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Sample records for ferret ventricular myocardium

  1. Non-compaction of the ventricular myocardium

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    Livio Dei Cas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-compaction of the left ventricle (LVNC is a disorder of endomyocardial morphogenesis that results in multiple trabeculations in the left ventricular (LV myocardium. This rare disorder is characterized by an excessively prominent trabecular meshwork and deep intratrabecular recesses. This idiopathic cardiomyopathy is characterized by an altered structure of the myocardial wall as a result of intrauterine arrest of compaction of the myocardial fibers in the absence of any coexisting congenital lesion. It can be associated with neuromuscular disorders and can co-exist with other cardiac malformations, and it is accompanied by depressed ventricular function, systemic embolism and ventricular arrhythmia. Echocardiography is the method of choice for diagnosing LVNC, but the correct diagnosis is often missed or delayed due to a lack of knowledge concerning this uncommon disease and its similarity to other diseases of the myocardium and endocardium. There is a two-layered structure of the myocardial wall consisting of a thin compacted epicardial layer and a thick non-compacted endocardial layer with prominent trabeculations and deep recesses. (Heart International 2006; 3-4: 178-83

  2. Ferret

    CERN Document Server

    Balmain, David

    2008-01-01

    With the introduction of Ferret, Ruby users now have one of the fastest and most flexible search libraries available. And it's surprisingly easy to use. This book will show you how to quickly get up and running with Ferret. You'll learn how to index different document types such as PDF, Microsoft Word, and HTML, as well as how to deal with foreign languages and different character encodings. Ferret describes the Ferret Query Language in detail along with the object-oriented approach to building queries. You will also be introduced to sorting, filtering, and highlighting your search results

  3. A rare cause of heart failure treated by heart transplantation: noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium.

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    Bordes, Julien; Jop, Bertrand; Imbert, Sandrine; Hraiech, Sami; Collard, Frédéric; Kerbaul, François

    2009-01-01

    Noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium is a rare cardiomyopathy due to an arrest of myocardial morphogenesis. The characteristic echocardiographic findings are prominent myocardial trabeculations and deep intertrabecular spaces communicating with the left ventricular cavity. The clinical manifestations include heart failure (HF) signs, ventricular arrhythmias, and cardioembolic events. We describe an illustrative case of noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium associated with bicuspid aortic valve, a 42-year-old male presenting a refractory acute heart failure successfully treated by emergency heart transplantation.

  4. Effects of hypokalemia on transmural dispersion of ventricular repolarization in left ventricular myocardium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Hua Zhong; Shi-Juan Lu; Mo-Shui Chen; Zi-Bin Chen; Liu Wang; Ping-Sheng Wu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe effects of hypokalemia on transmural heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization in left ventricular myocardium of rabbit, and explore the role of hypokalemia in malignant ventricular arrhythmia (MVA). Methods: A total of 20 rabbits were randomly divided into control group and hypokalemic group. Isolated hearts in the control group were simply perfused with modified Tyrode's solution, and were perfused with hypokalemic Tyrode's solution in hypokalemic group. Ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT), 90% monophasic action potential repolarization duration (APD90) of subepicardial, midmyocardial and subendocardial myocardium, transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) and Cx43 protein expression in three layers of myocardium were measured in both groups. Results: VFT in the control group and the hypokalemic group were (13.40±2.95) V, and (7.00±1.49) V, respectively. There was a significant difference between two groups (P<0.01). APD90 of three myocardial layers in the hypokalemic group were significantly prolonged than those in the control group (P<0.01). APD90 in the hypokalemic group and the control group were (38.10±10.29) ms and (23.70±5.68) ms, and TDR were (52.90±14.55) ms and (36.10±12.44) ms, respectively. APD90 and TDR in the hypokalemic group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05), and the increase in APD90 of midmyocardium was more significant in the hypokalemic group. Cx43 protein expression of all three myocardial layers were decreased significantly in the hypokalemic group (P<0.01), and Cx43 was significantly increased (P<0.05). Reduction of Cx43 protein expression was more significant in the midmyocardium. Conclusions: Hypokalemic can increase transmural heterogeneity of Cx43 expression and repolarization in left ventricular myocardium of rabbit, and decrease VFT and can induce MVA more easily.

  5. Robust left ventricular myocardium segmentation for multi-protocol MR

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    Groth, A.; Weese, J.; Lehmann, H.

    2012-02-01

    For a number of cardiac procedures like the treatments of ventricular tachycardia (VT), coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF) both anatomical as well as vitality information about the left ventricular myocardium are required. To this end, two images for the anatomical and functional information, respectively, must be acquired and analyzed, e.g. using two different 3D MR protocols. To enable automatic analysis, a workflow has been proposed1 which allows to integrate the vitality information extracted from the functional image data into a patient-specific anatomical model generated from the anatomical image. However, in the proposed workflow the extraction of accurate vitality information from the functional image depends to a large extend on the accuracy of both the anatomical model and the mapping of the model to the functional image. In this paper we propose and evaluate methods for improving these two aspects. More specifically, on one hand we aim to improve the segmentation of the often low-contrast left ventricular epicardium in the anatomical 3D MR images by introducing a patient-specific shape-bias. On the other hand, we introduce a registration approach that facilitates the mapping of the anatomical model to images acquired by different protocols and modalities, such as functional 3D MR. The new methods are evaluated on clinical MR data, for which considerable improvements can be achieved.

  6. A Rare Cause of Heart Failure Treated by Heart Transplantation: Noncompaction of the Ventricular Myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Bordes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium is a rare cardiomyopathy due to an arrest of myocardial morphogenesis. The characteristic echocardiographic findings are prominent myocardial trabeculations and deep intertrabecular spaces communicating with the left ventricular cavity. The clinical manifestations include heart failure (HF signs, ventricular arrhythmias, and cardioembolic events. We describe an illustrative case of noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium associated with bicuspid aortic valve, a 42-year-old male presenting a refractory acute heart failure successfully treated by emergency heart transplantation.

  7. A rare case of isolated non-compaction right ventricular myocardium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-juan; ZHI Guang; HOU Hai-jun; ZHOU Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Isolated right ventricular noncompaction (IRNC) is a rare congenital cardiomyopathy resulting from an arrest in normal endomyocardial embryogenesis. The clinical syndrome includes systolic and diastolic dysfunction; some cases may have ventricular arrhythmias. We report a case of a female with the diagnosis of right ventricular non-compaction myocardium (RVNC) with normal left ventricular systolic function. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports of isolated ventricular non-compaction involving only the right ventricular before 2008, and there have only been described in very few cases of newborns and adult patients.

  8. Pocket proteins critically regulate cell cycle exit of the trabecular myocardium and the ventricular conduction system

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    David S. Park

    2013-07-01

    During development, the ventricular conduction system (VCS arises from the trabecular or spongy myocardium. VCS and trabecular myocytes proliferate at a significantly slower rate than compact zone myocardial cells, establishing a transmural cell cycle gradient. The molecular determinants of VCS/trabecular myocyte cell cycle arrest are not known. Given the importance of pocket proteins (Rb, p107 and p130 in mediating G0/G1 arrest in many cell types, we examined the role of this gene family in regulating cell cycle exit of the trabecular myocardium and ventricular conduction system. Using a combinatorial knockout strategy, we found that graded loss of pocket proteins results in a spectrum of heart and lung defects. p107/p130 double knockout (dKO hearts manifest dysregulated proliferation within the compact myocardium and trabecular bases, while the remaining trabecular region cell cycle exits normally. Consequently, dKO hearts exhibit defective cardiac compaction, septal hyperplasia and biventricular outflow tract obstruction, while the VCS appears relatively normal. Loss of all three pocket proteins (3KO is necessary to completely disrupt the transmural cell cycle gradient. 3KO hearts exhibit massive overgrowth of the trabecular myocardium and ventricular conduction system, which leads to fetal heart failure and death. Hearts carrying a single pocket protein allele are able to maintain the transmural cell cycle gradient. These results demonstrate the exquisite sensitivity of trabecular and conduction myocytes to pocket protein function during ventricular chamber development.

  9. Tissue Doppler Imaging as Part of Assessing the Diastolic Functions of the Left Ventricular Myocardium in Athletes

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    Alina Yu. Tatarinova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of assessing the morphofunctional condition of the left ventricular myocardium within 231 athletes who specialise in various sports. All of them underwent a transthoracic echocardiogram that included colour and tissue Doppler imaging. There are no significant differences in the diastolic function indicators of the left ventricular myocardium between different types of sports. Athletes that exhibit slight hypertrophy of the left ventricular myocardium do not exhibit signs of diastolic dysfunction. Tissue Doppler imaging helps identify signs of diastolic dysfunction in athletes who have a formally normal transmitral flow.

  10. Late Gadolinium Enhancement of the right ventricular myocardium: Is it really different from the left ?

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    Macgowan Christopher K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been suggested that, in late gadolinium enhancement, the signal of right ventricular myocardium is nulled at a shorter inversion time than the left. While we initially made the same observation, we believe that the difference is not real, but results from artifacts. We present 7 cases as well as computer simulations to describe the nature of these artifacts and explain how they can create the impression of different inversion times for the right and left ventricle. At inversion times that are shorter than ideal for the myocardium a black rim can be seen at the border of the myocardium with blood on the inside and with fat on the outside. This is most likely a partial volume effect. The thin myocardium of the right ventricle is sandwiched between these black rims and, at a low spatial resolution, is no longer visible. In this case, the adjacent black rims may then be misinterpreted as myocardium. While black rims also occur on the left side, the myocardium is thicker and remains discernable as a separate layer. As a consequence, the optimal inversion time for the right ventricle only appears different from that for the left. In fact, in the presence of hypertrophy of the right ventricle or during systolic wall thickening we did not find a difference in inversion times between the left and right ventricle. We conclude that sufficient spatial resolution is important for adequate late gadolinium enhancement of the right ventricle.

  11. The Relation Between Hypertrophied Myocardium and Ventricular Fibrillation Threshold in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Zhibin; Wu Wei; Deng Yijun; Fang Chang; Wei Yulin; Zhou Shuxian; Wang Jingfeng

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relation between hypertrophied myocardium and ventricular fibrillation threshold in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods 20 male SHR were randomly divided into two groups: 10 week group (n=10) and 18 week group (n=10). 10week male Wistar rats were controlled group (n=10). The systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart mass index (HMI), ventricular effective refractory period (VERP) and ventricular fibrillation threshold(VFT) were measured respectively.Results ① The SBP and HMI of SHR were significantly higher than those of Wistar rats(P<0.001).The VFT of SHR were significantly lower than that of Wistar rats (P < 0.001). ②In SHR, the SBP and HMI of 18 week SHR were significantly higher than those of 10 week SHR (P < 0.001). The VFT of 18 week SHR were significantly lower than that of 10 week SHR (P<0.001). ③There were no significant difference of VERP among 10 week SHR, 18 week SHR and Wistar rats(P > 0.05). ④There was no relationship between HMI and VFT or SBP in Wistar rats. There was significant relationship between HMI and VFT or SBP in different age spontaneously hypertensive rats. ⑤HMI, age and species of animal were the major influent factors of VFT. Conclusions The VFT of hypertrophied myocardium decreased. The higher the degree of hypertrophy of myocardium and the higher the systolic blood pressure were, the lower the ventricular fibrillation threshold was.

  12. Characterization of the functional and anatomical differences in the atrial and ventricular myocardium from three species of elasmobranch fishes

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    Larsen, Julie; Bushnell, Peter; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the functional properties in atrial and ventricular myocardium (using isolated cardiac strips) of smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria), and sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) by blocking Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) with ryanodine...

  13. Coronary flow reserve in the remote myocardium predicts left ventricular remodeling following acute myocardial infarction.

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    Cheng, Rongchao; Wei, Guoqian; Yu, Longhao; Su, Zhendong; Wei, Li; Bai, Xiuping; Tian, Jiawei; Li, Xueqi

    2014-07-01

    Coronary flow reserve (CFR) in the non-infarcted myocardium is often impaired following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the clinical significance of CFR in the non-infarcted myocardium is not fully understood. The objective of the present study was to assess whether a relationship exists between CFR and left ventricular remodeling following AMI. We enrolled 18 consecutive patients undergoing coronary intervention. Heart function was analyzed using real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography at one week and six months after coronary angioplasty. Ten subjects were enrolled as the control group and were examined using the same method at the same time to assess CFR. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels were routinely analyzed to estimate peak concentration. CFR was 1.55±0.11 in the infarcted zone and 2.05±0.31 in the remote zone (p2.05). The levels of cTnI were higher in Group I compared to Group II on admission (36.40 vs. 21.38, p<0.05). Furthermore, left ventricular end diastolic volume was higher in Group I compared to Group II at six months following coronary angioplasty. Microvascular dysfunction is commonly observed in the remote myocardium. The CFR value accurately predicts adverse ventricular remodeling following AMI.

  14. Effects of diltiazem on transmembrane potential and current of right ventricular papillary muscle of ferrets.

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    Kanaya, S; Katzung, B G

    1984-01-01

    We studied the effects of diltiazem on electrical properties of isolated ferret right ventricular papillary muscles. By using standard microelectrode recording techniques and current clamp and voltage clamp protocols (single sucrose gap method), we measured action potential variables, depolarization-induced automaticity, slow (or second) inward current (Isi) and time-dependent and isochronal (1 sec) outward current. Resting potential was unaffected at all concentrations studied (from 2 nM-11 microM). At concentrations below 2 microM and at slow rates of stimulation (0.5 Hz), a small reduction of overshoot and prolongation of the action potential duration at 80% of full repolarization were observed. At concentrations of 2.2 microM or greater, marked use-dependent reductions of overshoot and plateau duration were observed that reversed with rest. Depolarization-induced automaticity was selectively suppressed at less negative diastolic potentials. In voltage clamp studies, peak Isi was markedly diminished over the concentration range studied (50% inhibitory concentration, 0.5 microM), but the current-voltage relation for Isi was not shifted on the voltage axis. The diminution in Isi was strongly use-dependent and voltage-dependent. Diltiazem (1.1 microM) had small effects on outward currents. Steady-state (isochronal) outward current and the time-dependent outward current were both reduced by 10 to 20% over the entire voltage range. Diltiazem is a potent inhibitor of the slow inward current in ventricular muscle. Its interaction with slow channel receptors appears to be strongly modulated by the state of the channels.

  15. Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium mobilization in right ventricular pressure-overload hypertrophy in the ferret: relationships to diastolic dysfunction and a negative treppe.

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    Gwathmey, J K; Morgan, J P

    1993-03-01

    In a model of right-ventricular pressure-overload hypertrophy (POH) in the ferret, action potential duration (to 90% repolarization) was found to be significantly longer (228 +/- 11 vs 314 +/- 12 ms) with no change in amplitude (85 +/- 3 vs 85 +/- 2 mV) or resting membrane potential (-79 +/- 1.5 vs -79 +/- 1 mV) for control and POH, respectively. Peak sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release (expressed as the logarithm of the fractional luminescence, -4.2 +/- 0.1 vs -4.4 +/- 0.3) and resting calcium concentrations (-5.5 +/- 0.1 vs -5.7 +/- 0.1) were not different between the two groups (control vs POH respectively). Muscles from control and POH animals demonstrated a positive force/interval relationship in the presence of physiological extracellular [Ca2+]. However, unlike muscles from control animals, muscles from animals with POH subjected to increasing frequencies of contraction in the presence of increased extracellular [Ca2+] demonstrated further impairment of diastolic relaxation and a negative treppe. Exposure of muscles from POH animals to isoproterenol returned the slowed Ca2+ uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum as detected with aequorin to control values, although the relaxation phase of the isometric twitch remained prolonged compared to non-hypertrophied muscles. Exposure to milrinone also abbreviated the time course of the intracellular Ca2+ transient, but did not return it to that seen in normal myocardium. The exposure of non-hypertrophied isolated muscles to caffeine resulted in similar prolongation of the isometric twitch duration to that seen in hypertrophied myocardium. Results of these experiments suggest that impaired muscle relaxation in POH reflects changes at the level of the myofilaments. Thus, although slowed intracellular calcium mobilization contributes to diastolic relaxation abnormalities, it can not be the sole factor responsible for the slowed relaxation as has been suggested.

  16. Atorvastatin prevents connexin43 remodeling in hypertrophied left ventricular myocardium of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong-juan; YAO Lei; CHEN Tu-gang; YU Min; WANG Li-hong; CHEN Jun-zhu

    2007-01-01

    Background Connexin43 (Cx43) is the predominant gap junction protein in heart and is involved in the control of cell-to-cell communication to modulate the contractility and the electrical coupling of cardiac myocytes. Left ventricular(LV) hypertrophy is accompanied by changes of Cx43 expression. Recent studies have demonstrated that statins reduced cardiac hypertrophy. However, it is unknown whether statins can affect Cx43 expression in hypertrophied left ventricular myocardium. This study was designed to assess the effects of atorvastatin on LV hypertrophy and Cx43 expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).Methods Nine-week old SHRs were randomly divided into two groups. Some received atorvastatin at 30 mg/kg by oral gavage once daily for 8 weeks (SHR-A); others received vehicle. Age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) received atorvastatin or vehicle for 8 weeks were used as controls. At the end of the experiment, we investigated LV hypertrophy and the expression of Cx43 in LV myocardium in four groups. Cx43 expression was investigated by the methods of Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscope. LV hypertrophy was accessed by pathological analysis and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level.Results LV hypertrophy was prominent in untreated SHR. In SHR, LV myocardium Cx43 level was upregulated, and the distribution of Cx43 was displaced from their usual locations to other sites at various distances away from the intercalated disks. After atorvastatin treatment, myocardium Cx43 level was reduced in SHR-A, and the distribution of Cx43 gap junction became much regular and confined to intercalated disk. Statins also prevented LV hypertrophy in SHR.Conclusions These results provide novel in vivo evidence for the key role of Cx43 gap junctions in LV hypertrophy and the possible mechanism in anti-hypertrophic effect of statins. Atorvastatin treatment may have beneficial effects on LV hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive

  17. Factors of Formation of Various Types of Left Ventricular Diastolic Filling in Adolescents with Myocardium Pathology

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    L.F. Bogmat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the main components of the formation of impaired left ventricular diastolic filling in adolescents with myocardial pathology. Materials and methods. The study involved 110 adolescents with myocardial pathology aged 13–18 years, of which 40 — with heart rhythm disorder, 40 — with dysplastic cardiomyopathy, 30 — with primary hypertension. Morphological and functional parameters of the heart were studied using ultrasound according to standard procedure. Left ventricular diastolic function has been studied in the pulsed wave Doppler mode with transmitral flow mapping from the apical access of four-chambered heart. For an adequate assessment of left ventricular diastolic function and detection of its earliest disorders, adolescents underwent tests with isometric exercise. Based on these results, adolescents were divided in terms of the E/A ratio. In order to identify common latent factors that explain the correlation between indicators, we have used the factor analysis, namely, the principal component analysis. All statistical procedures were performed using application packages Statgraphics Centurion. Results. On the initial stages of formation of diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricular myocardium in adolescents, a significant role is played by a number of factors, which can be conditionally defined as the geometric, functional and neurohumoral factors consistently included in the pathological process. Thus, during the formation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction type 1, the number one is neurohumoral factor, namely, the activation of the sympathoadrenal system, then peripheral vascular tone is being involved in the pathological process, and, consequently, a geometric factor — changing the sizes of the left atrium. In the formation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction type 2, the process consistently involves the renin-angiotensin system, namely, renin, a functional factor is presented by the indices

  18. Losartan reduced connexin43 expression in left ventricular myocardium of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-li ZHAO; Hong-juan CHEN; Jun-zhu CHEN; Min YU; Yun-lan NI; Wei-fang ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist losartan on myocardium connexin43 (Cx43) gap junction (GJ) expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and investigate possible mechanisms. Methods: Sixteen 9-week-old male SHRs and 8 age-matched male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were included in this study. SHRs were randomly divided into two groups to receive losartan at 30mg/(kg·d) by oral gavage once daily for 8 weeks (SHR-L) or vehicle (0.9% saline) to act as controls (SHR-V); WKY rats receiving vehicle for 8 weeks served as normotensive controls. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and the hearts were removed. Expressions of Cx43 and nuclear factor-kappaB p65 (NF-κB p65) proteins in all three groups were observed and further investigations on the effect of angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor antagonist losartan (30mg/(kg·d), 8 weeks) on Cx43 expression were conducted with Western blot and immunohistochemistry. NF-κB p65 protein in nuclear extracts was determined by Western blot. Results: Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy was prominent in SHRs, Cx43 and NF-κB p65 protein expressions were obviously upregulated and Cx43 distribution was dispersed over the cell surface. Treatment with losarton reduced the over-expressions of Cx43 and NF-κB p65 in LV myocardium. The distribution of Cx43 gap junction also became much regular and confined to intercalated disk after losartan treatment. Conclusion: Cx43 level was upregulated in LV myocardium of SHR during early stage of hypertrophy. Angiotensin Ⅱ type l receptor antagonist losartan prevented Cx43 gap junction remodeling in hypertrophied left ventricles, possibly through the NF-κB pathway.

  19. Viable Myocardium Impact on Left Ventricular Function after Late Revascularization of Infarct-related Artery in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Likun; Yu Hua; Huang Xiangyang; Feng Kefu; Han Xiaoping; Ye Qi

    2006-01-01

    Objectives The long-term benefit of late reperfusion of infarct-related artery (IRA) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is controversial, and the benefit mechanisms remain uncertain. Low dose dobutamine stress echocardiography (LDSE) can identify viable myocardium and predict improvement of wall motion after revascularization. Methods Sixtynine patients with first AMI who did not received early reperfusion therapy were studied by LDSE at 5 to 10 days after AMI. Wall motion abnormality and left ventricular size were measured at the same time.Successful PCI were done in all patients at 10 to 21 days after AMI onset. Patients were divided in two groups based on the presence or absence of viable myocardium. Echocardiography was repeated six months later. Results There were 157 motion abnormality segments. 89 segments (57%) were viable during LDSE. 26 patients (38%) with viability and 43(62%) without. In viable group, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was increased (P<0.05),and left ventricular end systolic volume index (LVESVI) and wall motion score (WMS) were decreased (P<0.05 and P<0.01) significantly at 6 months compared with baseline. But in patients without viability, LVEF was decreased (P<0.01), and LVESVI and left ventricular end diastolic volume index (LVEDVI) were increased (P<0.05) significantly after 6 months, and the WMS did not changed (P>0.05). LVEF increased (P<0.05) and WMS decreased (P<0.05) on LDSE during acute phase in patients with viability, but they were not changed in the nonviable group. Conclusions Late revascularization of IRA in patients with presence of viable myocardium after AMI is associated with long-term preservation left ventricular function and less ventricular remodeling.Improvement of left ventricular systolic function on LDSE indicates late phase recovery of left ventricular function after late revascularization.

  20. [Effect of the heart electric stimulation on repolarization of fish and amphibian ventricular myocardium].

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    Azarov, Ia É; Kibler, N A; Vaĭshnoraĭte, M A; Tsvetkova, A S; Kharin, S N; Vitiazev, V A; Shmakov, D N

    2013-01-01

    By the method of synchronous multielectrode cartography (24-unipolar leads), distribution of durations and time of end of repolarization were studied on ventricular epicardium of pikes (Esox lucius) and frogs (Rana esculenta) and in ventricular intramural layers of toads (Bufo bufo) at the ectopic heart excitation. The time of arrival of the excitation wave and of the end of repolarization in each lead was determined from the minimum of time derivative of potential at the period of the QRS complex and by minimum of the T wave, respectively. It has been established that at the ventricle electrostimulation, alongside with deceleration and a change of sequence of the myocardium activation, there occurs redistribution of local repolarization durations: in areas of late activation the repolarization being longer than in zones of early activation (p < 0.05). At stimulation, the apicobasal gradient of repolarization is predominantly changed due to electrophysiological processes in the apical areas. In all studied species. at ectopical excitation of the heart ventricle the sequence of its repolarization repeats the depolarization sequence due to delay of activation (in fish) and redistribution of repolarization durations (in amphibians).

  1. Effect of ramipril on the electrophysiological characteristics of ventricular myocardium after myocardial infarction in rabbits.

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    Zhong, Ya; Cao, Ping; Tong, Chuanfeng; Li, Xia

    2012-05-01

    The current study aims to explore the effect of ramipril on the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias and its possible mechanism after myocardial infarction (MI) in rabbits. A total of 24 rabbits were divided into three groups: the sham operation group (SHAM), the MI group, and the ramipril group (RAM). All groups were subjected to thoracotomy under sterile conditions; the MI and RAM groups underwent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. On the second day after surgery, the RAM group was given ramipril (1 mg/kg per day). The rabbits in each group were fed for 12 weeks. The monophasic action potentials of the epicardium, mid-myocardium and endocardium in each group were, respectively, recorded before the MI and at 12 weeks after the MI. Meanwhile, the episodes of ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT/VF) induced by procedure stimulations were counted, and the changes in L-type Ca flux (Ica-L) were recorded by means of the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The episodes of VT/VF were decreased in the RAM group after MI. At 12 weeks after MI, the transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) in the MI group was prolonged significantly compared with the SHAM and RAM groups. The density of Ica-L in the MI group was significantly lower than that any other group. Ramipril manifestly decreases the incidence of VT/VF after MI in rabbits, and the mechanism may be associated with its inhibitory effect on electrical remodeling after MI.

  2. Isolated non-compaction of ventricular myocardium in a victim of the Wenchuan earthquake with crush syndrome and acute renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fang; GAO Fa-bao; FU Ping; QIU Hong-yu; HU Hong-de; TANG Hong; ZHANG Ling; SONG Bin; TANG Wan-xin; TAO Ye; HUANG Song-min

    2009-01-01

    @@ Non-compaction of the ventricular myocardium (NVM) is a rare congenital genetic heart defect that was initially reported 17 years ago by means of autopsy;1 few cases have been published since then.

  3. A novel catheter design for laser photocoagulation of the myocardium to ablate ventricular tachycardia.

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    Wagshall, Alan; Abela, George S; Maheshwari, Alok; Gupta, Anoop; Bowden, Russell; Huang, S K Stephen

    2002-08-01

    Nd:YAG laser energy has been proposed as an alternative to radiofrequency energy for ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) in an effort to increase lesion size and success rates. However, issues of catheter design to maintain flexibility and ensure adequate tissue contact have hindered development of laser catheters. We developed and tested a prototype 8 Fr. steerable catheter with a flexible and extendible tip (designed to ensure tissue contact and efficient ventricular mapping), which projects the laser beam through a side port containing a lens-tipped optical fiber that rests against the endocardial surface. The catheter has a channel for simultaneous saline irrigation to displace the interceding blood and discharge a laser beam between two electrodes for bipolar mapping and a thermocouple for temperature monitoring. The catheter was tested on bench top using the epicardial surface of freshly slaughtered bovine hearts and in vivo using six anaesthetized closed-chest sheep. In vitro experiments demonstrated that lesion size increased linearly with applied power up to 40 watts. When compared to radio frequency, laser energy penetrated more deeply into the myocardium. In the in vivo studies, using increasing powers of up to 40 watts for application times of 60 to 120 seconds created circular or elliptical lesions with surface dimensions up to 12 mm x 12 mm and depth of 9 mm (full LV wall thickness with a mean lesion diameter of 9.9 +/- 5.2 mm and depth 5.8 +/- 3.2 mm). Most lesions, 16 total in both right and left ventricular walls were transmural or near transmural in thickness. Lesions demonstrated coagulation necrosis with smooth well-demarcated borders. No animal suffered cardiac perforation, hypotension, hemopericardium, damage to cardiac valves, or cavitation effect from any of the ablations. Runs of VT were seen during energy application at the highest laser outputs in two animals. In conclusion, this catheter

  4. Ferret cardiology.

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    Wagner, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac disease in pet ferrets is common and includes dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias, and acquired valvular disease. Clinical presentation of cardiac disease in ferrets may be similar to dog or cats, although hind limb weakness may be a prominent feature. Radiography, ECG, and ultrasound are all useful tools in the diagnosis of cardiac disease in ferrets. Therapeutics for cardiac disease in ferrets is based on recommendations for dogs and cats. The prognosis for cardiac disease in ferrets varies from fair to guarded, depending on underlying disease.

  5. Amrinone effects on electromechanical coupling and depolarization-induced automaticity in ventricular muscle of guinea pigs and ferrets.

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    Malécot, C O; Arlock, P; Katzung, B G

    1985-01-01

    The effects of the cardiotonic agent, amrinone (0.05-4 mM), on electrical and mechanical activities of ferret and guinea-pig papillary muscles were studied using current and voltage clamp (single sucrose gap) techniques. In current clamp studies, amrinone increased, in a dose-dependent manner, contractile force elicited by action potential in both species. Depolarization-induced automaticity was facilitated in ferret muscles at all maximum diastolic potentials between -70 and -15 mV. Facilitation of automaticity in guinea-pig muscles occurred only at potentials more negative than -35 mV and was suppressed at more positive potentials. Cimetidine (10 microM) partially reversed the effects of amrinone on automaticity in both species. In voltage clamp studies, amrinone increased the slow inward current. Steady-state outward current was increased in guinea-pig but not in ferret muscles. A dual effect of amrinone on tension was observed. Amrinone was found to increase phasic tension of ferret papillary muscles only for depolarizations lasting less than 250 to 300 msec. For longer depolarizations, amrinone decreased the phasic tension (in a dose-dependent manner), whereas the tonic tension was not modified. The decrease as well as the increase in tension was associated with an increase of the slow inward current. The results suggest that amrinone may be arrhythmogenic and may have an intracellular action at the sarcoplasmic reticulum level (partial inhibition) in addition to its action on the calcium current.

  6. Late enhancement of the left ventricular myocardium in young patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by electron beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosaki, Kenichi; Yoshibayashi, Muneo; Tsukano, Shinya; Ono, Yasuo; Arakaki, Yoshio; Naito, Hiroaki; Echigo, Shigeyuki [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    In the assessment of myocardial characteristics with computed tomography, late enhancement (intense stain in delayed phase image of contrast enhancement) is an abnormal finding and thought to represent fibrotic change. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical importance of late enhancement in young patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Forty-five patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, aged 1 to 24 years, were examined by electron beam computed tomography. We also assessed the clinical data on these patients. Late enhancement was found in 29 (64%) patients, usually as a patchy, stained area in the myocardium. In 29 patients with late enhancement, seven (24%) has syncopal episode and seven (24%) had a family history of sudden death. In contrast, none (0%) of 16 patients without late enhancement had syncopal episode nor a family history of sudden death (p<0.05). Twenty-four hour electrocardiographic monitoring was performed for 31 patients. Al patients with ventricular tachycardia were in the group with late enhancement [10/23 (43%) vs 0/8 (0%), p<0.05]. Thirty-seven patients were examined by thallium scintigraphy. The perfusion defect was more frequently found in patients with late enhancement than in patients without [14/26 (54%) vs 2/11 (18%), p<0.05]. These data suggest that late enhancement shown with electron beam computed tomography is related to syncopal episode, family history of sudden death, ventricular tachycardia, and myocardial damage in young patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (author)

  7. Repeated sauna therapy attenuates ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in rats by increasing coronary vascularity of noninfarcted myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobajima, Mitsuo; Nozawa, Takashi; Shida, Takuya; Ohori, Takashi; Suzuki, Takayuki; Matsuki, Akira; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    Repeated sauna therapy (ST) increases endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and improves cardiac function in heart failure as well as peripheral blood flow in ischemic limbs. The present study investigates whether ST can increase coronary vascularity and thus attenuate cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). We induced MI by ligating the left coronary artery of Wistar rats. The rats were placed in a far-infrared dry sauna at 41°C for 15 min and then at 34°C for 20 min once daily for 4 wk. Cardiac hemodynamic, histopathological, and gene analyses were performed. Despite the similar sizes of MI between the ST and non-ST groups (51.4 ± 0.3 vs. 51.1 ± 0.2%), ST reduced left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic (9.7 ± 0.4 vs. 10.7 ± 0.5 mm, P myocardial atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA levels. Vascular density was reduced in the noninfarcted myocardium of non-ST rats, and the density of cells positive for CD31 and for α-smooth muscle actin was decreased. These decreases were attenuated in ST rats compared with non-ST rats and associated with increases in myocardial eNOS and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels. In conclusion, ST attenuates cardiac remodeling after MI, at least in part, through improving coronary vascularity in the noninfarcted myocardium. Repeated ST might serve as a novel noninvasive therapy for patients with MI.

  8. Effects of extracellular potassium on ventricular automaticity and evidence for a pacemaker current in mammalian ventricular myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzung, B G; Morgenstern, J A

    1977-01-01

    Automaticity was induced in isolated guinea pig and cat papillary muscles by application of depolarizing constant current pulses. Increasing extracellular potassium from 1 to 15 mM caused a shift of pacemaker-like activity to less negative diastolic potentials and a decrease in maximum phase 4 slope. Membrane resistance, estimated from the relation of applied current to maximum diastolic potential, decreased when extracellular potassium was increased. Voltage clamps of cat papillary muscle demonstrated that action potentials activate a time-dependent outward current which has a reversal potential of -79.1 mV (+/- 0.99 SE, n = 20) at an extracellular potassium concentration of 5 mM. The reversal potential of this current varies with extracellular K+ with a slope of 50-60 mV per 10-fold concentration change. The current is activated by voltage clamps or action potential plateaus in the range of -30 to +30 mV. It has a time constant of deactivation which increases from approximately 100 to over 400 msec as clamp potential is increased from -90 to -60 mV. It is proposed that this current is equivalent to Ix1 demonstrated in other cardiac tissues and is responsible, in combination with inward currents, for automaticity in ventricular fibers.

  9. Deformation of the left and right ventricular longitudinal myocardium in fetuses with umbilical cord around neck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Dong-mei; WANG Chao-hong; WANG Yue-heng

    2012-01-01

    Background Umbilical cord around neck,a common obstetric complication,affects fetal hemodynamics.Does it influence fetal cardiac functions? The purpose of this study was to investigate the left and right ventricular systolic and diastolic functions of fetuses with umbilical cord around neck in the third trimester by applying velocity vector imaging (VVI).Methods Thirty-five cases of fetuses with umbilical cord around neck whose gestational ages from 35 to 40 weeks were selected,including 20 cases of umbilical artery ratio of the highest systolic velocity (S) to the lowest diastolic velocity (D) (S/D) <3.0 and 15 cases of umbilical artery S/D ≥3.0,while 20 cases of normal fetuses of 35-40 gestational weeks were selected as the control group.The changes in longitudinal velocity,strain,and strain rate of fetal left and right ventricle in systole and diastole in two groups,and the changes in fetal cardiac function under the situation of umbilical cord around neck were analyzed.Results Longitudinal strain and strain rate overall of fetal left and right ventricle in systole and diastole were less in fetuses with umbilical artery S/D ≥3.0 and umbilical cord around neck than those in fetuses with umbilical artery S/D <3.0and those in control group (P <0.05); there was no significant difference (P >0.05) in longitudinal strain and strain rate overall of fetal left and right ventricle in systole and diastole between fetuses with umbilical artery S/D <3.0 and those in control group.Conclusions Left and right ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction was detected in fetuses with umbilical cord around neck and umbilical artery S/D ≥3.0.WI could sensitively respond to cardiac function changes in fetuses with umbilical cord around neck,which provides another valuable method in the evaluation of fetal cardiac function.

  10. Enhanced preservation of acutely ischemic myocardium with transseptal left ventricular assist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonger, J D; Zhou, Y; Matsuura, H; Aldea, G S; Shemin, R J

    1994-03-01

    Mechanical support for acute regional ischemia without hemodynamic collapse may be achieved percutaneously with an intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) or with transseptal left ventricular assist (TLVA) while awaiting revascularization. The relative benefits of these two percutaneous transfemoral techniques for the treatment of ischemia were compared in a representative animal model. During 90 minutes of regional coronary occlusion, four groups of 8 pigs were treated with either no support (control), IABP, TLVA, or both IABP and TLVA. Cardioplegic arrest for 30 minutes to simulate coronary grafting was followed by 180 minutes of global reperfusion on bypass. In all groups regional wall motion and interstitial pH in the area at risk were significantly depressed with ischemia, but wall motion fully recovered after reperfusion. However, histochemical staining of the area of necrosis/area at risk was significantly reduced with IABP versus control (20.2% versus 34.1%; p < 0.05) and further significantly reduced with TLVA and IABP + TLVA (10.7% and 6.7% versus IABP alone; p < 0.05). We conclude that in supporting even a modest-sized myocardial region at risk (12% of the left ventricle) the area that went on to infarction was significantly reduced with the use of TLVA over IABP. Regional wall motion and myocardial pH measurements did not reflect this difference in the early reperfusion period. The benefit of TLVA over IABP during more extensive or prolonged ischemia may have real clinical significance.

  11. Ferret facts

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This update functions to inform cooperators on the latest, most recent facts on the 1994 Montana Black-footed Ferret Reintroduction. This is a weekly update,...

  12. Native T1 value in the remote myocardium is independently associated with left ventricular dysfunction in patients with prior myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamori, Shiro; Alakbarli, Javid; Bellm, Steven; Motiwala, Shweta R; Addae, Gifty; Manning, Warren J; Nezafat, Reza

    2017-10-01

    To compare remote myocardium native T1 in patients with chronic myocardial infarction (MI) and controls without MI and to elucidate the relationship of infarct size and native T1 in the remote myocardium for the prediction of left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction after MI. A total of 41 chronic MI (18 anterior MI) patients and 15 age-matched volunteers with normal LV systolic function and no history of MI underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1.5T. Native T1 map was performed using a slice interleaved T1 mapping and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging. Cine MR was acquired to assess LV function and mass. The remote myocardium native T1 time was significantly elevated in patients with prior MI, compared to controls, for both anterior MI and nonanterior MI (anterior MI: 1099 ± 30, nonanterior MI: 1097 ± 39, controls: 1068 ± 25 msec, P infarct size had a moderate correlation with reduced LV ejection fraction (r = -0.33, P infarct size. Native T1 time in the remote myocardium was independently associated with reduced LV ejection fraction, after adjusting for age, gender, infarct size, and comorbidity (β = -0.34, P = 0.03). In chronic MI, the severity of LV systolic dysfunction after MI is independently associated with native T1 in the remote myocardium. Diffuse myocardial fibrosis in the remote myocardium may play an important pathophysiological role of post-MI LV dysfunction. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1073-1081. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Lead reduces tension development and the myosin ATPase activity of the rat right ventricular myocardium

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    D.V. Vassallo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb2+ poisoning causes hypertension, but little is known regarding its acute effects on cardiac contractility. To evaluate these effects, force was measured in right ventricular strips that were contracting isometrically in 45 male Wistar rats (250-300 g before and after the addition of increasing concentrations of lead acetate (3, 7, 10, 30, 70, 100, and 300 µM to the bath. Changes in rate of stimulation (0.1-1.5 Hz, relative potentiation after pauses of 15, 30, and 60 s, effect of Ca2+ concentration (0.62, 1.25, and 2.5 mM, and the effect of isoproterenol (20 ng/mL were determined before and after the addition of 100 µM Pb2+. Effects on contractile proteins were evaluated after caffeine treatment using tetanic stimulation (10 Hz and measuring the activity of the myosin ATPase. Pb2+ produced concentration-dependent force reduction, significant at concentrations greater than 30 µM. The force developed in response to increasing rates of stimulation became smaller at 0.5 and 0.8 Hz. Relative potentiation increased after 100 µM Pb2+ treatment. Extracellular Ca2+ increment and isoproterenol administration increased force development but after 100 µM Pb2+ treatment the force was significantly reduced suggesting an effect of the metal on the sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx. Concentration of 100 µM Pb2+ also reduced the peak and plateau force of tetanic contractions and reduced the activity of the myosin ATPase. Results showed that acute Pb2+ administration, although not affecting the sarcoplasmic reticulum activity, produces a concentration-dependent negative inotropic effect and reduces myosin ATPase activity. Results suggest that acute lead administration reduced myocardial contractility by reducing sarcolemmal calcium influx and the myosin ATPase activity. These results also suggest that lead exposure is hazardous and has toxicological consequences affecting cardiac muscle.

  14. Atrioventricular Left Ventricular Apical Pacing Improves Haemodynamic, Rotational, and Deformation Variables in Comparison to Pacing at the Lateral Wall in Intact Myocardium: Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savvas Toumanidis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the effect on left ventricular (LV function of atrioventricular (AV and ventricular pacing at the LV apical or lateral wall and to compare the normal torsional and deformation pattern of the intact LV myocardium with those created by the aforementioned LV pacing modes and sites. Methods. Experiments were conducted in pigs (n=21 with normal LV function to investigate the acute hemodynamic effects of epicardial AV and ventricular LV pacing at the LV apical or lateral wall. Torsional and deformation indices of LV function were assessed using speckle tracking echocardiography. Results. AV pacing at the apex revealed a significant reduction in the radial strain of the base (P<0.03, without affecting significantly the ejection fraction and the LV torsion or twist. In contrast, AV pacing at the lateral wall produced, in addition to the reduction of the radial strain of the base (P<0.01, significant reduction of the circumferential and the radial strain of the apex (both P<0.01 as well as of the ejection fraction (P<0.002 and twist (P<0.05. Conclusions. In pig hearts with intact myocardium, LV function is maintained at sinus rhythm level when AV pacing is performed at the LV apex.

  15. The Frank-Starling mechanism involves deceleration of cross-bridge kinetics and is preserved in failing human right ventricular myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani-Nejad, Nima; Canan, Benjamin D; Elnakish, Mohammad T; Davis, Jonathan P; Chung, Jae-Hoon; Fedorov, Vadim V; Binkley, Philip F; Higgins, Robert S D; Kilic, Ahmet; Mohler, Peter J; Janssen, Paul M L

    2015-12-15

    Cross-bridge cycling rate is an important determinant of cardiac output, and its alteration can potentially contribute to reduced output in heart failure patients. Additionally, animal studies suggest that this rate can be regulated by muscle length. The purpose of this study was to investigate cross-bridge cycling rate and its regulation by muscle length under near-physiological conditions in intact right ventricular muscles of nonfailing and failing human hearts. We acquired freshly explanted nonfailing (n = 9) and failing (n = 10) human hearts. All experiments were performed on intact right ventricular cardiac trabeculae (n = 40) at physiological temperature and near the normal heart rate range. The failing myocardium showed the typical heart failure phenotype: a negative force-frequency relationship and β-adrenergic desensitization (P 0.05), indicating that this regulatory mechanism is preserved in heart failure. Length-dependent assessment of twitch kinetics mirrored these findings; normalized dF/dt slowed down with increasing length of the muscle and was virtually identical in diseased tissue. This study shows for the first time that muscle length regulates cross-bridge kinetics in human myocardium under near-physiological conditions and that those kinetics are preserved in the right ventricular tissues of heart failure patients.

  16. Diagnosis of Noncompaction of Ventricular Myocardium with Color Doppler Ultrasound%彩色多普勒超声诊断心肌致密化不全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凌; 黄昌举

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨彩色多普勒超声心动图对心肌致密化不全(NVM)的诊断价值,以预防致死性心律失常和栓塞.资料与方法 彩色多普勒超声以左心室长轴、左心室短轴、心尖四腔等多切面扫查,重点观察近心尖1/3的心肌与心内膜.16例经心血管造影对照,11例行介入治疗,3例行手术治疗.结果 30例患者超声心动图检查心腔内异常粗大的肌小梁和其间深陷的隐窝.彩色多普勒显示隐窝内的低速血流与心腔内高速血流相通.25例为左心室型,2例为右心室型,3例为双心室型.2例因严重充血性心力衰竭而最终进行心脏移植.对受体心脏进行了病理解剖和组织学检查,受累心腔内显示有异常粗大的肌小梁和交错深陷的隐窝,从心底到心尖致密心肌逐渐变薄,心内膜为增厚的纤维组织,内层非致密心肌肌束粗大、细胞核异型,外层致密心肌肌束形态正常,细胞核大小均匀.结论 彩色多普勒超声心动图是诊断左心室心肌致密化不全的首选方法,具有特征性意义.%Purpose By discussing the diagnostic value of Color Doppler Ultrasound of noncompaction of ventricular myocardium (NVM) ,to prevent life-threatening arrhythmias and embolism.Materials and Methods Color Doppler Ultrasound adopts multiplanar scanning on long axis and short axis of left ventricle,apical four-chamber and so on,with an emphasis on observing myocardium and endocardium approach to one-third of apex of heart.16 cases were contrasted by angiocardiography, 11 cases underwent interventional therapy and 3 cases underwent operation for combined congenital heart disease.Results Echocardiographic findings were shown in 30 cases of patients with prominent and excessive myocardial trabeculations and deep intratrabecular recesses in left ventricular.The Color Doppler flow imaging showed that blood in the muscular trabeculations tissues may circulate to chambers of the heart.Twenty-five cases of patients were

  17. Quantification of Coupled Stiffness and Fiber Orientation Remodeling in Hypertensive Rat Right-Ventricular Myocardium Using 3D Ultrasound Speckle Tracking with Biaxial Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae Woo; Sebastiani, Andrea; Yap, Choon Hwai; Simon, Marc A.; Kim, Kang

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical and structural changes of right ventricular (RV) in response to pulmonary hypertension (PH) are inadequately understood. While current standard biaxial testing provides information on the mechanical behavior of RV tissues using surface markers, it is unable to fully assess structural and mechanical properties across the full tissue thickness. In this study, the mechanical and structural properties of normotensive and pulmonary hypertension right ventricular (PHRV) myocardium through its full thickness were examined using mechanical testing combined with 3D ultrasound speckle tracking (3D-UST). RV pressure overload was induced in Sprague–Dawley rats by pulmonary artery (PA) banding. The second Piola–Kirchhoff stress tensors and Green-Lagrangian strain tensors were computed in the RV myocardium using the biaxial testing combined with 3D-UST. A previously established non-linear curve-fitting algorithm was applied to fit experimental data to a Strain Energy Function (SEF) for computation of myofiber orientation. The fiber orientations obtained by the biaxial testing with 3D-UST compared well with the fiber orientations computed from the histology. In addition, the re-orientation of myofiber in the right ventricular free wall (RVFW) along longitudinal direction (apex-to-outflow-tract direction) was noticeable in response to PH. For normotensive RVFW samples, the average fiber orientation angles obtained by 3D-UST with biaxial test spiraled from 20° at the endo-cardium to -42° at the epi-cardium (Δ = 62°). For PHRV samples, the average fiber orientation angles obtained by 3D-UST with biaxial test had much less spiral across tissue thickness: 3° at endo-cardium to -7° at epi-cardium (Δ = 10°, P<0.005 compared to normotensive). PMID:27780271

  18. Pressure-overload hypertrophy of the developing heart reveals activation of divergent gene and protein pathways in the left and right ventricular myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friehs, Ingeborg; Cowan, Douglas B; Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Black, Kendra M; Barnett, Reanne; Bhasin, Manoj K; Daly, Christian; Dillon, Simon J; Libermann, Towia A; McGowan, Francis X; del Nido, Pedro J; Levitsky, Sidney; McCully, James D

    2013-03-01

    Right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) myocardium differ in their pathophysiological response to pressure-overload hypertrophy. In this report we use microarray and proteomic analyses to identify pathways modulated by LV-aortic banding (AOB) and RV-pulmonary artery banding (PAB) in the immature heart. Newborn New Zealand White rabbits underwent banding of the descending thoracic aorta [LV-AOB; n = 6]. RV-PAB was achieved by banding the pulmonary artery (n = 6). Controls (n = 6 each) were sham-manipulated. After 4 (LV-AOB) and 6 (RV-PAB) wk recovery, the hearts were removed and matched RNA and proteins samples were isolated for microarray and proteomic analysis. Microarray and proteomic data demonstrate that in LV-AOB there is increased transcript expression levels for oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondria energy pathways, actin, ILK, hypoxia, calcium, and protein kinase-A signaling and increased protein expression levels of proteins for cellular macromolecular complex assembly and oxidative phosphorylation. In RV-PAB there is also an increased transcript expression levels for cardiac oxidative phosphorylation but increased protein expression levels for structural constituents of muscle, cardiac muscle tissue development, and calcium handling. These results identify divergent transcript and protein expression profiles in LV-AOB and RV-PAB and provide new insight into the biological basis of ventricular specific hypertrophy. The identification of these pathways should allow for the development of specific therapeutic interventions for targeted treatment and amelioration of LV-AOB and RV-PAB to ameliorate morbidity and mortality.

  19. Clinical neurology of ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Figueroa, Orlando; Smith, Mary O

    2007-09-01

    Neurology represents an important specialty within ferret clinical medicine. Veterinarians should become familiar with the unique anatomic and physiologic differences between ferrets to improve their management of theses cases. In addition, veterinarians should use available diagnostic tests to confirm the presence of neurologic diseases. Recent advances in ferret medicine and veterinary neurology offer new capabilities to investigate and treat neurological disease in ferrets.

  20. A multiaxial constitutive law for mammalian left ventricular myocardium in steady-state barium contracture or tetanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D H; Yin, F C

    1998-08-01

    The constitutive law of the material comprising any structure is essential for mechanical analysis since this law enables calculation of the stresses from the deformations and vice versa. To date, there is no constitutive law for actively contracting myocardial tissue. Using 2,3-butanedione monoxime to protect the myocardium from mechanical trauma, we subjected thin midwall slices of rabbit myocardium to multiaxial stretching first in the passive state and then during steady-state barium contracture or during tetani in ryanodine-loaded tissue. Assuming transverse isotropy in both the passive and active conditions, we used our previously described methods (Humphrey et al., 1990a) to obtain both passive and active constitutive laws. The major results of this study are: (1) This is the first multiaxial constitutive law for actively contracting mammalian myocardium. (2) The functional forms of the constitutive law for barium contracture and ryanodine-induced tetani are the same but differ from those in the passive state. Hence, one cannot simply substitute differing values for the coefficients of the passive law to describe the active tissue properties. (3) There are significant stresses developed in the cross-fiber direction (more than 40 percent of those in the fiber direction) that cannot be attributed to either deformation effects or nonparallel muscle fibers. These results provide the foundation for future mechanical analyses of the heart.

  1. Characterization of the functional and anatomical differences in the atrial and ventricular myocardium from three species of elasmobranch fishes: smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus), and clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Julie; Bushnell, Peter; Steffensen, John; Pedersen, Morten; Qvortrup, Klaus; Brill, Richard

    2017-02-01

    We assessed the functional properties in atrial and ventricular myocardium (using isolated cardiac strips) of smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria), and sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) by blocking Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) with ryanodine and thapsigargin and measuring the resultant changes in contraction-relaxation parameters and the force-frequency relationship at 20 °C and 30 °C. We also examined ultrastructural differences with electron microscopy. In tissues from smooth dogfish, net force (per cross-sectional area) and measures of the speeds of contraction and relaxation were all higher in atrial than ventricular myocardium at both temperatures. Atrial-ventricular differences were evident in the other two species primarily in measures of the rates of contraction and relaxation. Ryanodine-thapsigargin treatment reduced net force and its maximum positive first derivative (i.e., contractility), and increased time to 50 % relaxation in atrial tissue from smooth dogfish at 30 °C. It also increased times to peak force and half relaxation in clearnose skate atrial and ventricular tissue at both temperatures, but only in atrial tissue from sandbar shark at 30 °C; indicating that SR involvement in excitation-contraction (EC) coupling is species- and temperature-specific in elasmobranch fishes, as it is in teleost fishes. Atrial and ventricular myocardium from all three species displayed a negative force-frequency relationship, but there was no evidence that SR involvement in EC coupling was influenced by heart rate. SR was evident in electron micrographs, generally located in proximity to mitochondria and intercalated discs, and to a lesser extent between the myofibrils; with mitochondria being more numerous in ventricular than atrial myocardium in all three species.

  2. Lysophosphatidic acid increases the electrophysiological instability of adult rabbit ventricular myocardium by augmenting L-type calcium current.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wei

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA has diverse actions on the cardiovascular system and is widely reported to modulate multiple ion currents in some cell types. However, little is known about its electrophysiological effects on cardiac myocytes. This study investigated whether LPA has electrophysiological effects on isolated rabbit myocardial preparations. The results indicate that LPA prolongs action potential duration at 90% repolarization (APD(90 in a concentration- and frequency-dependent manner in isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes. The application of extracellular LPA significantly increases the coefficient of APD(90 variability. LPA increased L-type calcium current (I(Ca,L density without altering its activation or deactivation properties. In contrast, LPA has no effect on two other ventricular repolarizing currents, the transient outward potassium current (I(to and the delayed rectifier potassium current (I(K. In arterially perfused rabbit left ventricular wedge preparations, the monophasic action potential duration, QT interval, and Tpeak-end are prolonged by LPA. LPA treatment also significantly increases the incidence of ventricular tachycardia induced by S(1S(2 stimulation. Notably, the effects of LPA on action potentials and I(Ca,L are PTX-sensitive, suggesting LPA action requires a G(i-type G protein. In conclusion, LPA prolongs APD and increases electrophysiological instability in isolated rabbit myocardial preparations by increasing I(Ca,L in a G(i protein-dependent manner.

  3. Effects of a new antiarrhythmic drug SS-68 on electrical activity in working atrial and ventricular myocardium of mouse and their ionic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogus, Saida K; Abramochkin, Denis V; Galenko-Yaroshevsky, Pavel A; Suzdalev, Konstantin F

    2015-08-01

    SS-68 is a derivative of indole, which demonstrated strong antiarrhythmic effects not associated with significant QT prolongation in dog models of atrial fibrillation. Therefore, SS-68 was proposed as a new antiarrhythmic drug and the present study is the first describing its effects on action potentials (APs) configuration and elucidating the ionic mechanisms of these effects. Sharp microelectrodes were used to record APs in isolated preparations of mouse atrial and ventricular myocardium. In both types of myocardium 10(-6) M SS-68 produced reduction of AP duration, 3 × 10(-6) M failed to alter AP waveform and 10(-5) - 3 × 10(-5) M prolonged APs. Sensitivity of main ionic currents to SS-68 was determined using whole-cell patch clamp. Transient potassium current Ito was slightly inhibited by SS-68 with IC50 = 1.43 × 10(-4) M. IKur was more sensitive with IC50 = 1.84 × 10(-5) M. Background inward rectifier showed very low sensitivity to SS-68 - only 10(-4) M SS-68 caused significant reduction of IK1. ICaL was significantly inhibited by 10(-6)M - 3 × 10(-5) M SS-68. The IC50 value for the ICaL was 1.84 × 10(-6) M. Thus, main ionic currents of mouse cardiomyocytes are inhibited by SS-68 in the following order of potency: ICaL > IKur > Ito > IK1. While lower concentration of SS-68 shorten APs via suppression of ICaL, higher concentrations inhibit K(+)-currents leading to APs prolongation.

  4. No evidence for activated autophagy in left ventricular myocardium at early reperfusion with protection by remote ischemic preconditioning in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

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    Nilgün Gedik

    Full Text Available Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC by repeated brief limb ischemia/reperfusion reduces myocardial injury in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5 in left ventricular (LV myocardium at early reperfusion is associated with such protection. Autophagy, i.e., removal of dysfunctional cellular components through lysosomes, has been proposed as one mechanism of cardioprotection. Therefore, we analyzed whether or not the protection by RIPC is associated with activated autophagy.CABG patients were randomized to undergo RIPC (3×5 min blood pressure cuff inflation/5 min deflation or placebo (cuff deflated before skin incision (n = 10/10. Transmural myocardial biopsies were taken from the LV before cardioplegia (baseline and at early (5-10 min reperfusion. RIPC-induced protection was reflected by decreased serum troponin I concentration area under the curve (194±17 versus 709±129 ng/ml × 72 h, p = 0.002. Western blotting for beclin-1-phosphorylation and protein expression of autophagy-related gene 5-12 (ATG5-12 complex, light chain 3 (LC3, parkin, and p62 was performed. STAT3-, STAT5- and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2-phosphorylation was used as positive control to confirm signal activation by ischemia/reperfusion.Signals of all analyzed autophagy proteins did not differ between baseline and early reperfusion and not between RIPC and placebo. STAT5-phosphorylation was greater at early reperfusion only with RIPC (2.2-fold, p = 0.02. STAT3- and ERK1/2-phosphorylation were greater at early reperfusion with placebo and RIPC (≥2.7-fold versus baseline, p≤0.05.Protection through RIPC in patients undergoing CABG surgery does not appear to be associated with enhanced autophagy in LV myocardium at early reperfusion.

  5. Effects of a new antiarrhythmic drug SS-68 on electrical activity in working atrial and ventricular myocardium of mouse and their ionic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saida K. Bogus

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SS-68 is a derivative of indole, which demonstrated strong antiarrhythmic effects not associated with significant QT prolongation in dog models of atrial fibrillation. Therefore, SS-68 was proposed as a new antiarrhythmic drug and the present study is the first describing its effects on action potentials (APs configuration and elucidating the ionic mechanisms of these effects. Sharp microelectrodes were used to record APs in isolated preparations of mouse atrial and ventricular myocardium. In both types of myocardium 10−6 M SS-68 produced reduction of AP duration, 3 × 10−6 M failed to alter AP waveform and 10−5 – 3 × 10−5 M prolonged APs. Sensitivity of main ionic currents to SS-68 was determined using whole-cell patch clamp. Transient potassium current Ito was slightly inhibited by SS-68 with IC50 = 1.43 × 10−4 M. IKur was more sensitive with IC50 = 1.84 × 10−5 M. Background inward rectifier showed very low sensitivity to SS-68 – only 10−4 M SS-68 caused significant reduction of IK1. ICaL was significantly inhibited by 10−6M – 3 × 10−5 M SS-68. The IC50 value for the ICaL was 1.84 × 10−6 M. Thus, main ionic currents of mouse cardiomyocytes are inhibited by SS-68 in the following order of potency: ICaL > IKur > Ito > IK1. While lower concentration of SS-68 shorten APs via suppression of ICaL, higher concentrations inhibit K+-currents leading to APs prolongation.

  6. Influence of Mechanical Circulatory Support on Endothelin Receptor Expression in Human Left Ventricular Myocardium from Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Florian; Abraham, Getu; Kassner, Astrid; Baurichter, Daniela; Milting, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Background In terminal failing hearts ventricular assist devices (VAD) are implanted as a bridge to transplantation. Endothelin receptor (ETR) antagonists are used for treatment of secondary pulmonary hypertension in VAD patients. However, the cardiac ETR regulation in human heart failure and during VAD support is incompletely understood. Methods In paired left ventricular samples of 12 dilated cardiomyopathy patients we investigated the density of endothelin A (ETA) and B (ETB) receptors before VAD implantation and after device removal. Left ventricular samples of 12 non-failing donor hearts served as control. Receptor quantification was performed by binding of [125I]-ET-1 in the presence of nonselective and ETA selective ETR ligands as competitors. Additionally, the ETR mRNA expression was analyzed using quantitative real-time-PCR. Results The mRNA of ETA but not ETB receptors was significantly elevated in heart failure, whereas total ETR density analyzed by radioligand binding was significantly reduced due to ETB receptor down regulation. ETA and ETB receptor density showed poor correlation to mRNA data (spearman correlation factor: 0.43 and 0.31, respectively). VAD support had no significant impact on the density of both receptors and on mRNA expression of ETA whereas ETB mRNA increased during VAD. A meta-analysis reveals that the ETA receptor regulation in human heart failure appears to depend on non-failing hearts. Conclusions In deteriorating hearts of patients suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy the ETA receptor density is not changed whereas the ETB receptor is down regulated. The mRNA and the proteins of ETA and ETB show a weak correlation. Non-failing hearts might influence the interpretation of ETA receptor regulation. Mechanical unloading of the failing hearts has no impact on the myocardial ETR density. PMID:28095452

  7. Characterization of the functional and anatomical differences in the atrial and ventricular myocardium from three species of elasmobranch fishes: smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbers), and clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie; Bushnell, Peter; Steffensen, John;

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the functional properties in atrial and ventricular myocardium (using isolated cardiac strips) of smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria), and sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) by blocking Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) with ryanodine...... positive first derivative (i.e., contractility), and increased time to 50 % relaxation in atrial tissue from smooth dogfish at 30 °C. It also increased times to peak force and half relaxation in clearnose skate atrial and ventricular tissue at both temperatures, but only in atrial tissue from sandbar shark...

  8. The effects of quinidine and verapamil on electrically induced automaticity in the ventricular myocardium of guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, A O; Katzung, B G

    1976-02-01

    The effects of 2 to 10 muM verapamil (1-5 mg/l) and 3.8 to 7.6 muM quinidine (2-4 mg/l) on automaticity in ventricular myocardial fibers were examined. Papillary muscles from guinea pigs were mounted in a sucrose gap chamber and transmembrane potential was recorded by standard microelectrode techniques. Automaticity was induced with depolarizing currents of various strengths. Verapamil reduced phase 4 slope at all maximum diastolic membrane potentials. It also caused a selective reduction of the overshoot of action potentials arising from less negative maximum diastolic potentials. During exposure to verapamil, increased [Ca]0 partially restored action potential overshoot, but phase 4 slope was further reduced. Epinephrine caused a partial or complete reversal of verapamil-induced phase 4 slope depression but usually did not restore action potential overshoot. Quinidine reduced phase 4 slope at all maximum diastolic potentials. There was less marked reduction of action potential overshoot than in the case of verapamil. Epinephrine caused a partial reversal of the reduction of phase 4 slope produced by quinidine. It is concluded that although both verapamil and quinidine reduce automaticity in ventricular fibers, verapamil may be more effective in reducing the amplitude and occurrence of action potentials arising from low maximum diastolic potentials.

  9. Islands of spatially discordant APD alternans underlie arrhythmogenesis by promoting electrotonic dyssynchrony in models of fibrotic rat ventricular myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Rupamanjari; Engels, Marc C.; de Vries, Antoine A. F.; Panfilov, Alexander V.; Pijnappels, Daniël A.

    2016-04-01

    Fibrosis and altered gap junctional coupling are key features of ventricular remodelling and are associated with abnormal electrical impulse generation and propagation. Such abnormalities predispose to reentrant electrical activity in the heart. In the absence of tissue heterogeneity, high-frequency impulse generation can also induce dynamic electrical instabilities leading to reentrant arrhythmias. However, because of the complexity and stochastic nature of such arrhythmias, the combined effects of tissue heterogeneity and dynamical instabilities in these arrhythmias have not been explored in detail. Here, arrhythmogenesis was studied using in vitro and in silico monolayer models of neonatal rat ventricular tissue with 30% randomly distributed cardiac myofibroblasts and systematically lowered intercellular coupling achieved in vitro through graded knockdown of connexin43 expression. Arrhythmia incidence and complexity increased with decreasing intercellular coupling efficiency. This coincided with the onset of a specialized type of spatially discordant action potential duration alternans characterized by island-like areas of opposite alternans phase, which positively correlated with the degree of connexinx43 knockdown and arrhythmia complexity. At higher myofibroblast densities, more of these islands were formed and reentrant arrhythmias were more easily induced. This is the first study exploring the combinatorial effects of myocardial fibrosis and dynamic electrical instabilities on reentrant arrhythmia initiation and complexity.

  10. Trx1 Gene Therapy Enhances Angiogenic Signaling and Reduces Ventricular Remodeling in the Infarcted Myocardium of Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Samson Mathews; Thirunavukkarasu, Mahesh; Penumathsa, Suresh Varma; Koneru, Srikanth; Zhan, Lijun; Maulik, Gautam; Sudhakaran, Perumana R.; Maulik, Nilanjana

    2010-01-01

    Background The present study evaluates the reversal of diabetes mediated impairment of angiogenesis in myocardial infarction (MI) model of Type I diabetic rats by intramyocardial administration of adenoviral vector encoding Thioredoxin-1 (Ad.Trx1). Various studies have linked diabetes mediated impairment of angiogenesis to dysfunctional antioxidant systems in which Trx1 plays a central role. Methods and Results Ad.Trx1 was intramyocardially administered immediately after MI to non-diabetic and diabetic rats. Ad.LacZ was similarly administered to the respective control groups. The hearts were excised for molecular and immunohistochemical analysis at predetermined time points. The myocardial function was measured by echocardiography 30 days after the intervention. The Ad.Trx1 administered group exhibited reduced fibrosis, oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte and endothelial cell apoptosis as compared to diabetic MI group along with increased capillary and arteriolar density. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated myocardial overexpression of Trx1, HO-1, VEGF, p38MAPKβ and decreased p-JNK and p38MAPKα in the Ad.Trx1 treated diabetic group. Alternatively, we have observed significant reduction in the expression of VEGF in SnPP (HO-1 enzyme inhibitor) treated non-diabetic and diabetic animals even after Ad.Trx1 therapy. Echocardiographic analysis after 4 weeks of MI revealed significant improvement in the myocardial functional parameters such as the ejection fraction, fractional shortening and E/A ratio in the Ad.Trx1 administered group as compared to the diabetic MI group. Conclusion We demonstrate that the infarcted myocardium can be rescued from diabetes related impairment of angiogenesis and reduce myocardial functional disorder by Trx1 gene therapy in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. PMID:20194885

  11. Up Regulation of cystathione γ lyase and Hydrogen Sulphide in the Myocardium Inhibits the Progression of Isoproterenol-Caffeine Induced Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Wistar Kyoto Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Ahmad

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulphide (H2S is an emerging molecule in many cardiovascular complications but its role in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH is unknown. The present study explored the effect of exogenous H2S administration in the regression of LVH by modulating oxidative stress, arterial stiffness and expression of cystathione γ lyase (CSE in the myocardium. Animals were divided into four groups: Control, LVH, Control-H2S and LVH-H2S. LVH was induced by administering isoprenaline (5mg/kg, every 72 hours, S/C and caffeine in drinking water (62mg/L for 2 weeks. Intraperitoneal NaHS, 56μM/kg/day for 5 weeks, was given as an H2S donor. Myocardial expression of Cystathione γ lyase (CSE mRNA was quantified using real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR.There was a 3 fold reduction in the expression of myocardial CSE mRNA in LVH but it was up regulated by 7 and 4 fold in the Control-H2S and LVH-H2S myocardium, respectively. Systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, pulse wave velocity were reduced (all P<0.05 in LVH-H2S when compared to the LVH group. Heart, LV weight, myocardial thickness were reduced while LV internal diameter was increased (all P<0.05 in the LVH-H2S when compared to the LVH group. Exogenous administration of H2S in LVH increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione and total antioxidant capacity but significantly reduced (all P<0.05 plasma malanodialdehyde in the LVH-H2S compared to the LVH group. The renal cortical blood perfusion increased by 40% in LVH-H2S as compared to the LVH group. Exogenous administration of H2S suppressed the progression of LVH which was associated with an up regulation of myocardial CSE mRNA/ H2S and a reduction in pulse wave velocity with a blunting of systemic hemodynamic. This CSE/H2S pathway exhibits an antihypertrophic role by antagonizing the hypertrophic actions of angiotensin II(Ang II and noradrenaline (NA but attenuates oxidative stress and improves pulse wave velocity which helps to suppress

  12. Role of CaMKII and PKA in Early Afterdepolarization of Human Ventricular Myocardium Cell: A Computational Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yunliang

    2016-01-01

    Early afterdepolarization (EAD) plays an important role in arrhythmogenesis. Many experimental studies have reported that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and β-adrenergic signaling pathway are two important regulators. In this study, we developed a modified computational model of human ventricular myocyte to investigate the combined role of CaMKII and β-adrenergic signaling pathway on the occurrence of EADs. Our simulation results showed that (1) CaMKII overexpression facilitates EADs through the prolongation of late sodium current's (INaL) deactivation progress; (2) the combined effect of CaMKII overexpression and activation of β-adrenergic signaling pathway further increases the risk of EADs, where EADs could occur at shorter cycle length (2000 ms versus 4000 ms) and lower rapid delayed rectifier K+ current (IKr) blockage (77% versus 85%). In summary, this study computationally demonstrated the combined role of CaMKII and β-adrenergic signaling pathway on the occurrence of EADs, which could be useful for searching for therapy strategies to treat EADs related arrhythmogenesis. PMID:28053652

  13. Cardiotoxic Electrophysiological Effects of the Herbicide Roundup(®) in Rat and Rabbit Ventricular Myocardium In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress, Steeve; Lemoine, Sandrine; Puddu, Paolo-Emilio; Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Rouet, René

    2015-10-01

    Roundup (R), a glyphosate (G)-based herbicide (GBH), containing unknown adjuvants is widely dispersed around the world. Used principally by farmers, intoxications have increasingly been reported. We have studied R effects (containing 36 % of G) on right ventricular tissues (male Sprague-Dawley rats, up to 20,000 ppm and female New Zealand rabbits, at 25 and 50 ppm), to investigate R cardiac electrophysiological actions in vitro. We tested the reduced Ca(++) intracellular uptake mechanism as one potential cause of the electrical abnormalities after GBH superfusion, using the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor ouabain or the 1,4-dihydropyridine L-type calcium channel agonist BAY K 8644 which increases I Ca. R concentrations were selected based on human blood ranges found after acute intoxication. The study showed dose-dependent V max, APD50 and APD90 variations during 45 min of R superfusion. At the highest concentrations tested, there was a high incidence of conduction blocks, and 30-min washout with normal Tyrode solution did not restore excitability. We also observed an increased incidence of arrhythmias at different doses of R. Ouabain and BAY K 8644 prevented V max decrease, APD90 increase and the cardiac inexcitability induced by R 50 ppm. Glyphosate alone (18 and 180 ppm) had no significant electrophysiological effects. Thus, the action potential prolonging effect of R pointing to I Ca interference might explain both conduction blocks and proarrhythmia in vitro. These mechanisms may well be causative of QT prolongation, atrioventricular conduction blocks and arrhythmias in man after GBH acute intoxications as reported in retrospective hospital records.

  14. Left Ventricular Systolic Function Changes in Primary Hypertension Patients Detected by the Strain of Different Myocardium Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Yan, Zi-Ning; Rui, Yi-Fei; Fan, Li; Shen, Dan; Chen, Dong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction associated with differential strain among myocardial layers in primary hypertension (PH) patients with or without LV hypertrophy (LVH), and normal patients.In 63 PH and 42 healthy patients, two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography was used to measure the peak systolic longitudinal and circumferential strain of the myocardial subendocardial, middle and subepicardial layers, and the peak systolic radial strain. To assess LV systolic function, the apical long axis, 4- and 2-chamber views, and parasternal short axis at the basal, middle, and apical levels were acquired by cardiovascular ultrasound (Vivid E9, GE Healthcare, USA).Overall, the pattern in peak systolic longitudinal strain among myocardial layers was subendocardial > middle > subepicardial. In the peak systolic circumferential strain, this was middle > subepicardial > subendocardial. The peak systolic longitudinal strain was normal > NLVH > LVH. Among the groups, the peak systolic circumferential strain at the basal parasternal short-axis level was statistically similar, but at the middle and the apical parasternal short-axis levels were NLVH > normal > LVH. In normal and NLVH patients, the peak radial strain was middle > apical > basal, and in LVH patients was apical > middle > basal. The peak averages of the longitudinal and subendocardial circumferential strains differed significantly when LVH compared with NLVH and normal patients.The systolic function of PH patients was damaged in comparison with normal individuals, which could be detected conveniently and accurately using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography.

  15. Miocárdio não compactado de ventrículo esquerdo: relato de caso com estudo de necropsia Noncompaction of ventricular myocardium: case report with autopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pott Junior

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O miocárdio não compactado de ventrículo esquerdo é cardiomiopatia genética em decorrência de uma anormalidade da morfogênese endomiocárdica. Quando presente, geralmente está associado a outras anomalias cardíacas congênitas, sendo raro seu achado isolado sem outras alterações estruturais cardíacas associadas. Desde seu primeiro relato em 1990, a não compactação do miocárdio vem sendo amplamente estudada a fim de se estabelecerem caráter genético, história natural, métodos de diagnóstico, repercussões hemodinâmicas e prognóstico. O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar um caso de miocárdio não compactado isolado de ventrículo esquerdo com estudo de necrópsia.Noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium is a genetic cardiomyopathy due to an alteration in endomyocardial morphogenesis. When present, it is commonly associated with other congenital cardiac diseases, whereas it is rare as an isolated finding without other associated cardiac structural alterations. Since its first report in 1990, the noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium has been widely studied in order to establish its genetic character, natural history, diagnostic methods, hemodynamic repercussions and prognosis. This study aims to report the case of an isolated noncompaction of the left ventricular myocardium with autopsy.

  16. Biphasic contractions induced by milrinone at low temperature in ferret ventricular muscle: role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and transmembrane calcium influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecot, C O; Bers, D M; Katzung, B G

    1986-08-01

    The effects of milrinone were studied in ferret papillary muscle stimulated at various rates and temperatures from 23 degrees to 36 degrees C. In voltage-clamp experiments, 50 micrograms/ml (0.237 mM) milrinone induced a 2.1-fold increase in calcium current at 28 degrees or 36 degrees C. At 50 micrograms/ml, milrinone transiently increased contractility in all muscles at 28 degrees C, but its steady-state effect was either increased (+50%) or decreased (-24.7%) steady-state twitch amplitude. A negative inotropic effect always occurred below 27 degrees C. Milrinone decreased the total twitch duration and split the twitch into two components (P1 and P2) in the absence of any evidence of aberrant conduction. Increasing milrinone concentration from 50 to 300 micrograms/ml decreased P1 and increased P2. Ryanodine (100 mM) or caffeine (10 mM) suppressed P1. Contractions elicited after 30 seconds of rest were also biphasic in the presence of milrinone, but not in its absence. P2 of post-rest contraction was increased by caffeine or calcium (10 mM) and decreased by cobalt (2 mM) when drugs were applied at the beginning of the rest. Ryanodine and caffeine also suppressed P1 of post-rest contraction. The evidence suggests that P1 may be caused by Ca release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and P2 by increased Ca influx during the action potential via the calcium channel. It is also suggested that P2 may be present under control conditions, but to a lesser extent, and masked by a large P1.

  17. Stunned myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Anđelka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Stunned myocardium is a state of delayed recovery of regional contractility after a transient period of ischemia followed by reperfusion. Case report. A 67-year-old patient was admitted to our hospital with acute anterior myocardial infarction, and treated using percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA within acute disease stage. Reversible myocardial dysfunction persisted after ischemia following the return of normal perfusion. Abnormal resting wall motion with augmentation of contractility at low and high doses of dobutamine characterizes the stunned myocardium and reflects the normal blood flow reserve, characteristic for these postischemic, reperfused segments. SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography with Tc 99 and dipyradamole showed normalization of perfusion defects in the apical region. Theree months after the infarction and PTCA, contractility was almost completely recovered. Conclusion. Stunned myocardium recovery lasted from few weeks to few months. Control ultrasonography as well as SPECT showed normalization of systolic function of the left ventricle in the viable segments registered at previous examinations.

  18. Assessment of right ventricular myocardium motion in patient with DDD pacing using VVI%速度向量成像观察双腔起搏前后右心室运动状态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春蕾; 许迪; 陆凤翔; 江立红; 郑真; 施斌斌

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess right ventricular myocardium motion in patients with dual chamber pacing (DDD) using velocity vector imaging (VVI), and to explore the clinical application value of VVI in evaluating right ventricular motion. Methods 23 patients before and after DDD pacemaker implantation were enrolled in this study. The peak systolic displacement of right ventricular segments was measured with VVI.The difference between pre and post pacemaker implantation was analyzed. Results Right ventricular displacement before and after DDD pacing was significantly decreasing from basal, mid to apical segments ( P <0.01 ). Compared with the values at the baseline, the displacement of interventricular septum, free wall and right ventricle with pacing was decreased (P < 0.01 ). Conclusions Right ventricular displacement with pacing was significantly decreased compared with the values at the baseline. VVI can accurately assess right ventricular systolic displacement in patients with DDD pacing, and objectively reflect right ventricular myocardial motion and function.%目的 探讨速度向量成像(VVI)技术分析双腔(DDD)起搏前后右心室心肌运动位移的变化规律,初步探讨VVI技术在评价右心室运动方面的应用价值.方法 23例DDD起搏患者术前术后均采用VVI技术检测右心室室壁各节段心肌收缩期纵向运动位移,并比较术前术后之差异.结果 术前术后右心室各室壁不同节段心肌收缩峰值位移表现为从基底段到心尖段依次降低,其中基底段与心尖段的差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);与术前相比,术后后间隔、游离壁及右心室整体位移较术前显著降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 DDD起搏后右心室心肌运动位移较术前明显降低;VVI可精确测量DDD起搏前后右心室心肌位移的程度,从而客观反映右心室之运动状态,进而判断右心室之功能.

  19. Speckle-tracking echocardiography elucidates the effect of pacing site on left ventricular synchronization in the normal and infarcted rat myocardium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Mor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV pacing generates regional disparities in electrical activation and mechanical function (ventricular dyssynchrony. In contrast, left ventricular (LV or biventricular (BIV pacing can improve cardiac efficiency in the setting of ventricular dyssynchrony, constituting the rationale for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT. Animal models of ventricular dyssynchrony and CRT currently relay on large mammals which are expensive and not readily available to most researchers. We developed a methodology for double-site epicardial pacing in conscious rats. Here, following post-operative recovery, we compared the effects of various pacing modes on LV dyssynchrony in normal rats and in rats with ischemic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Two bipolar electrodes were implanted in rats as follows: Group A (n = 6 right atrial (RA and RV sites; Group B (n = 7 RV and LV sites; Group C (n = 8 as in group B in combination with left coronary artery ligation. Electrodes were exteriorized through the back. Following post-operative recovery, two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography was performed during pacing through the different electrodes. Segmental systolic circumferential strain (Ecc was used to evaluate LV dyssynchrony. RESULTS: In normal rats, RV pacing induced marked LV dyssynchrony compared to RA pacing or sinus rhythm, as measured by the standard deviation (SD of segmental time to peak Ecc, SD of peak Ecc, and the average delay between opposing ventricular segments. LV pacing and, to a greater extend BIV pacing diminished the LV dyssynchrony compared to RV pacing. In rats with extensive MI, the effects of LV and BIV pacing were markedly attenuated, and the response of individual animals was variable. CONCLUSIONS: Rodent cardiac pacing mimics important features seen in humans. This model may be developed as a simple new tool to study the pathophysiology of ventricular dyssynchrony and CRT.

  20. Hyperadrenocorticism in ferrets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    Hyperadrenocorticism is a common disease in ferrets. In recent years evidence has accumulated that this disease differs from hyperadrenocorticism in humans, dogs, and cats, in that adrenocortical sex steroids, rather than cortisol play, an important role in the pathogenesis. In this study attention

  1. Lesion dimensions during temperature-controlled radiofrequency catheter ablation of left ventricular porcine myocardium: impact of ablation site, electrode size, and convective cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh Petersen, H; Chen, X; Pietersen, A

    1999-01-01

    It is important to increase lesion size to improve the success rate for radiofrequency ablation of ischemic ventricular tachycardia. This study of radiofrequency ablation, with adjustment of power to approach a preset target temperature, ie, temperature-controlled ablation, explores the effect...

  2. Effects of droperidol on depolarization-induced automaticity, maximum upstroke velocity (Vmax) and the kinetics of recovery of Vmax in guinea-pig ventricular myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, A O; Hondeghem, L M; Katzung, B G

    1978-04-01

    The neuroleptic drug droperidol has been shown to have clinically useful antiarrhythmic activity. Prior reports have resulted in conflicting conclusions regarding actions on ventricular myocardial fibers. The present study was carried out to determine whether droperidol did in fact affect the electrophysiological properties of guinea-pig papillary muscle fibers. By means of microelectrode recordings from preparations mounted in a single sucrose gap, the effects of concentrations from 10(-6) to 4 X 10(-5) M were studied on depolarization-induced automaticity, and on Vmax and its recovery time under several conditions of membrane potential, stimulation rate and external ion concentration. The results showed that at clinically relevant concentrations, droperidol significantly slows ventricular pacemaker activity, a depression reversible by epinephrine. Furthermore, Vmax was decreased and the time constant for Vmax recovery was significantly prolonged under several conditions which pertain to clinical arrhythmias, i.e., reduced membrane potential, elevated extracellular potassium concentrations and increased stimulation rate.

  3. Impaired gene expression of beta 1-adrenergic receptor, but not stimulatory G-protein Gs alpha, in rat ventricular myocardium treated with isoproterenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizaki, Keiichiro; Momozaki, Masami; Akatsuka, Keiko; Fujimori, Yuuki; Uchide, Tsuyoshi; Temma, Kyosuke; Hara, Yukio

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the gene expression of beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (beta(1)AR) and stimulatory G-protein Gsalpha, important signal transduction elements for regulating heart rate and contractility, in ventricle after chronic treatment with isoproterenol (ISO) in rat. Rats were treated with ISO (4 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) twice a day for 4 d. Ventricle weight of the heart and ventricle weight/body weight ratio were increased by 23% and 25% compared with control, respectively. Positive inotropic responses to ISO in left atrial muscle preparations isolated from ISO-treated rats were markedly decreased. Northern blot hybridization showed that the mRNA transcript of beta(1)AR was significantly decreased in ventricle of ISO-treated rats, whereas Gsalpha mRNA level was unchanged. Present results demonstrate that the gene expression of myocardial beta(1)AR, but not Gsalpha, was decreased in rat myocardium of ISO-induced cardiac hypertrophy, and suggesting that decrease in the gene expression of beta(1)AR may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the diminished cardiac function.

  4. Upregulation of the kappa opioidergic system in left ventricular rat myocardium in response to volume overload: Adaptive changes of the cardiac kappa opioid system in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treskatsch, Sascha; Shaqura, Mohammed; Dehe, Lukas; Feldheiser, Aarne; Roepke, Torsten K; Shakibaei, Mehdi; Spies, Claudia D; Schäfer, Michael; Mousa, Shaaban A

    2015-12-01

    Opioids have long been known for their analgesic effects and are therefore widely used in anesthesia and intensive care medicine. However, in the last decade research has focused on the opioidergic influence on cardiovascular function. This project thus aimed to detect the precise cellular localization of kappa opioid receptors (KOR) in left ventricular cardiomyocytes and to investigate putative changes in KOR and its endogenous ligand precursor peptide prodynorphin (PDYN) in response to heart failure. After IRB approval, heart failure was induced using a modified infrarenal aortocaval fistula (ACF) in male Wistar rats. All rats of the control and ACF group were characterized by their morphometrics and hemodynamics. In addition, the existence and localization as well as adaptive changes of KOR and PDYN were investigated using radioligand binding, double immunofluorescence confocal analysis, RT-PCR and Western blot. Similar to the brain and spinal cord, [(3)H]U-69593 KOR selective binding sites were detected the left ventricle (LV). KOR colocalized with Cav1.2 of the outer plasma membrane and invaginated T-tubules and intracellular with the ryanodine receptor of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum. Interestingly, KOR could also be detected in mitochondria of rat LV cardiomyocytes. As a consequence of heart failure, KOR and PDYN were up-regulated on the mRNA and protein level in the LV. These findings suggest that the cardiac kappa opioidergic system might modulate rat cardiomyocyte function during heart failure.

  5. Effects of Biventricular and Left Ventricular Assist Devices on Ischemic Myocardium%左心室及双心室辅助装置对缺血心肌的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏; 王一山; 叶椿秀; 朱洪生; 陈长志

    2001-01-01

    normal circulation with high right atrial pressure by volume loading. However, BVAD group showed superiority in hemodynamics changes. Adenosine triphosphate and creatine phosphate of the right ventricular myocardium in the BVAD group was higher than that of LVAD group (P<0.05). Myocardial ultrastructural damage in BVAD group was milder than that of LVAD group. The data showed that specific surface-value of mitochondria of right ventricle myocardium was higher in BVAD group than that of LVAD group (P<0.05). Conclusion BVAD is superior to LVAD for biventricular global ischemia.

  6. Do ferrets perceive relative pitch?

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Pingbo; Fritz, Jonathan B.; Shamma, Shihab A.

    2010-01-01

    The existence of relative pitch perception in animals is difficult to demonstrate, since unlike humans, animals often attend to absolute rather than relative properties of sound elements. However, the results of the present study show that ferrets can be trained using relative pitch to discriminate two-tone sequences (rising vs. falling). Three ferrets were trained using a positive-reinforcement paradigm in which sequences of reference (one to five repeats) and target stimuli were presented, ...

  7. Populations of Radial Glial Cells Respond Differently to Reelin and Neuregulin1 in a Ferret Model of Cortical Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    out of the ventricular zone, but do not play a role in allowing further movement toward the cortical plate. Materials and Methods Ethics Statement...transformation into astrocytes. Anatomy and embryology 156(2): 115–152. 11. Voigt T (1989) Development of glial cells in the cerebral wall of ferrets

  8. Somatotopic organization of ferret thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-García, Mario; Wallman, Marie-Josée; Timofeev, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The stereotaxic reference marks of ferret skull have large variability and the reference point for stereotaxic experiments in ferret brain is difficult to define. Here, using extracellular single-unit recordings, we studied the somatotopic organization of cutaneous receptive fields in the ventroposterior medial (VPM) and the ventral posterolateral (VPL) nuclei of the ferret thalamus. The mechanical stimulation of the skin was done through air puffs. The skull was positioned according to Horsley-Clarke coordinate system. Most of the neurons responding to face skin stimulation were located +7-+9 mm anterior, 2-3.9 mm lateral and 7-9.6 mm from cortical surface, whereas those responding to body skin stimulation were located +7-+10 mm anterior, 3.3-5.5 mm lateral and 6.7-10 mm from cortical surface. Out of 90 thalamic neurons recorded in this study, 58 responded to the body and the other neurons to the face stimulation. All neurons responded with spikes to stimulus onset, 37% of neurons responded only to stimuli onset and offset and 22% neurons fired tonically throughout stimulating epoch. The whiskers representation was located in the middle of the VPM nucleus, whereas those of the tongue, nose, bridge of the nose, supraorbital areas, upper and lower lips, and lower jaw were surrounding the whiskers representation. Within the VPL nucleus there was a clear topological correspondence from forelimb to hindlimb in the medial-to-lateral direction. Our findings indicate the whiskers representation in VPM or the forelimb-hindlimb representation in the VPL nucleus can be considered as a reliable reference in the ferret thalamus.

  9. SOMATOTOPIC ORGANIZATION OF FERRET THALAMUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eVázquez García

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The stereotaxic reference marks of ferret skull have large variability and the reference point for stereotaxic experiments in ferret brain is difficult to define. Here, using extracellular single-unit recordings, we studied the somatotopic organization of cutaneous receptive fields in the ventroposterior medial (VPM and the ventral posterolateral (VPL nuclei of the ferret thalamus. The mechanical stimulation of the skin was done through air puffs. The skull was positioned according to Horsley-Clarke coordinate system. Most of the neurons responding to face skin stimulation were located +7 - +9 mm anterior, 2 – 3.9 mm lateral and 7-9.6 mm from cortical surface, whereas those responding to body skin stimulation were located +7 - +10 mm anterior, 3.3 - 5.5 mm lateral and 6.7 -10 mm from cortical surface. Out of 90 thalamic neurons recorded in this study, 58 responded to the body and the other neurons to the face stimulation. All neurons responded with spikes to stimulus onset, 37 % of neurons responded only to stimuli onset and offset and 22 % neurons fired tonically throughout stimulating epoch. The whiskers representation was located in the middle of the VPM nucleus, whereas those of the tongue, nose, bridge of the nose, supraorbital areas, upper and lower lips, and lower jaw were surrounding the whiskers representation. Within the VPL nucleus there was a clear topological correspondence from forelimb to hindlimb in the medial-to-lateral direction. Our findings indicate the whiskers representation in VPM or the forelimb-hindlimb representation in the VPL nucleus can be considered as a reliable reference in the ferret thalamus.

  10. Information on black-footed ferret biology collected within the framework of ferret conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, Dean E.

    2012-01-01

    Once feared to be extinct, black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) were rediscovered near Meeteetse, Wyoming, in 1981, resulting in renewed conservation and research efforts for this highly endangered species. A need for information directly useful to recovery has motivated much monitoring of ferrets since that time, but field activities have enabled collection of data relevant to broader biological themes. This special feature is placed in a context of similar books and proceedings devoted to ferret biology and conservation. Articles include general observations on ferrets, modeling of potential impacts of ferrets on prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), discussions on relationships of ferrets to prairie dog habitats at several spatial scales (from individual burrows to patches of burrow systems) and a general treatise on the status of black-footed ferret recovery.

  11. The effect of right ventricular apical pacing on ERK1/2 phosphorylation in Beagle myocardium%右心室心尖部起搏对 Beagle 犬心室肌ERK1/2磷酸化水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程俊华; 洪俊; 郑程; 陈学思; 陈星星; 赵景琳; 李进; 林加锋

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨右心室心尖部起搏对Beagle犬心室肌电重构及细胞外信号调节激酶(ERK)1/2磷酸化水平的影响。方法成年雄性Beagle犬12只,年龄3~4年,体重20~24kg,随机分为对照组(n=6)和起搏组(n=6),均植入DDD起搏器后程控至关闭状态,起搏组术后1周时开启起搏器并使心室起搏最大化。于术前及术后1周、4周关闭起搏器后行心电图及超声心动描记术检查,术后4周时处死动物,观察心肌病理结果,采用免疫印迹法检测犬右心室心肌总ERK1/2及其磷酸化水平的变化。结果两组心室肌病理及超声心动描记术、心率、QRS时间、总ERK1/2的表达差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05);与对照组相比,术后4周时起搏组Tp- e间期、Q- T间期均增大,p- ERK增多(均P<0.05)。结论右心室心尖部起搏可以导致心肌复极延长及促进心肌ERK1/2的磷酸化。%Objective To investigate the effects of right ventricular apical pacing on electrical remodeling and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in beagle myocardium. Methods 12 male beagles, 3- 4 years old, underwent DDD pacemaker implanta-tion and were randomly divided into two groups (n=6). The pacemakers were turned on and programmed to ensure ventric-ular pacing 1 week after implantation in pacing group and turned off al the time in control group. The ECG and UCG were recorded before, 1 and 4 weeks after procedure with the pacemaker turned off. The beagles were sacrificed 4 weeks after procedure and phosphorylated ERK1 / 2 of right ventricular myocardium was determined by Western blotting. Results There was no statistical difference in the expression of ERK1 / 2, heart rate, QRS duration, BNP, ventricular myocardial pathology and parameters of UCG between the two groups. Tpeak- Tend interval and QT duration were prolonged and the expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 increased in pacing group compared with control group(P<0.05) 4 weeks after pro

  12. The internodal atrial myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R H; Ho, S Y; Smith, A; Becker, A E

    1981-09-01

    The anatomical substrates of internodal conduction have long been a contentious topic. Debated first by the German Pathological Society in 1910, the consensus of established opinion for over half a century was that conduction between sinus and atrioventricular nodes occurred through plain myocardium. This was a conclusion supported by Truex in 1961. Despite his restatement of this fact in 1976, it has become fashionable to describe internodal conduction as being mediated by specialized internodal pathways. To reinvestigate this problem we studied 22 human fetal and 32 human infant hearts. In each case it was possible to cut the atrial tissues as a single block of tissue and to examine serial sections through the internodal myocardium. The sinus node, atrioventricular node, and segments of atrioventricular ring specialized tissue were recognized as specialized tissue using the light microscope in each heart. In contrast, there was nothing "special" about the myocardium between the nodes, nor was it possible to recognize tracts on the basis of either histological appearance or cellular architecture. It is concluded that, from the standpoint of light microscopy, there is no evidence whatsoever to support the purported concept of specialized anatomical substrates for internodal conduction.

  13. Ultrasonographic visualization of the adrenal glands of healthy ferrets and ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijten, Andrea Maria; Schoemaker, Nico J; Voorhout, George

    2007-01-01

    A protocol was developed to compare the ultrasonographic characteristics of the adrenal glands of 21 healthy ferrets and 37 ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism. By using specific landmarks, the adrenal glands were imaged in 97% of the cases. The adrenal glands of ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism had a significantly increased thickness, with changes in shape, structure, and echogenicity compared to the adrenal glands of healthy ferrets. Based on the findings of the study, adrenal glands may be classified as abnormal when they have a rounded appearance, increased size of the cranial/caudal pole (thickness >3.9 mm), a heterogeneous structure, increased echogenicity, and/or signs of mineralization.

  14. Systemic Coronaviral Disease in 5 Ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autieri, Christopher R; Miller, Cassandra L; Scott, Kathleen E; Kilgore, Alexandra; Papscoe, Victoria A; Garner, Michael M; Haupt, Jennifer L; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Fox, James G

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of reported systemic coronaviral disease in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo), which resembles the dry form of feline infectious peritonitis, has been increasing in the literature since its initial diagnosis and characterization approximately 10 y ago. Here we describe the clinical signs, pathologic findings, and diagnosis by immunohistochemistry using an FIPV3-70 monoclonal antibody of systemic coronaviral disease in 5 ferrets, 2 of which were strictly laboratory-housed; the remaining 3 were referred from veterinary private practices. This case report illustrates the importance of considering FRSCV infection as a differential diagnosis in young, debilitated ferrets with abdominal masses and other supporting clinical signs. PMID:26678368

  15. Food intake and struvite crystalluria in ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, W P; Bartos, K D

    1987-01-01

    Four adult, castrated, male ferrets were studied in two similar trials for effects of food intake on variables hypothesized to promote struvite (ammonium, magnesium, phosphate hexahydrate) crystal formation in urine. Struvite crystalluria occurred in three of the four ferrets. Urine pH (UpH) averaged 6.6 for these ferrets. UpH in the ferret without crystalluria was 6.0. By simple linear regression analysis, no relationship was found between the amount of food ingested and the urinary concentration and excretion of magnesium and phosphorous. However, urine osmolality and excretion of both protein and ammonium were correlated to food intake (P less than .05). Ways in which these effects could promote struvite crystal formation are discussed.

  16. Right ventricular noncompaction in a neonate with complex congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alehan, Dursun; Dogan, Omer Faruk

    2005-08-01

    Ventricular noncompaction is a rare unclassified cardiomyopathy occurring because of arrest of the normal intrauterine compaction of the loose luminal component of the ventricular myocardium. There is limited data regarding its diagnosis and outcome in children. It is recognised, however, that right ventricular involvement is extremely rare. We report a case in which only the right ventricular myocardium was noncompacted, a situation which led to heart failure soon after birth.

  17. Myosin types and fiber types in cardiac muscle. II. Atrial myocardium

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    Antibodies were produced against myosins isolated from the left atrial myocardium (anti-bAm) and the left ventricular myocardium (anti-bVm) of the bovine heart. Cross-reactive antibodies were removed by cross- absorption. Absorbed anti-bAm and anti-bVm were specific for the myosin heavy chains when tested by enzyme immunoassay combined with SDS gel electrophoresis. Indirect immunofluorescence was used to determine the reactivity of atrial muscle fibers to the two antibodies. Three populations...

  18. A Review of Neurogenic Stunned Myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Biso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurologic stunned myocardium (NSM is a phenomenon where neurologic events give rise to cardiac abnormalities. Neurologic events like stroke and seizures cause sympathetic storm and autonomic dysregulation that result in myocardial injury. The clinical presentation can involve troponin elevation, left ventricular dysfunction, and ECG changes. These findings are similar to Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and acute coronary syndrome. It is difficult to distinguish NSM from acute coronary syndrome based on clinical presentation alone. Because of this difficulty, a patient with NSM who is at high risk for coronary heart disease may undergo cardiac catheterization to rule out coronary artery disease. The objective of this review of literature is to enhance physician’s awareness of NSM and its features to help tailor management according to the patient’s clinical profile.

  19. Diastolic Left Ventricular Dysfunction : A Clinical Appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Bronzwaer, J.G.F.

    2003-01-01

    Diastolic left ventricular (LV) distensibility is determined by the material properties of the LV wall and by LV geometry (i.e., LV shape, LV volume and LV wall thickness). These material properties are influenced both by the physical structure of the LV myocardium and by the dynamic process of myocardial relaxation. The material properties of the myocardium dictate the strain that follows a given stress, and determine position and shape of the myocardial stress-strain relationship. The mater...

  20. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mid-ventricular obstruction and apical aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.D. Oryshchyn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A case report of apical left ventricular aneurysm in patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mid-ventricular obstruction (diagnosis and surgical treatment is presented. We revealed apical aneurysm and mid-ventricular obstruction during echocardiography and specified anatomical characteristics of aneurysm during computer tomography. There was no evidence of obstructive coronary artery disease during coronary angiography. Taking into consideration multiple cerebral infarcts, aneurysm resection and left ventricular plastics was performed. Electronic microscopy of myocardium confirmed the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  1. Stereology of the myocardium in Leontopithecus (Lesson, 1840) callitrichidae - primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissinatti, A; Burity, C H F; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, C A

    2003-06-01

    Rare morphological features of the Leontopithecus cardiovascular system have been reported in the literature. The samples analyzed in this study came from 33 specimens of Leontopithecus from the collection of the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro-FEEMA (CPRJ-FEEMA). Morphometry and stereological data were obtained from all animals. Adult body weights of L. rosalia were the lowest, the greatest being those of L. chrysopygus caissara; body weights of L. chrysomelas and L. c. chrysopygus were similar and in between those of the two former species. Cardiomyocytes (left ventricular myocardium) were bigger in adults than in infants. The myocardium of L. rosalia showed focal fibrosis, fatty vacuoles, and hyalinization. In L. chrysomelas the myocardium showed areas of fibrosis and presence of mononuclear cells. Fibrosis and areas of congestion were observed in L. c. chrysopygus; areas of disorganization and vascular congestion were found in L. c. caissara. In L. rosalia infants, a greater density of vessels per myocardial area and a greater length density of vessels were observed as compared with those of L. chrysomelas. In adults, L. chrysomelas showed greater density of connective tissue in the myocardium than L. c. chrysopygus and L. c. caissara did. In L. rosalia, cardiomyocyte nuclei had a greater area density than those of the other forms of Leontopithecus. These characteristics may explain the faster development of L. rosalia infants as compared with that of L. chrysomelas and L. c. chrysopygus kept under the same handling conditions at the CPRJ-FEEMA.

  2. Distichiasis in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboven, CAPM; Djajadiningrat-Laanen, S.C.; Kitslaar, W.J.P.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Schoemaker, N.J.; Boevé, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    A 4-year-old intact male ferret was presented to the Ophthalmology Service of the Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals of Utrecht University with chronic blepharospasm, epiphora, and conjunctivitis of the right eye. Examination of the eye revealed mild conjunctivitis and three hairs

  3. Characterization of the positive and negative inotropic effects of acetylcholine in the human myocardium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X.Y. Du (Xiaoyi); R.G. Schoemaker (Regien); E. Bos (Egbert); P.R. Saxena (Pramod Ranjan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn the human isolated myocardium, acetylcholine (10−9 to 10−3 M) elicited a biphasic inotropic effect (a decrease in the lower and an increase in the higher concentration range) in atrial and a positive inotropic effect in ventricular trabeculae. However, under conditions of raised

  4. 二维应变方法对左心室心肌机械运动特性的观察%Mechanical motion characteristics of left ventricular myocardium in two-dimensional strain echocardiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章晨; 孙寅光; 朱佳; 黄洁; 王琳; 葛卫力; 唐礼江

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究正常人心肌机械运动特性.方法 研究对象为60例正常志愿者,男34例,年龄(42.0±13.0)岁;女26例,年龄(37.0±10.0)岁,应用超声心动图二维斑点成像技术评价左心室纵向、径向和圆周向运动的心肌机械运动参数,包括收缩应变、收缩应变率和舒张应变率及其达峰时间.结果左心室收缩应变纵向运动和圆周向表现出自基底部至心尖部收缩应变的绝对值递增,纵向运动基底部、中间部至心尖部收缩应变的绝对值分别为:20.2±4.2,20.4±4.3,22.5±6.4(P<0.05);圆周向运动基底部、中间部至心尖部收缩应变的绝对值分别为:20.1±7.7,23.4±8.1,27.1±7.1(P<0.01),而径向运动的表现则不同,基底部、中间部与心尖部收缩应变的绝对值分别为40.9±17.4,41.8±17.6,28.8±17.1(P<0.01);3个方向的收缩应变率表现完全不一致,没有明显规律.3个方向舒张早期应变率均表现为自基底部至心尖部递增的趋势.重复性检验提示纵向收缩峰值应变,重复性最佳.结论心肌机械运动是一个极其复杂的过程,二维应变超声心动图有助于揭示生理和病理状态下心肌运动特性.%Objective To study myocardial characteristics of mechanical motion in normal subjects. Methods Sixty healthy volunteers were included,male 34 cases,aged (42. 0±13. 0) years;female 26 cases,aged (37. 0± 10, 0) years,two- dimensional speckle imaging technique was used to measure the left ventricular myocardial longitudinal, radial and circumferential movement of mechanical motion parameters including systolic strain,systolic strain rate and diatolic strain rates,as well as time-to-peak. Results The performance of left ventricular radial motion was different in absolute strain value, compared to longitudinal and circumferential systolic strains which increased from the base to the apex. The absolute value of longitudinal strain from base to apex respectively was 20. 2±4. 2,20. 4±4

  5. First survey of endoparasites in pet ferrets in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, D; Pepe, P; Ianniello, D; Noviello, E; Quinton, Jean-Francois; Cringoli, G; Rinaldi, L

    2014-06-16

    Endoparasites are infrequently reported in ferrets. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in pet ferrets in southern Italy. Fresh fecal samples were randomly collected from 50 ferrets housed in pet shops or privately owned. All fecal samples were processed using the FLOTAC pellet technique to identify and count helminthic eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts/oocysts. In addition, the samples were analyzed also by the Remel XpectGiardia/Cryptosporidium immunoassay. Intestinal parasites were detected in 15 out of 50 ferrets (30%). Eggs of ancylostomids were found in 28.0% (14/50) of the animals and oocysts of Sarcocystis were detected in one ferret (2.0%). None of the samples was positive for Cryptosporidium or Giardia. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of sarcosporidiosis in a pet ferret in Italy.

  6. Activity in the ferret: oestradiol effects and circadian rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, E. R.; Albers, H. E.; Baum, M. J.; Wurtman, R. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine whether oestradiol increases activity in the European ferret (Mustela furo), whether this effect is sexually dimorphic, and whether a 24-h rhythm is present in the ferret's daily activity. The activity of male and female adult, postpubertally gonadectomized ferrets was monitored while they were maintained singly on a 13:11 light-dark cycle, before and after implantation with oestradiol-17 beta. Gonadectomized male and female ferrets exhibited equal levels of activity, and neither sex exhibited a significant change in activity following oestradiol implantation. None of the ferrets exhibited a strong circadian rhythm, although weak 24-h rhythms and shorter harmonic rhythms were present. Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), monitored in an identical manner, exhibited strong circadian rhythms. It was concluded that oestradiol administration may not cause an increase in activity in the ferret, and that this species lacks a strong circadian activity rhythm.

  7. Flexible Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignon, Charly; Huynh, Minh; Husnik, Roman; Jekl, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    Gastrointestinal disease is a common complaint in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Their relatively simple and short gastrointestinal tract makes them good candidates for flexible endoscopy. However, apart from a few references in biomedical research articles, there is little information on the use of flexible endoscopy in ferrets. This review describes patient preparation, equipment, and select gastrointestinal endoscopy techniques in ferrets, including esophagoscopy, gastroscopy, duodenoscopy, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, jejunoileoscopy, colonoscopy, and biopsy.

  8. Vulnerability to ventricular fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse, Michiel J.

    1998-03-01

    One of the factors that favors the development of ventricular fibrillation is an increase in the dispersion of refractoriness. Experiments will be described in which an increase in dispersion in the recovery of excitability was determined during brief episodes of enhanced sympathetic nerve activity, known to increase the risk of fibrillation. Whereas in the normal heart ventricular fibrillation can be induced by a strong electrical shock, a premature stimulus of moderate intensity only induces fibrillation in the presence of regional ischemia, which greatly increases the dispersion of refractoriness. One factor that is of importance for the transition of reentrant ventricular tachycardia to ventricular fibrillation during acute regional ischemia is the subendocardial Purkinje system. After selective destruction of the Purkinje network by lugol, reentrant tachycardias still develop in the ischemic region, but they do not degenerate into fibrillation. Finally, attempts were made to determine the minimal mass of thin ventricular myocardium required to sustain fibrillation induced by burst pacing. This was done by freezing of subendocardial and midmural layers. The rim of surviving epicardial muscle had to be larger than 20 g. Extracellular electrograms during fibrillation in both the intact and the "frozen" left ventricle were indistinguishable, but activation patterns were markedly different. In the intact ventricle epicardial activation was compatible with multiple wavelet reentry, in the "frozen" heart a single, or at most two wandering reentrant waves were seen.

  9. Ultrastructure of Cardiomyocytes and Blood Capillary Endotheliocytes in the Myocardium under Conditions of Experimental Mechanical Injury to the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselov, V P; Savchenko, S V; Porvin, A N; Koshlyak, D A; Nadev, A P; Ageeva, T A; Chikinev, Yu V; Polyakevich, A S

    2016-05-01

    We studied ultrastructural changes in cardiomyocytes and blood capillary endotheliocytes in the ventricular myocardium in response to mechanical injury of the heart of varying severity in Wistar rats. Acute alterative changes in cardiomyocyte and endotheliocyte ultrastructure indicate impairment of the energy-producing, contractile, and protein-synthesizing functions of the cells after mechanical injury. These disorders play the key role in the development of acute contractile insufficiency of the myocardium in mechanical injury to the heart.

  10. Inherited cardiomyopathies mimicking arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jason D; Veinot, John P; Rutberg, Julie; Gollob, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) represents an inherited cardiomyopathy that manifests clinically with malignant ventricular arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death, and less commonly heart failure. The condition is characterized by replacement of the myocardium, primarily of the right ventricle, with fibrofatty tissue. Extensive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium has been previously thought to be pathognomonic of ARVC; however, this report details two other forms of inherited cardiomyopathy, namely hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and the PRKAG2 cardiac syndrome, that were found to have significant fibrofatty myocardial replacement at pathologic examination. This report represents the first documentation of inherited cardiomyopathies mimicking ARVC and highlights the concept that other cardiac conditions can be associated with fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Diastolic Left Ventricular Dysfunction : A Clinical Appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronzwaer, J.G.F.

    2003-01-01

    Diastolic left ventricular (LV) distensibility is determined by the material properties of the LV wall and by LV geometry (i.e., LV shape, LV volume and LV wall thickness). These material properties are influenced both by the physical structure of the LV myocardium and by the dynamic process of myoc

  12. Diastolic Left Ventricular Dysfunction : A Clinical Appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronzwaer, J.G.F.

    2003-01-01

    Diastolic left ventricular (LV) distensibility is determined by the material properties of the LV wall and by LV geometry (i.e., LV shape, LV volume and LV wall thickness). These material properties are influenced both by the physical structure of the LV myocardium and by the dynamic process of

  13. Pathomorphological Changes of the Myocardium in Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus Izabela

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on ventricular and atrial wall preparations from 11 dogs with clinically diagnosed dilated cardiomyopathy. After fixation, the specimens were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and Masson-Goldner trichrome technique. Parenchymal changes (fibrosis and fatty infiltration, vascular changes (congestion and coronary vessel wall hypertrophy, degenerative changes (loss of striation, changes in cardiomycyte and nuclei structure, and presence of inflammatory infiltrates (mononuclear and polynuclear were estimated. Complex histological changes in both ventricular and atrial muscles were shown. It was not determined whether the processes occurring in the myocardium have a primary character, or are a consequence of developing heart failure. Such issues will be put under further and more detailed examination.

  14. Age-related peculiarities of inotropic response of rat myocardium to selective block of M1-cholinoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zefirov, T L; Ziyatdinova, N I; Zefirov, A L

    2013-10-01

    In vitro effect of M1-cholinoreceptor blockade on the cardiac inotropic function was examined in rats aging 1, 3, 6, 8, and 20 weeks. In 1- and 3-week old rat pups, the sympathetic control of the heart has not developed, the age of 7-8 weeks being pubertal. Adult 20-week rats were used as the controls. In rats of all age groups, preliminary blockade of M1-cholinoreceptors did not prevent the inhibitory effect of carbacholine on contractility of the atrial and ventricular myocardium. The inhibitory effect of pirenzepine on the contractile force of ventricular myocardium was revealed in 6-week rats.

  15. Characterization of antibodies against ferret immunoglobulins, cytokines and CD markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Aasted, Bent

    2009-01-01

    immunoglobulins, we identified and characterized polyclonal antibodies towards ferret IgG, IgM and IgA. We also identified 22 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised mostly against human CD markers which cross-reacted with ferret leukocytes. These antibodies were originally specific against human CD8, CD9, CD14, CD18...

  16. Assessment of the difference of myocardium strain between myocadial infarction and ventricular aneurysm by two-dimensional speckle-tracking imaging in rabbits%心肌梗死与室壁瘤心肌力学重构规律的斑点追踪显像比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟虹; 古丽齐满·霍加阿不都拉; 穆玉明; 关丽娜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the difference of myocardium strain between myocadial infarction and ventricular aneurysm (VA) by two-dimensional speckle-tracking imaging in rabbits.Methods 26 healthy New Zealand white rabbits were enrolled in this study,6 were put into the control group and 20 in the experimental group.models of myocardial infarction concomitant with VA were prepared by the ligation of the middle segment of left anterior descending artery and left circumflex artery.At 4 weeks after the procedure,according to the pathological inspect and echocardiography for whether VA formed,the experimental animals were divided into the VA group and the myocadial infarction group.Echocardiography was performed to measure the LV cavity size and cardiac function.Radial strain rate (SrR) and circumferential strain rate(SrC) indexes were measured by 2D-STI software for each animal at the level of apex in left ventricular short-axis view,and then calculated the strain rate decrease percentage in each segment.Results 1)Compared with the control group,SrR-S,SrR-E,SrR A,SrC-S,SrC-E,SrC-A in all segments were reduced significantly in the VA group and the myocadial infarction group (P < 0.05),the VA group was the most significant.2)Compared with the myocadial infarction group,the strain rate decrease percentage of SrR-S,SrR-E,SrR-A,SrC-S,SrC-E,SrC-A in all segment had significant in the VA group.Comparison between the each section,the strain rate decrease percentage of SrR-Santerior wall,SrR-Sateral wall,SrC-Santerior wall,SrC-Slateral wall were the most significant.3)There were the tighter relationship between the strain rate decrease percentage of SrR-Santerior wall,SrC-Santerior wall,SrR-Slateral wall,SrC-Slateral wall and left ventricular ejection fraction (r =0.82,0.72,0.75,0.71,repectively,all P < 0.05).4) The ROC curve analysis showed that when the strain rate decrease percentage was 60% as the critical point,the strain rate decrease percentage of SrC-Santerior wall

  17. Congenital abnormalities of the vertebral column in ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proks, Pavel; Stehlik, Ladislav; Paninarova, Michaela; Irova, Katarina; Hauptman, Karel; Jekl, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral column pathologies requiring surgical intervention have been described in pet ferrets, however little information is available on the normal vertebral formula and congenital variants in this species. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe vertebral formulas and prevalence of congenital vertebral anomalies in a sample of pet ferrets. Radiographs of 172 pet ferrets (96 males and 76 females) were included in this retrospective study. In 143 ferrets (83.14%), five different formulas of the vertebral column were recorded with normal morphology of vertebrae (rib attachment included) but with a variable number of thoracic (Th), lumbar (L), and sacral (S) vertebrae. The number of cervical (C) vertebrae was constant in all examined animals. Observed vertebral formulas were C7/Th14/L6/S3 (51.74%), C7/Th14/L6/S4 (22.10%), C7/Th14/L7/S3 (6.98%), C7/Th15/L6/S3 (1.74%), and C7/Th15/L6/S4 (0.58%). Formula C7/Th14/L6/S4 was significantly more common in males than in females (P vertebral anomalies included block (two ferrets) and wedge vertebra (one ferret). Spina bifida was not detected. Findings from the current study indicated that vertebral formulas may vary in ferrets and congenital abnormalities are common. This should be taken into consideration for surgical planning.

  18. Healthy aging and myocardium: A complicated process with various effects in cardiac structure and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakou, E S; Parthenakis, F I; Kallergis, E M; Marketou, M E; Nakos, K S; Vardas, P E

    2016-04-15

    It is known that there is an ongoing increase in life expectancy worldwide, especially in the population older than 65years of age. Cardiac aging is characterized by a series of complex pathophysiological changes affecting myocardium at structural, cellular, molecular and functional levels. These changes make the aged myocardium more susceptible to stress, leading to a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (heart failure, atrial fibrillation, left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease) in the elderly population. The aging process is genetically programmed but modified by environmental influences, so that the rate of aging can vary widely among people. We summarized the entire data concerning all the multifactorial changes in aged myocardium and highlighting the recent evidence for the pathophysiological basis of cardiac aging. Keeping an eye on the clinical side, this review will explore the potential implications of the age-related changes in the clinical management and on novel therapeutic strategies potentially deriving from the scientific knowledge currently acquired on cardiac aging process.

  19. Bioengineering Human Myocardium on Native Extracellular Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyette, Jacques P.; Charest, Jonathan M; Mills, Robert W; Jank, Bernhard J.; Moser, Philipp T.; Gilpin, Sarah E.; Gershlak, Joshua R.; Okamoto, Tatsuya; Gonzalez, Gabriel; Milan, David J.; Gaudette, Glenn R.; Ott, Harald C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale More than 25 million individuals suffer from heart failure worldwide, with nearly 4,000 patients currently awaiting heart transplantation in the United States. Donor organ shortage and allograft rejection remain major limitations with only about 2,500 hearts transplanted each year. As a theoretical alternative to allotransplantation, patient-derived bioartificial myocardium could provide functional support and ultimately impact the treatment of heart failure. Objective The objective of this study is to translate previous work to human scale and clinically relevant cells, for the bioengineering of functional myocardial tissue based on the combination of human cardiac matrix and human iPS-derived cardiac myocytes. Methods and Results To provide a clinically relevant tissue scaffold, we translated perfusion-decellularization to human scale and obtained biocompatible human acellular cardiac scaffolds with preserved extracellular matrix composition, architecture, and perfusable coronary vasculature. We then repopulated this native human cardiac matrix with cardiac myocytes derived from non-transgenic human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and generated tissues of increasing three-dimensional complexity. We maintained such cardiac tissue constructs in culture for 120 days to demonstrate definitive sarcomeric structure, cell and matrix deformation, contractile force, and electrical conduction. To show that functional myocardial tissue of human scale can be built on this platform, we then partially recellularized human whole heart scaffolds with human iPSC-derived cardiac myocytes. Under biomimetic culture, the seeded constructs developed force-generating human myocardial tissue, showed electrical conductivity, left ventricular pressure development, and metabolic function. Conclusions Native cardiac extracellular matrix scaffolds maintain matrix components and structure to support the seeding and engraftment of human iPS-derived cardiac myocytes, and enable

  20. Radionuclide assessment of stunned myocardium by alterations in perfusion, metabolism and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)); Strauss, H.W.

    1991-09-01

    A method for the diagnosis of stunned myocardium has not yet been established, although it has been retrospectively demonstrated in patients after intracoronary thrombolysis, unstable angina, and coronary revascularization. In this study, radionuclide cardiac imaging was carried out to evaluate the existence of stunned myocardium. Gated blood pool scanning was performed in patients undergoing intracoronary thrombolysis both at the time of reperfusion (Rp) and 10 days later. In the Rp<4 h group, about half of the initially abnormal segments showed complete improvement on quantitative wall motion analysis, which was more than in the Rp>4 h and control groups. In patients with acute myocardial ischemia, the correlation between thallium perfusion and regional wall motion was assessed semiquantitatively. In unstable angina, 5.8% of the ventricular wall segments showed dissociation between perfusion and wall motion (well-perfused asynergy). These segments had abnormal wall motion although perfusion was maintained, and were thought to be areas of stunned myocardium. Fourteen dogs were studied using thallium and {sup 123}I-{beta}-methyl-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) fatty acid imaging to evaluate the relationship of perfusion to metabolism. In the reperfusion model, mismatching of the pattern of thallium and BMIPP uptake was observed. Reperfused myocardium probably has an increased triglyceride content, which is related to the degree of myocardial viability. In conclusion, stunned myocardium may be correctly diagnosed acutely on the basis of alterations in its perfusion, metabolism, and function by using radionuclide cardiac imaging. (author).

  1. Non-contact left ventricular endocardial mapping for cardiac resynchronisation therapy: a “slow conduction” towards the fast solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, P Della; Carbucicchio, C

    2004-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronisation therapy can help to improve left ventricular function in patients with heart failure, but only if those regions of myocardium which are mostly compromised by electromechanical desynchronisation can be identified and effectively stimulated PMID:15084532

  2. Non-contact left ventricular endocardial mapping for cardiac resynchronisation therapy: a "slow conduction" towards the fast solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Bella, P; Carbucicchio, C

    2004-05-01

    Cardiac resynchronisation therapy can help to improve left ventricular function in patients with heart failure, but only if those regions of myocardium which are mostly compromised by electromechanical desynchronisation can be identified and effectively stimulated.

  3. Scarred myocardium imposes additional burden on remote viable myocardium despite a reduction in the extent of area with late contrast MR enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, Maythem; Weber, Oliver; Do, Loi; Martin, Alastair; Saloner, David; Higgins, Charles B. [University of California, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lee, Randall J. [University of California, Department of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ursell, Philip [University of California, Department of Pathology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can simultaneously detect and quantify myocardial dysfunction and shrinkage in contrast-enhanced areas postinfarction. This ability permits the investigation of our hypothesis that transformation of infarcted myocardium to scarred tissue imposes additional burdens on peri-infarcted and remote myocardium. Pigs (n=8) were subjected to reperfused infarction. Gd-DOTA-enhanced inversion recovery gradient echo sequence (IR-GRE) imaging was performed 3 days and 8 weeks postinfarction. Global and regional left ventricular (LV) function was evaluated by cine MRI. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) stain was used to delineate infarction while hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and Masson's trichrome stains were used to characterize remodeled myocardium. Late contrast-enhanced MRIs showed a decrease in the extent of enhanced areas from 17{+-}2% at 3 days to13{+-}1% LV mass at 8 weeks. TTC infarction size was 12{+-}1% LV mass. Cine MRIs showed expansion in dysfunctional area due to unfavorable remodeling, ischemia, or strain. Ejection fraction was reduced in association with increased end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes. Scarred myocardium contained collagen fibers and remodeled thick-walled vessels embedded in collagen. Sequential MRI showed greater LV dysfunction despite the shrinkage in extent of enhanced areas 2 months postinfarction. The integration of late enhancement and cine MRI incorporates anatomical and functional evaluation of remodeled hearts. (orig.)

  4. Recapitulating maladaptive, multiscale remodeling of failing myocardium on a chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Megan L; Sheehy, Sean P; Grosberg, Anna; Goss, Josue A; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2013-06-11

    The lack of a robust pipeline of medical therapeutic agents for the treatment of heart disease may be partially attributed to the lack of in vitro models that recapitulate the essential structure-function relationships of healthy and diseased myocardium. We designed and built a system to mimic mechanical overload in vitro by applying cyclic stretch to engineered laminar ventricular tissue on a stretchable chip. To test our model, we quantified changes in gene expression, myocyte architecture, calcium handling, and contractile function and compared our results vs. several decades of animal studies and clinical observations. Cyclic stretch activated gene expression profiles characteristic of pathological remodeling, including decreased α- to β-myosin heavy chain ratios, and induced maladaptive changes to myocyte shape and sarcomere alignment. In stretched tissues, calcium transients resembled those reported in failing myocytes and peak systolic stress was significantly reduced. Our results suggest that failing myocardium, as defined genetically, structurally, and functionally, can be replicated in an in vitro microsystem by faithfully recapitulating the structural and mechanical microenvironment of the diseased heart.

  5. The draft genome sequence of the ferret (Mustela putorius furo) facilitates study of human respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinxia; Alföldi, Jessica; Gori, Kevin; Eisfeld, Amie J; Tyler, Scott R; Tisoncik-Go, Jennifer; Brawand, David; Law, G Lynn; Skunca, Nives; Hatta, Masato; Gasper, David J; Kelly, Sara M; Chang, Jean; Thomas, Matthew J; Johnson, Jeremy; Berlin, Aaron M; Lara, Marcia; Russell, Pamela; Swofford, Ross; Turner-Maier, Jason; Young, Sarah; Hourlier, Thibaut; Aken, Bronwen; Searle, Steve; Sun, Xingshen; Yi, Yaling; Suresh, M; Tumpey, Terrence M; Siepel, Adam; Wisely, Samantha M; Dessimoz, Christophe; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Birren, Bruce W; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Di Palma, Federica; Engelhardt, John F; Palermo, Robert E; Katze, Michael G

    2014-12-01

    The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) is an important animal model for multiple human respiratory diseases. It is considered the 'gold standard' for modeling human influenza virus infection and transmission. Here we describe the 2.41 Gb draft genome assembly of the domestic ferret, constituting 2.28 Gb of sequence plus gaps. We annotated 19,910 protein-coding genes on this assembly using RNA-seq data from 21 ferret tissues. We characterized the ferret host response to two influenza virus infections by RNA-seq analysis of 42 ferret samples from influenza time-course data and showed distinct signatures in ferret trachea and lung tissues specific to 1918 or 2009 human pandemic influenza virus infections. Using microarray data from 16 ferret samples reflecting cystic fibrosis disease progression, we showed that transcriptional changes in the CFTR-knockout ferret lung reflect pathways of early disease that cannot be readily studied in human infants with cystic fibrosis disease.

  6. Ultrastructural morphometric findings of cardiomyocytes in patients with impaired ventricular function--a comparative clinicopathological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wassilew, Katharina; Terziev, Denis; Wassilew, Georgi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The present study aims to analyze the differences in ultrastructural changes between right ventricular myocardium in clinically determined grades of heart failure (HF) [New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes I-IV] and their value in the routine diagnostic setting. METHODS: We investigated...... ratio (Pperoxide acid shift. CONCLUSION: In this present study, right ventricular myocardial ultrastructure differed between patients diagnosed with HF...

  7. Cardiac MRI documented left ventricular thrombus complicating acute Takotsubo syndrome: an uncommon dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Veerpal; Mayer, Tom; Salanitri, John; Salinger, Michael H

    2007-10-01

    Transient left ventricular apical hypokinesis results in a typical ampullary shape and has been described as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM). We report a case of TCM with the rare complication of left ventricular thrombus formation. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging aided the diagnosis by characterizing the non-enhancing mass and evaluating the surrounding myocardium for scarring.

  8. Ventricular assist device

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAD; RVAD; LVAD; BVAD; Right ventricular assist device; Left ventricular assist device; Biventricular assist device; Heart pump; Left ventricular assist system; LVAS; Implantable ventricular assist device

  9. Myocardial sympathetic innervation, function, and oxidative metabolism in non-infarcted myocardium in patients with prior myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hirofumi; Matsunari, Ichiro; Nomura, Yusuke; Fujita, Wataru; Komatsu, Ryoko; Miyazaki, Yoshiharu; Nekolla, Stephan G; Kajinami, Kouji

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between sympathetic innervation, contractile function, and the oxidative metabolism of the non-infarcted myocardium in patients with prior myocardial infarction. In 19 patients (14 men, 5 women, 65 ± 9 years) after prior myocardial infarction, sympathetic innervation was assessed by (11)C-hydroxyephedrine (HED) positron emission tomography (PET). Oxidative metabolism was quantified using (11)C-acetate PET. Left ventricular systolic function was measured by echocardiography with speckle tracking technique. The (11)C-HED retention was positively correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (r = 0.566, P infarcted myocardium (r = -0.561, P infarcted myocardium. When the patients were divided into two groups based on the median value of left ventricular end-systolic volume index (LVESVI) (41 mL), there were no significant differences in age, sex, and rate pressure product between the groups. However, the large LVESVI group (>41 mL) was associated with reduced (11)C-HED retention and peak longitudinal strain in systole, whereas Kmono was similar between the groups. This study indicates that remodeled LV after myocardial infarction is associated with impaired sympathetic innervation and function even in the non-infarcted myocardial tissue. Furthermore, oxidative metabolism in the non-infarcted myocardium seems to be operated by normal regulatory mechanisms rather than pre-synaptic sympathetic neuronal function.

  10. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Negrín Valdés

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is a heart muscle disease that predominantly affects the right ventricle, bringing about the replacement of normal myocardium with fatty or fibrofatty tissue and causing sudden death in young individuals. Ventricular tachycardia is an important clinical manifestation, although there are reports of right or global heart failure. The diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging. The case of a 65-year-old former smoker, with hypertension and ischemic heart disease, a history of effort syncope symptoms and proven non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, with morphology of left bundle branch block, is reported. Relevant diagnostic studies were performed, and echocardiographic elements which were compatible with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia were found. Therefore, an implantable cardioverter defibrillator was implanted, after which the patient has had a favorable outcome.

  11. Cardiac sarcoidosis mimicking right ventricular dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Jun; Tatsumi, Tetsuya; Shimoo, Kazutoshi; Katsume, Asako; Mani, Hiroki; Kobara, Miyuki; Shirayama, Takeshi; Azuma, Akihiro; Nakagawa, Masao

    2003-02-01

    A 59-year-old woman with skin sarcoidosis was admitted to hospital for assessment of complete atrioventricular block. Cross-sectional echocardiography showed that the apical free wall of the right ventricle was thin and dyskinetic with dilation of the right ventricle. Thallium-201 myocardial imaging revealed a normal distribution. Both gallium-67 and technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy revealed no abnormal uptake in the myocardium. Right ventriculography showed chamber dilation and dyskinesis of the apical free wall, whereas left ventriculography showed normokinesis, mimicking right ventricular dysplasia. Cardiac sarcoidosis was diagnosed on examination of an endomyocardial biopsy specimen from the right ventricle. A permanent pacemaker was implanted to manage the complete atrioventricular block. After steroid treatment, electrocardiography showed first-degree atrioventricular block and echocardiography revealed an improvement in the right ventricular chamber dilation. Reports of cardiac sarcoidosis mimicking right ventricular dysplasia are extremely rare and as this case shows, right ventricular involvement may be one of its manifestations.

  12. Electrophysiologic Effects of Propafenone on Ischemic Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Musheng; Ma Yanfeng; Guo Zhibin

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To observe the electrophysiologic effects of propafenone (Prop) on ischemic ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Methods A canine ischemic ventricular tachyarrhythmia model was established in open-chest dogs subjected to programmed electrical stimulation (PES) on 5~8 days after acute myocardial infarction. The electrophysiologic effects of propafenone were observed in the model. Results Propafenone distinctly lengthened the QTc interval (P> 0.01) and effective refractory period (ERP) of normal and ischemic ventricular myocardium (NERP and IERP) respectively (P > 0.01), decreased the dispersion of ERP in ischemic myocardium and in left ventricle (P > 0.01), and increased the diastolic excitability threshold of normal and ischemic ventricular myocardium remarkably (P > 0.01). Propafenone effectively prevented PES-induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF)(P > 0.01) and ischemia-induced VT/VF (P > 0.05).Conclusions The results indicated that the canine model produced by our methods is a worthy and reliable one, propafenone may be effective in preventing the onset of VT/VF after myocardial ischemic damage in dogs, and deserve further attention as an antifibrillatory agent.

  13. Myocardial infarction causes inflammation and leukocyte recruitment at remote sites in the myocardium and in the renal glomerulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruparelia, Neil; Digby, Janet E; Jefferson, Andrew; Medway, Debra J; Neubauer, Stefan; Lygate, Craig A; Choudhury, Robin P

    2013-05-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) results in the recruitment of leukocytes to injured myocardium. Additionally, myocardium remote to the infarct zone also becomes inflamed and is associated with adverse left ventricular remodelling. Renal ischaemic syndromes have been associated with remote organ inflammation and impaired function. Here, we tested the hypothesis that AMI results in remote organ (renal) inflammation. Mice were subjected to either AMI, sham procedure or no procedure and the inflammatory response in peripheral blood, injured and remote myocardium, and kidneys was studied at 24 h. AMI resulted in increased circulating neutrophils (P infarcted myocardium and in remote myocardium. VCAM-1 mRNA was increased in both infarcted and remote myocardium. VCAM-1 protein was also increased in the kidneys of AMI mice (P < 0.05) and immunofluorescence revealed localisation of VCAM-1 to glomeruli, associated with leukocyte infiltration and increased local inflammatory mRNA expression. We conclude that in addition to local inflammation, AMI results in remote organ inflammation evidenced by (1) increased expression of mRNA for inflammatory cytokines, (2) marked upregulation of VCAM-1 in renal glomeruli, and (3) the recruitment and infiltration of leukocytes in the kidney.

  14. Ventricular hypertrophy--physiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan Williams, E M

    1986-01-01

    Adult cardiac myocytes are incapable of mitosis. Dead cells are replaced by connective tissue so that after myocardial infarction (MI), function can only be restored by compensatory hypertrophy of the surviving myocardium. In physiological hypertrophy in response to exercise, high altitude, or mild hypertension, additional myoplasm expands cell diameter in an orderly fashion; Z-lines are in register and the normal ratio of volume densities of contractile elements, mitochondria, and capillaries is conserved. In hypertrophy induced by aortic or pulmonary artery banding or by experimental or congenital hypertension, the borderline between physiological and pathological hypertrophy may be crossed, causing disorganization of fibers and an unfavourable contractile element to capillary ratio. There was, therefore, a need for a graded model of hypertrophy, which involves simulating an altitude of 6,000 m at sea level by supplying rabbits with appropriate nitrogen/oxygen mixtures. In this environment, 50% right ventricular hypertrophy can be achieved without alteration of left ventricular weight or hematocrit. Longer exposures produced 100% right ventricular hypertrophy, with only moderate increases in hematocrit and left ventricular weight. It is well known that adrenergic stimulation causes cardiac hypertrophy, and it has been suggested that release of a trophic factor from sympathetic nerves, either noradrenaline or a protein, might be a necessary stimulus for growth. If so, long-term treatment of post-MI patients with beta-adrenergic blocking agents could inhibit a desirable compensatory hypertrophy of the surviving myocardium. In the above model it has been found, however, that neither beta-blockade nor chemical sympathectomy with guanethidine or 6-hydroxydopamine had any effect on the hypertrophy, nor did treatment with verapamil or nifedipine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. 早期应用替罗非班对急性冠脉综合征择期冠脉介入治疗心肌微循环灌注及左心室功能的影响%Effects of Tirofiban on Myocardium Ischemia-reperfusion and Left Ventricular Function of Patients with Acute Cor-onary Syndromes Undergoing Delayed Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁庆忠; 林文果; 刘丽; 何江; 肖祥彬

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of platelet membrane glycoprotein GPllb/llla receptor antagonists tirofiban on myocardium ischemia-reperfusion and left ventricular function of patients with acute coronary syndromes( ACS) undergoing delayed percutaneous coronary intervention( delayed PCI) ,and to find out whether early administration of tirofiban in patients with ACS can improve myocardium ischemia – reperfusion before and after delayed PCI and left ventricular function at late stage and the prognosis of ACS. Methods 150 non-emergency hospitalized patients with ACS treated in our department of cardiology were selected and sim-ply randomized into observation group(tirofiban plus routine therapy,n=75)and control group(routine therapy only,n=75). All pa-tients were given coronary artery angiograph and PCI after one week. The degree of TIMI flow,corrected TIMI frame count( CTFC) af-ter PCI,left ventricular function indexes( NT pro BNP,LVEF,LVEDD,LVESD) and the incidence of bleeding complications examined before and 1,3,6,and 12 months after delayed PCI were compared and analyzed. Results The difference in the degree of TIMI flow of infarct-related artery(IRA)between two groups was not statistically significant(P>0. 05). CTFC of IRA after delayed PCI in the tirofiban therapy group was significantly lower than that in control group(P0. 05). Left ventricular function indexes in the tirofiban therapy group were significantly better than those in the control group 3 and 6 months after delayed PCI(P0. 05). Conclusions Early administration of tirofiban in patients with ACS undergoing delayed PCI improves myocardial reper-fusion and the prognosis of left ventricular function,without significant increase of the incidence of bleeding complications. Thus it helps patients with ACS who missed emergency revascularization to find a new treatment to improve the prognosis and provides refer-ence for clinical application.%目的:探讨早期应用血小板膜糖蛋白( GP)Ⅱb/

  16. Genetic heterogeneity of left-ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moric-Janiszewska, Ewa; Markiewicz-Łoskot, Grazyna

    2008-05-01

    Isolated noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium (INVM) sometimes referred to as spongy myocardium is a rare, congenital and also acquired cardiomyopathy. It appears to divide the presentation into neonatal, childhood and adult forms of which spongy myocardium and systolic dysfunction is the commonality. The disorder is characterized by a left ventricular hypertrophy with deep trabeculations, and with diminished systolic function, with or without associated left ventricular dilation. In half or more of the cases, the right ventricle is also affected. The sporadic type, however, in some patients, may be due to chromosomal abnormalities and the occurrence of familial incidence. Isolated noncompaction of the left ventricular myocardium in the majority of adult patients is an autosomal dominant disorder. The familial and X-linked disorders have been described by various authors. We here describe the genetic background of this disorder: some of the most mutated genes that are responsible for the disease are (G4.5 (tafazzin gene): alpha-dystrobrevin gene (DTNA); FKBP-12 gene; lamin A/C gene; Cypher/ZASP (LIM, LDB3) gene); and some genotype-phenotype correlations (Becker muscular dystrophy, Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy or Barth syndrome) based on the literature review.

  17. Modeling the dispersion in electromechanically coupled myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Thomas S. E.; Prassl, Anton J.; Plank, Gernot; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY We present an approach to model the dispersion of fiber and sheet orientations in the myocardium. By utilizing structure parameters, an existing orthotropic and invariant-based constitutive model developed to describe the passive behavior of the myocardium is augmented. Two dispersion parameters are fitted to experimentally observed angular dispersion data of the myocardial tissue. Computations are performed on a unit myocardium tissue cube and on a slice of the left ventricle indicating that the dispersion parameter has an effect on the myocardial deformation and stress development. The use of fiber dispersions relating to a pathological myocardium had a rather big effect. The final example represents an ellipsoidal model of the left ventricle indicating the influence of fiber and sheet dispersions upon contraction over a cardiac cycle. Although only a minor shift in the pressure–volume (PV) loops between the cases with no dispersions and with fiber and sheet dispersions for a healthy myocardium was observed, a remarkably different behavior is obtained with a fiber dispersion relating to a diseased myocardium. In future simulations, this dispersion model for myocardial tissue may advantageously be used together with models of, for example, growth and remodeling of various cardiac diseases. PMID:23868817

  18. Modeling the dispersion in electromechanically coupled myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Thomas S E; Prassl, Anton J; Plank, Gernot; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2013-11-01

    We present an approach to model the dispersion of fiber and sheet orientations in the myocardium. By utilizing structure parameters, an existing orthotropic and invariant-based constitutive model developed to describe the passive behavior of the myocardium is augmented. Two dispersion parameters are fitted to experimentally observed angular dispersion data of the myocardial tissue. Computations are performed on a unit myocardium tissue cube and on a slice of the left ventricle indicating that the dispersion parameter has an effect on the myocardial deformation and stress development. The use of fiber dispersions relating to a pathological myocardium had a rather big effect. The final example represents an ellipsoidal model of the left ventricle indicating the influence of fiber and sheet dispersions upon contraction over a cardiac cycle. Although only a minor shift in the pressure-volume (PV) loops between the cases with no dispersions and with fiber and sheet dispersions for a healthy myocardium was observed, a remarkably different behavior is obtained with a fiber dispersion relating to a diseased myocardium. In future simulations, this dispersion model for myocardial tissue may advantageously be used together with models of, for example, growth and remodeling of various cardiac diseases.

  19. Changes in expression of adrenomedullin in the myocardium of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Rong-xin; GU Chuan-long; SHEN Fang; ZHANG Xiao-ming

    2007-01-01

    Background Adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilating peptide and involved in many cardiovascular diseases. However,whether adrenomedullin is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy is still unknown. Our aim was to characterize the expression pattern of adrenomedullin in the myocardium of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.Methods The weight, blood glucose, and urine glucose of 20 streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were measured before and after model induction in the diabetic and control groups. The alteration of the adrenomedullin expression was explored in the left ventricular myocardium in both groups by immunohistochemistry. Changes in heart ultrastructure were also analyzed by using hemotoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy. All data were analyzed by the independent samples ttest.Results The data of weight, blood glucose, and urine glucose had no significant difference between the control and the diabetic groups before animal model induction. Four weeks after the induction of diabetes, the differences between the two groups in weight, blood glucose, and urine glucose were distinct. When compared with the control group, the diabetic group showed ultrastructural changes including hypertrophy, fibrosis, myofibrillar disarrangements, mitochonddal disruption, and increase in nuclear membrane invaginations. A significant decrease of adrenomedullin expression was also observed in cardiac myocytes of the diabetic rats (P<0.01).Conclusions Our study provides experimental evidence that hyperglycemia could damage cardiac myocytes.Down-regulation of cardioprotective peptide adrenomedullin in the myocardium of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats may contribute to the diabetic cardiomyopathy and left ventricular dysfunction.

  20. Resource selection by black-footed ferrets in South Dakota and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachowski, D.S.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Biggins, D.E.; Livieri, T.M.; Matchett, M.R.; Rittenhouse, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), once extinct in the wild, remains one of the most critically endangered mammals in North America despite 18 years of reintroduction attempts. Because black-footed ferrets are specialized predators of prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.), a better understanding of how black-footed ferrets select resources might provide insight into how best to identify and manage reintroduction sites. We monitored ferret resource selection at two reintroduction sites with different densities of prairie dog populations-one that contained a high density of prairie dogs (Conata Basin, South Dakota) and one that was lower (UL Bend, Montana). We evaluated support for hypotheses about ferret resource selection as related to the distribution of active burrows used by black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), interactions between ferrets, and habitat edge effects. We found support for all three factors within both populations; however, they affected ferret resource selection differently at each site. Ferrets at Conata Basin tended to select areas with high prairie dog burrow density, closer to the colony edge, and that overlapped other ferret ranges. In contrast, ferrets at UL Bend tended not to select areas of high active prairie dog burrow density, avoided areas close to edge habitat, and females avoided areas occupied by other ferrets. The differences observed between the two sites might be best explained by prairie dog densities, which were higher at Conata Basin (119.3 active burrows per ha) than at UL Bend (44.4 active burrows per ha). Given the positive growth of ferret populations at Conata Basin, management that increases the density of prairie dogs might enhance ferret success within natural areas. To achieve long-term recovery of ferrets in the wild, conservationists should increasingly work across and outside natural area boundaries to increase prairie dog populations.

  1. Proposed mechanism(s) of transitory ischemic injury to myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.D.; Kelman, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to produce primary acute ischemic injury to myocardium in a live animal. In vitro, guinea pig platelets were sensitive to perturbation and aggregation by a suspension of ultrafine fibrillary collagen material isolated from the aorta of an aged burro (Equus asinus). The platelets responded to this material down to 100 to 200 ng (dry weight) added to 0.45 ml of platelet-rich plasma, as determined by aggregometric technique. Aortic fibrillary collagen material injected IV into guinea pigs circulating platelets within 5 minutes. In blood samples taken 2.5 hours after injection, 50 to 75% of control levels of platelets were found. In other experiments, 3 anesthetized animals were injected by jugular vein with active fibrillary collagen material. Two control animals were injected with the same dose of the material that had been inactivated (15 minutes at 100 C). Intraventricular pressures and electrocardiographs (ECG) were monitored continuously for the first 30 minutes. The injection of the active fibrillary collagen material caused a large ventricular pressure elevation in approximately 40 s. Within 60 s, there was a reduction in the absolute platelet number in the peripheral circulation. The elevation of ventricular pressure persisted for approximately 5 minutes and was followed within 30 minutes by a set of ECG events suggestive of acute myocardial ischemic injury. The ECG changes seemed to be subsequent to platelet microthrombus formation in the pulmonary arterial microcirculation. By 2.5 hours after the treatment, platelets rebounded into the circulation in 2 surviving guinea pigs, and left ventricular pressures and ECG profiles returned to the preinfusion base lines. Guinea pigs IV infused with similar amounts of inactivated fibrillary collagen material did not show changes.

  2. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia: an updated imaging approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Stefan L

    2015-02-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) is a rare inherited cardiomyopathy characterized by fibrofatty replacement of the right ventricular myocardium and risk of sudden death from ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an important role in the diagnostic evaluation of patients and family members suspected of having ARVC/D. This article discusses the epidemiology and pathophysiology of ARVC/D, reviews typical MR imaging findings and diagnostic criteria, and summarizes potential pitfalls in the MR imaging evaluation of patients suspected of having ARVC/D.

  3. A mismatch index based on the difference between measured left ventricular ejection fraction and that estimated by infarct size at three months following reperfused acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Esben A; Bang, Lia E; Lønborg, Jacob;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The reduction of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a result of infarcted myocardium and may involve dysfunctional but viable myocardium. An index that may quantitatively determine whether LVEF is reduced b...

  4. Características morfológicas do miocárdio ventricular de Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomun; Characidae, Cuvier, 1818

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Simões

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The neotropical teleost fish Colossoma macropomun an active swimming species showed cardiac ventricle with pyramidal shape and myocardium with mixed structure. The myocardium presented an outer compact layer and an inner spongy layer whose particular bilaminar structure hitherto has been correlated to swimmer habit as well as to ventricular shape.

  5. Rapid initial reduction of hyperenhanced myocardium after reperfused first myocardial infarction suggests recovery of the peri-infarction zone: one-year follow-up by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engblom, Henrik; Hedström, Erik; Heiberg, Einar; Wagner, Galen S; Pahlm, Olle; Arheden, Håkan

    2009-01-01

    The time course and magnitude of infarct involution, functional recovery, and normalization of infarct-related electrocardiographic (ECG) changes after acute myocardial infarction (MI) are not completely known in humans. We sought to explore these processes early after MI and during infarct-healing using cardiac MRI. Twenty-two patients with reperfused first-time MI were examined by MRI and ECG at 1, 7, 42, 182, and 365 days after infarction. Global left ventricular function and regional wall thickening were assessed by cine MRI, and injured myocardium was depicted by delayed contrast-enhanced MRI. Infarct size by ECG was estimated by QRS scoring. The reduction of hyperenhanced myocardium occurred predominantly during the first week after infarction (64% of the 1-year reduction). Furthermore, during the first week the amount of nonhyperenhanced myocardium increased significantly (Pinfarction. Also, the time course and magnitude for reduction of hyperenhanced myocardium were associated with normalization of infarct-related ECG changes.

  6. Reparo de rotura de ventrículo esquerdo após uso de tenecteplase no tratamento do infarto agudo do miocárdio Surgical repair of left ventricular rupture after the use of tenecteplase in the treatment of acute myocardium infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Vieira Guedes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização do trombolítico no tratamento do infarto agudo do miocárdio apresentou um impacto importante na diminuição da mortalidade geral, porém não alterou a incidência da rotura cardíaca. Esta complicação deve ser reconhecida e tratada rapidamente, necessitando um alto nível de suspeição clínica. Os autores relatam um caso de reparo cirúrgico de rotura precoce de ventrículo esquerdo, após utilização de tenecteplase associado à heparina não fracionada, no tratamento do infarto agudo do miocárdio.The use of thrombolytic agents in the treatment of acute myocardium infaction represented an important impact in the reduction of overall mortality. But this did not alter the cardiac rupture rate. This complication must be recognized and treated quickly.The authors report on a case of surgical repair of an early left ventricle rupture, after the use of tenecteplase in association with non-fractioned heparin for the treatment of acute myocardium infarction

  7. Comparative effects of bepridil, its quaternary derivative CERM 11888 and verapamil on caffeine-induced contracture in ferret hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leboeuf, J; Leoty, C; Lamar, J C; Massingham, R

    1989-09-01

    1. The effects of bepridil, its quaternary derivative: CERM 11888 (methyl-pyrrolidinium bromide) (10(-7)-10(-5) M), and verapamil (10(-7)-10(-6) M) were compared on caffeine-induced contracture of isolated ventricular trabeculae of the ferret. 2. Bepridil diminished the amplitude of contracture in a concentration-dependent fashion, and this effect was significantly different from that of CERM 11888 which, like verapamil, only reduced the amplitude at the highest concentration used. 3. Bepridil (10(-6) M) significantly shortened the time to peak tension and accelerated the relaxation phase of contracture. This latter effect was different from that of CERM 11888. Verapamil (10(-6) M) also tended to accelerate the relaxation phase. At 10(-5) M these actions of bepridil on the time to peak and relaxation tended to reverse. 4. At all concentrations bepridil and verapamil reduced the rate of repriming of contracture and this effect of bedpridil was significantly different from that of its quaternary derivative which only showed a significant effect at 10(-5) M. 5. These results demonstrate a clear intracellular effect of bepridil in the ferret heart. Verapamil and CERM 11888 had only weak intracellular effects even at high concentrations. 6. Analysis of the results suggests that the main sites of action of bepridil in this model are the sarcoplasmic reticulum and one or two calcium compartments in the sarcolemma.

  8. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells repair and regenerate infarcted myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Dinender K; Long, Xilin; Glass, Carley; Singla, Reetu D; Yan, Binbin

    2011-10-03

    Cardiac myocyte differentiation reported thus far is from iPS cells generated from mouse and human fibroblasts. However, there is no article on the generation of iPS cells from cardiac ventricular specific cell types such as H9c2 cells. Therefore, whether transduced H9c2 cells, originally isolated from embryonic cardiac ventricular tissue, will be able to generate iPS cells and have the potential to repair and regenerate infarcted myocardium remains completely elusive. We transduced H9c2 cells with four stemness factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, and successfully reprogrammed them into iPS cells. These iPS cells were able to differentiate into beating cardiac myocytes and positively stained for cardiac specific sarcomeric α-actin and myosin heavy chain proteins. Following transplantation in the infarcted myocardium, there were newly differentiated cardiac myocytes and formation of gap junction proteins at 2 weeks post-myocardial infarction (MI), suggesting newly formed cardiac myocytes were integrated into the native myocardium. Furthermore, transplanted iPS cells significantly (p cell groups. Moreover, our iPS cell derived cardiac myocyte differentiation in vitro and in vivo was comparable to embryonic stem cells in the present study. In conclusion we report for the first time that we have H9c2 cell-derived iPS cells which contain the potential to differentiate into cardiac myocytes in the cell culture system and repair and regenerate infarcted myocardium with improved cardiac function in vivo.

  9. A Ferret-based gastrointestinal image retrieval system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrick, Steven; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree

    2007-10-11

    We developed a web-based interface for image retrieval and cluster analysis system. The system handles search queries using Ferret, a port to the Ruby language of the Apache Lucene indexing and searching system. The system uses de-identified endoscopic images from the Clinical Outcomes Research Initiative data repository, and is designed for use by students and researchers.

  10. Carpal myxosarcoma and forelimb amputation in a ferret

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Y.R.A.; Hernandez-Divers, S.J.; Blasier, M.W.; Vila-Garcia, G.; Delong, D.; Stedman, N.L.

    2006-01-01

    Vet Rec. 2006 Dec 2;159(23):782-5. Carpal myxosarcoma and forelimb amputation in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo). van Zeeland YR, Hernandez-Divers SJ, Blasier MW, Vila-Garcia G, Delong D, Stedman NL. Department of Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Utrecht, Utrecht

  11. Carpal myxosarcoma and forelimb amputation in a ferret

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Y.R.A.; Hernandez-Divers, S.J.; Blasier, M.W.; Vila-Garcia, G.; Delong, D.; Stedman, N.L.

    2006-01-01

    Vet Rec. 2006 Dec 2;159(23):782-5. Carpal myxosarcoma and forelimb amputation in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo). van Zeeland YR, Hernandez-Divers SJ, Blasier MW, Vila-Garcia G, Delong D, Stedman NL. Department of Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Utrecht, Utrecht

  12. Oral Malignant Melanoma in a Ferret ( Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Rossi, Giacomo; Meomartino, Leonardo

    2016-06-01

    Oral malignant melanomas are one of the most common oral malignant neoplasms in dogs but are rare in other domesticated species. This case report describes the clinical manifestations and histological appearance of oral melanoma in a ferret ( Mustela putorius furo). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published description of a clinical case and histopathological findings of oral melanoma in this species.

  13. Landscape features influence postrelease predation on endangered black-footed ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poessel, S.A.; Breck, S.W.; Biggins, D.E.; Livieri, T.M.; Crooks, K.R.; Angeloni, L.

    2011-01-01

    Predation can be a critical factor influencing recovery of endangered species. In most recovery efforts lethal and nonlethal influences of predators are not sufficiently understood to allow prediction of predation risk, despite its importance. We investigated whether landscape features could be used to model predation risk from coyotes (Canis latrans) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) on the endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). We used location data of reintroduced ferrets from 3 sites in South Dakota to determine whether exposure to landscape features typically associated with predators affected survival of ferrets, and whether ferrets considered predation risk when choosing habitat near perches potentially used by owls or near linear features predicted to be used by coyotes. Exposure to areas near likely owl perches reduced ferret survival, but landscape features potentially associated with coyote movements had no appreciable effect on survival. Ferrets were located within 90 m of perches more than expected in 2 study sites that also had higher ferret mortality due to owl predation. Densities of potential coyote travel routes near ferret locations were no different than expected in all 3 sites. Repatriated ferrets might have selected resources based on factors other than predator avoidance. Considering an easily quantified landscape feature (i.e., owl perches) can enhance success of reintroduction efforts for ferrets. Nonetheless, development of predictive models of predation risk and management strategies to mitigate that risk is not necessarily straightforward for more generalist predators such as coyotes. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  14. FLEAS OF BLACK-FOOTED FERRETS (MUSTELA NIGRIPES) AND THEIR POTENTIAL ROLE IN THE MOVEMENT OF PLAGUE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mize, Erica L; Grassel, Shaun M; Britten, Hugh B

    2017-07-01

    Sylvatic plague is one of the major impediments to the recovery of the black-footed ferret ( Mustela nigripes ) because it decimates their primary prey species, prairie dogs ( Cynomys spp.), and directly causes mortality in ferrets. Fleas are the primary vector of Yersinia pestis , the causative agent of sylvatic plague. The goal of this research was to better understand the flea fauna of ferrets and the factors that might influence flea abundance on ferrets. Fleas from ferrets were tested for Y. pestis in a post hoc assessment to investigate the plausibility that some ferrets could act as incidental transporter hosts of fleas infected with Y. pestis . Fleas were collected from ferrets captured on the Lower Brule Indian Reservation in central South Dakota, US from 2009 to 2012. A total of 528 fleas collected from 67 individual ferrets were identified and tested for the presence of Y. pestis with a nested PCR assay. The predominant flea recovered from ferrets was Oropsylla hirsuta , a species that comprises 70-100% of the fleas recovered from prairie dogs and their burrows in the study area. Yersinia pestis was detected at low levels in fleas collected from ferrets with prevalence ranging from 0% to 2.9%; male ferrets harbored significantly more fleas than female ferrets. Six of 67 ferrets vaccinated against plague carried fleas that tested positive for Y. pestis , which suggests ferrets vaccinated against plague could inadvertently act as incidental transporter hosts of Y. pestis -positive fleas.

  15. Chronobiology of cardiac ventricular fibrillation development in experimental acute coronary failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagonravov, M L; Azova, M M; Frolov, V A

    2010-10-01

    Numerous experiments on simulation of acute coronary failure in initially intact rabbits showed that under the same experimental conditions irreversible ventricular fibrillation developed in some animals and did not develop in other. We hypothesize that the probability of fibrillation development was determined by the time of the day, during which acute coronary failure developed. The study was carried out on 2 groups of rabbits in winter in Moscow. In group 1, the failure was induced by ligation of the left descending coronary artery at the interface between its middle and lower thirds at 11.00-18.00 with 30-min intervals. In group 2, the microcirculatory status of the left-ventricular myocardium was studied by light microscopy and morphometry at 12.00 and 18.00. Induction of coronary failure during the period from 15.30 to 18.00 led to irreversible ventricular fibrillation and death in 100% cases. Modeling of the condition from 11.00 to 15.00 caused no ventricular fibrillation in 89% cases, and the animals survived. The area of left-ventricular myocardial capillaries at 12.00 virtually 2-fold surpassed that at 18.00. Presumably, the electrolyte balance and metabolic characteristics of the myocardium switch over to the nocturnal mode of functioning at 15.30 due to changes in blood filling of the myocardium. The appearance of an ischemic focus in the myocardium during this period inevitably leads to the development of irreversible ventricular fibrillation.

  16. Acute myocardial infarction: estimation of at-risk and salvaged myocardium at myocardial perfusion SPECT 1 month after infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Farina, Guillermo; Aguadé-Bruix, Santiago; Candell-Riera, Jaume; Pizzi, M Nazarena; Pineda, Victor; Figueras, Jaume; Cuberas, Gemma; de León, Gustavo; Castell-Conesa, Joan; García-Dorado, David

    2013-11-01

    To estimate at-risk and salvaged myocardium by using gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The study was approved by the hospital's Ethical Committee on Clinical Trials (trial register number, PR(HG)36/2000), and all patients gave informed consent. Forty patients (mean age, 61.78 years; eight women) with a first AMI underwent two gated SPECT examinations--one before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and one 4-5 weeks after PCI. Myocardium at risk was estimated by assessing the perfusion defect at the first gated SPECT examination, and salvaged myocardium was estimated by assessing the risk area minus necrosis at the second examination. Myocardium at risk was estimated by determining the discordance between the areas of left ventricular (LV) wall motion and perfusion at the second examination. Concordance between tests was analyzed by means of linear regression analysis, the Pearson correlation, the intraclass correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman analysis. An improvement in perfusion, wall motion, wall thickening, and LV ejection fraction (P Myocardial perfusion gated SPECT performed 1 month after early PCI in a first AMI provides potentially useful information on at-risk and salvaged myocardium. http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.13122324/-/DC1. RSNA, 2013

  17. Behavioral sensitivity to broadband binaural localization cues in the ferret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Peter; Nodal, Fernando R; Gananandan, Kohilan; Schulz, Andreas L; King, Andrew J

    2013-08-01

    Although the ferret has become an important model species for studying both fundamental and clinical aspects of spatial hearing, previous behavioral work has focused on studies of sound localization and spatial release from masking in the free field. This makes it difficult to tease apart the role played by different spatial cues. In humans and other species, interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs) play a critical role in sound localization in the azimuthal plane and also facilitate sound source separation in noisy environments. In this study, we used a range of broadband noise stimuli presented via customized earphones to measure ITD and ILD sensitivity in the ferret. Our behavioral data show that ferrets are extremely sensitive to changes in either binaural cue, with levels of performance approximating that found in humans. The measured thresholds were relatively stable despite extensive and prolonged (>16 weeks) testing on ITD and ILD tasks with broadband stimuli. For both cues, sensitivity was reduced at shorter durations. In addition, subtle effects of changing the stimulus envelope were observed on ITD, but not ILD, thresholds. Sensitivity to these cues also differed in other ways. Whereas ILD sensitivity was unaffected by changes in average binaural level or interaural correlation, the same manipulations produced much larger effects on ITD sensitivity, with thresholds declining when either of these parameters was reduced. The binaural sensitivity measured in this study can largely account for the ability of ferrets to localize broadband stimuli in the azimuthal plane. Our results are also broadly consistent with data from humans and confirm the ferret as an excellent experimental model for studying spatial hearing.

  18. Right ventricular mass estimation by angioechocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcilla, R A; Mathew, R; Sodt, P; Lester, L; Cahill, N; Thilenius, O G

    1976-01-01

    A combined angiocardiographic-echocardiographic method for estimating right ventricular wall mass is described. Biplane cineangiocardiograms are analyzed for ventricular volume in end-diastole, and wall thickness is determined from echocardiograms obtained with a high frequency transducer and strip chart recorder, The intracavitary and the external surface volumes of the ventricle are derived, and the difference multiplied by 1.050, the specific gravity of myocardium. Excellent correlation was observed between right ventricular wall mass and body surface area in normal children (r = 0.93). The mean right ventricular mass was 44.5 g/M2 as compared to 78.1 g/M2 for the left ventricle, corresponding mass/EDV values were 0.48 g/cm3 and 1.26 g/cm3, respectively. In isolated right ventricular pressure overload, the increase in right ventricular mass is chiefly due to the increase in wall thickness; in volume overload, it is due mostly to the increase in chamber volume,

  19. Comparison of sevoflurane and isoflurane in domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, A K; Lichtenberger, M; Day, T; Ko, J; Kirby, R

    2006-01-01

    Isoflurane anesthesia is commonly used in ferrets for routine examinations and diagnostics. Sevoflurane is now being used as well, but there have been no studies to date directly comparing these agents in domestic ferrets. A prospective study was designed to evaluate the quality and speed of anesthetic induction and recovery using isoflurane and sevoflurane in ferrets. In addition effects on heart rate, blood pressure and packed cell volume were also recorded. No significant differences were noted between anesthetic agents.

  20. High-throughput immunophenotyping of 43 ferret lymphomas using tissue microarray technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Williams, B.; Dietz, H.H.

    2007-01-01

    To validate the use of the tissue microarray (TMA) method for immunophenotyping of ferret lymphomas, a TMA was constructed containing duplicate 1-mm cores sampled from 112 paraffin-embedded lymphoma tissue specimens obtained from 43 ferret lymphoma cases. Immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of CD3...... of expression in ferret lymphomas. The results of this study confirmed previously published results suggesting specific cross-reactivity of the applied IHC markers (CD3, CD79 alpha, Ki67) with ferret lymphoma tissue. Other IHC markers (CD45Ro, bcl2, bcl10, MUM1, CD30, vimentin) were also expressed in subsets...

  1. Using Python Packages in 6D (Py)Ferret: EOF Analysis, OPeNDAP Sequence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. M.; Manke, A.; Hankin, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    PyFerret was designed to provide the easy methods of access, analysis, and display of data found in the Ferret under the simple yet powerful Python scripting/programming language. This has enabled PyFerret to take advantage of a large and expanding collection of third-party scientific Python modules. Furthermore, ensemble and forecast axes have been added to Ferret and PyFerret for creating and working with collections of related data in Ferret's delayed-evaluation and minimal-data-access mode of operation. These axes simplify processing and visualization of these collections of related data. As one example, an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis Python module was developed, taking advantage of the linear algebra module and other standard functionality in NumPy for efficient numerical array processing. This EOF analysis module is used in a Ferret function to provide an ensemble of levels of data explained by each EOF and Time Amplitude Function (TAF) product. Another example makes use of the PyDAP Python module to provide OPeNDAP sequence data for use in Ferret with minimal data access characteristic of Ferret.

  2. Distinct patterns of constitutive phosphodiesterase activity in mouse sinoatrial node and atrial myocardium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Hua

    Full Text Available Phosphodiesterases (PDEs are critical regulators of cyclic nucleotides in the heart. In ventricular myocytes, the L-type Ca(2+ current (I(Ca,L is a major target of regulation by PDEs, particularly members of the PDE2, PDE3 and PDE4 families. Conversely, much less is known about the roles of PDE2, PDE3 and PDE4 in the regulation of action potential (AP properties and I(Ca,L in the sinoatrial node (SAN and the atrial myocardium, especially in mice. Thus, the purpose of our study was to measure the effects of global PDE inhibition with Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX and selective inhibitors of PDE2, PDE3 and PDE4 on AP properties in isolated mouse SAN and right atrial myocytes. We also measured the effects of these inhibitors on I(Ca,L in SAN and atrial myocytes in comparison to ventricular myocytes. Our data demonstrate that IBMX markedly increases spontaneous AP frequency in SAN myocytes and AP duration in atrial myocytes. Spontaneous AP firing in SAN myocytes was also increased by the PDE2 inhibitor erythro-9-[2-hydroxy-3-nonyl] adenine (EHNA, the PDE3 inhibitor milrinone (Mil and the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram (Rol. In contrast, atrial AP duration was increased by EHNA and Rol, but not by Mil. IBMX also potently, and similarly, increased I(Ca,L in SAN, atrial and ventricular myocytes; however, important differences emerged in terms of which inhibitors could modulate I(Ca,L in each myocyte type. Consistent with our AP measurements, EHNA, Mil and Rol each increased I(Ca,L in SAN myocytes. Also, EHNA and Rol, but not Mil, increased atrial I(Ca,L. In complete contrast, no selective PDE inhibitors increased I(Ca,L in ventricular myocytes when given alone. Thus, our data show that the effects of selective PDE2, PDE3 and PDE4 inhibitors are distinct in the different regions of the myocardium indicating important differences in how each PDE family constitutively regulates ion channel function in the SAN, atrial and ventricular myocardium.

  3. Mechanisms of positive inotropic action of flosequinan, hydralazine, and milrinone on mammalian myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, L; Perreault, C L; Travers, K E; Morgan, J P

    1997-02-26

    Flosequinan is an arterial and venous dilator that also has a positive inotropic effect at relatively higher doses. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism of this positive inotropic effect in ferret papillary muscles loaded with the Ca2+ indicator, aequorin. Over the range of doses from 10(-6) to 10(-3) M, flosequinan produced a 61 +/- 9% increase in peak tension that was accompanied by a corresponding increase in [Ca2+]i. This positive inotropic effect was not selectively blocked by addition to the perfusate of procaine 0.6 microM, tetrodotoxin 10(-6) M or by verapamil, 5 x 10(-8) M. In contrast, the positive inotropic effect of flosequinan, but not milrinone or hydralazine, was potentiated by prior addition of ouabain 3 nM to enhance intracellular Ca2+ via reduction of the Na+/Ca2+ exchange. Moreover, antagonists of Na+/Ca2+ exchange, including cadmium 10 microM, amiloride 600 microM and choline substitution for 1/3 Na+ in the perfusate, blocked the response to flosequinan but not hydralazine or milrinone. These results indicate that flosequinan produces a positive inotropic effect by reduction of Na+/Ca2+ exchange in mammalian myocardium. Moreover, flosequinan has the potential to interact synergistically with other positive inotropic agents such as digoxin that affect Na+/Ca2+ exchange by direct or indirect actions.

  4. NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHESIS IN MYOCARDIUM FOLLOWING BURN INJURY IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫东; 陈宗荣; 李蓉; 楼淑芳

    1998-01-01

    The nitric oxide and cyclic GMP production in myocardium early after burn injury in tats were investigated. Nitric oxide synthase activity was measured in cytosols from the left ventricular wall of burned rats.Cytosols from the control group animals were shown to contain mainly Ca2+ dependent nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) with small amount of Ca2+ independent nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Following burn injury,there was a marked increase in iNOS activity with a peak at 8h post-butyl, however, myocardial cNOS activity was found to decline obviously. Parallel to iNOS induction there was a significant increase in myocardial nitric oxide and cyelic GMP production. All these chenges were alleviated by treatment of the rats with dexamethasone. Since increases in cyclic GMP levels in the heart were associated with reduced myocardial contractility, it is possible that enhanced production of nitric oxide by a Ca2+ independent NO synthase accounts, at least in part, for the depression of myocardial contractility seen in burn animals and patients.

  5. SERCA overexpression reduces hydroxyl radical injury in murine myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranandani, Nitisha; Bupha-Intr, Tepmanas; Janssen, Paul M L

    2006-12-01

    Hydroxyl radicals (*OH) are involved in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion injury and are observed in clinical situations, including acute heart failure, stroke, and myocardial infarction. Acute transient exposure to *OH causes an intracellular Ca(2+) overload and leads to impaired contractility. We investigated whether upregulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase function (SERCA) can attenuate *OH-induced dysfunction. Small, contracting right ventricular papillary muscles from wild-type (WT) SERCA1a-overexpressing (transgenic, TG) and SERCA2a heterogeneous knockout (HET) mice were directly exposed to *OH. This brief 2-min exposure led to a transient elevation of diastolic force (F(dia)) and depression of developed force (F(dev)). In WT mice, F(dia) increased to 485 +/- 49% and F(dev) decreased to 11 +/- 3%. In sharp contrast, in TG mice F(dia) increased only to 241 +/- 17%, whereas F(dev) decreased only to 51 +/- 5% (P group. The results indicate that SERCA overexpression can reduce the *OH-induced contractile dysfunction in murine myocardium, whereas a reduced SR Ca(2+)-ATPase activity aggravates this injury. Loss of pPLB levels at Ser16 likely amplifies the differences observed in injury response.

  6. Miocárdio hibernante: uma realidade clínica Hibernant myocardium: a clinical reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Marin-Neto

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O conceito da hibernação miocárdica implica a ocorrência de disfunção ventricular crônica, potencialmente reversível, causada por dissinergia regional, dependente de isquemia prolongada. Não tem fisiopatologia elucidada, em parte porque não existem modelos experimentais satisfatórios para seu estudo. Diversos métodos são capazes de demonstrar viabilidade miocárdica nas regiões que não exibem capacidade contrátil basal. O desmascaramento da hibernação nesses territórios pode ser feito mediante demonstração de reserva contrátil, de funcionamento normal da membrana celular, ou de metabolismo preservado. A correta identificação de miocárdio hibernante reveste-se de especial significado clínico, por suas implicações prognósticas quanto a intervenções de revascularização miocárdica, destinadas a reabilitar a função ventricular em muitos pacientes coronariopatas crônicos.Myocardial hibernation is believed to occur in ventricular dyssynergic regions chronically deprived of coronary flow enough to warrant the preservation of contractile function. Pathophysiology of this condition remains largely unclear, mainly because good experimental models for its study are still lacking. Various methods can be clinically employed to detect hibernation in patients with chronic ventricular dysfunction. These methods use the principle of unmasking contractile reserve, or are based on the demonstration of preserved membrane function or myocardium metabolism in the dyssynergic regions. The correct identification of viable hibernating myocardium is crucial in the process of deciding which coronary disease patients would potentially benefit from revascularization procedures.

  7. Effect of exercise training and myocardial infarction on force development and contractile kinetics in isolated canine myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canan, Benjamin D; Haizlip, Kaylan M; Xu, Ying; Monasky, Michelle M; Hiranandani, Nitisha; Milani-Nejad, Nima; Varian, Kenneth D; Slabaugh, Jessica L; Schultz, Eric J; Fedorov, Vadim V; Billman, George E; Janssen, Paul M L

    2016-04-15

    It is well known that moderate exercise training elicits a small increase in ventricular mass (i.e., a physiological hypertrophy) that has many beneficial effects on overall cardiac health. It is also well known that, when a myocardial infarction damages part of the heart, the remaining myocardium remodels to compensate for the loss of viable functioning myocardium. The effects of exercise training, myocardial infarction (MI), and their interaction on the contractile performance of the myocardium itself remain largely to be determined. The present study investigated the contractile properties and kinetics of right ventricular myocardium isolated from sedentary and exercise trained (10-12 wk progressively increasing treadmill running, begun 4 wk after MI induction) dogs with and without a left ventricular myocardial infarction. Exercise training increased force development, whereas MI decreased force development that was not improved by exercise training. Contractile kinetics were significantly slower in the trained dogs, whereas this impact of training was less or no longer present after MI. Length-dependent activation, both evaluated on contractile force and kinetics, was similar in all four groups. The control exercise-trained group exhibited a more positive force-frequency relationship compared with the sedentary control group while both sedentary and trained post-MI dogs had a more negative relationship. Last, the impact of the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol resulted in a similar increase in force and acceleration of contractile kinetics in all groups. Thus, exercise training increased developed force but slowed contractile kinetics in control (noninfarcted animals), actions that were attenuated or completely absent in post-MI dogs.

  8. Congenital left ventricular aneurysm coexisting with left ventricular non-compaction in a newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ootani, Katsuki; Shimada, Jun; Kitagawa, Yosuke; Konno, Yuki; Miura, Fumitake; Takahashi, Toru; Ito, Etsuro; Ichinose, Kouta; Yonesaka, Susumu

    2014-10-01

    Described herein is the case of a rare combination of congenital left ventricular (LV) aneurysm and left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) in a newborn. The patient developed refractory heart failure soon after birth and died at 5 months of age. The etiology of both congenital LV aneurysm and LVNC seems to be maldevelopment of the ventricular myocardium during early fetal life. Treatment should be individually tailored depending on clinical severity, and treatment options are limited. Given that this combination of congenital LV aneurysm and LVNC is significantly associated with poor prognosis, it appears that patients with congenital LV aneurysm and LVNC are candidates for early, aggressive intervention, including surgical aneurysmectomy and evaluation for transplantation. It is important to be aware of this combination of congenital LV aneurysm and LVNC, and to make earlier decisions on therapeutic strategy.

  9. A ferret model of COPD-related chronic bronchitis

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, S. Vamsee; Kim, Hyunki; Byzek, Stephen A.; Tang, Li Ping; Trombley, John E; Jackson, Patricia; Rasmussen, Lawrence; Wells, J. Michael; LIBBY, EMILY FALK; Dohm, Erik; Winter, Lindy; Samuel, Sharon L.; Kurt R. Zinn; Blalock, J. Edwin; Schoeb, Trenton R.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the US. The majority of COPD patients have symptoms of chronic bronchitis, which lacks specific therapies. A major impediment to therapeutic development has been the absence of animal models that recapitulate key clinical and pathologic features of human disease. Ferrets are well suited for the investigation of the significance of respiratory diseases, given prior data indicating similarities to human airway p...

  10. A ferret model of COPD-related chronic bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, S. Vamsee; Kim, Hyunki; Byzek, Stephen A.; Tang, Li Ping; Trombley, John E.; Jackson, Patricia; Rasmussen, Lawrence; Wells, J. Michael; Libby, Emily Falk; Winter, Lindy; Samuel, Sharon L.; Zinn, Kurt R.; Blalock, J. Edwin; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Dransfield, Mark T.; Rowe, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the US. The majority of COPD patients have symptoms of chronic bronchitis, which lacks specific therapies. A major impediment to therapeutic development has been the absence of animal models that recapitulate key clinical and pathologic features of human disease. Ferrets are well suited for the investigation of the significance of respiratory diseases, given prior data indicating similarities to human airway physiology and submucosal gland distribution. Here, we exposed ferrets to chronic cigarette smoke and found them to approximate complex clinical features of human COPD. Unlike mice, which develop solely emphysema, smoke-exposed ferrets exhibited markedly higher numbers of early-morning spontaneous coughs and sporadic infectious exacerbations as well as a higher level of airway obstruction accompanied by goblet cell metaplasia/hyperplasia and increased mucus expression in small airways, indicative of chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis. Overall, we demonstrate the first COPD animal model exhibiting clinical and pathologic features of chronic bronchitis to our knowledge, providing a key advance that will greatly facilitate the preclinical development of novel treatments for this disease. PMID:27699245

  11. Vegfa Impacts Early Myocardium Development in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Diqi; Fang, Yabo; Gao, Kun; Shen, Jie; Zhong, Tao P.; Li, Fen

    2017-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) signaling regulates cardiovascular development. However, the cellular mechanisms of Vegfa signaling in early cardiogenesis remain poorly understood. The present study aimed to understand the differential functions and mechanisms of Vegfa signaling in cardiac development. A loss-of-function approach was utilized to study the effect of Vegfa signaling in cardiogenesis. Both morphants and mutants for vegfaa display defects in cardiac looping and chamber formation, especially the ventricle. Vegfa regulates the heart morphogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the initial fusion of the bilateral myocardium population is delayed rather than endocardium. The results demonstrate that Vegfa signaling plays a direct impact on myocardium fusion, indicating that it is the initial cause of the heart defects. The heart morphogenesis is regulated by Vegfa in a dose-dependent manner, and later endocardium defects may be secondary to impaired myocardium–endocardium crosstalk. PMID:28230770

  12. Vegfa Impacts Early Myocardium Development in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diqi Zhu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa signaling regulates cardiovascular development. However, the cellular mechanisms of Vegfa signaling in early cardiogenesis remain poorly understood. The present study aimed to understand the differential functions and mechanisms of Vegfa signaling in cardiac development. A loss-of-function approach was utilized to study the effect of Vegfa signaling in cardiogenesis. Both morphants and mutants for vegfaa display defects in cardiac looping and chamber formation, especially the ventricle. Vegfa regulates the heart morphogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the initial fusion of the bilateral myocardium population is delayed rather than endocardium. The results demonstrate that Vegfa signaling plays a direct impact on myocardium fusion, indicating that it is the initial cause of the heart defects. The heart morphogenesis is regulated by Vegfa in a dose-dependent manner, and later endocardium defects may be secondary to impaired myocardium–endocardium crosstalk.

  13. Myosin types and fiber types in cardiac muscle. II. Atrial myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorza, L; Sartore, S; Schiaffino, S

    1982-12-01

    Antibodies were produced against myosins isolated from the left atrial myocardium (anti-bAm) and the left ventricular myocardium (anti-bVm) of the bovine heart. Cross-reactive antibodies were removed by cross-absorption. Absorbed anti-bAm and anti-bVm were specific for the myosin heavy chains when tested by enzyme immunoassay combined with SDS gel electrophoresis. Indirect immunofluorescence was used to determine the reactivity of atrial muscle fibers to the two antibodies. Three populations of atrial muscle fibers were distinguished in the bovine heart: (a) fibers reactive with anti-bAm and unreactive with anti-bVm, like most fibers in the left atrium; (b) fibers reactive with both antibodies, especially numerous in the right atrium; (c) fibers reactive with anti-bVm and unreactive with anti-bAm, present only in the interatrial septum and in specific regions of the right atrium, such as the crista terminalis. These findings can be accounted for by postulating the existence of two distinct types of atrial myosin heavy chains, one of which is antigenically related to ventricular myosin. The tendency for fibers labeled by anti-bVm to occur frequently in bundles and their preferential distribution in the crista terminalis, namely along one of the main conduction pathways between the sinus node and the atrioventricular node, and in the interatrial septum, where different internodal tracts are known to converge, suggests that these fibers may be specialized for faster conduction.

  14. Remodeling in myocardium adjacent to an infarction in the pig left ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Scott D; Criscione, John; Covell, James W

    2004-12-01

    Changes in the structure of the "normal" ventricular wall adjacent to an infarcted area involve all components of the myocardium (myocytes, fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix, and the coronary vasculature) and their three-dimensional structural relationship. Assessing changes in these components requires tracking material markers in the remodeling tissue over long periods of time with a three-dimensional approach as well as a detailed histological evaluation of the remodeled structure. The purpose of the present study was to examine the hypotheses that changes in the tissue adjacent to an infarct are related to myocyte elongation, myofiber rearrangement, and changes in the laminar architecture of the adjacent tissue. Three weeks after myocardial infarction, noninfarcted tissue adjacent to the infarct remodeled by expansion along the direction of the fibers and in the cross fiber direction. These changes are consistent with myocyte elongation and myofiber rearrangement (slippage), as well as a change in cell shape to a more elliptical cross section with the major axis in the epicardial tangent plane, and indicate that reorientation of fibers either via "cell slippage" or changes in orientation of the laminar structure of the ventricular wall are quantitatively important aspects of the remodeling of the normally perfused myocardium.

  15. Fine-scale habitat use of reintroduced black-footed ferrets on prairie dog colonies in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipault, Jennifer G.; Biggins, Dean E.; Detling, James K.; Long, Dustin H.; Reich, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) are among the most endangered animals in North America. Reintroductions of captive-born ferrets onto prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) colonies are crucial to the conservation of the species. In September 2007, captive-born ferrets were released on a black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colony at the Vermejo Park Ranch, New Mexico. Ferret kits experimentally released in areas of comparatively low and high prairie dog burrow densities were located via spotlight surveys. Some maturing ferret kits were subsequently translocated to areas of low and high burrow densities on nearby prairie dog colonies. For 2 months, fine-scale habitat use was quantified by mapping all burrow openings within a 30-m radius of each ferret location. Spatial statistics accounted for autocorrelation in the burrow densities in areas used by ferrets. It was hypothesized that ferrets would select areas of high burrow densities within colonies; however, burrow densities in areas used by ferrets were generally similar to the available burrow densities. Because ferrets used areas with burrow densities similar to densities available at the colony level and because of the potential energetic benefits for ferrets using areas with high burrow densities, releasing ferrets on colonies with high burrow densities might increase reintroduction success.

  16. Pre- and post-synaptic sympathetic function in human hibernating myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Anna S.; Pepper, John R.; Dreyfus, Gilles D.; Pennell, Dudley J. [Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, National Heart and Lung Institute, London (United Kingdom); Mongillo, Marco; Khan, Muhammad T. [Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); Depre, Christophe [University of Medicine and Dentistry New Jersey, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, New Jersey, NJ (United States); University of Medicine and Dentistry New Jersey, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, New Jersey, NJ (United States); Rimoldi, Ornella E. [Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, National Heart and Lung Institute, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); New York Medical College, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Valhalla, NY (United States); Camici, Paolo G. [Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, National Heart and Lung Institute, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-15

    Impaired pre-synaptic noradrenaline uptake-1 mechanism has been reported in a swine model of hibernating myocardium (HM). To ascertain whether adrenergic neuroeffector abnormalities are present in human HM, we combined functional measurements in vivo using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and positron emission tomography (PET) to assess pre- and post-synaptic sympathetic function. Twelve patients with coronary artery disease and chronic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction underwent CMR at baseline and 6 months after bypass for assessment of regional and global LV function and identification of segments with reversible dysfunction. Before surgery, myocardial noradrenaline uptake-1 ([{sup 11}C]meta-hydroxy-ephedrine; HED) and {beta}-adrenoceptor ({beta}-AR) density ([{sup 11}C]CGP-12177) were measured with PET. Patient PET data were compared with those in 18 healthy controls. The volume of distribution (V{sub d}) of HED in HM (47.95{+-}28.05 ml/g) and infarcted myocardium (42.69{+-}25.76 ml/g) was significantly reduced compared with controls (66.09{+-}14.48 ml/g). The V{sub d} of HED in normal myocardium (49.93{+-}20.48 ml/g) of patients was also lower than that in controls and the difference was close to statistical significance (p=0.06). Myocardial {beta}-AR density was significantly lower in HM (5.49{+-}2.35 pmol/g), infarcted (4.82{+-}2.61 pmol/g) and normal (5.86{+-}1.81 pmol/g) segments of patients compared with healthy controls (8.61{+-}1.32 pmol/g). Noradrenaline uptake-1 mechanism and {beta}-AR density are reduced in the myocardium of patients with chronic LV dysfunction and evidence of HM. The increased sympathetic activity to the heart in these patients is a generalised rather than regional phenomenon which is likely to contribute to the remodelling process of the whole LV rather than playing a causative role in HM. (orig.)

  17. First Case of Systemic Coronavirus Infection in a Domestic Ferret (Mustela putorius furo) in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, J; Quevedo, M; Gonzales-Viera, O; Luna, L; Keel, M K; Gregori, F

    2015-12-01

    A domestic ferret from Lima, Peru, died after ten days of non-specific clinical signs. Based on pathology, immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis, ferret systemic coronavirus (FRSCV)-associated disease was diagnosed for the first time in South America. This report highlights the potential spread of pathogens by the international pet trade.

  18. Fatal vaccine-induced canine distemper virus infection in black-footed ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.W.; Appel, M.J.G.; Erickson, R.C.; Novilla, M.N.

    1976-01-01

    Four black-footed ferrets that were live-trapped in South Dakota and transported to the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center died within 21 days after vaccination with modified live canine distemper virus. Immunofluorescence, European ferret inoculation, virus isolation attempts, and serum-neutralization tests indicated insufficient attenuation of the vaccine for this species.

  19. Morning ambush attacks by black-footed ferrets on emerging prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, D.A.; Biggins, D.E.; Jachowski, D.S.; Livieri, T.M.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Forsberg, M.

    2010-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) often hunt at night, attacking normally diurnal prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) in underground burrow systems. While monitoring black-footed ferrets in South Dakota during morning daylight hours, we observed an adult female ferret ambush a black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus) emerging from a burrow. On a neighboring colony, we observed a second adult female ferret engaging in similar ambush behaviors on 12 occasions, although prey was not visible. We retrospectively assessed radio-telemetry data on white-tailed prairie dogs (C. leucurus) and a male and a female ferret to evaluate ferret activity in relation to timing of prairie dog emergence. Activity of radio-collared ferrets was high during the hourly period when prairie dogs first emerged and the following 2 hr, relative to later daylight hours. Such behavior is consistent with behaviors observed in South Dakota. Nighttime movements by ferrets might involve hunting but also reconnaissance of prey preparatory to morning ambush attacks.

  20. [Epicardial cartography and surgical treatment by simple ventriculotomy of certain resistant re-entry ventricular tachycardias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, G; Guiraudon, G; Frank, R; Gerbaux, A; Cousteau, J P; Barrillon, A; Gay, J; Cabrol, C; Facquet, J

    1975-02-01

    Intraventricular reentry has been prooved by pre-operative electrophysiological studies in two patients without coronary artery disease and resistant ventricular tachycardia. A simple ventriculotomy oriented by epicardial mapping during tachycardia was successfull with a background of 9 and 14 months respectively. In addition, delayed epicardial potentials put into evidence an intraventricular reentry in human myocardium. This new method holds promises for the treatment of some resistant ventricular tachycardia.

  1. A Rare Cardiac Malformation in a Patient Presenting with Transient Ischemic Attack: Isolated Left Ventricular Diverticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haldun Müderrisoğlu1

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular diverticulum is a rare congenital malformation consisting of a localized protrusion of the endocardium and myocardium from the free wall of the left ventricle (LV. The prevalence of the disease is 0.26% in nonselected patients who underwent cardiac catheterization. It is believed that the etiology is an intrinsic abnormality developing during embryogenesis. It often does not cause any symptoms. We report a case of isolated left ventricular diverticulum with complaints of transient ischemic attack.

  2. Ebstein's Anomaly, Left Ventricular Noncompaction, and Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Michael; Warner, Luke; Collins, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Ebstein's anomaly is a congenital disorder characterized by apical displacement of the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve. Ebstein's anomaly may be seen in association with other cardiac conditions, including patent foramen ovale, atrial septal defect, and left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC). LVNC is characterized by increased trabeculation within the left ventricular apex. Echocardiography is often used to diagnose LVNC; however, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging offers superior characterization of the myocardium. We report a case of sudden cardiac death in a patient with Ebstein's anomaly with unrecognized LVNC noted on post mortem examination with screening documenting the presence of LVNC in one of the patient's twin sons. PMID:26240764

  3. Mid-ventricular obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with apical aneurysm and sustained ventricular tachycardia: a case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xiao-jin; KANG Lian-ming; ZHANG Jian; DOU Ke-fei; YUAN Jian-song; YANG Yue-jin

    2011-01-01

    The case is a 54-year-old man with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, mid-ventricular obstruction, apical aneurysm, and recurrence sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT). A coronary angiogram revealed myocardial bridging located in the middle of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), and the left ventriculogram showed an hour-glass appearance of the left ventricular cavity. There was a significant pressure gradient of 60 mmHg across the mid-ventricular obliteration at rest. A successful myectomy of the inappropriate hypertrophy myocardium and excision of the apical aneurysm were performed. Pathologic analysis demonstrated fibrosis in the apical aneurysm and thickened and narrowed vessels in the adjacent area. During the follow-up of eighteen months, the patient remained clinically stable and free from arrhythmic recurrence.

  4. Changes of Expression of Stretch-activated Potassium Channel TREK-1 mRNA and Protein in Hypertrophic Myocardium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The expression of stretch-activated potassium channel TREK-1 mRNA and protein of hypertrophic myocardium was measured. Using a model of hypertrophy induced by coarctation of abdominal aorta in male Wistar rats, the expression of TREK-1 mRNA and protein was detected by using semi quantitative RT PCR and Western blot respectively. At 4th and 8th week after constriction of the abdominal aorta, rats developed significant left ventricular hypertrophy. As compared to sham operated group, stretch activated potassium channel TREK-1 mRNA was strongly expressed and protein was up regulated in operation groups (P<0.05). It was concluded that the expression of TREK 1 was up regulated in hypertrophic myocardium induced by chronic pressure overload in Wistar rats.

  5. Metastatic Midgut Carcinoid in the Myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowczan, Jakub; Lois, Konstantinos B; Skinner, Jane; Petrides, George; James, Robert Andrew; Perros, Petros

    2015-09-01

    Metastasis of neuroendocrine tumor to the myocardium is rare. We present a case of 64-year-old woman, who presented initially with abdominal pain and large adnexal mass. The image-guided biopsy showed low-grade neuroendocrine tumor with Ki67 less than 2% within the ovarian tissue. CT staging revealed bilateral adnexal masses, liver metastases, and primary lesion in the terminal ileum. Octreoscan showed marked tracer uptake within the lower esophagus not related to obvious mass on CT scan; the echocardiography confirmed the presence of a 2.7 cm LV/LA mass. In this case, close correlation between ECHO and the octreoscan obviated need for myocardial biopsy.

  6. Patterns of surface burrow plugging in a colony of black-tailed prairie dogs occupied by black-footed ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David E.; Biggins, Dean E.

    2012-01-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) can surface-plug openings to a burrow occupied by a black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). At a coarse scale, surface plugs are more common in colonies of prairie dogs occupied by ferrets than in colonies without ferrets. However, little is known about spatial and temporal patterns of surface plugging in a colony occupied by ferrets. In a 452-ha colony of black-tailed prairie dogs in South Dakota, we sampled burrow openings for surface plugs and related those data to locations of ferrets observed during spotlight surveys. Of 67,574 burrow openings in the colony between June and September 2007, 3.7% were plugged. In a colony-wide grid of 80 m × 80 m cells, the occurrence of surface plugging (≥1 opening plugged) was greater in cells used by ferrets (93.3% of cells) than in cells not observably used by ferrets (70.6%). Rates of surface plugging (percentages of openings plugged) were significantly higher in cells used by ferrets (median = 3.7%) than in cells without known ferret use (median = 3.2%). Also, numbers of ferret locations in cells correlated positively with numbers of mapped surface plugs in the cells. To investigate surface plugging at finer temporal and spatial scales, we compared rates of surface plugging in 20-m-radius circle-plots centered on ferret locations and in random plots 1–4 days after observing a ferret (Jun–Oct 2007 and 2008). Rates of surface plugging were greater in ferret-plots (median = 12.0%) than in random plots (median = 0%). For prairie dogs and their associates, the implications of surface plugging could be numerous. For instance, ferrets must dig to exit or enter plugged burrows (suggesting energetic costs), and surface plugs might influence microclimates in burrows and consequently influence species that cannot excavate soil (e.g., fleas that transmit the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis).

  7. Patterns of surface burrow plugging in a colony of black-tailed prairie dogs occupied by black-footed ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, D.A.; Biggins, D.E.

    2012-01-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) can surface-plug openings to a burrow occupied by a black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). At a coarse scale, surface plugs are more common in colonies of prairie dogs occupied by ferrets than in colonies without ferrets. However, little is known about spatial and temporal patterns of surface plugging in a colony occupied by ferrets. In a 452-ha colony of black-tailed prairie dogs in South Dakota, we sampled burrow openings for surface plugs and related those data to locations of ferrets observed during spotlight surveys. Of 67,574 burrow openings in the colony between June and September 2007, 3.7% were plugged. In a colony-wide grid of 80 m × 80 m cells, the occurrence of surface plugging (≥1 opening plugged) was greater in cells used by ferrets (93.3% of cells) than in cells not observably used by ferrets (70.6%). Rates of surface plugging (percentages of openings plugged) were significantly higher in cells used by ferrets (median = 3.7%) than in cells without known ferret use (median = 3.2%). Also, numbers of ferret locations in cells correlated positively with numbers of mapped surface plugs in the cells. To investigate surface plugging at finer temporal and spatial scales, we compared rates of surface plugging in 20-m-radius circle-plots centered on ferret locations and in random plots 1–4 days after observing a ferret (Jun–Oct 2007 and 2008). Rates of surface plugging were greater in ferret-plots (median = 12.0%) than in random plots (median = 0%). For prairie dogs and their associates, the implications of surface plugging could be numerous. For instance, ferrets must dig to exit or enter plugged burrows (suggesting energetic costs), and surface plugs might influence microclimates in burrows and consequently influence species that cannot excavate soil (e.g., fleas that transmit the plague bacterium Yersinia pests).

  8. Novel calicivirus from a ferret badger (Melogale moschata) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Fa-Ming; Li, Yue-Hong; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Shou-Feng; Miao, Fu-Chun; Zhao, Jing-Hui; Hu, Rong-Liang

    2015-07-01

    We describe the isolation and complete genome sequence of a new calicivirus, FBCV-JX12, isolated from a ferret badger (Melogale moschata). Comparison of FBCV-JX12 with other vesiviruses revealed that it shared the highest amino acid sequence identities of 71.6, 60.5, and 59.3% in the nonstructural protein, VP1, and VP2, respectively, with MCV-DL2007 (mink calicivirus). Phylogenetic analysis of the whole genomic sequence showed that it clustered most closely with MCV-DL2007 of the genus Vesivirus, but with low nucleotide similarity in the three open reading frames (62.1-68.5%).

  9. Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) By Mayo Clinic Staff Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are extra, abnormal heartbeats that begin in one of your heart's two ...

  10. Reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests of the ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Mattos, Bianca Chaim; Russ, Heloisa Helena Abil

    2006-01-01

    To perform selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests in healthy ferrets with the aim of establishing normal physiological reference values for this species. A total of 15 healthy, unrelated ferrets were used to test most of the parameters in this investigation. Eight of the 15 ferrets were used for central corneal thickness evaluation. Ages varied from 1.5 to 6 years of age. Selected diagnostic ocular tests were performed including Schirmer tear test, tonometry using an applanation tonometer (Tonopen), central corneal thickness using an ultrasonic pachymeter (Sonomed, Micropach, Model 200P +) and culture of the normal conjunctival bacterial flora. Staphylococcus sp. and Corynebacterium sp. were isolated from healthy conjunctival and eyelid margins, suggesting they are normal constituents of the conjunctival flora of the ferret. Results for selected ocular diagnostic tests investigated here for the ferret eye were as follows: intraocular pressure: 14.50 +/- 3.27 mmHg; Schirmer tear test: 5.31 +/- 1.32 mm/min; central corneal thickness: 0.337 +/- 0.020 mm. No statistically significant differences between ages or genders were found for any of the results. The reference data for the ocular tests obtained in this investigation will help veterinary ophthalmologists to more accurately diagnose ocular diseases in the ferret. Knowledge of these reference values will be particularly useful to diagnose discrete or unusual pathological changes of the ferret eye.

  11. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basso Cristina

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D is a heart muscle disease clinically characterized by life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Its prevalence has been estimated to vary from 1:2,500 to 1:5,000. ARVC/D is a major cause of sudden death in the young and athletes. The pathology consists of a genetically determined dystrophy of the right ventricular myocardium with fibro-fatty replacement to such an extent that it leads to right ventricular aneurysms. The clinical picture may include: a subclinical phase without symptoms and with ventricular fibrillation being the first presentation; an electrical disorder with palpitations and syncope, due to tachyarrhythmias of right ventricular origin; right ventricular or biventricular pump failure, so severe as to require transplantation. The causative genes encode proteins of mechanical cell junctions (plakoglobin, plakophilin, desmoglein, desmocollin, desmoplakin and account for intercalated disk remodeling. Familiar occurrence with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and variable penetrance has been proven. Recessive variants associated with palmoplantar keratoderma and woolly hair have been also reported. Clinical diagnosis may be achieved by demonstrating functional and structural alterations of the right ventricle, depolarization and repolarization abnormalities, arrhythmias with the left bundle branch block morphology and fibro-fatty replacement through endomyocardial biopsy. Two dimensional echo, angiography and magnetic resonance are the imaging tools for visualizing structural-functional abnormalities. Electroanatomic mapping is able to detect areas of low voltage corresponding to myocardial atrophy with fibro-fatty replacement. The main differential diagnoses are idiopathic right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia, myocarditis, dialted cardiomyopathy and sarcoidosis. Only palliative therapy is available and consists of antiarrhythmic drugs

  12. A rare form of extremely wide QRS complex due to reversed homologous electrical ventricular separation of acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Sujuan; Yu, Jianhua; Xia, Zhen; Zhu, Bo; Hu, Jinzhu; Li, Juxiang

    2017-06-29

    Electrical ventricular separation, as a special complete intraventricular block, denotes that ventricles be electrically separated into two or more parts caused by severe and wide damage of myocardium and conduction. Electrical ventricular separation can be divided into homologous and heterologous, homologous electrical ventricular separation is a rare phenomenon, literally the excitement of whole ventricle originate from supraventricle, on ECG, there are two different QRS waves which connect with an isoelectric line, one ST segment and T wave. We report a valve heart disease presented with complicated electrophysiological characteristics, which has reversed complex homologous electrical ventricular separation with second degree intraventricular block. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Mortality of Siberian polecats and black-footed ferrets released onto prairie dog colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, D.E.; Miller, B.J.; Hanebury, L.R.; Powell, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) likely were extirpated from the wild in 19851986, and their repatriation depends on captive breeding and reintroduction. Postrelease survival of animals can be affected by behavioral changes induced by captivity. We released neutered Siberian polecats (M. eversmanii), close relatives of ferrets, in 19891990 on black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies in Colorado and Wyoming initially to test rearing and reintroduction techniques. Captive-born polecats were reared in cages or cages plus outdoor pens, released from elevated cages or into burrows, and supplementally fed or not fed. We also translocated wild-born polecats from China in 1990 and released captive-born, cage-reared black-footed ferrets in 1991, the 1st such reintroduction of black-footed ferrets. We documented mortality for 55 of 92 radiotagged animals in these studies, mostly due to predation (46 cases). Coyotes (Canis latrans) killed 31 ferrets and polecats. Supplementally fed polecats survived longer than nonprovisioned polecats. With a model based on deaths per distance moved, survival was highest for wild-born polecats, followed by pen-experienced, then cage-reared groups. Indexes of abundance (from spotlight surveys) for several predators were correlated with mortality rates of polecats and ferrets due to those predators. Released black-footed ferrets had lower survival rates than their ancestral population in Wyoming, and lower survival than wild-born and translocated polecats, emphasizing the influence of captivity. Captive-born polecats lost body mass more rapidly postrelease than did captive-born ferrets. Differences in hunting efficiency and prey selection provide further evidence that these polecats and ferrets are not ecological equivalents in the strict sense. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  14. Collagen XIV is important for growth and structural integrity of the myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ge; Levay, Agata K; Peacock, Jacqueline D; Huk, Danielle J; Both, Sarah N; Purcell, Nicole H; Pinto, Jose R; Galantowicz, Maarten L; Koch, Manuel; Lucchesi, Pamela A; Birk, David E; Lincoln, Joy

    2012-11-01

    Collagen XIV is a fibril-associated collagen with an interrupted triple helix (FACIT). Previous studies have shown that this collagen type regulates early stages of fibrillogenesis in connective tissues of high mechanical demand. Mice null for Collagen XIV are viable, however formation of the interstitial collagen network is defective in tendons and skin leading to reduced biomechanical function. The assembly of a tightly regulated collagen network is also required in the heart, not only for structural support but also for controlling cellular processes. Collagen XIV is highly expressed in the embryonic heart, notably within the cardiac interstitium of the developing myocardium, however its role has not been elucidated. To test this, we examined cardiac phenotypes in embryonic and adult mice devoid of Collagen XIV. From as early as E11.5, Col14a1(-/-) mice exhibit significant perturbations in mRNA levels of many other collagen types and remodeling enzymes (MMPs, TIMPs) within the ventricular myocardium. By post natal stages, collagen fibril organization is in disarray and the adult heart displays defects in ventricular morphogenesis. In addition to the extracellular matrix, Col14a1(-/-) mice exhibit increased cardiomyocyte proliferation at post natal, but not E11.5 stages, leading to increased cell number, yet cell size is decreased by 3 months of age. In contrast to myocytes, the number of cardiac fibroblasts is reduced after birth associated with increased apoptosis. As a result of these molecular and cellular changes during embryonic development and post natal maturation, cardiac function is diminished in Col14a1(-/-) mice from 3 months of age; associated with dilation in the absence of hypertrophy, and reduced ejection fraction. Further, Col14a1 deficiency leads to a greater increase in left ventricular wall thickening in response to pathological pressure overload compared to wild type animals. Collectively, these studies identify a new role for type XIV

  15. Measurement of infarct size and percentage myocardium infarcted in a dog preparation with single photon-emission computed tomography, thallium-201, and indium 111-monoclonal antimyosin Fab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.L.; Lerrick, K.S.; Coromilas, J.; Seldin, D.W.; Esser, P.D.; Zimmerman, J.M.; Keller, A.M.; Alderson, P.O.; Bigger, J.T. Jr.; Cannon, P.J.

    1987-07-01

    Single photon-emission tomography (SPECT) and indium 111-labeled monoclonal antimyosin Fab fragments were used to measure myocardial infarct size in 12 dogs, six subjected to balloon catheter-induced coronary artery occlusion for 6 hr (late reperfusion) and six subjected to occlusion with reperfusion at 2 hr (early reperfusion). Tomographic imaging was performed 24 hr after the intravenous injection of labeled Fab fragments with the use of a dual-head SPECT camera with medium-energy collimators. Immediately after the first tomographic scan, thallium-201 was injected into nine of 12 dogs and imaging was repeated. Estimated infarct size in grams was calculated from transaxially reconstructed, normalized, and background-corrected indium SPECT images with the use of a threshold technique for edge detection. Estimated noninfarcted myocardium in grams was calculated from obliquely reconstructed thallium SPECT images by a similar method. The animals were killed and infarct size in grams and true infarct size as a percentage of total left ventricular myocardial volume were measured by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining. Estimated infarct size from indium SPECT images showed an excellent correlation with true infarct size (r = .95, SEE = 4.1 g). Estimated percentage myocardium infarcted was calculated by dividing estimated infarct size from indium images by the sum of estimated infarct size plus estimated noninfarcted myocardium obtained from thallium images. Correlation between the estimated percentage of myocardium infarcted and true percentage of myocardium infarcted was excellent.

  16. Coupling of the Functional Stability of Rat Myocardium and Activity of Lipid Peroxidation in Combined Development of Postinfarction Remodeling and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Afanasiev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coupling of the functional stability of rat myocardium and activity of lipid peroxidation processes in combined development of postinfarction remodeling and diabetes mellitus has been studied. The functional stability of myocardium was studied by means of the analysis of inotropic reaction on extrasystolic stimulus, the degree of left ventricular hypertrophy, and the size of scar zone. It was shown that in combined development of postinfarction cardiac remodeling of heart (PICR with diabetes mellitus (DM animal body weight decreased in less degree than in diabetic rats. Animals with combined pathology had no heart hypertrophy. The amplitude of extrasystolic contractions in rats with PICR combined with DM had no differences compared to the control group. In myocardium of rats with PICR combined with DM postextrasystolic potentiation was observed in contrast with the rats with PICR alone. The rats with combined pathology had the decreased value of TBA-active products. Thus, the results of study showed that induction of DM on the stage of the development of postinfarction remodeling increases adaptive ability of myocardium. It is manifested in inhibition of increase of LPO processes activity and maintaining of force-interval reactions of myocardium connected with calcium transport systems of sarcoplasmic reticulum of cardiomyocytes.

  17. MRI assessment of right ventricular dysplasia

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    Di Cesare, Ernesto [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, via Vetoio 1, 67100, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2003-06-01

    Right ventricular dysplasia is a new entity of unknown origin in the classification of cardiomyopathies. Also known as arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) or arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, it is a disease of the heart muscle characterised by fibroadipose atrophy mainly involving the right ventricle and responsible for severe ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death also in young people. Magnetic resonance imaging provides evidence of ventricular dilatation at the outflow tract, thinning and thickening of the wall, diastolic bulging areas (especially located at the level of the right ventricle outflow tract) and fatty substitution of the myocardium mainly at the level of the right ventricle. Many radiologists erroneously consider the previously described fatty substitution as the main sign of ARVC, even though an evaluation of fat substitution alone may be a source of error for two reasons: firstly, because isolated areas of fatty replacement are not synonymous with ARVC since small non-transmural focal fatty areas of fat are also present in the normal patients; and secondly, because the MRI detection of fat may be overestimated due to partial-volume artefacts with normal subepicardial fat. Cardiac MRI can also be employed for the diagnosis of idiopathic right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia. Considering the evolutive nature of the disease, the non-invasiveness of MRI allows the follow-up of these patients and may be considered an excellent screening modality for the diagnosis of ARVC in family members. Finally, MRI can be employed in electrophysiological studies to locate the arrhythmogenic focus and reduce sampling errors. (orig.)

  18. Myocardial Viability and Survival in Ischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonow, Robert O.; Maurer, Gerald; Lee, Kerry L.; Holly, Thomas A.; Binkley, Philip F.; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; Drozdz, Jaroslaw; Farsky, Pedro S.; Feldman, Arthur M.; Doenst, Torsten; Michler, Robert E.; Berman, Daniel S.; Nicolau, Jose C.; Pellikka, Patricia A.; Wrobel, Krzysztof; Alotti, Nasri; Asch, Federico M.; Favaloro, Liliana E.; She, Lilin; Velazquez, Eric J.; Jones, Robert H.; Panza, Julio A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The assessment of myocardial viability has been used to identify patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction in whom coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) will provide a survival benefit. However, the efficacy of this approach is uncertain. METHODS In a substudy of patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction who were enrolled in a randomized trial of medical therapy with or without CABG, we used single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT), dobutamine echocardiography, or both to assess myocardial viability on the basis of pre-specified thresholds. RESULTS Among the 1212 patients enrolled in the randomized trial, 601 underwent assessment of myocardial viability. Of these patients, we randomly assigned 298 to receive medical therapy plus CABG and 303 to receive medical therapy alone. A total of 178 of 487 patients with viable myocardium (37%) and 58 of 114 patients without viable myocardium (51%) died (hazard ratio for death among patients with viable myocardium, 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48 to 0.86; P = 0.003). However, after adjustment for other baseline variables, this association with mortality was not significant (P = 0.21). There was no significant interaction between viability status and treatment assignment with respect to mortality (P = 0.53). CONCLUSIONS The presence of viable myocardium was associated with a greater likelihood of survival in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction, but this relationship was not significant after adjustment for other baseline variables. The assessment of myocardial viability did not identify patients with a differential survival benefit from CABG, as compared with medical therapy alone. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; STICH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00023595.) PMID:21463153

  19. Spatial organization of astrocytes in ferret visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    López‐Hidalgo, Mónica; Hoover, Walter B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Astrocytes form an intricate partnership with neural circuits to influence numerous cellular and synaptic processes. One prominent organizational feature of astrocytes is the “tiling” of the brain with non‐overlapping territories. There are some documented species and brain region–specific astrocyte specializations, but the extent of astrocyte diversity and circuit specificity are still unknown. We quantitatively defined the rules that govern the spatial arrangement of astrocyte somata and territory overlap in ferret visual cortex using a combination of in vivo two‐photon imaging, morphological reconstruction, immunostaining, and model simulations. We found that ferret astrocytes share, on average, half of their territory with other astrocytes. However, a specific class of astrocytes, abundant in thalamo‐recipient cortical layers (“kissing” astrocytes), overlap markedly less. Together, these results demonstrate novel features of astrocyte organization indicating that different classes of astrocytes are arranged in a circuit‐specific manner and that tiling does not apply universally across brain regions and species. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3561–3576, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27072916

  20. Influenza vaccination accelerates recovery of ferrets from lymphopenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedzad Music

    Full Text Available Ferrets are a useful animal model for human influenza virus infections, since they closely mimic the pathogenesis of influenza viruses observed in humans. However, a lack of reagents, especially for flow cytometry of immune cell subsets, has limited research in this model. Here we use a panel of primarily species cross-reactive antibodies to identify ferret T cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL, B cells, and granulocytes in peripheral blood. Following infection with seasonal H3N2 or H1N1pdm09 influenza viruses, these cell types showed rapid and dramatic changes in frequency, even though clinically the infections were mild. The loss of B cells and CD4 and CD8 T cells, and the increase in neutrophils, were especially marked 1-2 days after infection, when about 90% of CD8+ T cells disappeared from the peripheral blood. The different virus strains led to different kinetics of leukocyte subset alterations. Vaccination with homologous vaccine reduced clinical symptoms slightly, but led to a much more rapid return to normal leukocyte parameters. Assessment of clinical symptoms may underestimate the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in restoring homeostasis.

  1. Vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulates tracheal submucosal gland secretion in ferret

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peatfield, A.C.; Barnes, P.J.; Bratcher, C.; Nadel, J.A.; Davis, B.

    1983-07-01

    We studied the effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on the output of 35S-labeled macromolecules from ferret tracheal explants either placed in beakers or suspended in modified Ussing chambers. In Ussing chamber experiments, the radiolabel precursor, sodium (35S)sulfate, and all drugs were placed on the submucosal side of the tissue. Washings were collected at 30-min intervals from the luminal side and were dialyzed to remove unbound 35S, leaving radiolabeled macromolecules. Vasoactive intestinal peptide at 3 X 10(-7) M stimulated bound 35S output by a mean of + 252.6% (n . 14). The VIP response was dose-dependent with a near maximal response and a half maximal response at approximately 10(-6) M and 10(-8), M, respectively. The VIP effect was not inhibited by a mixture of tetrodotoxin, atropine, I-propranolol, and phentolamine. Vasoactive intestinal peptide had no effect on the electrical properties of the of the tissues. We conclude that VIP stimulates output of sulfated-macromolecules from ferret tracheal submucosal glands without stimulating ion transport. Our studies also suggest that VIP acts on submucosal glands via specific VIP receptors. Vasoactive intestinal peptide has been shown to increase intracellular levels of cyclic AMP, and we suggest that this may be the mechanism for its effect on the output of macromolecules. This mechanism may be important in the neural regulation of submucosal gland secretion.

  2. Heterogeneity of left ventricular signal characteristics in response to acute vagal stimulation during ventricular fibrillation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeri, Alireza; Elayda, MacArthur A; Dragnev, Lubomir; Frank, Christopher M; Qu, Jihong; Afonso, Valtino X; Rasekh, Abdi; Saeed, Mohammad; Cheng, Jie; Shuraih, Mossaab; Massumi, Ali; Razavi, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that long-term vagal stimulation is protective against ventricular fibrillation; however, the effects of acute vagal stimulation during ventricular fibrillation in the normal heart have not been investigated. We examined the effects of acute vagal stimulation on ventricular fibrillation in a canine model. In 4 dogs, we induced 30-second periods of ventricular fibrillation by means of intraventricular pacing. During 2 of the 4 periods of fibrillation that we analyzed, vagal stimulation was delivered through electrodes in the caudal ends of the vagus nerves. Noncontact unipolar electrograms were recorded from 3 ventricular regions: the basal septum, apical septum, and lateral free wall. We then computed the most frequent cycle length, mean organization index, and mean electrogram amplitude for each region. During fibrillation, vagal stimulation shortened the most frequent cycle lengths in the basal septum (P=0.02) and apical septum (P=0.0001), but not in the lateral wall (P=0.46). In addition, vagal stimulation significantly reduced the mean organization indices in the apical septum (P ventricular fibrillation in canine myocardium in a spatially heterogeneous manner. This nonuniformity of response may have implications with regard to manipulating the autonomic system as a means of modifying the substrate for ventricular dysrhythmias.

  3. Development of an in vivo method for determining material properties of passive myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen Remme

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Calculation of mechanical stresses and strains in the left ventricular (LV myocardium by the finite element (FE method relies on adequate knowledge of the material properties of myocardial tissue. In this paper we present a model-based estimation procedure to characterize the stress-strain relationship in passive LV myocardium. A 3D FE model of the LV myocardium was used, which included morphological fiber and sheet structure and a nonlinear orthotropic constitutive law with different stiffness in the fiber, sheet and sheet-normal directions. The estimation method was based on measured wall strains. We analyzed the method's ability to estimate the material parameters by generating a set of synthetic strain data by simulating the LV inflation phase with known material parameters. In this way we were able to verify the correctness of the solution and to analyze the effects of measurement and model error on the solution accuracy and stability. A sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the observability of the material parameters and to determine which parameters to estimate. The results showed a high degree of coupling between the parameters governing the stiffness in each direction. Thus, only one parameter in each of the three directions was estimated. For the tested magnitudes of added noise and introduced model errors, the resulting estimated stress-strain characteristics in the fiber and sheet directions converged with good accuracy to the known relationship. The sheet-normal stress-strain relationship had a higher degree of uncertainty as more noise was added and model error was introduced.

  4. Effects of antiarrhythmic peptide 10 on acute ventricular arrhythmia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Sun; Jin-Fa Jiang; Cui-Mei Zhao; Chao-Hui Hu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effects antiarrhythmic peptide 10 (AAP10) aon acute ventricular arrhythmia and the phosphorylation state of ischemic myocardium connexin.Methods:Acute total ischemia and partial ischemia models were established by ceasing perfusion and ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery in SD rats. The effects of AAP10 (1 mg/L) on the incidence rate of ischemia-induced ventricular arrhythmia were observed. The ischemic myocardium was sampled to detect total-Cx43 and NP-Cx43 by immunofluorescent staining and western blotting. the total-Cx43 expression was detected through image analysis system by semi-quantitative analysis.Results: AAP10 could significantly decrease the incidence of ischemia-induced ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. During ischemic stage, total ischemia (TI) and AAP10 total ischemia (ATI) groups were compared with partial ischemia (PI) and AAP10 partial ischemia (API) groups. The rates of incidence for arrhythmia in the ATI and API groups (10% and 0%) were lower than those in the TI and PI groups (60% and 45%). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P=0.019, P=0.020). The semi-quantitative analysis results of the ischemic myocardium showed that the total-Cx43 protein expression distribution areas for TI, ATI, PI and API groups were significantly decreased compared with the control group. On the other hand, the NP-Cx43 distribution areas of TI, ATI, PI and API groups were significantly increased compared with the control group (P>0.05). AAP10 could increase the total-Cx43 expression in the ischemic area and decrease the NP-Cx43 expression. Western blot results were consistent with the results of immunofluorescence staining.Conclusions:AAP10 can significantly decrease the rate of incidence of acute ischemia-induced ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Acute ischemic ventricular arrhythmias may have a relationship with the decreased phosphorylation of Cx43

  5. Calcium dependent magnesium uptake in myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, C P; Liu, D

    1993-01-01

    The frog myocardium maintains magnesium content at a steady state level when stimulated at 0.4Hz while being perfused with Ringer's solution containing 1 x 10(-3) M Ca2+ and 5 x 10(-7) M magnesium. When calcium is removed 43% of tissue magnesium is lost within 30 seconds or 12 beats. Restoration of calcium to the perfusion solution causes reaccumulation of magnesium from a solution containing 5 x 10(-7) M magnesium. The reaccumulation of magnesium indicates a highly selective transport system for magnesium which is dependent upon the presence of calcium. Calcium appears to reduce the leak of magnesium from the myocardium and enhances the transport of magnesium into the myocardial cell. Intracellular magnesium is a necessary cofactor for hundreds of enzymes, and is essential for protein synthesis and as an extracellular divalent cation helps to stabilize excitable membranes in conjunction with calcium. The concentration of ionized magnesium in the sarcoplasm of myocardial muscle has an average value of 1.45 mM +/- 1.37 (standard deviation), N = 19) with a range of 0.5 to 3.6 mM (1). The heart with its numerous mitochondria and high enzymatic activity is vulnerable to myocardial damage due to magnesium loss. The isolated frog ventricle conserves intracellular magnesium when perfused with Ringer's solution containing no added magnesium and maintains function for hours. The ability to conserve magnesium suggests a low permeability of the sarcolemma to magnesium and an extremely efficient inward transport system. Removal of calcium as well as magnesium from the perfusion solution causes a rapid loss of tension in the electrically driven frog ventricle (0.4) Hz.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. [On evaluating occupational fitness in railway workers with ventricular arrhythmias after coronary arteries stenting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraseyeva, E V; Gorokhova, S G; Prigorovskaya, T S; Pfaf, V F

    2016-01-01

    The authors studied prospects of work capacity preserving after coronary stenting in IHD and cardiac arrhythmias. Examination covered 158 railway workers underwent complete endovascular revascularization of myocardium for coronary stenosis; all of them had ventricular arrhythmias before coronary surgery. Findings are that in long-term period (in 16 months in average) after coronary stenting, grade I and III ventricular extrasystoles disappeared in 77.8 and 54.5% of cases respectively, but only in 11.9% of grade IV ventricular extrasystoles cases. Ventricular extrasystoles remained unchanged in 44.3% of cases. Reliable relationships were seen between unchanged grade IV ventricular extrasystoles and body weight index (OR = 5.49, 95% CI: 0.87-34.67), general cholesterol level (OR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.06-2.69), low density lipoproteins (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.00-2.76) and left ventricular ejection function lower 45% (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.14-2.27), exertion ventricular extrasystoles before myocardium revascularization (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.78-5.41). That necessitates correction of the mentioned risk factors of cardiac arrhythmias for restored work capacity.

  7. 2016 Black-footed Ferret Fall Population Survey at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A report summarizing the fall 2016 and spring 2017 black-footed ferret surveys at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge. The primary objectives of the...

  8. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Conservation Elements - Terrestrial Species: Black-Footed Ferret

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows the potential current distribution of black-footed ferret, in the context of current and near-term terrestrial intactness and long-term potential for...

  9. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide improves contractile function of stunned myocardium in rats and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Johanna; Gres, Petra; Umschlag, Christian; Heinzel, Frank R; Degenhardt, Heike; Schluter, Klaus-Dieter; Heusch, Gerd; Schulz, Rainer

    2003-01-01

    The effect of synthetic parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related peptide [PTHrP(1-34)] on regional myocardial function was studied in 11 anesthetized pigs. Intracoronary infusion of PTHrP (cumulative dose: 14 +/- 1 microg) decreased coronary resistance to 33 +/- 2% of baseline (P < 0.05) and regional myocardial function to 90 +/- 3% of baseline (not significant). Ischemia-reperfusion alters the activity of several kinases and therefore possibly the myocardial effects of PTHrP. In stunned myocardium, induced by 20-min ischemia and 30-min reperfusion, the dose of PTHrP reducing coronary resistance to a minimum of 29 +/- 2% was decreased to 8 +/- 2 microg (P < 0.05). Regional myocardial function was no longer decreased but increased to 132 +/- 9% (P < 0.05). The increase in regional myocardial function during PTHrP was inversely related to baseline function at 30-min reperfusion in vivo (r = 0.9) as well as in myocytes isolated from stunned pig hearts (r = 0.7). In isolated rat hearts subjected to 30-min global ischemia followed by 30-min reperfusion, blockade of endogenous PTHrP by d-Trp(12)-Tyr(34)-PTH(7-34) attenuated the recovery of left ventricular developed pressure by 30 +/- 14% (P < 0.05). Thus endogenous and exogenous PTHrP impact on the function of stunned myocardium.

  10. Body mass index and myocardium at risk in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrebola-Moreno, A L; Marfil-Alvarez, R; Catena, A; García-Retamero, R; Arrebola, J P; Melgares-Moreno, R; Ramirez-Hernández, J A; Kaski, J C

    2014-04-01

    Whilst traditional studies have shown that obese individuals are at a higher risk of cardiovascular events compared to lean subjects, recent studies in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have suggested that obesity may exert protective effects (the "obesity paradox"). We sought to assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the BARI score (BARIsc), a validated tool used to assess myocardium at risk, in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Participants were 116 consecutive patients (mean age, 60.6 years; 97 men) with AMI (68 ST elevated myocardial infarction, STEMI; 48 non-ST elevated myocardial infarction, NSTEMI). Demographics, BMI, risk factors, biochemistry data, left ventricular function, angiographic data and the BARIsc were assessed in every patient. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that BMI significantly correlated with BARIsc; β=.23, p<0.02. This was found only in the overweight/obese patients, β=.27, p<0.01, but not in patients with normal BMIs, β=0.08, p=0.71. An increased body weight is associated with an increased area of myocardium at risk in patients with ACS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Intravenously Injected Mesenchymal Stem Cells Home to Infarcted Myocardium Without Altering Cardiac Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fei; CHENG Zhao-kang; JIA Xiao-hua; LIU Xiao-lei; LIU Yi; OU Lai-liang; KONG De-ling

    2008-01-01

    Background: Systemic delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to the infarcted myocardium is an attractive noninvasive strategy, but therapeutic effect of this strategy remain highly controversial. Methods: Myocardial infarction was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by transient ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 60 min. Either 2.5×106 DiI-labeled MSCs or equivalent saline was injected into the tail vein at 24 h after infarction.Results: Three days later, MSCs localized predominantly in the infarct region of heart rather than in the remote region. MSCs were also observed in spleen, lung and liver. At 4 weeks after infarction, echocardiographic parameters, including ejection fraction, fractional shortening, left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters, were not significantly different between MSCs and saline groups. Hemodynamic examination showed that ±dp/dtmax were similar between MSCs and saline-treated animals. Histological evaluation revealed that infarct size and vessel density were not significantly changed by MSCs infusion.Conclusion: Intravenously injected MSCs can home to infarcted myocardium, but plays a limited role in cardiac repair following myocardial infarction.

  12. Accuracy of Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography in Detecting Recovery of Contractile Reserve after Revascularization of Ischemic Myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abas Ali karimi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to investigate the accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE in detecting the post-revascularization recovery rate of contractile reserve (CR in ischemic myocardium. Methods: A total of 112 segments from seven patients with low ejection fraction (<35% and coronary artery disease were evaluated with DSE one week before and 12 weeks after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of DSE for detecting the recovery rate of CR were calculated based upon their standard definition and were presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results: The mean baseline left ventricular ejection fraction was 31±4%, which reached 35±7% after CABG unremarkably. The recovery rates of resting function and CR were 18.2% and 50% for hypokinetic and 15.6% and 24.1 for akinetic segments respectively. Specificity, sensitivity, and positive and negative predictive values of DSE for detecting the recovery of CR were 83% (CI=69-97, 89% (CI=83-96, 94% (CI = 88-99, and 73 % (CI = 55-88, respectively. Conclusion: Despite acceptable sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value, DSE has a relatively lower negative predictive value for detecting the recovery of CR in ischemic myocardium and, consequently, the full extent of myocardial viability. Further sensitive techniques may, therefore, be needed to provide complementary information regarding long-term functional outcome.

  13. Direct cardiac injection of G-CSF mobilized bone-marrow stem-cells improves ventricular function in old myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archundia, Abel; Aceves, José Luis; López-Hernández, Manuel; Alvarado, Martha; Rodriguez, Emma; Díaz Quiroz, Guillermo; Páez, Araceli; Rojas, Felipe Masso; Montaño, Luis Felipe

    2005-12-01

    Autologous transplant of bone marrow stem cells (BMSC), although extremely useful after acute myocardial events, has not been evaluated in patients with old (>one-year-old) myocardial infarction. Our aim was to determine if CD34(+)-enriched peripheral-blood cells, obtained by apheresis, injected directly into the severely damaged myocardium of five patients with old myocardial infarction could restore depressed myocardial function. We found that 28 weeks after revascularization and peri-infarction injection of the enriched CD34(+) peripheral mononuclear cells, ventricular hemodynamic parameters that included left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular diastolic volume, ventricular systolic volume and left ventricular diastolic diameter approximated normal values and there was no restenosis; two patients have been followed for >52 weeks and their parameters are within normal values. In conclusion, intramyocardial injection of easily obtained CD34(+) enriched peripheral blood cells represent an encouraging procedure for patients with severely scarred and dysfunctional myocardium.

  14. Jaundice and bilirubinemia as manifestations of canine distemper in raccoons and ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilham, L.; Habermann, R.T.; Herman, C.M.

    1956-01-01

    1) Two strains of distemper virus have been isolated from wild raccoons and one strain from ferrets. 2) All strains isolated have induced bilirubinemia in raccoons and ferrets. Many raccoons with bilirubinemia also had jaundice. 3) Identification of these strains as members of the canine distemper virus complex has been by clinical and pathological findings consistent with this diagnosis as well as by cross-immunity tests.

  15. DOBUTAMINE MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING PREDICTS CONTRACTILE RESERVE OF CHRONICALLY DYSFUNCTIONAL MYOCARDIUM: COMPARISON WITH FLUORINE-18 FLUORODEOXYGLUCOSE POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. This study sought to investigate whether low-dose dobutamine-MRI can detect residual myocardial viability in patients with chronic myocardial infarction and left ventricular dysfunction.Methods. Eleven patients with chronic myocardial infarction and left ventricular dysfunction were employed for identification of viable myocardium by cine-MRI during dobutamine infusion. All patients underwent coronary angiography and left ventriculography,18FDG-PET, MRI at rest and stress.The systolic wall thickening measured at rest and during stress was compared with the results of 18FDG- PET, respectively.Results. A significant difference of either dobutamine-induced systolic wall thickening (SWthstress) or dobutamine-induced contractile reserve (ΔSWth= SWthstress- SWthrest) was present between viable and scar regions (1.0±0.3 versus -0.3 ±0.1, P<0.01; 1.0±0.3 versus -0.2±0.2, P<0.01).

  16. Protecting Black-Footed Ferrets and Prairie Dogs Against Sylvatic Plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), in collaboration with colleagues at other federal agencies and the University of Wisconsin, are developing and testing vaccines that can be used to protect black-footed ferrets and prairie dogs against plague. The black-footed ferret is commonly regarded as the most endangered mammal in North America, and sylvatic plague is a major impediment to its recovery. The three prairie dog species (Gunnison's, black-tailed, and white-tailed prairie dogs), upon which the ferret depends for food and whose burrows they use for shelter, have been drastically reduced from historical levels, resulting in the near extinction of the ferret. All three species are considered 'at risk' and have been petitioned for listing as 'threatened' or 'endangered' by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Additionally, the Utah prairie dog is listed as threatened and the Mexican prairie dog is considered endangered in Mexico. Like the black-footed ferret, all five prairie dog species are highly susceptible to plague and regularly experience outbreaks with devastating losses. Controlling plague outbreaks in prairie dogs and ferrets is a vital concern for ongoing recovery programs and conservation efforts for both species.

  17. Generation of Monoclonal Antibodies against Immunoglobulin Proteins of the Domestic Ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) serves as an animal model for the study of several viruses that cause human disease, most notably influenza. Despite the importance of this animal model, characterization of the immune response by flow cytometry (FCM) is severely hampered due to the limited number of commercially available reagents. To begin to address this unmet need and to facilitate more in-depth study of ferret B cells including the identification of antibody-secreting cells, eight unique murine monoclonal antibodies (mAb) with specificity for ferret immunoglobulin (Ig) were generated using conventional B cell hybridoma technology. These mAb were screened for reactivity against ferret peripheral blood mononuclear cells by FCM and demonstrate specificity for CD79β+ B cells. Several of these mAb are specific for the light chain of surface B cell receptor (BCR) and enable segregation of kappa and lambda B cells. Additionally, a mAb that yielded surface staining of nearly all surface BCR positive cells (i.e., pan ferret Ig) was generated. Collectively, these MαF-Ig mAb offer advancement compared to the existing portfolio of polyclonal anti-ferret Ig detection reagents and should be applicable to a wide array of immunologic assays including the identification of antibody-secreting cells by FCM. PMID:28286781

  18. Protecting Black-Footed Ferrets and Prairie Dogs Against Sylvatic Plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), in collaboration with colleagues at other federal agencies and the University of Wisconsin, are developing and testing vaccines that can be used to protect black-footed ferrets and prairie dogs against plague. The black-footed ferret is commonly regarded as the most endangered mammal in North America, and sylvatic plague is a major impediment to its recovery. The three prairie dog species (Gunnison's, black-tailed, and white-tailed prairie dogs), upon which the ferret depends for food and whose burrows they use for shelter, have been drastically reduced from historical levels, resulting in the near extinction of the ferret. All three species are considered 'at risk' and have been petitioned for listing as 'threatened' or 'endangered' by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Additionally, the Utah prairie dog is listed as threatened and the Mexican prairie dog is considered endangered in Mexico. Like the black-footed ferret, all five prairie dog species are highly susceptible to plague and regularly experience outbreaks with devastating losses. Controlling plague outbreaks in prairie dogs and ferrets is a vital concern for ongoing recovery programs and conservation efforts for both species.

  19. [Influences of percutaneous coronary intervention on myocardial activity in myocardial infarction patients with different viable myocardium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-qi; Liu, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Jin; Lai, Chun-lin; He, Ye-xin

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on left ventricular function in patients with different types of myocardial infarction and to explore the correlation factors for the left ventricular function. A total of 43 patients diagnosed as acute myocardial infarction were enrolled in this study. The perfusion and delayed enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (DE-MRI) was applied to observe the following parameters before the PCI and at month 6 after the procedure: infarct mass, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and abnormal wall motion score. The subjects were divided into the following three groups by the transmural extent of myocardial infarction manifested in the DE-MRI: the transmural enhancement group, the nontransmural group and the mixed group. Laboratory test was done to detect the level of endothelin (ET), matrix metal enzyme 9 (MMP-9) and high sensitive C reactive protein (hsCRP) before PCI and at month 6 after the procedure. The t test was used to compare the differences among the groups and the multiple regression analysis was taken to explore the correlation factors for the left ventricular function. Compared with the parameters before PCI, the infarct mass after PCI significantly decreased in the nontransmural group and the mixed group [(4.0 ± 2.9) g/cm(3) vs (9.8 ± 5.6) g/cm(3) and (6.0 ± 3.5) g/cm(3) vs (11.8 ± 6.2)g/cm(3), all P infarct mass was an independent correlation factor for LVEF before PCI (RR = 0.318, P myocardial infarction, which is correlated with the amount of survival myocardium and the inflammatory factors.

  20. OCT imaging of myocardium extending to pulmonary vein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhifang; Dickfeld, Timm; Tang, Qinggong; Wang, Bohan; Chen, Yu

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we propose to use optical coherence tomography to enable a direct visualization of myocardium extending into the pulmonary vein (PV). The results showed that there are obvious differences in the morphology of myocardium and fibrous tissue in the transition region of myocardial sleeve, which is in agreement with the histological analysis. In addition, the myocardial area in transition point has three layers in the depth of 1 mm, and the depth-resolved myocardial fiber show different orientation in the different layers. This characteristic was applied for segmentation of the structures of myocardium extending into PV.

  1. Outflow tract segmental arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in an English Bulldog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santilli, Roberto A; Bontempi, Luigi V; Perego, Manuela; Fornai, Lara; Basso, Cristina

    2009-06-01

    A 5-year-old English Bulldog was presented for acute onset of syncope and fatigue caused by sustained ventricular tachycardia with left bundle block morphology and inferior axis. This arrhythmia had the electrocardiographic features of a ventricular tachycardia arising from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT), as described in an experimental canine model and in people. Since a RVOT aneurysm was identified by echocardiography, a segmental form of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) was suspected. Gross examination of the heart confirmed the bulging of the RVOT and histological examination of the ventricular myocardium revealed segmental involvement of the RVOT with transmural fibro-fatty degeneration. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of AVRC in an English Bulldog and the first example of segmental AVRC described in the dog.

  2. The role of insulin-like and basic fibroblast growth factors on ischemic and infarcted myocardium: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinowitz, M; Abramov, D; Eldar, M

    1997-03-01

    Current therapeutic techniques in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are inadequate since restoration of blood flow through the obstructed coronary artery does not always preserve the ischemic myocardium. Therefore, deterioration of cardiac function and detrimental left ventricular remodeling may follow. Alternative therapeutic modalities are now being actively sought. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) are two polypeptides found in wide distribution and high concentrations in the normal myocardium. They play a key role in vascular growth (FGF) and affect the differentiation of cardiac myocytes (IGF). IGF has been found to promote physiological forms of cardiac hypertrophy, and FGF induces neovascularization. During myocardial ischemia and infarction there is a marked elevation in the concentration of these growth promoting factors in the myocardium concomitant with increased coronary collateral blood flow, neovascularization and peri-infarct hypertrophy. In animal models of myocardial infarction, exogenous administration of FGF and IGF induced neovascularization and cardiac hypertrophy thus, preserving cardiac function. We assume that these growth factors may become an additional tool in the future treatment of patients with AMI.

  3. Resource selection models are useful in predicting fine-scale distributions of black-footed ferrets in prairie dog colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A.; Jachowski, David S.; Biggins, Dean E.; Livieri, Travis M.; Matchett, Marc R.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.

    2012-01-01

    Wildlife-habitat relationships are often conceptualized as resource selection functions (RSFs)—models increasingly used to estimate species distributions and prioritize habitat conservation. We evaluated the predictive capabilities of 2 black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) RSFs developed on a 452-ha colony of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in the Conata Basin, South Dakota. We used the RSFs to project the relative probability of occurrence of ferrets throughout an adjacent 227-ha colony. We evaluated performance of the RSFs using ferret space use data collected via postbreeding spotlight surveys June–October 2005–2006. In home ranges and core areas, ferrets selected the predicted "very high" and "high" occurrence categories of both RSFs. Count metrics also suggested selection of these categories; for each model in each year, approximately 81% of ferret locations occurred in areas of very high or high predicted occurrence. These results suggest usefulness of the RSFs in estimating the distribution of ferrets throughout a black-tailed prairie dog colony. The RSFs provide a fine-scale habitat assessment for ferrets that can be used to prioritize releases of ferrets and habitat restoration for prairie dogs and ferrets. A method to quickly inventory the distribution of prairie dog burrow openings would greatly facilitate application of the RSFs.

  4. Diabetes mellitus in a black-footed ferret

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.W.; Novilla, M.N.

    1977-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus was tentatively diagnosed in a black-footed ferret with polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, dehydration, and weight loss. Laboratory findings (marked hyperglycemia (724 mg/100 ml), glycosuria, and ketonuria) and the subsequent favorable response to insulin therapy confirmed the diagnosis. Although lesions were not observed in the pancreas, gross and histologic findings concomitant with diabetes mellitus included arteriosclerosis, with calcification of the aorta and other major vessels; mild necrotizing hepatitis; and mild proliferative glomerulonephritis. A perineal adenocarcinoma, with metastasis to an internal iliac lymph node, was an incidental finding. Special stains demonstrated adequate numbers of beta cell granules in the islets of Langerhans. Thus, the diabetes was apparently due to a lack of release of the synthesized insulin or to diminished effectiveness of the secreted insulin.

  5. Prospective Evaluation of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake in Postischemic Myocardium by Simultaneous Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Prognostic Marker of Functional Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rischpler, Christoph; Dirschinger, Ralf J; Nekolla, Stephan G; Kossmann, Hans; Nicolosi, Stefania; Hanus, Franziska; van Marwick, Sandra; Kunze, Karl P; Meinicke, Alexander; Götze, Katharina; Kastrati, Adnan; Langwieser, Nicolas; Ibrahim, Tareq; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Schwaiger, Markus; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig

    2016-04-01

    The immune system orchestrates the repair of infarcted myocardium. Imaging of the cellular inflammatory response by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging in the heart has been demonstrated in preclinical and clinical studies. However, the clinical relevance of post-MI (18)F-FDG uptake in the heart has not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to explore the value of (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging in patients after acute myocardial infarction as a biosignal for left ventricular functional outcome. We prospectively enrolled 49 patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction and performed (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging 5 days after percutaneous coronary intervention and follow-up cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after 6 to 9 months. In a subset of patients, (99m)Tc-sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography was performed with tracer injection before revascularization. Cellular innate immune response was analyzed at multiple time points. Segmental comparison of (18)F-FDG-uptake and late gadolinium enhancement showed substantial overlap (κ=0.66), whereas quantitative analysis demonstrated that (18)F-FDG extent exceeded late gadolinium enhancement extent (33.2±16.2% left ventricular myocardium versus 20.4±10.6% left ventricular myocardium, Pfunctional outcome independent of infarct size (Δ ejection fraction: Pfunctional outcome at 6 months. Thus, (18)F-FDG uptake in infarcted myocardium may represent a novel biosignal of myocardial injury. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Ventricular repolarization in a rat model of global heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krandycheva, Valeria; Kharin, Sergey; Strelkova, Marina; Shumikhin, Konstantin; Sobolev, Aleksey; Shmakov, Dmitry

    2013-07-01

    Isoproterenol in high doses induces infarction-like myocardial damage and structural and functional remodelling of the ventricular myocardium. The purpose of the present study was to investigate ventricular repolarization in a rat model of isoproterenol-induced heart failure. Isoproterenol was administered twice to female Wistar rats (170 mg/kg, s.c., 24 h apart). Four weeks after the injections, cardiac output was measured and unipolar epicardial ventricular electrograms were recorded in situ. Activation-recovery intervals were calculated to assess repolarization. Histological examination of the heart ventricles was also performed. Heart failure in rats treated with isoproterenol was indicated by myocardial histopathological damage and reduced cardiac output. In rats with heart failure, the regional differences in activation-recovery interval prolongation over the ventricular epicardium resulted in increasing heterogeneity in the activation-recovery interval distribution and increasing repolarization heterogeneity of the ventricular subepicardium. Myocardial damage and haemodynamic changes in heart failure induced by isoproterenol were accompanied by significant changes in ventricular repolarization, which were not associated with myocardial hypertrophy.

  7. Ventricular torsional relation to ventricular fiber arrangement

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular torsion from helically oriented myofibers is a key parameter of cardiac performance. Physicians observing heart motion on echocardiograms, during cardiac catheterization, or in the operating room, are impressed by the twisting or rotary motion of the left ventricle during systole. Conceptually, the heart has been treated as a pressure chamber. The rotary or torsional deformation has been poorly understood by basic scientists and has lacked clinical relevance. The aim of this paper attempts to discuss about this question: Is ventricular twisting related to ventricular fiber arrangement? That is dependent to an assumed model of the left ventricular structure.

  8. Enzootic plague reduces black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) survival in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Marc R.; Biggins, Dean E.; Carlson, Valerie; Powell, Bradford; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2010-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) require extensive prairie dog colonies (Cynomys spp.) to provide habitat and prey. Epizootic plague kills both prairie dogs and ferrets and is a major factor limiting recovery of the highly endangered ferret. In addition to epizootics, we hypothesized that enzootic plague, that is, presence of disease-causing Yersinia pestis without any noticeable prairie dog die off, may also affect ferret survival. We reduced risk of plague on portions of two ferret reintroduction areas by conducting flea control for 3 years. Beginning in 2004, about half of the ferrets residing on dusted and nondusted colonies were vaccinated against plague with an experimental vaccine (F1-V fusion protein). We evaluated 6-month reencounter rates (percentage of animals observed at the end of an interval that were known alive at the beginning of the interval), an index to survival, for ferrets in four treatment groups involving all combinations of vaccination and flea control. For captive-reared ferrets (115 individuals observed across 156 time intervals), reencounter rates were higher for vaccinates (0.44) than for nonvaccinates (0.23, p = 0.044) on colonies without flea control, but vaccination had no detectable effect on colonies with flea control (vaccinates = 0.41, nonvaccinates = 0.42, p = 0.754). Flea control resulted in higher reencounter rates for nonvaccinates (p = 0.026), but not for vaccinates (p = 0.508). The enhancement of survival due to vaccination or flea control supports the hypothesis that enzootic plague reduces ferret survival, even when there was no noticeable decline in prairie dog abundance. The collective effects of vaccination and flea control compel a conclusion that fleas are required for maintenance, and probably transmission, of plague at enzootic levels. Other studies have demonstrated similar effects of flea control on several species of prairie dogs and, when combined with this study, suggest

  9. Lengthening-contractions in isolated myocardium impact force development and worsen cardiac contractile function in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Delfín, Dawn A; Rafael-Fortney, Jill A; Janssen, Paul M L

    2011-02-01

    Lengthening-contractions exert eccentric stress on myofibers in normal myocardium. In congestive heart failure caused by a variety of diseases, the impact of lengthening-contractions of myocardium likely becomes more prevalent and severe. The present study introduces a method to investigate the role of stretching imposed by repetitive lengthening-contractions in myocardium under near-physiological conditions. By exerting various stretch-release ramps while the muscle is contracting, consecutive lengthening-contractions and their potential detrimental effect on cardiac function can be studied. We tested our model and hypothesis in age-matched (young and adult) mdx and wild-type mouse right ventricular trabeculae. These linear and ultrathin muscles possess all major cardiac cell types, and their contractile behavior very closely mimics that of the whole myocardium. In the first group of experiments, 10 lengthening-contractions at various magnitudes of stretch were performed in trabeculae from 10-wk-old mdx and wild-type mice. In the second group, 100 lengthening-contractions at various magnitudes were conducted in trabeculae from 10- and 20-wk-old mice. The peak isometric active developed tension (F(dev), in mN/mm(2)) and kinetic parameters time to peak tension (TTP, in ms) and time from peak tension to half-relaxation (RT50, in ms) were measured. Our results indicate lengthening-contractions significantly impact contractile behavior, and that dystrophin-deficient myocardium in mdx mice is significantly more susceptible to these damaging lengthening-contractions. The results indicate that lengthening-contractions in intact myocardium can be used in vitro to study this emerging contributor to cardiomyopathy.

  10. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, E.E. van der; Bootsma, M.M.; Schalij, M.J. [Dept. of Cardiology, Leiden Univ. Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Kayser, H.W.M.; Roos, A. de [Dept. of Radiology, Leiden Univ. Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2000-06-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is a heart muscle disorder of unknown cause that is characterized pathologically by fibrofatty replacement of the right ventricular myocardium. Clinical manifestations include structural and functional malformations of the right ventricle, electrocardiographic abnormalities, and presentation with ventricular tachycardias with left bundle branch pattern or sudden death. The disease is often familial with an autosomal inheritance. In addition to right ventricular dilatation, right ventricular aneurysms are typical deformities of ARVD and they are distributed in the so-called ''triangle of dysplasia'', i. e., right ventricular outflow tract, apex, and infundibulum. Ventricular aneurysms at these sites can be considered pathognomonic of ARVD. Another typical hallmark of ARVD is fibrofatty infiltration of the right ventricular free wall. These functional and morphologic characteristics are relevant to clinical imaging investigations such as contrast angiography, echocardiography, radionuclide angiography, ultrafast computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Among these techniques, MRI allows the clearest visualization of the heart, in particular because the right ventricle is involved, which is usually more difficult to explore with the other imaging modalities. Furthermore, MRI offers the specific advantage of visualizing adipose infiltration as a bright signal of the right ventricular myocardium. MRI provides the most important anatomic, functional, and morphologic criteria for diagnosis of ARVD within one single study. As a result, MRI appears to be the optimal imaging technique for detecting and following patients with clinical suspicion of ARVD. (orig.) [German] Die arrhythmogene rechtsventrikulaere Dysplasie (ARVD), eine Herzmuskelerkrankung unklarer Aetiologie, ist pathologisch durch fettige Degeneration des rechtsventrikulaeren Myokards gekennzeichnet. Die klinischen Symptome

  11. Myocardial perfusion/metabolism mismatch and ventricular arrhythmias in the chronic post infarction state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, B.J.; Poeppel, T.D.; Vosberg, H.; Mueller, H.W. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Heinrich Heine Univ., Duesseldorf (Germany); Reinhardt, M. [Praxis fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Dorsten (Germany); Vester, E.G. [Dept. of Cardiology, Evangelisches Krankenhaus, Duesseldorf (Germany); Yong, M.; Mau, J. [Dept. of Statistics in Medicine, Heinrich Heine Univ., Duesseldorf (Germany); Strauer, B.E. [Dept. of Medicine, Div. of Cardiology, Angiology and Pulmonary Disease, Heinrich Heine Univ., Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Aim: Ventricular arrhythmias have been shown to originate in the myocardial peri-infarct region due to irregular heterotopic conduction. Hypoperfused but viable myocardium is often localised in those areas and may be involved in the pathogenesis of arrhythmias. We tested the hypothesis that these myocardial perfusion/metabolism mismatches (MM) are significantly associated with ventricular arrhythmias in the chronic post infarction state. Patients, methods: 47 post infarction patients were included in the study. 33 suffered from ventricular arrhythmia whereas 14 did not. All patients underwent {sup 99m}Tc tetrofosmin SPECT and {sup 18}F-FDG PET. A region-of-interest(ROI)-analysis was used to assess viable myocardium based on predefined MM-criteria. Univariate analyses as well as a logistic regression model for the multivariate analysis were carried out. Results: 94% of the arrhythmic patients displayed at least one MM-segment as compared to 64% of the non-arrhythmic patients. MM-segments and arrhythmia showed a statistically significant relation (p=0.018). The logistic regression model predicted the occurrence or absence of arrhythmia in 85% of all cases. Multivariate analysis gave consistent results, after adjusting for symptomatic chronic heart failure (CHF), aneurysms and age. Conclusion: Our results support the hypothesis that hypoperfused but viable myocardium represents an arrhyhmogenic substrate and is a relevant risk factor for developing ventricular arrhythmias following myocardial infarction. Therefore, the detection of MM-segments allows the identification of patients with a higher risk for future cardiac events. (orig.)

  12. Ventricular septal defect (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventricular septal defect is a congenital defect of the heart, that occurs as an abnormal opening in ... wall that separates the right and left ventricles. Ventricular septal defect may also be associated with other ...

  13. Sudden death due to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: Two case reports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xinshan; ZHANG Yigu; RAO Guangxun; HUANG Guangzhao

    2007-01-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy(ARVC)is a kind of primary myocardial disease characterized by the regional or global replacement of right ventricular myocardium by fatty and fibrolipomatous tissues.The ARVC,usually presenting with difrerent clinical manifestations and pathological changes,were mainly seen in young men and is one of the main causes of sudden death in the young.Here two autopsied cases of Chinese men aged 30 and 23 years old who appeared healthy but died suddenly while at work arc reported respectively.One of the victims had extensive and severe pathological changes in his heart involving the left ventricular wall as well as the ventricular septum and the right atrium.Not only was there a global fatty and fibrolipomatous tissue replacement of the right ventricular myocardia,but also mild sarcoplasmic coagulation in the myocardium and focal lymphocytic infiltration in the myocardial interstitium of the right ventricular wall.In addition,slight atherosclerosis of the coronary artery and intimal thickening of the sino-atrial node were observed.It is believed that there are no marked differences in the pathological changes of ARVC between Chinese patients and patients from western countries.The etiology and pathogenesis of ARVC could not be explained by a single cause or factor and they are probably related to various congenital and acquired causes or factors.

  14. The endothelial nitric oxide synthase cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin shields the remote myocardium from apoptosis after experimental myocardial infarction in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, Felix M; Jercke, Marcel C; Ritzkat, Anna; Ebner, Annette; Poitz, David M; Pfluecke, Christian; Quick, Silvio; Speiser, Uwe; Simonis, Gregor; Wäßnig, Nadine K; Strasser, Ruth H; Wiedemann, Stephan

    2017-08-23

    Following myocardial infarction (MI), apoptosis occurs early in the remote myocardium and contributes to the processes of myocardial remodeling. Increased nitrosative stress is a well-known and potent inductor of myocardial apoptosis. Excess activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) increases its uncoupling potential and results in nitrosative stress via formation of peroxynitrite. However, the pathophysiologic role of eNOS signaling in the remote myocardium after MI is as yet undefined. The impact of eNOS activation on pro- and anti-apoptotic signaling in the remote myocardium and the influence of pretreatment with the eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) on eNOS activation, nitrosative stress level and apoptosis induction and execution were studied in a rat myocardial infarction model in vivo. 24 hours after anterior MI, eNOS activity in animals treated with left anterior descending coronary artery ligation (LIG) significantly increased in the posterior left ventricular myocardium as did protein nitrosylation when compared to sham treatment. This was paralleled by induction of apoptosis via both, the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Moreover, anti-apoptotic signaling via protein kinase B/Akt and glycogen synthase-kinase 3 beta was suppressed. Notably, pretreatment with the eNOS cofactor BH4 reduced eNOS activation, prevented excess protein nitrosylation, blunted apoptosis induction, facilitated anti-apoptotic signaling and eventually prevented apoptosis execution. Here we showed that 24 hours after experimental MI in rats in vivo, apoptosis was induced in the posterior non-infarcted LV wall. Evidence is presented that pretreatment with the eNOS cofactor BH4 resulted in less nitrosative stress and weakened apoptotic processes, although stabilizers contained did participate in this phenomenon. Because apoptosis is a crucial component of myocardial remodeling, influencing eNOS signaling might be an interesting pharmacological target for the

  15. Ferret badger rabies origin and its revisited importance as potential source of rabies transmission in Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ye

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frequent occurrence of ferret badger-associated human rabies cases in southeast China highlights the lack of laboratory-based surveillance and urges revisiting the potential importance of this animal in rabies transmission. To determine if the ferret badgers actually contribute to human and dog rabies cases, and the possible origin of the ferret badger-associated rabies in the region, an active rabies survey was conducted to determine the frequency of rabies infection and seroprevalence in dogs and ferret badgers. Methods A retrospective survey on rabies epidemics was performed in Zhejiang, Jiangxi and Anhui provinces in southeast China. The brain tissues from ferret badgers and dogs were assayed by fluorescent antibody test. Rabies virus was isolated and sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The sera from ferret badgers and dogs were titrated using rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA test. Results The ferret badgers presented a higher percentage of rabies seroconversion than dogs did in the endemic region, reaching a maximum of 95% in the collected samples. Nine ferret badger-associated rabies viruses were isolated, sequenced, and were phylogenetically clustered as a separate group. Nucleotide sequence revealed 99.4-99.8% homology within the ferret badger isolates, and 83-89% homology to the dog isolates in the nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes in the same rabies endemic regions. Conclusions Our data suggest ferret badger-associated rabies has likely formed as an independent enzootic originating from dogs during the long-term rabies infestation in southeast China. The eventual role of FB rabies in public health remains unclear. However, management of ferret badger bites, rabies awareness and control in the related regions should be an immediate need.

  16. Population based MRI and DTI templates of the adult ferret brain and tools for voxelwise analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, E B; Schwerin, S C; Radomski, K L; Sadeghi, N; Jenkins, J; Komlosh, M E; Irfanoglu, M O; Juliano, S L; Pierpaoli, C

    2017-05-15

    Non-invasive imaging has the potential to play a crucial role in the characterization and translation of experimental animal models to investigate human brain development and disorders, especially when employed to study animal models that more accurately represent features of human neuroanatomy. The purpose of this study was to build and make available MRI and DTI templates and analysis tools for the ferret brain as the ferret is a well-suited species for pre-clinical MRI studies with folded cortical surface, relatively high white matter volume and body dimensions that allow imaging with pre-clinical MRI scanners. Four ferret brain templates were built in this study - in-vivo MRI and DTI and ex-vivo MRI and DTI - using brain images across many ferrets and region of interest (ROI) masks corresponding to established ferret neuroanatomy were generated by semi-automatic and manual segmentation. The templates and ROI masks were used to create a web-based ferret brain viewing software for browsing the MRI and DTI volumes with annotations based on the ROI masks. A second objective of this study was to provide a careful description of the imaging methods used for acquisition, processing, registration and template building and to demonstrate several voxelwise analysis methods including Jacobian analysis of morphometry differences between the female and male brain and bias-free identification of DTI abnormalities in an injured ferret brain. The templates, tools and methodological optimization presented in this study are intended to advance non-invasive imaging approaches for human-similar animal species that will enable the use of pre-clinical MRI studies for understanding and treating brain disorders. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Lack of Innate Interferon Responses during SARS Coronavirus Infection in a Vaccination and Reinfection Ferret Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Mark J.; Kelvin, Alyson A.; Leon, Alberto J.; Cameron, Cheryl M.; Ran, Longsi; Xu, Luoling; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Danesh, Ali; Fang, Yuan; Li, Qianjun; Anderson, Austin; Couch, Ronald C.; Paquette, Stephane G.; Fomukong, Ndingsa G.; Kistner, Otfried; Lauchart, Manfred; Rowe, Thomas; Harrod, Kevin S.; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Kelvin, David J.

    2012-01-01

    In terms of its highly pathogenic nature, there remains a significant need to further define the immune pathology of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection, as well as identify correlates of immunity to help develop vaccines for severe coronaviral infections. Here we use a SARS-CoV infection-reinfection ferret model and a functional genomics approach to gain insight into SARS immunopathogenesis and to identify correlates of immune protection during SARS-CoV-challenge in ferrets previously infected with SARS-CoV or immunized with a SARS virus vaccine. We identified gene expression signatures in the lungs of ferrets associated with primary immune responses to SARS-CoV infection and in ferrets that received an identical second inoculum. Acute SARS-CoV infection prompted coordinated innate immune responses that were dominated by antiviral IFN response gene (IRG) expression. Reinfected ferrets, however, lacked the integrated expression of IRGs that was prevalent during acute infection. The expression of specific IRGs was also absent upon challenge in ferrets immunized with an inactivated, Al(OH)3-adjuvanted whole virus SARS vaccine candidate that protected them against SARS-CoV infection in the lungs. Lack of IFN-mediated immune enhancement in infected ferrets that were previously inoculated with, or vaccinated against, SARS-CoV revealed 9 IRG correlates of protective immunity. This data provides insight into the molecular pathogenesis of SARS-CoV and SARS-like-CoV infections and is an important resource for the development of CoV antiviral therapeutics and vaccines. PMID:23029269

  18. Weight lifting training and left ventricular function in adolescent subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiv, M; Sagiv, M; Ben-Sira, D

    2007-09-01

    Training during adolescence may influence the myocardium's adaptation. Effects of exercise training on left ventricular function differ depending whether they result from pressure or volume overload. Accordingly, the present study was designed to examine, by echocardiography studies, the effects of endurance versus weight lifting training modes on left ventricular contractility in healthy adolescent boys. Sixty healthy adolescent boys were randomly and evenly divided into 3 groups: weightlifting training, run-training, and control. Exercising groups underwent 28-week training programs, 3-4 times a week, 35 min each session. The weight lifting program for consisted of training on 6 dynamic resistive machines at resistance corresponding to 6-repetition maximum. The running program was composed of aerobic exercise training at 65% of their VO(2max). At rest, only in the runners end diastolic volume and end systolic pressure-volume ratio differed significantly (Pweightlifters demonstrated improvement respectively in: wall stress (245+/-42 and 290+/-35 103 dyn.cm(2)), end systolic pressure-volume ratio (7.2+/-.7 and 6.4+/-.5 ratio) and ejection fraction (82+/-5% and 76+/-5%). Maximal oxygen uptake (48.2+/-3.2 and 43.8+/-3.5 mL.kg(-1).min(-1)), also improved significantly (Padolescent boys the mode of exercise training leads to significant differences in left ventricular function and contractility, related to differences in volume-after-load relationship and not to fundamental differences in the properties of the myocardium.

  19. Multiple cavities in myocardium of left ventricle after irradiation therapy for breast cancer. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Shinobu; Kato, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Katsumi [Nishi-Kobe Medical Center (Japan)] (and others)

    1999-09-01

    A 68-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with congestive heart failure. She had been diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 12 years ago in another hospital. She had received irradiation therapy for left breast cancer 33 years ago after resection of her left breast. Echocardiography revealed left ventricular hypertrophy and wall motion hypokinesis, and multiple cavities in the myocardium of the left ventricle, interventricular septum, and anterior wall. Some cavities were observed to connect to the left ventricular cavity and Doppler echocardiography showed slow velocity flows in them different from that of the coronary artery. The pathologic diagnosis was severe sclerosis of the left coronary artery, especially the left descending artery and its branch, which was the area with irradiation. Histopathology revealed sclerotic changes of the coronary artery causing acute and chronic myocardial infarction, and incomplete regeneration and hypertrophy of cardiac cells. There was no sign of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Myocardial degeneration and deciduation were present next to the cavities connected to left ventricle-like fistulas. (author)

  20. Surgical animal model of ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Alberto U

    2007-01-01

    In response to an increased afterload, the myocardium undergoes a complex adaptation by which wall stress is normalized and cardiac output is maintained. Although the consensus suggests that the increase of the myocardial mass is a necessary adaptive process to accommodate the increased workload, there is growing evidence that hypertrophy ultimately results in pathological remodeling and deterioration of cardiac function. Despite intense investigation, our understanding of the cellular mechanisms that are responsible for the initiation and the maintenance of this adaptation is largely incomplete and preventing or regressing left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a major challenge. This chapter provides a detailed description of the procedures necessary to induce LVH by coarctation of the transverse aorta and to analyze the effects of the increased hemodynamic load on cardiac mass, cardiomyocyte size, and cardiac performance.

  1. Improving the cardio protective effect of aFGF in ischemic myocardium with ultrasound-mediated cavitation of heparin modified microbubbles: preliminary experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Lu, Cui-Tao; Li, Xiao-Kun; Tang, Qin-Qin; Tian, Xin-Qiao; Zhao, Ya-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Tian, Ji-Lai; Yang, Wei; Ge, Shuping; Nair, Chandra K; Shen, Xuedong

    2012-08-01

    Ultrasound (US)-mediated cavitation of microbubbles has evolved into a new tool for organ-specific gene and drug delivery. This paper was to investigate the feasibility of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) intravenous delivery to the ischemic myocardium of rats by ultrasonic microbubbles modified with heparin. Heparin modified microbubbles (HMB) were prepared by the freeze-dried method. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model was established and the cardio protective effect of the aFGF combing with HMB (aFGF-HMB) under US-mediated cavitation technique was investigated. aFGF-HMB combined with US-mediated cavitation technique was examined by ECG. Ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS) and left ventricular diastolic diameter (LVDd) were measured to monitor the improvement of global myocardial contractile function. Myocardial tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosine (HE) to evaluate the elaborate general morphology of the ischemic myocardium. From morphologic observation and echocardiography in rat heart, aFGF-HMB had suitable size distribution, physical stability and good acoustic resonance function. From AMI rat experiments, aFGF-HMB under US-mediated cavitation technique exerted aFGF cardio protective effect in ischemic myocardium. From histological evaluation, US-mediated cavitation of aFGF-HMB showed improvement of myocardial ischemia. With the visual imaging and US-triggered drug release advantages, US-mediated cavitation of aFGF-HMB might be developed as a novel technique for targeting delivery of aFGF into ischemic myocardium.

  2. New reassortant and enzootic European swine influenza 1 viruses transmits efficiently through direct contact in the ferret model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobian, Kristina; P. Fabrizio, Thomas; Yoon, Sun-Woo;

    2015-01-01

    and human-like N2 and one with 2009 pandemic H1 and swine-like N2. All viruses replicated to high titers in nasal wash- and nasal turbinate samples from inoculated ferrets and transmitted efficiently by direct contact. Only the H3N2 virus transmitted to naïve ferrets via the airborne route. Growth kinetics...

  3. Intranasal H5N1 vaccines, adjuvanted with chitosan derivatives, protect ferrets against highly pathogenic influenza intranasal and intratracheal challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Mann (Alex); N. Noulin (Nicolas); A. Catchpole (Andrew); K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); L. de Waal (Leon); E.J.B. Veldhuis Kroeze (Edwin); M. Hinchcliffe (Michael); A. Smith (Alan); E. Montomoli (Emanuele); S. Piccirella (Simona); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Knight (Alastair); J. Oxford; G. Lapini (Giulia); R. Cox (Ruben); R. Lambkin-Williams (Rob)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe investigated the protective efficacy of two intranasal chitosan (CSN and TM-CSN) adjuvanted H5N1 Influenza vaccines against highly pathogenic avian Influenza (HPAI) intratracheal and intranasal challenge in a ferret model. Six groups of 6 ferrets were intranasally vaccinated twice, 21

  4. Vaccination as a potential means to prevent plague in black-footed ferrets:progress and continuing challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T.E.; Nol, P.; Marinari, P.E.; Kreeger, J.S.; Smith, S.R.; Andrews, G.P.; Friedlander, A.W.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to further assess the feasibility of vaccinating black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) against plague (caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis). On days 0 and 28, 17 postreproductive ferrets were immunized by subcutaneous injection with a recombinant fusion protein containing F1 and V antigens from Y. pestis. Another 17 animals

  5. 78 FR 77485 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Recovery Plan for the Black-Footed Ferret

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ..., when met, would result in a determination that the species no longer needs the protection of the Act... exists and by ] ameliorating threats impacting the species so as to allow the ferret's persistence... would benefit black-footed ferret recovery is to improve prairie dog conservation. If efforts...

  6. Magnesium sulfate treatment for juvenile ferrets following induction of hydrocephalus with kaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Curzio, Domenico L; Turner-Brannen, Emily; Mao, Xiaoyan; Del Bigio, Marc R

    2016-04-27

    Previous work with 3-week hydrocephalic rats showed that white matter damage could be reduced by the calcium channel antagonist magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). We hypothesized that MgSO4 therapy would improve outcomes in ferrets with hydrocephalus induced with kaolin at 15 days. MRI was performed at 29 days to assess ventricle size and stratify ferrets to treatment conditions. Beginning at 31 days age, they were treated daily for 14 days with MgSO4 (9 mM/kg/day) or sham saline therapy, and then imaged again before sacrifice. Behavior was examined thrice weekly. Histological and biochemical ELISA and myelin enzyme activity assays were performed at 46 days age. Hydrocephalic ferrets exhibited some differences in weight and behavior between treatment groups. Those receiving MgSO4 weighed less, were more lethargic, and displayed reduced activity compared to those receiving saline injections. Hydrocephalic ferrets developed ventriculomegaly, which was not modified by MgSO4 treatment. Histological examination showed destruction of periventricular white matter. Glial fibrillary acidic protein content, myelin basic protein content, and myelin enzyme activity did not differ significantly between treatment groups. The hydrocephalus-associated disturbances in juvenile ferret brains are not ameliorated by MgSO4 treatment, and lethargy is a significant side effect.

  7. Tissue distribution of lycopene in ferrets and rats after lycopene supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A L; Yeum, K J; Liu, C; Smith, D; Krinsky, N I; Wang, X D; Russell, R M

    2000-05-01

    To determine lycopene uptake and tissue distribution in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) and F344 rats, we supplemented orally 4.6 mg/(kg body wt.d) lycopene in a tomato oleoresin-corn oil mixture (experimental groups). After 9 wk of supplementation, the animals were killed and blood and organs were collected. Plasma and tissue carotenoids were extracted and measured using HPLC. Mean concentrations of lycopene (nmol/kg wet tissue) in saponified tissues of ferrets were as follows: liver 933, intestine 73, prostate 12.7 and stomach 9.3. Levels of lycopene (nmol/kg wet tissue) in saponified tissue of rats were as follows: liver 14213, intestine 3125, stomach 78.6, prostate 24 and testis 3.9. When these organs were extracted without saponification, the lycopene levels were lower, except for rat testis. All-trans-lycopene was the predominant isomer found in tomato oleoresin and in the majority of rat tissues, whereas cis-lycopenes were predominant in rat prostate and plasma. This pattern was reversed in ferrets. The results show the following: 1) lycopene from tomato oleoresin is absorbed and stored primarily in the liver of both animals; 2) saponification generally improves the extraction of lycopene from most tissues of both animals; 3) cis-lycopene and all-trans-lycopene are the predominant isomers in ferret and rat tissues, respectively; and 4) rats absorb lycopene more effectively than ferrets.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers in the Domestic Ferret (Mustela putorius furo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly B. Ernest

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo is an important model organism for the study of avian influenza and other diseases of humans and animals, as well as a popular pet animal. In order to evaluate genetic diversity and study disease relationships in ferrets, 22 nuclear microsatellite loci (17 dinucleotide and 5 tetranucleotide were developed from ferret genomic libraries and organized into seven multiplex sets. Polymorphism was preliminarily assessed in one population in Australia and one in the USA, sampled with 25 individuals each. The loci displayed allelic diversity ranging from 1 to 5 alleles, and expected and observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.04 to 0.65 and 0.04 to 0.76, respectively. Additionally, the loci amplified products in 15 samples from the wild ancestor, European polecat (Mustela putorius and domestic ferret-polecat hybrids. In polecat/hybrid samples, allelic diversity ranged from 3 to 8 alleles, and expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.13 to 0.81 and 0.13 to 0.80 respectively. These markers will be useful for molecular assessments of genetic diversity and applications to evolution, ecology, and health in domestic ferrets and wild polecats.

  9. Ventricular fibrillation following autologous intramyocardial cell therapy for inherited cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Peter; Husain, Aliya; Moskowitz, Ivan; Raman, Jai; MacLeod, Heather; Anderson, Allen S; Burke, Martin; McNally, Elizabeth M

    2010-01-01

    A 41-year-old male with cardiomyopathy from an inherited beta myosin heavy-chain mutation underwent treatment for heart failure with intramyocardial cell transplantation. He received direct injections into his heart of autologous precursor cells isolated from his blood. He immediately suffered ventricular fibrillation. Although he was resuscitated, he experienced a prolonged downward course that prohibited his undergoing transplantation. His autopsy revealed marked fibrosis throughout the myocardium with areas of mononuclear cell infiltrate. This case highlights the potential adverse effects associated with intramyocardial therapy in the cardiomyopathic heart.

  10. Ventricular fibrillation following autologous intramyocardial cell therapy for inherited cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Peter; Husain, Aliya; Moskowitz, Ivan; Raman, Jai; MacLeod, Heather; Anderson, Allen S.; Burke, Martin; McNally, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    A 41 year old male with cardiomyopathy from an inherited β myosin heavy chain mutation underwent treatment for heart failure with intramyocardial cell transplantation. He received direct injections into his heart of autologous precursor cells isolated from his blood. He immediately suffered ventricular fibrillation. Although he was resuscitated, he experienced a prolonged downward course that prohibited his undergoing transplantation. His autopsy revealed marked fibrosis throughout the myocardium with areas of mononuclear cell infiltrate. This case highlights the potential adverse effects associated with intramyocardial therapy in the cardiomyopathic heart. PMID:19026577

  11. Effect of Electroacupuncture on Reperfusion Ventricular Arrhythmia in Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing; LI Man; OUYANG Xingbiao; NONG Yi; LIU Xiaochun; SHI Jing; GUAN Xinmin

    2006-01-01

    Protective effect and mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) on acute reperfusion ventricular arrhthmia was investigated. Ventricular arrhythmia was induced by occlusion of the proximal left anterior descend (LAD) branch of coronary artery for 5 min and followed with 15 min reperfusion . EA on acupoint "Neiguan", "Jianshi" was performed at 30 min before ligation and continued another 5 min during ischemia. Isoprenaline (20, 30 and 50 μg/kg) or atropine (1 mg/kg) was intravenously injected at 5min before ischemia. The results showed that EA significantly decreased the incidence of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induced ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF) and mortality as compared to I/R group. Atropine partially suppressed the EA's effect of antiarrhythmia; Isoprenaline increased the incidence and severity of reperfusion arrhythmia, which was inhibited by EA, but this inhibition of EA was blocked with increasing dose of isoprenaline. The results indicated that EA treatment could prevent the occurrence of reperfusion ventricular arrhythmia in rats with myocardial ischemia, and its mechanism might be related to the regulation of EA on the β-adrenoceptors and M-cholinergic receptor activation in myocardium.

  12. Cesium blockade of delayed outward currents and electrically induced pacemaker activity in mammalian ventricular myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, C F; Katzung, B G

    1981-05-01

    The effects of Cs+, 5-25 mM, were studied in cat and guinea pig papillary muscles using voltage clamp and current clamp techniques. In solutions containing normal K+, the major effects of Cs+ were depolarization of the resting potential and reduction of the delayed outward current (ixl) between -80 and -20 mV. Both inward and outward portions of the isochronal current voltage relation (l-s clamps) were reduced by extracellular Cs+. This resulted in a substantial reduction of inward rectification and, by subtraction from the normal I-V relationship, the definition of a Cs+-sensitive component of current. Under current clamp conditions, 5-10 mM Cs+ produced a dose-dependent slowing of repetitive firing induced by depolarization. At higher concentrations (25 mM) the resting potential was depolarized and repetitive activity could not be induced by further depolarization. However, release of hyperpolarizing pulses was followed by prolonged bursts of repetitive action potentials, suggesting partial reversal of blockade or participation of another pacemaker process. The experimental results and a numerical simulation show that under readily attainable conditions, reduction in an outward pacemaker current may slow pacemaker activity.

  13. Excitation-contraction coupling in rested-state contractions of guinea-pig ventricular myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M; Vierling, W; Seibel, K

    1984-02-01

    Different types of rested-state contractions were examined under the influence of various inotropic agents. In magnesium-free solution, in low sodium (40 mmol/l) solution or in the presence of dihydroouabain, an "early" rested-state contraction developed without delay after stimulation. A distinctive "late" rested-state contraction was observed under the influence of noradrenaline. It is characterized by a latent period of about 100 ms between stimulation and onset of contraction. This latency was not reduced by increasing the catecholamine concentration, despite a concentration-dependent increase in the height of the "late" rested-state contraction. The late rested-state contraction under the influence of noradrenaline was suppressed by the slow inward current inhibitor nifedipine whether or not the nifedipine-dependent shortening of the action potential duration was prevented by caesium. When the slow inward current was not inhibited, the prolongation of the action potential duration by caesium resulted in an increase of the late rested-state contraction because of a prolongation of the time to peak force. High concentrations of dihydroouabain led to the appearance of an early contraction component without appreciably influencing the noradrenaline-dependent late component. From this it was deduced that the activator calcium for the late rested-state contraction was not stored intracellularly during rest prior to stimulation and, consequently, could not have been released by inflowing calcium. Instead, it is proposed that the activator calcium for the late rested-state contraction entered the sites of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and subsequently released from its release sites as long as the cell was depolarized. The "early" rested-state contractions in Mg2+-free solution, in low sodium solution or in the presence of dihydroouabain were not influenced in their contraction velocity by high concentrations of nifedipine which fully inhibited the late rested-state contractions. Nifedipine caused only a slight reduction in peak force due to a shortening of the time to peak force as a result of a shortening in action potential duration. This indicates that the activator calcium for the "early" rested-state contractions had accumulated in the sarcoplasmic reticulum during rest prior to stimulation and that it was released immediately by depolarization without a participation of the slow inward current.

  14. OSTEOPONTIN, INTERLEUKIN-15 AND DYSFUNCTION OF LEFT VENTRICULAR MYOCARDIUM IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Kovalyova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a survey of 108 patients with hypertension complicated by chronic heart failure, studied the connection concentration of osteopontin, interleukin-15 inserum and morpho-functional characteristics of the left ventricle of the heart. In patients with CHF osteopontin levels were significantly higher, it revealed a relationship between adverse LV filling state and knots in serum osteopontin, while the level of IL-15 did not show such a relationship. The results indicate the potential value of osteopontin as a biomarker for the diagnosis of CHF.

  15. Temporal response of ectopic activity in guinea pig ventricular myocardium in response to isoproterenol and acetylcholine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer-Short, Amara; Poelzing, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Both β adrenergic and muscarinic receptor stimulation independently potentiate arrhythmogenesis. However, the effect of simultaneous stimulation on arrhythmogenesis is not well known. The purpose of this study was to determine the temporal response of arrhythmia risk to individual and combined autonomic agonists. Guinea pig hearts were excised and Langendorff-perfused. The β adrenergic receptor and muscarinic receptor agonists were isoproterenol (ISO, 0.6 μM) and acetylcholine (ACh, 10 μM), respectively. All measurements with agonists occurred over 21 min. ISO induced ectopic activity for the first 8 min. ISO also transiently shortened and then prolonged R-R interval over a similar time course. ACh added after ISO transiently induced ectopic activity for 12 min, while R-R interval invariantly prolonged. ACh alone produced few ectopic beats, while invariantly prolonging R-R interval. In contrast to ISO alone, ISO following ACh significantly increased ectopic activity and shortened R-R interval for the duration of the experiment. Animals aged 17–19 months exhibited sustained arrhythmogenesis while those aged 11–14 did not. When ACh was removed in older hearts while ISO perfused, a transient increase in ectopic activity and decreased R-R interval was observed, similar to ISO alone. These data suggest that pre-treating with and maintaining ACh perfusion can sustain ISO sensitivity, in contrast to ISO perfusion alone. PMID:26539122

  16. MYOCARDIAL REVASCULARIZATION IN PATIENTS WITH LEFT VENTRICULAR SYSTOLIC DYSFUNCTION: PROBLEM STATEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Mironkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Outcomes of myocardium revascularization in patients with chronic left ventricular systolic dysfunction due to coronary artery disease are still unclear. The identification of dysfunctional myocardial with residual viability that can improve after revascularization are very important for further patient treatment. Hibernating myocardium can be identified by different methods and its presence and extent can predict functional and structural recovery after revascularization. New medical treatments and devices, have improved the prognosis of this patients and their use is supported by a number of clinical trials. The prognostic benefits of coronary revascularization for patients with chronic left ventricular dysfunction on optimal medical therapy and novel devices a randomized trial is still needed. 

  17. Effects of Perindopril on Left Ventricular Remodeling and Osteopontin Expression in Rats With Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To observe the effects of perindopril on left ventricular remodeling and myocardial osteopontin expression in rats with myocardial infarction. Methods In this study male adult SD rats were randomly divided into 3groups: sham-operation group, MI-saline group and MI-perindopril group. Left anterior descending artery was ligated to generate myocardial infarction. Perindopril (2 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered from the next day of MI.Four weeks later, left ventricular diameter (LVEDD and LVESD) and left ventricular ejection fraction was estimated with echocardiography, LVSP, LVEDP and ± dp/dtmax was detected with hemodynamic measurement, cardiomyocyte diameter and interstitial fibrosis infiltration were evaluated with histological methods, and myocardium osteopontin protein expression level was detected with western blot. Results ①Compared with the sham-operation group, all rats with MI developed significant systolic and diastolic dysfunction, as was indicated by decreased LVEF, LVSP and ± dp/dtmax, as well as increased LVEDP. ②Rats with MI showed significantly dilated left ventricles and higher ventricular weight / body weight ratio, significantly increased cardiomyocyte diameter and marked interstitial fibrosis in the non-infarction area. ③Perindopril treatment partly prevented cardiac dysfunction and left ventricular remodeling as indicated by the parameters mentioned above. ④No osteopontin protein was detected in myocardium of sham-operation rats. In rats with MI, high level osteopontin protein expression was significantly inhibited by perindopril treatment. Conclusions In rats with MI, perindopril treatment significantly prevented left ventricular remodeling and myocardium osteopontin protein expression.

  18. Remodeling of inhibitory synaptic connections in developing ferret visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Matthew B

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the visual cortex, as in many other regions of the developing brain, excitatory synaptic connections undergo substantial remodeling during development. While evidence suggests that local inhibitory synapses may behave similarly, the extent and mechanisms that mediate remodeling of inhibitory connections are not well understood. Results Using scanning laser photostimulation in slices of developing ferret visual cortex, we assessed the overall patterns of developing inhibitory and excitatory synaptic connections converging onto individual neurons. Inhibitory synaptic inputs onto pyramidal neurons in cortical layers 2 and 3 were already present as early as postnatal day 20, well before eye opening, and originated from regions close to the recorded neurons. During the ensuing 2 weeks, the numbers of synaptic inputs increased, with the numbers of inhibitory (and excitatory synaptic inputs peaking near the time of eye opening. The pattern of inhibitory inputs refined rapidly prior to the refinement of excitatory inputs. By uncaging the neurotransmtter GABA in brain slices from animals of different ages, we find that this rapid refinement correlated with a loss of excitatory activity by GABA. Conclusion Inhibitory synapses, like excitatory synapses, undergo significant postnatal remodeling. The time course of the remodeling of inhibitory connections correlates with the emergence of orientation tuning in the visual cortex, implicating these rearrangements in the genesis of adult cortical response properties.

  19. Prepuce and partial penile amputation for treatment of preputial gland neoplasia in two ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zeeland, Y R A; Lennox, A; Quinton, J F; Schoemaker, N J

    2014-11-01

    Preputial tumours in ferrets are frequently malignant and therefore warrant prompt investigation. As many cases do not respond favourably to surgery, even in combination with radiation therapy, wide surgical resection has been recommended. Such a procedure may necessitate partial or total penile resection but outcomes have thus far not been well described. The current case series describes two ferrets in which surgical resection, including penile amputation, was performed using 10 and 5 mm margins, respectively. In the first case, no recurrence of preputial gland adenocarcinoma was noted for 32 months postsurgery, whereas multiple attempts at surgery and radiation therapy were unsuccessful in the second. These cases suggest that margins of at least 1 cm may help achieve a better outcome. Penile amputation for the treatment of preputial tumours appears to be well tolerated by ferrets, as demonstrated by these cases.

  20. Nasal turbinate enlargement due to cartilage and bone proliferation: a normal developmental finding in young ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Kathleen A; Frantz, Christopher; Dyke, Amy S; Ryan, Patricia C; Jin, Hong; Kemble, George; Dixit, Rakesh; Leininger, Joel R

    2010-12-01

    Toxicity studies of intranasally administered, live attenuated influenza virus vaccine candidates conducted in male and female ferrets led to the microscopic observation of individual differences in the size of nasal turbinates, especially in the dorsal aspect of the nasal cavity. The association of these enlarged turbinates with acute to subacute inflammation, which is sometimes common in ferrets given live attenuated influenza virus vaccine candidates, led to this detailed microscopic evaluation of turbinate enlargement (cartilaginous and osseous thickening, or COT) in control animals dosed intranasally with saline. Results of this evaluation led to the conclusion that COT is a normal developmental feature of growing ferrets, irrespective of inflammation in nasal tissues or inflammatory exudate in the nasal cavity.

  1. Pathogenesis of two strains of lion (Panthera leo) morbillivirus in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evermann, J F; Leathers, C W; Gorham, J R; McKeirnan, A J; Appel, M J

    2001-05-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) was previously considered to have a host range restricted to the canid family. In 1994, the virus was associated with sporadic outbreaks of distemper in captive felids. However, after severe mortality occurred in the Serengeti lions (Panthera leo), attention became focused on the pathogenesis of the virus and a concerted effort was made to identify the virus as CDV or a closely related feline morbillivirus. The present study was designed to explore the susceptibility of ferrets to challenge with two morbilliviruses isolated from lions and the protective effects of a modified-live mink distemper vaccine. Because mortality in ferrets infected with pathogenic CDV approaches 100%, the ferret was selected as a test animal. Two strains of lion morbillivirus were used as a challenge, A92-27/20 (California lion isolate) and A94-11/13 (Serengeti lion isolate). The two strains of lion morbillivirus were antigenically related to CDV (Rockborn strain), and ferrets were susceptible to both of the viruses when inoculated intraperitoneally. The inoculated ferrets were anorectic at 5-6 days postinoculation (PI), exhibited oculonasal discharge at 9-12 days PI, and became moribund at 12-22 days PI. Severe bilateral conjunctivitis was the typical clinical sign. Inclusion bodies characteristic of morbillivirus (eosinophilic, intranuclear, and intracytoplasmic) were distributed in many epithelial cells, including those of the skin, conjunctiva, gallbladder, liver, pancreas, stomach, trachea, lung, urinary bladder, and kidney. Virus was reisolated from selected lung tissues collected at necropsy and identified by CDV-specific immunofluorescence. Ferrets vaccinated with the mink distemper vaccine (Onderstepoort strain) were protected from challenge with the two lion strains, adding further support to the premise that the viruses are closely related to CDV.

  2. The quest for a safe and effective canine distemper virus vaccine for black-footed ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Biggins, Dean E.; Williams, Elizabeth S.; Becerra, Victor M.

    2006-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes a systemic disease that is highly virulent to mustelids and other carnivore (Order Carnivora) species and is found worldwide. Endemic canine distemper in wild and domestic carnivores in the United States has made reintroduction of endangered black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) difficult in the absence of safe and effective CDV vaccines and vaccination practices. Toward this end, researchers have explored appropriate animal models and vaccine preparations in highly susceptible species. Published studies involving domestic ferrets (M. putorius furo) using Galaxy-D® and evaluating a recombinant canarypox-vectored vaccine for oral administration are reviewed. In addition, we present new findings in domestic and black-footed ferrets and Siberian polecats (M. eversmannii) that have extended our understanding of CDV in the black-footed ferret and other at-risk carnivore species. Original research presented here includes trials that determined an effective challenge dose (by route) of virulent CDV in domestic ferrets and Siberian polecats; the low likelihood of collateral vaccination with Galaxy-D; the adverse effect of modified-live virus boostering in black-footed ferrets receiving killed vaccine previously and the response of Siberian polecats receiving canarypoxvectored recombinant CDV vaccine (reCDV); the absence of an effect of reCDV vaccination on conception, pregnancy, and neonatal growth in Siberian polecats; and the apparent inefficacy of active reCDV vaccination during the period of passive immunity in young Siberian polecats. In the final section, we discuss emerging concerns and avenues for disease intervention that may present new opportunities to solve problems in vaccine safety, vaccine availability, field vaccine delivery, and other therapeutic modalities.

  3. Ryanodine prolongs Ca-currents while suppressing contraction in rat ventricular muscle cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, M. R.; Powell, T; Terrar, D. A.; Twist, V. W.

    1984-01-01

    Ryanodine (1 microM) suppressed or abolished contraction in response to step depolarization in voltage-clamped cells isolated from adult rat ventricular myocardium. The step depolarizations evoked the second inward current, which is carried largely by Ca ions under these conditions, and there was little or no change in the amplitude of this current when contraction was reduced or abolished by ryanodine. The effects of ryanodine on contraction were, however, accompanied by a prolongation of th...

  4. Decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity in the human heart with left ventricular systolic dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stride, Nis; Larsen, Steen; Hey-Mogensen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) is associated with a shift in substrate utilization and a compromised energetic state. Whether these changes are connected with mitochondrial dysfunction is not known. We hypothesized that the cardiac phenotype in LVSD could...... be caused by reduced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity and reduced mitochondrial creatine kinase (miCK) capacity. The study aim was to test mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity in LVSD myocardium compared with OXPHOS capacity in a comparable patient group without LVSD....

  5. OBSTRUCTION OF RIGHT VENTRICULAR OUTFLOW TRACT CAUSED BY INTRACAVITARY METASTATIC DISEASE OF PANCREATIC TUMOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-tao Li; Wen-ling Zhu

    2005-01-01

    @@ THE pericardium (90%) is the most common loca tion of cardiac involvement by secondary tumor,followed by myocardium and endocardium (10%).1 Cases of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction caused by intracavitary metastatic tumor growth were rarely reported, al though clinical presentation were unique. We herein reported such a case with literature review in order to improve the understanding of malignant cardiac metastasis.

  6. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Left Ventricular Hypertrabeculation-Hidden Arrhythmogenic Entity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Saayman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular noncompaction/hypertrabeculation is a condition which is characterized by a highly trabeculated, “spongy” myocardium. It can present at any age with heart failure, arrhythmia and/or thromboembolic events. A wide variety of mutations have been found to be a cause of hypertrabeculation and it is possible that there is a continuum of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy and hypertrabeculation/noncompaction. We present a case of left ventricular hypertrabeculation which presented as sudden infant death syndrome and we propose that this entity may be a hidden cause of arrhythmic death in some infants presenting as sudden infant death syndrome.

  7. Speckle-Tracking analysis of left ventricular systolic function in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinotti, Raphaël; Delater, Adrien; Fortuit, Camille; Roquilly, Antoine; Mahé, Pierre-Joachim; Demeure-dit-Latte, Dominique; Asehnoune, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Speckle-tracking analysis is a new available tool in order to assess left ventricular function in cardiology. Its novelty relies on the technological ability to track natural acoustic markers (known as speckle) within the myocardium during the cardiac cycle. This technology allows the evaluation of myocardium strain during systole and diastole. To date, global longitudinal strain (GLS) has been extensively studied in cardiology. It is now well established that GLS is more sensitive than left ventricular ejection fraction with 2D echocardiography in detecting systolic function impairment. It is also superior to left ventricular ejection fraction in the prediction of major cardio-vascular events. In the intensive care unit (ICU) setting, data are scarce. In experimental model and human studies in septic shock, speckle-tracking analysis suggests that GSL is impaired along with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. Recent data also suggest that GLS impairment could predict in-ICU mortality in septic shock. In severe subarachnoid haemorrhage patients, speckle-tracking analysis could be more sensitive in detecting stress cardiomyopathy. However, there are many gaps to fill in the critically ill patient. For instance, the influence of mechanical ventilation on GLS is not fully elucidated, and there are, to date, too few data to exactly assess potential GLS alterations on the patient's outcome. Nonetheless, this new tool provides objective and sensitive data with acceptable intra and inter-observer variability and may be of primary interest in the evaluation of left-ventricular systolic function in the ICU.

  8. Enhanced Electrical Integration of Engineered Human Myocardium via Intramyocardial versus Epicardial Delivery in Infarcted Rat Hearts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaytlyn A Gerbin

    Full Text Available Cardiac tissue engineering is a promising approach to provide large-scale tissues for transplantation to regenerate the heart after ischemic injury, however, integration with the host myocardium will be required to achieve electromechanical benefits. To test the ability of engineered heart tissues to electrically integrate with the host, 10 million human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived cardiomyocytes were used to form either scaffold-free tissue patches implanted on the epicardium or micro-tissue particles (~1000 cells/particle delivered by intramyocardial injection into the left ventricular wall of the ischemia/reperfusion injured athymic rat heart. Results were compared to intramyocardial injection of 10 million dispersed hESC-cardiomyocytes. Graft size was not significantly different between treatment groups and correlated inversely with infarct size. After implantation on the epicardial surface, hESC-cardiac tissue patches were electromechanically active, but they beat slowly and were not electrically coupled to the host at 4 weeks based on ex vivo fluorescent imaging of their graft-autonomous GCaMP3 calcium reporter. Histologically, scar tissue physically separated the patch graft and host myocardium. In contrast, following intramyocardial injection of micro-tissue particles and suspended cardiomyocytes, 100% of the grafts detected by fluorescent GCaMP3 imaging were electrically coupled to the host heart at spontaneous rate and could follow host pacing up to a maximum of 300-390 beats per minute (5-6.5 Hz. Gap junctions between intramyocardial graft and host tissue were identified histologically. The extensive coupling and rapid response rate of the human myocardial grafts after intramyocardial delivery suggest electrophysiological adaptation of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes to the rat heart's pacemaking activity. These data support the use of the rat model for studying electromechanical integration of human cardiomyocytes, and they

  9. HIRA Gene is Lower Expressed in the Myocardium of Patients with Tetralogy of Fallot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Ru Ju; Hui-Jun Wang; Xiao-Jing Ma; Duan Ma; Guo-Ying Huang

    2016-01-01

    Background:The most typical cardiac abnormality is conotruncal defects (CTDs) in patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS).HIRA (histone cell cycle regulator) gene,as one of the candidate genes located at the critical region of 22q11DS,was reported as possibly relevant to CTD in animal models.This study aimed to analyze the level of expression of the HIRA gene in tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) patients and the potential DNA sequence variations in the promoter region.Methods:The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was examined with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in 39 myocardial tissues of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) from TOF patients and 4 myocardial tissues of RVOT from noncardiac death children.The protein expression was detected using immunohistochemistry in 12 TOF patients and 4 controls.A total of 100 TOF cases and 200 healthy controls were recruited for DNA sequencing.Results:The mRNA and protein expressions of the HIRA gene in the myocardium of the TOF patients were both significantly lower as compared to the controls (P < 0.05).Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs),including g.4111A>G (rs1128399),g.4265C>A (rs4585115),g.4369T>G (rs2277837),g.4371C>A (rs148516780),and g.4543T>C (rs111802956),were found in the promoter region of the HIRA gene.There were no significant differences of frequencies in these SNPs between the TOF patients and the controls (P > 0.05).Conclusion:The abnormal lower expression of the HIRA gene in the myocardium may participate in the pathogenesis of TOF.

  10. iPSC-derived human mesenchymal stem cells improve myocardial strain of infarcted myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qingfeng; Shim, Winston; Tee, Nicole; Lim, Sze Yun; Chung, Ying Ying; Ja, K P Myu Mia; Ooi, Ting Huay; Tan, Grace; Kong, Geraldine; Wei, Heming; Lim, Chong Hee; Sin, Yoong Kong; Wong, Philip

    2014-08-01

    We investigated global and regional effects of myocardial transplantation of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (iMSCs) in infarcted myocardium. Acute myocardial infarction (MI) was induced by ligation of left coronary artery of severe combined immunodeficient mice before 2 × 10(5) iMSCs or cell-free saline were injected into peri-infarcted anterior free wall. Sham-operated animals received no injection. Global and regional myocardial function was assessed serially at 1-week and 8-week by segmental strain analysis by using two dimensional (2D) speckle tracking echocardiography. Early myocardial remodelling was observed at 1-week and persisted to 8-week with global contractility of ejection fraction and fractional area change in saline- (32.96 ± 14.23%; 21.50 ± 10.07%) and iMSC-injected (32.95 ± 10.31%; 21.00 ± 7.11%) groups significantly depressed as compared to sham control (51.17 ± 11.69%, P myocardial dilatation was observed in saline-injected animals (4.40 ± 0.62 mm, P strain analysis showed significant improved basal anterior wall strain (28.86 ± 8.16%, P strain only in saline-injected (21.50 ± 5.31%, P myocardial strain coincided with the presence of interconnecting telocytes in interstitial space of the infarcted anterior segment of the heart. Our results show that localized injection of iMSCs alleviates ventricular remodelling, sustains global and regional myocardial strain by paracrine-driven effect on neoangiogenesis and myocardial deformation/compliance via parenchymal and interstitial cell interactions in the infarcted myocardium.

  11. Transplantation of genetically engineered cardiac fibroblasts producing recombinant human erythropoietin to repair the infarcted myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruvinov Emil

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Erythropoietin possesses cellular protection properties. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that in situ expression of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO would improve tissue repair in rat after myocardial infarction (MI. Methods and results RhEPO-producing cardiac fibroblasts were generated ex vivo by transduction with retroviral vector. The anti-apoptotic effect of rhEPO-producing fibroblasts was evaluated by co-culture with rat neonatal cardiomyocytes exposed to H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Annexin V/PI assay and DAPI staining showed that compared with control, rhEPO forced expression markedly attenuated apoptosis and improved survival of cultured cardiomyocytes. To test the effect of rhEPO on the infarcted myocardium, Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to permanent coronary artery occlusion, and rhEPO-producing fibroblasts, non-transduced fibroblasts, or saline, were injected into the scar tissue seven days after infarction. One month later, immunostaining identified rhEPO expression in the implanted engineered cells but not in controls. Compared with non-transduced fibroblasts or saline injection, implanted rhEPO-producing fibroblasts promoted vascularization in the scar, and prevented cell apoptosis. By two-dimensional echocardiography and postmortem morphometry, transplanted EPO-engineered fibroblasts did not prevent left ventricular (LV dysfunction and adverse LV remodeling 5 and 9 weeks after MI. Conclusion In situ expression of rhEPO enhances vascularization and reduces cell apoptosis in the infarcted myocardium. However, local EPO therapy is insufficient for functional improvement after MI in rat.

  12. PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF ERYTHROPOIETIN ON MYO-CARDIUM AGAINST ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION INJURY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Di-cheng; XIAO Ming-di; LU Cheng-bao; LV Zhi-qian; DUAN Liang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the protective effects of erythropoietin (EPO) on myocardium against ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Methods The Langendorff model of isolated rat heart was set up and a 3-stage protocol was performed: 20 min stabilization, 30 min global ischemia, and 120 min reperfusion. Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into sham group, ischemia-reperfusion group (I/R group ) and EPO treated group (EPO group). Heart rate (HR), left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), the first derivative (△dp/dt max) and coronary flow (CF) were recorded at the 20th minute of stabilization and the 120th minute of reperfusion. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CK) in the coronary effluent at the 60th minute of reperfusion, the levels of myocardial nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-KB) and the myocardial content of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) ,interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were measured at the end of reperfusion. Results No statistically significant differences were observed on the aspect of hemodynamic parameters among the groups at the 20th minute of stabilization, but at the 120th minute of reperfusion, the recovery ratio of EPO group was higher than I/R group (P<0.05). LDH and CK in the coronary effluent, the levels of myocardial NF-κB and TNF-α,IL-1β expression in EPO group were significantly lower than those in I/R group, but higher than sham group (P<0.05). Conclusion EPO has protective effects on myocardium against IRI possibly through the mechanism of relieving the myocardial inflammatory reaction by regulating the activation of NF-κB and then decreasing the expression of proinflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-1β.

  13. Rhinitis and disseminated disease in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo) naturally infected with Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Ann P; Dubey, J P; Rosenthal, Benjamin M

    2010-04-19

    Naturally occurring Sarcocystis neurona infection in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo) with rhinitis and disseminated disease are described for the first time. The ferret exhibited severe rhinitis with intra-lesional S. neurona merozoites and schizonts. Diagnosis was confirmed immunohistochemically by staining with S. neurona-specific antibodies, and by phylogenetic analyses of conserved and variable portions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. On the basis of intense schizogony in the nasal mucosa, we propose the possibility of an olfactory nerve pathway route of infection for S. neurona meningoencephalitis.

  14. [Structural and metabolic aspects of heterogenicity of the ventricular cardiac myocytes in coronary insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrish, A S; Blagodarov, V N; Verbitskiĭ, V V; Danilishina, M V

    2003-01-01

    The paper shows comparative analysis of structural-metabolic changes of the ventricular cardiac hystiocytes during transitional restriction of blood supply, which leads to relapsing myocardium hypoperfusion, ischemia and even to cardiac infarction. We have established that an increase of the myocardium arrhythmogenicity, damage of myocardium electrophysiological activity and coronary deficiency are caused by pathologically intensified structural-metabolic heterogeneity of cardiomyocites. The chronic ischemic heart disease is worsening the situation by gradual accumulation of the metastructure changes of heart's working cells. It is possible to connect adaptable hypertrophy of cardiomyocites with compensatory redistribution of loading among them, what is accompanied with the deep reorganization of their metabolism and metastructure under the influence of neurohumoral factors, inadequate transport-trophic maintenance of the function, nonequal edema and fibrosis of the interstitium. The data obtained describe the formation of "prereadiness" of the myocardium to the fatal rhythm disturbance determined by interconnected structural-metabolic changes. Each of these pathological changes separately doesn't induce an impairment of myocardium electric stability but represents a necessary part in origin and development of the pathological process.

  15. Applications of magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of left ventricular dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beacock, David John

    2002-07-01

    This thesis has described the use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the investigation of left ventricular dimensions and systolic function. This has been performed in conditions of left ventricular dysfunction, in congestive cardiac failure and following anterior myocardial infarction. The reproducibility of measurements of left ventricular dimensions using MRI has been presented. Such measurements were shown to be reproducible between different MRI studies of normal volunteers and patients with congestive heart failure. Furthermore, measurements from different MRI studies obtained from two commercially different systems were reproducible for the same subject groups. Ventricular dimensions and systolic function was evaluated in adult normal volunteers of different ages. Although left ventricular volumes and mass remained unchanged, detailed studies of the systolic images revealed significant differences between the two age groups. Differences in left ventricular cavity volumes and mass between patients with congestive heart failure and age-matched normal volunteers were also investigated. Left ventricular volumes and myocardial mass were assessed in a group of patients following anterior myocardial infarction. End-systolic volume was significantly increased compared to age-matched volunteers, but no changes in end-diastolic volume or myocardial mass was observed. Serial re-evaluation of these patients revealed no other changes over the subsequent six months. All these patients were treated with optimal medical therapy (thrombolysis, aspirin, beta-blockade and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition). Thus, the use of this therapy may attenuate the process of left ventricular remodelling. Regional wall thickness was measured in the post-infarct patients. Wall thickening was significantly reduced both in the infarcted regions and in myocardium remote to the infarction. In contrast to previous echocardiographic studies, no 'hypercontractility' was

  16. Histology and Immunohistochemistry of the Cardiac Ventricular Structure in the Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, J K F S; Freitas, M L; Magalhães, M S; Oliveira, M F; Costa, M S M O; Resende, N S; Clebis, N K; Silva, N B; Moura, C E B

    2016-08-01

    This study describes the implications of cardiac ventricular microscopy in Chelonia mydas relating to its ability to dive. For this work, 11 specimens of the marine turtle species C. mydas found dead on the coast of Rio Grande do Norte (Northeast Brazil) were used. After necropsy, fragments of the cardiac ventricular wall were fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde solution for 24 h and then subjected to routine processing for light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ventricle in this species is formed by the epicardium, myocardium and endocardium. The subepicardial layer consists of highly vascularised connective tissue that emits septa to reinforce the myocardium surface. There is an abundant and diffuse subepicardial nerve plexus shown by immunostaining technique. The thickness of the spongy myocardium and the nature of its trabeculae varied between the heart chambers. The endocardium shows no characteristic elements of the heart conduction system. The valves have a hyaline cartilage skeleton, coated by dense irregular connective tissues characterised by elastic fibres. These findings in the green turtle ventricular microscopy are related to hypoxia resistance during diving.

  17. Semi-automatic segmentation of myocardium at risk in T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjögren Jane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR has been shown to be a promising technique for determination of ischemic myocardium, referred to as myocardium at risk (MaR, after an acute coronary event. Quantification of MaR in T2-weighted CMR has been proposed to be performed by manual delineation or the threshold methods of two standard deviations from remote (2SD, full width half maximum intensity (FWHM or Otsu. However, manual delineation is subjective and threshold methods have inherent limitations related to threshold definition and lack of a priori information about cardiac anatomy and physiology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an automatic segmentation algorithm for quantification of MaR using anatomical a priori information. Methods Forty-seven patients with first-time acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction underwent T2-weighted CMR within 1 week after admission. Endocardial and epicardial borders of the left ventricle, as well as the hyper enhanced MaR regions were manually delineated by experienced observers and used as reference method. A new automatic segmentation algorithm, called Segment MaR, defines the MaR region as the continuous region most probable of being MaR, by estimating the intensities of normal myocardium and MaR with an expectation maximization algorithm and restricting the MaR region by an a priori model of the maximal extent for the user defined culprit artery. The segmentation by Segment MaR was compared against inter observer variability of manual delineation and the threshold methods of 2SD, FWHM and Otsu. Results MaR was 32.9 ± 10.9% of left ventricular mass (LVM when assessed by the reference observer and 31.0 ± 8.8% of LVM assessed by Segment MaR. The bias and correlation was, -1.9 ± 6.4% of LVM, R = 0.81 (p Conclusions There is a good agreement between automatic Segment MaR and manually assessed MaR in T2-weighted CMR. Thus, the proposed algorithm seems to be a

  18. Cellular cardiomyoplasty: a new therapeutic approach for regenerating the myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Mariann R; Carrigan, Timothy M

    2003-01-01

    One of the most promising new therapeutic techniques for the augmentation and regeneration of the myocardium is cellular cardiomyoplasty. Reports from animal and clinical investigations indicate that the transplant of different cell types, such as autologous skeletal myoblasts and adult stem cells, into injured myocardium results in the generation of new cardiac myocytes and improvement in myocardial performance. Although there is no consensus with regard to the best cell type to transplant or the extent of myocardial renewal and regeneration, the technique of cardiac cellular myoplasty may become one of the most important advancements in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction and heart failure.

  19. Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect associated with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyan; Ding, Hongyu; Lei, Lei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Gong, Yuling; Hou, Yinglong

    2015-03-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is characterised by progressive, fibrofatty replacement of myocardium, and ventricular arrhythmias, and its prognosis is usually poor. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy associated with atrial septal defect is very rare, and this combination may make the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis difficult. We present a case of a patient with this association who underwent interventional treatment with a septal defect occluder. Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect in a patient with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is hitherto unreported. During a 3-year follow-up he remained relatively stable. We also review the cases reported in the medical literature describing this uncommon association between arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and atrial septal defect or patent foramen ovale.

  20. Genetic bases of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Rampazzo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC is a heart muscle disease in which the pathological substrate is a fibro-fatty replacement of the right ventricular myocardium. The major clinical features are different types of arrhythmias with a left branch block pattern. ARVC shows autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance. Recessive forms were also described, although in association with skin disorders. Ten genetic loci have been discovered so far and mutations were reported in five different genes. ARVD1 was associated with regulatory mutations of transforming growth factor beta-3 (TGFβ3, whereas ARVD2, characterized by effort-induced polymorphic arrhythmias, was associated with mutations in cardiac ryanodine receptor-2 (RYR2. All other mutations identified to date have been detected in genes encoding desmosomal proteins: plakoglobin (JUP which causes Naxos disease (a recessive form of ARVC associated with palmoplantar keratosis and woolly hair; desmoplakin (DSP which causes the autosomal dominant ARVD8 and plakophilin-2 (PKP2 involved in ARVD9. Desmosomes are important cell-to-cell adhesion junctions predominantly found in epidermis and heart; they are believed to couple cytoskeletal elements to plasma membrane in cell-to-cell or cell-to-substrate adhesions.

  1. ECG manifestations of left ventricular electrical remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, E Harvey

    2012-01-01

    Research and thinking about the electrocardiographic manifestations of left ventricular hypertrophy has been constrained by a limited conceptual model of the process: heart disease produces chamber enlargement (increased mass), which in turn produces an altered electrocardiogram. The process is much more complex than can be represented in this simple model. A more robust and intricate model is proposed, in which heart (and vascular) disease causes structural changes, electrical changes, biochemical changes, and others, all of which interact to produce electrical remodeling of ventricular myocardium. This electrical remodeling results in a variety of ECG changes. All of these changes interact, leading to an altered clinical course, and to premature death. It is suggested that research, based on this model, can provide new clues to the processes involved, and improve the prediction of clinical outcomes. New directions in research, in recording equipment, and in organizational activities are suggested to test this new model, and to improve the usefulness of the electrocardiogram as a research and diagnostic tool.

  2. Production of infectious ferret hepatitis E virus in a human hepatocarcinoma cell line PLC/PRF/5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Yang, Tingting; Kataoka, Michiyo; Nakamura, Tomofumi; Ami, Yasushi; Yuriko, Suzaki; Takeda, Naokazu; Wakita, Takaji

    2016-02-02

    A strain of ferret hepatitis E virus (HEV), sF4370, isolated from an imported ferret was used to inoculate a human hepatocarcinoma cell line, PLC/PRF/5. The virus genome and capsid protein were detected in the cell culture supernatant. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that the capsid protein was located in the cytoplasm. The virus particles were purified from the culture supernatant by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. The capsid protein with molecular mass of ∼72 kDa was detected in fractions with density of 1.150-1.162 g/cm(3), and particles of ferret HEV was associated with cell membrane. The virus recovered from the supernatant was serially passaged with PLC/PRF/5 cells and had the ability to infect ferrets by oral inoculation, indicating that the ferret HEV grown in PLC/PRF/5 was infectious. The establishment of ferret HEV cell culture system might be useful to understand the life cycle, mechanism of infection and replication of ferret HEV.

  3. Black-footed ferrets and recreational shooting influence the attributes of black-tailed prairie dog burrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, Dean E.; Ramakrishnan, Shantini; Goldberg, Amanda R.; Eads, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) plug burrows occupied by black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes), and they also plug burrows to entomb dead prairie dogs. We further evaluated these phenomena by sampling connectivity and plugging of burrow openings on prairie dog colonies occupied by ferrets, colonies where recreational shooting was allowed, and colonies with neither shooting nor ferrets. We counted burrow openings on line surveys and within plots, classified surface plugging, and used an air blower to examine subsurface connectivity. Colonies with ferrets had lower densities of openings, fewer connected openings (suggesting increased subsurface plugging), and more surface plugs compared to colonies with no known ferrets. Colonies with recreational shooting had the lowest densities of burrow openings, and line-survey data suggested colonies with shooting had intermediate rates of surface plugging. The extent of surface and subsurface plugging could have consequences for the prairie dog community by changing air circulation and escape routes of burrow systems and by altering energetic relationships. Burrow plugging might reduce prairie dogs' risk of predation by ferrets while increasing risk of predation by American badgers (Taxidea taxus); however, the complexity of the trade-off is increased if plugging increases the risk of predation on ferrets by badgers. Prairie dogs expend more energy plugging and digging when ferrets or shooting are present, and ferrets increase their energy expenditures when they dig to remove those plugs. Microclimatic differences in plugged burrow systems may play a role in flea ecology and persistence of the flea-borne bacterium that causes plague (Yersinia pestis).

  4. Delineating morbillivirus entry, dissemination and airborne transmission by studying in vivo competition of multicolor canine distemper viruses in ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory D de Vries

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Identification of cellular receptors and characterization of viral tropism in animal models have vastly improved our understanding of morbillivirus pathogenesis. However, specific aspects of viral entry, dissemination and transmission remain difficult to recapitulate in animal models. Here, we used three virologically identical but phenotypically distinct recombinant (r canine distemper viruses (CDV expressing different fluorescent reporter proteins for in vivo competition and airborne transmission studies in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo. Six donor ferrets simultaneously received three rCDVs expressing green, red or blue fluorescent proteins via conjunctival (ocular, Oc, intra-nasal (IN or intra-tracheal (IT inoculation. Two days post-inoculation sentinel ferrets were placed in physically separated adjacent cages to assess airborne transmission. All donor ferrets developed lymphopenia, fever and lethargy, showed progressively increasing systemic viral loads and were euthanized 14 to 16 days post-inoculation. Systemic replication of virus inoculated via the Oc, IN and IT routes was detected in 2/6, 5/6 and 6/6 ferrets, respectively. In five donor ferrets the IT delivered virus dominated, although replication of two or three different viruses was detected in 5/6 animals. Single lymphocytes expressing multiple fluorescent proteins were abundant in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues, demonstrating the occurrence of double and triple virus infections. Transmission occurred efficiently and all recipient ferrets showed evidence of infection between 18 and 22 days post-inoculation of the donor ferrets. In all cases, airborne transmission resulted in replication of a single-colored virus, which was the dominant virus in the donor ferret. This study demonstrates that morbilliviruses can use multiple entry routes in parallel, and co-infection of cells during viral dissemination in the host is common. Airborne transmission was efficient, although

  5. Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside Induces Neovascularization Mediated Cardioprotection against Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury In Hypercholesterolemic Myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penumathsa, Suresh Varma; Koneru, Srikanth; Zhan, Lijun; John, Saji; Menon, Venogopal P; Prasad, Kailash; Maulik, Nilanjana

    2009-01-01

    rats as compared to the HC. The increased capillary & arteriolar density along with increased left ventricular functions on SDG treatment might be due to increased HO-1, VEGF and p-eNOS expression. In conclusion, our study demonstrates for the first time that SDG treatment reduces ventricular remodeling by neovascularization of the infarcted HC myocardium. PMID:18001768

  6. Multimodality imaging demonstrates trafficking of liposomes preferentially to ischemic myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinski, Michael J., E-mail: mjlipinski12@gmail.com [MedStar Heart and Vascular Institute, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC (United States); Albelda, M. Teresa [GIBI2" 3" 0, Grupo de Investigación Biomédica en Imagen, IIS La Fe, Valencia (Spain); Frias, Juan C. [Departamento de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera, Valencia (Spain); Anderson, Stasia A. [Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging Laboratory, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Luger, Dror; Westman, Peter C.; Escarcega, Ricardo O.; Hellinga, David G.; Waksman, Ron [MedStar Heart and Vascular Institute, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC (United States); Arai, Andrew E. [Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging Laboratory, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Epstein, Stephen E. [MedStar Heart and Vascular Institute, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Introduction: Nanoparticles may serve as a promising means to deliver novel therapeutics to the myocardium following myocardial infarction. We sought to determine whether lipid-based liposomal nanoparticles can be shown through different imaging modalities to specifically target injured myocardium following intravenous injection in an ischemia–reperfusion murine myocardial infarction model. Methods: Mice underwent ischemia–reperfusion surgery and then either received tail-vein injection with gadolinium- and fluorescent-labeled liposomes or no injection (control). The hearts were harvested 24 h later and underwent T1 and T2-weighted ex vivo imaging using a 7 Tesla Bruker magnet. The hearts were then sectioned for immunohistochemistry and optical fluorescent imaging. Results: The mean size of the liposomes was 100 nm. T1-weighted signal intensity was significantly increased in the ischemic vs. the non-ischemic myocardium for mice that received liposomes compared with control. Optical imaging demonstrated significant fluorescence within the infarct area for the liposome group compared with control (163 ± 31% vs. 13 ± 14%, p = 0.001) and fluorescent microscopy confirmed the presence of liposomes within the ischemic myocardium. Conclusions: Liposomes traffic to the heart and preferentially home to regions of myocardial injury, enabling improved diagnosis of myocardial injury and could serve as a vehicle for drug delivery.

  7. [Pathomorphological characteristics of the myocardium in the heart stab wounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselov, V P; Savchenko, S V; Gritsinger, V A

    2013-01-01

    Pathomorphological characteristics of myocardium resulting from injuries to the heart are described with reference to their localization in different regions of the wound canal at different time periods after the injury. The studies were carried out with the use of light and polarized light microscopy.

  8. Recovery of the black-footed ferret : Progress and continuing challenges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a collection of published papers from the Symposium on the Status of the Black-footed Ferret and Its Habitat, held January 28–29, 2004, in Fort...

  9. Prepuce and partial penile amputation for treatment of preputial gland neoplasia in two ferrets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne; Lennox, Angela; Quinton, Jean-François; Schoemaker, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Preputial tumours in ferrets are frequently malignant and therefore warrant prompt investigation. As many cases do not respond favourably to surgery, even in combination with radiation therapy, wide surgical resection has been recommended. Such a procedure may necessitate partial or total penile res

  10. Progress toward generating a ferret model of cystic fibrosis by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelhardt John F

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mammalian cloning by nuclear transfer from somatic cells has created new opportunities to generate animal models of genetic diseases in species other than mice. Although genetic mouse models play a critical role in basic and applied research for numerous diseases, often mouse models do not adequately reproduce the human disease phenotype. Cystic fibrosis (CF is one such disease. Targeted ablation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene in mice does not adequately replicate spontaneous bacterial infections observed in the human CF lung. Hence, several laboratories are pursuing alternative animal models of CF in larger species such as the pig, sheep, rabbits, and ferrets. Our laboratory has focused on developing the ferret as a CF animal model. Over the past few years, we have investigated several experimental parameters required for gene targeting and nuclear transfer (NT cloning in the ferret using somatic cells. In this review, we will discuss our progress and the hurdles to NT cloning and gene-targeting that accompany efforts to generate animal models of genetic diseases in species such as the ferret.

  11. Use of a GnRH agonist implant as alternative for surgical neutering in pet ferrets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne; Pabon, M.; Roest, J; Schoemaker, Nico

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, the duration of effectiveness, owner satisfaction and side effects of a gonadotrophin releasing hormone-agonist (deslorelin) implant were investigated during a two-year follow-up study in which 61 male and 69 female entire pet ferrets were given a 4.7 mg deslorelin implant as a

  12. Using the ferret as an animal model for investigating influenza antiviral effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Yuan Oh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The concern of the emergence of a pandemic influenza virus has sparked an increased effort towards the development and testing of novel influenza antivirals. Central to this is the animal model of influenza infection, which has played an important role in understanding treatment effectiveness and the effect of antivirals on host immune responses. Among the different animal models of influenza, ferrets can be considered the most suitable for antiviral studies as they display most of the human-like symptoms following influenza infections, they can be infected with human influenza virus without prior viral adaptation and have the ability to transmit influenza virus efficiently between one another. However, an accurate assessment of the effectiveness of an antiviral treatment in ferrets is dependent on three major experimental considerations encompassing firstly, the volume and titre of virus, and the route of viral inoculation. Secondly, the route and dose of drug administration, and lastly, the different methods used to assess clinical symptoms, viral shedding kinetics and host immune responses in the ferrets. A good understanding of these areas is necessary to achieve data that can accurately inform the human use of influenza antivirals. In this review, we discuss the current progress and the challenges faced in these three major areas when using the ferret model to measure influenza antiviral effectiveness.

  13. Ventricular Assist Device Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasseas, Panayotis; Kutalek, Steven P.; Samuels, Fania L.; Holmes, Elena C.; Samuels, Louis E.

    2002-01-01

    We describe herein the cases of 2 patients who had ventricular arrhythmias. In one, a short-term biventricular assist device, the ABIOMED BVS 5000, was placed because the patient had sustained ventricular tachycardia and could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass. Excellent hemodynamic support was maintained for several days while the antiarrhythmic therapy was maximized. Sinus rhythm was restored, and the patient was successfully weaned from the ventricular assist device. However, the substrate for the arrhythmia persisted, and a recurrence, 1 week later, resulted in the patient's death. In the 2nd patient, the use of an implantable left ventricular assist device was successful in temporarily alleviating the ventricular tachycardia associated with ischemic cardiomyopathy. However, after 2 days of device assistance, the patient experienced a recurrence of the tachycardia, which degenerated into ventricular fibrillation with a marked deterioration in the patient's hemodynamics. The arrhythmia persisted despite multiple attempts at external cardioversion, and internal cardioversion and placement of an automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator were necessary. This treatment, along with repeated boluses of amiodarone, led to successful suppression of the arrhythmias, and the patient eventually underwent transplantation. The mechanical hemodynamic support of the circulation by ventricular assist devices was effective in supporting these 2 patients who had sustained ventricular arrhythmias. (Tex Heart Inst J 2002;29:33–6) PMID:11995847

  14. Ventricular tachycardia in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Miguel A; Pachón, Marta; Rodríguez-Padial, Luis

    2011-02-01

    Cases of sudden cardiac death have been reported in patients with acromegaly. Malignant ventricular arrhythmias may play an important role in this fatal complication, but the exact mechanisms are not well understood. We report on an acromegalic patient presenting with documented recurrent syncopal ventricular tachycardia.

  15. Blood flow, flow reserve, and glucose utilization in viable and nonviable myocardium in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Schindler, Thomas H; Prior, John O; Sayre, James; Dahlbom, Magnus; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Schelbert, Heinrich R

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether glucose uptake in viable myocardium of ischemic cardiomyopathy patients depends on rest myocardial blood flow (MBF) and the residual myocardial flow reserve (MFR). Thirty-six patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (left ventricular ejection fraction 25 ± 10 %) were studied with (13)N-ammonia and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Twenty age-matched normals served as controls. Regional MBF was determined at rest and during dipyridamole hyperemia and regional FDG extraction was estimated from regional FDG to (13)N-ammonia activity ratios. Rest MBF was reduced in viable (0.42 ± 0.18 ml/min per g) and nonviable regions (0.32 ± 0.09 ml/min per g) relative to remote regions (0.68 ± 0.23 ml/min per g, p MFRs did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). Compared to MFR in remote myocardium, MFRs in viable regions were similar (1.39 ± 0.56 vs 1.70 ± 0.45, p > 0.05) but were significantly lower in nonviable regions (1.23 ± 0.43, p MFRs (r =-0.424, p MFRs in viable myocardium are associated with increasing glucose extraction that likely reflects a metabolic adaptation of remodeling hibernating myocytes.

  16. Prognostic Significance of Remote Myocardium Alterations Assessed by Quantitative Noncontrast T1 Mapping in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstadler, Sebastian J; Stiermaier, Thomas; Liebetrau, Johanna; Fuernau, Georg; Eitel, Charlotte; de Waha, Suzanne; Desch, Steffen; Reil, Jan-Christian; Pöss, Janine; Metzler, Bernhard; Lücke, Christian; Gutberlet, Matthias; Schuler, Gerhard; Thiele, Holger; Eitel, Ingo

    2017-06-09

    This study assessed the prognostic significance of remote zone native T1 alterations for the prediction of clinical events in a population with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who were treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) and compared it with conventional markers of infarct severity. The exact role and incremental prognostic relevance of remote myocardium native T1 mapping alterations assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) after STEMI remains unclear. We included 255 consecutive patients with STEMI who were reperfused within 12 h after symptom onset. CMR core laboratory analysis was performed to assess left ventricular (LV) function, standard infarct characteristics, and native T1 values of the remote, noninfarcted myocardium. The primary endpoint was a composite of death, reinfarction, and new congestive heart failure within 6 months (major adverse cardiac events [MACE]). Patients with increased remote zone native T1 values (>1,129 ms) had significantly larger infarcts (p = 0.012), less myocardial salvage (p = 0.002), and more pronounced LV dysfunction (p = 0.011). In multivariable analysis, remote zone native T1 was independently associated with MACE after adjusting for clinical risk factors (p = 0.001) or other CMR variables (p = 0.007). In C-statistics, native T1 of remote myocardium provided incremental prognostic information beyond clinical risk factors, LV ejection fraction, and other markers of infarct severity (all p infarct size, and myocardial salvage index) led to net reclassification improvement of 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.46 to 1.17; p Myocardial Damage in STEMI [LIPSIA-COND]; NCT02158468). Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduced microvascular density in non-ischemic myocardium of patients with recent non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Duncan J; Somaratne, Jithendra B; Jenkins, Alicia J; Prior, David L; Yii, Michael; Kenny, James F; Newcomb, Andrew E; Kelly, Darren J; Black, Mary Jane

    2013-08-10

    Myocardial microvascular dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction (MI). We tested the hypothesis that patients with MI have lower microvasculature density in myocardium remote from the site of infarction than patients with similar extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) without MI and examined the relationship between myocardial capillary length density and plasma levels of angiogenesis-related biomarkers. We analyzed biopsies from non-ischemic left ventricular (LV) myocardium and measured plasma levels of angiogenesis-related biomarkers in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery, 57 without previous MI (no-MI) and 27 with recent non-ST-segment-elevation MI (NSTEMI). Comparison was made with biopsies from 31 aortic stenosis (AS) patients and 6 patients with "normal" LV without CAD. Myocardial microvascular density of NSTEMI patients was approximately half the density of no-MI patients, and similar to AS patients. Whereas the reduced microvascular density of AS patients was accounted for by their cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, this was not the case for NSTEMI patients, who had higher diffusion radius/cardiomyocyte width ratio than no-MI, "normal" LV, and AS patients. NSTEMI patients had lower plasma levels of carboxymethyl lysine and low molecular weight fluorophores, higher vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-1/VEGF-A ratio, and higher endostatin and hepatocyte growth factor levels than no-MI patients. Recent MI was associated with reduced microvasculature density in myocardium remote from the site of infarction and alteration in plasma levels of angiogenesis-related biomarkers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Nature of Exposure Drives Transmission of Nipah Viruses from Malaysia and Bangladesh in Ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Bronwyn A.; Middleton, Deborah; Arkinstall, Rachel; Frazer, Leah; Wang, Lin-Fa; Marsh, Glenn A.

    2016-01-01

    Person-to-person transmission is a key feature of human Nipah virus outbreaks in Bangladesh. In contrast, in an outbreak of Nipah virus in Malaysia, people acquired infections from pigs. It is not known whether this important epidemiological difference is driven primarily by differences between NiV Bangladesh (NiV-BD) and Malaysia (NiV-MY) at a virus level, or by environmental or host factors. In a time course study, ferrets were oronasally exposed to equivalent doses of NiV-BD or NiV-MY. More rapid onset of productive infection and higher levels of virus replication in respiratory tract tissues were seen for NiV-BD compared to NiV-MY, corroborating our previous report of increased oral shedding of NiV-BD in ferrets and suggesting a contributory mechanism for increased NiV-BD transmission between people compared to NiV-MY. However, we recognize that transmission occurs within a social and environmental framework that may have an important and differentiating role in NiV transmission rates. With this in mind, ferret-to-ferret transmission of NiV-BD and NiV-MY was assessed under differing viral exposure conditions. Transmission was not identified for either virus when naïve ferrets were cohoused with experimentally-infected animals. In contrast, all naïve ferrets developed acute infection following assisted and direct exposure to oronasal fluid from animals that were shedding either NiV-BD or NiV-MY. Our findings for ferrets indicate that, although NiV-BD may be shed at higher levels than NiV-MY, transmission risk may be equivalently low under exposure conditions provided by cohabitation alone. In contrast, active transfer of infected bodily fluids consistently results in transmission, regardless of the virus strain. These observations suggest that the risk of NiV transmission is underpinned by social and environmental factors, and will have practical implications for managing transmission risk during outbreaks of human disease. PMID:27341030

  19. Selective Retrograde Venous Revascularization of the Myocardium when PCI or CABG Is Impossible: Investigation in a Porcine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Christian H; Nørgaard, Martin A; Gøtze, Jens P

    2008-01-01

    (LIMA) was anastomosed to the left anterior descending coronary vein (LAD vein) in an off-pump procedure. The LAD vein was ligated proximal to the anastomosis. The LAD artery was ligated proximally. The physiological effects were monitored using microdialysis, tissue oxygen tension, blood flow in LIMA...... tension decreased, but with time some recovery was seen. Cardiac troponin T was elevated. Histological analysis showed ischemic changes. In control pigs, microdialysis was performed for 1.5 hours up to LAD artery ligation, after which all pigs died in ventricular fibrillation arrest. No increase......We investigated the possibility of nourishing the myocardium through selective retrograde coronary venous bypass grafting (CVBG) with an off-pump technique and evaluated various methods of monitoring the physiological effects of this procedure. In a porcine model, the left internal mammary artery...

  20. Nanovector-based prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 silencing system enhances the efficiency of stem cell transplantation for infarcted myocardium repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kai; Lai, Hao; Guo, Changfa; Li, Jun; Wang, Yulin; Wang, Lingyan; Wang, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has attracted much attention in myocardial infarction therapy. One of the limitations is the poor survival of grafted cells in the ischemic microenvironment. Small interfering RNA-mediated prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2) silencing in MSCs holds tremendous potential to enhance their survival and paracrine effect after transplantation. However, an efficient and biocompatible PHD2 silencing system for clinical application is lacking. Herein, we developed a novel PHD2 silencing system based on arginine-terminated generation 4 poly(amidoamine) (Arg-G4) nanoparticles. The system exhibited effective and biocompatible small interfering RNA delivery and PHD2 silencing in MSCs in vitro. After genetically modified MSC transplantation in myocardial infarction models, MSC survival and paracrine function of IGF-1 were enhanced significantly in vivo. As a result, we observed decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis, scar size, and interstitial fibrosis, and increased angiogenesis in the diseased myocardium, which ultimately attenuated ventricular remodeling and improved heart function. This work demonstrated that an Arg-G4 nanovector-based PHD2 silencing system could enhance the efficiency of MSC transplantation for infarcted myocardium repair. PMID:25429216

  1. Immunohistochemical expression of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in the conducting system and internodal atrial myocardium of human hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuti, L A; Aiello, V D; Higuchi, M de L; Palomino, S A

    1997-06-01

    Expression and distribution of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) were studied immunohistochemically in the conducting system and internodal atrial myocardium of 5 adult human hearts. Myocytes from the sinus node and compact atrioventricular node were usually ANP-negative; only a very few cells exhibited ANP immunoreactivity. These ANP-positive myocytes were small and did not appear to be trapped working atrial myocytes which are larger than nodal cells. The transitional cell zones of the sinus node and the atrioventricular node were composed of bundles of ANP-positive myocytes, intermingled with non-reactive myocytes. The internodal atrial myocardium exhibited a comparable intensity of myocyte staining in each case examined. Thus, morphologically distinct connecting pathways between the sinus node and the atrioventricular node with regard to myocyte ANP immunoreactivity could not be demonstrated, reinforcing the notion that they actually do not exist. The penetrating bundle, branching bundle and bundle branches were usually composed of ANP-negative myocytes although some ANP-positive myocytes were observed in the branching bundle and bundle branches in 4 cases. Myocytes from the ventricular conducting tissue presenting ANP immunoreactivity have been designated Purkinje fibers and have been found in several mammalian species.

  2. Energetics of the Frank-Starling effect in rabbit myocardium: economy and efficiency depend on muscle length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jeffrey W; Hünlich, Mark; Hasenfuss, Gerd

    2002-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that economy and efficiency are independent of length in intact cardiac muscle over its normal working range. We measured force, force-time integral, force-length area, and myocardial oxygen consumption in eight isometrically contracting rabbit right ventricular papillary muscles. 2,3-Butanedione monoxime was used to partition nonbasal oxygen consumption into tension-independent and tension-dependent components. Developed force, force-time integral, and force-length area increased by factors of 2.4, 2.7, and 4.8, respectively, as muscle length was increased from 90% to 100% maximal length, whereas tension-dependent oxygen consumption increased only 1.6-fold. Economy (the ratio of force-time integral to tension-dependent oxygen consumption) increased significantly with muscle length, as did contractile efficiency, the ratio of force-length area to tension-dependent oxygen consumption. The average force-length area-nonbasal oxygen consumption intercept was more than the twice tension-independent oxygen consumption. We conclude that economy and efficiency increase with length in rabbit myocardium. This conclusion is consistent with published data in isolated rabbit and dog hearts but at odds with studies in skinned myocardium.

  3. Gi proteins mediate activation of the canonical hedgehog pathway in the myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbe, Christian J; Cheng, Lan; Addya, Sankar; Gold, Jessica I; Gao, Erhe; Koch, Walter J; Riobo, Natalia A

    2014-07-01

    During myocardial ischemia, upregulation of the hedgehog (Hh) pathway promotes neovascularization and increases cardiomyocyte survival. The canonical Hh pathway activates a transcriptional program through the Gli family of transcription factors by derepression of the seven-transmembrane protein smoothened (Smo). The mechanisms linking Smo to Gli are complex and, in some cell types, involve coupling of Smo to Gi proteins. In the present study, we investigated, for the first time, the transcriptional response of cardiomyocytes to sonic hedgehog (Shh) and the role of Gi protein utilization. Our results show that Shh strongly activates Gli1 expression by quantitative PCR in a Smo-dependent manner in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Microarray analysis of gene expression changes elicited by Shh and sensitive to a Smo inhibitor identified a small subset of 37 cardiomyocyte-specific genes regulated by Shh, including some in the PKA and purinergic signaling pathways. In addition, neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes infected with an adenovirus encoding GiCT, a peptide that impairs receptor-Gi protein coupling, showed reduced activation of Hh targets. In vitro data were confirmed in transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-inducible GiCT expression. Transgenic GiCT mice showed specific reduction of Gli1 expression in the heart under basal conditions and failed to upregulate the Hh pathway upon ischemia and reperfusion injury, unlike their littermate controls. This study characterizes, for the first time, the transcriptional response of cardiomyocytes to Shh and establishes a critical role for Smo coupling to Gi in Hh signaling in the normal and ischemic myocardium. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Neurogenic stunned myocardium - do we consider this diagnosis in patients with acute central nervous system injury and acute heart failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzewska-Schmidt, Magdalena; Gawecka, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenic stunned myocardium (NSM) is defined as myocardial injury and dysfunction of a sudden onset, occurring after various types of acute brain injury as a result of an imbalance in the autonomic nervous system. The typical spectrum of clinically observed abnormalities includes acute left ventricular failure, not uncommonly progressing to cardiogenic shock with hypotension that requires inotropic agents, pulmonary oedema and various arrhythmias. Commonly-seen electrocardiographic changes include: prolonged QT interval, ST segment changes, T-wave inversion, a new Q-wave or U-wave. Echocardiography shows both an impaired both systolic and diastolic function of the left ventricle. Biochemical markers of NSM comprise metabolic acidosis and increased cardiac enzymes and markers: creatine kinase (CK), and CK-MB, troponin I and B-type natriuretic peptide. The main cause of NSM is myocardial injury induced by local catecholamine release from nerve endings within the myocardium. Recently, a theory has been proposed to classify NSM as one of the stress-related cardiomyopathies, together with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, acute left ventricular failure in the critically ill, cardiomyopathy associated with pheochromacytoma and exogenous catecholamine administration. The occurrence of NSM increases the risk of life-threatening complications, death, and worsens neurologic outcome. As far as we know, treatment should generally focus on the underlying neurologic process in order to maximize neurologic recovery. Improvement in neurologic pathology leads to rapid improvement in cardiac function and its full recovery, as NSM is a fully reversible condition if the patient survives. Awareness of the existence of NSM and a deeper knowledge of its etiopathology may reduce diagnostic errors, optimise its treatment.

  5. BCNU-induced gR2 defect mediates S-glutathionylation of Complex I and respiratory uncoupling in myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Patrick T; Chen, Chwen-Lih; Ren, Pei; Guarini, Giacinta; Chen, Yeong-Renn

    2014-06-15

    A deficiency of mitochondrial glutathione reductase (or GR2) is capable of adversely affecting the reduction of GSSG and increasing mitochondrial oxidative stress. BCNU [1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea] is an anticancer agent and known inhibitor of cytosolic GR ex vivo and in vivo. Here we tested the hypothesis that a BCNU-induced GR2 defect contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent impairment of heart function. Intraperitoneal administration of BCNU (40 mg/kg) specifically inhibited GR2 activity by 79.8 ± 2.7% in the mitochondria of rat heart. However, BCNU treatment modestly enhanced the activities of mitochondrial Complex I and other ETC components. The cardiac function of BCNU-treated rats was analyzed by echocardiography, revealing a systolic dysfunction associated with decreased ejection fraction, decreased cardiac output, and an increase in left ventricular internal dimension and left ventricular volume in systole. The respiratory control index of isolated mitochondria from the myocardium was moderately decreased after BCNU treatment, whereas NADH-linked uncoupling of oxygen consumption was significantly enhanced. Extracellular flux analysis to measure the fatty acid oxidation of myocytes indicated a 20% enhancement after BCNU treatment. When the mitochondria were immunoblotted with antibodies against GSH and UCP3, both protein S-glutathionylation of Complex I and expression of UCP3 were significantly up-regulated. Overexpression of SOD2 in the myocardium significantly reversed BCNU-induced GR2 inhibition and mitochondrial impairment. In conclusion, BCNU-mediated cardiotoxicity is characterized by the GR2 deficiency that negatively regulates heart function by impairing mitochondrial integrity, increasing oxidative stress with Complex I S-glutathionylation, and enhancing uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration.

  6. The effect of captivity on the oral health of the critically endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hartstone-Rose, A; Leischner, C.L; Antonelli, T.S; Ososky, J.J

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes (Audubon and Bachman, 1851)), a North American species of mustelid, faced near extinction after westward expansion during the 20th century destroyed a majority of the population of prairie dogs...

  7. [Special use permit for predator disease study associated with Montana black-footed ferret reintroduction, summer 1994 : APHIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a memorandum providing the Montana Black-Footed Ferret Working Group with information on the proposed predator collection that will happen...

  8. IMPLANTATION OF AUTOLOGOUS BONE MARROW MONONUCLEAR CELLS INTO ISCHEMIC MYOCARDIUM ENHANCES CORONARY CAPILLARIES AND SYSTOLIC FUNCTION IN MINISWINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong-jian Li; Ji-lin Chen; Jian-jun Li; Run-lin Gao; Yue-jin Yang; Feng-huan Hu; Wei-xian Yang; Shi-jie You; Lai-feng Song; Ying-mao Ruan; Shu-bin Qiao

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of intracoronary implantation of autologous bone marrow mononuelear cells (BM-MNC) in miniswine model of reperfused myocardial infarction.Methods Sixteen miniswine myocardial isehemic reperfusion injury models made by ligation of the distal one third segment of left anterior descending artery for 90 minutes were randomized into 2 groups.In BM-MNC group (n=9),(3.54±0.90)×108 BM-MNC were intracoronary injected,and in the control group (n=7),phosphate buffered saline was injected by the same way.Echoeardiographic and hemodynamic results,vessel density,and myocardial infarction size were evaluated and compared before and 4 weeks after cell transplantation.Results In BM-MNC group,there were no differences between before and 4 weeks after transplantation in aspects of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF),interventricular septai thickness,left ventricular lateral and anterior septal wall thickness,cardiac output,or +dp/dtmax.In control group,LVEF,interventrieular septal thickness,left ventricular lateral and anterior septal wall thickness,cardiac output,and +dp/dtmax decreased significantly 4 weeks after transplantation (P<0.05).Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and -dp/dtmax did not change significantly before and after cell transplantation in both groups.Capillary density in BM-MNC group was greater than that in control group [(13.39±6.96)/high power field vs.(3.50 ± 1.90)/high power field,P<0.05].Infarction area assessed by tetrazolium red staining and the infarction percentage decreased in BM-MNC group compared with those in control group (P<0.05).Conclusions Transplantation of BM-MNC into myocardium with isehemie reperfusion injury increases capillary density and decreases infarction area.It has significantly beneficial effect on cardiac systolic function rather than on diastolic function.

  9. Hypodense regions in unenhanced CT identify nonviable myocardium: validation versus {sup 18}F-FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Tobias A.; Ghadri, Jelena R.; Stehli, Julia; Gebhard, Catherine; Kazakauskaite, Egle; Klaeser, Bernd; Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Fiechter, Michael; Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP), Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of hypodense regions in non-contrast-enhanced cardiac computed tomography (unenhanced CT) to identify nonviable myocardial scar tissue. Hypodense areas were visually identified in unenhanced CT of 80 patients in the left ventricular anterior, apical, septal, lateral and inferior myocardium and CT density was measured in Hounsfield units (HU). Findings were compared to {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake by positron emission tomography (FDG PET), which served as the standard of reference to distinguish scar (<50 % FDG uptake) from viable tissue ({>=}50 % uptake). Visually detected hypodense regions demonstrated a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 74, 97, 84 and 94 %, respectively. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed a cutoff value of mean HU at <28.8 for predicting scar tissue with an area under the curve of 0.93 yielding a sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 94, 90, 67 and 99 %, respectively. Hypodense regions in unenhanced cardiac CT scans allow accurate identification of nonviable myocardial scar tissue. (orig.)

  10. Epidemic and Maintenance of Rabies in Chinese Ferret Badgers (Melogale moschata) indicated by Epidemiology and the Molecular Signatures of Rabies Viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shoufeng Zhang; Ye Liu; Yanli Hou; Jinghui Zhao; Fei Zhang; Ying Wang; Rongliang Hu

    2013-01-01

    An epidemic of Chinese ferret badger-associated human rabies was investigated in Wuyuan county,Jiangxi province and rabies viruses isolates from ferret badgers in different districts in Jiangxi and Zhejiang provinces were sequenced with their nucleotides and amino acids and aligned for epidemiological analysis.The results showed that the human rabies in Wuyuan are only associated with ferret badger bites; the rabies virus can be isolated in a high percentage of ferret badgers in the epidemic areas in Jiangxi and Zhejiang provinces; the isolates share the same molecular features in nucleotides and have characteristic amino acid signatures,i.e.,2 sites in the nucleoprotein and 3 sites in the glycoprotein,that are distinct from virus isolates from dogs in the same region.We conclude that rabies in Chinese ferret badgers has formed an independent transmission cycle and ferret badgers may serve as another important rabies reservoir independent of dog rabies in China.

  11. [The changes of hemodynamic parameters, pathology and c-kit mRNA expression in myocardium after acute myocardial infarction in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiqian; Long, Weifu; Wu, Wenchao; Jiang, Congxun; Liu, Xiaojing; Li, Liang

    2009-06-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the changes of hemodynamic parameters, pathology and c kit mRNA expression in myocardium after acute myocardial infarctionin (AMI) in rats, and to elucidate the relationship between these three kinds of changes. Sixty six adult male SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, Sham groups and ligation groups. The rat model of AMI was set up by ligating the left anterior descending artery. Hemodynamic parameters, pathological changes and c kit mRNA expression in myocardiam were examined. The results revealed that there were no statistically significant differences in hemodynamic parameters between normal group and Sham groups. Compared with the normal group, all ligation groups exhibited significantly decreased left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and +/-dp/dtmax (Pinfarct zone at 3rd day group after ligation, and granulation tissue infiltrated into the infarct zone at 14th day group after ligation. In all five time points groups after ligation, the levels of c-kit mRNA expression were 0.99 fold, 1.06 fold, 1.46 fold, 1.91 fold and 2.67 fold, respectively, compared with Sham groups. The results suggest that cardiac stem cells in myocardium might contribute to the role of regenerating myocardium via self proliferation after acute myocardial infarction, but further investigation is still needed.

  12. Use of a gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist implant as an alternative for surgical castration in male ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaker, N J; van Deijk, R; Muijlaert, B; Kik, M J L; Kuijten, A M; de Jong, F H; Trigg, T E; Kruitwagen, C L J J; Mol, J A

    2008-07-15

    Surgical castration in ferrets has been implicated as an etiological factor in the development of hyperadrenocorticism in this species due to a castration-related increase in plasma gonadotropins. In search for a suitable alternative, the effect of treatment with the depot GnRH-agonist implant, deslorelin, on plasma testosterone concentrations and concurrent testes size, spermatogenesis, and the typical musky odor of intact male ferrets was investigated. Twenty-one male ferrets, equally divided into three groups, were either surgically castrated, received a slow release deslorelin implant or received a placebo implant. Plasma FSH and testosterone concentrations, testis size and spermatogenesis were all suppressed after the use of the deslorelin implant. The musky odor in the ferrets which had received a deslorelin implant was less compared to the ferrets which were either surgically castrated or had received a placebo implant. These results indicate that the deslorelin implant effectively prevents reproduction and the musky odor of intact male ferrets and is therefore considered a suitable alternative for surgical castration in these animals.

  13. Recombinant F1-V fusion protein protects black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) against virulent Yersinia pestis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T.E.; Mencher, J.; Smith, S.R.; Friedlander, A.M.; Andrews, G.P.; Baeten, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) are highly susceptible to sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, and this disease has severely hampered efforts to restore ferrets to their historic range. A study was conducted to assess the efficacy of vaccination of black-footed ferrets against plague using a recombinant protein vaccine, designated F1-V, developed by personnel at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. Seven postreproductive black-footed ferrets were immunized with the vaccine, followed by two booster immunizations on days 23 and 154; three control black-footed ferrets received a placebo. After the second immunization, antibody titers to both F1 and V antigen were found to be significantly higher in vaccinates than controls. On challenge with 7,800 colony-forming units of virulent plague by s.c. injection, the three control animals died within 3 days, but six of seven vaccinates survived with no ill effects. The seventh vaccinate died on day 8. These results indicate that black-footed ferrets can be immunized against plague induced by the s.c. route, similar to fleabite injection.

  14. Establishing the ferret as a gyrencephalic animal model of traumatic brain injury: Optimization of controlled cortical impact procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerin, Susan C; Hutchinson, Elizabeth B; Radomski, Kryslaine L; Ngalula, Kapinga P; Pierpaoli, Carlo M; Juliano, Sharon L

    2017-06-15

    Although rodent TBI studies provide valuable information regarding the effects of injury and recovery, an animal model with neuroanatomical characteristics closer to humans may provide a more meaningful basis for clinical translation. The ferret has a high white/gray matter ratio, gyrencephalic neocortex, and ventral hippocampal location. Furthermore, ferrets are amenable to behavioral training, have a body size compatible with pre-clinical MRI, and are cost-effective. We optimized the surgical procedure for controlled cortical impact (CCI) using 9 adult male ferrets. We used subject-specific brain/skull morphometric data from anatomical MRIs to overcome across-subject variability for lesion placement. We also reflected the temporalis muscle, closed the craniotomy, and used antibiotics. We then gathered MRI, behavioral, and immunohistochemical data from 6 additional animals using the optimized surgical protocol: 1 control, 3 mild, and 1 severely injured animals (surviving one week) and 1 moderately injured animal surviving sixteen weeks. The optimized surgical protocol resulted in consistent injury placement. Astrocytic reactivity increased with injury severity showing progressively greater numbers of astrocytes within the white matter. The density and morphological changes of microglia amplified with injury severity or time after injury. Motor and cognitive impairments scaled with injury severity. The optimized surgical methods differ from those used in the rodent, and are integral to success using a ferret model. We optimized ferret CCI surgery for consistent injury placement. The ferret is an excellent animal model to investigate pathophysiological and behavioral changes associated with TBI. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. {sup 99m}TcO(BAT-NI), a novel nitroimidazole tracer: in vivo uptake studies in ischaemic myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffend, J.; Linke, G.; Mohammed, A.; Haberkorn, U. [Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120, Heidelberg (Germany); Tiefenbacher, C.P. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Eisenhut, M. [German Cancer Research Centre, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    Myocardial perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET) performed with cationic technetium-99m complexes indicates ischaemic areas as cold lesions. By contrast, nitroimidazole derivatives labelled with fluorine-18 or {sup 99m}Tc have recently shown promising results for hot spot imaging of ischaemic myocardium. This study evaluates {sup 99m}TcO(BAT-NI), a new {sup 99m}Tc complex comprising the nitroimidazole ligand, 2,10-dimercapto-2,10-dimethyl-4,8-diaza-6-[4-(2-nitroimidazolyl)butyl]undecane, in a low-flow in vivo model of myocardial ischaemia in thoracotomised rats. To elucidate the influence of the 2-nitroimidazole group on ischaemia-induced uptake, comparisons with ligand derivatives were performed where (a) the 2-nitro group was deleted [{sup 99m}TcO(BAT-I)], (b) the 2-nitroimidazole functionality was replaced by a Br atom [{sup 99m}TcO(BAT-Br)] and (c) the {sup 99m}TcO(BAT) moiety was replaced by an iodine-125 iodophenoxybutyl ligand ({sup 125}IP-NI). The radiolabelled compounds were i.v. injected 15 min after reducing resting myocardial blood flow by 50-60% and the uptake of radioactivity was assessed 90 min post injection. Autoradiography of left ventricular short-axis slices showed median uptake ratios of ischaemic/non-ischaemic myocardium (I/N) of 3.4, 4.5 and 3.4 for {sup 99m}TcO(BAT-NI), {sup 99m}TcO(BAT-I) and {sup 99m}TcO(BAT-Br), respectively. In contrast, {sup 125}IP-NI was not preferentially taken up by ischaemic myocardium. Accumulation of {sup 99m}TcO(BAT-NI) in ischaemic heart regions was comparable to that in the liver. Biodistribution studies showed a median uptake of 0.65% ID/g of {sup 99m}TcO(BAT-NI) in ischaemic tissue and an I/N of 3.3. On planar images of the thorax and upper abdomen the ischaemic hearts were visualised faintly; the median heart to lung count ratio for {sup 99m}TcO(BAT-NI) was 1.7, and the median heart to liver count ratio was 1.0. We conclude that uptake of {sup 99m}TcO(BAT-NI) in ischaemic myocardium does not

  16. Right ventricular dysfunction affects survival after surgical left ventricular restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couperus, Lotte E; Delgado, Victoria; Palmen, Meindert; van Vessem, Marieke E; Braun, Jerry; Fiocco, Marta; Tops, Laurens F; Verwey, Harriëtte F; Klautz, Robert J M; Schalij, Martin J; Beeres, Saskia L M A

    2017-04-01

    Several clinical and left ventricular parameters have been associated with prognosis after surgical left ventricular restoration in patients with ischemic heart failure. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of right ventricular function. A total of 139 patients with ischemic heart failure (62 ± 10 years; 79% were male; left ventricular ejection fraction 27% ± 7%) underwent surgical left ventricular restoration. Biventricular function was assessed with echocardiography before surgery. The independent association between all-cause mortality and right ventricular fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain was assessed. The additive effect of multiple impaired right ventricular parameters on mortality also was assessed. Baseline right ventricular fractional area change was 42% ± 9%, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was 18 ± 3 mm, and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain was -24% ± 7%. Within 30 days after surgery, 15 patients died. Right ventricular fractional area change (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.98; P right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.26; P Right ventricular function was impaired in 21%, 20%, and 27% of patients on the basis of right ventricular fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain, respectively. Any echocardiographic parameter of right ventricular dysfunction was present in 39% of patients. The coexistence of several impaired right ventricular parameters per patient was independently associated with increased 30-day mortality (hazard ratio, 2.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.64-4.87, P right ventricular systolic dysfunction is independently associated with increased mortality in patients with ischemic heart failure undergoing surgical left

  17. [Pathomorphology of myocardium in the neuroleptic malignant syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, V P

    2012-01-01

    It was performed morphometric analysis of 55 cases which formed 4 groups: 1 - control group - 10 patients without neuroleptic treatment and heart diseases; 2 - 12 patients without heart disease treated with antipsychotic drugs; 3 - 17 - without cardiaс pathology who died from neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS); 4 - 16 patients with neuroleptic cardiomyopathy (NCMP) who died from NMS. The damage of myocardium in NMS is a relatively acute process involving disturbances of microcirculation, interstitial edema and dystrophic-degenerative changes of cardiomyocytes (CMC). These changes worsen the previous abnormal state of the heart muscle (microfibrosis, CMC atrophy) caused by cardiotoxic side-effects of neuroleptics. The severity of the total myocardium damage in NMS is directly depended on the absence or presence of NCMP.

  18. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the chamber itself also increases. The enlarged heart muscle loses elasticity and eventually may fail to pump with as much force as needed. Left ventricular hypertrophy is more common in people who have uncontrolled ...

  19. Ultrastructure of the internodal myocardium in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Ayettey, A S; Navaratnam, V; Yates, R D

    1988-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies of the rat atrial myocardium reveal that the specialised myocardial cells can be distinguished from the usual atrial myocytes by their lack of specific atrial granules. On the basis of this distinction it has been shown that there is interposition of atrial myocardial tissue in the pathway between the two nodes and that there are no morphologically specialised internodal pathways. The atrial myocardial cells themselves exhibit variations in their content of cytoplasmic...

  20. AKT-modified autologous intracoronary mesenchymal stem cells prevent remodeling and repair in swine infarcted myocardium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yun-sheng; SHEN Zhen-ya; YE Wen-xue; HUANG Hao-yue; HUA Fei; CHEN Yi-huan; CHEN Ke; LAO Wei-jie; TAO Li

    2010-01-01

    CDH1-MCS1-EF1-copGFP and the sequence was confirmed. AKT mRNA expression was detected at 24 hours after transfection. AKT1 expression in MSCs remained strong after 2 weeks, according to real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Prior to cell implantation, end-diastolic left ventricular dimension (EDLVd) increased and stroke volume (SV) decreased in the Ml hearts. MRI scans revealed significantly improved cardiac function following implantation, and implanted MSCs prevented thinning and expanding in the infarct region, as well as improved contraction and increased perfusion in all groups compared to control hearts. The left ventricular chamber size was smaller in cell-transplanted hearts than in control hearts. Moreover, group D exhibited significant improvement. The expression of CX-43, BrdU, and VWF could be found in the immunohistochemical pathological sections of group C and group D. The level of VEGF reached a high level 1 week after implanting the MSCs, but the level of TGF-β1 decreased gradually.Conclusions The AKT1-expressing lentiviral vector resulted in stable over-expression of AKT1 in MSCs. MSC engraftment in host myocardium improved cardiac function by attenuating contractile dysfunction and pathological thinning of the infracted left ventricular wall, which likely resulted from myocardial regeneration and angiogenesis.

  1. Metabolic causes and prevention of ventricular fibrillation during acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Michael F

    2002-03-01

    The mechanisms leading to ventricular fibrillation that occur during acute myocardial ischemia are ill understood. Whether primary ventricular fibrillation is due to a transient imbalance of electrolytes, an alteration of membrane permeability, electrical re-entry phenomena, or other factors, one overriding influence is the development of regional myocardial energy crises. Acute alteration in the balance of substrate supply may lead, during greatly reduced blood flow, to instability of myocardial electrical conduction with the development of re-entry circuits. An immediate response to the angor animi and initial symptoms of an acute coronary syndrome is a rapid and marked increase in catecholamine release, which leads to adipose tissue lipolysis with an acute increase in plasma free fatty acid concentrations, suppression of insulin activity, and a reduction in glucose uptake by the myocardium. The utilization of free fatty acids instead of glucose by the ischemic myocardium could precipitate regional oxygen or energy crises. Prevention therefore should focus on minimizing the catecholamine response and providing the myocardium with an optimum supply of energy substrates. Since catecholamines are inotropic, the aim should be to redress the imbalance of substrate availability by controlling adipose lipolysis with reduction of plasma free fatty acid concentrations, increasing the availability of glucose, or both. Other approaches include inhibition of acylcarnitine transport and manipulation of fatty acid intermediaries. To combat primary ventricular fibrillation, preventive treatment must be established within 6 to 10 hours of the onset of ischemia. There is already experimental and clinical evidence that antilipolytic drugs decrease the incidence of ventricular fibrillation, but their potential has not been explored extensively.

  2. Molecular changes after left ventricular assist device support for heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, Emma J

    2013-08-30

    Heart failure is associated with remodeling that consists of adverse cellular, structural, and functional changes in the myocardium. Until recently, this was thought to be unidirectional, progressive, and irreversible. However, irreversibility has been shown to be incorrect because complete or partial reversal can occur that can be marked after myocardial unloading with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Patients with chronic advanced heart failure can show near-normalization of nearly all structural abnormalities of the myocardium or reverse remodeling after LVAD support. However, reverse remodeling does not always equate with clinical recovery. The molecular changes occurring after LVAD support are reviewed, both those demonstrated with LVAD unloading alone in patients bridged to transplantation and those occurring in the myocardium of patients who have recovered enough myocardial function to have the device removed. Reverse remodeling may be attributable to a reversal of the pathological mechanisms that occur in remodeling or the generation of new pathways. A reduction in cell size occurs after LVAD unloading, which does not necessarily correlate with improved cardiac function. However, some of the changes in both the cardiac myocyte and the matrix after LVAD support are specific to myocardial recovery. In the myocyte, increases in the cytoskeletal proteins and improvements in the Ca²⁺ handling pathway seem to be specifically associated with myocardial recovery. Changes in the matrix are complex, but excessive scarring appears to limit the ability for recovery, and the degree of fibrosis in the myocardium at the time of implantation may predict the ability to recover.

  3. Interaction between Hsp60 and Bax in normal human myocardium and in myocardium affected by dilated cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tykhonkova I. O.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The main functional compartments of molecular chaperone Hsp60 are mitochondria and cytoplasm. Up to 30 % of Hsp60 are located in cytoplasm of cardiomyocytes. The interaction between molecular chaperone Hsp60 and proapoptotic Bax protein in the cytoplasmic fraction from normal human heart tissue has been revealed by co-immunoprecipitation in contrast to myocardium affected by dilated cardiomyopathy, where this interaction has not been observed

  4. Vaccines for Conservation: Plague, Prairie Dogs & Black-Footed Ferrets as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkeld, Daniel J

    2017-09-06

    The endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) is affected by plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, both directly, as a cause of mortality, and indirectly, because of the impacts of plague on its prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) prey base. Recent developments in vaccines and vaccine delivery have raised the possibility of plague control in prairie dog populations, thereby protecting ferret populations. A large-scale experimental investigation across the western US shows that sylvatic plague vaccine delivered in oral baits can increase prairie dog survival. In northern Colorado, an examination of the efficacy of insecticides to control fleas and plague vaccine shows that timing and method of plague control is important, with different implications for long-term and large-scale management of Y. pestis delivery. In both cases, the studies show that ambitious field-work and cross-sectoral collaboration can provide potential solutions to difficult issues of wildlife management, conservation and disease ecology.

  5. Comparison of Digital Rectal and Microchip Transponder Thermometry in Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Branden M; Brunell, Marla K; Olsen, Cara H; Bentzel, David E

    2016-01-01

    Body temperature is a common physiologic parameter measured in both clinical and research settings, with rectal thermometry being implied as the ‘gold standard.’ However, rectal thermometry usually requires physical or chemical restraint, potentially causing falsely elevated readings due to animal stress. A less stressful method may eliminate this confounding variable. The current study compared 2 types of digital rectal thermometers—a calibrated digital thermometer and a common digital thermometer—with an implantable subcutaneous transponder microchip. Microchips were implanted subcutaneously between the shoulder blades of 16 ferrets (8 male, 8 female), and temperatures were measured twice from the microchip reader and once from each of the rectal thermometers. Results demonstrated the microchip temperature readings had very good to good correlation and agreement to those from both of the rectal thermometers. This study indicates that implantable temperature-sensing microchips are a reliable alternative to rectal thermometry for monitoring body temperature in ferrets. PMID:27177569

  6. Challenges to reestablishment of free-ranging populations of black-footed ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, D.E.; Godbey, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) of North America is critically endangered due in part to its extreme specialization on formerly stable and abundant prairie dogs (Cynomys). Its close relative, the Siberian polecat (M. eversmannii) seems to have been subjected to a varying environment that was not conducive to specialization. One source of environmental variation in Asian steppes was plague (caused by Yersina pestis), which was absent from North America. Introduction of plague to North America presents serious challenges to ferret recovery. Partial solutions to other biological and political problems have been found, resulting in improved production in captivity, increased survival post-release, and thriving populations in plague-free South Dakota. ?? 2003 Acade??mie des sciences. Published by E??ditions scientifiques et me??dicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. A New Experimental Infection Model in Ferrets Based on Aerosolised Mycobacterium bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyanne McCallan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is significant interest in developing vaccines to control bovine tuberculosis, especially in wildlife species where this disease continues to persist in reservoir species such as the European Badger (Meles meles. However, gaining access to populations of badgers (protected under UK law is problematic and not always possible. In this study, a new infection model has been developed in ferrets (Mustela furo, a species which is closely related to the badger. Groups of ferrets were infected using a Madison infection chamber and were examined postmortem for the presence of tuberculous lesions and to provide tissue samples for confirmation of Mycobacterium bovis by culture. An infectious dose was defined, that establishes infection within the lungs and associated lymph nodes with subsequent spread to the mesentery lymph nodes. This model, which emphasises respiratory tract infection, will be used to evaluate vaccines for the control of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species.

  8. Wnt/β-catenin signaling directs the regional expansion of first and second heart field-derived ventricular cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buikema, Jan Willem; Mady, Ahmed S; Mittal, Nikhil V; Atmanli, Ayhan; Caron, Leslie; Doevendans, Pieter A; Sluijter, Joost P G; Domian, Ibrahim J

    2013-10-01

    In mammals, cardiac development proceeds from the formation of the linear heart tube, through complex looping and septation, all the while increasing in mass to provide the oxygen delivery demands of embryonic growth. The developing heart must orchestrate regional differences in cardiomyocyte proliferation to control cardiac morphogenesis. During ventricular wall formation, the compact myocardium proliferates more vigorously than the trabecular myocardium, but the mechanisms controlling such regional differences among cardiomyocyte populations are not understood. Control of definitive cardiomyocyte proliferation is of great importance for application to regenerative cell-based therapies. We have used murine and human pluripotent stem cell systems to demonstrate that, during in vitro cellular differentiation, early ventricular cardiac myocytes display a robust proliferative response to β-catenin-mediated signaling and conversely accelerate differentiation in response to inhibition of this pathway. Using gain- and loss-of-function murine genetic models, we show that β-catenin controls ventricular myocyte proliferation during development and the perinatal period. We further demonstrate that the differential activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway accounts for the observed differences in the proliferation rates of the compact versus the trabecular myocardium during normal cardiac development. Collectively, these results provide a mechanistic explanation for the differences in localized proliferation rates of cardiac myocytes and point to a practical method for the generation of the large numbers of stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes necessary for clinical applications.

  9. Replication and transmission of H9N2 influenza viruses in ferrets: evaluation of pandemic potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongquan Wan

    Full Text Available H9N2 avian influenza A viruses are endemic in poultry of many Eurasian countries and have caused repeated human infections in Asia since 1998. To evaluate the potential threat of H9N2 viruses to humans, we investigated the replication and transmission efficiency of H9N2 viruses in the ferret model. Five wild-type (WT H9N2 viruses, isolated from different avian species from 1988 through 2003, were tested in vivo and found to replicate in ferrets. However these viruses achieved mild peak viral titers in nasal washes when compared to those observed with a human H3N2 virus. Two of these H9N2 viruses transmitted to direct contact ferrets, however no aerosol transmission was detected in the virus displaying the most efficient direct contact transmission. A leucine (Leu residue at amino acid position 226 in the hemagglutinin (HA receptor-binding site (RBS, responsible for human virus-like receptor specificity, was found to be important for the transmission of the H9N2 viruses in ferrets. In addition, an H9N2 avian-human reassortant virus, which contains the surface glycoprotein genes from an H9N2 virus and the six internal genes of a human H3N2 virus, showed enhanced replication and efficient transmission to direct contacts. Although no aerosol transmission was observed, the virus replicated in multiple respiratory tissues and induced clinical signs similar to those observed with the parental human H3N2 virus. Our results suggest that the establishment and prevalence of H9N2 viruses in poultry pose a significant threat for humans.

  10. Metastatic, papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the mammary gland in a black-footed ferret

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.W.; Davidson, J.P.; Novilla, M.N.; Huang, J.C.M.

    1980-01-01

    A simple, papillary cystic adenocarcinoma of the mammary gland with metastases to the internal iliac and mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, and spleen was observed in a 12 to 13 year old female black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). Histologically, the tumor was aggressive, and lymphatic invasion was found. Attempts at virus isolation were negative. Other findings were bilateral infarcts in the kidneys, apparently resulting in acute renal shutdown and death, multiple thrombi in the right atrium, aortic arteriosclerosis, and focal interstitial pneumonia.

  11. Infection of the ferret stomach by isogenic flagellar mutant strains of Helicobacter mustelae.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrutis, K A; Fox, J G; Schauer, D B; Marini, R P; Li, X.; L. Yan; Josenhans, C; Suerbaum, S

    1997-01-01

    Helicobacter mustelae, like Helicobacter pylori, possesses two flagellin proteins, FlaA and FlaB. Isogenic mutant strains of H. mustelae have been constructed by disruption of the flaA or flaB gene with a kanamycin resistance cassette or by introduction of both a kanamycin and a chloramphenicol resistance gene to produce a double mutant. To determine whether one or both flagellin proteins are necessary for colonization and persistence of infection with H. mustelae, 19 ferrets, specific pathog...

  12. Sylvatic plague vaccine: combating plague in prarie dogs and black-footed ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Abbott, Rachel C.

    2012-01-01

    After achieving promising results in laboratory trials, researchers at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) and University of Wisconsin at Madison will soon begin field testing a new oral vaccine for sylvatic plague, a devastating disease affecting prairie dogs and other mammals, particularly the endangered black-footed ferret. Our team has developed and is currently registering a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) that uses raccoon poxvirus (RCN) to express two key antigens of the Yersinia pestis bacterium, the causative agent of plague.

  13. Regeneration of the vagus nerve after highly selective vagotomy, an autoradiographic study in the ferret stomach .

    OpenAIRE

    Al Muhtaseb, M. H. [محمد هاشم المحتسب; Abu-Khalaf, M.

    1995-01-01

    This study investigates the regeneration of the vagal nerve fibres after highly selective vagotomy in the ferret stomach by using the autoradiographic technique. Autoradiographic examination of the body of the stomach in the acute experimental animals has failed to show any labelled nerve fibres after highly selective vagotomy while the pylorus has shown many labelled nerve fibres . These observations indicate that the highly selective vagotomy has been performed properly and adequately. ...

  14. Sylvatic plague vaccine: combating plague in prarie dogs and black-footed ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Abbott, Rachel C.

    2012-01-01

    After achieving promising results in laboratory trials, researchers at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) and University of Wisconsin at Madison will soon begin field testing a new oral vaccine for sylvatic plague, a devastating disease affecting prairie dogs and other mammals, particularly the endangered black-footed ferret. Our team has developed and is currently registering a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) that uses raccoon poxvirus (RCN) to express two key antigens of the Yersinia pestis bacterium, the causative agent of plague.

  15. Left ventricular non-compaction: clinical features and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandman Harald

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is apparent that despite lack of family history, patients with the morphological characteristics of left ventricular non-compaction develop arrhythmias, thrombo-embolism and left ventricular dysfunction. Methods Forty two patients, aged 48.7 ± 2.3 yrs (mean ± SEM underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR for the quantification of left ventricular volumes and extent of non-compacted (NC myocardium. The latter was quantified using planimetry on the two-chamber long axis LV view (NC area. The patients included those referred specifically for CMR to investigate suspected cardiomyopathy, and as such is represents a selected group of patients. Results At presentation, 50% had dyspnoea, 19% chest pain, 14% palpitations and 5% stroke. Pulmonary embolism had occurred in 7% and brachial artery embolism in 2%. The ECG was abnormal in 81% and atrial fibrillation occurred in 29%. Transthoracic echocardiograms showed features of NC in only 10%. On CMR, patients who presented with dyspnoea had greater left ventricular volumes (both p Conclusion Left ventricular non-compaction is associated with dysrrhythmias, thromboembolic events, chest pain and LV dysfunction. The inverse correlation between NC area and EF suggests that NC contributes to left ventricular dysfunction.

  16. Three-dimensional ventricular activation imaging by means of equivalent current source modeling and estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Liu, C; He, B

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel electrocardiographic inverse approach for imaging the 3-D ventricular activation sequence based on the modeling and estimation of the equivalent current density throughout the entire myocardial volume. The spatio-temporal coherence of the ventricular excitation process is utilized to derive the activation time from the estimated time course of the equivalent current density. At each time instant during the period of ventricular activation, the distributed equivalent current density is noninvasively estimated from body surface potential maps (BSPM) using a weighted minimum norm approach with a spatio-temporal regularization strategy based on the singular value decomposition of the BSPMs. The activation time at any given location within the ventricular myocardium is determined as the time point with the maximum local current density estimate. Computer simulation has been performed to evaluate the capability of this approach to image the 3-D ventricular activation sequence initiated from a single pacing site in a physiologically realistic cellular automaton heart model. The simulation results demonstrate that the simulated "true" activation sequence can be accurately reconstructed with an average correlation coefficient of 0.90, relative error of 0.19, and the origin of ventricular excitation can be localized with an average localization error of 5.5 mm for 12 different pacing sites distributed throughout the ventricles.

  17. Luteinizing hormone-dependent Cushing's syndrome in a pet ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaker, N J; Kuijten, A M; Galac, S

    2008-04-01

    Hyperadrenocorticism in ferrets is associated with increased circulating concentrations of adrenal androgens, whereas plasma concentrations of cortisol and ACTH are usually not affected. Here, we report on a 5-year-old castrated male pet ferret (Mustela putorius furo) in which the major presenting signs were polyuria and polyphagia. Routine biochemistry values were within their reference ranges. The urinary corticoid:creatinine ratio (UCCR) was increased and the plasma ACTH concentration was suppressed. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed an enlarged right adrenal gland and atrophy of the left adrenal gland. Administration of hCG resulted in an increase of plasma cortisol and androstenedione concentrations. Based on these findings LH/hCG-dependent hypercortisolism and hyperandrogenism were suspected and treatment was started with a depot GnRH-agonist implant containing 9.4mg deslorelin. Within 3 weeks after placement of the implant all clinical signs had disappeared. Three months later the endocrine parameters had normalized, while abdominal ultrasonography revealed that the right adrenal gland had diminished in size and the left adrenal gland was considered of normal size. No recurrences of clinical signs were seen within 2 years after placement of the deslorelin implant. At that time urinary corticoid and plasma hormone concentrations were within their reference ranges, and no further change in the size of the adrenal glands was seen. In conclusion, this is the first confirmed case of LH-dependent hypercortisolism in a ferret that was treated successfully with a depot GnRH-agonist.

  18. Spectral timbre perception in ferrets; discrimination of artificial vowels under different listening conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizley, Jennifer K; Walker, Kerry MM; King, Andrew J; Schnupp, Jan WH

    2013-01-01

    Spectral timbre is an acoustic feature that enables human listeners to determine the identity of a spoken vowel. Despite its importance to sound perception, little is known about the neural representation of sound timbre and few psychophysical studies have investigated timbre discrimination in non-human species. In this study, ferrets were positively conditioned to discriminate artificial vowel sounds in a two-alternative-forced-choice paradigm. Animals quickly learned to discriminate the vowel sound /u/ from /ε/, and were immediately able to generalize across a range of voice pitches. They were further tested in a series of experiments designed to assess how well they could discriminate these vowel sounds under different listening conditions. First, a series of morphed vowels was created by systematically shifting the location of the first and second formant frequencies. Second, the ferrets were tested with single formant stimuli designed to assess which spectral cues they could be using to make their decisions. Finally, vowel discrimination thresholds were derived in the presence of noise maskers presented from either the same or a different spatial location. These data indicate that ferrets show robust vowel discrimination behavior across a range of listening conditions and that this ability shares many similarities with human listeners. PMID:23297909

  19. Spatial and temporal variations of cortical growth during gyrogenesis in the developing ferret brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Andrew K; Kroenke, Christopher D; Chang, Yulin V; Taber, Larry A; Bayly, Philip V

    2013-02-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in cortical growth were studied in the neonatal ferret to illuminate the mechanisms of folding of the cerebral cortex. Cortical surface representations were created from magnetic resonance images acquired between postnatal day 4 and 35. Global measures of shape (e.g., surface area, normalized curvature, and sulcal depth) were calculated. In 2 ferrets, relative cortical growth was calculated between surfaces created from in vivo images acquired at P14, P21, and P28. The isocortical surface area transitions from a slower (12.7 mm(2)/day per hemisphere) to a higher rate of growth (36.7 mm(2)/day per hemisphere) approximately 13 days after birth, which coincides with the time of transition from neuronal proliferation to cellular morphological differentiation. Relative cortical growth increases as a function of relative geodesic distance from the origin of the transverse neurogenetic gradient and is related to the change in fractional diffusion anisotropy over the same time period. The methods presented here can be applied to study cortical growth during development in other animal models or human infants. Our results provide a quantitative spatial and temporal description of folding in cerebral cortex of the developing ferret brain, which will be important to understand the underlying mechanisms that drive folding.

  20. Assessment of Left Ventricular Radial Deformation by Speckle Tracking Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min PAN; Hao LUO; Ashraf Muhammad; Schultheis Judy; Xiaokui LI; David J. Sahn

    2009-01-01

    The left ventricular radial strain in the inner and outer layers was evaluated by using two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (2DS). Twenty-five piglets were studied. The short axis views were acquired. Peak systolic radial strain was measured from 6 circumferential points related to 6 standard segments in the inner and outer layers respectively using 2DS methods. The peak positive first derivative (dp/dt) of left ventricular pressure was compared to the radial strain from 2DS. The inner band showed higher peak radial strain values as compared to the outer band at all of the segments (P<0.0001), but the differences had significance just in anteroseptal, posterior, inferior and septal seg-ments (P<0.05). Good correlation could be found between radial strain of inner and outer layers and peak dp/dt (P<0.001). These preliminary results showed that the degree of local deformation or wall thickening of the ventricular wall in its inner layer was more obvious than its outer layer. It is suggested that the 2DS technique is useful and sensitive for better understanding the regional and global myocar-dial motion and its relationship to the complex architecture of myocardium.

  1. Features Of Daily Dynamics Of Catecholamine Level In Myocardium Under The Influence Of Low Alcohol Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Kostin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The research goal was to study the features of daily dynamics of adrenaline and noradrenaline content in various parts of myocardium at the rats receiving nonalcoholic and alcohol-containing beer at ordinary light regimen. Substantial increase of level of adrenaline and noradrenaline in all parts of myocardium at the rats received nonalcoholic and spirit-based beer in comparison with the control. At the rats received nonalcoholic beer, authentically higher content of adrenaline and low noradrenaline in myocardium in comparison with animals received alcohol-containing beer was observed. The circadian dynamics of catecholamine level in all parts of heart myocardium was disturbed at animals of both experimental groups in comparison with the control. The revealed disturbances of level of daily catecholamine dynamics in myocardium under the influence of beer, undoubtedly, are bound with negative action of nonalcoholic nature ingredients present in beer. Key words: adrenaline, noradrenaline, myocardium, low alcohol drinks.

  2. Left ventricular apical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Silvia; Duarte, Ricardo; Fernandez-Perez, Gabriel C; Castellon, Daniel; Calatayud, Julia; Lecumberri, Iñigo; Larrazabal, Eneritz; Ruiz, Berta Irene

    2011-08-01

    There are many disorders that may involve the left ventricular (LV) apex; however, they are sometimes difficult to differentiate. In this setting cardiac imaging methods can provide the clue to obtaining the diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the spectrum of diseases that most frequently affect the apex of the LV including Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy, LV aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms, apical diverticula, apical ventricular remodelling, apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, LV non-compaction, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia with LV involvement and LV false tendons, with an emphasis on the diagnostic criteria and imaging features. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13244-011-0091-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  3. Mismatched regional myocardial uptake between [sup 123]I-BMIPP and [sup 201]Tl SPECT; Comparison between hypertrophic myocardium and dilated myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Ichiya, Yuichi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Sasaki, Masayuki; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Masuda, Kouji; Ejima, Junichi; Tsuda, Yasuo (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1992-07-01

    The distribution of a new myocardial fatty acid metabolic agent [sup 123]I-BMIPP was compared in 6 each patients with hypertrophic myocardium (4 cases of hypertensive heart disease and 2 of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) and dilated myocardium (4 of dilated type of valvular heart disease and 2 of dilated cardiomyopathy) with that of [sup 201]Tl. Mismatched regional myocardial uptake between [sup 123]I-BMIPP and [sup 201]Tl SPECT was observed in all of the hypertrophic myocardium, however no but one in the dilated myocardium. Relative increase or decrease in regional BMIPP from the images of 20 min and to those of 4 h was observed in 3 cases of the hypertrophic myocardium. FDG-PET was performed in 2 cases of the hypertrophic myocardium. The distribution of FDG was different from neither those of BMIPP nor Tl in a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy case with the reserved distribution of BMIPP and Tl. Although more investigations are necessary, we concluded that [sup 123]I-BMIPP is a promising radiopharmaceutical for evaluating myocardial fatty acid metabolism in hypertrophic myocardium. (author).

  4. Calcium signaling-mediated endogenous protection of cell energetics in the acutely diabetic myocardium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ziegelhoffer, Attila; Waczulikova, Iveta; Ferko, Miroslav; Kincelova, Dana; Ziegelhoffer, Barbara; Ravingerova, Tana; Cagalinec, Michal; Schonburg, Markus; Ziegelhoeffer, Tibor; Sikurova, Libusa; Ulicna, Olga; Mujkosova, Jana

    2009-01-01

    In acute diabetic myocardium, calcium signals propagated by intracellular calcium transients participate in the protection of cell energetics via upregulating the formation of mitochondrial energy transition pores (ETP...

  5. Neurogenic stunned myocardium and cardiac transplantation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Caballero, C; Martín-Bermúdez, R; Revuelto-Rey, J; Aguilar-Cabello, M; Villar-Gallardo, J

    2012-09-01

    We present the case of a 46-year-old woman referred to our center for urgent heart transplantation assessment, initially diagnosed as having cardiogenic shock of uncertain etiology. Some hours before she had suffered syncope without regaining consciousness. When she arrived at our hospital, the objective examination revealed bilateral unreactive mydriasis and absent brain-stem reflexes, and echocardiography showed global left ventricle wall hypokinesis sparing the apex. An urgent computed tomography (CT) imaging of the head was performed, which showed a massive subarachnoid hemorrhage and extensive cerebral edema. In the following hours, she fulfilled the criteria of brain-stem death and indeed became a multiorgan donor. The heart was rejected for transplantation because of the existence of left ventricle wall motion abnormalities associated with neurogenic stunned myocardium. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a stress-related cardiomyopathy that occurs after an acute brain injury. It is especially frequent in subarachnoid hemorrhage, where it reaches an incidence of up to 40% of patients. It is characterized by acute electrocardiographic changes and regional hypokinesis of the left ventricle wall not consistent with the coronary artery distribution, and is thought to be a transient condition. For this reason it should not constitute an absolute contraindication to cardiac donation in young donors with no previous cardiac disease. In our hospital during the last year one third of the potential heart donors had regional left ventricle wall motion abnormalities compatible with neurogenic stunned myocardium. With the aim of improving the number of cardiac donors, several strategies have been described to try to demonstrate the reversibility of this entity, such as dobutamine stress echocardiography.

  6. The effects of exposure to electromagnetic field on rat myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiray, Amac; Tayefi, Hamid; Kiray, Muge; Bagriyanik, Husnu Alper; Pekcetin, Cetin; Ergur, Bekir Ugur; Ozogul, Candan

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) causes increased adverse effects on biological systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of EMF on heart tissue by biochemical and histomorphological evaluations in EMF-exposed adult rats. In this study, 28 male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were used. The rats were divided into two groups: sham group (n = 14) and EMF group (n = 14). Rats in sham group were exposed to same conditions as the EMF group except the exposure to EMF. Rats in EMF group were exposed to a 50-Hz EMF of 3 mT for 4 h/day and 7 days/week for 2 months. After 2 months of exposure, rats were killed; the hearts were excised and evaluated. Determination of oxidative stress parameters was performed spectrophotometrically. To detect apoptotic cells, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry were performed. In EMF-exposed group, levels of lipid peroxidation significantly increased and activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased compared with sham group. The number of TUNEL-positive cells and caspase-3 immunoreactivity increased in EMF-exposed rats compared with sham. Under electron microscopy, there were mitochondrial degeneration, reduction in myofibrils, dilated sarcoplasmic reticulum and perinuclear vacuolization in EMF-exposed rats. In conclusion, the results show that the exposure to EMF causes oxidative stress, apoptosis and morphologic damage in myocardium of adult rats. The results of our study indicate that EMF-related changes in rat myocardium could be the result of increased oxidative stress. Further studies are needed to demonstrate whether the exposure to EMF can induce adverse effects on myocardium.

  7. HISTOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RAT MYOCARDIUM IN CADMIUM TOXICOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novica Bojanić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinogenic effects of cadmium on lungs, testicles and prostate are well known, so as cumulative and toxic effects on kidney, liver and bones; however, there have not been many published articles about the effects of cadmium on myocardium. The aim of this study was to estimate the morphological changes in rat myocardium chronically treated by cadmium. The study was carried out on male albino Wistar rats (n=30, age=35-37 days, body mass 120g +/- 10g. The animals were raised in controlled laboratory conditions and provided with standard laboratory rat food and tap water ad libitum. The rats were divided into two groups: ten animals composed the control group and did not undergo any treatment. The 20 experimental rats were exposed to 10mg of CdCl2 /L drinking water for 90 days. After 90 days, all animals were victimized and after the macroscopic inspection of the heart, myocardial tissue was routinely processed and embedded in paraffin. Sections 5 micrometers thick were stained by HE method and histochemical PAS-AB (pH 2, 5, Masson trichrome method for demonstrating collagen fibers and Toluidine blue for mast cells identification. Cross-striated banding pattern of cardiac cells was ruined. Noticeable atrophy and hydropic degeneration of subendocardial localized cardiac cells were found, with the focal presence of myocytolysis. Endothelial cell hyperplasia and edema of the intima were present on arteriolar type blood vessels causing the focal subocclusion. Fibrocytes, histiocytes and mast cells were numerous, perivascularly localized. Mast cells were polymorphic, larger than normal, oval and mostly degranulated. Instead of scanty endomysium, there is a noticeable interstitial fibrillar fibrosis with few fields of collagen in all myocardium layers between cardiac cells, which is particularly prominent around the larger blood vessels. Cadmium has pronounced vasculotropic properties causing morphological changes of cardiomyocytes, myocardial

  8. H7N9 Influenza Virus Is More Virulent in Ferrets than 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Jung; Ku, Keun Bon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Seo, Sang Heui

    2015-12-01

    The novel H7N9 influenza virus has been infecting humans in China since February 2013 and with a mortality rate of about 40%. This study compared the pathogenicity of the H7N9 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in a ferret model, which shows similar symptoms to those of humans infected with influenza viruses. The H7N9 influenza virus caused a more severe disease than did the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. All of the ferrets infected with the H7N9 influenza virus had died by 6 days after infection, while none of those infected with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus died. Ferrets infected with the H7N9 influenza virus had higher viral titers in their lungs than did those infected with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Histological findings indicated that hemorrhagic pneumonia was caused by infection with the H7N9 influenza virus, but not with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. In addition, the lung tissues of ferrets infected with the H7N9 influenza virus contained higher levels of chemokines than did those of ferrets infected with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. This study suggests that close monitoring is needed to prevent human infection by the lethal H7N9 influenza virus.

  9. Metabolic fate of extracted glucose in normal human myocardium.

    OpenAIRE

    Wisneski, J A; Gertz, E W; Neese, R A; Gruenke, L D; D. L. Morris; Craig, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Glucose is an important substrate for myocardial metabolism. This study was designed to determine the effect of circulating metabolic substrates on myocardial glucose extraction and to determine the metabolic fate of glucose in normal human myocardium. Coronary sinus and arterial catheters were placed in 23 healthy male volunteers. [6-14C]Glucose was infused as a tracer in 10 subjects. [6-14C]Glucose and [U-13C]lactate were simultaneously infused in the other 13 subjects. Simultaneous blood s...

  10. Ultrastructure of the internodal myocardium in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayettey, A S; Navaratnam, V; Yates, R D

    1988-06-01

    Ultrastructural studies of the rat atrial myocardium reveal that the specialised myocardial cells can be distinguished from the usual atrial myocytes by their lack of specific atrial granules. On the basis of this distinction it has been shown that there is interposition of atrial myocardial tissue in the pathway between the two nodes and that there are no morphologically specialised internodal pathways. The atrial myocardial cells themselves exhibit variations in their content of cytoplasmic organelles such as myofibrils, T-tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum but they all contain membrane-bound specific atrial granules.

  11. Voltage-clamp studies of transient inward current and mechanical oscillations induced by ouabain in ferret papillary muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagueuzian, H S; Katzung, B G

    1982-06-01

    1. We studied the effects of a toxic concentration of ouabain on transmembrane electrical activity and on mechanical behaviour of right ventricular papillary muscles from ferrets in a single sucrose-gap using current clamp and voltage clamp.2. Ouabain (1.4-1.8 muM) induced oscillatory after-potentials and after-concentrations in current-clamp experiments. Voltage clamp showed that the oscillatory after-potential was caused by a transient inward current, similar to that in Purkinje fibres.3. The transient current had a sigmoidal dependence on the preceding (activating) voltage step V1, with a treshold around -13 mV and a plateau between +10 and 20 mV. There was a decline in current amplitude for more positive clamps. When activated by a fixed V1 voltage step, and measured at different repolarization levels V2, the transient current manifested an inverse dependence on V2 between -50 and -10 mV. No outward transient current could be detected. Total replacement of Na in the bathing medium by Tris or by sucrose abolished the transient current.4. Ouabain caused an increase of phasic (twitch) tension responses to voltage steps at all potentials without shifting the curve relating these variables on the voltage axis. The drug evoked an even greater increase in the tonic tension responses.5. After prolonged exposure, oscillatory mechanical responses were frequently recorded during positive voltage steps. Unlike the after-contraction, these mechanical fluctuations were not consistently damped and were not accompanied by detectable synchronous current fluctuations. Catecholamines and dibutyryl cyclic AMP markedly reduced the amplitude of the tonic contraction and the mechanical oscillations but increased their frequency. Caffeine had no effect on the tonic contraction amplitude but abolished the fluctuations.6. These results support the proposal that Ca is transiently released from the overloaded sarcoplasmic reticulum in ouabain-intoxicated muscle and may evoke oscillatory

  12. Leptin decreases heart rate associated with increased ventricular repolarization via its receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Chang; Huang, Jianying; Hileman, Stan; Martin, Karen H; Hull, Robert; Davis, Mary; Yu, Han-Gang

    2015-11-15

    Leptin has been proposed to modulate cardiac electrical properties via β-adrenergic receptor activation. The presence of leptin receptors and adipocytes in myocardium raised a question as to whether leptin can directly modulate cardiac electrical properties such as heart rate and QT interval via its receptor. In this work, the role of local direct actions of leptin on heart rate and ventricular repolarization was investigated. We identified the protein expression of leptin receptors at cell surface of sinus node, atrial, and ventricular myocytes isolated from rat heart. Leptin at low doses (0.1-30 μg/kg) decreased resting heart rate; at high doses (150-300 μg/kg), leptin induced a biphasic effect (decrease and then increase) on heart rate. In the presence of high-dose propranolol (30 mg/kg), high-dose leptin only reduced heart rate and sometimes caused sinus pauses and ventricular tachycardia. The leptin-induced inhibition of resting heart rate was fully reversed by leptin antagonist. Leptin also increased heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc), and leptin antagonist did not. In isolated ventricular myocytes, leptin (0.03-0.3 μg/ml) reversibly increased the action potential duration. These results supported our hypothesis that in addition to indirect pathway via sympathetic tone, leptin can directly decrease heart rate and increase QT interval via its receptor independent of β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. During inhibition of β-adrenergic receptor activity, high concentration of leptin in myocardium can cause deep bradycardia, prolonged QT interval, and ventricular arrhythmias.

  13. An orthotropic viscoelastic model for the passive myocardium: continuum basis and numerical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültekin, Osman; Sommer, Gerhard; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2016-11-01

    This study deals with the viscoelastic constitutive modeling and the respective computational analysis of the human passive myocardium. We start by recapitulating the locally orthotropic inner structure of the human myocardial tissue and model the mechanical response through invariants and structure tensors associated with three orthonormal basis vectors. In accordance with recent experimental findings the ventricular myocardial tissue is assumed to be incompressible, thick-walled, orthotropic and viscoelastic. In particular, one spring element coupled with Maxwell elements in parallel endows the model with viscoelastic features such that four dashpots describe the viscous response due to matrix, fiber, sheet and fiber-sheet fragments. In order to alleviate the numerical obstacles, the strictly incompressible model is altered by decomposing the free-energy function into volumetric-isochoric elastic and isochoric-viscoelastic parts along with the multiplicative split of the deformation gradient which enables the three-field mixed finite element method. The crucial aspect of the viscoelastic formulation is linked to the rate equations of the viscous overstresses resulting from a 3-D analogy of a generalized 1-D Maxwell model. We provide algorithmic updates for second Piola-Kirchhoff stress and elasticity tensors. In the sequel, we address some numerical aspects of the constitutive model by applying it to elastic, cyclic and relaxation test data obtained from biaxial extension and triaxial shear tests whereby we assess the fitting capacity of the model. With the tissue parameters identified, we conduct (elastic and viscoelastic) finite element simulations for an ellipsoidal geometry retrieved from a human specimen.

  14. Repetitive stimulation of autophagy-lysosome machinery by intermittent fasting preconditions the myocardium to ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Rebecca J; Ma, Xiucui; Liu, Haiyan; Murphy, John T; Weinheimer, Carla J; Kovacs, Attila; Crosby, Seth D; Saftig, Paul; Diwan, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy, a lysosomal degradative pathway, is potently stimulated in the myocardium by fasting and is essential for maintaining cardiac function during prolonged starvation. We tested the hypothesis that intermittent fasting protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via transcriptional stimulation of the autophagy-lysosome machinery. Adult C57BL/6 mice subjected to 24-h periods of fasting, every other day, for 6 wk were protected from in-vivo ischemia-reperfusion injury on a fed day, with marked reduction in infarct size in both sexes as compared with nonfasted controls. This protection was lost in mice heterozygous null for Lamp2 (coding for lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2), which demonstrate impaired autophagy in response to fasting with accumulation of autophagosomes and SQSTM1, an autophagy substrate, in the heart. In lamp2 null mice, intermittent fasting provoked progressive left ventricular dilation, systolic dysfunction and hypertrophy; worsening cardiomyocyte autophagosome accumulation and lack of protection to ischemia-reperfusion injury, suggesting that intact autophagy-lysosome machinery is essential for myocardial homeostasis during intermittent fasting and consequent ischemic cardioprotection. Fasting and refeeding cycles resulted in transcriptional induction followed by downregulation of autophagy-lysosome genes in the myocardium. This was coupled with fasting-induced nuclear translocation of TFEB (transcription factor EB), a master regulator of autophagy-lysosome machinery; followed by rapid decline in nuclear TFEB levels with refeeding. Endogenous TFEB was essential for attenuation of hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced cell death by repetitive starvation, in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, in-vitro. Taken together, these data suggest that TFEB-mediated transcriptional priming of the autophagy-lysosome machinery mediates the beneficial effects of fasting-induced autophagy in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  15. Nanovector-based prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 silencing system enhances the efficiency of stem cell transplantation for infarcted myocardium repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kai Zhu,1,2 Hao Lai,1,2 Changfa Guo,1,2 Jun Li,1,2 Yulin Wang,1,2 Lingyan Wang,3 Chunsheng Wang1,2 1Department of Cardiac Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Biomedical Research Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC transplantation has attracted much attention in myocardial infarction therapy. One of the limitations is the poor survival of grafted cells in the ischemic microenvironment. Small interfering RNA-mediated prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2 silencing in MSCs holds tremendous potential to enhance their survival and paracrine effect after transplantation. However, an efficient and biocompatible PHD2 silencing system for clinical application is lacking. Herein, we developed a novel PHD2 silencing system based on arginine-terminated generation 4 poly(amidoamine (Arg-G4 nanoparticles. The system exhibited effective and biocompatible small interfering RNA delivery and PHD2 silencing in MSCs in vitro. After genetically modified MSC transplantation in myocardial infarction models, MSC survival and paracrine function of IGF-1 were enhanced significantly in vivo. As a result, we observed decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis, scar size, and interstitial fibrosis, and increased angiogenesis in the diseased myocardium, which ultimately attenuated ventricular remodeling and improved heart function. This work demonstrated that an Arg-G4 nanovector-based PHD2 silencing system could enhance the efficiency of MSC transplantation for infarcted myocardium repair. Keywords: nanoparticles, PHD2, siRNA delivery, mesenchymal stem cells, myocardial infarction

  16. STAT3 activation in pressure-overloaded feline myocardium: role for integrins and the tyrosine kinase BMX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Christopher D; Palanisamy, Arun P; Johnston, Rebecca K; Mani, Santhosh K; Shiraishi, Hirokazu; Tuxworth, William J; Zile, Michael R; Balasubramanian, Sundaravadivel; Kuppuswamy, Dhandapani

    2008-06-27

    Growth, survival and cytoskeletal rearrangement of cardiomyocytes are critical for cardiac hypertrophy. Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) activation is an important cardioprotective factor associated with cardiac hypertrophy. Although STAT3 activation has been reported via signaling through Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) in several cardiac models of hypertrophy, the importance of other nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (NTKs) has not been explored. Utilizing an in vivo feline right ventricular pressure-overload (RVPO) model of hypertrophy, we demonstrate that in 48 h pressure-overload (PO) myocardium, STAT3 becomes phosphorylated and redistributed to detergent-insoluble fractions with no accompanying JAK2 activation. PO also caused increased levels of phosphorylated STAT3 in both cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions. To investigate the role of other NTKs, we used our established in vitro cell culture model of hypertrophy where adult feline cardiomyocytes are embedded three-dimensionally (3D) in type-I collagen and stimulated with an integrin binding peptide containing an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif that we have previously shown to recapitulate the focal adhesion complex (FAC) formation of 48 h RVPO. RGD stimulation of adult cardiomyocytes in vitro caused both STAT3 redistribution and activation that were accompanied by the activation and redistribution of c-Src and the TEC family kinase, BMX, but not JAK2. However, infection with dominant negative c-Src adenovirus was unable to block RGD-stimulated changes on either STAT3 or BMX. Further analysis in vivo in 48 h PO myocardium showed the presence of both STAT3 and BMX in the detergent-insoluble fraction with their complex formation and phosphorylation. Therefore, these studies indicate a novel mechanism of BMX-mediated STAT3 activation within a PO model of cardiac hypertrophy that might contribute to cardiomyocyte growth and survival.

  17. STAT3 Activation in Pressure-Overloaded Feline Myocardium: Role for Integrins and the Tyrosine Kinase BMX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Willey, Arun P. Palanisamy, Rebecca K. Johnston, Santhosh K. Mani, Hirokazu Shiraishi, William J. Tuxworth, Michael R. Zile, Sundaravadivel Balasubramanian, Dhandapani Kuppuswamy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth, survival and cytoskeletal rearrangement of cardiomyocytes are critical for cardiac hypertrophy. Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3 activation is an important cardioprotective factor associated with cardiac hypertrophy. Although STAT3 activation has been reported via signaling through Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2 in several cardiac models of hypertrophy, the importance of other nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (NTKs has not been explored. Utilizing an in vivo feline right ventricular pressure-overload (RVPO model of hypertrophy, we demonstrate that in 48 h pressure-overload (PO myocardium, STAT3 becomes phosphorylated and redistributed to detergent-insoluble fractions with no accompanying JAK2 activation. PO also caused increased levels of phosphorylated STAT3 in both cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions. To investigate the role of other NTKs, we used our established in vitro cell culture model of hypertrophy where adult feline cardiomyocytes are embedded three-dimensionally (3D in type-I collagen and stimulated with an integrin binding peptide containing an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD motif that we have previously shown to recapitulate the focal adhesion complex (FAC formation of 48 h RVPO. RGD stimulation of adult cardiomyocytes in vitro caused both STAT3 redistribution and activation that were accompanied by the activation and redistribution of c-Src and the TEC family kinase, BMX, but not JAK2. However, infection with dominant negative c-Src adenovirus was unable to block RGD-stimulated changes on either STAT3 or BMX. Further analysis in vivo in 48 h PO myocardium showed the presence of both STAT3 and BMX in the detergent-insoluble fraction with their complex formation and phosphorylation. Therefore, these studies indicate a novel mechanism of BMX-mediated STAT3 activation within a PO model of cardiac hypertrophy that might contribute to cardiomyocyte growth and survival.

  18. Evaluation of global and regional left ventricular systolic function in patients with frequent isolated premature ventricular complexes from the right ventricular outflow tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Jing; XU Jing; YONG Yong-hong; CAO Ke-jiang; CHEN Shao-liang; XU Di

    2012-01-01

    Background Frequent premature ventricular complexes from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT-PVCs) are associated with left ventricular dysfunction.This study adopted two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging to evaluate global and regional left ventricular myocardial function in patients with frequent RVOT-PVCs.Methods This study included 30 patients with frequent RVOT-PVCs and 30 healthy subjects.Aortic systolic velocity-time integral (AoVTI) and myocardium strain in circumferential (CS),radial (RS) and longitudinal (LS) directions were evaluated by conventional echocardiography and speckle tracking imaging.All values of patients with RVOT-PVCs were recorded during sinus (PVC-S) and PVC beats (PVC-V).Results Significant differences were demonstrated in global CS,RS and LS between the control subjects and the PVC-V (CS:(17.46±2.48)% vs.(11.52±3.28)%,RS:(48.26±10.20)% vs.(20.92±9.78)%,LS:(19.89±2.62)% vs.(11.79±3.66)%,P <0.01),and in segmental RS and LS of nearly all the left ventricular segments.Statistical differences in segmental CS between the PVC-V and the control subjects were only observed in anterior,anteroseptal and septal segments (only seen in anteroseptal and septal segments at apex).Furthermore,V/S AoVTI (AoVTI during the PVC beat divided by AoVTI during the sinus beat,then multiplied by 100%) correlated with coupling interval (r=0.67,P <0.001) and global strain (CS:r=0.48,P=0.007; RS:r=0.65,P <0.001; LS:r=0.65,P <0.001).Conclusions Frequent RVOT-PVCs can induce global and regional left ventricular systolic dysfunction.The reduction of hemodynamic parameters relates to the coupling interval and the global systolic function.

  19. A unique association of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and acute myocarditis, as assessed by cardiac MRI: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsiglione, Andrea; Puglia, Marta; Morisco, Carmine; Barbuto, Luigi; Rapacciuolo, Antonio; Santoro, Mario; Spinelli, Letizia; Trimarco, Bruno; Cuocolo, Alberto; Imbriaco, Massimo

    2016-11-21

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD), is a genetic disorder of the heart, which mainly involves the right ventricle. It is characterized by hypokinetic areas at the free wall of the right ventricle (RV) or both ventricles, where myocardium is replaced by fibrous or fatty tissue. ARVD is an important cause of ventricular arrhythmias in children and young adults. Although the transmission of the disease is based on hereditary, in young adults it may not show any symptoms. The main differential diagnoses with other frequent etiological causes of sudden arrhythmia are: idiopathic outflow tract ventricular tachycardia of the RV, myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy and sarcoidosis. We describe an unusual case of a 44-year-old woman who was hospitalized for ventricular tachycardia, deep asthenia and dyspnoea with no previous history of cardiac disease. The patient had a ten-year history of palpitations, which started immediately after her last pregnancy. She was diagnosed with both acute/subacute viral myocarditis and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, based on established clinical and cardiac MRI criteria. After the diagnosis the patient received an automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Currently, she is on clinical follow-up with no apparent further complications. Analyzing this rare case, we have shown the link between myocarditis and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, and how important is to perform a cardiac MRI, in the context of acute myocarditis and ventricular arrhythmia.

  20. Development of bioartificial myocardium using stem cells and nanobiotechnology templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachques, Juan Carlos

    2010-12-29

    Cell-based regenerative therapy is undergoing experimental and clinical trials in cardiology, in order to limit the consequences of decreased contractile function and compliance of damaged ventricles following myocardial infarction. Over 1000 patients have been treated worldwide with cell-based procedures for myocardial regeneration. Cellular cardiomyoplasty seems to reduce the size and fibrosis of infarct scars, limit adverse postischemic remodelling, and improve diastolic function. The development of a bioartificial myocardium is a new challenge; in this approach, tissue-engineered procedures are associated with cell therapy. Organ decellularization for bioscaffolds fabrication is a new investigated concept. Nanomaterials are emerging as the main candidates to ensure the achievement of a proper instructive cellular niche with good drug release/administration properties. Investigating the electrophysiological properties of bioartificial myocardium is the challenging objective of future research, associating a multielectrode network to provide electrical stimulation could improve the coupling of grafted cells and scaffolds with host cardiomyocytes. In summary, until now stem cell transplantation has not achieved clear hemodynamic benefits for myocardial diseases. Supported by relevant scientific background, the development of myocardial tissue engineering may constitute a new avenue and hope for the treatment of myocardial diseases.

  1. Structural three-dimensional constitutive law for the passive myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, A; Lanir, Y; Yin, F C; Perl, M; Sheinman, I; Strumpf, R K

    1988-08-01

    A three-dimensional constitutive law is proposed for the myocardium. Its formulation is based on a structural approach in which the total strain energy of the tissue is the sum of the strain energies of its constituents: the muscle fibers, the collagen fibers and the fluid matrix which embeds them. The ensuing material law expresses the specific structural and mechanical properties of the tissue, namely, the spatial orientation of the comprising fibers, their waviness in the unstressed state and their stress-strain behavior when stretched. Having assumed specific functional forms for the distribution of the fibers spatial orientation and waviness, the results of biaxial mechanical tests serve for the estimation of the material constants appearing in the constitutive equations. A very good fit is obtained between the measured and the calculated stresses, indicating the suitability of the proposed model for describing the mechanical behavior of the passive myocardium. Moreover, the results provide general conclusions concerning the structural basis for the tissue overall mechanical properties, the main of which is that the collagen matrix, though comprising a relatively small fraction of the whole tissue volume, is the dominant component accounting for its stiffness.

  2. Development of Bioartificial Myocardium Using Stem Cells and Nanobiotechnology Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Chachques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell-based regenerative therapy is undergoing experimental and clinical trials in cardiology, in order to limit the consequences of decreased contractile function and compliance of damaged ventricles following myocardial infarction. Over 1000 patients have been treated worldwide with cell-based procedures for myocardial regeneration. Cellular cardiomyoplasty seems to reduce the size and fibrosis of infarct scars, limit adverse postischemic remodelling, and improve diastolic function. The development of a bioartificial myocardium is a new challenge; in this approach, tissue-engineered procedures are associated with cell therapy. Organ decellularization for bioscaffolds fabrication is a new investigated concept. Nanomaterials are emerging as the main candidates to ensure the achievement of a proper instructive cellular niche with good drug release/administration properties. Investigating the electrophysiological properties of bioartificial myocardium is the challenging objective of future research, associating a multielectrode network to provide electrical stimulation could improve the coupling of grafted cells and scaffolds with host cardiomyocytes. In summary, until now stem cell transplantation has not achieved clear hemodynamic benefits for myocardial diseases. Supported by relevant scientific background, the development of myocardial tissue engineering may constitute a new avenue and hope for the treatment of myocardial diseases.

  3. Myocardial ischemia during cardiopulmonary bypass. The hazards of ventricular fibrillation in the presence of a critical coronary stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardullo, R C; Schaff, H V; Flaherty, J T; Gott, V L

    1977-05-01

    The effect of a critical coronary artery stenosis on myocardial blood flow and metabolism in the fibrillating heart was assessed by placing 10 dogs on cardiopulmonary bypass, venting the ventricle, inducing ventricular fibrillation, and applying critical stenosis to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Endocardial and epicardial blood flows were measured by the radioactive microsphere technique prior to the application of the stenosis and after one hour and 2 hours of fibrillation. Intramyocardial oxygen tension (PO2) and carbon dioxide tension (PCO2) were continuously monitored in the LAD-supplied myocardium by a mass spectrometer probe inserted at midmyocardial depth. Selective arterial-coronary venous lactate differences were determined at control, one hour, and 2 hours. At the end of the 2 hour period, vital dye injection defined the distribution of the LAD. Endocardial flow to the myocardium of the stenosed LAD was reduced by 50 per cent after one hour and by 70 per cent after 2 hours (p less than 0.05). Epicardial flow fell 40 per cent after one hour and 50 per cent after 2 hours (p less than 0.05). Endocardial and epicardial flow in the distribution of the unstenosed circumflex coronary artery remained unchanged. Changes in myocardial PO2 and PCO2 in the LAD-supplied myocardium indicated the development of severe ischemia in all 10 dogs and suggested myocardial infarction in 5. There was a conversion from lactate extraction to lactate production during the 2 hour period of ventricular fibrillation. From this study, it is concluded that the myocardium distal to a critical stenosis suffers a progressive reduction in flow during ventricular fibrillation which does not occur in regions supplied by unstenosed coronary arteries. Thus prolonged fibrillation in the presence of a flow-limiting coronary stenosis may play a role in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction during coronary bypass surgery.

  4. The amount of viable and dyssynchronous myocardium is associated with response to cardiac resynchronization therapy: initial clinical results using multiparametric ECG-gated [{sup 18}F]FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, Sebastian; Uebleis, Christopher; Haug, Alexander; Bartenstein, Peter [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Schuessler, Franziska; Kaeaeb, Stefan; Estner, Heidi [University of Munich, Medical Department I, Munich (Germany); Van Kriekinge, Serge D.; Germano, Guido [UCLA, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles and David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hacker, Marcus [Medical University of Vienna, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Theraphy, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-12-15

    There is still a significant amount of patients who do not sufficiently respond to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Previous studies demonstrated that the amount of dyssynchronous myocardium was predictive of response to CRT. Otherwise, non-response is frequently associated with high amounts of scar tissue. The combination of these parameters might yield a more accurate prediction of response. We hypothesized that the probability of a CRT response increases with the presence of high amounts of ''viable and dyssynchronous'' myocardium. A total of 19 patients (17 male, 61 {+-} 10 years) underwent ECG-gated [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) myocardial positron emission tomography (PET) before CRT device implantation and were followed for 6 months. Response to CRT was defined as clinical improvement of at least one New York Heart Association (NYHA) class in combination with left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) improvement of >5 %. Twelve responders (71 %) and seven non-responders (29 %) were identified. For each patient bullseye maps of FDG uptake and phase analysis were calculated (QPS/QGS 2012, Cedars-Sinai, Los Angeles, CA, USA) and fused. Amounts of myocardium representing ''viable and synchronous'', ''scar and synchronous'', viable and dyssynchronous or ''scar and dyssynchronous'' myocardium were quantified by planimetric measurements of the fused bullseye maps. Responders by definition showed significant decrease in NYHA class and significant increase of LVEF. Furthermore, a significantly higher amount of viable and dyssynchronous myocardium was found as compared to non-responders (21 {+-} 13 % vs 6 {+-} 5 %; p < 0.05). Combined assessment of myocardial viability and LV dyssynchrony is feasible using multiparametric [{sup 18}F]FDG PET and could improve conventional response prediction criteria for CRT. (orig.)

  5. Characteristics of chaotic processes in electrocardiographically identified ventricular arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysiak, Andrzej; Kobusiak-Prokopowicz, Małgorzata; Kaaz, Konrad; Jarczewska, Kamila; Glabisz, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    The theory of chaos proves a deterministic mechanism of induction of multiple complex processes previously thought to be random in nature. This research explains how these complex processes develop. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis of the chaotic nature of myocardial electrical events during ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF). Original hardware and software was developed for digitalization of on-line electrocardiography (ECG) data, with the functions of automatic and manual identification as well as categoriza-tion of specific ventricular arrhythmias. Patient ECGs were recorded by specially developed measuring equipment (M2TT). Available ECG sampling frequency was 20,000 Hz, and it was possible to analyze the signal retrospectively. Digital ECG of the sinus rhythm (SR) was analyzed with non-sustained VT, VT and VF. The signals were then subjected to mathematical analysis. Using wavelet analysis, signals carrying frequencies from various ranges were isolated from baseline and each of these isolated signals was subjected to Fourier transformation to check on differences in the Fourier power spectra of the analyzed VT and VF signals. Ventricular tachycardia identified based on ECG fulfills the criteria of a chaotic process, while no such properties were found for SR and VF. Information obtained by the ECG is used to record myo-cardial electrical signals, but they are not sufficient to differentiate between an advanced chaotic state and the process of linear expansion of electrical activation within the myocardium. Electrophysiological study requires advanced methods to record the signal of myocardial electrical activity, as ECG is not sufficiently sensitive to identify the features of a chaotic process during VF. (Cardiol J 2017; 24, 2: 151-158).

  6. Neurovirulence of H5N1 infection in ferrets is mediated by multifocal replication in distinct permissive neuronal cell regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Plourde

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI, subtype H5N1, remains an emergent threat to the human population. While respiratory disease is a hallmark of influenza infection, H5N1 has a high incidence of neurological sequelae in many animal species and sporadically in humans. We elucidate the temporal/spatial infection of H5N1 in the brain of ferrets following a low dose, intranasal infection of two HPAI strains of varying neurovirulence and lethality. A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (VN1203 induced mortality in 100% of infected ferrets while A/Hong Kong/483/1997 (HK483 induced lethality in only 20% of ferrets, with death occurring significantly later following infection. Neurological signs were prominent in VN1203 infection, but not HK483, with seizures observed three days post challenge and torticollis or paresis at later time points. VN1203 and HK483 replication kinetics were similar in primary differentiated ferret nasal turbinate cells, and similar viral titers were measured in the nasal turbinates of infected ferrets. Pulmonary viral titers were not different between strains and pathological findings in the lungs were similar in severity. VN1203 replicated to high titers in the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, and brain stem; whereas HK483 was not recovered in these tissues. VN1203 was identified adjacent to and within the olfactory nerve tract, and multifocal infection was observed throughout the frontal cortex and cerebrum. VN1203 was also detected throughout the cerebellum, specifically in Purkinje cells and regions that coordinate voluntary movements. These findings suggest the increased lethality of VN1203 in ferrets is due to increased replication in brain regions important in higher order function and explains the neurological signs observed during H5N1 neurovirulence.

  7. Effect of sex steroids and coital experience on ferrets' preference for the smell, sight and sound of conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelliher, Kevin; Baum, Michael

    2002-05-01

    Previous research showed that ferrets of both sexes recognize potential opposite-sex mates on the basis of volatile body odors. We compared the ability of estrogen and androgen treatments to activate a preference in gonadectomized male and female ferrets for distal cues (volatile body odors alone or volatile odors+sight+sounds) from male versus female stimulus ferrets using an airtight Y-maze and a "stimulus proximity" or a "discrete trials" testing paradigm. Sexually naive, gonadectomized male and female ferrets that received either testosterone propionate (TP) or estradiol benzoate (EB) spent equal time in proximity to goal boxes that provided either volatile odors alone or odors+sight+sounds of male and female stimulus animals. After they received coital experience, male and female subjects (treated with either EB or TP) showed a significant preference for both types of opposite-sex stimuli. When discrete trials tests were given to these ferrets prior to receiving coital experience, EB-treated females preferred to approach odor only cues, as well as odors+sight+sounds of stimulus males, and this preference was further strengthened after coital experience. Sexually naive, TP-treated males preferred to approach volatile odor cues from stimulus females; however, these animals showed an equal preference for odors+sight+sounds of stimulus females and males. Again, after coital experience, males' preference for both sets of cues from stimulus females was significantly enhanced. Thus, in sexually naive ferrets, discrete trials, but not stimulus proximity tests, revealed a preference for distal cues (body odors with or without concurrent sight and sounds) from opposite-sex conspecifics in subjects of both sexes. Coital experience significantly enhanced these preferences for heterosexual distal cues under both testing paradigms.

  8. Infarcted Myocardium-Primed Dendritic Cells Improve Remodeling and Cardiac Function After Myocardial Infarction by Modulating the Regulatory T Cell and Macrophage Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Eun Ho; Lee, Jun-Ho; Park, Eun-Hye; Park, Hyo Eun; Jung, Nam-Chul; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Koh, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Eunmin; Seung, Ki-Bae; Park, Cheongsoo; Hong, Kwan-Soo; Kang, Kwonyoon; Song, Jie-Young; Seo, Han Geuk; Lim, Dae-Seog; Chang, Kiyuk

    2017-04-11

    Inflammatory responses play a critical role in left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Tolerogenic dendritic cells (tDCs) can modulate immune responses, inducing regulatory T cells in a number of inflammatory diseases. We generated tDCs by treating bone marrow-derived dendritic cells with tumor necrosis factor-α and cardiac lysate from MI mice. We injected MI mice, induced by a ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in C57BL/6 mice, twice with tDCs within 24 hours and at 7 days after the ligation. In vivo cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and ex vivo histology confirmed the beneficial effect on postinfarct left ventricular remodeling in MI mice treated with tDCs. Subcutaneously administered infarct lysate-primed tDCs near the inguinal lymph node migrated to the regional lymph node and induced infarct tissue-specific regulatory T-cell populations in the inguinal and mediastinal lymph nodes, spleen, and infarcted myocardium, indicating that a local injection of tDCs induces a systemic activation of MI-specific regulatory T cells. These events elicited an inflammatory-to-reparative macrophage shift. The altered immune environment in the infarcted heart resulted in a better wound remodeling, preserved left ventricular systolic function after myocardial tissue damage, and improved survival. This study showed that tDC therapy in a preclinical model of MI was potentially translatable into an antiremodeling therapy for ischemic tissue repair. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Two different cardiomyopathies in a single patient : hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and left ventricular noncompaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunbul, M; Ozben, B; Mutlu, B

    2013-05-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a complex and relatively common genetic disorder characterized by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, usually associated with a nondilated and hyperdynamic chamber with heterogeneous phenotypic expression and clinical course. On the other hand, LV noncompaction is an uncommon cardiomyopathy characterized by the persistence of fetal myocardium with a pattern of prominent trabecular meshwork and deep intertrabecular recesses, systolic dysfunction, and LV dilatation. We report a 29-year-old man with these two different inherent conditions. Our case raises the possibility of a genetic mutation common to these two clinical entities or different gene mutations existing in the same individual.

  10. Mutation analysis and evaluation of the cardiac localization of TMEM43 in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, A H; Andersen, C B; Tybjærg-Hansen, A;

    2011-01-01

    Christensen AH, Andersen CB, Tybjærg-Hansen A, Haunso S, Svendsen JH. Mutation analysis and evaluation of the cardiac localization of TMEM43 in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. A single report has associated mutations in TMEM43 (LUMA) with a distinctive form of arrhythmogenic right...... with anti-TMEM43, anti-plakoglobin, anti-plakophilin-2, anti-connexin-43, and anti-emerin antibodies was performed on myocardium from TMEM43-positive patients (n = 3) and healthy controls (n = 3). The genetic screening identified heterozygous variants in two families: one reported mutation (c.1073C> T...

  11. Probability mapping of scarred myocardium using texture and intensity features in CMR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The myocardium exhibits heterogeneous nature due to scarring after Myocardial Infarction (MI). In Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) imaging, Late Gadolinium (LG) contrast agent enhances the intensity of scarred area in the myocardium. Methods In this paper, we propose a probability mapping technique using Texture and Intensity features to describe heterogeneous nature of the scarred myocardium in Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) images after Myocardial Infarction (MI). Scarred tissue and non-scarred tissue are represented with high and low probabilities, respectively. Intermediate values possibly indicate areas where the scarred and healthy tissues are interwoven. The probability map of scarred myocardium is calculated by using a probability function based on Bayes rule. Any set of features can be used in the probability function. Results In the present study, we demonstrate the use of two different types of features. One is based on the mean intensity of pixel and the other on underlying texture information of the scarred and non-scarred myocardium. Examples of probability maps computed using the mean intensity of pixel and the underlying texture information are presented. We hypothesize that the probability mapping of myocardium offers alternate visualization, possibly showing the details with physiological significance difficult to detect visually in the original CMR image. Conclusion The probability mapping obtained from the two features provides a way to define different cardiac segments which offer a way to identify areas in the myocardium of diagnostic importance (like core and border areas in scarred myocardium). PMID:24053280

  12. Mechanical efficiency of stunned myocardium is modulated by increased afterload dependency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fan (Dongsheng); L.K. Soei (Lou Kie); L.M. Sassen; R. Krams (Rob); P.D. Verdouw (Pieter)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractOxygen consumption (MVO2) of stunned myocardium is relatively high compared to, and poorly correlated with, systolic contractile function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an increased afterload dependency, induced by the decreased contractility of the stunned myocardium,

  13. The enzymatic degradation of scaffolds and their replacement by vascularized extracellular matrix in the murine myocardium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amerongen, MJ; Harmsen, MC; Petersen, AH; Kors, G; van Luyn, MJA

    Replacement of injured myocardium by cell-based degradable scaffolds is a novel approach to regenerate myocardium. Understanding the foreign body reaction (FBR) induced by the scaffold is requisite to predict unwanted site effects or implant failure. We evaluated the FBR against a biodegradable

  14. The inadequacy of rectal temperature measurements for assessing the effects of antiviral drugs on influenza virus infection of ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbing, N; Healey, G F; Round, E M

    1982-12-01

    From 6 experiments in which 99 ferrets were infected with influenza virus A/Finland/74 and treated with various agents which suppress virus shedding and other parameters of infection, we assessed whether rectal temperature correlated with nasal virus shedding. A number of temperature and virus-shedding related parameters were determined for each experiment but statistical analysis showed little correlation between them, although an elevated temperature occurred at some time after infection. The pooled data also suggested that temperature and virus shedding parameters are not clearly related. The analysis indicates that intermittent rectal temperature measurements are unsatisfactory for determining the efficacy of anti-influenza agents in ferrets.

  15. New reassortant and enzootic European swine influenza 1 viruses transmits efficiently through direct contact in the ferret model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobian, Kristina; P. Fabrizio, Thomas; Yoon, Sun-Woo;

    2015-01-01

    The reverse zoonotic events that introduced the 2009 pandemic influenza virus into pigs have drastically increased the diversity of swine influenza viruses in Europe. The pandemic potential of these novel reassortments is still unclear, necessitating enhanced surveillance of European pigs...... and human-like N2 and one with 2009 pandemic H1 and swine-like N2. All viruses replicated to high titers in nasal wash- and nasal turbinate samples from inoculated ferrets and transmitted efficiently by direct contact. Only the H3N2 virus transmitted to naïve ferrets via the airborne route. Growth kinetics...

  16. Status of rats myocardium under subchronic mercury exposure and its pharmacological correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostislav Kaminsky F.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the characteristics of the myocardium restructuring under the influence of 0.01 LD50 mercury (II chloride, in rats, under subchronic exposure, and the correction of the detected changes. In the work, the structural and metabolic reorganization of myocardium was studied by way of general histological, histochemical and electron microscopic techniques. Herein, administration of Unithiolum reduces the severity of reactions to toxic effects of mercury salts: decreases the intensity of inflammation in the myocardium, improves microcirculation, connective tissue and mitochondrial membranes status and reduces cardiomyocytes apoptosis. Quercetinum has a normalizing effect on the myocardium structure, reduces energy imbalance in the myocardium, and stabilizes mitochondrial membranes. Both Unithiolum and Quercetinum promote intracellular ultrastructures recovery in cardiac myocytes and in endothelial cells, and enhance the regeneration of myofibrils.

  17. Quantitative MRI and DTI Abnormalities During the Acute Period Following CCI in the Ferret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Elizabeth B; Schwerin, Susan C; Radomski, Kryslaine L; Irfanoglu, Mustafa O; Juliano, Sharon L; Pierpaoli, Carlo M

    2016-09-01

    During the acute time period following traumatic brain injury (TBI), noninvasive brain imaging tools such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide important information about the clinical and pathological features of the injury and may help predict long-term outcomes. In addition to standard imaging approaches, several quantitative MRI techniques including relaxometry and diffusion MRI have been identified as promising reporters of cellular alterations after TBI and may provide greater sensitivity and specificity for identifying brain abnormalities especially in mild TBI. However, for these imaging tools to be useful, it is crucial to define their relationship with the neurophysiological response to brain injury. Recently, a model of controlled cortical impact (CCI) has been developed in the ferret which has many advantages compared with rodent models (e.g., gyrencephalic cortex and high white matter volume). The objective of this study was to evaluate quantitative MRI metrics in the ferret CCI model, including T2 values and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics, during the acute time period. Longitudinal quantitative comparisons of in vivo MRI and DTI metrics were evaluated to identify abnormalities and characterize their spatial patterns in the ferret brain. Ex vivo MRI and DTI maps were then compared with histological staining for glial and neuronal abnormalities. The main findings of this article describe T2, diffusivity, and anisotropy markers of tissue change during the acute time period following mild TBI, and ex vivo analyses suggest that MRI and DTI markers are sensitive to subtle cellular alterations in this model. This was confirmed by comparison with immunohistochemistry, also showing altered markers in regions of MRI and DTI change.

  18. Pathogenicity and transmissibility of North American triple reassortant swine influenza A viruses in ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Barman

    Full Text Available North American triple reassortant swine (TRS influenza A viruses have caused sporadic human infections since 2005, but human-to-human transmission has not been documented. These viruses have six gene segments (PB2, PB1, PA, HA, NP, and NS closely related to those of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses. Therefore, understanding of these viruses' pathogenicity and transmissibility may help to identify determinants of virulence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses and to elucidate potential human health threats posed by the TRS viruses. Here we evaluated in a ferret model the pathogenicity and transmissibility of three groups of North American TRS viruses containing swine-like and/or human-like HA and NA gene segments. The study was designed only to detect informative and significant patterns in the transmissibility and pathogenicity of these three groups of viruses. We observed that irrespective of their HA and NA lineages, the TRS viruses were moderately pathogenic in ferrets and grew efficiently in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. All North American TRS viruses studied were transmitted between ferrets via direct contact. However, their transmissibility by respiratory droplets was related to their HA and NA lineages: TRS viruses with human-like HA and NA were transmitted most efficiently, those with swine-like HA and NA were transmitted minimally or not transmitted, and those with swine-like HA and human-like NA (N2 showed intermediate transmissibility. We conclude that the lineages of HA and NA may play a crucial role in the respiratory droplet transmissibility of these viruses. These findings have important implications for pandemic planning and warrant confirmation.

  19. Three dimensional endo-cardiovascular volume-rendered cine computed tomography of isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia; A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sun Hwa; Kim, Yang Min; Lee, Hyun Jong [Sejong General Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    We report multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) findings of a 34-year-old female with isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia. The MDCT and CMR scans displayed a spherical left ventricle (LV) with extensive fatty infiltration within the myocardium at the apex, interventricular septum and inferior wall, anteroapical origin of the papillary muscle, right ventricle wrapping around the deficient LV apex, and impaired systolic function. MDCT visualized morphologic and also functional findings of this unique cardiomyopathy.

  20. Ventricular Assist Device Support: for Management of Sustained Ventricular Arrhythmias

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    We describe herein the cases of 2 patients who had ventricular arrhythmias. In one, a short-term biventricular assist device, the ABIOMED BVS 5000, was placed because the patient had sustained ventricular tachycardia and could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass. Excellent hemodynamic support was maintained for several days while the antiarrhythmic therapy was maximized. Sinus rhythm was restored, and the patient was successfully weaned from the ventricular assist device. However, the s...

  1. Intramyocardial delivery of mesenchymal stem cell-seeded hydrogel preserves cardiac function and attenuates ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mathieu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To improve the efficacy of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC therapy targeted to infarcted myocardium, we investigated whether a self-setting silanized hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Si-HPMC hydrogel seeded with MSC (MSC+hydrogel could preserve cardiac function and attenuate left ventricular (LV remodeling during an 8-week follow-up study in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Si-HPMC hydrogel alone, MSC alone or MSC+hydrogel were injected into the myocardium immediately after coronary artery ligation in female Lewis rats. Animals in the MSC+hydrogel group showed an increase in cardiac function up to 28 days after MI and a mid-term prevention of cardiac function alteration at day 56. Histological analyses indicated that the injection of MSC+hydrogel induced a decrease in MI size and an increase in scar thickness and ultimately limited the transmural extent of MI. These findings show that intramyocardial injection of MSC+hydrogel induced short-term recovery of ventricular function and mid-term attenuation of remodeling after MI. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These beneficial effects may be related to the specific scaffolding properties of the Si-HPMC hydrogel that may provide the ability to support MSC injection and engraftment within myocardium.

  2. Intramyocardial Delivery of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Seeded Hydrogel Preserves Cardiac Function and Attenuates Ventricular Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Eva; Lamirault, Guillaume; Toquet, Claire; Lhommet, Pierre; Rederstorff, Emilie; Sourice, Sophie; Biteau, Kevin; Hulin, Philippe; Forest, Virginie; Weiss, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Background To improve the efficacy of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy targeted to infarcted myocardium, we investigated whether a self-setting silanized hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Si-HPMC) hydrogel seeded with MSC (MSC+hydrogel) could preserve cardiac function and attenuate left ventricular (LV) remodeling during an 8-week follow-up study in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI). Methodology/Principal Finding Si-HPMC hydrogel alone, MSC alone or MSC+hydrogel were injected into the myocardium immediately after coronary artery ligation in female Lewis rats. Animals in the MSC+hydrogel group showed an increase in cardiac function up to 28 days after MI and a mid-term prevention of cardiac function alteration at day 56. Histological analyses indicated that the injection of MSC+hydrogel induced a decrease in MI size and an increase in scar thickness and ultimately limited the transmural extent of MI. These findings show that intramyocardial injection of MSC+hydrogel induced short-term recovery of ventricular function and mid-term attenuation of remodeling after MI. Conclusion/Significance These beneficial effects may be related to the specific scaffolding properties of the Si-HPMC hydrogel that may provide the ability to support MSC injection and engraftment within myocardium. PMID:23284842

  3. L-propionylcarnitine and myocardial performance in stunned porcine myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, L M; Duncker, D J; Hogendoorn, A; McFalls, E O; Krams, R; Bezstarosti, K; Lamers, J M; Verdouw, P D

    1992-10-21

    Recently, we showed that L-propionylcarnitine did not affect recovery of regional contractile function of porcine myocardium subjected to 1 h of low-flow ischemia followed by 2 hr of reperfusion. In that study, ischemia may have been too severe and/or the duration of reperfusion too short to detect a beneficial effect of the compound. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effects of saline (control group; n = 14) or pretreatment with L-propionyl-carnitine (3 days of 50 mg/kg p.o. b.i.d. + 50 mg/kg i.v. prior to the experiment; n = 13) on recovery of regional contractile function of the myocardium in open-chest anesthetized pigs, subjected to two cycles of 10 min of left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) occlusion, each followed by 30 min of reperfusion. In the control animals, at the end of the second reperfusion period, systemic vascular resistance had increased by 18%, which, however, was not observed in the L-propionylcarnitine-treated pigs. In the control group, during the first occlusion, systolic segment length shortening (SSLS) of the LADCA-perfused area decreased from 18.5 +/- 5.5% to -3.7 = 3.2%. After 30 min of reperfusion, SSLS of the LADCA-perfused area had only partially recovered to 6.2 +/- 5.9%. During the second occlusion-reperfusion cycle similar values for SSLS were observed. In the treated animals, SSLS of the LADCA-perfused area was slightly improved after the second occlusion-reperfusion cycle (p = 0.056). This effect did not result in an overall improvement in cardiac pump function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Recovery of the black-footed ferret: Progress and continuing challenges- Proceedings of the Symposium on the Status of the Black-footed Ferret and Its Habitat, Fort Collins, Colorado, January 28-29, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelle, James E.; Miller, Brian J.; Godbey, Jerry L.; Biggins, Dean E.

    2006-01-01

    The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) is a member of the weasel family (Mustelidae) and is closely related to the Siberian polecat (M. eversmannii) of Asian steppes and the European polecat (M. putorius). Compared to its relatives, the black-footed ferret is an extreme specialist, depending on the prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) of North American grasslands for food and using prairie dog burrows for shelter. The black-footed ferret’s close association with prairie dogs was an important factor in its decline. Prairie dogs were regarded as an agricultural pest as human settlement progressed westward, and they became important hosts for plague as that disease colonized eastward from its sources of introduction on the west coast. Prairie dog numbers were dramatically reduced by poisoning, cropland conversions, and plague during the first half of the 20th century, and black-footed ferret populations declined precipitously. The black-footed ferret was included on the first lists of endangered species, and its status was precarious by the time the Endangered Species Act of 1973 was passed. Its rebound from a low point of 10 known individuals in spring of 1985 (Biggins and others, 2006) is impressive, but the species is not yet “recovered” in either the biological or legal sense (for further details, see Lockhart and others, this volume).

  5. Targeted inactivation of Cerberus like-2 leads to left ventricular cardiac hyperplasia and systolic dysfunction in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Araújo

    Full Text Available Previous analysis of the Cerberus like 2 knockout (Cerl2-/- mouse revealed a significant mortality during the first day after birth, mostly due to cardiac defects apparently associated with randomization of the left-right axis. We have however, identified Cerl2-associated cardiac defects, particularly a large increase in the left ventricular myocardial wall in neonates that cannot be explained by laterality abnormalities. Therefore, in order to access the endogenous role of Cerl2 in cardiogenesis, we analyzed the embryonic and neonatal hearts of Cerl2 null mutants that did not display a laterality phenotype. Neonatal mutants obtained from the compound mouse line Cer2-/-::Mlc1v-nLacZ24+, in which the pulmonary ventricle is genetically marked, revealed a massive enlargement of the ventricular myocardium in animals without laterality defects. Echocardiography analysis in Cerl2-/- neonates showed a left ventricular systolic dysfunction that is incompatible with a long lifespan. We uncovered that the increased ventricular muscle observed in Cerl2-/- mice is caused by a high cardiomyocyte mitotic index in the compact myocardium which is mainly associated with increased Ccnd1 expression levels in the left ventricle at embryonic day (E 13. Interestingly, at this stage we found augmented left ventricular expression of Cerl2 levels when compared with the right ventricle, which may elucidate the regionalized contribution of Cerl2 to the left ventricular muscle formation. Importantly, we observed an increase of phosphorylated Smad2 (pSmad2 levels in embryonic (E13 and neonatal hearts indicating a prolonged TGFβs/Nodal-signaling activation. Concomitantly, we detected an increase of Baf60c levels, but only in Cerl2-/- embryonic hearts. These results indicate that independently of its well-known role in left-right axis establishment Cerl2 plays an important role during heart development in the mouse, mediating Baf60c levels by exerting an important control of

  6. Hepatocyte growth factor gene therapy reduces ventricular arrhythmia in animal models of myocardial ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumoto,Akihisa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available

    It was recently reported that gene therapy using hepatocyte growth factor (HGF has the potential to preserve cardiac function after myocardial ischemia. We speculated that this HGF gene therapy could also prevent ventricular arrhythmia. To investigate this possibility, we examined the antiarrhythmic effect of HGF gene therapy in rat acute and old myocardial infarction models. Myocardial ischemia was induced by ligation of the left descending coronary artery. Hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ-coated liposome containing HGF genes were injected directly into the myocardium fourteen days before programmed pacing. Ventricular fibrillation (VFwas induced by programmed pacing. The VF duration was reduced and the VF threshold increased after HGF gene therapy ( p< 0.01. Histological analyses revealed that the number of vessels in the ischemic border zone was greatly increased after HGF gene injection. These findings revealed that HGF gene therapy has an anti-arrhythmic effect after myocardial ischemia.

  7. Mathematically-Engineered Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1alpha Stem Cell Cytokine Analogue Enhances Mechanical Properties of Infarcted Myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jr, John W. MacArthur; Trubelja, Alen; Shudo, Yasuhiro; Hsiao, Philip; Fairman, Alex; Yang, Elaine; Hiesinger, William; Atluri, Pavan; Woo, Y Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background The biomechanical response to a myocardial infarction consists of ventricular remodeling that leads to dilation, loss of contractile function, abnormal stress patterns and ultimately heart failure. We hypothesized that intramyocardial injection of our previously designed pro-angiogenic chemokine, an engineered stromal cell derived factor 1alpha analogue(ESA), improves mechanical properties of the heart post-infarction. Methods Male rats (n=54) underwent either sham surgery (n=17) with no coronary artery ligation or ligation of the LAD (n=37). Rats in the MI group were then randomized to receive either saline (0.1cc, n=18) or ESA (6μg/kg, n=19) injected into the myocardium at 4 predetermined spots around the borderzone. Echocardiograms were performed preoperatively and before the terminal surgery. After 4 weeks the hearts were explanted and longitudinally sectioned. Uniaxial tensile testing was completed using an Instron 5543 Microtester. Optical strain was evaluated utilizing custom image acquisition software, Digi-Velpo, and analyzed in MATLAB. Results Compared to the saline control group at 4 weeks, the ESA injected hearts had higher ejection fractions (71.8% ± 9.0 vs. 55.3% ± 12.6, p= 0.0004) smaller end-diastolic left ventricular internal dimensions (0.686cm ± 0.110 vs. 0.763cm ± 0.160, p= 0.04), higher cardiac output (36ml/min ± 11.6 vs. 26.9ml/min ± 7.3, p= 0.05) and the tensile modulus was lower(251kPa ± 56 vs. 301kPa ± 81, p= 0.04). The tensile modulus for the sham group was 195kPa ± 56, indicating ESA injection results in a less stiff ventricle. Conclusions Direct injection of ESA alters the biomechanical response to MI, improving the mechanical properties in the post-infarct heart. PMID:23244259

  8. Relation between QT dispersion, left ventricle systolic function and frequency of ventricular arrhythmias in coronary patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoičkov Viktor

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction QT dispersion (QTd is a measure of non-homogeneous repolarisation of the myocardium and is used as an indicator of arrhythmogenicity. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the relation between QT dispersion, left ventricle systolic function and frequency of ventricular arrhythmias in coronary patients. Method We studied 290 coronary patients, 72 with angina pectoris and 218 after myocardial infarction. Eighty-one coronary patients had frequent and complex ventricular arrhythmias (out of them 19 had ventricular tachycardia and 209 were without arrhythmias or with infrequent ventricular premature contractions (VPC≤10/h. In all patients, QT dispersion, exercise test, 24-hour Holter monitoring and echocardiographic examination were performed. Results Patients with frequent and complex ventricular arrhythmias had significantly higher values of QTd (71.8±25.5 vs 55.6±21.7 ms; p<0.001, corrected QT dispersion (QTdc: 81.3±31.5 vs. 60.3±26.1 ms; p<0.001, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDd: 56.2±6.9 vs. 53.4±6.2 mm; p<0.001 and left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVESd: 39.5±6.2 vs. 36.0±6.3 mm; p<0.001, and significantly lower values of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF: 47.7±13.9 vs. 55.9±11.6%; p<0.001 in comparison to those without arrhythmias or with infrequent VPC. Patients with VT had significantly higher values of QTd and QTdc in comparison to other patients with frequent and complex ventricular arrhythmias (83.8±17.1 vs. 69.4±26.2 ms; p<0.02 for QTd; 101.1±23.9:77.6±31.4 ms; p<0.005 for QTdc. There is a significant negative correlation of QTd and QTdc with LVEF, and a significant positive correlation of QTd and QTdc with inside dimensions of the left ventricle, in patients with frequent and complex ventricular arrhythmias. Conclusion The study demonstrated that patients with frequent and complex ventricular arrhythmias had significantly higher values of QTd and QTdc, as well as a higher

  9. Combined alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid protects against smoke-induced lung squamous metaplasia in ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many epidemiological studies show the benefit of fruits and vegetables on reducing risk of lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Previously, we demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure (SM)-induced lung lesions in ferrets were prevented by a combination of carotene,...

  10. Man's underground best friend: domestic ferrets, unlike the wild forms, show evidence of dog-like social-cognitive skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Hernádi

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that dogs' possess surprisingly sophisticated human-like social communication skills compared to wolves or chimpanzees. The effects of domestication on the emergence of socio-cognitive skills, however, are still highly debated. One way to investigate this is to compare socialized individuals from closely related domestic and wild species. In the present study we tested domestic ferrets (Mustela furo and compared their performance to a group of wild Mustela hybrids and to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris. We found that, in contrast to wild Mustela hybrids, both domestic ferrets and dogs tolerated eye-contact for a longer time when facing their owners versus the experimenter and they showed a preference in a two-way choice task towards their owners. Furthermore, domestic ferrets, unlike the wild hybrids, were able to follow human directional gestures (sustained touching; momentary pointing and could reach the success rate of dogs. Our study provides the first evidence that domestic ferrets, in a certain sense, are more dog-like than their wild counterparts. These findings support the hypothesis that domestic species may share basic socio-cognitive skills that enable them to engage in effectively orchestrated social interactions with humans.

  11. A neutralizing human monoclonal antibody protects against lethal disease in a new ferret model of acute nipah virus infection.

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    Katharine N Bossart

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nipah virus is a broadly tropic and highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus in the genus Henipavirus whose natural reservoirs are several species of Pteropus fruit bats. Nipah virus has repeatedly caused outbreaks over the past decade associated with a severe and often fatal disease in humans and animals. Here, a new ferret model of Nipah virus pathogenesis is described where both respiratory and neurological disease are present in infected animals. Severe disease occurs with viral doses as low as 500 TCID(50 within 6 to 10 days following infection. The underlying pathology seen in the ferret closely resembles that seen in Nipah virus infected humans, characterized as a widespread multisystemic vasculitis, with virus replicating in highly vascular tissues including lung, spleen and brain, with recoverable virus from a variety of tissues. Using this ferret model a cross-reactive neutralizing human monoclonal antibody, m102.4, targeting the henipavirus G glycoprotein was evaluated in vivo as a potential therapeutic agent. All ferrets that received m102.4 ten hours following a high dose oral-nasal Nipah virus challenge were protected from disease while all controls died. This study is the first successful post-exposure passive antibody therapy for Nipah virus using a human monoclonal antibody.

  12. Germinal zones in the developing cerebral cortex of ferret: ontogeny, cell cycle kinetics, and diversity of progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reillo, Isabel; Borrell, Víctor

    2012-09-01

    Expansion and folding of the cerebral cortex are landmark features of mammalian brain evolution. This is recapitulated during embryonic development, and specialized progenitor cell populations known as intermediate radial glia cells (IRGCs) are believed to play central roles. Because developmental mechanisms involved in cortical expansion and folding are likely conserved across phylogeny, it is crucial to identify features specific for gyrencephaly from those unique to primate brain development. Here, we studied multiple features of cortical development in ferret, a gyrencephalic carnivore, in comparison with primates. Analyzing the combinatorial expression of transcription factors, cytoskeletal proteins, and cell cycle parameters, we identified a combination of traits that distinguish in ferret similar germinal layers as in primates. Transcription factor analysis indicated that inner subventricular zone (ISVZ) and outer subventricular zone (OSVZ) may contain an identical mixture of progenitor cell subpopulations in ferret. However, we found that these layers emerge at different time points, differ in IRGC abundance, and progenitors have different cell cycle kinetics and self-renewal dynamics. Thus, ISVZ and OSVZ are likely distinguished by genetic differences regulating progenitor cell behavior and dynamics. Our findings demonstrate that some, but not all, features of primate cortical development are shared by the ferret, suggesting a conserved role in the evolutionary emergence of gyrencephaly.

  13. A new adjuvant enhances the protection of the commercial influenza vaccine in the ferret model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Nielsen, Lars P.;

    challenged with H1N1 A/New Caledonia/20/99, ferrets immunized with the adjuvanted vaccine displayed a much stronger humoral response and lower viral titers than the ones that received only the regular vaccine. Gamma-interferon production, assessed by both RT-PCR and flow cytometry, and pathology studies...

  14. CAF01 adjuvant increases the protection conferred by a commercially available influenza split vaccine in a ferret model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Nielsen, Lars Peter;

    , we compared the immune response in ferrets vaccinated with a commercial influenza split vaccine with the same vaccine mixed with the CAF01 adjuvant and furthermore used two recently circulating H1N1 viruses for the challenge of the animals. We investigated antibody levels in serum and nasal washes...

  15. Comparison of mucus flow rate, radiolabelled glycoprotein output and smooth muscle contraction in the ferret trachea in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyle, H.; Widdicombe, J.G.; Wilffert, B.

    1988-01-01

    1. The concentration-response curves for rate of mucus output, labelled-glycoprotein output and smooth muscle contraction in response to methacholine, phenylephrine and salbutamol were determined in the ferret trachea in vitro. 2. The potencies of methacholine and phenylephrine are both in order: sm

  16. Early Hearing-Impairment Results in Crossmodal Reorganization of Ferret Core Auditory Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alex Meredith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous investigations of cortical crossmodal plasticity, most often in congenital or early-deaf subjects, have indicated that secondary auditory cortical areas reorganize to exhibit visual responsiveness while the core auditory regions are largely spared. However, a recent study of adult-deafened ferrets demonstrated that core auditory cortex was reorganized by the somatosensory modality. Because adult animals have matured beyond their critical period of sensory development and plasticity, it was not known if adult-deafening and early-deafening would generate the same crossmodal results. The present study used young, ototoxically-lesioned ferrets (n=3 that, after maturation (avg. = 173 days old, showed significant hearing deficits (avg. threshold = 72 dB SPL. Recordings from single-units (n=132 in core auditory cortex showed that 72% were activated by somatosensory stimulation (compared to 1% in hearing controls. In addition, tracer injection into early hearing-impaired core auditory cortex labeled essentially the same auditory cortical and thalamic projection sources as seen for injections in the hearing controls, indicating that the functional reorganization was not the result of new or latent projections to the cortex. These data, along with similar observations from adult-deafened and adult hearing-impaired animals, support the recently proposed brainstem theory for crossmodal plasticity induced by hearing loss.

  17. A proposal to conserve black-footed ferrets and the prairie dog ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian; Wemmer, Christen; Biggins, Dean; Reading, Richard

    1990-11-01

    Prairie dogs ( Cynomys spp.) have been poisoned throughout this century because of grazing competition with livestock. Recent evidence showed these early claims were exaggerated, but animal control was already entrenched in government policy. As a result, ongoing government subsidized poisoning has reduced prairie dogs to about 2% of their former distribution. The reduction of prairie dogs diminished species diversity in the arid grasslands of North America, including the potential extinction of the black-footed ferret ( Mustela nigripes). Cost-benefit analysis revealed that poisoning costs more than any grazing benefits accrued. This analysis did not consider the long-term costs of reversing ecosystem degradation, the intangible value of biological diversity as a public benefit, or the depletion of biotic resources as a loss of actual or potential wealth. The government presently finances the poisoning policy and the preservation of endangered species like the black-footed ferret, two apparently conflicting programs. We, therefore, propose an integrated management plan that considers both interests. We propose that federal monies allocated to the poisoning program be converted into a rebate for ranchers who manage livestock while preserving the prairie dog community. This would redirect funds and personnel already allocated to prairie dog eradication to an incentive for ranchers who manage for livestock and wildlife. Livestock interests and grassland biotic diversity would both benefit.

  18. The alteration of interelemental ratios in myocardium under the congenital heart disease (SRXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trunova, V.A. [A.V. Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk, Lavrentyeva 3 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: Trunova@inp.nsk.su; Zvereva, V.V. [A.V. Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk, Lavrentyeva 3 (Russian Federation); Okuneva, G.N. [E.N. Meshalkin Institute of Pathology of Circulation of the Blood, 630055 Novosibirsk, Rechkunovskaja 15 (Russian Federation); Levicheva, E.N. [E.N. Meshalkin Institute of Pathology of Circulation of the Blood, 630055 Novosibirsk, Rechkunovskaja 15 (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-21

    It is the myocardium that bears the basic functional loading during heart working, including muscle contractility and enzyme activity. The elemental concentrations in myocardium tissue of heart were determined by SRXRF technique. Our investigation is systematical: the elemental content in each compartment (left and right ventricles, left and right auricles) of hearts of healthy and diseased children (congenital heart diseases, transposition of main vessels (TMV)) was analyzed. The elemental distribution in myocardium of four heart chambers of human fetuses was also analyzed. Following elements were determined: S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr. It was revealed that the elemental concentrations in myocardium of both ventricles are almost constant in heart of fetuses and healthy children. The transition from pre-natal study (fetus) to post-natal study is accompanied by the redistribution of chemical elements in myocardium. The higher concentrations of S, Fe, Ca, Sr and Cu in myocardium of children are observed, the content of K, Br, Rb and especially Se is lower than in heart of fetuses. The elemental distribution in myocardium of children TMV is considerably different in comparison with the healthy children: the higher levels of Cu are observed. The content of Se is lower.

  19. The alteration of interelemental ratios in myocardium under the congenital heart disease (SRXRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunova, V. A.; Zvereva, V. V.; Okuneva, G. N.; Levicheva, E. N.

    2007-05-01

    It is the myocardium that bears the basic functional loading during heart working, including muscle contractility and enzyme activity. The elemental concentrations in myocardium tissue of heart were determined by SRXRF technique. Our investigation is systematical: the elemental content in each compartment (left and right ventricles, left and right auricles) of hearts of healthy and diseased children (congenital heart diseases, transposition of main vessels (TMV)) was analyzed. The elemental distribution in myocardium of four heart chambers of human fetuses was also analyzed. Following elements were determined: S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr. It was revealed that the elemental concentrations in myocardium of both ventricles are almost constant in heart of fetuses and healthy children. The transition from pre-natal study (fetus) to post-natal study is accompanied by the redistribution of chemical elements in myocardium. The higher concentrations of S, Fe, Ca, Sr and Cu in myocardium of children are observed, the content of K, Br, Rb and especially Se is lower than in heart of fetuses. The elemental distribution in myocardium of children TMV is considerably different in comparison with the healthy children: the higher levels of Cu are observed. The content of Se is lower.

  20. Reduced sodium current in the lateral ventricular wall induces inferolateral J-waves

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    Veronique Marlinde Frederica Meijborg

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: J-waves in inferolateral leads are associated with a higher risk for idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. We aimed to test potential mechanisms (depolarization or repolarization dependent responsible for inferolateral J-waves. We hypothesized that inferolateral J-waves can be caused by regional delayed activation of myocardium that is activated late during normal conditions. Methods: Computer simulations were performed to evaluate how J-point elevation is influenced by reducing sodium current conductivity (GNa, increasing transient outward current conductivity (Gto or cellular uncoupling in three predefined ventricular regions (lateral, anterior or septal. Two pig hearts were Langendorff-perfused with selective perfusion with a sodium channel blocker of lateral or anterior/septal regions. Volume-conducted pseudo-electrocardiograms (ECG were recorded to detect the presence of J-waves. Epicardial unipolar electrograms were simultaneously recorded to obtain activation times (AT.Results: Simulation data showed that conduction slowing, caused by reduced sodium current, in lateral, but not in other regions induced inferolateral J-waves. An increase in transient outward potassium current or cellular uncoupling in the lateral zone elicited slight J-point elevations which did not meet J-wave criteria. Additional conduction slowing in the entire heart attenuated J-waves and J-point elevations on the ECG, because of masking by the QRS. Experimental data confirmed that conduction slowing attributed to sodium channel blockade in the left lateral but not in the anterior/septal ventricular region induced inferolateral J-waves. J-waves coincided with the delayed activation.Conclusion: Reduced sodium current in the left lateral ventricular myocardium can cause inferolateral J-waves on the ECG.

  1. The effect of a heparin-based coacervate of fibroblast growth factor-2 on scarring in the infarcted myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hunghao; Chen, Chien-Wen; Huard, Johnny; Wang, Yadong

    2013-02-01

    Effective delivery of exogenous angiogenic growth factors can provide a new therapy for ischemic diseases. However, clinical translation of growth factor therapies faces multiples challenges; the most significant one is the short half-life of the naked protein. We use heparin and a nontoxic polycation to form an injectable coacervate that protects growth factors and preserves their bioactivities. Here we report the effectiveness of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) coacervate in reducing scar burden in a mouse myocardial infarction model. The coacervate provides spatial and temporal control of the release of heparin-binding proteins. Coacervate treated animals show lower level of inflammation, fibrosis and cardiomyocyte death in the infarcted myocardium. Histological evaluation indicates that FGF2 coacervate significantly increases the number of endothelial and mural cells and results in stable capillaries and arterioles to at least 6 weeks post injection. Echocardiographic assessment shows that FGF2 coacervate promotes cardiac contractibility and inhibits ventricular dilation, suggesting that the improvement at the tissue level leads to better cardiac functions. On the contrary, identical dosage of free FGF2 shows no statistical difference from saline or vehicle control in histological or functional assessment. Overall, injection of FGF2 coacervate ameliorated the ischemic injury caused by myocardial infarction. The promising data in rodent warrant further examination of the potential of clinical translation of this technology.

  2. Ventricular assist device support for management of sustained ventricular arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasseas, Panayotis; Kutalek, Steven P; Samuels, Fania L; Holmes, Elena C; Samuels, Louis E

    2002-01-01

    We describe herein the cases of 2 patients who had ventricular arrhythmias. In one, a short-term biventricular assist device, the ABIOMED BVS 5000, was placed because the patient had sustained ventricular tachycardia and could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass. Excellent hemodynamic support was maintained for several days while the antiarrhythmic therapy was maximized. Sinus rhythm was restored, and the patient was successfully weaned from the ventricular assist device. However, the substrate for the arrhythmia persisted, and a recurrence, 1 week later, resulted in the patient's death. In the 2nd patient, the use of an implantable left ventricular assist device was successful in temporarily alleviating the ventricular tachycardia associated with ischemic cardiomyopathy. However, after 2 days of device assistance, the patient experienced a recurrence of the tachycardia, which degenerated into ventricular fibrillation with a marked deterioration in the patient's hemodynamics. The arrhythmia persisted despite multiple attempts at external cardioversion, and internal cardioversion and placement of an automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator were necessary. This treatment, along with repeated boluses of amiodarone, led to successful suppression of the arrhythmias, and the patient eventually underwent transplantation. The mechanical hemodynamic support of the circulation by ventricular assist devices was effective in supporting these 2 patients who had sustained ventricular arrhythmias.

  3. Low dose influenza virus challenge in the ferret leads to increased virus shedding and greater sensitivity to oseltamivir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C Marriott

    Full Text Available Ferrets are widely used to study human influenza virus infection. Their airway physiology and cell receptor distribution makes them ideal for the analysis of pathogenesis and virus transmission, and for testing the efficacy of anti-influenza interventions and vaccines. The 2009 pandemic influenza virus (H1N1pdm09 induces mild to moderate respiratory disease in infected ferrets, following inoculation with 106 plaque-forming units (pfu of virus. We have demonstrated that reducing the challenge dose to 102 pfu delays the onset of clinical signs by 1 day, and results in a modest reduction in clinical signs, and a less rapid nasal cavity innate immune response. There was also a delay in virus production in the upper respiratory tract, this was up to 9-fold greater and virus shedding was prolonged. Progression of infection to the lower respiratory tract was not noticeably delayed by the reduction in virus challenge. A dose of 104 pfu gave an infection that was intermediate between those of the 106 pfu and 102 pfu doses. To address the hypothesis that using a more authentic low challenge dose would facilitate a more sensitive model for antiviral efficacy, we used the well-known neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir. Oseltamivir-treated and untreated ferrets were challenged with high (106 pfu and low (102 pfu doses of influenza H1N1pdm09 virus. The low dose treated ferrets showed significant delays in innate immune response and virus shedding, delayed onset of pathological changes in the nasal cavity, and reduced pathological changes and viral RNA load in the lung, relative to untreated ferrets. Importantly, these observations were not seen in treated animals when the high dose challenge was used. In summary, low dose challenge gives a disease that more closely parallels the disease parameters of human influenza infection, and provides an improved pre-clinical model for the assessment of influenza therapeutics, and potentially, influenza vaccines.

  4. A recombinant Hendra virus G glycoprotein-based subunit vaccine protects ferrets from lethal Hendra virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, Jackie; Middleton, Deborah; Wang, Lin-Fa; Klein, Reuben; Haining, Jessica; Robinson, Rachel; Yamada, Manabu; White, John; Payne, Jean; Feng, Yan-Ru; Chan, Yee-Peng; Broder, Christopher C

    2011-08-01

    The henipaviruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV), are two deadly zoonotic viruses for which no vaccines or therapeutics have yet been approved for human or livestock use. In 14 outbreaks since 1994 HeV has been responsible for multiple fatalities in horses and humans, with all known human infections resulting from close contact with infected horses. A vaccine that prevents virus shedding in infected horses could interrupt the chain of transmission to humans and therefore prevent HeV disease in both. Here we characterise HeV infection in a ferret model and show that it closely mirrors the disease seen in humans and horses with induction of systemic vasculitis, including involvement of the pulmonary and central nervous systems. This model of HeV infection in the ferret was used to assess the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a subunit vaccine based on a recombinant soluble version of the HeV attachment glycoprotein G (HeVsG), adjuvanted with CpG. We report that ferrets vaccinated with a 100 μg, 20 μg or 4 μg dose of HeVsG remained free of clinical signs of HeV infection following a challenge with 5000 TCID₅₀ of HeV. In addition, and of considerable importance, no evidence of virus or viral genome was detected in any tissues or body fluids in any ferret in the 100 and 20 μg groups, while genome was detected in the nasal washes only of one animal in the 4 μg group. Together, our findings indicate that 100 μg or 20 μg doses of HeVsG vaccine can completely prevent a productive HeV infection in the ferret, suggesting that vaccination to prevent the infection and shedding of HeV is possible.

  5. Intranasal H5N1 vaccines, adjuvanted with chitosan derivatives, protect ferrets against highly pathogenic influenza intranasal and intratracheal challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex J Mann

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective efficacy of two intranasal chitosan (CSN and TM-CSN adjuvanted H5N1 Influenza vaccines against highly pathogenic avian Influenza (HPAI intratracheal and intranasal challenge in a ferret model. Six groups of 6 ferrets were intranasally vaccinated twice, 21 days apart, with either placebo, antigen alone, CSN adjuvanted antigen, or TM-CSN adjuvanted antigen. Homologous and intra-subtypic antibody cross-reacting responses were assessed. Ferrets were inoculated intratracheally (all treatments or intranasally (CSN adjuvanted and placebo treatments only with clade 1 HPAI A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (H5N1 virus 28 days after the second vaccination and subsequently monitored for morbidity and mortality outcomes. Clinical signs were assessed and nasal as well as throat swabs were taken daily for virology. Samples of lung tissue, nasal turbinates, brain, and olfactory bulb were analysed for the presence of virus and examined for histolopathological findings. In contrast to animals vaccinated with antigen alone, the CSN and TM-CSN adjuvanted vaccines induced high levels of antibodies, protected ferrets from death, reduced viral replication and abrogated disease after intratracheal challenge, and in the case of CSN after intranasal challenge. In particular, the TM-CSN adjuvanted vaccine was highly effective at eliciting protective immunity from intratracheal challenge; serologically, protective titres were demonstrable after one vaccination. The 2-dose schedule with TM-CSN vaccine also induced cross-reactive antibodies to clade 2.1 and 2.2 H5N1 viruses. Furthermore ferrets immunised with TM-CSN had no detectable virus in the respiratory tract or brain, whereas there were signs of virus in the throat and lungs, albeit at significantly reduced levels, in CSN vaccinated animals. This study demonstrated for the first time that CSN and in particular TM-CSN adjuvanted intranasal vaccines have the potential to protect against significant

  6. Postpartal right ventricular thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velicki, Lazar; Milosavljević, Aleksandar; Majin, Marijan; Vujin, Bojan; Kovacević, Pavle

    2008-11-01

    The discovery of an intracardial mass in patients presents a serious diagnostic dilemma. The differential diagnosis of this condition may seem abundant, but myxomas and intracardial thrombosis are the most frequent diagnoses. A connection between pregnancy and the presence of thrombosis has been documented frequently. Normal pregnancy leads to changes of the coagulative and fibrinolytic status toward a hypercoagulable condition which has its own physiological justification (the risk of blood loss decreases during labor). The case of a patient suffering from postpartal right ventricular thrombosis, which was successfully resolved by surgery as described in this contribution, demonstrates the value of a multidisciplinary approach.

  7. Encircling endocardial ventriculotomy for refractory ischemic ventricular tachycardia. II. Effects on regional myocardial blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungerleider, R M; Holman, W L; Stanley, T E; Lofland, G K; Williams, J M; Smith, P K; Quick, G; Cox, J L

    1982-06-01

    Previous experimental studies of the encircling endocardial ventriculotomy (EEV) have shown a significant alteration of normal local electrical activity within the encompassed region. Although this procedure may result in isolation of ventricular arrhythmias, the data are more suggestive of a less specific effect on regional myocardial blood flow. This study examines the effect of EEV on local myocardial blood flow using the radioactive tracer microsphere technique in 10 dogs. Flows were determined before and after an EEV with the animals on cardiopulmonary bypass at controlled perfusion pressures, temperatures, and heart rates. Blood flow was studied at subepicardial and subendocardial levels inside, outside, and bordering the EEV. Prior to performance of the EEV, subepicardial blood flow in the left ventricular myocardium ranged from 0.81 +/- 0.07 to 0.89 +/- 0.08 ml/gm/min. Subendocardial flows ranged from 0.80 +/- 0.07 to 0.91 +/- 0.09 ml/gm/min. There was no significant difference between any of the flows across each respective layer of myocardium. Following the EEV procedure, blood flow to the subendocardium within the EEV fell to 0.33 +/- 0.07 ml/gm/min, while flow to the subendocardium of the normal regions of the same hearts actually increased to 1.21 +/- 0.23 ml/gm/min. Similar changes occurred at subepicardial levels, with flow at the center of the EEV falling to 0.66 +/- 0.10 ml/gm/min despite a tendency for normal subepicardial flow to increase to 1.78 +/- 0.24 ml/gm/min. Superimposed ischemia to the EEV-encompassed myocardium, created by occlusion of the distal left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), accentuated this abnormality by demonstrating that the region continues to receive some flow from epicardially based coronary vessels. The data from this study show that the EEV decreased regional blood flow to the encompassed myocardium and suggests that myocardial ischemia may be responsible for ablation of the delicate re-entrant mechanisms

  8. Muerte súbita por conmoción cardíaca (Commotio cordis asociada a miocardio no compactado Sudden death due to commotio cordis associated to non compacted myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía Aquieri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El miocardio no compactado es una rara miocardiopatía congénita caracterizada por la presencia de múltiples y prominentes trabeculaciones profundas en la pared ventricular que definen hendiduras comunicantes con el compartimiento ventricular principal. Es una entidad de baja incidencia y prevalencia que se diagnostica mediante estudios de imágenes como el ecocardiograma Doppler (ED, la tomografía computarizada multicorte (TCM y la resonancia magnética cardíaca (RMC. Puede ser asintomática o manifestarse mediante arritmias, insuficiencia cardíaca o eventos tromboembólicos. Se presenta el caso de un hombre de 33 años, asintomático, que durante la práctica deportiva sufre una conmoción cardíaca (commotio cordis que le produce un paro cardiorrespiratorio. El electrocardiograma mostró un ritmo de aleteo ventricular que requirió cardiodesfibrilación eléctrica. En un ED efectuado inicialmente no se observaron anormalidades significativas, pero otro ED, una TCM y una RMN obtenidos luego del alta, certificaron el hallazgo de miocardio no compactado aislado, descartando coronariopatía. Recibió tratamiento beta bloqueante y antiagregante y se discutió la colocación del cardiodesfibrilador implantable. Se plantea la fisiopatología de la asociación de estas dos infrecuentes y potencialmente letales afecciones.Non compact of the left ventricular myocardium is a rare congenital cardiomyopathy characterized by the presence of multiple and prominent deep trabeculations in the ventricular wall, that define recesses communicated with the main ventricular chamber. This is a condition with low incidence and prevalence, diagnosed through imaging techniques such as Doppler echocardiogram (DE, multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Clinically, it may be asymptomatic or manifested by cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure or thromboembolism. This is a report on a 33 year old asymptomatic man who suffered a blow on

  9. Passive ventricular mechanics modelling using MRI of structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, V Y; Lam, H I; Ennis, D B; Young, A A; Nash, M P

    2008-01-01

    Patients suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy or myocardial infarction can develop left ventricular (LV) diastolic impairment. The LV remodels its structure and function to adapt to pathophysiological changes in geometry and loading conditions and this remodeling process can alter the passive ventricular mechanics. In order to better understand passive ventricular mechanics, a LV finite element model was developed to incorporate physiological and mechanical information derived from in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tissue tagging, in vivo LV cavity pressure recording and ex vivo diffusion tensor MRI (DTMRI) of a canine heart. MRI tissue tagging enables quantitative evaluation of cardiac mechanical function with high spatial and temporal resolution, whilst the direction of maximum water diffusion (the primary eigenvector) in each voxel of a DTMRI directly correlates with the myocardial fibre orientation. This model was customized to the geometry of the canine LV during diastasis by fitting the segmented epicardial and endocardial surface data from tagged MRI using nonlinear finite element fitting techniques. Myofibre orientations, extracted from DTMRI of the same heart, were incorporated into this geometric model using a free form deformation methodology. Pressure recordings, temporally synchronized to the tissue tagging MRI data, were used to simulate the LV deformation during diastole. Simulation of the diastolic LV mechanics allowed us to estimate the stiffness of the passive LV myocardium based on kinematic data obtained from tagged MRI. This integrated physiological model will allow more insight into the regional passive diastolic mechanics of the LV on an individualized basis, thereby improving our understanding of the underlying structural basis of mechanical dysfunction in pathological conditions.

  10. Effects of prey metapopulation structure on the viability of black‐footed ferrets in plague‐impacted landscapes: a metamodelling approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shoemaker, Kevin T; Lacy, Robert C; Verant, Michelle L; Brook, Barry W; Livieri, Travis M; Miller, Philip S; Fordham, Damien A; Resit Akçakaya, H; Stephens, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Species interactions have been largely ignored in extinction risk assessment. However, the black‐footed ferret M ustela nigripes exemplifies a class of endangered species for which strong species interactions cannot be ignored...

  11. [Special use permit for predator disease study associated with Montana black-footed ferret reintroduction, summer 1994 : Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a memorandum providing the Montana Black-Footed Ferret Working Group with information on the proposed predator collection that will happen...

  12. Right ventricular metastasis of leiomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stagmo Martin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metastatic presentation of leiomyosarcoma in the heart is very rare. We present transthoracic echocardiography and combined PET/CT images of a case with a large right ventricular metastasis of leiomyosarcoma. The patient was placed on cytostatic drugs for palliative purposes, but passed away one month later because of an untreatable ventricular tackycardia.

  13. Mitochondria and left ventricular hypertrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan Zhu; Shiwen Wang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Introduction Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is one of the vicious organ damages of essential hypertension.It contributes a lot to high mortality of essential hypertension due to sudden cardiac death,ventricular arrhythmia and heart failure.Many factors involve in the pathogenesis of hypertension-induced LVH including inherited variants as well as environmental factors.

  14. Divertículo ventricular congênito associado à taquicardia ventricular Congenital ventricular diverticulum associated with ventricular tachycardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranieli Pitol

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Divertículos ventriculares congênitos são raros. Clinicamente, podem ser assintomáticos ou causa de embolização sistêmica, insuficiência cardíaca, insuficiência valvar, ruptura ventricular, arritmia ventricular ou morte súbita. Apresentamos caso de uma mulher de 56 anos com taquicardia ventricular sustentada, na qual, durante a investigação, foi diagnosticada a presença de um divertículo na posição ínfero-basal do ventrículo esquerdo. Comentam-se as características clínicas e o tratamento desta doença infreqüente.Congenital ventricular diverticula are rare. Clinically, they may be asymptomatic or cause systemic embolization, heart failure, valvular regurgitation, ventricular rupture, ventricular arrhythmia, or sudden death. We report the case of a 56-year-old woman with sustained ventricular tachycardia, who, during investigation, was diagnosed with a diverticulum in the inferobasal portion of the left ventricle. The clinical characteristics and treatment of this rare disease are discussed.

  15. Low-dose dobutamine stress gated SPET for identification of viable myocardium: comparison with stress-rest perfusion SPET and PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Tamaki, Nagara [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu; Kuge, Yuji [Department of Tracer Kinetics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Noriyasu, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Satoshi; Ito, Yoshinori; Kohya, Tetsuro; Kitabatake, Akira [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Kawai, Yuko [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hokko Memorial Hospital, Sapporo (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The detection of viable myocardium is important for the prediction of functional recovery after revascularisation. However, a fixed perfusion defect often includes viable myocardium, and perfusion imaging then underestimates myocardial viability. We previously reported that low-dose dobutamine stress gated single-photon emission tomography (SPET) provides similar findings to dobutamine stress echocardiography in the assessment of myocardial viability. The present study investigated whether low-dose dobutamine stress gated SPET is of additional value as compared with stress-rest technetium-99m tetrofosmin SPET for the detection of myocardial viability. Standard stress-rest perfusion SPET, low-dose dobutamine stress gated SPET and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) were studied in 23 patients (mean age 67{+-}7.6 years) with previous myocardial infarction. Twenty-one of them were successfully studied with each technique. FDG PET viability (FDG uptake {>=}50%) was employed as the gold standard. One-day stress-rest {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial SPET was performed. After the resting study, gated SPET was acquired following infusion of 7.5 {mu}g kg{sup -1} min{sup -1} of dobutamine. Left ventricular wall motion in 16 segments was assessed by cine mode display using a four-point scale. Myocardial viability was considered present when there was improvement by one point. Of a total of 336 segments analysed, 53 had persistent defects on stress-rest perfusion SPET. FDG viability was seen in 16 of 17 dobutamine-responsive segments, but in only 11 of 36 dobutamine non-responsive segments (P<0.01). Thus, in the segments with persistent defects, viability findings on low-dose dobutamine stress gated SPET were concordant with those on FDG PET in 77% of segments (kappa value =0.55). For the detection of FDG-viable myocardium, the combination of stress-rest perfusion SPET and low-dose dobutamine stress gated SPET achieved a better sensitivity

  16. The evaluation of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamer, Ismet; Sargin, Mehmet; Sargin, Haluk; Seker, Mesut; Babalik, Erhan; Tekce, Mustafa; Yayla, Ali

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this prospective cross-sectional study was to investigate the hypertrophic effects of endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism on myocardium and early development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in essential hypertensive patients accompanied by endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. A total of 31 consecutive patients with stage I hypertension were included in the study. Sixteen of them also had endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism that they were unaware before. The patients and the controls formed out of ten healthy subjects all underwent an investigation of thyroid functions and cardiologic evaluation. The mean wall thickness of the left ventricle in the stage I hypertensive group with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism (group I) was significantly increased as compared with both hypertensive patients without thyroid disease (group II) and the control subjects. The mean left ventricle mass was also significantly higher in group I than group II. Both of the patients' groups had an increased prevalence of LVH as compared with the controls. In this study, hypertensive patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism presented more increase in left ventricular mass, suggesting that subclinical hyperthyroidism may contribute to left ventricular hypertrophy forming a natural progression to hypertension. The hypertensive population should always be screened for endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism, and should be examined for the criteria of left ventricular hypertrophy by echocardiography in early stages.

  17. Laminar structure of the heart: ventricular myocyte arrangement and connective tissue architecture in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrice, I J; Smaill, B H; Chai, L Z; Edgar, S G; Gavin, J B; Hunter, P J

    1995-08-01

    We have studied the three-dimensional arrangement of ventricular muscle cells and the associated extracellular connective tissue matrix in dog hearts. Four hearts were potassium-arrested, excised, and perfusion-fixed at zero transmural pressure. Full-thickness segments were cut from the right and left ventricular walls at a series of precisely located sites. Morphology was visualized macroscopically and with scanning electron microscopy in 1) transmural planes of section and 2) planes tangential to the epicardial surface. The appearance of all specimens was consistent with an ordered laminar arrangement of myocytes with extensive cleavage planes between muscle layers. These planes ran radially from endocardium toward epicardium in transmural section and coincided with the local muscle fiber orientation in tangential section. Stereological techniques were used to quantify aspects of this organization. There was no consistent variation in the cellular organization of muscle layers (48.4 +/- 20.4 microns thick and 4 +/- 2 myocytes across) transmurally or in different ventricular regions (23 sites in 6 segments), but there was significant transmural variation in the coupling between adjacent layers. The number of branches between layers decreased twofold from subepicardium to midwall, whereas the length distribution of perimysial collagen fibers connecting muscle layers was greatest in the midwall. We conclude that ventricular myocardium is not a uniformly branching continuum but a laminar hierarchy in which it is possible to identify three axes of material symmetry at any point.

  18. The rate of force generation by the myocardium is not influenced by afterload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fioretto J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of afterload on the rate of force generation by the myocardium was investigated using two types of preparations: the in situ dog heart (dP/dt and isolated papillary muscle of rats (dT/dt. Thirteen anesthetized, mechanically ventilated and thoracotomized dogs were submitted to pharmacological autonomic blockade (3.0 mg/kg oxprenolol plus 0.5 mg/kg atropine. A reservoir connected to the left atrium permitted the control of left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP. A mechanical constriction of the descending thoracic aorta allowed to increase the systolic pressure in two steps of 20 mmHg (conditions H1 and H2 above control values (condition C. After arterial pressure elevations (systolic pressure C: 119 ± 8.1; H1: 142 ± 7.9; H2 166 ± 7.7 mmHg; P<0.01, there were no significant differences in heart rate (C: 125 ± 13.9; H1: 125 ± 13.5; H2: 123 ± 14.1 bpm; P>0.05 or LVEDP (C: 6.2 ± 2.48; H1: 6.3 ± 2.43; H2: 6.1 ± 2.51 mmHg; P>0.05. The values of dP/dt did not change after each elevation of arterial pressure (C: 3,068 ± 1,057; H1: 3,112 ± 996; H2: 3,086 ± 980 mmHg/s; P>0.05. In isolated rat papillary muscle, an afterload corresponding to 50% and 75% of the maximal developed tension did not alter the values of the maximum rate of tension development (100%: 78 ± 13; 75%: 80 ± 13; 50%: 79 ± 11 g mm-2 s-1, P>0.05. The results show that the rise in afterload per se does not cause changes in dP/dt or dT/dt

  19. The effects of simultaneous hyperlipemia-hyperglycemia on the resistance arteries, myocardium and kidney glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, G; Popov, D; Georgescu, A; Cenuse, M; Jinga, V V; Simionescu, M

    2000-01-01

    The experimental model of Golden Syrian hamster subjected to concomitant hyperlipemia (diet-induced) and diabetes (by streptozotocin injection) for 24 weeks is characterised by the prevalence of micro- and macroangiopathies. We have used the hyperlipemic-diabetic (HD) hamsters to investigate: a) whether there is an alteration in the reactivity of the resistance arteries (mean internal diameter: 210-250 microm), b) if present, which are the structural and biochemical changes that accompany the functional modifications, and c) to examine the pathomorphological changes induced by the association of hyperlipemia and diabetes on vital organs such as myocardium and kidney glomeruli. To these aims, biochemical assays of plasma components, light- and electronmicroscopy, myographic, morphometric and spectrofluorimetric techniques were used. The mesenteric resistance arteries of HD hamsters exhibited (as compared to similar arteries in normals) a decreased contractile response to noradrenaline (1.86+/-0.35 vs. 2.43+/-0.21), and an impeded endothelium dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (approximately 61.40% vs. approximately 79.80%). The association of hyperlipemia with diabetes induced changes in morphology of the resistance arteries consisting in approximately 10% increase of the intima plus media cross-sectional area, approximately 20% decrease of the vascular lumen area, and approximately 2.85 fold augmentation of the wall to lumen ratio. The resistance arteries exhibited structural modifications of the endothelium (up to 8 copies of Weibel-Palade bodies/endothelial cell), and smooth muscle cells (secretory phenotype), and in the vessels media small calcification cores appeared embedded in a hyperplasic extracellular matrix. The vascular mesenteric bed of the HD hamsters contained approximately 2.30 and approximately 1.30 fold increased concentrations of AGE-collagen and pentosidine, respectively, above the normal values. The HD hamsters displayed also modifications

  20. Attenuation of antioxidative capacity enhances reperfusion injury in aged rat myocardium after MI/R

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peitan Liu; Baohuan Xu; Thomas A. Cavalieri; Carl E. Hock

    2004-01-01

    .... We hypothesized that increased vulnerability of aged myocardium to reperfusion injury could be caused by decreased antioxidative capacity, rather than increased oxidant production, after MI/R. Aged (20-mo-old) and young (4-mo-old...

  1. Effect of Rosemary on Myocardium Free Radical Metabolism and Serum Enzyme after Exhaustive Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Gao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available By setting up the exhaustive swimming rats model, the activity of myocardium SOD, the quantity of MDA and the serum GOT are all valued. The results indicates that after the rats took rosemary, their physical ability improved remarkably; the activity of myocardium SOD appeared superior to the control group; the quantity of MDA turned lower than the control group, which shows that rosemary enjoys much stronger influence on the anti-oxidation and anti-free-adical. Besides, their ability of counteracting the free radical of myocardium jumped to a high level. Furthermore, rosemary can also been used to protect the integrality of myocardium cell membrane; to reduce the escape of enzyme from the cell.

  2. Ruptured spinal arteriovenous malformation: Presenting as stunned myocardium and neurogenic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasneem H Mehesry

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Spinal AVM rupture can present as neurogenic shock, stunned myocardium, and pulmonary edema. Early recognition of AVM rupture and prompt surgical intervention, as well as aggressive treatment of shock, may enhance recovery and decrease the long-term morbidity.

  3. Large myocardial infarction with myocardium calcium deposits associated with reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Elisabete; Mancio, Jennifer; Rodrigues-Pereira, Pedro; Magalhães, Domingos; Bartosch, Carla

    2014-01-01

    The clinical and autopsy findings of a 66-year-old man with myocardial infarction complicated by reperfusion injury are described, highlighting the presence of large myocardium calcium deposits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Electrical and magnetic fields of the elementary bioelectric generator in the bounded anisotropic myocardium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titomir, L I; Barinova, N E

    2001-01-01

    Using the equations of electrodynamics of stationary currents, relationships were derived for calculating the characteristics of electric and magnetic fields of an elementary (dipole) bioelectric generator in a heterogeneous medium consisting of two regions namely, an anisotropic conducting region corresponding to the excitable myocardium tissue and an isotropic conducting or dielectric region corresponding to the space outside the myocardium where the measurement is made. The shape of distributions of the electric potential and magnetic induction at the myocardium surface was determined, and the effect of anisotropy on these distributions was estimate. Formulas for the identification of the local excited zone within the myocardium from electric and magnetic measurements outside the excitable tissue or on its surface were obtained.

  5. Histopathological changes in rat myocardium caused by Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (European viper) snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unković-Cvetković, N; Cvetković, M; Petković, D; Jovanović, T; Unković, S

    1983-01-01

    The application of Vipera ammodytes ammodytes snake venom, either crude venom or fractions 5 and 6 of the 11 obtained from a Sephadex G-100 column, produced parenchymal degeneration of the myocardium of isolated rat hearts.

  6. Pathological mechanism for delayed hyperenhancement of chronic scarred myocardium in contrast agent enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate possible mechanism for delayed hyperenhancement of scarred myocardium by investigating the relationship of contrast agent (CA first pass and delayed enhancement patterns with histopathological changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen pigs underwent 4 weeks ligation of 1 or 2 diagonal coronary arteries to induce chronic infarction. The hearts were then removed and perfused in a Langendorff apparatus. The hearts firstly experienced phosphorus 31 MR spectroscopy. The hearts in group I (n = 9 and II (n = 9 then received the bolus injection of Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (0.05 mmol/kg and gadolinium-based macromolecular agent (P792, 15 µmol/kg, respectively. First pass T2* MRI was acquired using a gradient echo sequence. Delayed enhanced T1 MRI was acquired with an inversion recovery sequence. Masson's trichrome and anti- von Willebrand Factor (vWF staining were performed for infarct characterization. RESULTS: Wash-in of both kinds of CA caused the sharp and dramatic T2* signal decrease of scarred myocardium similar to that of normal myocardium. Myocardial blood flow and microvessel density were significantly recovered in 4-week-old scar tissue. Steady state distribution volume (ΔR1 relaxation rate of Gd-DTPA was markedly higher in scarred myocardium than in normal myocardium, whereas ΔR1 relaxation rate of P792 did not differ significantly between scarred and normal myocardium. The ratio of extracellular volume to the total water volume was significantly greater in scarred myocardium than in normal myocardium. Scarred myocardium contained massive residual capillaries and dilated vessels. Histological stains indicated the extensively discrete matrix deposition and lack of cellular structure in scarred myocardium. CONCLUSIONS: Collateral circulation formation and residual vessel effectively delivered CA into scarred myocardium. However, residual vessel without abnormal hyperpermeability allowed Gd

  7. MRI-based morphometric characterizations of sexual dimorphism of the cerebrum of ferrets (Mustela putorius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Kazuhiko; Horiuchi-Hirose, Miwa; Saito, Shigeyoshi; Aoki, Ichio

    2013-12-01

    The present study aimed to characterize cerebral morphology in young adult ferrets and its sexual dimorphism using high-field MRI and MRI-based morphometry. Ex vivo short TR/TE (typical T1-weighted parameter setting for conventional MRI) and T2W (long TR/TE) MRI with high spatial resolution at 7-tesla could visualize major subcortical and archicortical structures, i.e., the caudate nucleus, lentiform nucleus, amygdala and hippocampus. In particular, laminar organization of the olfactory bulb was identifiable by short TR/TE-MRI. The primary and secondary sulci observable in the adult ferret were distinguishable on either short TR/TE- or T2W-MRI, and the cortical surface morphology was reproduced well by 3D-rendered images obtained by short TR/TE-MRI. The cerebrum had a significantly lower volume in females than in males, which was attributed to region-specific volume reduction in the cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter in females. A sexual difference was also detected, manifested by an overall reduction in normalized signal ratios of short TR/TE-MRI in all cerebral structures examined in females than in males. On the other hand, an alternating array of higher and lower short TR/TE-MRI intensity transverse zones throughout the cortex, which was reminiscent of the functional cortical areas, was revealed by maximum intensity projection (MIP) in 3D. The normalized signal ratio of short TR/TE-MRI, but not T2W-MRI in the cortex, was negatively correlated with the density of myelin-basic protein immunoreactive fibers (males, r=-0.440; females, r=-0.481). The present results suggest that sexual differences in the adult ferret cerebrum are characterized by reduced volumes of the cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter in females, and by overall reductions in physiochemical characteristics, as obtained by short TR/TE-MRI, in females. It should be noted that short TR/TE-MRI-based MIP delineated functional cortical areas related to myeloarchitecture in 3D. Such an

  8. Evaluation of Three Live Attenuated H2 Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Candidates in Mice and Ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Grace L.; Lamirande, Elaine W.; Cheng, Xing; Torres-Velez, Fernando; Orandle, Marlene; Jin, Hong; Kemble, George

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT H2 influenza viruses have not circulated in humans since 1968, and therefore a significant portion of the population would be susceptible to infection should H2 influenza viruses reemerge. H2 influenza viruses continue to circulate in avian reservoirs worldwide, and these reservoirs are a potential source from which these viruses could emerge. Three reassortant cold-adapted (ca) H2 pandemic influenza vaccine candidates with hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes derived from the wild-type A/Japan/305/1957 (H2N2) (Jap/57), A/mallard/6750/1978 (H2N2) (mal/78), or A/swine/MO/4296424/2006 (H2N3) (sw/06) viruses and the internal protein gene segments from the A/Ann Arbor/6/60 ca virus were generated by plasmid-based reverse genetics (Jap/57 ca, mal/78 ca, and sw/06 ca, respectively). The vaccine candidates exhibited the in vitro phenotypes of temperature sensitivity and cold adaptation and were restricted in replication in the respiratory tract of ferrets. In mice and ferrets, the vaccines elicited neutralizing antibodies and conferred protection against homologous wild-type virus challenge. Of the three candidates, the sw/06 ca vaccine elicited cross-reactive antibodies and provided significant protection against the greatest number of heterologous viruses. These observations suggest that the sw/06 ca vaccine should be further evaluated in a clinical trial as an H2 pandemic influenza vaccine candidate. IMPORTANCE Influenza pandemics arise when novel influenza viruses are introduced into a population with little prior immunity to the new virus and often result in higher rates of illness and death than annual seasonal influenza epidemics. An influenza H2 subtype virus caused a pandemic in 1957, and H2 viruses circulated in humans till 1968. H2 influenza viruses continue to circulate in birds, and the development of an H2 influenza vaccine candidate is therefore considered a priority in preparing for future pandemics. However, we cannot predict whether a

  9. Biochemical characterization of exercise-trained porcine myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, M H; Hale, C C; Novela, L; Gute, D; Hamilton, N; Ianuzzo, C D

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cardiac biochemical adaptations are induced by chronic exercise training (ET) of miniature swine. Female Yucatan miniature swine were trained on a treadmill or were cage confined (C) for 16-22 wk. After training, the ET pigs had increased exercise tolerance, lower heart rates during exercise at submaximal intensities, moderate cardiac hypertrophy, increased coronary blood flow capacity, and increased oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle. Myosin from both the C and ET hearts was 100% of the V3 isozyme, and there were no differences between the myosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) or myofibrillar ATPase activities of C and ET hearts. Also, the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange activity of sarcolemmal vesicles were the same in cardiac muscle of C and ET hearts. Finally, the glycolytic and oxidative capacity of ET cardiac muscle was not different from control, since phosphofructokinase, citrate synthase, and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities were the same in cardiac tissue from ET and C pigs. We conclude that endurance exercise training does not provide sufficient stress on the heart of a large mammal to induce changes in any of the three major cardiac biochemical systems of the porcine myocardium: the contractile system, the Ca2+ regulatory systems, or the metabolic system.

  10. Probing myocardium biomechanics using quantitative optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shang; Lopez, Andrew L.; Morikawa, Yuka; Tao, Ge; Li, Jiasong; Larina, Irina V.; Martin, James F.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2015-03-01

    We present a quantitative optical coherence elastographic method for noncontact assessment of the myocardium elasticity. The method is based on shear wave imaging optical coherence tomography (SWI-OCT), where a focused air-puff system is used to induce localized tissue deformation through a low-pressure short-duration air stream and a phase-sensitive OCT system is utilized to monitor the propagation of the induced tissue displacement with nanoscale sensitivity. The 1-D scanning of M-mode OCT imaging and the application of optical phase retrieval and mapping techniques enable the reconstruction and visualization of 2-D depth-resolved shear wave propagation in tissue with ultra-high frame rate. The feasibility of this method in quantitative elasticity measurement is demonstrated on tissue-mimicking phantoms with the estimated Young's modulus compared with uniaxial compression tests. We also performed pilot experiments on ex vivo mouse cardiac muscle tissues with normal and genetically altered cardiomyocytes. Our results indicate this noncontact quantitative optical coherence elastographic method can be a useful tool for the cardiac muscle research and studies.

  11. Drinking to near death--acute water intoxication leading to neurogenic stunned myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losonczy, Lia I; Lovallo, Emily; Schnorr, C Daniel; Mantuani, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a rare disease entity that has been typically described as a consequence of subarachnoid hemorrhage and, less commonly, seizures. Here we describe a case of a healthy young woman who drank excessive free water causing acute hyponatremia complicated by cerebral edema and seizure, leading to cardiogenic shock from neurogenic stunned myocardium. Two days later, she had complete return of her normal cardiac function.

  12. The myocardium functional reserve indicators in junior children with recurrent acute upper respiratory tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Ovcharenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The problem of early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases in children is relevant throughout the world and in Ukraine, as in childhood the health and quality of life of an adult are formed. The psychoemotional stress in junior children as well as increasingly complicating school curriculum, information overload with electronic gadgets, increased frequency of colds in children cause physical inactivity. In addition, infectious agents have a toxic effect on the myocardium, altering its functional state. All these together adversely affect the formation and development of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems of children. The aim was to study the functional reserve of the myocardium in junior children, depending on the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI. Materials and methods. The study examined 1109 children aged 6 to 9 years old. The URTI incidence was analyzed depending on the age. In the study, the children were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of the children with URTI — 210. Group 2 involved the children with occasional URTI — 899. Results. Among 210 surveyed children with upper respiratory infections 171 schoolboys (81.4 % had reduced functional reserve of the myocardium, which is consistent with findings from other studies. In children aged 7 and 9 years old, the number of reduced functional reserve of the myocardium varies from 70 to 82 % in seven-year children, among the schoolboys aged 6 and 8 years old the incidence of reduced functional reserve of the myocardium increased from 83 to 100 % in six-year children. Conclusions. Children with URTI have a reduced functional reserve of the myocardium. Children with episodic URTI have higher rates of functional reserve of the myocardium, therefore reducing the incidence of URTI will lead to the improvement of the myocardium functional state.

  13. Coagulating activity of the blood, vascular wall, and myocardium under hypodynamia conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovskiy, B. V. (Editor); Chazov, E. I. (Editor); Andreyev, S. V. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    In order to study the effects of hypodynamia on the coagulating properties of the blood, vascular wall, and myocardium, chinchilla rabbits were kept for varying periods in special cages which restricted their movements. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were taken and the animals were sacrificed. Preparations were made from the myocardium venae cavae, and layers of the aorta. Two resultant interrelated and mutually conditioned syndromes were discovered: thrombohemorrhagic in the blood and hemorrago-thrombotic in the tissues.

  14. Neuroendocrine mechanisms of left ventricular dysfunction stimulated by anger stress in rats with atherosclerosis-a putative role of natriuretic peptide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Chen; Xian-Zhi He; Qi-Ming Liu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of natriuretic peptide in the process of left ventricular dysfunction caused by emotional stress. Methods: Adult male SD rats (n=30) and Wistar rats (n=60) were selected in this study. Atherosclerosis models were induced with high-fat diet and excess VD3 injection (eight consecutive weeks), and anger stress models were prepared by resident-intruder stress experiment (two consecutive weeks). Furthermore, left ventricular functions were examined by high-resolution echocardiograph, after which left ventricular myocardium and coronary arteries were prepared for pathological section and observed with electron microscope. At the same time, the hypothalamus, medulla oblongata and left ventricular myocardium were also prepared for pathological sections to detect the localization and expression of ANP, BNP and NPR-A with immunofluorescence and western blot. Results: We found that left ventricular functions of atherosclerosis or emotional stress modeled rats were both inferior to the healthy ones and superior to the combined (atherosclerosis and emotional stress) modeled ones (P<0.05). We also found that atherosclerosis and emotional stress could both cause morphological changes of left ventricular cells and capillary which contribute to apoptosis and hyperblastosis. Further more, there was NPR-A distributed in hypothalamus, medulla oblongata, as well as left ventricular tissues with the same express trend between groups, with atherosclerosis modeled rats the highest and the healthy rats the lowest. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that anger stress could cause an excess consumption of ANP, BNP and NPR-A in nervous and cardiovascular system which inhibit the compensatory self-repair function of atherosclerosis rats, leading to a promotion of fibrosis and lipid peroxidation, offering insight into the neuroendocrine mechanisms of left heart function obstacle.

  15. Symbolic dynamics of ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Jie

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, the symbolic dynamics analysis was used to analyze the complexity of normal heartbeat signal (NSR), Ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) signals. By calculating the information entropy value of symbolic sequences, the complexities were quantified. Based on different information entropy values, NSR, VT and VF signals were distinguished with satisfactory results. The study showed that a sudden drop of symbolic sequence’s entropy value indicated that the patients most likely entered the episode of ventricular tachycardia and this was a crucial episode for the clinical treatment of patients. It had important clinical significance for the automatic diagnosis.

  16. CAF01 potentiates immune responses and efficacy of an inactivated influenza vaccine in ferrets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Agger, Else Marie; Poulsen, Julie Juul

    2011-01-01

    experimental vaccine candidates. In this study, we compared the immune responses in ferrets to a commercially available TIV with the responses to the same vaccine mixed with the CAF01 adjuvant. Two recently circulating H1N1 viruses were used as challenge to test the vaccine efficacy. CAF01 improved......Trivalent inactivated vaccines (TIV) against influenza are given to 350 million people every year. Most of these are non-adjuvanted vaccines whose immunogenicity and protective efficacy are considered suboptimal. Commercially available non-adjuvanted TIV are known to elicit mainly a humoral immune...... the immunogenicity of the vaccine, with increased influenza-specific IgA and IgG levels. Additionally, CAF01 promoted cellular-mediated immunity as indicated by interferon-gamma expressing lymphocytes, measured by flow cytometry. CAF01 also enhanced the protection conferred by the vaccine by reducing the viral load...

  17. Left ventricular remodeling after experimental myocardial cryoinjury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciulla, Michele M; Paliotti, Roberta; Ferrero, Stefano; Braidotti, Paola; Esposito, Arturo; Gianelli, Umberto; Busca, Giuseppe; Cioffi, Ugo; Bulfamante, Gaetano; Magrini, Fabio

    2004-01-01

    The standard coronary ligation, the most studied model of experimental myocardial infarction in rats, is limited by high mortality and produces unpredictable areas of necrosis. To standardize the location and size of the infarct and to elucidate the mechanisms of myocardial remodeling and its progression to heart failure, we studied the functional, structural, and ultrastructural changes of myocardial infarction produced by experimental myocardial cryoinjury. The cryoinjury was successful in 24 (80%) of 30 male adult CD rats. A subepicardial infarct was documented on echocardiograms, with an average size of about 21%. Macroscopic examination reflected closely the stamp of the instrument used, without transition zones to viable myocardium. Histological examination, during the acute setting, revealed an extensive area of coagulation necrosis and hemorrhage in the subepicardium. An inflammatory infiltrate was evident since the 7th hour, whereas the reparative phase started within the first week, with proliferation of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and myocytes. From the 7th day, deposition of collagen fibers was reported with a reparative scar completed at the 30th day. Ultrastructural study revealed vascular capillary damage and irreversible alterations of the myocytes in the acute setting and confirmed the histological findings of the later phases. The damage was associated with a progressive left ventricular (LV) remodeling, including thinning of the infarcted area, hypertrophy of the noninfarcted myocardium, and significant LV dilation. This process started from the 60th day and progressed over the subsequent 120 days period; at 180 days, a significant increase in LV filling pressure, indicative of heart failure, was found. In conclusion, myocardial cryodamage, although different in respect to ischemic damage, causes a standardized injury reproducing the cellular patterns of coagulation necrosis, early microvascular reperfusion, hemorrhage, inflammation

  18. Effects of ozone on the cholinergic secretory responsiveness of ferret tracheal glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, R.K.; Oberdoerster, G.; Marin, M.G. (Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, NY (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Oxidant air pollutants exacerbate several pulmonary diseases. Inhalation of ozone has been shown to induce airway smooth muscle hyperresponsiveness. Oxidant injury could also affect airway secretory mechanisms. The authors postulated that oxidant exposure would alter the glycoconjugate secretory function of airway submucosal glands. To test this hypothesis they examined the effects of in vivo ozone exposure on the in vitro secretory responsiveness of ferret tracheal glands. Ferrets were exposed to 1 ppm ozone, 24 hr/day for 3 or 7 days. Following exposure, glandular explants, denuded of surface epithelial cells, were prepared and incubated in medium containing 3H-glucosamine for 18 hr. Basal secretion of labeled glycoconjugates was significantly increased 31% following 3 days of ozone exposure (P less than or equal to 0.05) and remained elevated 11% after 7 days of exposure compared to the air-exposed group. After 3 or 7 days of exposure to ozone, tracheal gland responsiveness to carbachol was increased as indicated by significantly lower EC50 values (log molar concentration) of -6.43 {plus minus} 0.04 (n = 6) and -6.50 {plus minus} 0.11 (n = 5), respectively; compared to -6.20 {plus minus} 0.08 (n = 6) for the air-exposed group. There was no difference in carbachol EC50 values for air and 7-day ozone-exposed animals treated with dexamethasone. Dexamethasone did not attenuate the ozone-induced increase in basal secretion. Tracheal gland responsiveness to {alpha}- or {beta}-adrenergic agonists was not changed by oxidant exposure. These experiments suggest that oxidant injury not only increases basal secretion of respiratory glycoconjugates but also increases tracheal gland sensitivity to a cholinergic agonist.

  19. Age-Dependent Sexually-Dimorphic Asymmetric Development of the Ferret Cerebellar Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Sawada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3D T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI at 7-Tesla system was acquired with a high spatial resolution from fixed brains of male and female ferrets at postnatal days (PDs 4 to 90, and their age-related sexual difference and laterality were evaluated by MRI-based ex vivo volumetry. The volume of both left and right sides of cerebellar cortex was larger in males than in females on PD 10 and thereafter. When the cerebellar cortex was divided into four transverse domains, i.e., anterior zone (AZ; lobules I–V, central zone (CZ; lobules VI and VII, posterior zone (PZ; lobules VIII–IXa, and nodular zone (NZ; lobules IXb and X, an age-related significantly greater volume in males than in females was detected on either side of all four domains on PD 42 and of the AZ on PD 90, but only on the left side of the PZ on PD 90. Regarding the volume laterality, significant leftward asymmetry was obtained in the CZ and PZ volumes in males, but not in females on PD 90. From asymmetry quotient (AQ analysis, AQ scores were rightward in the AZ in both sexes already on PD 21, but gradually left-lateralized only in males in the CZ, PZ, and NZ during PDs 42 to 90. The present study suggests that a characteristic counterclockwise torque asymmetry (rostrally right-biased, and caudally left-biased or symmetrical is acquired in both sexes of ferrets during PDs 42 to 90, although the leftward laterality of the posterior half of the cerebellum was more enhanced in males.

  20. Systolic left ventricular function according to left ventricular concentricity and dilatation in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P;

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH, high left ventricular mass (LVM)] is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on left ventricular relative wall thickness. We evaluated left ventricular systolic function in a new four-group LVH classification based on left ventricular dilatatio...

  1. Differences in the mechanical properties of the developing cerebral cortical proliferative zone between mice and ferrets at both the tissue and single-cell levels

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    Arata Nagasaka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell-producing events in developing tissues are mechanically dynamic throughout the cell cycle. In many epithelial systems, cells are apicobasally tall, with nuclei and somata that adopt different apicobasal positions because nuclei and somata move in a cell cycle–dependent manner. This movement is apical during G2 phase and basal during G1 phase, whereas mitosis occurs at the apical surface. These movements are collectively referred to as interkinetic nuclear migration, and such epithelia are called pseudostratified. The embryonic mammalian cerebral cortical neuroepithelium is a good model for highly pseudostratified epithelia, and we previously found differences between mice and ferrets in both horizontal cellular density (greater in ferrets and nuclear/somal movements (slower during G2 and faster during G1 in ferrets. These differences suggest that neuroepithelial cells alter their nucleokinetic behavior in response to physical factors that they encounter, which may form the basis for evolutionary transitions towards more abundant brain-cell production from mice to ferrets and primates. To address how mouse and ferret neuroepithelia may differ physically in a quantitative manner, we used atomic force microscopy to determine that the vertical stiffness of their apical surface is greater in ferrets (Young’s modulus = 1700 Pa than in mice (1400 Pa. We systematically analyzed factors underlying the apical-surface stiffness through experiments to pharmacologically inhibit actomyosin or microtubules and to examine recoiling behaviors of the apical surface upon laser ablation and also through electron microscopy to observe adherens junction. We found that although both actomyosin and microtubules are partly responsible for the apical-surface stiffness, the mouse<ferret relationship in the apical-surface stiffness was maintained even in the presence of inhibitors. We also found that the stiffness of single, dissociated neuroepithelial cells is

  2. Effect of hepatocyte growth factor on left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction in canine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping LI; Tingshu YANG; Liling LIANG

    2006-01-01

    Background and objectives To investigate the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on left ventricular (LV) remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods AMI was produced by ligation of proximal left anterior descending coronary artery(LAD) in 12 mongrel canines. These animals were randomized into 2 groups. In HGF group (n=6), canines were injected with pcDNA3-HGF lml (about 300ug) at the margin of infarcted myocardium; in control group (n=6) canines were injected with equal volume of normal saline. Cardiac function and left ventricular remodeling were evaluated with echocardiography at 1, 4, 8 weeks after MI. LV myocardium specimens were obtained at 8 weeks and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological examination or with sirius red to assess the collagen content. Results Compared with control group, LVEF in HGF group was significantly higher at 4 weeks (49.61+6.66 vs 39.84+6.39; P<0.05) and at 8 weeks (51.57+8.53 vs 40.61+7.67; P<0.05) after AMI, while LVESV was significantly lower in HGF group than that in control group at 8 weeks after AMI (18.98+3.47 vs 25.66+5.86; P<0.05). Posterior left ventricular wall thickness decreased significantly from 1 wk to 8 wks after AMI in control group, while remained unchanged in HGF group. Compared with control group, histological examination showed more neovascularization and less scar, and sirius red staining indicated higher volume of type Ⅲ collagen (7.10±4.06% vs 3.77±1.09%; P<0.05) and lower collagen Ⅰ/Ⅲ ratio value (1.11±0.52 vs 2.94±2.48; P<0.05)in HGF group. Conclusion HGF gene transfer might improve cardiac function and LV remodeling after acute myocardial infarction by stimulating angiogenesis, reducing fibrosis, and reducing myocardial scarring.

  3. Liposome-based cationic adjuvant CAF01 enhances the protection conferred by a commercial inactivated influenza vaccine in ferrets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Agger, Else Marie; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    1N1 influenza A virus strains. Antibody levels were monitored by ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition assay, viral excretion in nasal washes was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR, and cellular production of IFN-gamma was measured via flow cytometry. Results: We found that animals vaccinated with CAF......01 exhibited higher levels of serum IgG and mucosal IgA than the ones which received the vaccine alone, and that they excreted 90-99% less virus. Animals that received only vaxigrip were producing IFN-gamma after challenge, a sign of infection by low virulence influenza strains, whereas animals......Objectives: To assess the effect of CAF01 adjuvant associated to a commercial trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in the ferret model. Methods:  Ferrets were vaccinated with a range of doses of Sanofi-Pasteur's Vaxigrip with or without the CAF01 adjuvant, and challenged with either one of two H...

  4. Behavioural sensitivity to binaural spatial cues in ferrets: evidence for plasticity in the duplex theory of sound localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Peter; Nodal, Fernando R; King, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    For over a century, the duplex theory has guided our understanding of human sound localization in the horizontal plane. According to this theory, the auditory system uses interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs) to localize low-frequency and high-frequency sounds, respectively. Whilst this theory successfully accounts for the localization of tones by humans, some species show very different behaviour. Ferrets are widely used for studying both clinical and fundamental aspects of spatial hearing, but it is not known whether the duplex theory applies to this species or, if so, to what extent the frequency range over which each binaural cue is used depends on acoustical or neurophysiological factors. To address these issues, we trained ferrets to lateralize tones presented over earphones and found that the frequency dependence of ITD and ILD sensitivity broadly paralleled that observed in humans. Compared with humans, however, the transition between ITD and ILD sensitivity was shifted toward higher frequencies. We found that the frequency dependence of ITD sensitivity in ferrets can partially be accounted for by acoustical factors, although neurophysiological mechanisms are also likely to be involved. Moreover, we show that binaural cue sensitivity can be shaped by experience, as training ferrets on a 1-kHz ILD task resulted in significant improvements in thresholds that were specific to the trained cue and frequency. Our results provide new insights into the factors limiting the use of different sound localization cues and highlight the importance of sensory experience in shaping the underlying neural mechanisms. © 2013 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Evidence for Radiation-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation as a Major Cause of Radiation-Induced Death in Ferrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Savage, Alexandria R.; Billings, Paul C.; Lin, Liyong; Kennedy, Ann R., E-mail: akennedy@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The studies reported here were performed as part of a program in space radiation biology in which proton radiation like that present in solar particle events, as well as conventional gamma radiation, were being evaluated in terms of the ability to affect hemostasis. Methods and Materials: Ferrets were exposed to 0 to 2 Gy of whole-body proton or gamma radiation and monitored for 30 days. Blood was analyzed for blood cell counts, platelet clumping, thromboelastometry, and fibrin clot formation. Results: The lethal dose of radiation to 50% of the population (LD{sub 50}) of the ferrets was established at ∼1.5 Gy, with 100% mortality at 2 Gy. Hypocoagulability was present as early as day 7 postirradiation, with animals unable to generate a stable clot and exhibiting signs of platelet aggregation, thrombocytopenia, and fibrin clots in blood vessels of organs. Platelet counts were at normal levels during the early time points postirradiation when coagulopathies were present and becoming progressively more severe; platelet counts were greatly reduced at the time of the white blood cell nadir of 13 days. Conclusions: Data presented here provide evidence that death at the LD{sub 50} in ferrets is most likely due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). These data question the current hypothesis that death at relatively low doses of radiation is due solely to the cell-killing effects of hematopoietic cells. The recognition that radiation-induced DIC is the most likely mechanism of death in ferrets raises the question of whether DIC is a contributing mechanism to radiation-induced death at relatively low doses in large mammals.

  6. 1918 pandemic H1N1 DNA vaccine protects ferrets against 2007 H1N1 virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bragstad, Karoline; Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Aasted, Bent;

    of the H1N1 pandemic virus from 1918 induce protection in ferrets against infection with a H1N1 (A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)) virus which was included in the conventional vaccine for the 2006-2007 season. The viruses are separated by a time interval of 89 years and differ by 21.2% in the HA1 protein...

  7. Ventricular arrhythmias in Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Paulo Tomaz Barbosa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sudden death is one of the most characteristic phenomena of Chagas disease, and approximately one-third of infected patients develop life-threatening heart disease, including malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Fibrotic lesions secondary to chronic cardiomyopathy produce arrhythmogenic substrates that lead to the appearance and maintenance of ventricular arrhythmias. The objective of this study is to discuss the main clinical and epidemiological aspects of ventricular arrhythmias in Chagas disease, the specific workups and treatments for these abnormalities, and the breakthroughs needed to determine a more effective approach to these arrhythmias. A literature review was performed via a search of the PubMed database from 1965 to May 31, 2014 for studies of patients with Chagas disease. Clinical management of patients with chronic Chagas disease begins with proper clinical stratification and the identification of individuals at a higher risk of sudden cardiac death. Once a patient develops malignant ventricular arrhythmia, the therapeutic approach aims to prevent the recurrence of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death by the use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators, antiarrhythmic drugs, or both. In select cases, invasive ablation of the reentrant circuit causing tachycardia may be useful. Ventricular arrhythmias are important manifestations of Chagas cardiomyopathy. This review highlights the absence of high-quality evidence regarding the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias in Chagas disease. Recognizing high-risk patients who require specific therapies, especially invasive procedures such as the implantation of cardioverter defibrillators and ablative approaches, is a major challenge in clinical practice.

  8. Transmissibility of novel H7N9 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses between chickens and ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Keun Bon; Park, Eun Hye; Yum, Jung; Kim, Heui Man; Kang, Young Myong; Kim, Jeong Cheol; Kim, Ji An; Kim, Hyun Soo; Seo, Sang Heui

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that the H7N9 avian influenza virus cannot be transmitted efficiently between ferrets via respiratory droplets. Here, we studied the infectivity of the H7N9 avian influenza virus in chickens and its transmissibility from infected to naïve chickens and ferrets. The H7N9 virus (A/Anhui/1/2013) replicated poorly in chickens and could not be transmitted efficiently from infected chickens to naïve chickens and ferrets. H7N9 virus was shed from chicken tracheae for only 2 days after infection and from chicken cloacae for only 1 day after infection, while the H9N2 avian influenza virus, which is endemic in chickens in many Asian countries, was shed from tracheae and cloacae for 8 days after infection. Taken together, our results suggest that chickens may be a poor agent of transmission for the H7N9 virus to other chickens and to mammals, including humans.

  9. Anaesthetic effects in the ferret of alfaxalone alone and in combination with medetomidine or tramadol: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giral, M; García-Olmo, D C; Gómez-Juárez, M; Gómez de Segura, I A

    2014-10-01

    Alfaxalone is a neurosteroid with anaesthetic effects and it has been used successfully in several animal species. However, there are no data, to our knowledge, about its efficacy and safety in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). We evaluated a variety of anaesthetic regimens in ferrets, namely, alfaxalone at 20, 10 and 5 mg/kg (n = 1, 10 and 9, respectively; intravenously); medetomidine at 20 µg/kg (n = 3; intramuscularly); medetomidine (20 µg/kg, intramuscularly) plus alfaxalone (2.5 mg/kg, intravenously; n = 7); and tramadol (5 mg/kg, intramuscularly) plus alfaxalone (5 mg/kg, intravenously; n = 2). Two animals treated with alfaxalone at 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, respectively, died. At 5 mg/kg alfaxalone produced anaesthesia with a similar onset but a shorter duration of anaesthesia and analgesia than alfaxalone at 10 mg/kg. The medetomidine-alfaxalone combination produced anaesthesia and analgesia of a longer duration than alfaxalone administered alone at 5 mg/kg (P tramadol was administered, all the animals exhibited a strong excitation reaction and in no case was the toe-pinch reflex clearly abolished. Thus, alfaxalone plus medetomidine provided safe and effective anaesthesia in ferrets. Alfaxalone, alone or in combination with tramadol, did not produce satisfactory results for use as an anaesthetic for this species.

  10. S-phase duration is the main target of cell cycle regulation in neural progenitors of developing ferret neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrero García, Miguel; Chang, YoonJeung; Arai, Yoko; Huttner, Wieland B

    2016-02-15

    The evolutionary expansion of the neocortex primarily reflects increases in abundance and proliferative capacity of cortical progenitors and in the length of the neurogenic period during development. Cell cycle parameters of neocortical progenitors are an important determinant of cortical development. The ferret (Mustela putorius furo), a gyrencephalic mammal, has gained increasing importance as a model for studying corticogenesis. Here, we have studied the abundance, proliferation, and cell cycle parameters of different neural progenitor types, defined by their differential expression of the transcription factors Pax6 and Tbr2, in the various germinal zones of developing ferret neocortex. We focused our analyses on postnatal day 1, a late stage of cortical neurogenesis when upper-layer neurons are produced. Based on cumulative 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) labeling as well as Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunofluorescence, we determined the duration of the various cell cycle phases of the different neocortical progenitor subpopulations. Ferret neocortical progenitors were found to exhibit longer cell cycles than those of rodents and little variation in the duration of G1 among distinct progenitor types, also in contrast to rodents. Remarkably, the main difference in cell cycle parameters among the various progenitor types was the duration of S-phase, which became shorter as progenitors progressively changed transcription factor expression from patterns characteristic of self-renewal to those of neuron production. Hence, S-phase duration emerges as major target of cell cycle regulation in cortical progenitors of this gyrencephalic mammal.

  11. Effect of berberine on Cdk9 and cyclin T1 expressions in myocardium of diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Jiyin; Zhou Shiwen; Tang Jianlin; Xu Ying; Ying Yi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of berberine, one of the main alkaloids of Rhizoma coptidis, on myocardial orphology and the expressions of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (Cdk9) and cyclin T1 protein in the myocardium of type diabetic rats. Methods: Type 2 diabetes mellitus rats were induced by an injection of 35 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) nd a high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Diabetic rats were given low-, middle-, high-dose berberine (75,150, 300 mg/kg), fenofibrate (100 mg/kg) and rosiglitazone (4 mg/kg) for another 16 weeks, respectively. The myocardium structure was observed with hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) staining and Cdk9 and cyclin T1 protein expressions were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: Middle-dose, high-dose berberine improved myocardial hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis of diabetic rats. Cdk9 and cyclin T1 protein were significantly lower in diabetic myocardium than in control one (P<0.01), and middle-dose, high-dose berberine and fenofibrate obviously increased oth Cdk9 and cyclin T1 expression to near control level (P<0.01). Conclusion: Berberine modulates Cdk9 and cyclin I protein expression in diabetic myocardium which may contribute to ameliorate myocardium damage.

  12. Bioprinting 3D microfibrous scaffolds for engineering endothelialized myocardium and heart-on-a-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Arneri, Andrea; Bersini, Simone; Shin, Su-Ryon; Zhu, Kai; Goli-Malekabadi, Zahra; Aleman, Julio; Colosi, Cristina; Busignani, Fabio; Dell'Erba, Valeria; Bishop, Colin; Shupe, Thomas; Demarchi, Danilo; Moretti, Matteo; Rasponi, Marco; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Atala, Anthony; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Engineering cardiac tissues and organ models remains a great challenge due to the hierarchical structure of the native myocardium. The need of integrating blood vessels brings additional complexity, limiting the available approaches that are suitable to produce integrated cardiovascular organoids. In this work we propose a novel hybrid strategy based on 3D bioprinting, to fabricate endothelialized myocardium. Enabled by the use of our composite bioink, endothelial cells directly bioprinted within microfibrous hydrogel scaffolds gradually migrated towards the peripheries of the microfibers to form a layer of confluent endothelium. Together with controlled anisotropy, this 3D endothelial bed was then seeded with cardiomyocytes to generate aligned myocardium capable of spontaneous and synchronous contraction. We further embedded the organoids into a specially designed microfluidic perfusion bioreactor to complete the endothelialized-myocardium-on-a-chip platform for cardiovascular toxicity evaluation. Finally, we demonstrated that such a technique could be translated to human cardiomyocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells to construct endothelialized human myocardium. We believe that our method for generation of endothelialized organoids fabricated through an innovative 3D bioprinting technology may find widespread applications in regenerative medicine, drug screening, and potentially disease modeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dopamine-induced cyclic AMP increase in canine myocardium, kidney and superior mesenteric artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuno,Hiroshi

    1982-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dopamine on cyclic AMP levels in tissue slices of canine myocardium and kidney, and in chopped superior mesenteric arterial wall was investigated to identify dopamine receptors. Tissues were incubated in modified Krebs-Henseleit Ringer bicarbonate solution at 37 degrees C for 20 min with test drugs, after 20-min preincubation. In the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX, dopamine and apomorphine caused dose-dependent increases in cyclic AMP levels in the myocardium, kidney and superior mesenteric artery. Phentolamine significantly intensified the cyclic AMP-increasing effect of dopamine in the superior mesenteric artery, but it did not influence the cyclic AMP increase caused by dopamine or apomorphine in the myocardium and kidney. Propranolol markedly blocked the effect of dopamine on cyclic AMP levels in all tissues studied. Haloperidol slightly inhibited the effect of dopamine and completely blocked the effect of apomorphine in the myocardium and kidney. These data suggest that dopamine increases cyclic AMP levels by activating predominantly beta-adrenergic receptors and partly dopamine receptors in the canine myocardium, kidney and superior mesenteric artery. The present results also suggest that dopamine acts not only on beta-adrenergic and dopamine receptors but also on alpha-adrenergic receptors in the superior mesenteric artery. Contrary to the activation of beta-adrenergic and dopamine receptors, the activation of alpha-adrenergic receptors resulted in a decrease in cyclic AMP levels in this tissue.

  14. Catheter ablation of a monofocal premature ventricular complex triggering idiopathic ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuki, S; Mitamura, H; Ogawa, S

    2001-07-01

    A 62 year old man was admitted for evaluation of recurrent episodes of syncope. A surface ECG showed frequent repetitive premature ventricular complexes of right ventricular outflow tract origin. Ventricular fibrillation was inducible by programmed electrical stimulation but otherwise cardiac evaluation was unremarkable. A diagnosis of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation was made and an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) was installed. However, spontaneous ventricular fibrillation recurred, requiring repeated ICD discharges. The ventricular fibrillation was reproducibly triggered by a single premature ventricular complex with a specific QRS morphology. Radiofrequency catheter ablation was carried out to eradicate this complex. No ventricular fibrillation has developed after this procedure, and the patient does not require drug treatment.

  15. Rupture of Right Ventricular Free Wall Following Ventricular Septal Rupture in Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy with Right Ventricular Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, June Min; Hong, Sung Jin; Chung, In Hyun; Lee, Hye Young; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Byun, Young Sup; Kim, Byung Ok; Rhee, Kun Joo

    2017-01-01

    Most patients diagnosed with takotsubo cardiomyopathies are expected to almost completely recover, and their prognosis is excellent. However, complications can occur in the acute phase. We present a case of a woman with takotsubo cardiomyopathy with right ventricular involvement who developed a rupture of the right ventricular free wall following ventricular septal rupture, as a consequence of an acute increase in right ventricular afterload by left-to-right shunt. Our case report illustrates that takotsubo cardiomyopathy can be life threatening in the acute phase. Ventricular septal rupture in biventricular takotsubo cardiomyopathy may be a harbinger of cardiac tamponade by right ventricular rupture.

  16. ATIPICIDADES EN UN CASO CON DISPLASIA ARRITMOGÉNICA DEL VENTRÍCULO DERECHO O ENFERMEDAD DE UHL / Report of an atypical case with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia or Uhl´s anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal González Trujillo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa displasia arritmogénica del ventrículo derecho es una miocardiopatía caracterizada por arritmias ventriculares malignas y anomalías estructurales progresivas, que afectan primariamente al ventrículo derecho. Se presenta por una sustitución progresiva parcial o masiva del miocardio por tejido adiposo o fibroadiposo. La enfermedad de Uhl puede ser una manifestación extrema y generalizada de la displasia arritmogénica del ventrículo derecho, trastorno congénito muy poco frecuente con ausencia de miocardio ventricular derecho, por lo que sus paredes son delgadas como el papel. Se comenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 56 años que presentó pérdida de conocimiento y se le realizó el diagnóstico clínico y ecocardiográfico. Se discuten las características clínicas, el diagnóstico y la conducta a seguir ante esta cardiopatía potencialmente letal en pacientes que sufren síncope, taquicardia ventricular o parada cardíaca. / AbstractArrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is a cardiomyopathy characterized by malignant ventricular arrhythmias and progressive structural abnormalities, affecting primarily the right ventricle. It appears due to a partial or massive progressive replacement of the myocardium by fibroadipose or adipose tissue. Uhl's disease may be an extreme and widespread manifestation of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, a rare congenital disorder with absence of right ventricular myocardium, so that its walls are paper thin. The case of a 56 year old male patient who had loss of consciousness and underwent clinical and echocardiographic diagnosis is presented. The clinical features, diagnosis and action to take against this potentially fatal heart disease in patients with syncope, ventricular tachycardia or cardiac arrest are discussed.

  17. Experience with the Sarns centrifugal pump as a ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, L D; Kiser, J C; Eales, F; King, R M; Toninato, C J; Hansen, J

    1990-01-01

    The authors used the Sarns centrifugal pump (Sarns 3M, Ann Arbor, MI) as a ventricular assist device (VAD) in 30 patients between May 1985 and February 1990. Sixteen patients were unweanable from cardiopulmonary bypass at the time of surgery; nine were patients who developed cardiogenic shock postoperatively in the intensive care unit. One was a donor organ failure; one had a failed PTCA; and one an acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock preoperatively. Two patients were bridged to cardiac transplantation. Of the 28 nontransplant candidates, 20 (71.4%) were weaned successfully, 14 (50%) were discharged from the hospital, and 13 (46%) are alive from 1 to 46 months postoperatively (mean, 21.1 months). Three patients received right ventricular support alone; all three were weaned, and two (66.7%) were discharged. Ten patients received left ventricular assistance alone. Six (60%) were weaned, and four (40%) were discharged. Two patients received left ventricular support initially but were taken back for right VAD insertion because of right-sided heart failure; one (50%) is alive. Fifteen patients received biventricular support. Eleven (77.3%) were weaned, and eight (53.3%) were discharged. Patient ages ranged from 19 to 73 years, with a mean age for men of 59 years and 50.5 years for women. There were no thromboembolic events. Various clinical parameters were evaluated to determine effect on weanability and survival. These results show survival equivalent to any other VAD at this time. The centrifugal pump is a convenient and effective means of maintaining ventricular support in individuals who are believed to have salvageable myocardium.

  18. Bi-ventricular finite element model of right ventricle overload in the healthy rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masithulela, Fulufhelo

    2016-11-25

    The recognition of RV overpressure is critical to human life, as this may signify morbidity and mortality. Right ventricle (RV) dysfunction is understood to have an impact on the performance of the left ventricle (LV), but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. It is understood that ventricular compliance has the ability to affect cardiac performance. In this study, a bi-ventricular model of the rat heart was used in preference to other, single-ventricle models. Finite element analysis (FEA) of the bi-ventricular model provides important information on the function of the healthy heart. The passive myocardium was modelled as a nearly incompressible, hyperelastic, transversely isotropic material using finite element (FE) methods. Bi-ventricular geometries of healthy rat hearts reconstructed from magnetic resonance images were imported in Abaqus©. In simulating the normal passive filling of the rat heart, pressures of 4.8 kPa and 0.0098 kPa were applied to the inner walls of the LV and RV respectively. In addition, to simulate the overpressure of the RV, pressures of 2.4 kPa and 4.8 kPa were applied to the endocardial walls of the LV and RV respectively. As boundary conditions, the circumferential and longitudinal displacements at the base were set to zero. The radial displacements at the base were left free. The results show that the average circumferential stress at the mid-wall in the overloaded model increased from 2.8 kPa to 18.2 kPa. The average longitudinal stress increased from 1.5 kPa to 9.7 kPa. Additionally, in the radial direction, the average stress increased from 0.1 kPa to 0.6 kPa in the mid-wall. The average circumferential strain was found to be 0.138 and 0.100 on the endocardium of the over pressured and healthy model respectively. The average circumferential stress at the epicardium, mid-wall and endocardium in the case of a normal heart is 10 times lower than in the overloaded heart model. The finite analysis method is able to provide

  19. The detection of viable myocardium by low-dose dobutamine stress speckle tracking echocardiography in patients with old myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Wang, Fengli; Xu, Tongda; Chen, Junhong; Wang, Chaofan; Wang, Xiaoping; Li, Dongye

    2016-11-12

    To explore the significance and value of speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) associated with low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography (LDDSE) for the detection of viable myocardium (VM) in patients with old myocardial infarction (OMI). We performed STE with LDDSE in 33 hospitalized patients with OMI and left ventricular systolic dysfunction. QLAB software was used to analyze strain (S) and strain rate (Sr). Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was subsequently performed. The movement of each wall segment was observed by routine echocardiography before and after 1, 3, and 6 months of PCI, and improvement was regarded as the gold standard for diagnosing VM. Compared with semi-quantitative wall-motion analysis combined with LDDSE, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of c-STE (combining the three directions of S and Sr) at LDDSE were 91.6%, 79.5%, and 87.5%, respectively (p < 0.02). Among the deformation parameters, longitudinal strain (LS) and longitudinal strain rate (LSr) had the highest sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Upon combining LS and LSr at LDDSE to parallel tests, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 91.7%, 90%, and 90.6%, respectively. Compared with baseline, LVEF after PCI increased from 43.3% ± 2.6% to 47.3% ± 2.9% (p < 0.001). Global strain at LDDSE is superior to semi-quantitative wall-motion analysis with LDDSE for the assessment of VM. When the multivariable analysis and the parallel tests are combined, LS combined with LSr can be considered an independent predictor of VM. LVEF is improved after PCI in patients with VM and OMI. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:545-554, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Mathematically engineered stromal cell-derived factor-1α stem cell cytokine analog enhances mechanical properties of infarcted myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, John W; Trubelja, Alen; Shudo, Yasuhiro; Hsiao, Philip; Fairman, Alexander S; Yang, Elaine; Hiesinger, William; Sarver, Joseph J; Atluri, Pavan; Woo, Y Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The biomechanical response to a myocardial infarction consists of ventricular remodeling that leads to dilatation, loss of contractile function, abnormal stress patterns, and ultimately heart failure. We hypothesized that intramyocardial injection of our previously designed pro-angiogenic chemokine, an engineered stromal cell-derived factor-1α analog (ESA), improves mechanical properties of the heart after infarction. Male rats (n = 54) underwent either sham surgery (n = 17) with no coronary artery ligation or ligation of the left anterior descending artery (n = 37). The rats in the myocardial infarction group were then randomized to receive either saline (0.1 mL, n = 18) or ESA (6 μg/kg, n = 19) injected into the myocardium at 4 predetermined spots around the border zone. Echocardiograms were performed preoperatively and before the terminal surgery. After 4 weeks, the hearts were explanted and longitudinally sectioned. Uniaxial tensile testing was completed using an Instron 5543 Microtester. Optical strain was evaluated using custom image acquisition software, Digi-Velpo, and analyzed in MATLAB. Compared with the saline control group at 4 weeks, the ESA-injected hearts had a greater ejection fraction (71.8% ± 9.0% vs 55.3% ± 12.6%, P = .0004), smaller end-diastolic left ventricular internal dimension (0.686 ± 0.110 cm vs 0.763 ± 0.160 cm, P = .04), greater cardiac output (36 ± 11.6 mL/min vs 26.9 ± 7.3 mL/min, P = .05), and a lower tensile modulus (251 ± 56 kPa vs 301 ± 81 kPa, P = .04). The tensile modulus for the sham group was 195 ± 56 kPa, indicating ESA injection results in a less stiff ventricle. Direct injection of ESA alters the biomechanical response to myocardial infarction, improving the mechanical properties in the postinfarct heart. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy a still underrecognized clinic entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiene, G; Basso, C; Danieli, G; Rampazzo, A; Corrado, D; Nava, A

    1997-04-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is a new morbid entity that was discovered thanks to the study of sudden death in the young. This heart muscle disease is characterized by myocardial atrophy, mostly of the right ventricle, with massive fibro-fatty infiltration, accounting for ventricular electrical instability at risk of severe arrhythmias and even cardiac arrest. The disease was found to be the major cause of sudden death in young people and athletes in the Veneto Region, Italy. A familial occurrence with autosomal dominant transmission was then discovered, and the prevalence was estimated to be higher than 1 in 5000. The disease is genetically heterogeneous: Linkage analysis, carried out in a large family with recurrence of sudden deaths, led to map the gene to chromosome 14q23-q24. Linkage analysis in a second family allowed mapping of another gene to chromosome 1q42-q43. Clinical diagnosis can be achieved through electrocardiography, echocardiography, angiocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and endomyocardial biopsy. Diagnostic criteria have been put forward by a committee of the International Society and Federation of Cardiology. The disease was recently included among the cardiomyopathies in the revised World Health Organization (WHO) classification. Study of the natural history allowed us to distinguish (a) a covert phase in apparently normal subjects who have a risk of abrupt electrical instability and sudden death, (b) an overt arrhythmic phase with palpitations and impending cardiac arrest, (c) congestive heart failure with pump depression, sometimes so severe as to require heart transplantation. Both the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease are unknown. In particular, the mechanisms leading to progressive loss of myocardium and fibro-fatty replacement are still speculative. Apoptosis in the right ventricle occurring not only in infancy, as in the normal heart, but also in childhood and adulthood might account for the progressive

  2. Sympathetic re-innervation of myocardium after liver transplant in the hereditary amyloid neuropathy; Reinnervation sympathique du myocarde apres transplantation hepatique dans la neuropathie amyloide hereditaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delahaye, N.; Le Guludec, D. [Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Bichat, Paris (France); Slama, M. [Cardiologie, Hopital A.Beclere, Paris (France); Guyen, C.N. [SHFJ, DSV-CEA, Orsay (France); Dinanian, S. [Cardiologie, Hopital A.Beclere, Paris (France); Merlet, P. [SHFJ, DSV-CEA, Orsay (France)

    1997-12-31

    The hereditary amyloid neuropathy (HAN) is characterized by a progressive sensory-motor poly-neuropathy and a dysautonomia with myocardium sympathetic denervation. This is established by MIBL scintigraphy and may enhance the troubles of conduction and of cardiac rhythm. The amyloid deposits are constituted of anomalous pre-albumin fabricated by liver. The hepatic transplant (HT) is the only known treatment. Four patients (GI: 39 {+-} 5 years) have been studied by MIBG scintigraphy, 2.2 {+-} 0.7 years after HT, and compared with 12 patients (GII: 39 {+-} 12 years) studied before HT. The left ventricular function, the coronary arteries and the at-rest scintigraphy with thallium were normal for all of them. The cardiac capture of MIBG, evaluated by the cardio-mediastinal activity ratio (C/M), measured on an anterior thoracic planar acquisition performed 4 hours after the intravenous injection of 300 MBq, was higher for GI than for GII (1.49 {+-} 0.12 vs 1.29 {+-} 0.13, p 0.02). The washouts (4 h / 20 min) were not different. In tomography, the patients of GI presented focal anomalies with a more-or-less extended apical defect, a satisfying fixation of the basal half of the anterior wall, more-or-less overflowing the septal and lateral walls, and for 2 patients, a satisfying inferior fixation. On the contrary, 9/12 patients of GII have had a diffuse absence of fixation, the other three heaving a satisfying antero-basal fixation ({chi}{sup 2}, p = 0.05). The results are not explained by difference of severity or evolution duration of HAN. Thus, it appears that there exists a sympathetic re-innervation of myocardium after HT in the HAN, debuting by the heart base, similarly with the effect of anatomic interruption of innervation in cardiac transplants

  3. Myocardial infarction-induced N-terminal fragment of cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C) impairs myofilament function in human myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witayavanitkul, Namthip; Ait Mou, Younss; Kuster, Diederik W D; Khairallah, Ramzi J; Sarkey, Jason; Govindan, Suresh; Chen, Xin; Ge, Ying; Rajan, Sudarsan; Wieczorek, David F; Irving, Thomas; Westfall, Margaret V; de Tombe, Pieter P; Sadayappan, Sakthivel

    2014-03-28

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with depressed cardiac contractile function and progression to heart failure. Cardiac myosin-binding protein C, a cardiac-specific myofilament protein, is proteolyzed post-MI in humans, which results in an N-terminal fragment, C0-C1f. The presence of C0-C1f in cultured cardiomyocytes results in decreased Ca(2+) transients and cell shortening, abnormalities sufficient for the induction of heart failure in a mouse model. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigate the association between C0-C1f and altered contractility in human cardiac myofilaments in vitro. To accomplish this, we generated recombinant human C0-C1f (hC0C1f) and incorporated it into permeabilized human left ventricular myocardium. Mechanical properties were studied at short (2 μm) and long (2.3 μm) sarcomere length (SL). Our data demonstrate that the presence of hC0C1f in the sarcomere had the greatest effect at short, but not long, SL, decreasing maximal force and myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity. Moreover, hC0C1f led to increased cooperative activation, cross-bridge cycling kinetics, and tension cost, with greater effects at short SL. We further established that the effects of hC0C1f occur through direct interaction with actin and α-tropomyosin. Our data demonstrate that the presence of hC0C1f in the sarcomere is sufficient to induce depressed myofilament function and Ca(2+) sensitivity in otherwise healthy human donor myocardium. Decreased cardiac function post-MI may result, in part, from the ability of hC0C1f to bind actin and α-tropomyosin, suggesting that cleaved C0-C1f could act as a poison polypeptide and disrupt the interaction of native cardiac myosin-binding protein C with the thin filament.

  4. Vaccination with F1-V fusion protein protects black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) against plague upon oral challenge with Yersinia pestis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T.E.; Smith, S.; Marinari, Paul E.; Kreeger, J.; Enama, J.T.; Powell, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have established that vaccination of black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) with F1-V fusion protein by subcutaneous (SC) injection protects the animals against plague upon injection of the bacterium Yersinia pestis. This study demonstrates that the F1-V antigen can also protect ferrets against plague contracted via ingestion of a Y. pestis-infected mouse, a probable route for natural infection. Eight black-footed ferret kits were vaccinated with F1-V protein by SC injection at approximately 60 days-of-age. A booster vaccination was administered 3 mo later via SC injection. Four additional ferret kits received placebos. The animals were challenged 6 wk after the boost by feeding each one a Y. pestis-infected mouse. All eight vaccinates survived challenge, while the four controls succumbed to plague within 3 days after exposure. To determine the duration of antibody postvaccination, 18 additional black-footed ferret kits were vaccinated and boosted with F1-V by SC injection at 60 and 120 days-of-age. High titers to both F1 and V (mean reciprocal titers of 18,552 and 99,862, respectively) were found in all vaccinates up to 2 yr postvaccination, whereas seven control animals remained antibody negative throughout the same time period. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  5. Ferrets develop fatal influenza after inhaling small particle aerosols of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosna William A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited knowledge about the potential routes for H5N1 influenza virus transmission to and between humans, and it is not clear whether humans can be infected through inhalation of aerosolized H5N1 virus particles. Ferrets are often used as a animal model for humans in influenza pathogenicity and transmissibility studies. In this manuscript, a nose-only bioaerosol inhalation exposure system that was recently developed and validated was used in an inhalation exposure study of aerosolized A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1 virus in ferrets. The clinical spectrum of influenza resulting from exposure to A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1 through intranasal verses inhalation routes was analyzed. Results Ferrets were successfully infected through intranasal instillation or through inhalation of small particle aerosols with four different doses of Influenza virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1. The animals developed severe influenza encephalomyelitis following intranasal or inhalation exposure to 101, 102, 103, or 104 infectious virus particles per ferret. Conclusions Aerosolized Influenza virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1 is highly infectious and lethal in ferrets. Clinical signs appeared earlier in animals infected through inhalation of aerosolized virus compared to those infected through intranasal instillation.

  6. Sestrin2 protects the myocardium against radiation-induced damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yue-Can; Chi, Feng; Xing, Rui; Gao, Song; Chen, Jia-Jia; Duan, Qiong-Yu; Sun, Yu-Nan; Niu, Nan; Tang, Mei-Yue; Wu, Rong [Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center, Shenyang (China); Zeng, Jing [University of Washington School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seattle, WA (United States); Wang, Hong-Mei [Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Guangzhou (China)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Sestrin2 in response to radiation-induced injury to the heart and on the cardiomyopathy development in the mouse. Mice with genetic deletion of the Sestrin2 (Sestrin2 knockout mice [Sestrin2 KO]) and treatment with irradiation (22 or 15 Gy) were used as independent approaches to determine the role of Sestrin2. Echocardiography (before and after isoproterenol challenge) and left ventricular (LV) catheterization were performed to evaluate changes in LV dimensions and function. Masson's trichrome was used to assess myocardial fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to detect the capillary density. After 22 or 15 Gy irradiation, the LV ejection fraction (EF) was impaired in wt mice at 1 week and 4 months after irradiation when compared with sham irradiation. Compared to wt mice, Sestrin2 KO mice had significant reduction in reduced LVEF at 1 week and 4 months after irradiation. A significant increase in LV end-diastolic pressure and myocardial fibrosis and a significant decrease in capillary density were observed in irradiation-wt mice, as well as in irradiation-Sestrin2 KO mice. Sestrin2 involved in the regulation of cardiomyopathy (such as myocardial fibrosis) after irradiation. Overexpression of Sestrin2 might be useful in limiting radiation-induced myocardial injury. (orig.)

  7. Off-Pump Coronary Bypass Grafting Causing Stunned Myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feridoun Sabzi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The term “stunned myocardium” refers to abnormalities in the myocardial function following reperfusion and is common in on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG and is exceedingly rare in off- pump CABG. A 53-year-old man presented with unstable angina due to the severe stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD and the obtuse marginal. Laboratory findings and Chest X-ray revealed nothing abnormal. The intraoperative course was uneventful. The patient left the operating room without any inotropic support. Six hours later, however, he developed low cardiac output .At exploration, cardiac tamponade was excluded and flowmetry showed that the graft had adequate function. Cardiac enzymes were normal. High-dose adrenalin and Dobutamine were administrated and an intra-aortic balloon pump was used. After hemodynamic stabilization, the patient left the Intensive Care Unit without an intra-aortic balloon pump and inotropic support. On the fifth postoperative day, coronary angiography showed patent grafts and correct anastomotic sites. On the seventh postoperative day, the akinetic lateral wall of the left ventricle changed to dyskinesia. Finally after hospital discharge on the thirtieth postoperative day, an echocardiogram showed normal left ventricular function without regional wall motion abnormalities

  8. Role of novel DSP_p.Q986X genetic variation in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano, Oscar; Alcalde, Mireia; Berne, Paola; Zorio, Esther; Iglesias, Anna; Navarro-Manchón, Josep; Brugada, Josep; Brugada, Ramon

    2013-10-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is an inherited disease characterized by a progressive myocardium fibrofatty replacement. This abnormality disrupts electrical transmission causing ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. This genetic disease is transmitted mainly with an autosomal dominant pattern. Our aim was to identify the genetic defect responsible for the pathology in a Spanish family, and to perform its phenotype connotations. A total of 15 individuals in a three-generation Spanish family were screened after the sudden cardiac death of one family member. All they underwent a complete physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiogram, 2-dimensional echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, exercise stress test, 24-h Holter and genetic testing. Autopsy revealed the presence of biventricular arrhythmogenic dysplasia in deceased member. Six family members showed clinical symptoms but only three of them fulfilled definite diagnostic criteria of the disease. Genetic analysis showed a novel nonsense genetic variation in nine family members. All family members with clinical symptoms carried the genetic variation. Genetic testing in families affected by arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy helps to identify the genetic cause responsible for the disease. The incomplete penetrance and variable phenotypic expression highlights the need of comprehensive genetic analysis and further phenotype implications of genetics to clarify the pathophysiology of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. [Study of left ventricular function in valvular cardiopathies (mitral insufficiency and aortic insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreman, F; Brun, P; Cannet, G; Savin, E; Vannier, D

    1974-10-01

    A study of the left ventricular function based on the haemodynamic data combined with those provided by biplane cineangiography was performed in 35 cases with left ventricular volume overload (20 cases of mitral incompetence and 15 of aortic insufficiency). The importance of the haemodynamic changes and of the adaptation mechanisms set up were described. The more intense dilatation-hypertrophy of aortic incompetence than of mitral incompetence plays an essential part. The role of Starling's mechanism is underlined. Estimation of the contractile value of the myocardium, taken into account the mechanical overload and the conditions of late-diastolic lengthening of the fibre and of impedance to left ventricular ejection was determined. An obvious myocardial failure, demonstrated in approximately one third of the cases, by determination of some contractility indices estimated in the ejection phase, Vf sigma max in particular, the only one valid in the presence of valvular regurgitation. In the other cases, the moderate decrease of myocardial contractility was masked by compensatory mechanisms.

  10. Stochastic spontaneous calcium release events and sodium channelopathies promote ventricular arrhythmias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fernando O.; Shiferaw, Yohannes; Vigmond, Edward J.; Plank, Gernot

    2017-09-01

    Premature ventricular complexes (PVCs), the first initiating beats of a variety of cardiac arrhythmias, have been associated with spontaneous calcium release (SCR) events at the cell level. However, the mechanisms underlying the degeneration of such PVCs into arrhythmias are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the conditions under which SCR-mediated PVCs can lead to ventricular arrhythmias. In particular, we sought to determine whether sodium (Na+) current loss-of-function in the structurally normal ventricles provides a substrate for unidirectional conduction block and reentry initiated by SCR-mediated PVCs. To achieve this goal, a stochastic model of SCR was incorporated into an anatomically accurate compute model of the rabbit ventricles with the His-Purkinje system (HPS). Simulations with reduced Na+ current due to a negative-shift in the steady-state channel inactivation showed that SCR-mediated delayed afterdepolarizations led to PVC formation in the HPS, where the electrotonic load was lower, conduction block, and reentry in the 3D myocardium. Moreover, arrhythmia initiation was only possible when intrinsic electrophysiological heterogeneity in action potential within the ventricles was present. In conclusion, while benign in healthy individuals SCR-mediated PVCs can lead to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias when combined with Na+ channelopathies.

  11. Effect of hypertonic saline solution on the left ventricular functions of isolated hearts from burned rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周继红; 刘大维; 王正国; 朱佩芳

    2002-01-01

    To study the effect of hypertonic saline solution on the left ventricular functions of isolated hearts from burned rats. Methods: Thirty-six Wistar rats were used and divided into 4 groups: (1) normal hearts perfused with isotonic Krebs-Henseleit solution; (2) normal hearts perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution which contained 215 mmol/L Na+; (3) hearts of rats suffered from 25% TBSA third degree burn and perfused with isotonic Krebs-Henseleit solution; (4) hearts of the burned rats perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution which contained 215 mmol/L Na+. The systolic and diastolic functions of the left ventricle were observed. Results: During perfusion, there were very short periods of decrease in heart systolic and diastolic functions at first, but they recovered very soon and even became stronger than normal both in the normal and burned rats. The systolic and diastolic functions of the hearts increased very significantly when the perfusion solution was changed to isotonic solution from the hypertonic solutions. The effect of the hypertonic saline solution on the ventricular systolic and diastolic improvements was stronger in the hearts of the burned rats than that in the normal hearts. Conclusions: Hypertonic saline solution can directly affect myocardium and significantly improve the ventricular systolic and diastolic functions, especially in the hearts of the burned rats.

  12. Spread of excitation in 3-D models of the anisotropic cardiac tissue. II. Effects of fiber architecture and ventricular geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzone, P C; Guerri, L; Pennacchio, M; Taccardi, B

    1998-01-15

    We investigate a three-dimensional macroscopic model of wave-front propagation related to the excitation process in the left ventricular wall represented by an anisotropic bidomain. The whole left ventricle is modeled, whereas, in a previous paper, only a flat slab of myocardial tissue was considered. The direction of cardiac fibers, which affects the anisotropic conductivity of the myocardium, rotates from the epi- to the endocardium. If the ventricular wall is conceived as a set of packed surfaces, the fibers may be tangent to them or more generally may cross them obliquely; the latter case is described by an "imbrication angle." The effect of a simplified Purkinje network also is investigated. The cardiac excitation process, more particularly the depolarization phase, is modeled by a nonlinear elliptic equation, called an eikonal equation, in the activation time. The numerical solution of this equation is obtained by means of the finite element method, which includes an upwind treatment of the Hamiltonian part of the equation. By means of numerical simulations in an idealized model of the left ventricle, we try to establish whether the eikonal approach contains the essential basic elements for predicting the features of the activation patterns experimentally observed. We discuss and compare these results with those obtained in our previous papers for a flat part of myocardium. The general rules governing the spread of excitation after local stimulations, previously delineated for the flat geometry, are extended to the present, more realistic monoventricular model.

  13. Eyedrop Vaccination Induced Systemic and Mucosal Immunity against Influenza Virus in Ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangchul Yoon

    Full Text Available We investigated eyedrop vaccination (EDV in pre-clinical development for immunological protection against influenza and for potential side effects involving ocular inflammation and the central nervous system (CNS. Live attenuated influenza EDV, CA07 (H1N1, PZ-4 (H1N2 and Uruguay (H3N2, induced both systemic and mucosal virus-specific antibody responses in ferrets. In addition, EDV resulted in a clinically significant protection against viral challenge, and suppression of viral replication in nasal secretion and lung tissue. Regarding safety, we found that administered EDV flow through the tear duct to reach the base of nasal cavity, and thus do not contact the olfactory bulb. All analyses for potential adverse effects due to EDV, including histological and functional examinations, did not reveal significant side effects. On the basis of these findings, we propose that EDV as effective, while being a safe administration route with minimum local side effects, CNS invasion, or visual function disturbance.

  14. Swine Influenza Virus (H1N2) Characterization and Transmission in Ferrets, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Vasquez, Nicolás; Karlsson, Erik A.; Jimenez-Bluhm, Pedro; Meliopoulos, Victoria; Kaplan, Bryan; Marvin, Shauna; Cortez, Valerie; Freiden, Pamela; Beck, Melinda A.

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the influenza hemagglutinin gene (HA) has suggested that commercial pigs in Chile harbor unique human seasonal H1-like influenza viruses, but further information, including characterization of these viruses, was unavailable. We isolated influenza virus (H1N2) from a swine in a backyard production farm in Central Chile and demonstrated that the HA gene was identical to that in a previous report. Its HA and neuraminidase genes were most similar to human H1 and N2 viruses from the early 1990s and internal segments were similar to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. The virus replicated efficiently in vitro and in vivo and transmitted in ferrets by respiratory droplet. Antigenically, it was distinct from other swine viruses. Hemagglutination inhibition analysis suggested that antibody titers to the swine Chilean H1N2 virus were decreased in persons born after 1990. Further studies are needed to characterize the potential risk to humans, as well as the ecology of influenza in swine in South America. PMID:28098524

  15. Effects of solar particle event proton radiation on parameters related to ferret emesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzari, J K; Wan, X S; Krigsfeld, G S; King, G L; Miller, A; Mick, R; Gridley, D S; Wroe, A J; Rightnar, S; Dolney, D; Kennedy, A R

    2013-08-01

    The effectiveness of simulated solar particle event (SPE) proton radiation to induce retching and vomiting was evaluated in the ferret experimental animal model. The endpoints measured in the study included: (1) the fraction of animals that retched or vomited, (2) the number of retches or vomits observed, (3) the latency period before the first retch or vomit and (4) the duration between the first and last retching or vomiting events. The results demonstrated that γ ray and proton irradiation delivered at a high dose rate of 0.5 Gy/min induced dose-dependent changes in the endpoints related to retching and vomiting. The minimum radiation doses required to induce statistically significant changes in retching- and vomiting-related endpoints were 0.75 and 1.0 Gy, respectively, and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of proton radiation at the high dose rate did not significantly differ from 1. Similar but less consistent and smaller changes in the retching- and vomiting-related endpoints were observed for groups irradiated with γ rays and protons delivered at a low dose rate of 0.5 Gy/h. Since this low dose rate is similar to a radiation dose rate expected during a SPE, these results suggest that the risk of SPE radiation-induced vomiting is low and may reach statistical significance only when the radiation dose reaches 1 Gy or higher.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions ARVC arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... the expand/collapse boxes. Description Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy ( ARVC ) is a form of heart disease that ...

  17. Extra-cellular expansion in the normal, non-infarcted myocardium is associated with worsening of regional myocardial function after acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Pankaj; Broadbent, David A; Swoboda, Peter P; Foley, James R J; Fent, Graham J; Musa, Tarique A; Ripley, David P; Erhayiem, Bara; Dobson, Laura E; McDiarmid, Adam K; Haaf, Philip; Kidambi, Ananth; Crandon, Saul; Chew, Pei G; van der Geest, R J; Greenwood, John P; Plein, Sven

    2017-09-25

    Expansion of the myocardial extracellular volume (ECV) is a surrogate measure of focal/diffuse fibrosis and is an independent marker of prognosis in chronic heart disease. Changes in ECV may also occur after myocardial infarction, acutely because of oedema and in convalescence as part of ventricular remodelling. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in the pattern of distribution of regional (normal, infarcted and oedematous segments) and global left ventricular (LV) ECV using semi-automated methods early and late after reperfused ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Fifty patients underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging acutely (24 h-72 h) and at convalescence (3 months). The CMR protocol included: cines, T2-weighted (T2 W) imaging, pre-/post-contrast T1-maps and LGE-imaging. Using T2 W and LGE imaging on acute scans, 16-segments of the LV were categorised as normal, oedema and infarct. 800 segments (16 per-patient) were analysed for changes in ECV and wall thickening (WT). From the acute studies, 325 (40.6%) segments were classified as normal, 246 (30.8%) segments as oedema and 229 (28.6%) segments as infarct. Segmental change in ECV between acute and follow-up studies (Δ ECV) was significantly different for normal, oedema and infarct segments (0.8 ± 6.5%, -1.78 ± 9%, -2.9 ± 10.9%, respectively; P < 0.001). Normal segments which demonstrated deterioration in wall thickening at follow-up showed significantly increased Δ ECV compared with normal segments with preserved wall thickening at follow up (1.82 ± 6.05% versus -0.10 ± 6.88%, P < 0.05). Following reperfused STEMI, normal myocardium demonstrates subtle expansion of the extracellular volume at 3-month follow up. Segmental ECV expansion of normal myocardium is associated with worsening of contractile function.

  18. Segregation of Central Ventricular Conduction System Lineages in Early SMA+ Cardiomyocytes Occurs Prior to Heart Tube Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Choquet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiac conduction system (CCS transmits electrical activity from the atria to the ventricles to coordinate heartbeats. Atrioventricular conduction diseases are often associated with defects in the central ventricular conduction system comprising the atrioventricular bundle (AVB and right and left branches (BBs. Conducting and contractile working myocytes share common cardiomyogenic progenitors, however the time at which the CCS lineage becomes specified is unclear. In order to study the fate and the contribution to the CCS of cardiomyocytes during early heart tube formation, we performed a genetic lineage analysis using a Sma-CreERT2 mouse line. Lineage tracing experiments reveal a sequential contribution of early Sma expressing cardiomyocytes to different cardiac compartments, labeling at embryonic day (E 7.5 giving rise to the interventricular septum and apical left ventricular myocardium. Early Sma expressing cardiomyocytes contribute to the AVB, BBs and left ventricular Purkinje fibers. Clonal analysis using the R26-confetti reporter mouse crossed with Sma-CreERT2 demonstrates that early Sma expressing cardiomyocytes include cells exclusively fated to give rise to the AVB. In contrast, lineage segregation is still ongoing for the BBs at E7.5. Overall this study highlights the early segregation of the central ventricular conduction system lineage within cardiomyocytes at the onset of heart tube formation.

  19. Immunogenic and Protective Properties of the First Kazakhstan Vaccine against Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 in Ferrets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaissar Tabynov; Zhailaubai Kydyrbayev; Abylai Sansyzbay; Berik Khairullin; Sholpan Ryskeldinova; Nurika Assanzhanova; Yerken Kozhamkulov; Dulat Inkarbekov

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a pre-clinical study of the immunogenicity and efficacy of an egg-derived,inactivated,whole-virion adjuvanted vaccine (Refluvac(R)) on ferret models.For this purpose,groups of eight ferrets (6 to 7 months old) were injected with 0.5 mL of vaccine specimens containing 3.75,7.5 or 15.0 μg of virus hemagglutinin.Administration was intramuscular and given either as a single dose or as two doses 14 days apart.All vaccine specimens manifested immunogenicity in ferrets for single (HI titer,from 51 ± 7 to 160 ± 23) and double (HI titer,from 697 ± 120 to 829 ± 117) administrations.To assess the protective effects of the vaccine,ferrets from the vaccinated and control groups were infected intranasally with pandemic virus A/California/7/09 (H1N1) pdm09 at a dose of 106 EID50/0.5 mL.Fourteen days post-infection,the ferrets inoculated with single or double vaccines containing 3.75,7.5 or 15.0 μg of hemagglutinin per dose showed no signs of influenza infection,weight loss,or body temperature rise,and no premature deaths occurred.The number of vaccinated ferrets shedding the virus via the upper airway,as well as the amount of virus shed after infection,was significantly reduced in comparison with animals from the control group.Based on our results,we suggest that a single vaccination at a dose of 3.75 or 7.5 μg hemagglutinin be used for Phase I clinical trials.

  20. Catheter ablation of a polymorphic ventricular tachycardia inducing monofocal premature ventricular complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Takashi; Yamabe, Hiroshige; Tanaka, Yasuaki; Morihisa, Kenji; Kawano, Hiroaki; Kaikita, Koichi; Sumida, Hitoshi; Sugiyama, Seigo; Ogawa, Hisao

    2008-01-01

    Ventricular tachycardia originating from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) is considered benign, but sometimes it causes polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation, resulting in sudden cardiac death. A 58-year-old woman without structural heart disease was admitted for evaluation of recurrent episodes of syncope. Surface ECG showed frequent repetitive premature ventricular contraction (PVC) of RVOT origin. Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia triggered by the same PVC was documented by Holter ECG during an episode of syncope. Radiofrequency catheter ablation was performed to eradicate this PVC. No polymorphic ventricular tachycardia has developed after the procedure, and the patient has had no recurrence of syncope.

  1. 21 CFR 882.4060 - Ventricular cannula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ventricular cannula. 882.4060 Section 882.4060...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4060 Ventricular cannula. (a) Identification. A ventricular cannula is a device used to puncture the ventricles of the brain for aspiration...

  2. 21 CFR 882.4100 - Ventricular catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ventricular catheter. 882.4100 Section 882.4100...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4100 Ventricular catheter. (a) Identification. A ventricular catheter is a device used to gain access to the cavities of the brain for...

  3. Hemodialysis does not impair ventricular functions over 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Mustafa; Unal, Aydin; Inanc, Mehmet Tugrul; Kocyigit, Ismail; Oguz, Fatih; Ocak, Ayse; Ozdogru, İbrahim; Kasapkara, Ahmet; Karakaya, Ekrem; Oymak, Oktay

    2011-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the long-term effect of hemodialysis (HD) treatment on left and right ventricular (LV and RV) functions in patients with end-stage renal disease. The study population consisted of 22 patients with newly diagnosed end-stage renal disease. Before an arteriovenous fistula was surgically created for HD, the patients were evaluated by echocardiography for systolic and diastolic functions. After the first HD session (mean 24.22 ± 2.14 months), the second echocardiographic evaluations were performed. Left ventricular and RV functions before and after long-term HD treatment were compared. The mean age was 55 ± 13 years and 10 (45%) of the patients were female. After long-term HD treatment, the isovolumic relaxation time was significantly decreased; however, the peak early (E) and late (A) diastolic mitral inflow velocities, E/A ratio, and deceleration time of E wave were not significantly different from the baseline measurements. Also, there was no significantly change in the early diastolic velocity (Ea) of the lateral mitral anulus and the E/Ea ratio. Pulmonary vein peak diastolic velocity, peak atrial reversal velocity, and peak atrial reversal velocity duration remained almost unchanged even though the pulmonary vein peak systolic velocity and the pulmonary vein peak systolic velocity/pulmonary vein peak diastolic velocity ratio were significantly lower after long-term HD treatment. In addition, LV systolic functions, LV diameters, LV mass index, left atrium size, and RV diastolic functions were not statistically different after long-term HD treatment. The myocardium is exposed to hemodynamic, metabolic, and neuro-humoral abnormalities during HD treatment; however, the long-term effects of HD on ventricular functions are not clearly known. The present study showed that the long-term effects of HD on LV and RV functions were insignificant in patients with end-stage renal disease. We have demonstrated that the LV and RV functions did not change

  4. Sub-aortic obstruction of left ventricular outflow tract secondary to benfluorex-induced endocardial fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Szymanski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients exposed to benfluorex have an increased risk of restrictive organic valvular heart disease. Aortic and mitral regurgitations caused by fibrotic valve disease are the most common features observed in exposure to fenfluramine derivatives in general and benfluorex in particular. We report here, for the first time to our knowledge, a well-documented case in which obstructive sub-aortic endocardium fibrosis within the left ventricular outflow tract is related with exposure to a drug that modifies the metabolism of serotonin. It now remains to be established whether extensive fibrosis of the myocardium in addition to well-documented valvular fibrosis may develop in patients exposed to amphetamine-derived drugs affecting the serotonin system.

  5. Radionuclide noninvasive evaluation of heart failure beyond left ventricular function assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flotats, Albert; Carrió, Ignasi

    2009-01-01

    The management of patients with heart failure (HF) is challenging and requires the integration of clinical skills and accurate ancillary tests for the correct diagnosis and estimation of individual prognosis. Although the basic characterization of patients with HF is supported primarily by echocardiographic assessment of the left ventricular function, other noninvasive imaging procedures are being developed, including those involved in the processes of myocardial perfusion, metabolism, cellular injury, intersticial dysregulation, and neurohormonal receptor function. Nuclear techniques for molecular imaging of the myocardium may provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology, severity, management (medical/mechanical/surgical), response to treatment, and prognosis of HF patients. This will permit individualized management decisions and hopefully facilitate better clinical outcomes for patients with HF.

  6. Automated Assessment of Right Ventricular Volumes and Function Using Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nillesen, Maartje M; van Dijk, Arie P J; Duijnhouwer, Anthonie L; Thijssen, Johan M; de Korte, Chris L

    2016-02-01

    Assessment of right ventricular (RV) function is known to be of diagnostic value in patients with RV dysfunction. Because of its complex anatomic shape, automated determination of the RV volume is difficult and strong reliance on geometric assumptions is not desired. A method for automated RV assessment was developed using three-dimensional (3-D) echocardiography without relying on a priori knowledge of the cardiac anatomy. A 3-D adaptive filtering technique that optimizes the discrimination between blood and myocardium was applied to facilitate endocardial border detection. Filtered image data were incorporated in a segmentation model to automatically detect the endocardial RV border. End-systolic and end-diastolic RV volumes, as well as ejection fraction, were computed from the automatically segmented endocardial surfaces and compared against reference volumes manually delineated by two expert cardiologists. The results reported good performance in terms of correlation and agreement with the results from the reference volumes.

  7. Cardiac CT and MRI guide surgery in impending left ventricular rupture after acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Ashish S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report the case of a 67 year-old patient who presented with worsening chest pain and shortness of breath, four days post acute myocardial infarction. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of the chest ruled out a pulmonary embolus but revealed an unexpected small subepicardial aneurysm (SEA in the lateral left ventricular wall which was confirmed on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Intraoperative palpation of the left lateral wall was guided by the cardiac MRI and CT findings and confirmed the presence of focally thinned and weakened myocardium, covered by epicardial fat. An aneurysmorrhaphy was subsequently performed in addition to coronary bypass surgery and a mitral valve repair. The patient was discharged home on post operative day eight in good condition and is feeling well 2 years after surgery.

  8. Distribution and function of sodium channel subtypes in human atrial myocardium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, Susann G.; Westenbroek, Ruth E.; Maass, Alexander H.; Lange, Volkmar; Renner, Andre; Wischmeyer, Erhard; Bonz, Andreas; Muck, Jenny; Ertl, Georg; Catterall, William A.; Scheuer, Todd; Maier, Sebastian K. G.

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels composed of a pore-forming alpha subunit and auxiliary beta subunits are responsible for the upstroke of the action potential in cardiac muscle. However, their localization and expression patterns in human myocardium have not yet been clearly defined. We used immunohist

  9. Constitutively Expressed αB—Crystallin in Heat Schock Transcription Factor 1 Knockout Mice Myocardium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉; 张洪慧; 丁国宪; 程蕴琳; 晏良军; BENJAMINIvorJ

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To invesligate the effects of heat shock transcription factor 1(HSF 1) gene on the constitutively expressed aB-Crystallin(αBC)in mice myocardium.Methods:The expression levels of constitutive αBC in HSF1 knockout(hsf1-/-) and HSF1 wild type (hsf1+/+) mice myocardium were evaluated by western blot and immunohistochemistry.Results:The αBC levels in hsf1-/- and hsf1+/_ were 68.42±4.16,100.00±7.58,respectively(P<0.05,cytosolic fraction),and 20.53±1.01,37.55±1.91,respectively(P<0.05,pellet fraction).The αBC signals decreased significantly in hsf1-/- myocardium when compared with those in hsf1+/+ myocardium stained with fluorescence immunohistochemistry.Conclusion.HSF1 is an important,but not the only factor,which mediates the constitutively expressed αBC.

  10. Influence of calcium on the action of Vipera ammodytes ammodytes snake venom on the myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petković, D; Pavlović, M; Matejević, D; Unković-Cvetković, N; Jovanović, T; Aleksić, N; Cvetković, M; Colović, J; Stamenović, B

    1983-01-01

    V. ammodytes ammodytes snake venom produced irreversible block of the isolated, artificially stimulated rat right ventricle or isolated rat heart. This was the result of degenerative changes of the myocardium caused by the direct effect of toxic components of the venom. An excess of Ca2+ could temporarily restart the contractions.

  11. Quantification of left ventricular myocardial collagen system in children, young adults, and the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bogoslavsky Levy Mendes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the collagen system of the human myocardium are still limited compared to those on small laboratory animals. The aim of this work was to observe the collagen tissue of the myocardium of the human heart as a function of age. The types of collagen, as well as the density of collagen tissue and the diameter of collagen fibrils, were examined. Fragments of the left ventricular wall from 15 hearts, 5 from children, 5 from young adults, and 5 from elderly individuals, were analyzed by using the Picrosirius-polarization method and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The results showed the presence of collagen type III and collagen type I, both in the endomysium and perimysium of the 3 groups studied. Measurements of collagen content in myocardial tissue displayed that both endomysial and perimysial collagen increase in number and thickness in the adult and elderly. These histochemical results coincided with the observations obtained with the electron microscope in showing an increase in the number of collagen fibrils with a large diameter in the adult and elderly hearts. The present results on cardiac collagen may be important for assessing the pathogenesis of several cardiopathies in the hearts of children, young adults, and the elderly.

  12. Mechanics of left ventricular relaxation, early diastolic lengthening, and suction investigated in a mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remme, Espen W; Opdahl, Anders; Smiseth, Otto A

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the determinants of ventricular early diastolic lengthening and mechanics of suction using a mathematical model of the left ventricle (LV). The model was based on a force balance between the force represented by LV pressure (LVP) and active and passive myocardial forces. The predicted lengthening velocity (e') from the model agreed well with measurements from 10 dogs during 5 different interventions (R = 0.69, P relaxation rate and systolic shortening increased, when passive stiffness was decreased, and when the rate of fall of LVP during early filling was decreased relative to the rate of fall of active stress. We first defined suction as the work the myocardium performed to pull blood into the ventricle. This occurred when contractile active forces decayed below and became weaker than restoring forces, producing a negative LVP. An alternative definition of suction is filling during falling pressure, commonly believed to be caused by release of restoring forces. However, the model showed that this phenomenon also occurred when there had been no systolic compression below unstressed length and therefore in the absence of restoring forces. In conclusion, relaxation rate, LVP, systolic shortening, and passive stiffness were all independent determinants of e'. The model generated a suction effect seen as lengthening occurring during falling pressure. However, this was not equivalent with the myocardium performing pulling work on the blood, which was performed only when restoring forces were higher than remaining active fiber force, corresponding to a negative transmural pressure.

  13. Common arterial trunk and ventricular non-compaction in Lrp2 knockout mice indicate a crucial role of LRP2 in cardiac development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baardman, Maria E; Zwier, Mathijs V; Wisse, Lambertus J; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C; Kerstjens-Frederikse, Wilhelmina S; Hofstra, Robert M W; Jurdzinski, Angelika; Hierck, Beerend P; Jongbloed, Monique R M; Berger, Rolf M F; Plösch, Torsten; DeRuiter, Marco C

    2016-04-01

    Lipoprotein-related receptor protein 2 (LRP2) is important for development of the embryonic neural crest and brain in both mice and humans. Although a role in cardiovascular development can be expected, the hearts ofLrp2knockout (KO) mice have not yet been investigated. We studied the cardiovascular development ofLrp2KO mice between embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) and E15.5, applying morphometry and immunohistochemistry, using antibodies against Tfap2α (neural crest cells), Nkx2.5 (second heart field), WT1 (epicardium derived cells), tropomyosin (myocardium) and LRP2. TheLrp2KO mice display a range of severe cardiovascular abnormalities, including aortic arch anomalies, common arterial trunk (persistent truncus arteriosus) with coronary artery anomalies, ventricular septal defects, overriding of the tricuspid valve and marked thinning of the ventricular myocardium. Both the neural crest cells and second heart field, which are essential for the lengthening and growth of the right ventricular outflow tract, are abnormally positioned in theLrp2KO. This explains the absence of the aorto-pulmonary septum, which leads to common arterial trunk and ventricular septal defects. Severe blebbing of the epicardial cells covering the ventricles is seen. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition does occur; however, there are fewer WT1-positive epicardium-derived cells in the ventricular wall as compared to normal, coinciding with the myocardial thinning and deep intertrabecular spaces. LRP2 plays a crucial role in cardiovascular development in mice. This corroborates findings of cardiac anomalies in humans withLRP2mutations. Future studies should reveal the underlying signaling mechanisms in which LRP2 is involved during cardiogenesis.

  14. Congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities in adults detected by gated cardiac multidetector computed tomography: Clefts, aneurysms, diverticula and terminology problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erol, Cengiz, E-mail: drcengizerol@yahoo.com [Selcuk University, Selcuklu Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Alaeddin Keykubat Central Campus, Selcuklu, 42250 Konya (Turkey); Koplay, Mustafa, E-mail: koplaymustafa@hotmail.com [Selcuk University, Selcuklu Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Alaeddin Keykubat Central Campus, Selcuklu, 42250 Konya (Turkey); Olcay, Ayhan, E-mail: drayhanolcay@gmail.com [29 May Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Vatan Street, Fatih, 34150 Istanbul (Turkey); Kivrak, Ali Sami, E-mail: alisamikivrak@hotmail.com [Selcuk University, Selcuklu Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Alaeddin Keykubat Central Campus, Selcuklu, 42250 Konya (Turkey); Ozbek, Seda, E-mail: dsadr@hotmail.com [Selcuk University, Selcuklu Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Alaeddin Keykubat Central Campus, Selcuklu, 42250 Konya (Turkey); Seker, Mehmet, E-mail: hikmet.irfan@hotmail.com [29 May Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vatan Street, Fatih, 34150 Istanbul (Turkey); Paksoy, Yahya, E-mail: yahyapaksoy@yahoo.com [Selcuk University, Selcuklu Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Alaeddin Keykubat Central Campus, Selcuklu, 42250 Konya (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities (clefts, aneurysms and diverticula), describe and illustrate imaging features, discuss terminology problems and determine their prevalence detected by cardiac CT in a single center. Materials and methods: Coronary CT angiography images of 2093 adult patients were evaluated retrospectively in order to determine congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities. Results: The incidence of left ventricular clefts (LVC) was 6.7% (141 patients) and statistically significant difference was not detected between the sexes regarding LVC (P = 0.5). LVCs were single in 65.2% and multiple in 34.8% of patients. They were located at the basal to mid inferoseptal segment of the left ventricle in 55.4%, the basal to mid anteroseptal segment in 24.1%, basal to mid inferior segment in 17% and septal-apical septal segment in 3.5% of cases. The cleft length ranged from 5 to 22 mm (mean 10.5 mm) and they had a narrow connection with the left ventricle (mean 2.5 mm). They were contractile with the left ventricle and obliterated during systole. Congenital left ventricular septal aneurysm that was located just under the aortic valve was detected in two patients (0.1%). No case of congenital left ventricular diverticulum was detected. Conclusion: Cardiac CT allows us to recognize congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities which have been previously overlooked in adults. LVC is a congenital structural variant of the myocardium, is seen more frequently than previously reported and should be differentiated from aneurysm and diverticulum for possible catastrophic complications of the latter two.

  15. Facts about Ventricular Septal Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Heart Defects Data & Statistics Tracking & Research Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Multimedia and Tools Links to Other Websites Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts about Ventricular Septal Defect Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  16. Low pathogenic avian influenza isolates from wild birds replicate and transmit via contact in ferrets without prior adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Driskell

    Full Text Available Direct transmission of avian influenza viruses to mammals has become an increasingly investigated topic during the past decade; however, isolates that have been primarily investigated are typically ones originating from human or poultry outbreaks. Currently there is minimal comparative information on the behavior of the innumerable viruses that exist in the natural wild bird host. We have previously demonstrated the capacity of numerous North American avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds to infect and induce lesions in the respiratory tract of mice. In this study, two isolates from shorebirds that were previously examined in mice (H1N9 and H6N1 subtypes are further examined through experimental inoculations in the ferret with analysis of viral shedding, histopathology, and antigen localization via immunohistochemistry to elucidate pathogenicity and transmission of these viruses. Using sequence analysis and glycan binding analysis, we show that these avian viruses have the typical avian influenza binding pattern, with affinity for cell glycoproteins/glycolipids having terminal sialic acid (SA residues with α 2,3 linkage [Neu5Ac(α2,3Gal]. Despite the lack of α2,6 linked SA binding, these AIVs productively infected both the upper and lower respiratory tract of ferrets, resulting in nasal viral shedding and pulmonary lesions with minimal morbidity. Moreover, we show that one of the viruses is able to transmit to ferrets via direct contact, despite its binding affinity for α 2,3 linked SA residues. These results demonstrate that avian influenza viruses, which are endemic in aquatic birds, can potentially infect humans and other mammals without adaptation. Finally this work highlights the need for additional study of the wild bird subset of influenza viruses in regard to surveillance, transmission, and potential for reassortment, as they have zoonotic potential.

  17. Cloned defective interfering influenza virus protects ferrets from pandemic 2009 influenza A virus and allows protective immunity to be established.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel J Dimmock

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population, causing epidemics in the winter, and occasional worldwide pandemics. In addition there are periodic outbreaks in domestic poultry, horses, pigs, dogs, and cats. Infections of domestic birds can be fatal for the birds and their human contacts. Control in man operates through vaccines and antivirals, but both have their limitations. In the search for an alternative treatment we have focussed on defective interfering (DI influenza A virus. Such a DI virus is superficially indistinguishable from a normal virus but has a large deletion in one of the eight RNAs that make up the viral genome. Antiviral activity resides in the deleted RNA. We have cloned one such highly active DI RNA derived from segment 1 (244 DI virus and shown earlier that intranasal administration protects mice from lethal disease caused by a number of different influenza A viruses. A more cogent model of human influenza is the ferret. Here we found that intranasal treatment with a single dose of 2 or 0.2 µg 244 RNA delivered as A/PR/8/34 virus particles protected ferrets from disease caused by pandemic virus A/California/04/09 (A/Cal; H1N1. Specifically, 244 DI virus significantly reduced fever, weight loss, respiratory symptoms, and infectious load. 244 DI RNA, the active principle, was amplified in nasal washes following infection with A/Cal, consistent with its amelioration of clinical disease. Animals that were treated with 244 DI RNA cleared infectious and DI viruses without delay. Despite the attenuation of infection and disease by DI virus, ferrets formed high levels of A/Cal-specific serum haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies and were solidly immune to rechallenge with A/Cal. Together with earlier data from mouse studies, we conclude that 244 DI virus is a highly effective antiviral with activity potentially against all influenza A subtypes.

  18. Decline of Phosphotransfer and Substrate Supply Metabolic Circuits Hinders ATP Cycling in Aging Myocardium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emirhan Nemutlu

    Full Text Available Integration of mitochondria with cytosolic ATP-consuming/ATP-sensing and substrate supply processes is critical for muscle bioenergetics and electrical activity. Whether age-dependent muscle weakness and increased electrical instability depends on perturbations in cellular energetic circuits is unknown. To define energetic remodeling of aged atrial myocardium we tracked dynamics of ATP synthesis-utilization, substrate supply, and phosphotransfer circuits through adenylate kinase (AK, creatine kinase (CK, and glycolytic/glycogenolytic pathways using 18O stable isotope-based phosphometabolomic technology. Samples of intact atrial myocardium from adult and aged rats were subjected to 18O-labeling procedure at resting basal state, and analyzed using the 18O-assisted HPLC-GC/MS technique. Characteristics for aging atria were lower inorganic phosphate Pi[18O], γ-ATP[18O], β-ADP[18O], and creatine phosphate CrP[18O] 18O-labeling rates indicating diminished ATP utilization-synthesis and AK and CK phosphotransfer fluxes. Shift in dynamics of glycolytic phosphotransfer was reflected in the diminished G6P[18O] turnover with relatively constant glycogenolytic flux or G1P[18O] 18O-labeling. Labeling of G3P[18O], an indicator of G3P-shuttle activity and substrate supply to mitochondria, was depressed in aged myocardium. Aged atrial myocardium displayed reduced incorporation of 18O into second (18O2, third (18O3, and fourth (18O4 positions of Pi[18O] and a lower Pi[18O]/γ-ATP[18 O]-labeling ratio, indicating delayed energetic communication and ATP cycling between mitochondria and cellular ATPases. Adrenergic stress alleviated diminished CK flux, AK catalyzed β-ATP turnover and energetic communication in aging atria. Thus, 18O-assisted phosphometabolomics uncovered simultaneous phosphotransfer through AK, CK, and glycolytic pathways and G3P substrate shuttle deficits hindering energetic communication and ATP cycling, which may underlie energetic

  19. Influence of skeletal muscle satellite cells implanted into infarcted myocardium on remnant myocyte volumes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟竑; 朱洪生; 卫洪超; 张臻

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of skeletal muscle satellite cells implanted into infarcted myocardium on the volume of remnant myocytes.Methods Thirty-six adult mongrel canines were divided randomly into implantation group and control group. In the implantation group, skeletal muscle satellite cells taken from the gluteus maximus muscles of the dogs were cultured, proliferated and labeled with 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindone (DAPI) in vitro. In both groups, a model of acute myocardial infarction was established in every dog. In the implantation group, each dog was injected with M199 solution containing autologous skeletal muscle satellite cells. The dogs in the control group received M199 solution without skeletal muscle satellite cells. The dogs of both groups were killed 2, 4 and 8 weeks after implantation (six dogs in a separate group each time). Both infarcted myocardium and normal myocytes distal from the infracted regions isolated were observed under optical and fluorescent microscope. Their volumes were determined using a confocal microscopy image analysis system and analyzed using SAS. A P<0.05 was considered significant.Results A portion of the implanted cells differentiated into muscle fiber with striations and were connected with intercalated discs. Cross-sectional area and cell volume were increased in normal myocardium. Hypertrophy of remnant myocytes in the infarcted site after skeletal muscle cell implantation was much more evident than in the control group. Cross-sectional area, cell area and cell volume differed significantly from those of the control group (P< 0.05). Hypertrophy of the cells occurred predominantly in terms of width and thickness, whereas cell length remained unchanged. Conclusion Skeletal muscle satellite cells implanted into infarct myocardium, could induce the hypertrophy of remnant myocyte cells in the infarcted site and could also aid in the recovery of the contractile force of the infarcted myocardium.

  20. Low-power Helium-Neon laser irradiation enhances the expression of VEGF in murine myocardium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫光; 吴长燕; 潘文潇; 田珑; 夏家骝

    2004-01-01

    Background Low-power helium-neon (He-Ne) lasers have been increasingly widely applied in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, and its vasodilation effect has been proven. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of low-power He-Ne laser irradiation directed at the precardial region of Wistar rats on capillary permeability in the myocardium and the expression of myocardial vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Methods Sixteen rats were divided randomly into control and irradiated groups (n=8, each). A He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) was applied to the irradiated group with a dose of 60.5 J/cm2. Ferritin was perfused into the left femoral vein and capillary permeability was examined under an electron microscope. VEGF expression in the myocardium was investigated by immunohistochemical methods, RT-PCR, and image analysis. Results The ultrastructures of the myocardial capillaries were examined. Compared to the control group, more high-density granules (ferritin), which were present within the capillary endothelium and the mitochondrions of myocardial cells in the internal layer of the myocardium, were observed in the irradiated group. VEGF staining of the myocardium was stronger in the irradiated group than that in the control group. The optic density of the irradiated group (0.246±0.015) was significantly higher than that of the control group (0.218±0.012, P<0.05). Finally, the levels of RT-PCR products of VEGF165 mRNA were 2.79 times higher in irradiated rats than in the control rats.Conclusions Our study demonstrates that He-Ne laser irradiation (in doses of 60.5 J/cm2) increases myocardial capillary permeability and the production of VEGF in myocardial microvessels and in myocardium. Our study provides experimental morphological evidence that myocardial microcirculation can be improved using He-Ne laser irradiation.

  1. [Effects of Fluoxetine on Nogo Expression and Collagen Production with Decrease of Pulmonary Artery Pressure in Rats with Right Ventricular Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Xun; Zhao, Jian-Xun; Nie, Hu; Chen, Yu-Cheng

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the effect of fluoxetine on neurite growth inhibitor (Nogo) expession and collagen production of cardiac tissue in rats with right heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. Thirty one male SD rats were randomly divided into the treatment group,right heart failure group and normal control group.The rats in the treatment group and right heart failure group received intrapertioneal injection of monocrotaline (MCT,60 mg/kg) to induce pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure.After 21 days,the rats in treatment group were given fluoxetine of 10 mg/(kg×d) by gavage per day for 21 days,the rats in the other two groups were given saline.HE staining was used to observe the pulmonary artery and right ventricular myocardial tissue in rats.The collagen formation in right ventricular myocardium was observed by Masson staining.The expressions of Nogo-A, Nogo-B,type1collagen and type 3 collagen mRNA in myocardium were measured by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR,while the semi quantitative measurement of Nogo protein level was detected by Western blot. After the intervention of fluoxetine,pulmonary artery stenosis was significantly reduced,myocardial tissue lesion decreased,collagen synthesis decreased in right ventricular myocardium.RT-PCR showed that mRNA of Nogo-A decreased,and mRNA of Nogo-B increased (P0.05). Nogo may affect the collagen synthesis in right heart failure,and partly involved in myocardial fibrosis.

  2. Debris flows on forested cones - reconstruction and comparison of frequencies in two catchments in Val Ferret, Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Bollschweiler, M.; Stoffel, M.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Debris flows represent a major threat to infrastructure in many regions of the Alps. Since systematic acquisition of data on debris-flow events in Switzerland only started after the events of 1987, there is a lack of historical knowledge on earlier debris-flow events for most torrents. It is therefore the aim of this study to reconstruct the debris-flow activity for the Reuse de Saleinaz and the La Fouly torrents in Val Ferret (Valais, Switzerland). In total, 556 incre...

  3. Rare and new cumaceans (Crustacea, Peracarida from the southern margin of the Cap Ferret Canyon (Bay of Biscay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Corbera

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A new cumacean genus and species, Ithyleucon sorbei gen. et sp. n., was described from material collected in the southern margin of the Cap Ferret Canyon (Bay of Biscay, NE Atlantic. Although the new genus resembles Pseudoleucon Zimmer, 1903, in terms of the general aspect of the carapace and the pseudo-rostrum position, it shows important differences in the uropod structure and in the size of the antenna 1 accessory flagellum. In addition, some comments regarding the morphology of certain rare species (Mesolamprops denticulatus Ledoyer, 1983, Hemilamprops normani Bonnier, 1896 and Schizocuma spino-culatum (Jones, 1984 are also provided.

  4. Factibilidad de la creación de una cadena de Ferretería en la ciudad de Guayaquil.

    OpenAIRE

    Peñaherrera Hernández, Marcela Dolores

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo plantea la implementación de una cadena de Ferreterías que se lo realiza debido a las necesidades que tienen los clientes para poder satisfacer sus deseos y experiencias. La propuesta consiste en la implementación de 3 Puntos propios e