burton, John D.; Zhuravlev, Mikhail Ye; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    2016-05-01

    Ferroelectric tunnel junctions combine the phenomena of quantum-mechanical tunnelling and switchable spontaneous polarisation of a nanometre-thick ferroelectric film into novel device functionality. Switching the ferroelectric barrier polarisation direction produces a sizable change in resistance of the junction—a phenomenon known as the tunnelling electroresistance effect. From a fundamental perspective, ferroelectric tunnel junctions and their version with ferromagnetic electrodes, i.e., multiferroic tunnel junctions, are testbeds for studying the underlying mechanisms of tunnelling electroresistance as well as the interplay between electric and magnetic degrees of freedom and their effect on transport. From a practical perspective, ferroelectric tunnel junctions hold promise for disruptive device applications. In a very short time, they have traversed the path from basic model predictions to prototypes for novel non-volatile ferroelectric random access memories with non-destructive readout. This remarkable progress is to a large extent driven by a productive cycle of predictive modelling and innovative experimental effort. In this review article, we outline the development of the ferroelectric tunnel junction concept and the role of theoretical modelling in guiding experimental work. We discuss a wide range of physical phenomena that control the functional properties of ferroelectric tunnel junctions and summarise the state-of-the-art achievements in the field.

  12. Ferroelectric relaxor as a critical state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    After revisiting models for the ferroelectric relaxors, we notice that the models can be classified into two categories. One group models are directly based upon the compositional fluctuations, such as Smolenskii’s theory and SRBRF model. The other models are experimental phenomenon oriented, such as macro-micro domain crossover and superparaelectric state. The later explanations imply that the ferroelectric relaxor is in a critical state. The unusual field induced phase transition in ferroelectric relaxor also suggests that this is a critical phenomenon with first order phase transition feature. Therefore within the framework of effective field approach and with introducing the concept of quantum temperature scale, we reproduce the diffused phase transition of the dielectric constant and the field induced phase transition. It seems that the larger quantum fluctuation at low temperature depresses the ferroelectricity in ferroelectric relaxors, and results in their unusual physical properties.

  13. Towards the limit of ferroelectric nanosized grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, A.; Schneller, T.; Szot, K.; Waser, R.

    2003-02-01

    Ferroelectric random access memories are non-volatile, low voltage, high read/write speed devices which have been introduced into the market in recent years and which show the clear potential of future gigabit scale universal non-volatile memories. The ultimate limit of this concept will depend on the ferroelectric limit (synonymous superparaelectric limit), i.e. the size limit below which the ferroelectricity is quenched. While there are clear indications that 2D ferroelectric oxide films may sustain their ferroelectric polarization below 4 nm in thickness (Tybell T, Ahn C H and Triscone J M 1999 Appl. Phys. Lett. 75 856), the limit will be quite different for isolated 3D nanostructures (nanograins, nanoclusters). To investigate scaling effects of ferroelectric nanograins on Si wafers, we studied PbTiO3 (PTO) and Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 grown by a self-assembly chemical solution deposition method. Preparing highly diluted precursor solutions we achieved single separated ferroelectric grains with grain sizes ranging from 200 nm down to less than 20 nm. For grains smaller than 20 nm, no piezoresponse was observed and we suppose this could be due to the transition from the ferroelectric to the paraelectric phase which has no spontaneous polarization. Recent calculations (Zhong W L, Wang Y G, Zhang P L and Qu B D 1994 Phys. Rev. B 50 698) and experiments (Jiang B, Peng J L, Zhong W L and Bursill L A 2000 J. Appl. Phys. 87 3462) showed that the ferroelectricity of fine ferroelectric particles decrease with decreasing particle size. From these experiments the extrapolated critical size of PTO particles was found to be around 4.2-20 nm.

  14. Antiferromagnetic domain wall motion driven by spin-orbit torques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiino, Takayuki; Oh, Se-Hyeok; Haney, Paul M.; Lee, Seo-Won; Go, Gyungchoon; Park, Byong-Guk; Lee, Kyung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically investigate dynamics of antiferromagnetic domain walls driven by spin-orbit torques in antiferromagnet/heavy metal bilayers. We show that spin-orbit torques drive antiferromagnetic domain walls much faster than ferromagnetic domain walls. As the domain wall velocity approaches the maximum spin-wave group velocity, the domain wall undergoes Lorentz contraction and emits spin-waves in the terahertz frequency range. The interplay between spin-orbit torques and the relativistic dynamics of antiferromagnetic domain walls leads to the efficient manipulation of antiferromagnetic spin textures and paves the way for the generation of high frequency signals from antiferromagnets. PMID:27588878

  15. Purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosub, Tobias; Kopte, Martin; Hühne, Ruben; Appel, Patrick; Shields, Brendan; Maletinsky, Patrick; Hübner, René; Liedke, Maciej Oskar; Fassbender, Jürgen; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Makarov, Denys

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic random access memory schemes employing magnetoelectric coupling to write binary information promise outstanding energy efficiency. We propose and demonstrate a purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory (AF-MERAM) that offers a remarkable 50-fold reduction of the writing threshold compared with ferromagnet-based counterparts, is robust against magnetic disturbances and exhibits no ferromagnetic hysteresis losses. Using the magnetoelectric antiferromagnet Cr2O3, we demonstrate reliable isothermal switching via gate voltage pulses and all-electric readout at room temperature. As no ferromagnetic component is present in the system, the writing magnetic field does not need to be pulsed for readout, allowing permanent magnets to be used. Based on our prototypes, we construct a comprehensive model of the magnetoelectric selection mechanisms in thin films of magnetoelectric antiferromagnets, revealing misfit induced ferrimagnetism as an important factor. Beyond memory applications, the AF-MERAM concept introduces a general all-electric interface for antiferromagnets and should find wide applicability in antiferromagnetic spintronics. PMID:28045029

  16. Enhanced local lattice distortions with the antiferromagnetic transition in the multiferroic LuMnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louca, Despina; Proffen, Thomas; Lee, Seung-Hun; Cheong, Sang-Wook

    2009-03-01

    The ferroelectric hexagonal manganite, LuMnO3, has been investigated via neutron scattering and the pair density function analysis to determine the nature of the local atomic distortions with the antiferromagnetic transition, TN, of the Mn ions. While in previously reported neutron diffraction data, it was shown that all atomic coordinates changed based on symmetry considerations with TN, we hereby show that it is the ferroelectric motion of the Lu ions coupled with O distortions that exhibits a strong temperature dependence below TN as reflected in the Lu-O bonds. This suggests an enhancement of the net electric polarization below TN. At the same time, the motion of the apical O1 and O2 ions distorts the MnO5 bipyramids, leading to more buckling of the ab-layers. However, the Mn ions do not appear to distort significantly away from their equilibrium position. The oxygen distortions induced with the spin reorientations below TN may be the cause for the Lu ion displacements through electrostatic interactions and this in turn produces coupling to the electric dipole moments.

  17. Calligraphic Poling of Ferroelectric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohageg, Makan; Strekalov, Dmitry; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Adrey; Maleki, Lute; Iltchenko, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Calligraphic poling is a technique for generating an arbitrary, possibly complex pattern of localized reversal in the direction of permanent polarization in a wafer of LiNbO3 or other ferroelectric material. The technique is so named because it involves a writing process in which a sharp electrode tip is moved across a surface of the wafer to expose the wafer to a polarizing electric field in the desired pattern. The technique is implemented by use of an apparatus, denoted a calligraphic poling machine (CPM), that includes the electrode and other components as described in more detail below.

  18. Removing lignin model pollutants with BiFeO3-g-C3N4 compound as an efficient visible-light-heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Junjian; Zhang, Guangyan; Zheng, Rongfeng; Wang, Peng

    2016-10-01

    BiFeO3-g-C3N4 nanoscaled composite was prepared with a hydrothermal method and evaluated as a highly efficient photo-Fenton like catalyst under visible light irradiation. The BiFeO3-g-C3N4 composite exhibited much stronger adsorption ability to lignin model pollutant (guaiacol) than that of BiFeO3, which may be due to the higher specific surface area (BiFeO3-g-C3N4: 35.59m(2)/g>BiFeO3: 7.42m(2)/g) and the adsorption form of π-π stack between g-C3N4 and guaiacol. The composite exhibited excellent visible light-Fenton like catalysis activity, being influenced by the solution pH value and the proportions of BiFeO3 and g-C3N4 nanosheets. Under optimal conditions with visible light irradiation, the BiFeO3-g-C3N4 composite yielded fast degradation of guaiacol with an apparent rate constant of 0.0452min(-1), which were 5.21 and 6.80 folds of that achieved by using BiFeO3 and the mixture of BiFeO3 and g-C3N4 nanosheets, respectively. The significantly enhanced visible light-Fenton like catalytic properties of the BiFeO3-g-C3N4 composite in comparison with that of BiFeO3 was attributed to a large surface area, much increased adsorption capacity and the semiconductor coupling effect between BiFeO3 and g-C3N4 in the composite. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Paramagnetic and Antiferromagnetic Spin Seebeck Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Stephen

    We report on the observation of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in both antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic insulators. By using a microscale on-chip local heater, it is possible to generate a large thermal gradient confined to the chip surface without a large increase in the total sample temperature. This technique allows us to easily access low temperatures (200 mK) and high magnetic fields (14 T) through conventional dilution refrigeration and superconducting magnet setups. By exploring this regime, we detect the spin Seebeck effect through the spin-flop transition in antiferromagnetic MnF2 when a large magnetic field (>9 T) is applied along the easy axis direction. Using the same technique, we are also able to resolve a spin Seebeck effect from the paramagnetic phase of geometrically frustrated antiferromagnet Gd3Ga5O12 (gadolinium gallium garnet) and antiferromagnetic DyScO3 (DSO). Since these measurements occur above the ordering temperatures of these two materials, short-range magnetic order is implicated as the cause of the spin Seebeck effect in these systems. The discovery of the spin Seebeck effect in these two materials classes suggest that both antiferromagnetic spin waves and spin excitations from short range magnetic order may be used to generate spin current from insulators and that the spin wave spectra of individual materials are highly important to the specifics of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect. Since insulating antiferromagnets and paramagnets are far more common than the typical insulating ferrimagnetic materials used in spin Seebeck experiments, this discovery opens up a large new class of materials for use in spin caloritronic devices. All authors acknowledge support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Materials Sciences and Engineering Division. The use of facilities at the Center for Nanoscale Materials, was supported by the U.S. DOE, BES under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  20. Negative capacitance in multidomain ferroelectric superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubko, Pavlo; Wojdeł, Jacek C.; Hadjimichael, Marios; Fernandez-Pena, Stéphanie; Sené, Anaïs; Luk'Yanchuk, Igor; Triscone, Jean-Marc; Íñiguez, Jorge

    2016-06-01

    The stability of spontaneous electrical polarization in ferroelectrics is fundamental to many of their current applications, which range from the simple electric cigarette lighter to non-volatile random access memories. Research on nanoscale ferroelectrics reveals that their behaviour is profoundly different from that in bulk ferroelectrics, which could lead to new phenomena with potential for future devices. As ferroelectrics become thinner, maintaining a stable polarization becomes increasingly challenging. On the other hand, intentionally destabilizing this polarization can cause the effective electric permittivity of a ferroelectric to become negative, enabling it to behave as a negative capacitance when integrated in a heterostructure. Negative capacitance has been proposed as a way of overcoming fundamental limitations on the power consumption of field-effect transistors. However, experimental demonstrations of this phenomenon remain contentious. The prevalent interpretations based on homogeneous polarization models are difficult to reconcile with the expected strong tendency for domain formation, but the effect of domains on negative capacitance has received little attention. Here we report negative capacitance in a model system of multidomain ferroelectric-dielectric superlattices across a wide range of temperatures, in both the ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. Using a phenomenological model, we show that domain-wall motion not only gives rise to negative permittivity, but can also enhance, rather than limit, its temperature range. Our first-principles-based atomistic simulations provide detailed microscopic insight into the origin of this phenomenon, identifying the dominant contribution of near-interface layers and paving the way for its future exploitation.

  1. Towards multicaloric effect with ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Guangzu; Li, Qi; Bellaiche, Laurent; Scott, James F.; Dkhil, Brahim; Wang, Qing

    2016-12-01

    Utilizing thermal changes in solid-state materials strategically offers caloric-based alternatives to replace current vapor-compression technology. To make full use of multiple forms of the entropy and achieve higher efficiency for designs of cooling devices, the multicaloric effect appears as a cutting-edge concept encouraging researchers to search for multicaloric materials with outstanding caloric properties. Here we report the multicaloric effect in BaTi O3 single crystals driven simultaneously by mechanical and electric fields and described via a thermodynamic phenomenological model. It is found that the multicaloric behavior is mainly dominated by the mechanical field rather than the electric field, since the paraelectric-to-ferroelectric transition is more sensitive to mechanical field than to electric field. The use of uniaxial stress competes favorably with pressure due to its much higher caloric strength and negligible elastic thermal change. It is revealed that multicaloric response can be significantly larger than just the sum of mechanocaloric and electrocaloric effects in temperature regions far above the Curie temperature but cannot exceed this limit near the Curie temperature. Our results also show the advantage of the multicaloric effect over the mechanically mediated electrocaloric effect or electrically mediated mechanocaloric effect. Our findings therefore highlight the importance of ferroelectric materials to develop multicaloric cooling.

  2. Chemical segregation and self polarisation in ferroelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard E. Watts

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical partitioning or segregation is commonly encountered in solid-state syntheses. It is driven by compositional, thermal and electric field gradients. These phenomena can be quite extreme in thin films and lead to notable effects on the electrical properties of ferroelectrics. The segregation in ferroelectric thin films will be illustrated and the mechanisms explained in terms of diffusion processes driven by a potential gradient of the oxygen. The hypothesis can also explain self polarisation and imprint in ferroelectric hysteresis.

  3. Ferroelectric ceramics in a pyroelectric accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shchagin, A. V., E-mail: shchagin@kipt.kharkov.ua [Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Belgorod State University, Belgorod 308015 (Russian Federation); Miroshnik, V. S.; Volkov, V. I. [Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Oleinik, A. N. [Belgorod State University, Belgorod 308015 (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-07

    The applicability of polarized ferroelectric ceramics as a pyroelectric in a pyroelectric accelerator is shown by experiments. The spectra of X-ray radiation of energy up to tens of keV, generated by accelerated electrons, have been measured on heating and cooling of the ceramics in vacuum. It is suggested that curved layers of polarized ferroelectric ceramics be used as elements of ceramic pyroelectric accelerators. Besides, nanotubes and nanowires manufactured from ferroelectric ceramics are proposed for the use in nanometer-scale ceramic pyroelectric nanoaccelerators for future applications in nanotechnologies.

  4. Ultrafast Photovoltaic Response in Ferroelectric Nanolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daranciang, Dan

    2012-02-15

    We show that light drives large-amplitude structural changes in thin films of the prototypical ferroelectric PbTiO3 via direct coupling to its intrinsic photovoltaic response. Using time-resolved x-ray scattering to visualize atomic displacements on femtosecond timescales, photoinduced changes in the unit-cell tetragonality are observed. These are driven by the motion of photogenerated free charges within the ferroelectric and can be simply explained by a model including both shift and screening currents, associated with the displacement of electrons first antiparallel to and then parallel to the ferroelectric polarization direction.

  5. Static Characteristics of the Ferroelectric Transistor Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cody; Laws, crystal; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    The inverter is one of the most fundamental building blocks of digital logic, and it can be used as the foundation for understanding more complex logic gates and circuits. This paper presents the characteristics of an inverter circuit using a ferroelectric field-effect transistor. The voltage transfer characteristics are analyzed with respect to varying parameters such as supply voltage, input voltage, and load resistance. The effects of the ferroelectric layer between the gate and semiconductor are examined, and comparisons are made between the inverters using ferroelectric transistors and those using traditional MOSFETs.

  6. Sr and Mn co-doped sol-gel derived BiFeO3 ceramics with enhanced magnetism and reduced leakage current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nandni; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mall, Ashish Kumar; Gupta, Rajeev; Garg, Ashish

    2017-01-01

    In this manuscript, we report the effect of Sr and Mn doping on the electrical and magnetic characteristics of BiFeO3 nanoparticles, synthesized by sol-gel technique. While powder diffraction analysis of the samples suggested absence of any structural distortion in both Sr-doped and Sr and Mn co-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles, Rietveld refinement of the data suggested that the unit cell volume decreases with doping. Room temperature Raman studies of the samples confirmed the incorporation of Sr and Mn in BiFeO3. It was seen that Sr doping of BiFeO3 showed substantial reduction in the leakage current whilst co-doping with Sr and Mn led to lower reduction in the leakage current through offering better performance over undoped BiFeO3, due to changes brought in the defect chemistry upon doping. Additionally, Sr and Mn co-doped BiFeO3 samples exhibit enhanced magnetization in comparison to undoped and Sr doped BiFeO3, possibly due to interruptions in the spin cycloid of BiFeO3.

  7. Chemistry of the Fe2O3/BiFeO3 Interface in BiFeO3 Thin Film Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valanoor Nagarajan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the interfacial chemistry of secondary Fe2O3 phases formed in a BiFeO3 (BFO layer in BFO/ La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO/SrTiO3 (STO heterostructures. A combination of high-resolution spherical aberration corrected scanning TEM and spectroscopy results, reveals that specific chemical and crystallographic similarities between Fe2O3 and BFO, enable the BFO layer to form a facile host for Fe2O3.

  8. Structural and Magnetic Properties of La and Sc Codoped BiFeO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Mei-mei; LIU; Rong-deng; WANG; Wei; LIU; Yun-tao; CHEN; Dong-feng

    2013-01-01

    Multiferroic materials exhibit simultaneous presence of ferroelectricity,ferromagnetism and ferroelasiticity,and have potential applications in information storage,spintronics,sensors etc.BiFeO3(BFO)is the most promising among these materials from the practical application point of view because of its high ferroelectric Curie(Tc=1 103 K)and Neel(TN=643 K)temperatures.

  9. Antiferromagnetic Ising model on the swedenborgite lattice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhrandt, Stefan; Fritz, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Geometrical frustration in spin systems often results in a large number of degenerate ground states. In this work, we study the antiferromagnetic Ising model on the three-dimensional swedenborgite lattice, which is a specific stacking of kagome and triangular layers. The model contains two exchange

  10. Magnetic remanent states in antiferromagnetically coupled multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, N.S., E-mail: m.kyselov@ifw-dresden.d [IFW Dresden, Postfach 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Donetsk Institute for Physics and Technology, 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Roessler, U.K.; Bogdanov, A.N. [IFW Dresden, Postfach 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Hellwig, O. [San Jose Research Center, Hitachi Global Storage Technologies, San Jose, CA 95135 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    In antiferromagnetically coupled multilayers with perpendicular anisotropy unusual multidomain textures can be stabilized due to a close competition between long-range demagnetization fields and short-range interlayer exchange coupling. In particular, the formation and evolution of specific topologically stable planar defects within the antiferromagnetic ground state, i.e. wall-like structures with a ferromagnetic configuration extended over a finite width, explain configurational hysteresis phenomena recently observed in [Co/Pt(Pd)]/Ru and [Co/Pt]/NiO multilayers. Within a phenomenological theory, we have analytically derived the equilibrium sizes of these 'ferroband' defects as functions of the antiferromagnetic exchange, a bias magnetic field, and geometrical parameters of the multilayers. In the magnetic phase diagram, the existence region of the ferrobands mediates between the regions of patterns with sharp antiferromagnetic domain walls and regular arrays of ferromagnetic stripes. The theoretical results are supported by magnetic force microscopy images of the remanent states observed in [Co/Pt]/Ru.

  11. Direct measurement of antiferromagnetic domain fluctuations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpyrko, O. G.; Isaacs, E. D.; Logan, J. M.; Feng, Y.; Aeppli, G.; Jaramillo, R.; Kim, H. C.; Rosenbaum, T. F.; Zschack, P.; Sprung, M.; Narayanan, S.; Sandy, A.; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. College London

    2007-05-03

    Measurements of magnetic noise emanating from ferromagnets owing to domain motion were first carried out nearly 100 years ago1, and have underpinned much science and technology2, 3. Antiferromagnets, which carry no net external magnetic dipole moment, yet have a periodic arrangement of the electron spins extending over macroscopic distances, should also display magnetic noise. However, this must be sampled at spatial wavelengths of the order of several interatomic spacings, rather than the macroscopic scales characteristic of ferromagnets. Here we present a direct measurement of the fluctuations in the nanometer-scale superstructure of spin- and charge-density waves associated with antiferromagnetism in elemental chromium. The technique used is X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, where coherent X-ray diffraction produces a speckle pattern that serves as a 'fingerprint' of a particular magnetic domain configuration. The temporal evolution of the patterns corresponds to domain walls advancing and retreating over micrometer distances. This work demonstrates a useful measurement tool for antiferromagnetic domain wall engineering, but also reveals a fundamental finding about spin dynamics in the simplest antiferromagnet: although the domain wall motion is thermally activated at temperatures above 100 K, it is not so at lower temperatures, and indeed has a rate that saturates at a finite value--consistent with quantum fluctuations--on cooling below 40 K.

  12. Antiferromagnetism in chromium alloy single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Trego, A.L.; Mackintosh, A.R.

    1965-01-01

    The antiferromagnetism of single crystals of dilute alloys of V, Mn and Re in Cr has been studied at 95°K and 300°K by neutron diffraction. The addition of V causes the diffraction peaks to decrease in intensity and move away from (100), while Mn and Re cause them to increase and approach (100) so...

  13. The electronic structure of antiferromagnetic chromium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1981-01-01

    The author has used the local spin density formalism to perform self-consistent calculations of the electronic structure of chromium in the non-magnetic and commensurate antiferromagnetic phases, as a function of the lattice parameter. A change of a few per cent in the atomic radius brings...

  14. Ferroelectricity in yttrium-doped hafnium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, J.; Schröder, U.; Böscke, T. S.; Müller, I.; Böttger, U.; Wilde, L.; Sundqvist, J.; Lemberger, M.; Kücher, P.; Mikolajick, T.; Frey, L.

    2011-12-01

    Structural and electrical evidence for a ferroelectric phase in yttrium doped hafnium oxide thin films is presented. A doping series ranging from 2.3 to 12.3 mol% YO1.5 in HfO2 was deposited by a thermal atomic layer deposition process. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction of the 10 nm thick films revealed an orthorhombic phase close to the stability region of the cubic phase. The potential ferroelectricity of this orthorhombic phase was confirmed by polarization hysteresis measurements on titanium nitride based metal-insulator-metal capacitors. For 5.2 mol% YO1.5 admixture the remanent polarization peaked at 24 μC/cm2 with a coercive field of about 1.2 MV/cm. Considering the availability of conformal deposition processes and CMOS-compatibility, ferroelectric Y:HfO2 implies high scaling potential for future, ferroelectric memories.

  15. Ferroelectric symmetry-protected multibit memory cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, Laurent; Lukyanchuk, Igor; Vinokur, Valerii M.

    2017-02-01

    The tunability of electrical polarization in ferroelectrics is instrumental to their applications in information-storage devices. The existing ferroelectric memory cells are based on the two-level storage capacity with the standard binary logics. However, the latter have reached its fundamental limitations. Here we propose ferroelectric multibit cells (FMBC) utilizing the ability of multiaxial ferroelectric materials to pin the polarization at a sequence of the multistable states. Employing the catastrophe theory principles we show that these states are symmetry-protected against the information loss and thus realize novel topologically-controlled access memory (TAM). Our findings enable developing a platform for the emergent many-valued non-Boolean information technology and target challenges posed by needs of quantum and neuromorphic computing.

  16. Local polarization switching in stressed ferroelectric polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ronggang; Nysten, Bernard; Hu, Zhijun; Jonas, Alain M.

    2017-05-01

    Ferroelectric polymers are used in flexible organic ferroelectric memories, ferroelectric polarization enhanced organic solar cells, and organic multiferroics. Therefore, understanding their polarization switching mechanism under bending is important for the operation of such devices. Here, we study locally by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) polarization switching in bent thin films of the ferroelectric polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-ran-trifluoroethylene). In bent samples, higher probability of domain nucleation, faster domain wall propagation, and lower coercive field are consistently observed by PFM. We ascribe these observations to a decrease of the domain wall pinning energy, resulting from the mechanical energy stored in the sample due to bending in the presence of the compression gradient generated below the PFM tip.

  17. Multifunctional Polycrystalline Ferroelectric Materials Processing and Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Pardo, Lorena

    2011-01-01

    This book presents selected topics on processing and properties of ferroelectric materials that are currently the focus of attention in scientific and technical research. Ferro-piezoelectric ceramics are key materials in devices for many applications, such as automotive, healthcare and non-destructive testing. As they are polycrystalline, non-centrosymmetric materials, their piezoelectricity is induced by the so-called poling process. This is based on the principle of polarization reversal by the action of an electric field that characterizes the ferroelectric materials. This book was born with the aim of increasing the awareness of the multifunctionality of ferroelectric materials among different communities, such as researchers, electronic engineers, end-users and manufacturers, working on and with ferro-piezoelectric ceramic materials and devices which are based on them. The initiative to write this book comes from a well-established group of researchers at the Laboratories of Ferroelectric Materials, Mate...

  18. Ferroelectric symmetry-protected multibit memory cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, Laurent; Lukyanchuk, Igor; Vinokur, Valerii M.

    2017-01-01

    The tunability of electrical polarization in ferroelectrics is instrumental to their applications in information-storage devices. The existing ferroelectric memory cells are based on the two-level storage capacity with the standard binary logics. However, the latter have reached its fundamental limitations. Here we propose ferroelectric multibit cells (FMBC) utilizing the ability of multiaxial ferroelectric materials to pin the polarization at a sequence of the multistable states. Employing the catastrophe theory principles we show that these states are symmetry-protected against the information loss and thus realize novel topologically-controlled access memory (TAM). Our findings enable developing a platform for the emergent many-valued non-Boolean information technology and target challenges posed by needs of quantum and neuromorphic computing. PMID:28176866

  19. Intelligent Processing of Ferroelectric Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-03

    Gnadinger, "Ferroelectrics for [10] H. Higashino , T. Kawaguchi, H. Adachi, T. Makino Nonvolatile RAMs," IE Sm , July 1989, p.3 0 and 0. Yamazaki, "High...be determined by the compensator. I With the PLZT phase modulator, the above [3] H. Higashino , T. Kawaguchi, H. Adachi, T. Makino Withe the Phasprovena...Review," Ferroelectrics, 75, 25(1987) be determined by the compensator. [3] H. Higashino , T. Kawaguchi, H. Adachi, T. Makino With the PLZT phase

  20. Physics of ferroelectrics : a modern perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rabe, Karin M.; Ahn, Charles; Triscone, Jean-Marc

    2007-01-01

    During the past two decades, revolutionary breakthroughs have occurred in the understanding of ferroelectric materials, both from the perspective of theory and experiment. First principles approaches, including the Berry phase formulation of ferroelectricity, now allow accurate, quantitative predictions of material properties, and single crystalline thin films are now available for fundamental studies of these materials. In addition, the need for high dielectric constant insulators and nonvol...

  1. Multiscale dynamics in relaxor ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toulouse, J. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; Cai, L [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; Pattnaik, R. K. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The multiscale dynamics of complex oxides is illustrated by pairs of mechanical resonances that are excited in the relaxor ferroelectric K1 xLixTaO3 (KLT). These macroscopic resonances are shown to originate in the collective dynamics of piezoelectric polar nanodomains (PND) interacting with the surrounding lattice. Their characteristic Fano lineshapes and rapid evolution with temperature reveal the coherent interplay between the piezoelectric oscillations and orientational relaxations of the PNDs at higher temperature and the contribution of heterophase oscillations near the phase transition. A theoretical model is presented, that describes the evolution of the resonances over the entire temperature range. Similar resonances are observed in other relaxors and must therefore be a common characteristics of these systems.

  2. Polarization Manipulation via Orientation Control in Polycrystalline BiFeO3 Thin Films on Biaxially Textured, Flexible Metallic Tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Junsoo; Goyal, Amit; Jesse, Stephen; Heatherly, Lee

    2011-02-01

    (111)-, (101)-, and (001)-oriented polycrystalline BiFeO3 films were fabricated on rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrates (RABiTS) with appropriate engineering of heteroepitaxially grown buffer multilayers on RABiTS. The crystallographic orientation and polarization direction were confirmed using X-ray diffraction and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), respectively. All the films exhibited excellent piezoelectric properties. Switching spectroscopy PFM demonstrated that the switching polarization in (111)-oriented polycrystalline BiFeO3 films is higher than that in (101)- or (001)-oriented films. These BiFeO3 films on low-cost, flexible, biaxially textured metallic tapes with controllable orientation and polarization are attractive for application in flexible piezoelectric devices.

  3. Enhancement of magnetic and ferroelectric behaviour in (Ca, Co) co-doped HoMnO3 multiferroics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, P. P.; Pradhan, S. K.; Das, S. K.; Samantaray, S.; Roul, B. K.

    2013-11-01

    The effect of sintering temperature on structural, electrical and magnetic behaviours of polycrystalline samples of Ho0.9Ca0.1Mn0.9Co0.1O3 prepared by the solid state reaction route sintered at three different temperature 1250 °C, 1350 °C, 1450 °C for 10 h are investigated. XRD, SEM, magnetization, dielectric and ferroelectric measurements were carried out. Experimental results showed the nucleation of orthorhombic phase as the sintering temperature increases from 1250 °C to 1450 °C. Ferroelectric (Tc) and antiferromagnetic transition temperature (TN) increases with increase in sintering temperature. Strong bifurcation of FC and ZFC curve in sample sintered at 1450 °C showed a clear onset of ferromagnetic state around 165 °K, which is confirmed from M to H graph at 165 °K. All the sample showed ferroelectric behaviour at room temperature which are leaky in nature. Sintering temperature along with Ca and Co doping in HoMnO3 ceramics plays an important role in phase transformation along with enhancement in multiferroic properties.

  4. Effects of Interfaces on the Structure and Novel Physical Properties in Epitaxial Multiferroic BiFeO3 Ultrathin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanwei Huang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In functional oxide films, different electrical/mechanical boundaries near film surfaces induce rich phase diagrams and exotic phenomena. In this paper, we review some key points which underpin structure, phase transition and related properties in BiFeO3 ultrathin films. Compared with the bulk counterparts, we survey the recent results of epitaxial BiFeO3 ultrathin films to illustrate how the atomic structure and phase are markedly influenced by the interface between the film and the substrate, and to emphasize the roles of misfit strain and depolarization field on determining the domain patterns, phase transformation and associated physical properties of BiFeO3 ultrathin films, such as polarization, piezoelectricity, and magnetism. One of the obvious consequences of the misfit strain on BiFeO3 ultrathin films is the emergence of a sequence of phase transition from tetragonal to mixed tetragonal & rhombohedral, the rhombohedral, mixed rhombohedral & orthorhombic, and finally orthorhombic phases. Other striking features of this system are the stable domain patterns and the crossover of 71° and 109° domains with different electrical boundary conditions on the film surface, which can be controlled and manipulated through the depolarization field. The external field-sensitive enhancements of properties for BiFeO3 ultrathin films, including the polarization, magnetism and morphotropic phase boundary-relevant piezoelectric response, offer us deeper insights into the investigations of the emergent properties and phenomena of epitaxial ultrathin films under various mechanical/electrical constraints. Finally, we briefly summarize the recent progress and list open questions for future study on BiFeO3 ultrathin films.

  5. Macroscopic Quantum Coherence in Antiferromagnetic Molecular Magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hui; LO Rong; ZHU Jia-Lin; XIONG Jia-Jiong

    2001-01-01

    The macroscopic quantum coherence in a biaxial antiferromagnetic molecular magnet in the presence of magnetic field acting parallel to its hard anisotropy axis is studied within the two-sublattice model. On the basis of instanton technique in the spin-coherent-state path-integral representation, both the rigorous Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin exponent and pre-exponential factor for the ground-state tunnel splitting are obtained. We find that the quantum fluctuations around the classical paths can not only induce a new quantum phase previously reported by Chiolero and Loss (Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 (1998) 169), but also have great influence on the intensity of the ground-state tunnel splitting. Those features clearly have no analogue in the ferromagnetic molecular magnets. We suggest that they may be the universal behaviors in all antiferromagnetic molecular magnets. The analytical results are complemented by exact diagonalization calculation.

  6. Antiferromagnetic Ising Model in Hierarchical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiang; Boettcher, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    The Ising antiferromagnet is a convenient model of glassy dynamics. It can introduce geometric frustrations and may give rise to a spin glass phase and glassy relaxation at low temperatures [ 1 ] . We apply the antiferromagnetic Ising model to 3 hierarchical networks which share features of both small world networks and regular lattices. Their recursive and fixed structures make them suitable for exact renormalization group analysis as well as numerical simulations. We first explore the dynamical behaviors using simulated annealing and discover an extremely slow relaxation at low temperatures. Then we employ the Wang-Landau algorithm to investigate the energy landscape and the corresponding equilibrium behaviors for different system sizes. Besides the Monte Carlo methods, renormalization group [ 2 ] is used to study the equilibrium properties in the thermodynamic limit and to compare with the results from simulated annealing and Wang-Landau sampling. Supported through NSF Grant DMR-1207431.

  7. Antiferromagnetic order in hybrid electromagnetic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Filonov, Dmitry; Lukyanchuk, Boris; Kivshar, Yuri

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a new type of order in optical magnetism resembling the staggered structure of spins in antiferromagnetic ordered materials. We study hybrid electromagnetic metasurfaces created by assembling hybrid meta-atoms formed by metallic split-ring resonators and dielectric particles with a high refractive index, both supporting optically-induced magnetic dipole resonances of different origin. Each pair (or ‘metamolecule’) is characterized by two interacting magnetic dipole moments with the distance-dependent magnetization resembling the spin exchange interaction in magnetic materials. By directly mapping the structure of the electromagnetic fields, we demonstrate experimentally that strong coupling between the optically-induced magnetic moments of different origin can flip the magnetisation orientation in a metamolecule creating an antiferromagnetic lattice of staggered optically-induced magnetic moments in hybrid metasurfaces.

  8. Antiferromagnetic exchange mechanism of superconductivity in cuprates

    CERN Document Server

    Plakida, N M

    2001-01-01

    One examines theory of superconducting coupling resulted from antiferromagnetic exchange in terms of which one explains strong dependence of T sub c superconducting transition temperature on alpha lattice constant. Calculations are based on the Hubbard p-d two-region model within strong correlation limit. DELTA pd excitation high energy at antiferromagnetic exchange of two particles from different Hubbard subregions results in suppression o delay effects and in coupling of all particles in conductivity subregion with Fermi energy E sub F >= DELTA pd : T sub c approx = E sub F exp(-1/lambda), where lambda propor to J. T sub c (alpha) and isotopic effect are explained by J exchange interaction dependence on alpha and on zero oscillations of oxygen ions

  9. Macroscopic Quantum Coherence in Antiferromagnetic Molecular Magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUHui; LURong; 等

    2001-01-01

    The macroscopic quantum coherence in a biaxial antiferromagnetic molecular magnet in the presence of magnetic field acting parallel to its hard anisotropy axis is studied within the two-sublattice model.On the basis of instanton technique in the spin-coherent-state path-integral representation,both the rigorous Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin exponent and pre-exponential factor for the ground-state tunnel splitting are obtained.We find that the quantum fluctuations around the classical paths can not only induce a new quantum phase previously reported by Chiolero and Loss (Phys.Rev.Lett.80(1998)169),but also have great influence on the intensity of the ground-state tunnel splitting.Those features clearly have no analogue in the ferromagnetic molecular magnets.We suggest that they may be the universal behaviors in all antiferromagnetic molecular magnets.The analytical results are complemented by exact diagonalization calculation.

  10. Shape-induced anisotropy in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    H. Gomonay; Kondovych, S.; Loktev, V.

    2013-01-01

    High fraction of the surface atoms considerably enhances the influence of size and shape on the magnetic and electronic properties of nanoparticles. Shape effects in ferromagnetic nanoparticles are well understood and allow to set and control the parameters of a sample that affect its magnetic anisotropy during production. In the present paper we study the shape effects in the other widely used magnetic materials -- antiferromagnets, -- which possess vanishingly small or zero macroscopic magn...

  11. Spin-Mechanical Inertia in Antiferromagnet

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of angular momentum has served as a guiding principle in the coupled dynamics of quantum spins and mechanical rotations. However, in an antiferromagnet with vanishing magnetization, new fundamental rules are required to properly describe spin-mechanical phenomena. Here we demonstrate that the Neel order dynamics affects the mechanical motion of a rigid body by modifying its inertia tensor in the presence of strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy. This effect depends on temperat...

  12. Spin Transport in Ferromagnetic and Antiferromagnetic Textures

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins A.

    2016-12-07

    In this dissertation, we provide an accurate description of spin transport in magnetic textures and in particular, we investigate in detail, the nature of spin torque and magnetic damping in such systems. Indeed, as will be further discussed in this thesis, the current-driven velocity of magnetic textures is related to the ratio between the so-called non-adiabatic torque and magnetic damping. Uncovering the physics underlying these phenomena can lead to the optimal design of magnetic systems with improved efficiency. We identified three interesting classes of systems which have attracted enormous research interest (i) Magnetic textures in systems with broken inversion symmetry: We investigate the nature of magnetic damping in non-centrosymmetric ferromagnets. Based on phenomenological and microscopic derivations, we show that the magnetic damping becomes chiral, i.e. depends on the chirality of the magnetic texture. (ii) Ferromagnetic domain walls, skyrmions and vortices: We address the physics of spin transport in sharp disordered magnetic domain walls and vortex cores. We demonstrate that upon spin-independent scattering, the non-adiabatic torque can be significantly enhanced. Such an enhancement is large for vortex cores compared to transverse domain walls. We also show that the topological spin currents owing in these structures dramatically enhances the non-adiabaticity, an effect unique to non-trivial topological textures (iii) Antiferromagnetic skyrmions: We extend this study to antiferromagnetic skyrmions and show that such an enhanced topological torque also exist in these systems. Even more interestingly, while such a non-adiabatic torque inuences the undesirable transverse velocity of ferromagnetic skyrmions, in antiferromagnetic skyrmions, the topological non-adiabatic torque directly determines the longitudinal velocity. As a consequence, scaling down the antiferromagnetic skyrmion results in a much more efficient spin torque.

  13. Spin transfer in antiferromagnets (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Takahiro

    2016-10-01

    Since antiferromagnets (AFMs) have no spontaneous magnetization unlike ferromagnetic materials, it is not easy to manipulate the magnetic moments in AFMs by external magnetic field. However, recent theoretical studies suggest that it is possible to manipulate the magnetization in AFMs by spin-transfer-torque in a similar manner to ferromagnetic materials. In this study, we perform spin-toque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) measurements on FeNi/NiO/Pt multilayers to experimentally investigate the interaction between the spin current and the magnetic moments of antiferromagnetic NiO. The spin current is injected to the NiO by the spin Hall effect in Pt. The monotonous change in the FMR linewidth of this system with respect to the spin current can be interpreted in a way that the spin current is transferred through the NiO and interacts with the FeNi. This intriguing spin current transport can be explained by the angular momentum transfer mediated by the antiferromagnetic magnons. The results assure that the spin current exerts a torque on the NiO magnetic moments and excites their dynamics. In the talk, recent results will be also discussed.

  14. Spin Seebeck Effect Signals from Antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Arati; Brangham, Jack; Yang, Fengyuan; Heremans, Joseph

    The Longitudinal Spin Seebeck Effect (LSSE), in which a heat current stimulates spin propagation across an interface between a magnetic material and a normal metal, is well established and observed in ferromagnetic systems. Data have been presented indicating that antiferromagnetic systems could also give rise to LSSE signals. We report here on LSSE signal measured on the Pt/NiO/YIG structure, where NiO is an antiferromagnet. This system is reported to exhibit antiferromagnonic transport. We explore the dependence of the signal on the thickness of the NiO and YIG layers. We also report its temperature dependence, which was not explored before. The results are interpreted in terms of the temperature dependence of the magnon density of states. It appears that magnon modes with energies below about 40 K are most involved in the process, as was the case to the LSSE on YIG itself. Preliminary results using other antiferromagnets and other inverse spin-Hall layers look promising and will also be reported Work supported by ARO- MURI W911NF-14-1-0016.

  15. Model calculation of thermal conductivity in antiferromagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhail, I.F.I., E-mail: ifi_mikhail@hotmail.com; Ismail, I.M.M.; Ameen, M.

    2015-11-01

    A theoretical study is given of thermal conductivity in antiferromagnetic materials. The study has the advantage that the three-phonon interactions as well as the magnon phonon interactions have been represented by model operators that preserve the important properties of the exact collision operators. A new expression for thermal conductivity has been derived that involves the same terms obtained in our previous work in addition to two new terms. These two terms represent the conservation and quasi-conservation of wavevector that occur in the three-phonon Normal and Umklapp processes respectively. They gave appreciable contributions to the thermal conductivity and have led to an excellent quantitative agreement with the experimental measurements of the antiferromagnet FeCl{sub 2}. - Highlights: • The Boltzmann equations of phonons and magnons in antiferromagnets have been studied. • Model operators have been used to represent the magnon–phonon and three-phonon interactions. • The models possess the same important properties as the exact operators. • A new expression for the thermal conductivity has been derived. • The results showed a good quantitative agreement with the experimental data of FeCl{sub 2}.

  16. Organic ferroelectric/semiconducting nanowire hybrid layer for memory storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, R.; Kassa, H.G.; Haouari, R.; Marrani, A.; Geerts, Y.H.; Ruzié, C.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Gelinck, G.H.; Nysten, B.; Hu, Z.; Jonas, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials are important components of sensors, actuators and non-volatile memories. However, possible device configurations are limited due to the need to provide screening charges to ferroelectric interfaces to avoid depolarization. Here we show that, by alternating ferroelectric and

  17. Conductance switching in organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asadi, K.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2011-01-01

    Staggered bottom-contact top-gate organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors are fabricated with poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) as ferroelectric gate and poly[bis(4-phenyl)(2,4,6- trimethylphenyl)amine] as semiconductor. Polarization reversal of the ferroelectric gate

  18. Nanoscale phenomena in ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganpule, Chandan S.

    Ferroelectric materials are a subject of intense research as potential candidates for applications in non-volatile ferroelectric random access memories (FeRAM), piezoelectric actuators, infrared detectors, optical switches and as high dielectric constant materials for dynamic random access memories (DRAMs). With current trends in miniaturization, it becomes important that the fundamental aspects of scaling of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties in these devices be studied thoroughly and their impact on the device reliability assessed. In keeping with this spirit of miniaturization, the dissertation has two broad themes: (a) Scaling of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties and (b) The key reliability issue of retention loss. The thesis begins with a look at results on scaling studies of focused-ion-beam milled submicron ferroelectric capacitors using a variety of scanning probe characterization tools. The technique of piezoresponse microscopy, which is rapidly becoming an accepted form of domain imaging in ferroelectrics, has been used in this work for another very important application: providing reliable, repeatable and quantitative numbers for the electromechanical properties of submicron structures milled in ferroelectric films. This marriage of FIB and SPM based characterization of electromechanical and electrical properties has proven unbeatable in the last few years to characterize nanostructures qualitatively and quantitatively. The second half of this dissertation focuses on polarization relaxation in FeRAMs. In an attempt to understand the nanoscale origins of back-switching of ferroelectric domains, the time dependent relaxation of remnant polarization in epitaxial lead zirconate titanate (PbZr0.2Ti0.8O 3, PZT) ferroelectric thin films (used as a model system), containing a uniform 2-dimensional grid of 90° domains (c-axis in the plane of the film) has been examined using voltage modulated scanning force microscopy. A novel approach of

  19. Quantum spin dynamics at terahertz frequencies in 2D hole gases and improper ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Hughes, J.

    2015-08-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy permits the excitations of novel materials to be examined with exquisite precision. Improper ferroelectric materials such as cupric oxide (CuO) exhibit complex magnetic ground states. CuO is antiferromagnetic below 213K, but has an incommensurate cycloidal magnetic phase between 213K and 230K. Remarkably, the cycloidal magnetic phase drives ferroelectricity, where the material becomes polar. Such improper multiferroics are of great contemporary interest, as a better understanding of the science of magnetoelectric materials may lead to their application in actuators, sensors and solid state memories. Improper multiferroics also have novel quasiparticle excitations: electromagnons form when spin-waves become electric-dipole active. By examining the dynamic response of spins as they interact with THz radiation we gain insights into the underlying physics of multi-ferroics. In contrast to improper ferroelectrics, where magnetism drives structural inversion asymmetry (SIA), two-dimensional electronic systems can exhibit non-degenerate spin states as a consequence of SIA created by strain and/or electric fields. We identify and explore the influence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction upon cyclotron resonance at terahertz frequencies in high-mobility 2D hole gases in germanium quantum wells. An enhanced Rashba spin-orbit interaction can be linked to the strain of the quantum well, while a time-frequency decomposition method permitted the dynamical formation and decay of spin-split cyclotron resonances to be tracked on picosecond timescales. Long spin-decoherence times concurrent with high hole mobilities highlight the potential of Ge quantum wells in spintronics.

  20. Magnetic and ferroelectric orders in strained Gd{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}: First-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, P. X. [Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Science, Nantong University, Nantong 226007 (China); Dong, S., E-mail: sdong@seu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Xie, Y. L.; Yan, Z. B.; Zhou, X. H.; Liu, J.-M., E-mail: liujm@nju.edu.cn [Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-05-07

    The emergent magnetic and ferroelectric orders in A-site ordered Gd{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} under lattice strain are investigated using the first-principles calculations. It is revealed that the lattice prefers the perovskite structure with alternatively stacked Ga-O and Na-O layers along the b-axis and the ground spin state favors the G-type antiferromagnetic (G-AFM) order. The ac-plane biaxial strain can remarkably tune the amplitude of ferroelectric polarization, while the G-AFM spin structure is robustly unaffected. The ±4% strains can trigger the change of polarization up to ±50% relative to the polarization value of unstrained structure. The present work suggests a possible scenario to control emergent multiferroic behaviors in Gd{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} via lattice strain.

  1. Flexible graphene-PZT ferroelectric nonvolatile memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonho; Kahya, Orhan; Tat Toh, Chee; Özyilmaz, Barbaros; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2013-11-01

    We report the fabrication of a flexible graphene-based nonvolatile memory device using Pb(Zr0.35,Ti0.65)O3 (PZT) as the ferroelectric material. The graphene and PZT ferroelectric layers were deposited using chemical vapor deposition and sol-gel methods, respectively. Such PZT films show a high remnant polarization (Pr) of 30 μC cm-2 and a coercive voltage (Vc) of 3.5 V under a voltage loop over ±11 V. The graphene-PZT ferroelectric nonvolatile memory on a plastic substrate displayed an on/off current ratio of 6.7, a memory window of 6 V and reliable operation. In addition, the device showed one order of magnitude lower operation voltage range than organic-based ferroelectric nonvolatile memory after removing the anti-ferroelectric behavior incorporating an electrolyte solution. The devices showed robust operation in bent states of bending radii up to 9 mm and in cycling tests of 200 times. The devices exhibited remarkable mechanical properties and were readily integrated with plastic substrates for the production of flexible circuits.

  2. Ferroelectric HfO2-based materials for next-generation ferroelectric memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhen; Chen, Jingsheng; Wang, John

    2016-05-01

    Ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) based on conventional ferroelectric perovskites, such as Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and SrBi2Ta2O9, has encountered bottlenecks on memory density and cost, because those conventional perovskites suffer from various issues mainly including poor complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatibility and limited scalability. Next-generation cost-efficient, high-density FeRAM shall therefore rely on a material revolution. Since the discovery of ferroelectricity in Si:HfO2 thin films in 2011, HfO2-based materials have aroused widespread interest in the field of FeRAM, because they are CMOS-compatible and can exhibit robust ferroelectricity even when the film thickness is scaled down to below 10 nm. A review on this new class of ferroelectric materials is therefore of great interest. In this paper, the most appealing topics about ferroelectric HfO2-based materials including origins of ferroelectricity, advantageous material properties, and current and potential applications in FeRAM, are briefly reviewed.

  3. Electrical Characterisation of Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistors based on Ferroelectric HfO2 Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Yurchuk, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric field effect transistor (FeFET) memories based on a new type of ferroelectric material (silicon doped hafnium oxide) were studied within the scope of the present work. Utilisation of silicon doped hafnium oxide (Si:HfO2) thin films instead of conventional perovskite ferroelectrics as a functional layer in FeFETs provides compatibility to the CMOS process as well as improved device scalability. The influence of different process parameters on the properties of Si:HfO2 thin films ...

  4. Paraelectric-ferroelectric interface dynamics induced by latent heat transfer and irreversibility of ferroelectric phase transitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai Shu-Tao

    2006-01-01

    The temperature gradients that arise in the paraelectric-ferroelectric interface dynamics induced by the latent heat transfer are studied from the point of view that a ferroelectric phase transition is a stationary, thermal-electric coupled transport process. The local entropy production is derived for a ferroelectric phase transition system from the Gibbs equation. Three types of regions in the system are described well by using the Onsager relations and the principle of minimum entropy production. The theoretical results coincides with the experimental ones.

  5. Robust spin transfer torque in antiferromagnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed

    2017-04-18

    We theoretically study the current-induced spin torque in antiferromagnetic tunnel junctions, composed of two semi-infinite antiferromagnetic layers separated by a tunnel barrier, in both clean and disordered regimes. We find that the torque enabling electrical manipulation of the Néel antiferromagnetic order parameter is out of plane, ∼n×p, while the torque competing with the antiferromagnetic exchange is in plane, ∼n×(p×n). Here, p and n are the Néel order parameter direction of the reference and free layers, respectively. Their bias dependence shows behavior similar to that in ferromagnetic tunnel junctions, the in-plane torque being mostly linear in bias, while the out-of-plane torque is quadratic. Most importantly, we find that the spin transfer torque in antiferromagnetic tunnel junctions is much more robust against disorder than that in antiferromagnetic metallic spin valves due to the tunneling nature of spin transport.

  6. Physics of Ferroelectrics A Modern Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rabe, Karin M; Triscone, Jean-Marc

    2007-01-01

    During the past two decades, revolutionary breakthroughs have occurred in the understanding of ferroelectric materials, both from the perspective of theory and experiment. First principles approaches, including the Berry phase formulation of ferroelectricity, now allow accurate, quantitative predictions of material properties, and single crystalline thin films are now available for fundamental studies of these materials. In addition, the need for high dielectric constant insulators and nonvolatile memories in semiconductor applications has motivated a renaissance in the investigation of these materials. This book addresses the paradigmatic shifts in understanding brought about by these breakthroughs, including the consideration of novel fabrication methods of single crystalline ferroelectric thin films and nanoscale applications of these materials, and new theoretical methods such as the effective Hamiltonian approach and density functional theory. A book for practicing scientists as well as graduate students...

  7. Critical exponents for isosymmetric phase transitions in BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of BiFeO3 have revealed two first-order phase transitions that do not change symmetry (Pbnm-Pbnm at approx. 1200 K and Cc-Cc under uniaxial stress). Twenty years ago Ishibashi and Hidaka (1991 J. Phys. Soc. Japan 60 1634) showed that such systems generally exhibit a phase diagram with tricritical points and critical end points and gave the unusual mean-field critical exponents α = 2/3, β = 1/3 and γ = 2/3 at the end points. In the present paper I extend that to show δ = 3, ν = 1/3 and η = 0 and suggest some experimental tests.

  8. Domain wall magnetoresistance in BiFeO3 thin films measured by scanning probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, N.; Farokhipoor, S.; Santiso, J.; Noheda, B.; Catalan, G.

    2017-08-01

    We measure the magnetotransport properties of individual 71° domain walls in multiferroic BiFeO3 by means of conductive—atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) in the presence of magnetic fields up to one Tesla. The results suggest anisotropic magnetoresistance at room temperature, with the sign of the magnetoresistance depending on the relative orientation between the magnetic field and the domain wall plane. A consequence of this finding is that macroscopically averaged magnetoresistance measurements for domain wall bunches are likely to underestimate the magnetoresistance of each individual domain wall.

  9. Dynamic magnetic hysteresis and nonlinear susceptibility of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmykov, Yuri P.; Ouari, Bachir; Titov, Serguey V.

    2016-08-01

    The nonlinear ac stationary response of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles subjected to both external ac and dc fields of arbitrary strength and orientation is investigated using Brown's continuous diffusion model. The nonlinear complex susceptibility and dynamic magnetic hysteresis (DMH) loops of an individual antiferromagnetic nanoparticle are evaluated and compared with the linear regime for extensive ranges of the anisotropy, the ac and dc magnetic fields, damping, and the specific antiferromagnetic parameter. It is shown that the shape and area of the DMH loops of antiferromagnetic particles are substantially altered by applying a dc field that permits tuning of the specific magnetic power loss in the nanoparticles.

  10. Dynamics of antiferromagnetic skyrmion driven by the spin Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chendong; Song, Chengkun; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic skyrmion moved by the spin-Hall effect is promising for the application of the generation racetrack memories. However, the Magnus force causes a deflected motion of skyrmion, which limits its application. Here, we create an antiferromagnetic skyrmion by injecting a spin-polarized pulse in the nanostripe and investigate the spin Hall effect-induced motion of antiferromagnetic skyrmion by micromagnetic simulations. In contrast to ferromagnetic skyrmion, we find that the antiferromagnetic skyrmion has three evident advantages: (i) the minimum driving current density of antiferromagnetic skyrmion is about two orders smaller than the ferromagnetic skyrmion; (ii) the velocity of the antiferromagnetic skyrmion is about 57 times larger than the ferromagnetic skyrmion driven by the same value of current density; (iii) antiferromagnetic skyrmion can be driven by the spin Hall effect without the influence of Magnus force. In addition, antiferromagnetic skyrmion can move around the pinning sites due to its property of topological protection. Our results present the understanding of antiferromagnetic skyrmion motion driven by the spin Hall effect and may also contribute to the development of antiferromagnetic skyrmion-based racetrack memories.

  11. Ferroelectricity in yttrium-doped hafnium oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, J.; Schröder, U; Böscke, T. S.; Müller, I.; U. Böttger; De Wilde, L; Sundqvist, J.; Lemberger, M.; Kücher, P.; Mikolajick, T; Frey, Lothar

    2012-01-01

    Structural and electrical evidence for a ferroelectric phase in yttrium doped hafnium oxide thin films is presented. A doping series ranging from 2.3 to 12.3 mol% YO1.5 in HfO2 was deposited by a thermal atomic layer deposition process. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction of the 10 nm thick films revealed an orthorhombic phase close to the stability region of the cubic phase. The potential ferroelectricity of this orthorhombic phase was confirmed by polarization hysteresis measurements on tit...

  12. Composition driven structural instability in perovskite ferroelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Xu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ferroelectric solid solutions usually exhibit enhanced functional properties at the morphotropic phase boundary separating two ferroelectric phases with different orientations of polarization. The underlying mechanism is generally associated with polarization rotational instability and the flattened free energy profile. In this work we show that the polarization extensional instability can also be induced at the morphotropic phase boundary beyond the reported polar-nonpolar phase boundary. The piezoelectricity enhanced by this mechanism exhibits excellent thermal stability, which helps to develop high performance piezoelectric materials with good temperature stability.

  13. Switching Characteristics of Ferroelectric Transistor Inverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Crystal; Mitchell, Coey; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the switching characteristics of an inverter circuit using a ferroelectric field effect transistor, FeFET. The propagation delay time characteristics, phl and plh are presented along with the output voltage rise and fall times, rise and fall. The propagation delay is the time-delay between the V50% transitions of the input and output voltages. The rise and fall times are the times required for the output voltages to transition between the voltage levels V10% and V90%. Comparisons are made between the MOSFET inverter and the ferroelectric transistor inverter.

  14. Energy Method of Finding Distribution Constants of an Antiferromagnetic Vector for an Antidot System in a Two-sublattice Antiferromagnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Kulish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the antiferromagnetic vector distribution in an antiferromagnetic film with a system of antidots. A static distribution of the antiferromagnetic vector is written and a method – based on the minimization of the antiferromagnet energy – that allows reducing the number of boundary conditions required for finding the constants of this distribution is proposed. Equations for the distribution constants are obtained for the both cases of minimizing the antiferromagnet energy by one and by two distribution constants that enter the expression for the antiferromagnet energy. The method is illustrated on a system of one isolated antidot. For such system, one additional condition – for the case when two boundary conditions on the surface of the antidot are given – and two additional conditions – for the case when one boundary condition on the surface of the antidot is given – on the distribution constants are written.

  15. Static ferroelectric memory transistor having improved data retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Jr., Joseph T. (13609 Verbena Pl., N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Warren, William L. (7716 Wm. Moyers Ave., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Tuttle, Bruce A. (12808 Lillian Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112)

    1996-01-01

    An improved ferroelectric FET structure in which the ferroelectric layer is doped to reduce retention loss. A ferroelectric FET according to the present invention includes a semiconductor layer having first and second contacts thereon, the first and second contacts being separated from one another. The ferroelectric FET also includes a bottom electrode and a ferroelectric layer which is sandwiched between the semiconductor layer and the bottom electrode. The ferroelectric layer is constructed from a perovskite structure of the chemical composition ABO.sub.3 wherein the B site comprises first and second elements and a dopant element that has an oxidation state greater than +4 in sufficient concentration to impede shifts in the resistance measured between the first and second contacts with time. The ferroelectric FET structure preferably comprises Pb in the A-site. The first and second elements are preferably Zr and Ti, respectively. The preferred B-site dopants are Niobium, Tantalum, and Tungsten at concentrations between 1% and 8%.

  16. Effect of Gd doping on structural, electrical and magnetic properties of BiFeO 3 electroceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S. K.; Roul, B. K.

    2011-10-01

    Room temperature multiferroic electroceramics of Gd doped BiFeO 3 monophasic materials have been synthesized adopting a slow step sintering schedule. Incorporation of Gd nucleates the development of orthorhombic grain growth habit without the appearance of any significant impurity phases with respect to original rhombohedral ( R 3 c ) phase of un-doped BiFeO 3 . It is observed that, the materials showed room temperature enhanced electric polarization as well as ferromagnetism when rare earth ions like Gd doping is critically optimized ( x =0.15) in the composition formula of Bi 1+2 x Gd 2 x /2 Fe 1-2 x O 3 . We believe that magnetic moment of Gd +3 ions in Gd doped BiFeO 3 tends to align in the same direction with respect to ferromagnetic component associated with the iron sub lattice. The dielectric constant as well as loss factor shows strong dispersion at lower frequencies and the value of leakage current is greatly suppressed with the increase in concentration of x in the above composition. Addition of excess bismuth and Gd ( x =0.1 and 0.15) caused structural transformation as well as compensated bismuth loss during high temperature sintering. Doping of Gd in BiFeO 3 also suppresses spiral spin modulation structure, which can change Fe-O-Fe bond angle or spin order resulting in enhanced ferromagnetic property.

  17. Switching of antiferromagnetic chains with magnetic pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Kun; Polyakov, Oleg P.; Stepanyuk, Valeri S.

    2016-04-01

    Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the possibility of information storage in short antiferromagnetic chains on an insulator substrate [S. Loth et al., Science 335, 196 (2012), 10.1126/science.1214131]. Here, using the density functional theory and atomistic spin dynamics simulations, we show that a local magnetic control of such chains with a magnetic tip and magnetic pulses can be used for fast switching of their magnetization. Furthermore, by changing the position of the tip one can engineer the magnetization dynamics of the chains.

  18. Classical and quantum anisotropic Heisenberg antiferromagnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Selke

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study classical and quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnets with exchange anisotropy of XXZ-type and crystal field single-ion terms of quadratic and quartic form in a field. The magnets display a variety of phases, including the spin-flop (or, in the quantum case, spin-liquid and biconical (corresponding, in the quantum lattice gas description, to supersolid phases. Applying ground-state considerations, Monte Carlo and density matrix renormalization group methods, the impact of quantum effects and lattice dimension is analysed. Interesting critical and multicritical behaviour may occur at quantum and thermal phase transitions.

  19. Frustrated 3×3 Heisenberg antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustanis, P. N.

    2016-08-01

    The full energy spectrum and the exact thermodynamic results of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Hamiltonian of the 3×3 triangular and the frustrated square lattice with periodic boundary conditions and s=1/2 are obtained. To this end the method of hierarchy of algebras is employed. It was found that the ground state of the 3×3 frustrated square lattice is a Resonating Valence Bond (RVB) state. Thermodynamic properties, like the specific heat, magnetic susceptibility, the thermal average of the square of the total Sz and entropy, for these two lattices are presented.

  20. Antiferromagnetic noise correlations in optical lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Niels Bohr International Academy, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark, Georg Morten; Syljuåsen, F. T.; Pedersen, K. G. L.;

    2009-01-01

    We analyze how noise correlations probed by time-of-flight experiments reveal antiferromagnetic (AF) correlations of fermionic atoms in two-dimensional and three-dimensional optical lattices. Combining analytical and quantum Monte Carlo calculations using experimentally realistic parameters, we...... show that AF correlations can be detected for temperatures above and below the critical temperature for AF ordering. It is demonstrated that spin-resolved noise correlations yield important information about the spin ordering. Finally, we show how to extract the spin correlation length and the related...

  1. High-Tc spin superfluidity in antiferromagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkov, Yu M; Alakshin, E M; Gazizulin, R R; Klochkov, A V; Kuzmin, V V; L'vov, V S; Tagirov, M S

    2012-04-27

    We report the observation of the unusual behavior of induction decay signals in antiferromagnetic monocrystals with Suhl-Nakamura interactions. The signals show the formation of the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of magnons and the existence of spin supercurrent, in complete analogy with the spin superfluidity in the superfluid (3)He and the atomic BEC of quantum gases. In the experiments described here, the temperature of the magnon BEC is a thousand times larger than in the superfluid (3)He. It opens a possibility to apply the spin supercurrent for various magnetic spintronics applications.

  2. Lattice distortion in disordered antiferromagnetic XY models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Peng-Fei; Cao Hai-Jing

    2012-01-01

    The behavior of lattice distortion in spin 1/2 antiferromagnetic XY models with random magnetic modulation is investigated with the consideration of spin-phonon coupling in the adiabatic limit.It is found that lattice distortion relies on the strength of the random modulation.For strong or weak enough spin-phonon couplings,the average lattice distortion may decrease or increase as the random modulation is strengthened.This may be the result of competition between the random magnetic modulation and the spin-phonon coupling.

  3. Enhanced electrical properties in Ce3+ and V5+ co-doped multiferroic BiFeO3 films%Ce、V共掺杂BiFeO3多铁薄膜及其电性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁娜; 刘军; 刘文秋; 李美亚; 赵兴中

    2011-01-01

    Pure, Ce3+ and V5+ co-doped multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films, BiFeO3 (BFO) and Bi0.97 Ce0.03 Fe1-x Vx O3 (x = 0,0.01,0.02,0.03) (BCFVχ), were successfully prepared on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by sol-gel technique.The structures and the surface morphologies measurements revealed a gradual phase transition from a rhombohedral to a pseudotetragonal structure and decreased grain sizes in the Ce and V co-doped BFO films. The dielectric property and leakage current density measurements indicated a large increase in the dielectric constanct and greatly decreases in the dielectric loss and the leakage current density in the Ce and V co-doped BFO films. Improved ferroelectric properties were obtained in the BCFVx films of x=0. 01 with a well squared-shaped P-E hysteresis loop.%采用sol-gel法在Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si衬底上成功制备出纯BiFeO3(BFO)和Ce、V共掺杂Bi0.97 Ce0.03Fe1-x VxO3 (x=0,0.01,0.02,0.03)(BCFVx)薄膜.结构和形貌测试表明,Ce、V共掺杂使得BFO薄膜发生从菱方结构到伪四方结构的转变,且薄膜晶粒变小.介电性能和漏电流测试表明,Ce、V共掺杂BFO薄膜的介电常数增大,介电损耗和漏电流密度减小.铁电性能测试表明在x=0.01时,BCFV0.01薄膜具有较好矩形度的电滞回线,表现出较好的铁电性能.

  4. The interface between ferroelectric and 2D material for a Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nahee; Kang, Haeyong; Lee, Sang-Goo; Lee, Young Hee; Suh, Dongseok

    We have studied electrical property of ferroelectric field-effect transistor which consists of graphene on hexagonal Boron-Nitride (h-BN) gated by a ferroelectric, PMN-PT (i.e. (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3) O3-xPbTiO3) single-crystal substrate. The PMN-PT was expected to have an effect on polarization field into the graphene channel and to induce a giant amount of surface charge. The hexagonal Boron-Nitride (h-BN) flake was directly exfoliated on the PMN-PT substrate for preventing graphene from directly contacting on the PMN-PT substrate. It can make us to observe the effect of the interface between ferroelectric and 2D material on the device operation. Monolayer graphene as 2D channel material, which was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, was transferred on top of the hexagonal Boron-Nitride (h-BN) by using the conventional dry-transfer method. Here, we can demonstrate that the structure of graphene/hexagonal-BN/ferroelectric field-effect transistor makes us to clearly understand the device operation as well as the interface between ferroelectric and 2D materials by inserting h-BN between them. The phenomena such as anti-hysteresis, current saturation behavior, and hump-like increase of channel current, will be discussed by in terms of ferroelectric switching, polarization-assisted charge trapping.

  5. Ferroelectric Single-Crystal Gated Graphene/Hexagonal-BN/Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nahee; Kang, Haeyong; Park, Jeongmin; Lee, Yourack; Yun, Yoojoo; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Sang-Goo; Lee, Young Hee; Suh, Dongseok

    2015-11-24

    The effect of a ferroelectric polarization field on the charge transport in a two-dimensional (2D) material was examined using a graphene monolayer on a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) field-effect transistor (FET) fabricated using a ferroelectric single-crystal substrate, (1-x)[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]-x[PbTiO3] (PMN-PT). In this configuration, the intrinsic properties of graphene were preserved with the use of an hBN flake, and the influence of the polarization field from PMN-PT could be distinguished. During a wide-range gate-voltage (VG) sweep, a sharp inversion of the spontaneous polarization affected the graphene channel conductance asymmetrically as well as an antihysteretic behavior. Additionally, a transition from antihysteresis to normal ferroelectric hysteresis occurred, depending on the V(G) sweep range relative to the ferroelectric coercive field. We developed a model to interpret the complex coupling among antihysteresis, current saturation, and sudden conductance variation in relation with the ferroelectric switching and the polarization-assisted charge trapping, which can be generalized to explain the combination of 2D structured materials with ferroelectrics.

  6. Organic ferroelectric opto-electronic memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asadi, K.; Li, M.; Blom, P.W.M.; Kemerink, M.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2011-01-01

    Memory is a prerequisite for many electronic devices. Organic non-volatile memory devices based on ferroelectricity are a promising approach towards the development of a low-cost memory technology based on a simple cross-bar array. In this review article we discuss the latest developments in this ar

  7. Organic nonvolatile memory devices based on ferroelectricity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, R.C.G.; Asadi, K.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de; Boer, B. de

    2010-01-01

    A memory functionality is a prerequisite for many applications of electronic devices. Organic nonvolatile memory devices based on ferroelectricity are a promising approach toward the development of a low-cost memory technology. In this Review Article we discuss the latest developments in this area w

  8. Polarization Fatigue in Ferroelectric Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忆; K.H.WONG; 吴文彬

    2002-01-01

    The fatigue problem in ferroelectric thin films is investigated based on the switched charge per unit area versus switching cycles. The temperature, dielectric permittivity, voltage bias, frequency and defect valence dependent switching polarization properties are calculated quantitatively with an extended Dawber-Scott model. The results are in agreement with the recent experiments.

  9. Organic Nonvolatile Memory Devices Based on Ferroelectricity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, Ronald C. G.; Asadi, Kamal; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.; de Boer, Bert

    2010-01-01

    A memory functionality is a prerequisite for many applications of electronic devices. Organic nonvolatile memory devices based on ferroelectricity are a promising approach toward the development of a low-cost memory technology. In this Review Article we discuss the latest developments in this area w

  10. Ferroelectrics under the Synchrotron Light: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Fuentes-Cobas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, an intensive search for high-performance lead-free ferroelectric materials is taking place. ABO3 perovskites (A = Ba, Bi, Ca, K and Na; B = Fe, Nb, Ti, and Zr appear as promising candidates. Understanding the structure–function relationship is mandatory, and, in this field, the roles of long- and short-range crystal orders and interactions are decisive. In this review, recent advances in the global and local characterization of ferroelectric materials by synchrotron light diffraction, scattering and absorption are analyzed. Single- and poly-crystal synchrotron diffraction studies allow high-resolution investigations regarding the long-range average position of ions and subtle global symmetry break-downs. Ferroelectric materials, under the action of electric fields, undergo crystal symmetry, crystallite/domain orientation distribution and strain condition transformations. Methodological aspects of monitoring these processes are discussed. Two-dimensional diffraction clarify larger scale ordering: polycrystal texture is measured from the intensities distribution along the Debye rings. Local order is investigated by diffuse scattering (DS and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS experiments. DS provides information about thermal, chemical and displacive low-dimensional disorders. XAFS investigation of ferroelectrics reveals local B-cation off-centering and oxidation state. This technique has the advantage of being element-selective. Representative reports of the mentioned studies are described.

  11. Highly-Ordered Ferroelectric Photonic Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naomi Matsuura; Suxia Yang; Ping Sun; Harry E. Ruda

    2003-01-01

    Highly-ordered, ferroelectric, Pb-doped Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3, inverse opal thin films were fabricated using a sol-gel spin coating technique. The excellent crystal quality is evident from the SEM images and the good agreement between the theory and experiments.

  12. Photovoltaics with Ferroelectrics: Current Status and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Charles; Bai, Xiaofei; Infante, Ingrid C; Guennou, Maël; Geneste, Grégory; Alexe, Marin; Kreisel, Jens; Dkhil, Brahim

    2016-07-01

    Ferroelectrics carry a switchable spontaneous electric polarization. This polarization is usually coupled to strain, making ferroelectrics good piezoelectrics. When coupled to magnetism, they become so-called multiferroic systems, a field that has been widely investigated since 2003. While ferroelectrics are birefringent and non-linear optically transparent materials, the coupling of polarization with optical properties has received, since 2009, renewed attention, triggered notably by low-bandgap ferroelectrics suitable for sunlight spectrum absorption and original photovoltaic effects. Consequently, power conversion efficiencies up to 8.1% were recently achieved and values of 19.5% were predicted, making photoferroelectrics promising photovoltaic alternatives. This article aims at providing an up-to-date review on this emerging and rapidly progressing field by highlighting several important issues and parameters, such as the role of domain walls, ways to tune the bandgap, consequences arising from the polarization switchability, and the role of defects and contact electrodes, as well as the downscaling effects. Beyond photovoltaicity, other polarization-related processes are also described, like light-induced deformation (photostriction) or light-assisted chemical reaction (photostriction). It is hoped that this overview will encourage further avenues to be explored and challenged and, as a byproduct, will inspire other research communities in material science, e.g., so-called hybrid halide perovskites.

  13. Electrical characterization of thin film ferroelectric capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelman, M.P.J.; Reimann, K.; Klee, M.; Beelen, D.; Keur, W.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2006-01-01

    Tunable capacitors can be used to facilitate the reduction of components in wireless technologies. The tunability of the capacitors is caused by the sensitivity of the relative dielectric constant to a change in polarization with electric field. Thin film ferroelectric MIM capacitors on silicon

  14. Intrinsic ferroelectric switching from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-06-01

    The existence of domain walls, which separate regions of different polarization, can influence the dielectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric and electronic properties of ferroelectric materials. In particular, domain-wall motion is crucial for polarization switching, which is characterized by the hysteresis loop that is a signature feature of ferroelectric materials. Experimentally, the observed dynamics of polarization switching and domain-wall motion are usually explained as the behaviour of an elastic interface pinned by a random potential that is generated by defects, which appear to be strongly sample-dependent and affected by various elastic, microstructural and other extrinsic effects. Theoretically, connecting the zero-kelvin, first-principles-based, microscopic quantities of a sample with finite-temperature, macroscopic properties such as the coercive field is critical for material design and device performance; and the lack of such a connection has prevented the use of techniques based on ab initio calculations for high-throughput computational materials discovery. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations of 90° domain walls (separating domains with orthogonal polarization directions) in the ferroelectric material PbTiO3 to provide microscopic insights that enable the construction of a simple, universal, nucleation-and-growth-based analytical model that quantifies the dynamics of many types of domain walls in various ferroelectrics. We then predict the temperature and frequency dependence of hysteresis loops and coercive fields at finite temperatures from first principles. We find that, even in the absence of defects, the intrinsic temperature and field dependence of the domain-wall velocity can be described with a nonlinear creep-like region and a depinning-like region. Our model enables quantitative estimation of coercive fields, which agree well with experimental results for ceramics and thin films. This agreement between model and experiment suggests

  15. Antiferromagnetic phase diagram of the cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, L. H. C. M.; Teixeira, A. W.; Marino, E. C.

    2017-02-01

    Taking the spin-fermion model as the starting point for describing the cuprate superconductors, we obtain an effective nonlinear sigma-field hamiltonian, which takes into account the effect of doping in the system. We obtain an expression for the spin-wave velocity as a function of the chemical potential. For appropriate values of the parameters we determine the antiferromagnetic phase diagram for the YBa2Cu3O6+x compound as a function of the dopant concentration in good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, our approach provides a unified description for the phase diagrams of the hole-doped and the electron doped compounds, which is consistent with the remarkable similarity between the phase diagrams of these compounds, since we have obtained the suppression of the antiferromagnetic phase as the modulus of the chemical potential increases. The aforementioned result then follows by considering positive values of the chemical potential related to the addition of holes to the system, while negative values correspond to the addition of electrons.

  16. Topological gapless phases in nonsymmorphic antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezicki, Wojciech; Cuoco, Mario

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the nature of the electronic states in a variety of nonsymmorphic collinear antiferromagnets with glide reflection symmetry, a combination of mirror and half-lattice translation. In particular, the study refers to a class of systems with two-band itinerant electrons that are spin-orbit coupled and interacting with a magnetic background having a zigzag pattern. We describe the symmetry properties of the model system by focusing on the role of nonsymmorphic transformations arising from the antiferromagnetic structure of the spin ordering. Gapless phases with Dirac points having different types of symmetry-protection as well as electronic structures with triple and quadruple band-crossing points are obtained. A glide semimetal is shown to be converted into a gapless phase with Dirac points protected by inversion and time-inversion symmetry combination. Interestingly, we find a relation between the states in the glide sectors that provides a general mechanism to get multiple band touching points. The split of the multiple Fermi points drives the transition from a point node to a line node semimetal or to a metal with nontrivial winding around the Fermi pockets and an electronic structure that is tied to the presence of glide symmetric Dirac points. Besides a new perspective of ordered states in complex materials, our findings indicate relevant paths to topological gapless phases and edge states in a wide class of magnetic systems.

  17. Charge Stripes and Antiferromagnetism in Copper-Oxide Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranquada, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    Superconducting cuprate compounds are obtained by doping holes into antiferromagnetic insulators. Neutron scattering studies have provided evidence that the doped holes tend to segregate into charge stripes, which act like domain walls between antiferromagnetic regions. The interaction between the spatially segregated holes and the magnetic domains may be responsible for the strong pairing interaction found in the cuprates.

  18. Manganese incorporation into ferroelectric lead titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupin, Stanislav

    Substitution with 3d magnetic transition elements in ABO 3 ferroelectric perovskite host media is widely utilized to produce relaxor ferroelectrics. Many resulting solid solutions exhibit magnetoelectric properties affected by concentration levels of the introduced magnetic ions. For conventional material preparation techniques such as firing of mechanically mixed oxides, incorporation is often limited by 5 mol% concentration level. Doping at higher concentrations requires introduction of other substituents to compensate charge within the unit cell to promote formation of the perovskite phase. In contrast, molecular mixing of precursor materials at the initial phase of preparation procedure offers an advantage of achieving higher incorporation levels of the 3d elements without additional charge-compensating ions. Presented in this thesis is a new sol-gel procedure utilized for high level incorporation of 3d magnetic ions into ferroelectric lead titanate. The technique was applied to produce PbTi1-xMnxO 3 solid solution, a perovskite system promising for high degree of magnetoelectric coupling. Concentration dependent studies were performed to characterize structural, thermal, ferroelectric and magnetic properties of the material. The solubility limit of Mn has been found to be 20 mol% and the material remains tetragonally distorted. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy confirms that local structural environment of Mn, Ti, and Pb is consistent with tetragonal symmetry of the unit cell. Increase in Mn concentration leads to reduction in melting point, broadening of the ferroelectric transition, reduction of the transition temperature and increase in dielectric constant of the material. At the solubility limit the system was found to be ferromagnetic below 50 K.

  19. Nonlinear constitutive behavior of ferroelectric materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The ferroelectric specimen is considered as an aggregation of many randomly oriented domains. According to this mechanism,a multi-domain mechanical model is developed in this paper. Each domain is represented by one element. The applied stress and electric field are taken to be the stress and electric field in the formula of the driving force of domain switching for each element in the specimen. It means that the macroscopic switching criterion is used for calculating the volume fraction of domain switching for each element. By using the hardening relation between the driving force of domain switching and the volume fraction of domain switching calibrated,the volume fraction of domain switching for each element is calculated. Substituting the stress and electric field and the volume fraction of domain switching into the constitutive equation of ferroelectric material,one can easily get the strain and electric displacement for each element. The macroscopic behavior of the ferroelectric specimen is then directly calculated by volume averaging. Mean-while,the nonlinear finite element analysis for the ferroelectric specimen is carried out. In the finite element simulation,the volume fraction of domain switching for each element is calculated by using the same method mentioned above. The in-teraction between different elements is taken into account in the finite element simulation and the local stress and electric field for each element is obtained. The macroscopic behavior of the specimen is then calculated by volume averaging. The computation results involve the electric butterfly shaped curves of axial strain versus the axial electric field and the hysteresis loops of electric displacement versus the electric field for ferroelectric specimens under the uniaxial coupled stress and electric field loading. The present theoretical prediction agrees reasonably with the experimental results.

  20. Interaction of Terahertz Radiation with Ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Keith

    2007-03-01

    Ferroelectric crystals have long been used as acoustic transducers and receivers. An extensive toolset has been developed for MHz-frequency acoustic wave generation, control, guidance, and readout. In recent years, an analogous toolset has been developed for terahertz wave transduction and detection. Femtosecond optical pulses irradiate ferroelectric crystals to generate responses in the 0.1-5 THz frequency range that are admixtures of electromagnetic and polar lattice vibrational excitations called phonon-polaritons. Spatiotemporal femtosecond pulse shaping may be used to generate additional optical pulses that arrive at specified times and sample locations for control and manipulation of the THz waves. Femtosecond laser machining may be used for fabrication of waveguides, resonators, and other structures that are integrated into the ferroelectric host crystal. Finally, real-space imaging of the THz fields can be executed with variably delayed femtosecond probe pulses, permitting direct visualization of THz wave spatial and temporal evolution. This ``polaritonics'' toolset enables multiplexed generation of arbitrary THz waveforms and use of the waveforms within the ferroelectric host crystal or after projection into free space or an adjacent medium. The polaritonics platform will be reviewed and several new developments and applications will be presented. These include spectroscopy of relaxor ferroelectrics, whose temperature-dependent dielectric responses in the GHz-THz regime reveal complex polarization dynamics on well separated fast and slow time scales; direct measurement of phonon-polariton lattice vibrational displacements through femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction; generation of high polariton field amplitudes and pulse energies; use of large-amplitude polariton waves to drive nonlinear lattice vibrational responses; and enhancement of optical-to-THz conversion efficiency through a pseudo-phase-matching approach that circumvents the very large

  1. Band-gap tuning and magnetic properties of heterovalent ions (Ba, Sr and Ca) substituted BiFeO3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Sunil; Kumar, Manoj; Katyal, S. C.

    2016-05-01

    A Comparative study of heterovalent Ba, Sr and Ca ions substitution on the structural, vibrational, optical and magnetic properties of BiFeO3 nanoparticles was carried out. The distorted rhombohedral structure was confirmed from both X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy techniques in pure BiFeO3 and Bi0.85A0.15FeO3 (A= Ba, Sr and Ca) samples. UV-Visible spectroscopy results show that the band-gap of BiFeO3 nanoparticles can be tuned by heterovalent ions substitution from 2.12 eV for BiFeO3 to 2.10, 2.06 and 2.03 eV for Ca, Sr and Ba substituted BiFeO3 nanoparticles respectively. The magnetic measurements indicate enhancement in magnetization for heterovalent A2+ substituted BiFeO3 samples and the magnetization increases with increase of ionic radius of the substituted ions.

  2. Tailoring exchange couplings in magnetic topological-insulator/antiferromagnet heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing Lin; Kou, Xufeng; Grutter, Alexander J.; Yin, Gen; Pan, Lei; Che, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yuxiang; Nie, Tianxiao; Zhang, Bin; Disseler, Steven M.; Kirby, Brian J.; Ratcliff, William, II; Shao, Qiming; Murata, Koichi; Zhu, Xiaodan; Yu, Guoqiang; Fan, Yabin; Montazeri, Mohammad; Han, Xiaodong; Borchers, Julie A.; Wang, Kang L.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic topological insulators such as Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 provide a platform for the realization of versatile time-reversal symmetry-breaking physics. By constructing heterostructures exhibiting Néel order in an antiferromagnetic CrSb and ferromagnetic order in Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3, we realize emergent interfacial magnetic phenomena which can be tailored through artificial structural engineering. Through deliberate geometrical design of heterostructures and superlattices, we demonstrate the use of antiferromagnetic exchange coupling in manipulating the magnetic properties of magnetic topological insulators. Proximity effects are shown to induce an interfacial spin texture modulation and establish an effective long-range exchange coupling mediated by antiferromagnetism, which significantly enhances the magnetic ordering temperature in the superlattice. This work provides a new framework on integrating topological insulators with antiferromagnetic materials and unveils new avenues towards dissipationless topological antiferromagnetic spintronics.

  3. Superconductivity, Antiferromagnetism, and Kinetic Correlation in Strongly Correlated Electron Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yanagisawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the ground state of two-dimensional Hubbard model on the basis of the variational Monte Carlo method. We use wave functions that include kinetic correlation and doublon-holon correlation beyond the Gutzwiller ansatz. It is still not clear whether the Hubbard model accounts for high-temperature superconductivity. The antiferromagnetic correlation plays a key role in the study of pairing mechanism because the superconductive phase exists usually close to the antiferromagnetic phase. We investigate the stability of the antiferromagnetic state when holes are doped as a function of the Coulomb repulsion U. We show that the antiferromagnetic correlation is suppressed as U is increased exceeding the bandwidth. High-temperature superconductivity is possible in this region with enhanced antiferromagnetic spin fluctuation and pairing interaction.

  4. Antiferromagnetic Resonance in Multiferroic YMnO3 and LuMnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvyagin, Sergei

    2009-03-01

    Multiferroic rare-earth manganites have attracted much attention because of the coexistence of ferroelectric and magnetic orders. Combining conventional far-infrared Fourier-transform and THz-range free electron laser electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy techniques, magnetic excitations in hexagonal multiferroic YMnO3 and LuMnO3 in the antiferromagnetically (AFM) ordered phase have been studied. The gap in the excitation spectrum (˜42 and ˜48 cm-1 for YMnO3 and LuMnO3, respectively) was observed directly. Similar slope of the frequency-field dependences of AFM resonance modes, ˜ 0.5 cm-1/T, was revealed for both compounds. A fine structure of AFM resonance absorption has been revealed by means of high-resolution ESR techniques, which can be explained taking into account a finite interaction between the neighboring Mn^3+ layers. The work was done in collaboration with M. Ozerov, D. Kamensky, E. Cizm'ar, J. Wosnitza, A.K. Kolezhuk, D. Smirnov, H.D. Zhou, and C.R. Wiebe.

  5. Investigation on structural, Mössbauer and ferroelectric properties of (1-x)PbFe0.5Nb0.5O3-(x)BiFeO3 solid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadami, Sunanda T.; Matteppanavar, Shidaling; Shivaraja, I.; Rayaprol, Sudhindra; Angadi, Basavaraj; Sahoo, Balaram

    2016-11-01

    In this study, (1-x)PbFe0.5Nb0.5O3(PFN)-(x)BiFeO3(BFO) multiferroic solid solutions with x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 were synthesized through single step solid state reaction method and characterized thoroughly through X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR), Raman, Mössbauer spectroscopy and ferroelectric studies. The room temperature (RT) XRD studies confirmed the formation of single phase with negligible amount of secondary phases (x=0.2 and 0.4). The zoomed XRD patterns of (1-x)PFN-(x)BFO solid solutions showed the clear structural phase transition from monoclinic (Cm) to rhombohedral (R3c) at x=0.4. The Raman spectra of the (1-x)PFN-(x)BFO solid solutions showed the composition dependent phase transition from monoclinic (Cm) to rhombohedral (R3c). With increasing x in PFN, the modes related monoclinic symmetry changes to those of rhombohedral symmetry. The RT Mössbauer spectroscopy results evidenced the existence of composition dependent phase transition from paramagnetic to weak antiferromagnetic ordering and weak antiferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic ordering. The Mössbauer spectroscopy showed paramagnetic behavior with a doublet for x=0.0, 0.1 and 0.2 are shows the weak antiferromagnetic with paramagnetic ordering. For x=0.3 and 0.4 shows the sextet pattern and it is a clear evidence of antiferromagnetism. The ferroelectric (P-E) loops at RT indicate the presence of small polarization, as the x concentration increases in PFN, the remnant polarization and coercive field were decreased, which may due to the increase in the conductivity and leaky behavior of the samples.

  6. Study of ferroelectric characteristics of diisopropylammonium bromide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirmal, C.; Biswas, P. P.; Shin, Y. J.; Noh, T. W.; Giridharan, N. V.; Venimadhav, A.; Murugavel, P.

    2016-09-01

    Organic molecular ferroelectrics are highly desirable due to their numerous advantages. In the present work, a thick film of diisopropylammonium bromide organic molecular ferroelectric is fabricated on the ITO/glass substrate. The grown film shows preferential orientation along the c-axis with a ferroelectric transition at 419 K. The piezoresponse force microscopic measurements are done in a dual ac resonance tracking mode for its switching characteristics. The amplitude and phase images of the oppositely written domain patterns exhibit a clear contrast with 180° phase difference. The dynamical spectroscopic studies reveal a butterfly loop in amplitude and hysteretic character of the phase which are the expected characteristics features of ferroelectrics. In addition, the macroscopic polarization versus electric field hysteresis gives an additional proof for ferroelectric character of the film with the maximum polarization of 3.5 μC/cm2. Overall, we have successfully fabricated diisopropylammonium bromide organic films and demonstrated its room temperature ferroelectric characteristics.

  7. Organic ferroelectric/semiconducting nanowire hybrid layer for memory storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ronggang; Kassa, Hailu G.; Haouari, Rachid; Marrani, Alessio; Geerts, Yves H.; Ruzié, Christian; van Breemen, Albert J. J. M.; Gelinck, Gerwin H.; Nysten, Bernard; Hu, Zhijun; Jonas, Alain M.

    2016-03-01

    Ferroelectric materials are important components of sensors, actuators and non-volatile memories. However, possible device configurations are limited due to the need to provide screening charges to ferroelectric interfaces to avoid depolarization. Here we show that, by alternating ferroelectric and semiconducting nanowires over an insulating substrate, the ferroelectric dipole moment can be stabilized by injected free charge carriers accumulating laterally in the neighboring semiconducting nanowires. This lateral electrostatic coupling between ferroelectric and semiconducting nanowires offers new opportunities to design new device architectures. As an example, we demonstrate the fabrication of an elementary non-volatile memory device in a transistor-like configuration, of which the source-drain current exhibits a typical hysteretic behavior with respect to the poling voltage. The potential for size reduction intrinsic to the nanostructured hybrid layer offers opportunities for the development of strongly miniaturized ferroelectric and piezoelectric devices.Ferroelectric materials are important components of sensors, actuators and non-volatile memories. However, possible device configurations are limited due to the need to provide screening charges to ferroelectric interfaces to avoid depolarization. Here we show that, by alternating ferroelectric and semiconducting nanowires over an insulating substrate, the ferroelectric dipole moment can be stabilized by injected free charge carriers accumulating laterally in the neighboring semiconducting nanowires. This lateral electrostatic coupling between ferroelectric and semiconducting nanowires offers new opportunities to design new device architectures. As an example, we demonstrate the fabrication of an elementary non-volatile memory device in a transistor-like configuration, of which the source-drain current exhibits a typical hysteretic behavior with respect to the poling voltage. The potential for size reduction

  8. Fractal dimension in percolating Heisenberg antiferromagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, S. [Neutron Science Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba 305-0810 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinichi.itoh@kek.jp; Kajimoto, R. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai 319-1195 (Japan); Adams, M.A. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Bull, M.J. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Iwasa, K. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Aso, N. [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokai 319-1106 (Japan); Yoshizawa, H. [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokai 319-1106 (Japan); Takeuchi, T. [Low Temperature Center, Osaka University, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    We investigated static and dynamical properties in the three-dimensional percolating Heisenberg antiferromagnets, RbMn{sub c}Mg{sub 1-c}F{sub 3}, with the magnetic concentration close to the percolation threshold, c{sub P}=0.312, around the superlattice point well below T{sub N}. In neutron diffraction experiment, the wave number dependence of the elastic scattering component was well fitted to q{sup -x}. Magnetic fractons were also studied using inelastic neutron scattering, and the observed fractons showed the dispersion relation of q{sup z}. The determined exponents, x=2.43+/-0.05 and z=2.5+/-0.1, were in good agreement with the fractal dimension (D{sub f}=2.48)

  9. Transformation of spin current by antiferromagnetic insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khymyn, Roman; Lisenkov, Ivan; Tiberkevich, Vasil S.; Slavin, Andrei N.; Ivanov, Boris A.

    2016-06-01

    It is demonstrated theoretically that a thin layer of an anisotropic antiferromagnetic (AFM) insulator can effectively conduct spin current through the excitation of a pair of evanescent AFM spin wave modes. The spin current flowing through the AFM is not conserved due to the interaction between the excited AFM modes and the AFM lattice and, depending on the excitation conditions, can be either attenuated or enhanced. When the phase difference between the excited evanescent modes is close to π /2 , there is an optimum AFM thickness for which the output spin current reaches a maximum, which can significantly exceed the magnitude of the input spin current. The spin current transfer through the AFM depends on the ambient temperature and increases substantially when temperature approaches the Néel temperature of the AFM layer.

  10. Magnetic Properties of Nanoparticles of Antiferromagnetic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Frandsen, Cathrine; Bødker, Franz

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles have been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy and neutron scattering. Temperature series of Mossbauer spectra of non-interacting, superparamagnetic hematite nanoparticles were fitted by use of the Blume-Tjon relaxation model. It has been...... found that the magnetic anisotropy energy constant increases significantly with decreasing particle size. Neutron scattering experiments on similar samples give new information on both superparamagnetic relaxation and collective magnetic excitations. There is good agreement between the values...... of the parameters obtained from Mossbauer spectroscopy and neutron scattering. In samples of interacting hematite nanoparticles, the relaxation was significantly suppressed. The Mossbauer data for these samples are in accordance with a mean field model for an ordered state of strongly interacting particles. Mixing...

  11. Antiferromagnetic spin wave and the superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Shun-ichiro

    2000-07-01

    The neutron scattering of UPd 2Al 3 showed that a sharp peak, which is absent in the normal phase, appears in the superconducting phase (Metoki et al., J. Phys. Soc. Japan 66 (1997) 2560; Bernhoeft et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 (1998) 4244). Assuming this excitation to be an antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin-wave, this paper deals with its enhancement by the superconductivity. Applying the slave-boson formalism, we consider the AFM ordering as a spin-density-wave (Koh, Phys. Lett. A 253 (1999) 98). Above Tc, the spin-wave suffers an energy dissipation due to the conduction electron. Below Tc, the superconductivity suppresses the dissipation, resulting in the growth of the AFM spin-wave.

  12. Spin dynamics in geometrically frustrated antiferromagnetic pyrochlores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J. S.; Ehlers, G.; Bramwell, S. T.; Gaulin, B. D.

    2004-03-01

    We have studied the spin dynamics of several antiferromagnetic pyrochlore oxides. These magnets are geometrically frustrated and only reach their ground states at temperatures much lower than that expected from mean field theory. Here we present data on the magnetic nature, especially the spin dynamics of Tb2Ti2O7, Gd2Ti2O7 and Y2Mo2O7. In these systems the ground states are found to be very different. Y2Mo2O7 freezes completely into a spin glass-like state, Tb2Ti2O7 is a cooperative paramagnetic and remains dynamic down to 15 mK and Gd2Ti2O7 enters a unique partially ordered state at {\\sim }1 K.

  13. Ferroelectric phase transition in relaxor ferroelectric single crystals 0.76PMN-0.24PT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The features of the single crystals 0.76PMN-0.24PT in dielectric, ferroelectric, pyroelectric properties and domain structures indicate that they are located between typical ferroelectrics and normal ones. The unpoled crystals present a transitional domain configuration between microdomains and typical macrodomains while the crystals on (001) cuts undergo field-induced phase transition under poling, showing two special temperature points Td and Tm during the succedent heating procedure. The dielectric constant starts to decrease drastically at Td during cooling, or the transformation from induced macrodomain to transitional domain takes place at Td during heating. Ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition or depolarization continues within the whole temperature range of Td-Tm, where ferroelectric phase in the form of transitional macrodomains coexists with paraelectric phase. Then the crystals macroscopically transoform into paraelectric phase containing ferroelectric microdomains at a temperature above Tm. However, owing to the influence of crystallite orientation on field-induced phase transition, the temperature Td does not appear in the same temperature-electric field history in multicrystal ceramics with the same composition as the above single crystals.

  14. Strain-induced ferroelectric phase transitions in incipient ferroelectric rutile TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Li-Hong; Liu, Yong; Ren, Zhao-Hui; Song, Chen-Lu; Han, Gao-Rong

    2011-10-01

    Uniaxial strain induced ferroelectric phase transitions in rutile TiO2 are investigated by first-principles calculations. The calculated results show that the in-plane tensile strain induces rutile TiO2, paraelectric phase with P4-2/mnm(D4h) space group, to a ferroelectric phase with Pm(Cs) space group, driven by the softening behaviour of the Eu1 mode. In addition, the out-of-plane tensile strain, vertical to the ab plane, leads to a ferroelectric phase with P42nm (C4v) space group, driven by the softening behaviour of the A2u mode. The critical tensile strains are 3.7% in-plane and 4.0% out-of-plane, respectively. In addition, the in-plane compression strain, which has the same structure variation as out-of-plane tensile strain due to Poisson effect, leads the paraelectric rutile TiO2 to a paraelectric phase with Pnnm (D2h) space group driven by the softening behaviour of the B1g mode. These results indicate that the sequence ferroelectric (or paraelectric) phase depends on the strain applied. The origin of ferroelectric stabilization in rutile TiO2 is also discussed briefly in terms of strain induced Born effective charge transfer.

  15. Strain-induced ferroelectric phase transitions in incipient ferroelectric rutile TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Li-Hong; Liu Yong; Ren Zhao-Hui; Song Chen-Lu; Han Gao-Rong

    2011-01-01

    Uniaxial strain induced ferroelectric phase transitions in rutile TiO2 are investigated by flrnt-principles calculations.The calculated results show that the in-plane tensile strain induces rutile TiO2,paraelectric phase with P4-2/mnm (D4h) space group,to a ferroelectric phase with Pm(Cs) space group,driven by the softening behaviour of the Eul mode.In addition,the out-of-plane tensile strain,vertical to the ab plane,leads to a ferroelectric phase with P42nm (C4v) space group,driven by the softening behaviour of the A2u mode.The critical tensile strains are 3.7% in-plane and 4.0% out-of-plane,respectively.In addition,the in-plane compression strain,which has the same structure variation as outof-plane tensile strain due to Poisson effect,leads the paraelectric rutile TiO2 to a paraelectric phase with Pnnm (D2h) space group driven by the softening behaviour of the B1g mode.These results indicate that the sequence ferroelectric (or paraelectric) phase depends on the strain applied.The origin of ferroelectric stabilization in rutile TiO2 is also discussed briefly in terms of strain induced Born effective charge transfer.

  16. Quasiparticle bandstructure of antiferromagnetic EuTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathi Jaya, S.; Nolting, W.

    1997-11-01

    The temperature-dependent electronic quasiparticle spectrum of the antiferromagnetic semiconductor EuTe is derived by use of a combination of a many-body model procedure with a tight-binding - `linear muffin tin orbital' (TB - LMTO) band structure calculation. The central part is the d - f model for a single band electron (`test electron') being exchange coupled to the antiferromagnetically ordered localized moments of the Eu ions. The single-electron Bloch energies of the d - f model are taken from a TB - LMTO calculation for paramagnetic EuTe. The d - f model is evaluated by a recently proposed moment conserving Green function technique to get the temperature-dependent sublattice - quasiparticle bandstructure (S - QBS) and sublattice - quasiparticle density of states (S - QDOS) of the unoccupied 5d - 6s energy bands. Unconventional correlation effects and the appearance of characteristic quasiparticles (`magnetic polarons') are worked out in detail. The temperature dependence of the S - QDOS and S - QBS is mainly provoked by the spectral weights of the energy dispersions. Minority- and majority-spin spectra coincide for all temperatures but with different densities of states. Upon cooling from 0953-8984/9/47/012/img1 to T = 0 K the lower conduction band edge exhibits a small blue shift of -0.025 eV in accordance with the experiment. Quasiparticle damping manifesting itself in a temperature-dependent broadening of the spectral density peaks arises from spin exchange processes between (5d - 6s) conduction band electrons and localized 4f moments.

  17. Magnetic influence on frequency of soft-phonon mode in incipient ferroelectric EuTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qing; Wu, Hua

    2003-02-01

    The dielectric constant of the incipient ferroelectric EuTiO3 exhibits a sharp decrease at about 5.5 K, at which temperature antiferromagnetic ordering of the Eu spins simultaneously appears, indicating coupling between the magnetism and dielectric properties. This may be attributed to the modification of the soft-phonon mode T1μ, which is the main contribution to the large dielectric constant, by the Eu spins (7μB per Eu). By adding the coupling term between the magnetic and electrical subsystems as -g∑l∑ql2S⃗iṡS⃗j we show that the variation of the frequency of soft-phonon mode depends on the spin correlation between the nearest-neighbors Eu spins and is substantially changed under a magnetic field.

  18. Ferroelectric nanostructure having switchable multi-stable vortex states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Ivan I.; Bellaiche, Laurent M.; Prosandeev, Sergey A.; Ponomareva, Inna V.; Kornev, Igor A.

    2009-09-22

    A ferroelectric nanostructure formed as a low dimensional nano-scale ferroelectric material having at least one vortex ring of polarization generating an ordered toroid moment switchable between multi-stable states. A stress-free ferroelectric nanodot under open-circuit-like electrical boundary conditions maintains such a vortex structure for their local dipoles when subject to a transverse inhomogeneous static electric field controlling the direction of the macroscopic toroidal moment. Stress is also capable of controlling the vortex's chirality, because of the electromechanical coupling that exists in ferroelectric nanodots.

  19. Ferroelectric devices, interconnects, and methods of manufacture thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-12-12

    A doped electroconductive organic polymer is used for forming the electrode of a ferroelectric device or an interconnect. An exemplary ferroelectric device is a ferrelectric capacitor comprising: a substrate (101); a first electrode (106) disposed on the substrate; a ferroelectric layer (112) disposed on and in contact with the first electrode; and a second electrode (116) disposed on and in contact with the ferroelectric layer, wherein at least one of the first electrode and the second electrode is an organic electrode comprising a doped electroconductive organic polymer, for example DMSO-doped PEDOT-PSS.

  20. A ferroelectric model for the low emissivity highlands on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Michael K.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Brackett, Robert A.; Fegley, Bruce, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A model to explain the low emissivity venusian highlands is proposed utilizing the temperature-dependent dielectric constant of ferroelectric minerals. Ferroelectric minerals are known to occur in alkaline and carbonite rocks, both of which are plausible for Venus. Ferroelectric minerals possess extremely high dielectric constants (10(exp 5)) over small temperature intervals and are only required in minor (much less than 1%) abundances to explain the observed emissivities. The ferroelectric model can account for: (1) the observed reduction in emissivity with increased altitude, (2) the abrupt return to normal emissivities at highest elevations, and (3) the variations in the critical elevation observed from region to region.

  1. Fracture mechanics of piezoelectric and ferroelectric solids

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Daining

    2013-01-01

    Fracture Mechanics of Piezoelectric and Ferroelectric Solids presents a systematic and comprehensive coverage of the fracture mechanics of piezoelectric/ferroelectric materials, which includes the theoretical analysis, numerical computations and experimental observations. The main emphasis is placed on the mechanics description of various crack problems such static, dynamic and interface fractures as well as the physical explanations for the mechanism of electrically induced fracture. The book is intended for postgraduate students, researchers and engineers in the fields of solid mechanics, applied physics, material science and mechanical engineering. Dr. Daining Fang is a professor at the School of Aerospace, Tsinghua University, China; Dr. Jinxi Liu is a professor at the Department of Engineering Mechanics, Shijiazhuang Railway Institute, China.

  2. Glucose Suppresses Biological Ferroelectricity in Aortic Elastin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanming; Wang, Yunjie; Chow, Ming-Jay; Chen, Nataly Q.; Ma, Feiyue; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu

    2013-01-01

    Elastin is an intriguing extracellular matrix protein present in all connective tissues of vertebrates, rendering essential elasticity to connective tissues subjected to repeated physiological stresses. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, we show that the polarity of aortic elastin is switchable by an electrical field, which may be associated with the recently discovered biological ferroelectricity in the aorta. More interestingly, it is discovered that the switching in aortic elastin is largely suppressed by glucose treatment, which appears to freeze the internal asymmetric polar structures of elastin, making it much harder to switch, or suppressing the switching completely. Such loss of ferroelectricity could have important physiological and pathological implications from aging to arteriosclerosis that are closely related to glycation of elastin. PMID:23679639

  3. Glucose Suppresses Biological Ferroelectricity in Aortic Elastin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanming; Wang, Yunjie; Chow, Ming-Jay; Chen, Nataly Q.; Ma, Feiyue; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu

    2013-04-01

    Elastin is an intriguing extracellular matrix protein present in all connective tissues of vertebrates, rendering essential elasticity to connective tissues subjected to repeated physiological stresses. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, we show that the polarity of aortic elastin is switchable by an electrical field, which may be associated with the recently discovered biological ferroelectricity in the aorta. More interestingly, it is discovered that the switching in aortic elastin is largely suppressed by glucose treatment, which appears to freeze the internal asymmetric polar structures of elastin, making it much harder to switch, or suppressing the switching completely. Such loss of ferroelectricity could have important physiological and pathological implications from aging to arteriosclerosis that are closely related to glycation of elastin.

  4. Block copolymer/ferroelectric nanoparticle nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xinchang; He, Yanjie; Jiang, Beibei; Iocozzia, James; Zhao, Lei; Guo, Hanzheng; Liu, Jin; Akinc, Mufit; Bowler, Nicola; Tan, Xiaoli; Lin, Zhiqun

    2013-08-01

    Nanocomposites composed of diblock copolymer/ferroelectric nanoparticles were formed by selectively constraining ferroelectric nanoparticles (NPs) within diblock copolymer nanodomains via judicious surface modification of ferroelectric NPs. Ferroelectric barium titanate (BaTiO3) NPs with different sizes that are permanently capped with polystyrene chains (i.e., PS-functionalized BaTiO3NPs) were first synthesized by exploiting amphiphilic unimolecular star-like poly(acrylic acid)-block-polystyrene (PAA-b-PS) diblock copolymers as nanoreactors. Subsequently, PS-functionalized BaTiO3 NPs were preferentially sequestered within PS nanocylinders in the linear cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) diblock copolymer upon mixing the BaTiO3 NPs with PS-b-PMMA. The use of PS-b-PMMA diblock copolymers, rather than traditional homopolymers, offers the opportunity for controlling the spatial organization of PS-functionalized BaTiO3 NPs in the PS-b-PMMA/BaTiO3 NP nanocomposites. Selective solvent vapor annealing was utilized to control the nanodomain orientation in the nanocomposites. Vertically oriented PS nanocylinders containing PS-functionalized BaTiO3 NPs were yielded after exposing the PS-b-PMMA/BaTiO3 NP nanocomposite thin film to acetone vapor, which is a selective solvent for PMMA block. The dielectric properties of nanocomposites in the microwave frequency range were investigated. The molecular weight of PS-b-PMMA and the size of BaTiO3 NPs were found to exert an apparent influence on the dielectric properties of the resulting nanocomposites.Nanocomposites composed of diblock copolymer/ferroelectric nanoparticles were formed by selectively constraining ferroelectric nanoparticles (NPs) within diblock copolymer nanodomains via judicious surface modification of ferroelectric NPs. Ferroelectric barium titanate (BaTiO3) NPs with different sizes that are permanently capped with polystyrene chains (i.e., PS-functionalized BaTiO3NPs) were

  5. Computational design of a robust two-dimensional antiferromagnetic semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabungbam, Satyananda; Sen, Prasenjit

    2017-07-01

    Using density functional theory calculations, we establish the hitherto unknown compound CrCTe3 to be a stable antiferromagnetic semiconductor in the R 3 ¯ crystal structure with an indirect fundamental gap. Successive layers in the bulk compound are weakly bound by van der Waals forces so that individual layers can be easily exfoliated. A monolayer of CrCTe3 is also an antiferromagnetic semiconductor. The monolayer is structurally stable over a large range of compressive and tensile strains, and the antiferromagnetic state is robust over this strain range. Band gap of the monolayer can be tuned by as much as 50% by applying strain in this range.

  6. Magnonic analog of relativistic Zitterbewegung in an antiferromagnetic spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Gu, Chenjie; Zhou, Yan; Fangohr, Hans

    2017-07-01

    We theoretically investigate the spin-wave (magnon) excitations in a classical antiferromagnetic spin chain with easy-axis anisotropy. We obtain a Dirac-like equation by linearizing the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in this antiferromagnetic system, in contrast to the ferromagnetic system in which a Schrödinger-type equation is derived. The Hamiltonian operator in the Dirac-like equation is a pseudo-Hermitian. We compute and demonstrate relativistic Zitterbewegung (trembling motion) in the antiferromagnetic spin chain by measuring the expectation values of the wave-packet position.

  7. Evaluation of Ferroelectric Materials for Memory Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    or rhombohedral [Ref. 16: p.17]. M, ’of the materials of interest for memory applications are tetragonal, with the exception of potassium nitrate ( KNO3 ...PZT as the current favorite. Although KNO3 has many desirable properties and has been extensively studied, it is also extremely hygroscopic and has...niches where the application-specific capabilities outweigh the initially higher price . For applications where nonvolatility is required, ferroelectric

  8. WFL: Microwave Applications of Thin Ferroelectric Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanofsky, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a family of tunable microwave circuits, operating from X- through Ka-band, based on laser ablated BaxSr1-xTiO films on lanthanum aluminate and magnesium oxide substrates. Circuits include voltage controlled oscillators, filters, phase shifters and antennas. A review of the basic theory of operation of these devices will be presented along with measured performance. Emphasis has been on low-loss phase shifters to enable a new phased array architecture. The critical role of phase shifter loss and transient response in reflectarray antennas will be discussed. The Ferroelectric Reflectarray Critical Components Space Experiment was launched on the penultimate Space Shuttle, STS-134, in May of 2011. It included a bank of ferroelectric phase shifters with two different stoichiometries as well as ancillary electronics. The experiment package and status will be reported. In addition, unusual results of a Van der Pauw measurement involving a ferroelectric film grown on buffered high resisitivity silicon will be discussed.

  9. Ferroelectric domain dynamics under an external field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappe, Andrew; Shin, Young-Han; Grinberg, Ilya; Chen, I.-Wei

    2007-03-01

    Ferroelectric oxides with the perovskite structure are promising materials for nonvolatile random access computer memories. PbZr1-xTixO3 is currently used for this purpose. In these materials, storage of a bit involves the reorientation of polarization, or the movement of a ferroelectric domain wall. However, the intrinsic properties of the polarization reversal process of ferroelectrics at the microscopic level still have not been revealed, either by experiments or computations. In this talk, I will show how this problem can be studied with a multi-scale approach. First, an interatomic potential is parameterized to first-principles calculations, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed. Second, stochastic Monte Carlo simulations are conducted, with nucleation and growth rates extracted from the MD simulations. For PbTiO3, we find that while the overall domain-wall speed from our calculation is in good agreement with the recent experiments, the size of the critical nucleus is much smaller than predicted from the Miller-Weinreich model. We think that this discrepancy can be explained by a diffuse-boundary model and by the fact that the overall wall motion is controlled by both the nucleation and growth processes.

  10. Preparation of BiFeO3 thin films by pulsed laser deposition method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guan-jun; CHENG Jin-rong; CHEN Rui; YU Sheng-wen; MENG Zhong-yan

    2006-01-01

    BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films were prepared on Pt(111)/TiO2/SiO2/Si(100) substrates by the pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) technique at a low temperature of 450℃. The XRD results indicate that the BFO thin films are of perovskite structure with the presence of small amount of second phases. The oxygen pressures have great effect on the crystalline structures and dielectric properties of BFO thin films. The dielectric constant of the BFO thin films decreases with increasing oxygen pressures,achieving 186,171 and 160 at the frequency of 104 Hz for the oxygen pressures of 0.666,1.333 and 13.332 Pa,respectively. The BFO thin films prepared at the oxygen pressure of 0.666 Pa reveal a saturated hysteresis loop with the remanent polarization of 7.5 μC/cm2 and the coercive field of 176 kV/cm.

  11. Investigations of electrical properties of Nd substituted BiFeO3 multiferroic ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T. Durga; Asthana, Saket

    2013-06-01

    Polycrystalline BiFeO3 (BFO) and Bi0.9Nd0.1FeO3 (BNFO) compounds were synthesized by conventional solid-state route. All the compounds were crystallized in rhombohedral structure with R3c (IUCr No. 161) space group. Negative temperature coefficient of Resistance character has been observed from Complex impedance studies. ac conductivity in these compounds follows universal power law. Correlated Barrier Hopping (CBH) model has been employed to explain the charge carries transport mechanism. Density of states near Fermi level observed to be decreasing with the Nd substitution. Improved insulating character and decrease in density of states in BNFO compound suggested that possible reduction in oxygen vacancies. Activation energies calculated from Arrhenius plots revealed that electronic hopping, oxygen vacancies movements are the contributors to the ac conduction in the measured temperature range.

  12. Study of structural, magnetic and electrical properties on Ho-substituted BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durga Rao, T.; Karthik, T.; Srinivas, Adiraj; Asthana, Saket

    2012-12-01

    The polycrystalline Bi1-xHoxFeO3 (x=0, 0.05, 0.1) compounds were synthesized by conventional solid-state route. Rietveld refinement revealed that all the compounds were stabilized in rhombohedral structure with R3c (IUCr No. 161) space group. Room temperature magnetic measurements revealed that Ho substitution induces ferromagnetism and improves the magnetic properties of BiFeO3. A competing ferro and anti-ferro magnetic interaction was observed in these compounds. Temperature variation of complex impedance studies revealed that electrical properties are improved with the Ho substitution. The ac conductivity found to obey universal power law and showed the negative temperature coefficient of resistance character. Correlated barrier hopping model (CBH) was employed to explain the frequency and temperature dependence of ac conductivity and the mechanism of transport in the material BFO and Ho substituted BFO. Density of states near Fermi level was calculated by using the ac conductivity data.

  13. Impedance Spectroscopic Studies of BiFeO3-Pb(ZrTi)O3 Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, R. N. P.; Barik, Subrat K.; Katiyar, R. S.

    BiFeO3-Pb(ZrTi)O3 [i.e., (Bi1-xPbx)(Fe1-xZr0.6xTi0.4x)O3 (x = 0.15, 0.25, 0.40, 0.50)] nanocomposites were synthesized using mechanical activation followed by a solid-state reaction technique. The dielectric parameters (capacitance, dissipation factor D, impedance Z and phase angle Φ) of all the samples were measured in a wide range of frequencies (1 kHz-1 MHz) and temperatures (300-630 K) in air atmosphere using an impedance analyzer with low signal amplitude of 500 mV. Electrical properties of the compounds were studied using a complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS) technique. The frequency dependence of electrical data was analyzed in the framework of conductivity and modulus formalisms. AC conductivity spectrum obeys Jonscher's universal power law.

  14. A training effect on electrical properties in nanoscale BiFeO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Sudipta; Bhattacharya, Dipten; Li, Wuxia; Cui, Ajuan; Jiang, QianQing; Gu, Chang-zhi

    2013-04-05

    We report our observation of the training effect on dc electrical properties in a nanochain of BiFeO3 as a result of large scale migration of defects under the combined influence of electric field and Joule heating. We show that an optimum number of cycles of electric field within the range zero to ~1.0 MV cm(-1) across a temperature range 80-300 K helps in reaching the stable state via a glass-transition-like process in the defect structure. Further treatment does not give rise to any substantial modification. We conclude that such a training effect is ubiquitous in pristine nanowires or chains of oxides and needs to be addressed for applications in nanoelectronic devices.

  15. Studies on forming gas annealing treated BiFeO3 thin films and capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Ching; Wu, Lin-Jung; Wu, Jenn-Ming

    2007-11-01

    The structure and electric properties of BiFeO3(BFO )/BaPbO3(BPO) and Pt/BFO/BPO capacitors with forming gas annealing (FGA) treatment were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the annealing did not affect the structure and phase of BFO films. A degraded electric property was obtained in FGA-treated Pt/BFO/BPO films. It can be attributed to the formation of reduction and incomplete reduction of Bi+3 of BFO. Retention and fatigue properties were obtained in FGA-treated BPO/BFO/BPO capacitors. The normalized Pr loss was 22.8% after applying a voltage above 2Vc (coercive voltage) with 1011cycles. The retention behavior within 30000s is governed by the logarithmic time dependence.

  16. Nanoscale Control of Phase Variants in Strain-Engineered BiFeO3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, Rama K [ORNL; Li, J. Y. [University of Washington, Seattle; Liu, Y. Y. [University of Washington, Seattle; Liang, W. -I. [National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan; Kumar, Amit [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Chen, Y. -C. [National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; Chu, Y.-H. [National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan; Nagarajan, Valanoor [University of New South Wales; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Development of magnetoelectric, electromechanical, and photovoltaic devices based on mixed-phase rhombohedral tetragonal (R-T) BiFeO3 (BFO) systems is possible only if the control of the engineered R phase variants is realized. Accordingly, we explore the mechanism of a bias induced phase transformation in this system. Single point spectroscopy demonstrates that the T->R transition is activated at lower voltages compared to T->T polarization switching. With phase field modeling, the transition is shown to be electrically driven. We further demonstrate that symmetry of formed R-phase rosettes can be broken by a proximal probe motion, allowing controlled creation of R variants with defined orientation. This approach opens a pathway to designing next-generation magnetoelectronic and data storage devices in the nanoscale.

  17. Ab initio study on phase transition and magnetism of BiFeO3 under pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Hong-Jian; Liu Fa-Min

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the first-principles calculations within local spin density approximation(LSDA)+U show that BiFeO3 experiences a mixed phase state with P4mm structure being the intermediate phase before the pressure of phase transition is reached.The critical pressure for the insulator-metal transition(IMT)is found to be about 50 GPa.A pressure induced crossover of high-spin states and low-spin states is observed close to the IMT pressure in R3c structure.The LSDA+U calculations account well for the mechanism of the IMT and crossover of spin states predicted in recent experiment(Re[1]).

  18. Transport properties of Ar+ irradiated resistive switching BiFeO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L.; Shuai, Y.; Ou, X.; Luo, W. B.; Wu, C. G.; Zhang, W. L.; Bürger, D.; Skorupa, I.; You, T.; Du, N.; Schmidt, O. G.; Schmidt, H.

    2015-05-01

    BiFeO3 thin films were irradiated by Ar+ ions with different fluences. The rectifying and resistive switching behaviour were retained on the Au/BiFeO3/Pt stack, and the ON/OFF ratio clearly depends on the Ar+ fluence. It was observed that the transport in high resistance state changes from Poole-Frenkel conduction to space-charge-limited conduction after irradiation. While the conduction of the low resistance state is dominated by both the interface and the bulk thin film in the pristine devices, however, it is only dominated by the interface in the irradiated devices. The observed change of conduction mechanism was explained by additionally created oxygen vacancies (OVs) during irradiation, which also improves the stability of resistive switching.

  19. Magnetoelectric memory in reentrant frozen state and considerable ferroelectricity in the multiferroic spin-chain compound Sm2BaNiO5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indra, A.; Dey, K.; Majumdar, S.; Sarkar, I.; Francoual, S.; Giri, R. P.; Khan, N.; Mandal, P.; Giri, S.

    2017-03-01

    We report intrinsic memory effect in magnetization and dielectricity for the spin-chain compound Sm2BaNiO5 , pointing the cooperative glassy response below ˜8 K . Signature of anomaly around 8 K is verified by the magnetization, heat capacity, dielectric permittivity, magnetostriction, and structural parameters as obtained from the synchrotron diffraction studies. Intriguingly, the memory effect is observed well below the magnetic and ferroelectric ordering temperatures, pointing to a reentrant frozen state. Ferroelectricity emerges above antiferromagnetic Néel temperature at 45 K. For 4.5 kV/cm poling field the spontaneous electric polarization attains the value of 1300 μ C /m2, that is the highest value in the R2BaNiO5 series. Synchrotron diffraction studies confirm that ferroelectricity emerges due to structural transition from the centrosymmetric I m m m to a noncentrosymmetric I m m 2 space group. Magnetoelectric coupling is significant and scales linearly to the squared magnetization as described by the Ginzburg-Landau theory.

  20. Structural, electrical and magnetic properties of (Cd, Ti) modified BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nitin; Shukla, Alok; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2017-09-01

    Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3), one of the most prominent members of multiferroics, has multiple promising characteristics useful for multifunctional applications. Multi-doped (Cd, Ti) complex bismuth ferrite [i.e., Bi(Cd1/4Ti1/4Fe1/2)O3] ceramic was synthesized through a mixed-oxide route. X-ray structural analysis of the prepared material provides its basic crystal data of a single-phase orthorhombic system. The scattered crystallite size and lattice strain of the material were estimated using Scherrer and Williamson-Hall approaches respectively using X-ray diffraction peaks. Analysis of the micrograph of field emission scanning electron microscope shows uniform and densely packed grains on the surfaces of the pellet sample suggesting the formation of good quality and high-density sample. A significant effect of substitution of multiple elements at the Fe-site on dielectric constant and tangent loss of BiFeO3 has been observed. Detailed studies of temperature (25-500 °C) and frequency (1-1000 kHz) dependence of impedance and ac-conductivity have provided the effect of grains and grain boundaries on the conduction mechanism and dielectric relaxation of the material. Based on the magnetic measurements, it is concluded that (Cd, Ti) modified bismuth ferrite has provided saturation magnetisation (Ms) and coercivity (Hc) of 2.66 emu g-1 and 653.75 Oe respectively which are consistent with those of many compounds of similar type.

  1. Residual tensile stresses and piezoelectric properties in BiFeO3-Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2O3-PbTiO3 ternary solid solution perovskite ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Zheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For low dielectric loss perovskite-structured (1-x-yBiFeO3-xBi(Zn1/2Ti1/2O3-yPbTiO3 (BF-BZT-PT (x = 0.04-0.15 and y = 0.15-0.26 ceramics in rhombohedral/tetragonal coexistent phase, structural phase transitions were studied using differential thermal analyzer combined with temperature-dependent dielectric measurement. Two lattice structural phase transitions are disclosed in various BF-BZT-PT perovskites, which is different from its membership of BiFeO3 exhibiting just one lattice structural phase transition at Curie temperature TC= 830oC. Consequently, residual internal tensile stresses were revealed experimentally through XRD measurements on ceramic pellets and counterpart powders, which are reasonably attributed to special structural phase transition sequence of BF-BZT-PT solid solution perovskites. Low piezoresponse was observed and argued extrinsically resulting from residual tensile stresses pinning ferroelectric polarization switching. Post-annealing and subsequent quenching was found effective for eliminating residual internal stresses in those BZT-less ceramics, and good piezoelectric property of d33 ≥ 28 pC/N obtained for 0.70BF-0.08BZT-0.22PT and 0.05 wt% MnO2-doped 0.70BF-0.04BZT-0.26PT ceramics with TC ≥ 640oC, while it seemed no effective for those BZT-rich BF-BZT-PT ceramics with x = 0.14 and 0.15 studied here.

  2. Melting of Bi sublattice in nanosized BiFeO3 Perovskite by resonant X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, V; Selbach, S M; Einarsrud, M-A; Grande, T; Shastri, S D

    2010-10-29

    Free-standing BiFeO3 perovskite particles with a size ranging from polycrystalline bulk down to 5 nm have been studied by high-energy resonant (Bi K edge) x-ray diffraction coupled to differential atomic pair distribution function analysis. Nanosized BiFeO3 particles are found to exhibit extra, i.e., beyond the usual thermal, structural disorder that increases progressively with diminishing their size. In particles of size smaller than approximately 18 nm the disorder destroys the structural coherence of the Bi sublattice and disturbs that of the Fe-based sublattice in the perovskite structure, substantially affecting the magnetoelectric properties it carries. The new structural information helps better understand the unusual behavior of perovskites structured at the nanoscale.

  3. 2D laminated cylinder-like BiFeO3 composites: Hydrothermal preparation, formation mechanism, and photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoming; Dai, Yuan; Fu, Feng; Hua, Xiufu

    2016-12-01

    BiFeO3 perovskite with 2D laminated cylinder-like structure was prepared via a facile one-pot hydrothermal method, whose morphologies and optical properties was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectrum (EDS), and UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS). The photocatalytic properties of the as-prepared BiFeO3 composites were evaluated according to degrading Rhodamine B (RhB) and desulfurization under visible light irradiation, with excellent photocatalytic degradation and desulfurization activity found. Moreover, the mechanism study of active free radicals in photocatalytic activity indicates that the h+ radical in holes was mainly responsible for synergistic catalytic efficacy in photocatalytic degradation.

  4. Preparation and characterization of BiFeO3 thin films by the LPD on OH-functionalized organic SAMs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films were grown on OH-functionalized organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) via liquid-phase deposition (LPD) method at a temperature below 100°C. The BiFeO3 thin films were induced to synthesize on the OH-functionalized organic OTS monolayers prepared on hydroxylated glass substrate by self-assembling technique. The hydrophilic characteristic of the as-prepared OTS-SAMs was measured by contact angle tester. The crystal phase composition, microstructure and topography of the as-synthesized BFO thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscope (AFM), respectively. Results show that compact and homogeneous BFO thin films can be formed on the OH-functionalized SAMs at low temperature.

  5. Texture and anisotropy of ferroelectric bismuth titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jacob Leo

    Ferroelectric bismuth titanate, Na0.5Bi4.5 Ti4O15, is a piezoelectric ceramic used as an electromechanical sensor in high temperature environments (T piezoelectric constant, d33, is relatively low in randomly oriented ceramics. Crystallographic texturing is often employed to increase the piezoelectric constant because the spontaneous polarization axes of the grains are better aligned. This research distinguishes between the crystallographic texture induced to the grains from tape casting and crystallographic texture induced to the ferroelectric domains from electrical poling. Novel quantitative approaches describe texture of both types independently using conventional and synchrotron X-ray sources as well as time-of-flight neutron diffraction with multiple detectors. Furthermore, methods are developed to describe the combined effect of a ferroelectric texture superimposed on a paraelectric texture. Texture of the paraelectric crystallographic axes was induced by novel processing approaches. An alternative to using plate-shaped template particles was developed utilizing calcined powder. Paraelectric texture develops from particle settling and strong surface energy anisotropy during sintering. The 00l textures induced from this process are on the order of two to four multiples of a random distribution. These textures create property anisotropies between the casting plane and normal directions of 6.4 and 5.7 in piezoelectric d33 constant and remanent polarization, respectively. Texture of the ferroelectric crystallographic axes was induced by electrical poling at different temperatures and in different orientations. Ceramics with an initial paraelectric texture can exhibit greater change in the domain volume fractions during electrical poling than randomly oriented ceramics. This is demonstrated by applying novel quantitative approaches to reflection X-ray spectra from many sample directions. Because orthorhombic Na0.5Bi 4.5Ti4O15 has two ferroelectric domains that

  6. PZT-like structural phase transitions in the BiFeO3-KNbO3 solid solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert C; Taylor, Daniel D; Vera Stimpson, Laura J; Stenning, Gavin B G; Jura, Marek; Price, Mark C; Rodriguez, Efrain E; Arnold, Donna C

    2015-06-21

    Despite the high prominence of the perovskites BiFeO(3) and KNbO(3) the solid solution between the two has received little attention. We report a detailed neutron and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy study which demonstrates an R3c→P4mm→Amm2 series of structural phase transitions similar to that exhibited by the PbZrO(3)-PbTiO(3) solid solution.

  7. Long-range interactions in antiferromagnetic quantum spin chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, B.; Cabra, D. C.; Gómez Albarracín, F. A.; Rossini, G. L.

    2017-08-01

    We study the role of long-range dipolar interactions on antiferromagnetic spin chains, from the classical S →∞ limit to the deep quantum case S =1 /2 , including a transverse magnetic field. To this end, we combine different techniques such as classical energy minima, classical Monte Carlo, linear spin waves, bosonization, and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG). We find a phase transition from the already reported dipolar ferromagnetic region to an antiferromagnetic region for high enough antiferromagnetic exchange. Thermal and quantum fluctuations destabilize the classical order before reaching magnetic saturation in both phases, and also close to zero field in the antiferromagnetic phase. In the extreme quantum limit S =1 /2 , extensive DMRG computations show that the main phases remain present with transition lines to saturation significatively shifted to lower fields, in agreement with the bosonization analysis. The overall picture maintains a close analogy with the phase diagram of the anisotropic XXZ spin chain in a transverse field.

  8. Experimental and theoretical studies of nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Madsen, Daniel Esmarch; Frandsen, Cathrine;

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic properties of nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials are reviewed. The magnetic structure is often similar to the bulk structure, but there are several examples of size-dependent magnetic structures. Owing to the small magnetic moments of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles...... measurements, Mössbauer spectroscopy and neutron scattering. Below the blocking temperature, the magnetic dynamics in nanoparticles is dominated by thermal excitations of the uniform mode. In antiferromagnetic nanoparticles, the frequency of this mode is much higher than in ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic...... nanoparticles, but it depends crucially on the size of the uncompensated moment. Excitation of the uniform mode results in a so-called thermoinduced moment, because the two sublattices are not strictly antiparallel when this mode is excited. The magnetic dipole interaction between antiferromagnetic...

  9. Characterization of the Dilute Ising Antiferromagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiener, T.

    2000-09-12

    A spin glass is a magnetic ground state in which ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions compete, thereby creating frustration and a multidegenerate state with no long range order. An Ising system is a system where the spins are constrained to lie parallel or antiparallel to a primary axis. There has been much theoretical interest in the past ten years in the effects of applying a magnetic field transverse to the primary axis in an Ising spin glass at low temperatures and thus study phase transitions at the T=0 limit. The focus of this study is to search for and characterize a new Ising spin glass system. This is accomplished by site diluting yttrium for terbium in the crystalline material TbNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}. The first part of this work gives a brief overview of the physics of rare earth magnetism and an overview of experimental characteristics of spin glasses. This is followed by the methodology used to manufacture the large single crystals used in this study, as well as the measurement techniques used. Next, a summary of the results of magnetic measurements on across the dilution series from pure terbium to pure yttrium is presented. This is followed by detailed measurements on particular dilutions which demonstrate spin glass behavior. Pure TbNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} is an Ising antiferromagnet with a several distinct metamagnetic states below 17 K. As the terbium is alloyed with yttrium, these magnetic states are weakened in a consistent manner, as is seen in measurements of the transition temperatures and analysis of Curie-Weiss behavior at high temperature. At low concentrations of terbium, below 35%, long range order is no longer present and a spin-glass-like state emerges. This state is studied through various measurements, dc and ac susceptibility, resistivity, and specific heat. This magnetic behavior was then compared to that of other well characterized spin glasses. It is concluded that there is a region of concentration s for which a spin

  10. Characterization of the Dilute Ising Antiferromagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiener, Timothy [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2000-09-12

    A spin glass is a magnetic ground state in which ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions compete, thereby creating frustration and a multidegenerate state with no long range order. An Ising system is a system where the spins are constrained to lie parallel or antiparallel to a primary axis. There has been much theoretical interest in the past ten years in the effects of applying a magnetic field transverse to the primary axis in an Ising spin glass at low temperatures and thus study phase transitions at the T=0 limit. The focus of this study is to search for and characterize a new Ising spin glass system. This is accomplished by site diluting yttrium for terbium in the crystalline material TbNi2Ge2. The first part of this work gives a brief overview of the physics of rare earth magnetism and an overview of experimental characteristics of spin glasses. This is followed by the methodology used to manufacture the large single crystals used in this study, as well as the measurement techniques used. Next, a summary of the results of magnetic measurements on across the dilution series from pure terbium to pure yttrium is presented. This is followed by detailed measurements on particular dilutions which demonstrate spin glass behavior. Pure TbNi2Ge2 is an Ising antiferromagnet with a several distinct metamagnetic states below 17 K. As the terbium is alloyed with yttrium, these magnetic states are weakened in a consistent manner, as is seen in measurements of the transition temperatures and analysis of Curie-Weiss behavior at high temperature. At low concentrations of terbium, below 35%, long range order is no longer present and a spin-glass-like state emerges. This state is studied through various measurements, dc and ac susceptibility, resistivity, and specific heat. This magnetic behavior was then compared to that of other well characterized spin glasses. It is concluded that there is a region of

  11. Reversal of exchange bias in nanocrystalline antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic bilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Prados, C; Hernando, A; Montone, A

    2002-01-01

    The sign of the exchange bias in field cooled nanocrystalline antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic bilayers (Co-O and Ni-O/permalloy) is reversed at temperatures approaching the antiferromagnetic (AFM) blocking temperature. A similar phenomenon is observed after magnetic training processes at similar temperatures. These effects can be explained assuming that the boundaries of nanocrystalline grains in AFM layers exhibit lower transition temperatures than grain cores.

  12. Sol-gel preparation of La-doped bismuth ferrite thin film and its low-temperature ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Fuxue; ZHAO Gaoyang; SONG Na

    2013-01-01

    Bi0.85La0.15FeO3 thin film was prepared on ATO glass substrates by sol-gel technique.The effect of La doping on phase structure,film surface quality,ion valence,and ferroelectric/magnetic properties of Bi0.85La0.15FeO3 film were investigated.La doping suppressed the formation of impurity phases and the transition of Fe3+ to Fe2+ ions at room temperature.Compared with the un-doped BiFeO3,La-doping also increased the average grain size and the film density,which resulted in the decrease of film leakage current density.The remanent polarization and saturation magnetization were enhanced significantly by La doping.The remanent polarization of Bi0.85La0.15FeO3 films gradually decreased while saturation magnetization increased with the decrcase of measuring temperature within a range from 50 to 300 K.

  13. Self-interaction corrected LDA + U investigations of BiFeO3 properties: plane-wave pseudopotential method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaakob, M. K.; Taib, M. F. M.; Lu, L.; Hassan, O. H.; Yahya, M. Z. A.

    2015-11-01

    The structural, electronic, elastic, and optical properties of BiFeO3 were investigated using the first-principles calculation based on the local density approximation plus U (LDA + U) method in the frame of plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory. The application of self-interaction corrected LDA + U method improved the accuracy of the calculated properties. Results of structural, electronic, elastic, and optical properties of BiFeO3, calculated using the LDA + U method were in good agreement with other calculation and experimental data; the optimized choice of on-site Coulomb repulsion U was 3 eV for the treatment of strong electronic localized Fe 3d electrons. Based on the calculated band structure and density of states, the on-site Coulomb repulsion U had a significant effect on the hybridized O 2p and Fe 3d states at the valence and the conduction band. Moreover, the elastic stiffness tensor, the longitudinal and shear wave velocities, bulk modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and the Debye temperature were calculated for U = 0, 3, and 6 eV. The elastic stiffness tensor, bulk modulus, sound velocities, and Debye temperature of BiFeO3 consistently decreased with the increase of the U value.

  14. Interfacial-strain-induced structural and polarization evolutions in epitaxial multiferroic BiFeO3 (001) thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haizhong; Zhao, Ruiqiang; Jin, Kui-Juan; Gu, Lin; Xiao, Dongdong; Yang, Zhenzhong; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Le; He, Xu; Gu, Junxing; Wan, Qian; Wang, Can; Lu, Huibin; Ge, Chen; He, Meng; Yang, Guozhen

    2015-02-04

    Varying the film thickness is a precise route to tune the interfacial strain to manipulate the properties of the multiferroic materials. Here, to explore the effects of the interfacial strain on the properties of the multiferroic BiFeO3 films, we investigated thickness-dependent structural and polarization evolutions of the BiFeO3 films. The epitaxial growth with an atomic stacking sequence of BiO/TiO2 at the interface was confirmed by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Combining X-ray diffraction experiments and first-principles calculations, a thickness-dependent structural evolution was observed from a fully strained tetragonality to a partially relaxed one without any structural phase transition or rotated twins. The tetragonality (c/a) of the BiFeO3 films increases as the film thickness decreases, while the polarization is in contrast with this trend, and the size effect including the depolarization field plays a crucial role in this contradiction in thinner films. These findings offer an alternative strategy to manipulate structural and polarization properties by tuning the interfacial strain in epitaxial multiferroic thin films.

  15. Ferroelectrics: A pathway to switchable surface chemistry and catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakekhani, Arvin; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Altman, Eric I.

    2016-08-01

    It has been known for more than six decades that ferroelectricity can affect a material's surface physics and chemistry thereby potentially enhancing its catalytic properties. Ferroelectrics are a class of materials with a switchable electrical polarization that can affect surface stoichiometry and electronic structure and thus adsorption energies and modes; e.g., molecular versus dissociative. Therefore, ferroelectrics may be utilized to achieve switchable surface chemistry whereby surface properties are not fixed but can be dynamically controlled by, for example, applying an external electric field or modulating the temperature. Several important examples of applications of ferroelectric and polar materials in photocatalysis and heterogeneous catalysis are discussed. In photocatalysis, the polarization direction can control band bending at water/ferroelectric and ferroelectric/semiconductor interfaces, thereby facilitating charge separation and transfer to the electrolyte and enhancing photocatalytic activity. For gas-surface interactions, available results suggest that using ferroelectrics to support catalytically active transition metals and oxides is another way to enhance catalytic activity. Finally, the possibility of incorporating ferroelectric switching into the catalytic cycle itself is described. In this scenario, a dynamic collaboration of two polarization states can be used to drive reactions that have been historically challenging to achieve on surfaces with fixed chemical properties (e.g., direct NOx decomposition and the selective partial oxidation of methane). These predictions show that dynamic modulation of the polarization can help overcome some of the fundamental limitations on catalytic activity imposed by the Sabatier principle.

  16. Electrospinning induced ferroelectricity in poly(vinylidene fluoride) fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baji, Avinash; Mai, Yiu-Wing; Li, Qian; Liu, Yun

    2011-08-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) fibers with diameters ranging from 70 to 400 nm are produced by electrospinning and the effect of fiber size on the ferroelectric β-crystalline phase is determined. Domain switching and associated ferro-/piezo-electric properties of the electrospun PVDF fibers were also determined. The fibers showed well-defined ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties.

  17. The nature of domain stabilization in ferroelectric perovskites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambeck, Paul; Jonker, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    Ferroelectric perovskites, such as Pb(Ti,Zr)O3 and BaTiO3, are subject to ageing effects, caused by a gradual stabilization of the ferroelectric domain structure. We studied the development of this stabilization in Mn-doped BaTiO3 monocrystals having a special kind of domain structure. We concluded

  18. The operational mechanism of ferroelectric-driven organic resistive switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemerink, M.; Asadi, K.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2012-01-01

    The availability of a reliable memory element is crucial for the fabrication of 'plastic' logic circuits. We use numerical simulations to show that the switching mechanism of ferroelectric-driven organic resistive switches is the stray field of the polarized ferroelectric phase. The stray field modu

  19. The origin of ferroelectricity in magnetoelectric YMnO3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Aken, BB; Palstra, TTM; Filippetti, A; Spaldin, NA

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the ferroelectrocity in magnetic ferroelectric oxides is of both fundamental and technological importance. Here, we identify the nature of the ferroelectric phase transition in the hexagonal manganite, YMnO3, using a combination of single-crystal X-ray diffraction, thorough structure a

  20. Thermally activated repolarization of antiferromagnetic particles: Monte Carlo dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, S. V.; Popkov, A. F.; Knizhnik, A. A.; Iskandarova, I. M.

    2017-02-01

    Based on the equation of motion of an antiferromagnetic moment, taking into account a random field of thermal fluctuations, we propose a Monte Carlo (MC) scheme for the numerical simulation of the evolutionary dynamics of an antiferromagnetic particle, corresponding to the Langevin dynamics in the Kramers theory for the two-well potential. Conditions for the selection of the sphere of fluctuations of random deviations of the antiferromagnetic vector at an MC time step are found. A good agreement with the theory of Kramers thermal relaxation is demonstrated for varying temperatures and heights of energy barrier over a wide range of integration time steps in an overdamped regime. Based on the developed scheme, we performed illustrative calculations of the temperature drift of the exchange bias under the fast annealing of a ferromagnet-antiferromagnet structure, taking into account the random variation of anisotropy directions in antiferromagnetic grains and their sizes. The proposed approach offers promise for modeling magnetic sensors and spintronic memory devices containing heterostructures with antiferromagnetic layers.

  1. Origin of multiple memory states in organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kam, B.; Li, X.; Cristoferi, C.; Smits, E.C.P.; Mityashin, A.; Schols, S.; Genoe, J.; Gelinck, G.H.; Heremans, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the ferroelectric polarization state in metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor-metal structures and in ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FeFET). Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) and pentacene was used as the ferroelectric and semiconductor, respectively. This

  2. Aging Effect on Lanthanum Doped Ferroelectric Lead Titanate Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Ferroelectric devices are widely applied in many fields, such as energy conversion and communication. The aging effect in ferroelectric materials plays a central role in the reliability of the related equipments. But it is very difficult to understand the origin of aging effect in ferroelectrics because these materials possess different defects and exhibit various aging behavior. The reverse transition temperature in lead titanate doped with lanthanum increases during aging at ferroelectric phase was reported. It is well known that lattice defects, such as vacancies and solute atoms, are ubiquitous in crystalline solids. These point defects affect physical properties in ferroelectrics significantly. The abnormal increase of the reverse transition temperature was discussed in terms of diffusion of point defects during aging. Dielectric performance in the material after aging was measured and discussed as well.

  3. Nonequilibrium antiferromagnetic mixed-spin Ising model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Mauricio; Figueiredo, Wagner

    2002-09-01

    We studied an antiferromagnetic mixed-spin Ising model on the square lattice subject to two competing stochastic processes. The model system consists of two interpenetrating sublattices of spins sigma=1/2 and S=1, and we take only nearest neighbor interactions between pairs of spins. The system is in contact with a heat bath at temperature T, and the exchange of energy with the heat bath occurs via one-spin flip (Glauber dynamics). Besides, the system interacts with an external agency of energy, which supplies energy to it whenever two nearest neighboring spins are simultaneously flipped. By employing Monte Carlo simulations and a dynamical pair approximation, we found the phase diagram for the stationary states of the model in the plane temperature T versus the competition parameter between one- and two-spin flips p. We observed the appearance of three distinct phases, that are separated by continuous transition lines. We also determined the static critical exponents along these lines and we showed that this nonequilibrium model belongs to the universality class of the two-dimensional equilibrium Ising model.

  4. Antiferromagnetic Skyrmion: Stability, Creation and Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Ezawa, Motohiko

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic skyrmions are particle-like topological excitations in ferromagnets, which have the topo-logical number Q = ± 1, and hence show the skyrmion Hall effect (SkHE) due to the Magnus force effect originating from the topology. Here, we propose the counterpart of the magnetic skyrmion in the antiferromagnetic (AFM) system, that is, the AFM skyrmion, which is topologically protected but without showing the SkHE. Two approaches for creating the AFM skyrmion have been described based on micromagnetic lattice simulations: (i) by injecting a vertical spin-polarized current to a nanodisk with the AFM ground state; (ii) by converting an AFM domain-wall pair in a nanowire junction. It is demonstrated that the AFM skyrmion, driven by the spin-polarized current, can move straightly over long distance, benefiting from the absence of the SkHE. Our results will open a new strategy on designing the novel spintronic devices based on AFM materials.

  5. Room-temperature antiferromagnetic memory resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, X; Fina, I; Frontera, C; Liu, Jian; Wadley, P; He, Q; Paull, R J; Clarkson, J D; Kudrnovský, J; Turek, I; Kuneš, J; Yi, D; Chu, J-H; Nelson, C T; You, L; Arenholz, E; Salahuddin, S; Fontcuberta, J; Jungwirth, T; Ramesh, R

    2014-04-01

    The bistability of ordered spin states in ferromagnets provides the basis for magnetic memory functionality. The latest generation of magnetic random access memories rely on an efficient approach in which magnetic fields are replaced by electrical means for writing and reading the information in ferromagnets. This concept may eventually reduce the sensitivity of ferromagnets to magnetic field perturbations to being a weakness for data retention and the ferromagnetic stray fields to an obstacle for high-density memory integration. Here we report a room-temperature bistable antiferromagnetic (AFM) memory that produces negligible stray fields and is insensitive to strong magnetic fields. We use a resistor made of a FeRh AFM, which orders ferromagnetically roughly 100 K above room temperature, and therefore allows us to set different collective directions for the Fe moments by applied magnetic field. On cooling to room temperature, AFM order sets in with the direction of the AFM moments predetermined by the field and moment direction in the high-temperature ferromagnetic state. For electrical reading, we use an AFM analogue of the anisotropic magnetoresistance. Our microscopic theory modelling confirms that this archetypical spintronic effect, discovered more than 150 years ago in ferromagnets, is also present in AFMs. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating room-temperature spintronic memories with AFMs, which in turn expands the base of available magnetic materials for devices with properties that cannot be achieved with ferromagnets.

  6. Ferroelectric BaTiO3 and LiNbO3 Nanoparticles Dispersed in Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Mixtures: Electrooptic and Dielectric (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-14

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0210 FERROELECTRIC BaTiO3 AND LiNbO3 NANOPARTICLES DISPERSED IN FERROELECTRIC LIQUID CRYSTAL MIXTURES: ELECTROOPTIC...COMMAND UNITED STATES AIR FORCE Ferroelectric BaTiO3 and LiNbO3 nanoparticles dispersed in ferroelectric liquid crystal mixtures: Electrooptic and...Accepted 29 June 2016 ABSTRACT Harvested ferroelectric nanoparticles of BaTiO3 and LiNbO3 were dispersed in Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals (FLCs) with

  7. Ferroelectricity and ferroelectric resistive switching in sputtered Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhen; Xiao, Juanxiu; Wang, Jingxian; Zhang, Lei; Deng, Jinyu; Liu, Ziyan; Dong, Zhili; Wang, John; Chen, Jingsheng

    2016-06-01

    Ferroelectric properties and ferroelectric resistive switching (FE-RS) of sputtered Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 (HZO) thin films were investigated. The HZO films with the orthorhombic phase were obtained without capping or post-deposition annealing. Ferroelectricity was demonstrated by polarization-voltage (P-V) hysteresis loops measured in a positive-up negative-down manner and piezoresponse force microscopy. However, defects such as oxygen vacancies caused the films to become leaky. The observed ferroelectricity and semiconducting characteristics led to the FE-RS effect. The FE-RS effect may be explained by a polarization modulated trap-assisted tunneling model. Our study not only provides a facile route to develop ferroelectric HfO2-based thin films but also explores their potential applications in FE-RS memories.

  8. Antiferromagnet-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic trilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo-Yao; Lin, Po-Han; Tsai, Ming-Shian; Shih, Chun-Wei; Lee, Meng-Ju; Huang, Chun-Wei; Jih, Nae-Yeou; Wei, Der-Hsin

    2016-08-01

    This study demonstrates the effect of antiferromagnet-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) on ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (FM/AFM/FM) trilayers and reveals its interplay with a long-range interlayer coupling between separated FM layers. In epitaxially grown 12 monolayer (ML) Ni/Co/Mn/5 ML Co/Cu(001) films, magnetic hysteresis loops and element-resolved magnetic domain imaging showed that the magnetization direction of the top layers of 12 ML Ni/Co films could be changed from the in-plane direction to the perpendicular direction, when the thickness of the Mn films (tMn) was greater than a critical value close to the thickness threshold associated with the onset of AFM ordering (tMn=3.5 ML). The top FM layers exhibited a significantly enhanced PMA when tMn increased further, and this enhancement can be attributed to a strengthened AFM ordering of the volume moments of the Mn films, as evidenced by the presence of induced domain frustration. By contrast, the long-range interlayer coupling presented clear effects only when tMn was at a lower coverage.

  9. Texture and anisotropy in ferroelectric lead metaniobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Benjamin John

    Ferroelectric lead metaniobate, PbNb2O6, is a piezoelectric ceramic typically used because of its elevated Curie temperature and anisotropic properties. However, the piezoelectric constant, d33, is relatively low in randomly oriented ceramics when compared to other ferroelectrics. Crystallographic texturing is often employed to increase the piezoelectric constant because the spontaneous polarization axes of grains are better aligned. In this research, crystallographic textures induced through tape casting are distinguished from textures induced through electrical poling. Texture is described using multiple quantitative approaches utilizing X-ray and neutron time-of-flight diffraction. Tape casting lead metaniobate with an inclusion of acicular template particles induces an orthotropic texture distribution. Templated grain growth from seed particles oriented during casting results in anisotropic grain structures. The degree of preferred orientation is directly linked to the shear behavior of the tape cast slurry. Increases in template concentration, slurry viscosity, and casting velocity lead to larger textures by inducing more particle orientation in the tape casting plane. The maximum 010 texture distributions were two and a half multiples of a random distribution. Ferroelectric texture was induced by electrical poling. Electric poling increases the volume of material oriented with the spontaneous polarization direction in the material. Samples with an initial paraelectric texture exhibit a greater change in the domain volume fraction during electrical poling than randomly oriented ceramics. In tape cast samples, the resulting piezoelectric response is proportional to the 010 texture present prior to poling. This results in property anisotropy dependent on initial texture. Piezoelectric properties measured on the most textured ceramics were similar to those obtained with a commercial standard.

  10. Platinum contamination issues in ferroelectric memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubekeur, H.; Mikolajick, T.; Pamler, W.; Hopfner, J.; Frey, L.; Ryssel, H.

    2002-09-01

    The contamination risk of processing with platinum electrodes on device performance in ferroelectric memories is assessed in this work. Details of platinum diffusion to the active regions at annealing temperatures of 800 degC are investigated by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, deep level transient spectroscopy, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry techniques. Cross sectional transmission electron microscopy and local elemental analysis by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were used to examine the precipitation of Pt in defect free silicon as an eventual cause of gate oxide degradation. The impact of platinum contamination on device performance is evaluated under the typical ferroelectric memory processing conditions. Results from leakage current and charge to breakdown measurements of intentionally contaminated diode and metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures, respectively, are presented. The results show that the degradation depends strongly on device design and configuration. A phosphorus doped polysilicon plug, which has the function of connecting the select transistor to the capacitor module, provides effective gettering regions and prevents the diffusion of Pt atoms to the active regions. Under typical processing conditions, no evident Pt precipitates were observed and up to a concentration level of 4 x1014 atoms/cm2, the leakage current of intentionally contaminated diodes does not increase, if the contamination occurs after front-end phosphorus doped poly-Si processing. Results from constant current charge to breakdown show a small number of breakdown events due to redeposition of Pt at the periphery of the MOS structure. The risk of processing with Pt electrodes in ferroelectric memories requires great care. Precautions like sealing the back surface and incorporating phosphorus doped polysilicon as the plug material are necessary to avoid the detrimental effects of Pt.

  11. Intrinsic magneto-dielectric effect in the diluted magnetic ferroelectric fluoride BaMg{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}F{sub 4} (0≤x≤0.07)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manikandan, M.; Muthukumaran, A.; Venkateswaran, C., E-mail: cvunom@hotmail.com

    2015-11-01

    BaMg{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}F{sub 4} (0≤x≤0.07) samples were prepared by hydrothermal method which have heterogeneous particle size distribution with combined hexagonal and rectangular shapes. An isovalent Mn ion at Mg site induces antiferromagnetism at room temperature and the antiferromagnetic nature is confirmed by Arrott–Belov–Kouvel plot. Magnetization values taken at 15 kOe initially increases and then decreases with increase in the Mn concentrations. Undoped and doped samples show unsaturated ferroelectric loops with lossy nature and the lossy nature is found to decrease with increase in doping concentration. BaMg{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}F{sub 4} exhibits a stable resistivity behavior over the temperature range 350–650 K. Almost a flat response in dielectric properties is observed for all the samples at 100 kHz in the measured temperature range. The probable origin of magneto-dielectric effect is discussed based on the study at a frequency of 1 kHz at room temperature. - Highlights: • BaMg{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}F{sub 4} (x=0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07) were prepared by the hydrothermal method. • Inducing magnetism in BaMgF{sub 4} makes it suitable for future spintronics applications. • The Mn ion doping in BaMgF{sub 4} induces antiferromagnetism at room temperature. • The BaMg{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}F{sub 4} exhibits better antiferromagnetism and ferroelectricity. • All the samples show uneven sized hexagonal and rectangular particle distribution.

  12. Magnetoelectric effect in antiferromagnetic multiferroic Pb (F e1 /2N b1 /2)O3 and its solid solutions with PbTi O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguta, V. V.; Stephanovich, V. A.; Raevski, I. P.; Raevskaya, S. I.; Titov, V. V.; Smotrakov, V. G.; Eremkin, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Antiferromagnets (AFMs) are presently considered as promising materials for applications in spintronics and random access memories due to the robustness of information stored in the AFM state against perturbing magnetic fields. In this respect, AFM multiferroics may be attractive alternatives for conventional AFMs as the coupling of magnetism with ferroelectricity (magnetoelectric effect) offers an elegant possibility of electric-field control and switching of AFM domains. Here we report the results of comprehensive experimental and theoretical investigations of the quadratic magnetoelectric (ME) effect in single crystals and highly resistive ceramics of Pb (F e1 /2N b1 /2)O3 (PFN) and (1 -x ) Pb (F e1 /2N b1 /2) O3-x PbTi O3(PFN -x PT ) . We are interested primarily in the temperature range of the multiferroic phase, T <150 K , where the ME coupling coefficient is extremely large (as compared to the well-known multiferroic BiFe O3 ) and shows sign reversal at the paramagnetic-to-antiferromagnetic phase transition. Moreover, we observe strong ME response nonlinearity in the AFM phase in the magnetic fields of only a few kOe. To describe the temperature and magnetic field dependencies of the above unusual features of the ME effect in PFN and PFN-x PT , we use a simple phenomenological Landau approach which explains experimental data surprisingly well. Our ME measurements demonstrate that the electric field of only 20-25 kV/cm is able to switch the AFM domains and align them with ferroelectric ones even in PFN ceramic samples.

  13. Organic ferroelectric opto-electronic memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Asadi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Memory is a prerequisite for many electronic devices. Organic non-volatile memory devices based on ferroelectricity are a promising approach towards the development of a low-cost memory technology based on a simple cross-bar array. In this review article we discuss the latest developments in this area with a focus on the most promising opto-electronic device concept, i.e., bistable rectifying diodes. The integration of these diodes into larger memory arrays is discussed. Through a clever design of the electrodes we demonstrate light emitting diodes with integrated built-in switches that can be applied in signage applications.

  14. Faceting oscillations in nano-ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, J. F., E-mail: jfs32@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: ashok553@nplindia.org [Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kumar, Ashok, E-mail: jfs32@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: ashok553@nplindia.org [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Delhi (India)

    2014-08-04

    We observe periodic faceting of 8-nm diameter ferroelectric disks on a 10 s time-scale when thin Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} film is exposed to constant high-resolution transmission electron microscopy beams. The oscillation is between circular disk geometry and sharply faceted hexagons. The behavior is analogous to that of spin structure and magnetic domain wall velocity oscillations in permalloy [Bisig et al., Nat. Commun. 4, 2328 (2013)], involving overshoot and de-pinning from defects [Amann et al., J. Rheol. 57, 149–175 (2013)].

  15. Quasiparticle band structure of antiferromagnetic Eu Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathi Jaya, S.; Nolting, W. [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, Lehrstuhl Festkoerpertheorie, Invalidenstrasse 110, D-10115 Berlin (Germany)

    1997-11-24

    The temperature-dependent electronic quasiparticle spectrum of the antiferromagnetic semiconductor Eu Te is derived by use of a combination of a many-body model procedure with a tight-binding-'linear muffin tin orbital' (TB - LMTO) band structure calculation. The central part is the d-f model for a single band electron ('test electron') being exchange coupled to the anti ferromagnetically ordered localized moments of the Eu ions. The single-electron Bloch energies of the d-f model are taken from a TB-LMTO calculation for paramagnetic Eu Te. The d-f model is evaluated by a recently proposed moment conserving Green function technique to get the temperature-dependent sublattice-quasiparticle band structure (S-QBS) and sublattice-quasiparticle density of states (S-QDOS) of the unoccupied 5 d-6 s energy bands. Unconventional correlation effects and the appearance of characteristic quasiparticles ('magnetic polarons') are worked out in detail. The temperature dependence of the S-QDOS and S-QBS is mainly provoked by the spectral weights of the energy dispersions. Minority- and majority-spin spectra coincide for all temperatures but with different densities of states. Upon cooling from T{sub N} to T = 0 K the lower conduction band edge exhibits a small blue shift of -0.025 eV in accordance with the experiment. Quasiparticle damping manifesting itself in a temperature-dependent broadening of the spectral density peaks arises from spin exchange processes between (5 d-6 s) conduction band electrons and localized 4 f moments. (author)

  16. X-ray linear dichroism dependence on ferroelectric polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisetty, S; Zhou, J; Karthik, J; Damodaran, A R; Chen, D; Scholl, A; Martin, L W; Holcomb, M

    2012-06-20

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy and photoemission electron microscopy are techniques commonly used to determine the magnetic properties of thin films, crystals, and heterostructures. Recently, these methods have been used in the study of magnetoelectrics and multiferroics. The analysis of such materials has been compromised by the presence of multiple order parameters and the lack of information on how to separate these coupled properties. In this work, we shed light on the manifestation of dichroism from ferroelectric polarization and atomic structure using photoemission electron microscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Linear dichroism arising from the ferroelectric order in the PbZr0:2Ti0:8O3 thin films was studied as a function of incident x-ray polarization and geometry to unambiguously determine the angular dependence of the ferroelectric contribution to the dichroism. These measurements allow us to examine the contribution of surface charges and ferroelectric polarization as potential mechanisms for linear dichroism. The x-ray linear dichroism from ferroelectric order revealed an angular dependence based on the angle between the ferroelectric polarization direction and the x-ray polarization axis, allowing a formula for linear dichroism in ferroelectric samples to be defined.

  17. Efficient visible light photo-Fenton-like degradation of organic pollutants using in situ surface-modified BiFeO3 as a catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junjian An; Lihua Zhu; Yingying Zhang; Heqing Tang

    2013-01-01

    The visible light photo-Fenton-like catalytic performance of BiFeO3 nanoparticles was investigated using Methyl Violet (MV),Rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol as probes.Under optimum conditions,the pseudo first-order rate constant (k) was determined to be 2.21 × 10-2,5.56 × 10-2 and 2.01 × 10-2 min-1 for the degradation of MV (30 μmol/L),RhB (10 μmol/L) and phenol (3 mmol/L),respectively,in the BiFeO3-H2O2-visible light (Vis) system.The introduction of visible light irradiation increased the k values of MV,RhB and phenol degradation 3.47,1.95 and 2.07 times in comparison with those in dark.Generally,the k values in the BiFeO3-H2O2-Vis system were accelerated by increasing BiFeO3 load and H2O2 concentration,but decreased with increasing initial pollutant concentration.To further enhance the degradation of pollutants at high concentrations,BiFeO3 was modified with the addition of surface modifiers.The addition of ethylenediamineteraacetic acid (EDTA,0.4 mmol/L) increased the k value of MV degradation (60 μmol/L)from 1.01 × 10-2 min-1 in the BiFeO3-H2O2-Vis system to 1.30 min-1 in the EDTA-BiFeO3-H2O2-Vis system by a factor of 128.This suggests that in situ surface modification can enable BiFeO3 nano-particles to be a promising visible light photo-Fenton-like catalyst for the degradation of organic pollutants.

  18. Size dependence of phase transition temperatures of ferromagnetic ,ferroelectric and superconductive nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Xing-you; JIANG Qing

    2007-01-01

    With the miniaturization of devices,size and interface effects become increasingly important for the properties and performances of nanomaterials.Here,we present a thermodynamic approach to the mechanism behind size-induced unusual behavior in the phase stabilities of ferromagnetic(FM),antiferromagnetic(AFM),ferroelectric (FE),and superconductive(SC)nanocrystals,which are different dramatically from their bulk counterparts.This method is based on the Lindemann criterion for melting,Mott's expression for the vibrational melting entropy,and the Shi model for the size-dependent melting temperature.Simple and unified functions,without any adjustable parameter,are established for the size and interface dependences of thermal and phase stabilities of FM,AFM,FE and SC nanocrystals.According to these analytic functions,as the size of nanocrystals is reduced,the thermal and phasestabilities may strengthen or weaken,depending on the confluence of the.surface/volume ratio of nanocrystals and the FM(AFM,FE or SC)/substrate interface situations.The validity of this model is confirmed by a large number of experimental results.This theory will be significant for the choice of materials and the design of devices for practicalapplication.

  19. Structural, Ferroelectric, and Electrical Properties of NiTiO3 Ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Truptimayee; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2015-01-01

    The solid-state reaction route was used to prepare polycrystalline samples of NiTiO3. Basic x-ray structural analysis confirmed the formation of a single-phase compound with rhombohedral crystal structure. Study of surface morphology showed that the sample had well-defined grains with uniform distribution throughout the surface. The permittivity, tangent loss, electrical modulus, conductivity, and impedance of the material were obtained over wide ranges of temperature (25°C to 500°C) and frequency (1 kHz to 1 MHz). Strong correlation between the electrical parameters and microstructure (bulk, grain boundary, nature of charge carrier, etc.) of the material has been established. The dielectric parameters are found to be independent of temperature in both low and medium temperature ranges. The temperature-dependent bulk resistance and I- V characteristics exhibit negative temperature coefficient of resistance behavior of the material similar to that of semiconductors. The magnetic hysteresis loop revealed that the NiTiO3 ceramic displays antiferromagnetic behavior with weak ferromagnetism at room temperature. The frequency dependence of the electrical modulus and impedance of the material shows deviation from ideal Debye-type relaxation. The frequency and temperature dependence of the alternating-current (AC) conductivity and activation energy of the system obey Jonscher's universal power law with non-Debye type of relaxation. The nature of the hysteresis loop shows that the material has ferroelectric characteristics at room temperature.

  20. Design of a Multi-Level/Analog Ferroelectric Memory Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Phillips, Thomas A.; Ho, Fat D.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing the memory density and utilizing the dove1 characteristics of ferroelectric devices is important in making ferroelectric memory devices more desirable to the consumer. This paper describes a design that allows multiple levels to be stored in a ferroelectric based memory cell. It can be used to store multiple bits or analog values in a high speed nonvolatile memory. The design utilizes the hysteresis characteristic of ferroelectric transistors to store an analog value in the memory cell. The design also compensates for the decay of the polarization of the ferroelectric material over time. This is done by utilizing a pair of ferroelectric transistors to store the data. One transistor is used as a reference to determine the amount of decay that has occurred since the pair was programmed. The second transistor stores the analog value as a polarization value between zero and saturated. The design allows digital data to be stored as multiple bits in each memory cell. The number of bits per cell that can be stored will vary with the decay rate of the ferroelectric transistors and the repeatability of polarization between transistors. It is predicted that each memory cell may be able to store 8 bits or more. The design is based on data taken from actual ferroelectric transistors. Although the circuit has not been fabricated, a prototype circuit is now under construction. The design of this circuit is different than multi-level FLASH or silicon transistor circuits. The differences between these types of circuits are described in this paper. This memory design will be useful because it allows higher memory density, compensates for the environmental and ferroelectric aging processes, allows analog values to be directly stored in memory, compensates for the thermal and radiation environments associated with space operations, and relies only on existing technologies.

  1. Design of a Multi-Level/Analog Ferroelectric Memory Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Phillips, Thomas A.; Ho, Fat D.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing the memory density and utilizing the dove1 characteristics of ferroelectric devices is important in making ferroelectric memory devices more desirable to the consumer. This paper describes a design that allows multiple levels to be stored in a ferroelectric based memory cell. It can be used to store multiple bits or analog values in a high speed nonvolatile memory. The design utilizes the hysteresis characteristic of ferroelectric transistors to store an analog value in the memory cell. The design also compensates for the decay of the polarization of the ferroelectric material over time. This is done by utilizing a pair of ferroelectric transistors to store the data. One transistor is used as a reference to determine the amount of decay that has occurred since the pair was programmed. The second transistor stores the analog value as a polarization value between zero and saturated. The design allows digital data to be stored as multiple bits in each memory cell. The number of bits per cell that can be stored will vary with the decay rate of the ferroelectric transistors and the repeatability of polarization between transistors. It is predicted that each memory cell may be able to store 8 bits or more. The design is based on data taken from actual ferroelectric transistors. Although the circuit has not been fabricated, a prototype circuit is now under construction. The design of this circuit is different than multi-level FLASH or silicon transistor circuits. The differences between these types of circuits are described in this paper. This memory design will be useful because it allows higher memory density, compensates for the environmental and ferroelectric aging processes, allows analog values to be directly stored in memory, compensates for the thermal and radiation environments associated with space operations, and relies only on existing technologies.

  2. COMPUTER SIMULATION OF ANTIFERROMAGNETIC STRUCTURES DESCRIBED BY THE THREE-VERTEX ANTIFERROMAGNETIC POTTS MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarash K. Abuev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives A computer simulation of the antiferromagnetic structures described by the three-vertex Potts model on a triangular lattice is performed, taking into account the antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between the nearest J1 and second J2 neighbours. The main goal of the computer simulation was to elucidate the effects of ground state and areas of frustration on the thermodynamic and magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic structures described by the lowdimensional Potts model. Method The computer simulation is based on the Monte Carlo method. This method is implemented using the Metropolis algorithm in combination with the Wolff claster algorithm. The computer simulation was carried out for low-dimensional systems with periodic boundary conditions and linear dimensions L = 24124. Results On the basis of heat capacity and entropy analysis, phase transitions were observed in the considered model to possess exchange interaction parameters J1 <0 and J2 <0 in the variation intervals 0r<0.2 and 1.0

  3. Supersymmetry protected topological phases of isostatic lattices and kagome antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Michael J.

    2016-10-01

    I generalize the theory of phonon topological band structures of isostatic lattices to frustrated antiferromagnets. I achieve this with a discovery of a many-body supersymmetry (SUSY) in the phonon problem of balls and springs and its connection to local constraints satisfied by ground states. The Witten index of the SUSY model demands the Maxwell-Calladine index of mechanical structures. "Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking" is identified as the need to gap all modes in the bulk to create the topological isostatic lattice state. Since ground states of magnetic systems also satisfy local constraint conditions (such as the vanishing of the total spin on a triangle), I identify a similar SUSY structure for many common models of antiferromagnets including the square, triangluar, kagome, pyrochlore nearest-neighbor antiferromagnets, and the J2=J1/2 square-lattice antiferromagnet. Remarkably, the kagome family of antiferromagnets is the analog of topological isostatic lattices among this collection of models. Thus, a solid-state realization of the theory of phonon topological band structure may be found in frustrated magnetic materials.

  4. Reversible Polarization Rotation in Epitaxial Ferroelectric Bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Guangqing; Zhang, Qi; Huang, Hsin-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Polarization rotation engineering is a promising path to giant dielectric and electromechanical responses in ferroelectric materials and devices. This work demonstrates robust and reversible in- to out-of-plane polarization rotation in ultrathin (nanoscale) epitaxial (001) tetragonal PbZr0.3Ti0.7O3...... (PZT-T)/rhombohedral PbZr0.55Ti0.45O3 (PZT-R) ferroelectric bilayers. An underlying 20 nm thick PZT-R layer reduces the symmetry in a 5 nm thick PZT-T layer by imposing an in-plane tensile strain while simultaneously decoupling the PZT-T layer from the substrate. This prevents clamping and facilitates...... large-scale polarization rotation switching (≈60 μC cm−2) and an effective d 33 response 500% (≈250 pm V−1) larger than the PZT-R layer alone. Furthermore, this enhancement is stable for more than 107 electrical switching cycles. These bilayers present a simple and highly controllable means to design...

  5. Ferroelectric based catalysis: Switchable surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakekhani, Arvin; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2015-03-01

    We describe a new class of catalysts that uses an epitaxial monolayer of a transition metal oxide on a ferroelectric substrate. The ferroelectric polarization switches the surface chemistry between strongly adsorptive and strongly desorptive regimes, circumventing difficulties encountered on non-switchable catalytic surfaces where the Sabatier principle dictates a moderate surface-molecule interaction strength. This method is general and can, in principle, be applied to many reactions, and for each case the choice of the transition oxide monolayer can be optimized. Here, as a specific example, we show how simultaneous NOx direct decomposition (into N2 and O2) and CO oxidation can be achieved efficiently on CrO2 terminated PbTiO3, while circumventing oxygen (and sulfur) poisoning issues. One should note that NOx direct decomposition has been an open challenge in automotive emission control industry. Our method can expand the range of catalytically active elements to those which are not conventionally considered for catalysis and which are more economical, e.g., Cr (for NOx direct decomposition and CO oxidation) instead of canonical precious metal catalysts. Primary support from Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing, North America, Inc.

  6. Elastic recoil detection analysis of ferroelectric films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stannard, W.B.; Johnston, P.N.; Walker, S.R.; Bubb, I.F. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Scott, J.F. [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia); Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    There has been considerable progress in developing SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (SBT) and Ba{sub O.7}Sr{sub O.3}TiO{sub 3} (BST) ferroelectric films for use as nonvolatile memory chips and for capacitors in dynamic random access memories (DRAMs). Ferroelectric materials have a very large dielectric constant ( {approx} 1000), approximately one hundred times greater than that of silicon dioxide. Devices made from these materials have been known to experience breakdown after a repeated voltage pulsing. It has been suggested that this is related to stoichiometric changes within the material. To accurately characterise these materials Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) is being developed. This technique employs a high energy heavy ion beam to eject nuclei from the target and uses a time of flight and energy dispersive (ToF-E) detector telescope to detect these nuclei. The recoil nuclei carry both energy and mass information which enables the determination of separate energy spectra for individual elements or for small groups of elements In this work ERDA employing 77 MeV {sup 127}I ions has been used to analyse Strontium Bismuth Tantalate thin films at the heavy ion recoil facility at ANSTO, Lucas Heights. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Síntesis y evolución microestructural de cerámicas de BiFeO3 modificadas con ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo, M. S.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available BiFeO3 ceramic materials have received a great interest in the last years due to their potential application as multiferroic devices. However, the preparation of BiFeO3-based bulk ceramics shows serious difficulties related to the presence of secondary phases and the densification process. These problems result in a high electrical conductivity which up to now limits the technological applications of BiFeO3. However, it has been observed experimentally that the conductivity in these ceramics can be reduced by acting on their microstructure. In this framework, the present contribution is focused on the analysis of the microstructural changes promoted by superficial doping of the BiFeO3 ceramic particles with ZnO. The structural and microstructural characterization of the obtained materials reveals that the addition of ZnO results in a “solutedrag” effect. Due to this effect the dopant remains segregated at the grain boundaries so inhibiting the grain growth during sintering.Los materiales cerámicos de BiFeO3 han cobrado un gran interés en los últimos años por su posible aplicación como materiales multiferroicos. Sin embargo, la obtención de materiales densos de BiFeO3 presenta serias dificultades asociadas a la aparición de fases secundarias no multiferroicas y a la dificultad de densificación, problemas que se traducen en una elevada conductividad eléctrica e impiden, de momento, sus aplicaciones prácticas. No obstante, se ha observado experimentalmente que es posible reducir los problemas de elevada conductividad eléctrica en materiales cerámicos a través de modificaciones a nivel microestructural. Dentro de este contexto, en este trabajo se estudian las modificaciones microestructurales producidas al dopar superficialmente partículas cerámicas de BiFeO3 con ZnO. La caracterización estructural y microestructural de los materiales obtenidos revela que la adición de ZnO por el método de modificación superficial resulta en

  8. Phase transition properties of a cylindrical ferroelectric nanowire

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wang Ying; Yang Xiong

    2013-11-01

    Based on the transverse Ising model (TIM) and using the mean-field theory, we investigate the phase transition properties of a cylindrical ferroelectric nanowire. Two different kinds of phase diagrams are constructed. We discuss systematically the effects of exchange interactions and the transverse field parameters on the phase diagrams. Moreover, the cross-over features of the parameters from the ferroelectric dominant phase diagram to the paraelectric dominant phase diagram are determined for the ferroelectric nanowire. In addition, the polarizations of the surface shell and the core are illustrated in detail by modifying the TIM parameters.

  9. Magnetic and structural properties of antiferromagnetic VF{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuvekamp, Patrick; Kremer, Reinhard; Eger, Roland [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Nenert, Gwilherm; Hansen, Thomas [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2013-07-01

    We report on a magnetic and structural investigation of layered antiferromagnetic system vanadium (III) fluoride. VF{sub 3} crystallizes in a distorted ReO{sub 3} structure (R anti 3c) with rotated undistorted VF{sub 6} octahedra. The V{sup +3} cations are arranged in a triangular lattice with the possibility of exhibiting magnetic frustration. Polycrystalline samples of VF{sub 3} were investigated using heat capacity, dielectric, magnetic susceptibility and neutron powder diffraction methods. Combining our results, we confirmed that VF{sub 3} undergoes long-range antiferromagnetic order at ∝19 K in accordance with literature. The antiferromagnetic order results in a magnetic structure with the magnetic moments alternating between a parallel and b parallel alignments in the ab plane. A second phase transition can be seen at ∝120 K in the heat capacity and dielectric measurements possibly associated to a minute structural distortion.

  10. Magnetic phase diagrams of classical triangular and kagome antiferromagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gvozdikova, M V [Department of Physics, Kharkov National University, 61077 Kharkov (Ukraine); Melchy, P-E; Zhitomirsky, M E, E-mail: mike.zhitomirsky@cea.fr [Service de Physique Statistique, Magnetisme et Supraconductivite, UMR-E9001 CEA-INAC/UJF, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2011-04-27

    We investigate the effect of geometrical frustration on the H-T phase diagrams of the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnets on triangular and kagome lattices. The phase diagrams for the two models are obtained from large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. For the kagome antiferromagnet, thermal fluctuations are unable to lift degeneracy completely and stabilize translationally disordered multipolar phases. We find a substantial difference in the temperature scales of the order by disorder effect related to different degeneracy of the low- and the high-field classical ground states in the kagome antiferromagnet. In the low-field regime, the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition into a spin-nematic phase is produced by unbinding of half-quantum vortices.

  11. Kondo Screening and Fermi Surface in the Antiferromagnetic Metal Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiji; Si, Qimiao

    2006-03-01

    We address the Kondo effect deep inside the antiferromagnetic metal phase of a Kondo lattice Hamiltonian with SU(2) invariance. The local- moment component is described in terms of a non-linear sigma model. The Fermi surface of the conduction electron component is taken to be sufficiently small, so that it is not spanned by the antiferromagnetic wavevector. The effective low energy form of the Kondo coupling simplifies drastically, corresponding to the uniform component of the magnetization that forward-scatters the conduction electrons on their own Fermi surface. We use a combined bosonic and fermionic (Shankar) renormalization group procedure to analyze this effective theory and study the Kondo screening and Fermi surface in the antiferromagnetic phase. The implications for the global magnetic phase diagram, as well as quantum critical points, of heavy fermion metals are discussed.

  12. Magnetic phase diagrams of classical triangular and kagome antiferromagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdikova, M V; Melchy, P-E; Zhitomirsky, M E

    2011-04-27

    We investigate the effect of geometrical frustration on the H-T phase diagrams of the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnets on triangular and kagome lattices. The phase diagrams for the two models are obtained from large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. For the kagome antiferromagnet, thermal fluctuations are unable to lift degeneracy completely and stabilize translationally disordered multipolar phases. We find a substantial difference in the temperature scales of the order by disorder effect related to different degeneracy of the low- and the high-field classical ground states in the kagome antiferromagnet. In the low-field regime, the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition into a spin-nematic phase is produced by unbinding of half-quantum vortices.

  13. Role of the antiferromagnetic bulk spins in exchange bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuller, Ivan K. [Center for Advanced Nanoscience and Physics Department, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Morales, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.morales@ehu.es [Department of Chemical-Physics & BCMaterials, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain); Batlle, Xavier [Departament Física Fonamental and Institut de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia, Universitat de Barcelona, c/ Martí i Franqués s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Nowak, Ulrich [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, 78464 Konstanz (Germany); Güntherodt, Gernot [Physics Institute (IIA), RWTH Aachen University, Campus RWTH-Melaten, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    This “Critical Focused Issue” presents a brief review of experiments and models which describe the origin of exchange bias in epitaxial or textured ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic bilayers. Evidence is presented which clearly indicates that inner, uncompensated, pinned moments in the bulk of the antiferromagnet (AFM) play a very important role in setting the magnitude of the exchange bias. A critical evaluation of the extensive literature in the field indicates that it is useful to think of this bulk, pinned uncompensated moments as a new type of a ferromagnet which has a low total moment, an ordering temperature given by the AFM Néel temperature, with parallel aligned moments randomly distributed on the regular AFM lattice. - Highlights: • We address the role of bulk antiferromagnetic spins in the exchange bias phenomenon. • Significant experiments on how bulk AFM spins determine exchange bias are highlighted. • We explain the model that accounts for experimental results.

  14. Revealing the properties of Mn2Au for antiferromagnetic spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthem, V M T S; Colin, C V; Mayaffre, H; Julien, M-H; Givord, D

    2013-01-01

    The continuous reduction in size of spintronic devices requires the development of structures, which are insensitive to parasitic external magnetic fields, while preserving the magnetoresistive signals of existing systems based on giant or tunnel magnetoresistance. This could be obtained in tunnel anisotropic magnetoresistance structures incorporating an antiferromagnetic, instead of a ferromagnetic, material. To turn this promising concept into real devices, new magnetic materials with large spin-orbit effects must be identified. Here we demonstrate that Mn2Au is not a Pauli paramagnet as hitherto believed but an antiferromagnet with Mn moments of ~4 μB. The particularly large strength of the exchange interactions leads to an extrapolated Néel temperature well above 1,000 K, so that ground-state magnetic properties are essentially preserved up to room temperature and above. Combined with the existence of a significant in-plane anisotropy, this makes Mn2Au the most promising material for antiferromagnetic spintronics identified so far.

  15. Downscaling ferroelectric field effect transistors by using ferroelectric Si-doped HfO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Dominik; Yurchuk, Ekaterina; Müller, Stefan; Müller, Johannes; Paul, Jan; Sundquist, Jonas; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schlösser, Till; van Bentum, Ralf; Trentzsch, Martin; Schröder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Throughout the 22 nm technology node HfO2 is established as a reliable gate dielectric in contemporary complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The working principle of ferroelectric field effect transistors FeFET has also been demonstrated for some time for dielectric materials like Pb[ZrxTi1-x]O3 and SrBi2Ta2O9. However, integrating these into contemporary downscaled CMOS technology nodes is not trivial due to the necessity of an extremely thick gate stack. Recent developments have shown HfO2 to have ferroelectric properties, given the proper doping. Moreover, these doped HfO2 thin films only require layer thicknesses similar to the ones already in use in CMOS technology. This work will show how the incorporation of Si induces ferroelectricity in HfO2 based capacitor structures and finally demonstrate non-volatile storage in nFeFETs down to a gate length of 100 nm. A memory window of 0.41 V can be retained after 20,000 switching cycles. Retention can be extrapolated to 10 years.

  16. Spatially Resolved Large Magnetization in Ultrathin BiFeO3

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Er-Jia

    2017-06-19

    Here, a quantitative magnetic depth profile across the planar interfaces in BiFeO3 /La0.7 Sr0.3 MnO3 (BFO/LSMO) superlattices using polarized neutron reflectometry is obtained. An enhanced magnetization of 1.83 ± 0.16 μB /Fe in BFO layers is observed when they are interleaved between two manganite layers. The enhanced magnetic order in BFO persists up to 200 K. The depth dependence of magnetic moments in BFO/LSMO superlattices as a function of the BFO layer thickness is also explored. The results show the enhanced net magnetic moment in BFO from the LSMO/BFO interface extends 3-4 unit cells into BFO. The interior part of a thicker BFO layer has a much smaller magnetization, suggesting it still keeps the small canted AFM state. The results exclude charge transfer, intermixing, epitaxial strain, and octahedral rotations/tilts as dominating mechanisms for the large net magnetization in BFO. An explanation-one suggested by others previously and consistent with the observations-attributes the temperature dependence of the net magnetization of BFO to strong orbital hybridization between Fe and Mn across the interfaces. Such orbital reconstruction would establish an upper temperature limit for magnetic ordering of BFO.

  17. Degradation of Tetracycline with BiFeO3 Prepared by a Simple Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhehua Xue

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BiFeO3 particles (BFO were prepared by a simple hydrothermal method and characterized. BFO was pure, with a wide particle size distribution, and was visible light responsive. Tetracycline was chosen as the model pollutant in this study. The pH value was an important factor influencing the degradation efficiency. The total organic carbon (TOC measurement was emphasized as a potential standard to evaluate the visible light photocatalytic degradation efficiency. The photo-Fenton process showed much better degradation efficiency and a wider pH adaptive range than photocatalysis or the Fenton process solely. The optimal residual TOC concentrations of the photocatalysis, Fenton and photo-Fenton processes were 81%, 65% and 21%, while the rate constants of the three processes under the same condition where the best residual TOC was acquired were 9.7 × 10−3, 3.2 × 10−2 and 1.5 × 10−1 min−1, respectively. BFO was demonstrated to have excellent stability and reusability. A comparison among different reported advanced oxidation processes removing tetracycline (TC was also made. Our findings showed that the photo-Fenton process had good potential for antibiotic-containing waste water treatment. It provides a new method to deal with antibiotic pollution.

  18. Pyroelectric properties and electrical conductivity in samarium doped BiFeO 3 ceramics

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yingbang

    2012-06-01

    Samarium (Sm 3+) doped BiFeO 3 (BFO) ceramics were prepared by a modified solid-state-reaction method which adopted a rapid heating as well as cooling during the sintering process. The pyroelectric coefficient increased from 93 to 137 μC/m 2 K as the Sm 3+ doping level increased from 1 mol% to 8 mol%. Temperature dependence of the pyroelectric coefficient showed an abrupt decrease above 80 °C in all samples, which was associated with the increase of electrical conductivity with temperature. This electrical conduction was attributed to oxygen vacancy existing in the samples. An activation energy of ∼0.7 eV for the conduction process was found to be irrespective of the Sm 3+ doping level. On the other hand, the magnetic Néel temperature (T N) decreased with increasing Sm 3+ doping level. On the basis of our results, the effects of Sm doping level on the pyroelectric and electrical properties of the BFO were revealed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnetization damping in noncollinear spin valves with antiferromagnetic interlayer couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Takahiro; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.; Takahashi, Saburo

    2015-08-01

    We study the magnetic damping in the simplest of synthetic antiferromagnets, i.e., antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled spin valves, in the presence of applied magnetic fields that enforce noncolliear magnetic configurations. We formulate the dynamic exchange of spin currents in a noncollinear texture based on the spin-diffusion theory with quantum mechanical boundary conditions at the ferrromagnet/normal-metal interfaces and derive the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations coupled by the interlayer static and dynamic exchange interactions. We predict noncollinearity-induced additional damping that is modulated by an applied magnetic field. We compare theoretical results with published experiments.

  20. Multicritical point in a diluted bilayer Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Anders W

    2002-10-21

    The S=1/2 Heisenberg bilayer antiferromagnet with randomly removed interlayer dimers is studied using quantum Monte Carlo simulations. A zero-temperature multicritical point (p(*),g(*)) at the classical percolation density p=p(*) and interlayer coupling g(*) approximately equal 0.16 is demonstrated. The quantum critical exponents of the percolating cluster are determined using finite-size scaling. It is argued that the associated finite-temperature quantum critical regime extends to zero interlayer coupling and could be relevant for antiferromagnetic cuprates doped with nonmagnetic impurities.

  1. Magnetic relaxation in a suspension of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikher, Yu. L.; Stepanov, V. I.

    2008-09-01

    A kinetic model is proposed to describe the low-frequency magnetodynamics of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles suspended in a fluid. Because of their small size, apart from an anisotropic magnetic susceptibility typical of antiferromagnets, these particles also have a constant magnetic moment caused by sublattice decompensation. An orientational crossover takes place in such a nanosuspension (colloid) when magnetized by a constant field: the axes of easy particle magnetization that were initially aligned along the field become oriented perpendicularly. This effect changes significantly the characteristics of the system’s magnetic response: the dynamic susceptibility spectrum and the relaxation time in a pulsed field.

  2. Spin transport through the metallic antiferromagnet FeMn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, H.; Zhang, W.; Jungfleisch, M. B.; Sklenar, J.; Pearson, J. E.; Ketterson, J. B.; Hoffmann, A.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate spin transport through metallic antiferromagnets using measurements based on spin pumping combined with inverse spin Hall effects in N i80F e20/FeMn /W trilayers. The relatively large magnitude and opposite sign of spin Hall effects in W compared to FeMn enable an unambiguous detection of spin currents transmitted through the entire FeMn layer thickness. Using this approach we can detect two distinctively different spin transport regimes, which we associate with electronic and magnonic spin currents, respectively. The latter can extend to relatively large distances (≈9 nm) and is enhanced when the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature is close to the measurement temperature.

  3. Quantification of quantum discord in a antiferromagnetic Heisenberg compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, H., E-mail: chiranjib@iiserkol.ac.in; Chakraborty, T., E-mail: chiranjib@iiserkol.ac.in; Mitra, C., E-mail: chiranjib@iiserkol.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Kolkata, Mohanpur Campus, Mohanpur -741252, Nadia, West Bengal (India)

    2014-04-24

    An experimental quantification of concurrence and quantum discord from heat capacity (C{sub p}) measurement performed over a solid state system has been reported. In this work, thermodynamic measurements were performed on copper nitrate (CN, Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}⋅2.5H{sub 2}O) single crystals which is an alternating antiferromagnet Heisenberg spin 1/2 system. CN being a weak dimerized antiferromagnet is an ideal system to investigate correlations between spins. The theoretical expressions were used to obtain concurrence and quantum discord curves as a function of temperature from heat capacity data of a real macroscopic system, CN.

  4. On the interpretation of magnetization data for antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Daniel Esmarch; Mørup, Steen; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of anisotropy on the magnetization curves of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles. We show that if such curves are analyzed in a conventional way, i.e. using a Langevin function in combination with a linear term, this usually results in good quality fits......, but with an apparent temperature dependence of parameters such as the magnetic moment per particle and the antiferromagnetic susceptibility. In order to avoid the problems associated with anisotropy as well as volume/moment distributions we propose that the initial susceptibility is used when analyzing the temperature...... dependence of the magnetic moment....

  5. Uniaxial pressure dependence of the antiferromagnetic order in UPt3

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, N. H.; Rodière, P.; Fåk, B.; Huxley, A.; Flouquet, J.; Fernández-Díaz, M. T.; Yakhou, F.

    The weak antiferromagnetic order of the heavy-fermion superconductor UPt3 has been investigated by elastic neutron-scattering measurements under applied uniaxial pressure up to 6 kbar along the a and c axes of the hexagonal crystal structure. For p||c the small antiferromagnetically ordered moment of 0.02μB/U-atom shows a non-linear decrease for increasing pressures and is still not completely suppressed at the maximum applied pressure of 6 kbar. For p||a a significant increase in the magnetic Bragg peak intensity is observed, which suggests an incomplete domain repopulation and confirms the presence of a single-k structure.

  6. Antiferromagnetic Potts model on the Erdos-Renyi random graph

    CERN Document Server

    Contucci, Pierluig; Giardina', Cristian; Starr, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    We study the antiferromagnetic Potts model on the Erdos-Renyi random graph. By identifying a suitable interpolation structure and proving an extended variational principle we show that the replica symmetric solution is an upper bound for the limiting pressure which can be recovered in the framework of Derrida-Ruelle probability cascades. A comparison theorem with a mixed model made of a mean field Potts-antiferromagnet plus a Potts-Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model allows to show that the replica symmetric solution is exact at high temperatures.

  7. Spin waves in antiferromagnetic FeF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, M T; Rainford, B.D.; Guggenheim, H J

    1970-01-01

    Spin-wave dispersion in antiferromagnetic FeF2 has been investigated by inelastic neutron scattering using a chopper time-of-flight spectrometer. The single mode observed has a relatively flat dispersion curve rising from 53 cm-1 at the zone centre to 79 cm-1 at the zone boundary. A spin Hamilton......Spin-wave dispersion in antiferromagnetic FeF2 has been investigated by inelastic neutron scattering using a chopper time-of-flight spectrometer. The single mode observed has a relatively flat dispersion curve rising from 53 cm-1 at the zone centre to 79 cm-1 at the zone boundary. A spin...

  8. Spin Hall magnetoresistance in antiferromagnet/normal metal bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the emergence of spin Hall magnetoresistance in a magnetic bilayer composed of a normal metal adjacent to an antiferromagnet. Based on a recently derived drift diffusion equation, we show that the resistance of the bilayer depends on the relative angle between the direction transverse to the current flow and the Néel order parameter. While this effect presents striking similarities with the spin Hall magnetoresistance recently reported in ferromagnetic bilayers, its physical origin is attributed to the anisotropic spin relaxation of itinerant spins in the antiferromagnet.

  9. Performance of thin-film ferroelectric capacitors for EMC decoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huadong; Subramanyam, Guru

    2008-12-01

    This paper studied the effects of thin-film ferroelectrics as decoupling capacitors for electromagnetic compatibility applications. The impedance and insertion loss of PZT capacitors were measured and compared with the results from commercial off-the-shelf capacitors. An equivalent circuit model was extracted from the experimental results, and a considerable series resistance was found to exist in ferroelectric capacitors. This resistance gives rise to the observed performance difference around series resonance between ferroelectric PZT capacitors and normal capacitors. Measurements on paraelectric (Ba,Sr)TiO(3)-based integrated varactors do not show this significant resistance. Some analyses were made to investigate the mechanisms, and it was found that it can be due to the hysteresis in the ferroelectric thin films.

  10. Hybrid dual gate ferroelectric memory for multilevel information storage

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammad A.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report hybrid organic/inorganic ferroelectric memory with multilevel information storage using transparent p-type SnO semiconductor and ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) polymer. The dual gate devices include a top ferroelectric field-effect transistor (FeFET) and a bottom thin-film transistor (TFT). The devices are all fabricated at low temperatures (∼200°C), and demonstrate excellent performance with high hole mobility of 2.7 cm2 V-1 s-1, large memory window of ∼18 V, and a low sub-threshold swing ∼-4 V dec-1. The channel conductance of the bottom-TFT and the top-FeFET can be controlled independently by the bottom and top gates, respectively. The results demonstrate multilevel nonvolatile information storage using ferroelectric memory devices with good retention characteristics.

  11. Explosive Ferroelectric Power Supply of Flux Compression Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG De-wu; HE Yuan-ji; TAN Hui-min

    2007-01-01

    Useful electrical pulses of a few hundred kilowatts lasting for several microseconds can be obtained by the depolarization process of PZT95/5 ferroelectric ceramics. In this paper, taking account of the dielectric relaxation, and finite resistance, a new mathematical model of PZT95/5 ferroelectric ceramics subjected to normal-mode shock wave is suggested. Explosive shock wave techniques have also been used to investigate the response of PZT95/5 ferroelectric ceramics with inductive loads in experiments. The predictions from the model have a good agreement with observed results. In addition, an explosive ferroelectric generator composed of explosive shock wave generators, electric units, and additional capacitors is design to power small-size helical flux compression generators. The test results with the maximal output energy of up to 80J are given and experimental results are also considered.

  12. Relaxation Dynamics of Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals in Pulsed Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudreyko, A. A.; Migranov, N. G.; Migranova, D. N.

    2016-11-01

    In this contribution we report a theoretical study of relaxation processes in surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals with spontaneous polarization. The influence of pulsed electric field on the behavior of ferroelectric liquid crystal in the SmC* phase, which is placed in a thin cell with strong anchoring of SmC* molecules with the boundary substrate, is studied. In the vicinity of the substrate interface, temporal dependence of the azimuthal motion of the director induced by electric field is obtained. The response to the external distortion of ferroelectric liquid crystal confined between two microstructured substrates is the occurrence of periodic temporal formation of solitons connected with the distortion of the director field n in the sample bulk. The interplay between microstructured substrates and director distribution of the ferroelectric SmC* phase is explained by the Frenkel-Kontorova model for a chain of atoms, but adapted for the continuum problem.

  13. On the long-time behavior of ferroelectric systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, J. M.; MacCamy, R. C.; Coffman, C. V.

    2003-07-16

    In this note we investigate a new model for the behavior of ferroelectric materials. This model is analogous to one used in [1] to describe the dynamics of elastic materials which exhibit phase changes.

  14. Polarization-coupled tunable resistive behavior in oxide ferroelectric heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruverman, Alexei [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Tsymbal, Evgeny Y. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Eom, Chang-Beom [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-05-03

    This research focuses on investigation of the physical mechanism of the electrically and mechanically tunable resistive behavior in oxide ferroelectric heterostructures with engineered interfaces realized via a strong coupling of ferroelectric polarization with tunneling electroresistance and metal-insulator (M-I) transitions. This report describes observation of electrically conductive domain walls in semiconducting ferroelectrics, voltage-free control of resistive switching and demonstration of a new mechanism of electrical control of 2D electron gas (2DEG) at oxide interfaces. The research goals are achieved by creating strong synergy between cutting-edge fabrication of epitaxial single-crystalline complex oxides, nanoscale electrical characterization by scanning probe microscopy and theoretical modeling of the observed phenomena. The concept of the ferroelectric devices with electrically and mechanically tunable nonvolatile resistance represents a new paradigm shift in realization of the next-generation of non-volatile memory devices and low-power logic switches.

  15. Ferroelectric metal-organic framework with a high dielectric constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qiong; Song, Yu-Mei; Wang, Guo-Xi; Chen, Kai; Fu, Da-Wei; Chan, Philip Wai Hong; Zhu, Jin-Song; Huang, Songping D; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2006-05-24

    Hydrothermal reaction of (l)-N-(4'-cyanobenzy)-(S)-proline with CdCl2 as a Lewis acid catalyst and NaN3 gives colorless block compound 1, in which 1 displays a complicated 3D framework. Ferroelectric and dielectric property measurements reveal that 1 exhibits physical properties comparable to that of a typical ferroelectric compound with a dipole relaxation process and a dielectric constant of ca. 38.6 that makes it, by definition, a high dielectric material.

  16. Polycrystalline BiFeO3 thin film synthesized via sol-gel assisted spin coating technique for photosensitive application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogle, K. A.; Narwade, R. D.; Phatangare, A. B.; Dahiwale, S. S.; Mahabole, M. P.; Khairnar, R. S.

    2016-05-01

    We are reporting photosensitivity property of BiFeO3 thin film under optical illumination. The thin film used for photosensitivity work was fabricated via sol-gel assisted spin coating technique. I-V measurements on the Cu/BiFeO3/Al structure under dark condition show a good rectifying property and show dramatic blue shit in threshold voltage under optical illumination. The microstructure, morphology and elemental analysis of the films were characterized by using XRD, UV-Vis, FTIR, SEM and EDS.

  17. Ultrafast carrier dynamics and radiative recombination in multiferroic BiFeO3 single crystals and thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor A. J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a detailed comparison of ultrafast carrier dynamics in single crystals and thin films of multiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO. Using degenerate femtosecond optical pump-probe spectroscopy, we find that the observed dynamics are qualitatively similar in both samples. After photoexcitation, electrons relax to the conduction band minimum through electron-phonon coupling, with subsequent carrier relaxation proceeding via various recombination pathways that extend to a nanosecond timescale. Subtle differences observed in our measurements indicate that BFO films have a higher band gap than single crystals. Overall, our results demonstrate that carrier relaxation in BFO is analogous to that in bulk semiconductors.

  18. Temperature controlled c axis elongated low symmetry phase BiFeO3 thin film on STO substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Ren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BiFeO3 thin films with a mixture of tunable R-like and c axis elongated low symmetry phase (T-like phase are fabricated on STO (001 substrate through controlling of the substrate temperature. Almost pure T-like phase can be grown on STO substrate at 600°C. Comparing with the situations on LAO (001, it is found that, strains from the LAO substrate may be the only reason that induces the T-like phase at higher temperatures. At lower temperatures, the island growth induced strains alone can also generate T-like phase on STO substrate.

  19. DC Leakage behavior and Conduction Mechanism in (BiFeO3)m(SrTiO3)m Superlattices

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Leakage current behavior of (BiFeO3)m(SrTiO3)m superlattice structures was studied and analyzed at different temperatures (303-473K) in the light of various models. While bulk limited Poole-Frenkel emission was observed to dominate the leakage current in the temperature range of 303 - 383 K, the space charge limited conduction was observed up to 473 K. With a Poole-Frenkel emission type of conduction, the activation energy range of 0.06 - 0.2 eV was calculated. The physical parameters, calcul...

  20. Improper ferroelectrics as high-efficiency energy conversion materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakamatsu, Toru; Tanabe, Kenji; Terasaki, Ichiro; Taniguchi, Hiroki [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    An improper ferroelectric is a certain type of ferroelectrics whose primary order parameter is not polarization but another physical quantity such as magnetization. In contrast to a conventional proper ferroelectrics as represented by Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} and BaTiO{sub 3}, the improper ferroelectrics has been inconceivable for practical applications thus far. Herein, we illustrate the great potential of improper ferroelectrics for efficient conversion of temperature fluctuation to electric energy, as demonstrated with (Ca{sub 0.84}Sr{sub 0.16}){sub 8}[AlO{sub 2}]{sub 12}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} (CSAM-16). The present study has experimentally proven that CSAM-16 achieves an excellent electrothermal coupling factor and high electric field sensitivity for pyroelectric energy conversion that approach a practical level for application to self-powered autonomous electronic devices for rapidly spreading wireless sensor networks. The present results provide a novel approach to developing innovative pyroelectric energy harvesting devices using improper ferroelectrics. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Topological Point Defects in Relaxor Ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, Y.; Prokhorenko, S.; Kornev, I.; Bellaiche, L.

    2016-03-01

    First-principles-based effective Hamiltonian simulations are used to reveal the hidden connection between topological defects (hedgehogs and antihedgehogs) and relaxor behavior. Such defects are discovered to predominantly lie at the border of polar nanoregions in both Ba (Zr0.5 Ti0.5 )O3 (BZT) and Pb (Sc0.5 Nb0.5 )O3 (PSN) systems, and the temperature dependency of their density allows us to distinguish between noncanonical (PSN) and canonical (BZT) relaxor behaviors (via the presence or absence of a crossing of a percolation threshold). This density also possesses an inflection point at precisely the temperature for which the dielectric response peaks. Moreover, hedgehogs and antihedgehogs are found to be mobile excitations, and the dynamical nature of their annihilation is demonstrated (using simple hydrodynamical arguments) to follows laws, such as those of Vogel-Fulcher and Arrhenius, that are characteristic of dipolar relaxation kinetics of relaxor ferroelectrics.

  2. Efficient photoemission from robust ferroelectric ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscolo, I. [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan, (Italy); Castellano, M.; Catani, L.; Ferrario, M.; Tazzioli, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati, RM (Italy); Giannessi, L. [ENEA, Frascati, Rome (Italy). Centro Ricerche Elettronica

    1999-07-01

    Experimental results on photoemission by ferroelectric ceramic disks, with a possible interpretation, are presented. Two types of lead zirconate titanate lanthanum doped, PLZT, ceramics have been used for tests. 25 ps light pulses of 532 and 355 nm were used for excitation. The intensity ranged within the interval 0.1-3 GW/cm{sup 2}. The upper limit of the intensity was established by the damage threshold tested by the onset of ion emission. At low value of the intensity the yield was comparable at the two wavelengths. At the highest intensity of green light the emitted charge was 1 nC per 10 mm{sup 2}, but it was limited by the space charge effect. In fact, the applied field was only 20 kV/cm, allowed both by the mechanical design of the apparatus and the poor vacuum, 10{sup -4} mbar. No surface processing was required. The measurement of the electron pulse length under way.

  3. Ferroelectric perovskite nanopowders obtained by mechanochemical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Szafraniak-Wiza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple perovskite nanopowders were fabricated by mechanochemical synthesis. High-energy milling process of respective oxides, leading to production of ferroelectric perovskites, was carefully investigated and characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and X-ray excited photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been found that: (i the powder consists of loosely packed grains with a broad distribution of sizes between a few nm and 45 nm, (ii the grains possess core/shell structure, (iii the grain core of sizes larger than about 20 nm exhibits well developed crystalline structure, (iv the grains are coated by structurally disordered (amorphous shell. Intermediate phases have been found in the process of PbTiO3 mechanosynthesis only. The obtained nanopowders were used for preparation of dense ceramics.

  4. Fabrication and Characterization of Ferroelectric Gate Field-Effect Transistor Memory Based on Ferroelectric-Insulator Interface Conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bong Yeon; Minami, Takaki; Kanashima, Takeshi; Okuyama, Masanori

    2006-11-01

    A new type of ferroelectric gate field-effect transistor (FET) using ferroelectric-insulator interface conduction has been proposed. Drain current flows along the interface between the ferroelectric and insulator layers and requires no semiconductor. The channel region of the FET is composed of a Pt/insulator HfO2/ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT)/Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si multilayer, and the source and drain areas are formed at the interface of the PZT and HfO2 films. Drain current versus gate voltage characteristics show a clockwise hysteresis loop similar to that for a conventional p-channel transistor. The FET shows that the on/off ratio of the conduction current is within 105 to 106 and that the off-state current is about 10-10 A.

  5. Internal energy and specific heat in a ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic double layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Wei; Guo An-Bang

    2007-01-01

    The internal energy and specific heat of a Heisenberg ferro- antiferromagnetic double-layer system are studied by using spin-wave theory and the retarded Green function method at low temperatures. Numerical results show that the antiferromagnetic intralayer coupling J2 has an important influence on internal energy and specific heat for a four-sublattice system with antiferromagnetic (or ferrimagnetic) interlayer couplings.

  6. Quantum breathers in lithium tantalate ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Arindam; Adhikar, Sutapa; Choudhary, Kamal; Basu, Reshmi; Bandyopadhyay, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, A. K.; Mandal, D.

    2013-08-01

    Lithium tantalate is technologically one of the most important ferroelectric materials with a low poling field that has several applications in the field of photonics and memory switching devices. In a Hamiltonian system, such as dipolar system, the polarization behavior of such ferroelectrics can be well-modeled by Klein-Gordon (K-G) equation. Due to strong localization coupled with discreteness in a nonlinear K-G lattice, there is a formation of breathers and multi-breathers that manifest in the localization peaks across the domains in polarization-space-time plot. Due to the presence of nonlinearity and also impurities (as antisite tantalum defects) in the structure, dissipative effects are observed and hence dissipative breathers are studied here. To probe the quantum states related to discrete breathers, the same K-G lattice is quantized to give rise to quantum breathers (QBs) that are explained by a periodic boundary condition. The gap between the localized and delocalized phonon-band is a function of impurity content that is again related to the effect of pinning of domains due to antisite tantalum defects in the system, i.e., a point of easier switching within the limited amount of data on poling field, which is related to Landau coefficient (read, nonlinearity). Secondly, in a non-periodic boundary condition, the temporal evolution of quanta shows interesting behavior in terms of `critical' time of redistribution of quanta that is proportional to QB's lifetime in femtosecond having a possibility for THz applications. Hence, the importance of both the methods for characterizing quantum breathers is shown in these perspectives.

  7. Spin Transport and Dynamics in Antiferromagnetic Metals and Magnetic Insulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaving, A.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313938083

    2012-01-01

    It is demonstrated that in an antiferromagnetic metal a steady-state transport current generates a current-induced out-of-plane spin density, resulting in torques on the magnetization. This spin density is parameterized by a velocity that is proportional to the current. The generalization of the

  8. Competitive forms of symmetry breaking in linear antiferromagnetic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caspers, W.J.; Magnus, W.

    1985-01-01

    Two different forms of symmetry breaking are considered for linear antiferromagnetic systems (S = 1/2 ). Their relative stability is examined by considering small fluctuations in the harmonic oscillator approximation. Imaginary frequencies correspond with an unstable phase, and the ground state repr

  9. Excitations in a Two-Dimensional Random Antiferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgeneau, R. J.; Walker, L. R.; Guggenheim, H. J.;

    1975-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering studies of the magnetic excitations in the planar Heisenberg random antiferromagnet Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 at 7K are reported. Two well-defined bands of excitations are observed. A simple mean crystal model is found to predict accurately the measured dispersion relations using...

  10. Thermoinduced magnetization and uncompensated spins in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Daniel Esmarch; Mørup, Steen

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the combined effect of an uncompensated moment and the thermoinduced magnetization on the initial susceptibility of nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials. We find that for nanoparticles with small values of the anisotropy and exchange fields, the thermoinduced...... magnetization may be predominant at finite temperatures. In other cases the uncompensated moment may be predominant....

  11. Observation of Antiferromagnetic Resonance in an Organic Superconductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torrance, J. B.; Pedersen, H. J.; Bechgaard, K.

    1982-01-01

    Anomalous microwave absorption has been observed in the organic superconductor TMTSF2AsF6 (TMTSF: tetramethyltetraselenafulvalene) below its metal-nonmetal transition near 12 K. This absorption is unambiguously identified as antiferromagnetic resonance by the excellent agreement between a spin...

  12. Onset of antiferromagnetism in heavy-fermion metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder; Aeppli; Coldea; Adams; Stockert; v. Lohneysen H; Bucher; Ramazashvili; Coleman

    2000-09-21

    There are two main theoretical descriptions of antiferromagnets. The first arises from atomic physics, which predicts that atoms with unpaired electrons develop magnetic moments. In a solid, the coupling between moments on nearby ions then yields antiferromagnetic order at low temperatures. The second description, based on the physics of electron fluids or 'Fermi liquids' states that Coulomb interactions can drive the fluid to adopt a more stable configuration by developing a spin density wave. It is at present unknown which view is appropriate at a 'quantum critical point' where the antiferromagnetic transition temperature vanishes. Here we report neutron scattering and bulk magnetometry measurements of the metal CeCu(6-x)Au(x), which allow us to discriminate between the two models. We find evidence for an atomically local contribution to the magnetic correlations which develops at the critical gold concentration (x(c) = 0.1), corresponding to a magnetic ordering temperature of zero. This contribution implies that a Fermi-liquid-destroying spin-localizing transition, unanticipated from the spin density wave description, coincides with the antiferromagnetic quantum critical point.

  13. Soliton dynamics in planar ferromagnets and anti-ferromagnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINFang-hua; SHATAHJalal

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a rigorous mathematical proof of the dynamical laws for the topological solitons( magnetic vortices) in ferromagnets and anti-ferromagnets. It is achieved through the conservation laws for the topological vorticity and the weak convergence methods.

  14. The three-state antiferromagnetic Potts model: scaling laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlob, A.P. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany); Hasenbusch, M. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics (DAMTP)

    1995-04-01

    We present the results of a Monte Carlo study of the three-dimensional anti-ferromagnetic three-state Potts model. We computed the correlation length, the magnetic susceptibility and the specific heat for various coupling parameters in the high temperature phase of the model. From the scaling behaviour of these quantities we determine estimates for the critical temperature and critical exponents. ((orig.)).

  15. Tunable Microwave Filter Design Using Thin-Film Ferroelectric Varactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridasan, Vrinda

    Military, space, and consumer-based communication markets alike are moving towards multi-functional, multi-mode, and portable transceiver units. Ferroelectric-based tunable filter designs in RF front-ends are a relatively new area of research that provides a potential solution to support wideband and compact transceiver units. This work presents design methodologies developed to optimize a tunable filter design for system-level integration, and to improve the performance of a ferroelectric-based tunable bandpass filter. An investigative approach to find the origins of high insertion loss exhibited by these filters is also undertaken. A system-aware design guideline and figure of merit for ferroelectric-based tunable band- pass filters is developed. The guideline does not constrain the filter bandwidth as long as it falls within the range of the analog bandwidth of a system's analog to digital converter. A figure of merit (FOM) that optimizes filter design for a specific application is presented. It considers the worst-case filter performance parameters and a tuning sensitivity term that captures the relation between frequency tunability and the underlying material tunability. A non-tunable parasitic fringe capacitance associated with ferroelectric-based planar capacitors is confirmed by simulated and measured results. The fringe capacitance is an appreciable proportion of the tunable capacitance at frequencies of X-band and higher. As ferroelectric-based tunable capac- itors form tunable resonators in the filter design, a proportionally higher fringe capacitance reduces the capacitance tunability which in turn reduces the frequency tunability of the filter. Methods to reduce the fringe capacitance can thus increase frequency tunability or indirectly reduce the filter insertion-loss by trading off the increased tunability achieved to lower loss. A new two-pole tunable filter topology with high frequency tunability (> 30%), steep filter skirts, wide stopband

  16. Magnetic interactions in BiFe₀.₅Mn₀.₅O₃ films and BiFeO₃/BiMnO₃ superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingyu; Sheng, Yan; Khalid, M; Cao, Yanqiang; Wang, Yutian; Qiu, Xiangbiao; Zhang, Wen; He, Maocheng; Wang, Shuangbao; Zhou, Shengqiang; Li, Qi; Wu, Di; Zhai, Ya; Liu, Wenqing; Wang, Peng; Xu, Y B; Du, Jun

    2015-03-13

    The clear understanding of exchange interactions between magnetic ions in substituted BiFeO3 is the prerequisite for the comprehensive studies on magnetic properties. BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3 films and BiFeO3/BiMnO3 superlattices have been fabricated by pulsed laser deposition on (001) SrTiO3 substrates. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), the ferroelectricity at room temperature has been inferred from the observation of PFM hysteresis loops and electrical writing of ferroelectric domains for both samples. Spin glass behavior has been observed in both samples by temperature dependent magnetization curves and decay of thermo-remnant magnetization with time. The magnetic ordering has been studied by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements, and Fe-O-Mn interaction has been confirmed to be antiferromagnetic (AF). The observed spin glass in BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3 films has been attributed to cluster spin glass due to Mn-rich ferromagnetic (FM) clusters in AF matrix, while spin glass in BiFeO3/BiMnO3 superlattices is due to competition between AF Fe-O-Fe, AF Fe-O-Mn and FM Mn-O-Mn interactions in the well ordered square lattice with two Fe ions in BiFeO3 layer and two Mn ions in BiMnO3 layer at interfaces.

  17. High-accuracy determination for optical indicatrix rotation in ferroelectric DTGS

    OpenAIRE

    O.S.Kushnir; O.A.Bevz; O.G.Vlokh

    2000-01-01

    Optical indicatrix rotation in deuterated ferroelectric triglycine sulphate is studied with the high-accuracy null-polarimetric technique. The behaviour of the effect in ferroelectric phase is referred to quadratic spontaneous electrooptics.

  18. The effect of flexoelectricity on the dielectric properties of inhomogeneously strained ferroelectric thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catalan, G; Sinnamon, LJ; Gregg, JM

    2004-01-01

    Recent experimental measurements of large flexoelectric coefficients in ferroelectric ceramics suggest that strain gradients can affect the polarization and permittivity behaviour of inhomogeneously strained ferroelectrics. Here we present a phenomenological model of the effect of flexoelectricity o

  19. Improved structure stability, optical and magnetic properties of Ca and Ti co-substituted BiFeO3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Singh, Satyendra

    2016-11-01

    We report the optical and magnetic properties of single-crystalline Ca and Ti co-substituted bismuth ferrite, Bi1-xCaxFe1-xTixO3, nanoparticles, synthesized by a facile sol-gel methodology in the compositional range wherein 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations show that all samples possess a rhombohedrally distorted perovskite structure with space group R3c. Ca and Ti co-substitution controls the formation of secondary phases and improved the stability of perovskite phase of BiFeO3. The average particle size was estimated by Williamson Hall plot, confirmed by TEM, and found to be about 59, 50, 46, 41, 40 and 38 nm of Bi1-xCaxFe1-xTixO3 for x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25, respectively. The UV-vis absorption study reveal the strong absorption of visible light with a small optical band gap (1.77-2.25 eV) for 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25 indicates a possibility of utilizing for photocatalytic activities. The magnetic study at room-temperature displays the improved magnetization and coercive field in Bi1-xCaxFe1-xTixO3 nanoparticles due to the release of the latent magnetization locked within the toroidal spin structure of BiFeO3.

  20. Effects of (La, Sr) co-doping on electrical conduction and magnetic properties of BiFeO3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wang, Shouyu; Yin, Zi; Liu, Weifang; Xu, Xunling; Zhang, Chuang; Li, Xiu; Yang, Jiabin

    2016-09-01

    Multiferroic material as a photovoltaic material has gained considerable attention in recent years. Nanoparticles (NPs) La0.1Bi0.9-xSrxFeOy (LBSF, x = 0, 0.2, 0.4) with dopant Sr2+ ions were synthesized by the sol-gel method. A systematic change in the crystal structure from rhombohedral to tetragonal upon increasing Sr doping was observed. There is an obvious change in the particle size from 180 nm to 50 nm with increasing Sr substitution into LBFO. It was found that Sr doping effectively narrows the band gap from ˜ 2.08 eV to ˜ 1.94 eV, while it leads to an apparent enhancement in the electrical conductivity of LBSF NPs, making a transition from insulator to semiconductor. This suggests an effective way to modulate the conductivity of BiFeO3-based multiferroic materials with pure phase by co-doping with La and Sr at the A sites of BiFeO3. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11104202 and 51572193).

  1. Pr and Cr co-doped BiFeO3 nanotubes: an advance multiferroic oxide material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Kalyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arrays of single phase pure and Pr-Cr co-doped BiFeO3 (BFO nanotubes (NTs with compositions BiFeO3 and Bi0.9Pr0.1Fe0.9Cr0.1O3 have been synthesized using Anodic Aluminium Oxide (AAO template (pore diameter ~250 nm by wet chemical liquid phase deposition technique. All the NTs show ferromagnetic nature at room temperature (RT. Better magnetic properties are observed in the co-doped BFO NTs with the value of saturation magnetization (MS ~49 memu/g, magnetization at the remanence (MR ~12 memu/g and coercive field (HC ~103 Oe. Increase of ferromagnetic signature in the co-doped BFO NTs is believed to be due to the collapse of the space-modulated spin structure. Significant increase in the dielectric characteristics in co-doped BFO NTs suggests lowering of leakage current due to the reduction of the oxygen vacancies in the structure. Strong Magnetodielectric effect (MD, expressed by [εr(H-εr(0]/εr(0 is observed in doped BFO NTs, where the increase of the dielectric constant is noticeable with the increase in the applied magnetic field. The codoped BFO NTs show noticeable increase in MD effect at a lower field (1-2 kOe.

  2. Nanostructures of Sr2+ doped BiFeO3 multifunctional ceramics with tunable photoluminescence and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S K; Rakshit, T; Ray, S K; Mishra, S K; Krishna, P S R; Chandra, Amreesh

    2013-02-06

    Careful tuning of formation (calcination) temperature of Sr(2+) doped BiFeO(3) multiferroic ceramics results in tailorable particle morphologies ranging from spherical to pillar-like. Based on the minimization of Gibb's free energy approach, the dominant homogeneous mechanism for particle growth is suggested. The chemical substitution of a trivalent ion (Bi(3+)) by a divalent ion (Sr(2+)) causes the transformation of certain fraction of Fe(3+) to Fe(4+) and/or the appearance of oxygen vacancies. This has been respectively proved by the analysis of XPS and refinement of neutron diffraction data. Although significant modification in the particle morphology is observed, the crystal unit cell remains rhombohedral with a R3c space group but interesting variations in physical properties are achieved. O-vacancies induced strong and sharp photoluminescence activity in the IR region, similar to ZnO, is reported for the first time. This observation opens up a new application for multiferroic ceramics. SQUID M-H data confirms the straightening of the canted spin structure of BiFeO(3), which in turn results in magnetism similar to ferromagnetic materials. Findings of the magneto-dielectric effect are also discussed to claim the multiferroic nature of the sample.

  3. Remarkably enhanced photovoltaic effects and first-principles calculations in neodymium doped BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yi-Ting; Chiou, Shan-Haw; Hsiao, Ching-Hung; (Hao) Ouyang, Chuenhou; Tu, Chi-Shun

    2017-01-01

    Remarkably enhanced photovoltaic effects have been observed in the heterostructures of p-type A-site Nd3+-doped BiFeO3 (Bi0.9375Nd0.0625)FeO3 (or BFONd) polycrystalline ceramics and the n-type ITO thin film. The maximum power conversion is ~0.82%, which is larger than 0.015% in BiFeO3 (BFO) under blue-ultraviolet irradiation of wavelength λ = 405 nm. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve suggests a p-n junction interface between the ITO thin film and BFO (or BFONd) ceramics. The band gaps calculated from first-principles for BFO and BFONd are respectively 2.25 eV and 2.23 eV, which are consistent with the experimental direct band gaps of 2.24 eV and 2.20 eV measured by optical transmission spectra. The reduction of the band gap in BFONd can be explained by the lower electronic Fermi level due to acceptor states revealed by first-principles calculations. The optical calculations show a larger absorption coefficient in BFONd than in BFO. PMID:28337977

  4. Magnetoelectric effect in (BiFeO3x–(BaTiO31-x solid solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowal Karol

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study magnetoelectric effect (ME in (BiFeO3x-(BaTiO31-x solid solutions in terms of technological conditions applied in the samples fabrication process. The rapidly growing interest in these materials is caused by their multiferroic behaviour, i.e. coexistence of both electric and magnetic ordering. It creates possibility for many innovative applications, e.g. in steering the magnetic memory by electric field and vice versa. The investigated samples of various chemical compositions (i.e. x = 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9 were prepared by the solid-state sintering method under three sets of technological conditions differing in the applied temperature and soaking time. Measurements of the magnetoelectric voltage coefficient αME were performed using a dynamic lock-in technique. The highest value of αME was observed for 0.7BiFeO3-0.3BaTiO3 solid solution sintered at the highest temperature (T = 1153 K after initial electrical poling despite that the soaking time was reduced 10 times in this case.

  5. Physical aspects of ferroelectric semiconductors for photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Varo, Pilar; Bertoluzzi, Luca; Bisquert, Juan; Alexe, Marin; Coll, Mariona; Huang, Jinsong; Jimenez-Tejada, Juan Antonio; Kirchartz, Thomas; Nechache, Riad; Rosei, Federico; Yuan, Yongbo

    2016-10-01

    Solar energy conversion using semiconductors to fabricate photovoltaic devices relies on efficient light absorption, charge separation of electron-hole pair carriers or excitons, and fast transport and charge extraction to counter recombination processes. Ferroelectric materials are able to host a permanent electrical polarization which provides control over electrical field distribution in bulk and interfacial regions. In this review, we provide a critical overview of the physical principles and mechanisms of solar energy conversion using ferroelectric semiconductors and contact layers, as well as the main achievements reported so far. In a ferroelectric semiconductor film with ideal contacts, the polarization charge would be totally screened by the metal layers and no charge collection field would exist. However, real materials show a depolarization field, smooth termination of polarization, and interfacial energy barriers that do provide the control of interface and bulk electric field by switchable spontaneous polarization. We explore different phenomena as the polarization-modulated Schottky-like barriers at metal/ferroelectric interfaces, depolarization fields, vacancy migration, and the switchable rectifying behavior of ferroelectric thin films. Using a basic physical model of a solar cell, our analysis provides a general picture of the influence of ferroelectric effects on the actual power conversion efficiency of the solar cell device, and we are able to assess whether these effects or their combinations are beneficial or counterproductive. We describe in detail the bulk photovoltaic effect and the contact layers that modify the built-in field and the charge injection and separation in bulk heterojunction organic cells as well as in photocatalytic and water splitting devices. We also review the dominant families of ferroelectric materials that have been most extensively investigated and have provided the best photovoltaic performance.

  6. Perovskite BiFeO3 thin film photocathode performance with visible light activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, P.; Yeo, D.; Chang, H.; Loh, L.; Dunn, S.

    2016-08-01

    Perovskite materials are now an important class of materials in the application areas of photovoltaics and photocatalysis. Inorganic perovskites such as BiFeO3 (BFO) are promising photocatalyst materials with visible light activity and inherent stability. Here we report the large area sol-gel synthesis of BFO films for solar stimulated water photo oxidation. By modifying the sol-gel synthesis process we have produced a perovskite material that has p-type behaviour and a flat band potential of ˜1.15 V (versus NHE). The photocathode produces a density of -0.004 mA cm-2 at 0 V versus NHE under AM1.5 G illumination. We further show that 0.6 μmol h-1 of O2 was produced at an external bias of -0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl. The addition of a non-percolating conducting network of Ag increases the photocurrent to -0.07 mA cm-2 at 0 V versus NHE (at 2% Ag loading) with an increase to 2.7 μmol h-1 for O2 production. We attribute the enhancement in photoelectrochemical performance to increased light absorption due light scattering by the incorporated Ag particles, improved charge transfer kinetics at the Ag/BFO interface and reduced over potential losses. We support these claims by an observed shift in flat band and onset potentials after Ag modification through UV-vis spectroscopy, Mott-Schottky plots and j-v curve analysis.

  7. Mechanisms for Polarization Fatigue Behaviors of Perovskite Oxide Ferroelectric Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Up to date our understanding of ferroelectric fatigue remains controversial although a huge number of experimental and theoretical approaches have been performed. The three major origins for ferroelectric fatigue are (1) charge aggregation on the ferroelectric/electrode interfaces; (2) the long-range charge transport; (3) charge-induced pinning and depinning of domains. These origins are intrinsic and they are significantly temperature-dependent. A temperature-dependent investigation of ferroelectric fatigu...

  8. PLL jitter reduction by utilizing a ferroelectric capacitor as a VCO timing element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Greg; Kalkur, Thottam S

    2007-06-01

    Ferroelectric capacitors have steadily been integrated into semiconductor processes due to their potential as storage elements within memory devices. Polarization reversal within ferroelectric capacitors creates a high nonlinear dielectric constant along with a hysteresis profile. Due to these attributes, a phase-locked loop (PLL), when based on a ferroelectric capacitor, has the advantage of reduced cycle-to-cycle jitter. PLLs based on ferroelectric capacitors represent a new research area for reduction of oscillator jitter.

  9. Origin of the efficiency enhancement in ferroelectric functionalized organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asadi, K.; Bruyn, P. de; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells upon incorporation of a thin ferroelectric polymer layer. For non-Ohmic contacts the enhancement is due to an increased open circuit voltage, which is, however, independent of the ferroelectric polarization direction. Ferroelectr

  10. 50 Hz electron emission from PZT ferro-electric cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flechtner, D.; Golkowski, C.; Ivers, J.D.; Kerslick, G.S.; Nation, J.A.; Schachter, L. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Ferro-electric cathodes may offer a source of high current density electron beams for applications where the use of conventional field emitters is limited by repetition rate and lifetime. In a ferro-electric cathode, electrons are emitted when the spontaneous polarization is rapidly changed by a pulsed electric field applied across the ferroelectric. When no additional voltage is applied to a planar diode gap, emission current densities are on the order of 1 A/cm{sup 2}. When an additional field is applied to the gap, the authors have measured current densities up to 100 A/cm{sup 2}. In a new configuration that permits beam extraction into a drift tube, the cathode is pulsed 10--20kV negative and electron current densities of {approximately}20 A/cm{sup 2} at repetition rates up to {approximately}50 Hz (power supply limited) have been measured. The one inch diameter ferro-electric cathode is located in the fringing region of a 1.5 kG solenoid magnetic field {approximately}2.8 cm from the entrance of a grounded drift tube. A Faraday cup is located several centimeters inside the drift tube and measurements show that repeatable beam current can be extracted from the ferroelectric cathode in this geometry.

  11. Why is the electrocaloric effect so small in ferroelectrics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Guzmán-Verri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferroelectrics are attractive candidate materials for environmentally friendly solid state refrigeration free of greenhouse gases. Their thermal response upon variations of external electric fields is largest in the vicinity of their phase transitions, which may occur near room temperature. The magnitude of the effect, however, is too small for useful cooling applications even when they are driven close to dielectric breakdown. Insight from microscopic theory is therefore needed to characterize materials and provide guiding principles to search for new ones with enhanced electrocaloric performance. Here, we derive from well-known microscopic models of ferroelectricity meaningful figures of merit for a wide class of ferroelectric materials. Such figures of merit provide insight into the relation between the strength of the effect and the characteristic interactions of ferroelectrics such as dipolar forces. We find that the long range nature of these interactions results in a small effect. A strategy is proposed to make it larger by shortening the correlation lengths of fluctuations of polarization. In addition, we bring into question other widely used but empirical figures of merit and facilitate understanding of the recently observed secondary broad peak in the electrocalorics of relaxor ferroelectrics.

  12. Theoretical Approach to Electroresistance in Ferroelectric Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sou-Chi; Naeemi, Azad; Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Gruverman, Alexei

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a theoretical approach comprising the nonequilibrium Green's function method for electronic transport and the Landau-Khalatnikov equation for electric polarization dynamics is presented to describe polarization-dependent tunneling electroresistance (TER) in ferroelectric tunnel junctions. Using appropriate contact, interface, and ferroelectric parameters, the measured current-voltage characteristic curves in both inorganic (Co /BaTi O3/La0.67Sr0.33 MnO3 ) and organic (Au /PVDF /W ) ferroelectric tunnel junctions can be well described by the proposed approach. Furthermore, under this theoretical framework, the controversy of opposite TER signs observed experimentally by different groups in Co /BaTi O3/La0.67Sr0.33 MnO3 systems is addressed by considering the interface termination effects using the effective contact ratio defined through the effective screening length and dielectric response at the metal-ferroelectric interfaces. Finally, our approach is extended to investigate the role of a CoOx buffer layer at the Co /BaTi O3 interface in a ferroelectric tunnel memristor. It is shown that in order to have a significant memristor behavior not only the interface oxygen vacancies but also the CoOx layer thickness may vary with the applied bias.

  13. Hierarchical ferroelectric and ferrotoroidic polarizations coexistent in nano-metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takahiro; Lich, Le Van; Nagano, Koyo; Wang, Jie; Kitamura, Takayuki

    2015-10-01

    Tailoring materials to obtain unique, or significantly enhanced material properties through rationally designed structures rather than chemical constituents is principle of metamaterial concept, which leads to the realization of remarkable optical and mechanical properties. Inspired by the recent progress in electromagnetic and mechanical metamaterials, here we introduce the concept of ferroelectric nano-metamaterials, and demonstrate through an experiment in silico with hierarchical nanostructures of ferroelectrics using sophisticated real-space phase-field techniques. This new concept enables variety of unusual and complex yet controllable domain patterns to be achieved, where the coexistence between hierarchical ferroelectric and ferrotoroidic polarizations establishes a new benchmark for exploration of complexity in spontaneous polarization ordering. The concept opens a novel route to effectively tailor domain configurations through the control of internal structure, facilitating access to stabilization and control of complex domain patterns that provide high potential for novel functionalities. A key design parameter to achieve such complex patterns is explored based on the parity of junctions that connect constituent nanostructures. We further highlight the variety of additional functionalities that are potentially obtained from ferroelectric nano-metamaterials, and provide promising perspectives for novel multifunctional devices. This study proposes an entirely new discipline of ferroelectric nano-metamaterials, further driving advances in metamaterials research.

  14. Performing spectroscopic and specific heat studies of improper ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, L. B.

    1982-01-01

    The results of infrared measurements on Ni-Br, Cu-Cl, and Fe-I boracite improper ferroelectrics and far infrared measurements of Ni-Br boracite are presented. The boracites have the general formula X3B7O3Y, where X = divalent metal and Y = halogen. They undergo a first order phase transition from a high temperature paraelectric phase with cubic symmetry to a ferroelectric phase with orthorhombic symmetry. The boracites are "improper ferroelectrics" since the spontaneous polarization is not the primary order parameter in the cubic-orthorhombic phase transition. Current understanding of these materials is that the primary order parameter is associated with a doubly degenerate zone-boundary phonon in the cubic phase. The degenerate critical modes become homogeneous and split into the A sub 1 and A sub 2 modes in the orthorhombic phase, doubling the volume of the primitive cell. An harmonic coupling between the softing A sub 1 and a low frequency A sub 1 optic mode induces a spontaneous polarization as a secondary effect in the ferroelectric phase. This secondary non-critical nature of the ferroelectric mode earns these materials the "improper" title and is responsible for their unique properties and high figure of merit in detector use.

  15. Why is the electrocaloric effect so small in ferroelectrics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Verri, G. G.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2016-06-01

    Ferroelectrics are attractive candidate materials for environmentally friendly solid state refrigeration free of greenhouse gases. Their thermal response upon variations of external electric fields is largest in the vicinity of their phase transitions, which may occur near room temperature. The magnitude of the effect, however, is too small for useful cooling applications even when they are driven close to dielectric breakdown. Insight from microscopic theory is therefore needed to characterize materials and provide guiding principles to search for new ones with enhanced electrocaloric performance. Here, we derive from well-known microscopic models of ferroelectricity meaningful figures of merit for a wide class of ferroelectric materials. Such figures of merit provide insight into the relation between the strength of the effect and the characteristic interactions of ferroelectrics such as dipolar forces. We find that the long range nature of these interactions results in a small effect. A strategy is proposed to make it larger by shortening the correlation lengths of fluctuations of polarization. In addition, we bring into question other widely used but empirical figures of merit and facilitate understanding of the recently observed secondary broad peak in the electrocalorics of relaxor ferroelectrics.

  16. Single crystal magnetic, dielectric and thermal studies of the relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Fe{sub 2/3}W{sub 1/3})O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Z.G.; Sato, M. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Kita, E. [University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, (Japan). Institute of Applied Physics; Bursill, L.A. [The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Schmid, H. [University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland). Department of Inorganic, Analytical and Applied Chemistry

    1998-09-01

    The magnetic, dielectric and thermal properties of the complex perovskite Pb(Fe{sub 2/3}W{sub 1/3})O{sub 3} [PFW] have been studied on single crystals by means of a SQUID magnetometer, dielectric measurements and thermal analysis. Anomalies in the temperature dependence of the magnetization have revealed magnetic phase transitions at T{sub N1}=350 K and T{sub N2}=20 K. These two steps of antiferromagnetic ordering are attributed to the microstructural feature of the complex perovskite, characterized by ordered and disordered arrangements on the B-site, giving rise to a strong superexchange interaction of - Fe{sup 3}+ - O - Fe{sup 3+} - type with a higher ordering temperature, and to a weak superexchange interaction of the B-site ordered elpasolite type - Fe{sup 3+}+ - O - W - O - Fe{sup 3+} - with a lower Neel temperature. The low temperature antiferromagnetic phase exhibits a weak ferromagnetism. The dielectric properties of PFW show a relaxor ferroelectric behaviour with a dispersive maximum of permittivity at Tm (170 -190 K). The magnetic phase transition at T{sub N2}=20 K results in anomalies both of the real part of permittivity and the dissipation factor, suggesting a magneto-electric coupling via magneto-structural interactions 26 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Ferroelectric-like hysteresis loop originated from non-ferroelectric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bora; Seol, Daehee; Lee, Shinbuhm; Lee, Ho Nyung; Kim, Yunseok

    2016-09-01

    Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) has provided advanced nanoscale understanding and analysis of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. In PFM-based studies, electromechanical strain induced by the converse piezoelectric effect is probed and analyzed as a PFM response. However, electromechanical strain can also arise from several non-piezoelectric origins that may lead to a misinterpretation of the observed response. Among them, electrostatic interaction can significantly affect the PFM response. Nonetheless, previous studies explored solely the influence of electrostatic interaction on the PFM response under the situation accompanied with polarization switching. Here, we show the influence of the electrostatic interaction in the absence of polarization switching by using unipolar voltage sweep. The obtained results reveal that the electromechanical neutralization between piezoresponse of polarization and electrostatic interaction plays a crucial role in the observed ferroelectric-like hysteresis loop despite the absence of polarization switching. Thus, our work can provide a basic guideline for the correct interpretation of the hysteresis loop in PFM-based studies.

  18. Critical scaling analysis for displacive-type organic ferroelectrics around ferroelectric transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, L. J.

    2017-04-01

    The critical scaling properties of displacive-type organic ferroelectrics, in which the ferroelectric-paraelectric transition is induced by spin-Peierls instability, are investigated by Green's function theory through the modified Arrott plot, critical isothermal and electrocaloric effect (ECE) analysis around the transition temperature TC. It is shown that the electric entropy change - ΔS follows a power-law dependence of electric field E : - ΔS ∼En with n satisfying the Franco equation n(TC) = 1 +(β - 1) /(β + γ) = 0.618, wherein the obtained critical exponents β = 0.440 and γ = 1.030 are not only corroborated by Kouvel-Fisher method, but also confirm the Widom critical relation δ = 1 + γ / β. The self-consistency and reliability of the obtained critical exponents are further verified by the scaling equations. Additionally, a universal curve of - ΔS is constructed with rescaling temperature and electric field, so that one can extrapolate the ECE in a certain temperature and electric field range, which would be helpful in designing controlled electric refrigeration devices.

  19. Reorientation of Defect Dipoles in Ferroelectric Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bao-Shan; LI Guo-Rong; ZHAO Su-Chuan; ZHU Zhi-Gang; DING Ai-Li

    2005-01-01

    @@ We investigate the frequency, temperature, tetragonality and quenched temperature dependences of the hysteresis loops in Pb[(Zr0.52 Ti0.48)0.95 (Mn1/3Nb2/3)0.05]O3 (PMnN-PZT) ceramics. It has been demonstrated that the polarization-field hysteresis curves show "pinched" shapes when tested at room temperature, higher frequency or using the large-tetragonality specimen. While normal square-like loops are observed at 200 ℃ and 0.01 Hz or using the small-tetragonality one. Meanwhile, close relations between the P-E loops and the applied frequency,temperature or tetragonality reveal that there exists a typical relaxation time corresponding to the reorientation of the defect dipoles. It can be seen further from the quenched temperature dependences of the loops that the reorientation of the defect dipoles may influence the pinching. Compared to the intrinsic depinning procedure induced by changes of the distribution of defect dipoles, we provide new evidence for extrinsic depinning mechanism of the defect dipoles in the ferroelectric ceramics.

  20. Ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order in bacterial vortex lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wioland, Hugo; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Goldstein Lab Team

    2013-11-01

    In conventional electronic materials, spins can organize into ordered phases that give rise to ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic behavior. Here, we report similar observations in a completely different system: a suspension of swimming bacteria. When a dense Bacillus subtilis suspension is confined to a small circular chamber, it can spontaneously form a stable vortex (``spin'') state that can persist for several minutes. By coupling up to 100 such chambers in microfluidic devices, we are able to realize bacterial spin lattices of different geometries. Depending on that geometry and the effective coupling strength between neighboring vortices, we observe the formation of stable ``antiferromagnetic'' and ``ferromagnetic'' bacterial vortex states, that appear to be controlled by the subtle competition between bacterial boundary layer flows and bulk dynamics.

  1. Quantum Nucleation of Antiferromagnetic Bubbles with Tetragonal and Hexagonal Symmetries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Hui; ZHU Jia-Lin; L(U) Rong

    2004-01-01

    We study the quantum nucleation in a nanometer-scale antiferromagnet placed in a magnetic field at an arbitrary angle. We consider the magnetocrystalline anisotropy with tetragonal symmetry and that with hexagonal symmetry, respectively. Different structures of the tunneling barriers can be generated by the magnitude and the orientation of the magnetic field. We use the instanton method in the spin-coherent-state path-integral representation to calculate the dependence of the rate of quantum nucleation and the crossover temperature on the orientation and strength of the field for bulk solids and two-dimensional films of antiferromagnets, respectively. We find that the rate of quantum nucleation and the crossover temperature from thermal-to-quantum transitions depend on the orientation and strength of the external magnetic field distinctly, which can be tested by use of existing experimental techniques.

  2. Resonating Valence Bond states for low dimensional S=1 antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng-Xin; Zhou, Yi; Ng, Tai-Kai

    2014-03-01

    We study S = 1 spin liquid states in low dimensions. We show that the resonating-valence-bond (RVB) picture of S = 1 / 2 spin liquid state can be generalized to S = 1 case. For S = 1 system, a many-body singlet (with even site number) can be decomposed into superposition of products of two-body singlets. In other words, the product states of two-body singlets, called the singlet pair states (SPSs), are over complete to span the Hilbert space of many-body singlets. Furthermore, we generalized fermionic representation and the corresponding mean field theory and Gutzwiller projected stats to S = 1 models. We applied our theory to study 1D anti-ferromagnetic bilinear-biquadratic model and show that both the ground states (including the phase transition point) and the excited states can be understood excellently well within the framework. Our method can be applied to 2D S = 1 antiferromagnets.

  3. Currentless reversal of Néel vector in antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Yuriy G.; Li, Xi-Lai; Kim, Ki Wook

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of magnetization reversal via a bias-mediated perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is examined theoretically in an antiferromagnet. The numerical analyses based on a Néel vector formulation as well as the micromagnetic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert simulation reveal that the desired switching can be achieved through dynamical responses that are significantly different from their ferromagnetic counterparts. Instead of the usual precessional trajectories around the applied effective magnetic field, their motions are rather pendulum-like due to the layered magnetic sublattices with a strong antiparallel exchange interaction, where the inertial behavior plays a crucial role. The absence of spiral damping can also lead to faster relaxation by orders of magnitude. With no reliance on the current driven processes, the investigated mechanism is predicted with a low energy requirement of only a few aJ per switching operation in the antiferromagnets.

  4. Spin-transfer torque induced spin waves in antiferromagnetic insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Matthew; Guo, Wei; Stocks, G. Malcolm; Xiao, Di; Xiao, Jiang

    2015-03-01

    We explore the possibility of exciting spin waves in insulating antiferromagnetic films by injecting spin current at the surface. We analyze both magnetically compensated and uncompensated interfaces. We find that the spin current induced spin-transfer torque can excite spin waves in insulating antiferromagnetic materials and that the chirality of the excited spin wave is determined by the polarization of the injected spin current. Furthermore, the presence of magnetic surface anisotropy can greatly increase the accessibility of these excitations. Supported by NSF EFRI-1433496 (M.W.D), U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering (D.X. & G.M.S.), Major State Basic Research Project of China and National Natural Science Foundation of China (W.G. and J.X.).

  5. Experimental and theoretical studies of nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Madsen, Daniel Esmarch; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic properties of nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials are reviewed. The magnetic structure is often similar to the bulk structure, but there are several examples of size-dependent magnetic structures. Owing to the small magnetic moments of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles......, the commonly used analysis of magnetization curves above the superparamagnetic blocking temperature may give erroneous results, because the distribution in magnetic moments and the magnetic anisotropy are not taken into account. We discuss how the magnetic dynamics can be studied by use of magnetization...... nanoparticles is usually negligible, and therefore such particles present a unique possibility to study exchange interactions between magnetic particles. The interactions can have a significant influence on both the magnetic dynamics and the magnetic structure. Nanoparticles can be attached with a common...

  6. Impurity-induced antiferromagnetic domains in the periodic Anderson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benali, A.; Bai, Z. J.; Curro, N. J.; Scalettar, R. T.

    2016-08-01

    A central feature of the periodic Anderson model is the competition between antiferromagnetism, mediated by the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction at small conduction electron-local electron hybridization V , and singlet formation at large V . At zero temperature, and in dimension d >1 , these two phases are separated by a quantum critical point Vc. We use quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations to explore the effect of impurities which have a local hybridization V*Vc . We measure the suppression of singlet correlations and the antiferromagnetic correlations which form around the impurity, as well as the size of the resulting domain. Exact diagonalization calculations for linear chains allow us to verify that the qualitative features obtained at intermediate coupling and finite T persist to strong coupling and T =0 , regimes which are difficult to access with QMC. Our calculations agree qualitatively with NMR measurements in CeCoIn5 -xCdx .

  7. Electrical characterisation of ferroelectric field effect transistors based on ferroelectric HfO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurchuk, Ekaterina

    2015-02-06

    Ferroelectric field effect transistor (FeFET) memories based on a new type of ferroelectric material (silicon doped hafnium oxide) were studied within the scope of the present work. Utilisation of silicon doped hafnium oxide (Si:HfO{sub 2}) thin films instead of conventional perovskite ferroelectrics as a functional layer in FeFETs provides compatibility to the CMOS process as well as improved device scalability. The influence of different process parameters on the properties of Si:HfO{sub 2} thin films was analysed in order to gain better insight into the occurrence of ferroelectricity in this system. A subsequent examination of the potential of this material as well as its possible limitations with the respect to the application in non-volatile memories followed. The Si:HfO{sub 2}-based ferroelectric transistors that were fully integrated into the state-of-the-art high-k metal gate CMOS technology were studied in this work for the first time. The memory performance of these devices scaled down to 28 nm gate length was investigated. Special attention was paid to the charge trapping phenomenon shown to significantly affect the device behaviour.

  8. Gossamer superconductivity near antiferromagnetic Mott insulator in layered organic conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, J Y; Chen, Yan; Su, Z B; Zhang, F C

    2005-02-18

    Layered organic superconductors are on the verge of the Mott insulator. We use the Gutzwiller variational method to study a two-dimensional Hubbard model including a spin exchange coupling term as a minimal model for the compounds. The ground state is found to be a Gossamer superconductor at small on-site Coulomb repulsion U and an antiferromagnetic Mott insulator at large U, separated by a first order phase transition. Our theory is qualitatively consistent with major experiments reported in organic superconductors.

  9. Quantum Monte Carlo Study of Random Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Todo, Synge; Kato, Kiyoshi; Takayama, Hajime

    1998-01-01

    Effects of randomness on the spin-1/2 and 1 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains are studied using the quantum Monte Carlo method with the continuous-time loop algorithm. We precisely calculated the uniform susceptibility, string order parameter, spatial and temporal correlation length, and the dynamical exponent, and obtained a phase diagram. The generalization of the continuous-time loop algorithm for the systems with higher-S spins is also presented.

  10. Spatially frustrated S = 1 Heisenberg antiferromagnet with single ion anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, A. S. T.

    2016-10-01

    Using the SU(3) Schwinger boson formalism, I study the S = 1 square lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet, at zero temperature, with spatially anisotropic nearest-neighbor couplings frustrated by a next-nearest neighbor interaction and single ion anisotropy. The phase diagram at zero temperature is presented. My calculations show two magnetically ordered phases separated by a quantum-disordered region for all values of the anisotropy.

  11. Polarized Neutron Reflectivity Simulation of Ferromagnet/ Antiferromagnet Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yeon; Lee, Jeong Soo

    2008-02-15

    This report investigates the current simulating and fitting programs capable of calculating the polarized neutron reflectivity of the exchange-biased ferromagnet/antiferromagnet magnetic thin films. The adequate programs are selected depending on whether nonspin flip and spin flip reflectivities of magnetic thin films and good user interface are available or not. The exchange-biased systems such as Fe/Cr, Co/CoO, CoFe/IrMn/Py thin films have been simulated successfully with selected programs.

  12. Large-scale numerical investigations of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg icosidodecahedron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ummethum, Joerg [Department of Physics, Bielefeld University, P.O. Box 100131, D-33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Schnack, Juergen, E-mail: jschnack@uni-bielefeld.de [Department of Physics, Bielefeld University, P.O. Box 100131, D-33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Laeuchli, Andreas M. [Inst. f. Theoretische Physik, Innsbruck University, Technikerstr. 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2013-02-15

    We present up to date investigations of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg icosidodecahedron by means of the density matrix renormalization group method. We compare our results with modern correlator product state as well as Lanczos calculations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of unprecedented accuracy for energies and correlation functions of a frustrated spin system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relevance for a large set of magnetic molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstration of accuracy of DDMRG.

  13. Neutron Scattering Studies of Antiferromagnetic Correlations in Cuprates

    OpenAIRE

    Tranquada, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Neutron scattering studies have provided important information about the momentum and energy dependence of magnetic excitations in cuprate superconductors. Of particular interest are the recent indications of a universal magnetic excitation spectrum in hole-doped cuprates. That starting point provides motivation for reviewing the antiferromagnetic state of the parent insulators, and the destruction of the ordered state by hole doping. The nature of spin correlations in stripe-ordered phases i...

  14. Magnetization behavior of nanocrystalline systems combining ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeffler, J.; Wagner, W.; Svygenhoven, H. van [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Meier, J.; Doudin, B.; Ansermet, J.P. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The magnetic properties of nanostructured materials on the basis of Fe and Ni have been investigated with a SQUID magnetometer, complementary to the small-angle neutron scattering study reported in the same volume. Measurements of the coercive field in a temperature range from 5 to 300 K confirm the validity of the random anisotropy model for our nanostructured systems. Furthermore, we obtain information about the presence and distribution of the antiferromagnetic oxides, joining the ferromagnetic grains. (author) 2 figs., 3 refs.

  15. Long range anti-ferromagnetic spin model for prebiotic evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nokura, Kazuo [Shonan Institute of Technology, Fujisawa 251-8511 (Japan)

    2003-11-28

    I propose and discuss a fitness function for one-dimensional binary monomer sequences of macromolecules for prebiotic evolution. The fitness function is defined by the free energy of polymers in the high temperature random coil phase. With repulsive interactions among the same kind of monomers, the free energy in the high temperature limit becomes the energy function of the one-dimensional long range anti-ferromagnetic spin model, which is shown to have a dynamical phase transition and glassy states.

  16. Correlations between Kondo clouds in nearly antiferromagnetic Kondo lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, M.N. E-mail: kiselev@physik.uni-wuerzburg.de; Kikoin, K.A

    2004-05-01

    We discuss a novel fluctuational mechanism explaining the physics of nearly antiferromagnetic Kondo lattices (KL). The effective action for KL model is expressed in terms of Bose operators responsible for paramagnetic excitations and semi-bosonic fields describing the dynamic Kondo clouds created by conduction electrons around local spin. The gauge invariant resonance valence bond theory of interacting Kondo clouds describes the spin liquid with strong critical fluctuations imitating itinerant fluctuation magnetism of Moriya type.

  17. Fermion Bound States Around Skyrmions in Doped Antiferromagnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇谡鹏

    2003-01-01

    We show the skyrmion effects in doped antiferromagnets for the uniform flux phase. The low-energy effective theory of the t′-J model can be mapped onto the massive quantum electrodynamics. There exist Fermion bound states around skyrmions. For each sublattice, there exist induced fractional fermion numbers around the skyrmions. The total induced fermion number is zero due to the "cancelling effect" between two sublattices with opposite charges.

  18. Two-step flux penetration in classic antiferromagnetic superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Krzyszton, T.; Rogacki, K.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of antiferromagnetic order on the mixed state of a superconductor may result in creation of spin-flop domains along vortices. This may happen when an external magnetic field is strong enough to flip over magnetic moments in the vortex core from their ground state configuration. The formation of domain structure causes modification of the surface energy barrier, and creation of the new state in which magnetic flux density is independent of the applied field. The modified surface ...

  19. Academic Meeting Scheduling Using an Antiferromagnetic Potts Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Kazue

    2017-07-01

    Scheduling parallel sessions of an academic meeting is a complicated task. If each presentation is assigned to an appropriate session, an antiferromagnetic Potts model can be used for semi-automatic timetabling. The timetabling method proposed here is based on graph coloring and includes additional constraints to be considered in a practical situation. We examine the feasibility of semi-automatic timetabling in some practical examples.

  20. Ferroelectric polarization in nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite thin films on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, S B; Tofail, S A M; Kholkin, A L; Wojtaś, M; Gregor, M; Gandhi, A A; Wang, Y; Bauer, S; Krause, M; Plecenik, A

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals in natural form are a major component of bone--a known piezoelectric material. Synthetic hydroxyapatite is widely used in bone grafts and prosthetic pyroelectric coatings as it binds strongly with natural bone. Nanocrystalline synthetic hydroxyapatite films have recently been found to exhibit strong piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity. While a spontaneous polarization in hydroxyapatite has been predicted since 2005, the reversibility of this polarization (i.e. ferroelectricity) requires experimental evidence. Here we use piezoresponse force microscopy to demonstrate that nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite indeed exhibits ferroelectricity: a reversal of polarization under an electrical field. This finding will strengthen investigations on the role of electrical polarization in biomineralization and bone-density related diseases. As hydroxyapatite is one of the most common biocompatible materials, our findings will also stimulate systematic exploration of lead and rare-metal free ferroelectric devices for potential applications in areas as diverse as in vivo and ex vivo energy harvesting, biosensing and electronics.