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Sample records for fermented virgin coconut

  1. KARAKTERISTIK FISIKOKIMIA DAN ANTIBAKTERI VIRGIN COCONUT OIL HASIL FERMENTASI BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT [Physicochemical and Antibacterial Characteristics of Virgin Coconut Oil Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria

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    Anton Rahmadi*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Destabilization of oil-water emulsion in coconut milk, in the production of virgin coconut oil (VCO, can be accelerated with the utilization of lactic acid bacteria fermentation. This research was aimed to determine physicochemical and antibacterial characteristics of VCO from coconut hybrid variety fermented with L. casei of Yakult® and two isolates of L. plantarum from mandai (traditionally fermented Artocarpus campeden and coconut water. The observed physicochemical of VCO included yield, specific gravity, moisture content, saponification value, peroxide value, and free fatty acid. The antibacterial activity was subjected to the well diffusion method against E. coli and S. aureus with chloramphenicol as the positive control. L. casei yielded the best VCO-BAL at 34.5% (v/v, while L. plantarum from mandai and coconut water yielded 29.5% (v/v and 25.3% (v/v, respectively. VCO-BAL from L. casei had the lightest specific gravity of 0.84±0.04 g.mL-1. Average of measured moisture contents (0.03-0.05%, saponification values (161.3-163.6, peroxide values (0.53-0.86, and free fatty acids (0.11-0.12% of the three VCO-BALs were not significantly (p>0.05 different with respect to control. VCO-BAL produced from L. plantarum of coconut water did not exhibit better antibacterial activity compared to control. VCO-BAL from L. casei demonstrated highest antibacterial activity against E. coli, 6.45±0.50 mm (58.1% of positive control and S. aureus, 5.23±0.40 mm (51.3% of positive control. It is deduced that antibacterial activity from VCO-BAL is contributed by hydrophobic bacteriocins.

  2. Hepatoprotective Activity of Dried- and Fermented-Processed Virgin Coconut Oil

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    Z. A. Zakaria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the hepatoprotective effect of MARDI-produced virgin coconut oils, prepared by dried- or fermented-processed methods, using the paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Liver injury induced by 3 g/kg paracetamol increased the liver weight per 100 g bodyweight indicating liver damage. Histological observation also confirms liver damage indicated by the presence of inflammations and necrosis on the respective liver section. Interestingly, pretreatment of the rats with 10, but not 1 and 5, mL/kg of both VCOs significantly (P<.05 reduced the liver damage caused by the administration of paracetamol, which is further confirmed by the histological findings. In conclusion, VCO possessed hepatoprotective effect that requires further in-depth study.

  3. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil.

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    Marina, A M; Man, Y B Che; Nazimah, S A H; Amin, I

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of virgin coconut oil produced through chilling and fermentation were investigated and compared with refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil showed better antioxidant capacity than refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. The virgin coconut oil produced through the fermentation method had the strongest scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching method. However, virgin coconut oil obtained through the chilling method had the highest reducing power. The major phenolic acids detected were ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Very high correlations were found between the total phenolic content and scavenging activity (r=0.91), and between the total phenolic content and reducing power (r=0.96). There was also a high correlation between total phenolic acids and beta-carotene bleaching activity. The study indicated that the contribution of antioxidant capacity in virgin coconut oil could be due to phenolic compounds.

  4. Safety assessment of widely used fermented virgin coconut oil (Cocos nucifera) in Malaysia: Chronic toxicity studies and SAR analysis of the active components.

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    Ibrahim, Ahmad H; Khan, Md Shamsuddin Sultan; Al-Rawi, Sawsan S; Ahamed, Mohamed B Khadeer; Majid, Aman Shah Bin Abdul; Al-Suede, Fouad Saleih R; Ji, Dan; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul

    2016-11-01

    Fermented Virgin Coconut Oil (FVCO) is widely used in the Southeast Asia as food and traditional medicine. The objective of the present study is the evaluation of chronic safety of the commercialized FVCO of Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries. A single dose of 5000 mg/kg of FVCO was administered orally in rats (each group, n = 5) for the acute toxicity study and 175, 550 and 2000 mg/kg for sub-chronic and chronic studies (each group, n = 10), respectively. The behavior, mortality, and body weight of the rats were assessed to determine the toxic effects of FVCO. The haematology, biochemistry and histopathology of the treated rats were evaluated. The treated rats were safe with the dose of 5000 mg/kg in acute, sub-chronic and chronic indication. Abnormal clinical signs and morphology (gross necroscopy), changes of organ weight, anomalous haematology and biochemistry indexes were not found in comparison with the control (p > 0.05). In general, food and water intake were higher in the treated rats related to control. It was concluded that the presence of the antioxidant active compounds of FVCO might be the reason of safety. The structure activity relationship (SAR) provides a comprehensive mechanism to determine the safety that is the presence of the electron donating phenolic groups, carbonyl groups, and carboxylic acid in the ortho and meta position of the aromatic rings. The SAR showed the antioxidant properties of myristic acid and lauric acid determined by GC-MS analysis. This result suggests the safety of FVCO for chronic use, nutritional activity that FVCO formulation complies the requirements of regulatory agencies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pemanfaatan Limbah Virgin Coconut Oil (Blondo)

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    Haerani, Haerani

    2010-01-01

    Coconuts and coconut oil have been traditional, staple foods of Asia, Africa, Central America and the Pacific Islands for thousands of years. Pacific Islanders, those who still eat traditional diets, have a reputation for good health and strong beautiful bodies. Many of these traditional diets obtain 30% to 60% of their calories from coconuts and coconut oil. They tend to have normal cholesterol levels and no cardiovascular disease. Prior to the early 1900s, coconut oil was an important dieta...

  6. Renoprotective effect of virgin coconut oil in heated palm oil diet-induced hypertensive rats.

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    Kamisah, Yusof; Ang, Shu-Min; Othman, Faizah; Nurul-Iman, Badlishah Sham; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad

    2016-10-01

    Virgin coconut oil, rich in antioxidants, was shown to attenuate hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the effects of virgin coconut oil on blood pressure and related parameters in kidneys in rats fed with 5-times-heated palm oil (5HPO). Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Two groups were fed 5HPO (15%) diet and the second group was also given virgin coconut oil (1.42 mL/kg, oral) daily for 16 weeks. The other 2 groups were given basal diet without (control) and with virgin coconut oil. Systolic blood pressure was measured pre- and post-treatment. After 16 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and kidneys were harvested. Dietary 5HPO increased blood pressure, renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and nitric oxide contents, but decreased heme oxygenase activity. Virgin coconut oil prevented increase in 5HPO-induced blood pressure and renal nitric oxide content as well as the decrease in renal heme oxygenase activity. The virgin coconut oil also reduced the elevation of renal TBARS induced by the heated oil. However, neither dietary 5HPO nor virgin coconut oil affected renal histomorphometry. In conclusion, virgin coconut oil has a potential to reduce the development of hypertension and renal injury induced by dietary heated oil, possibly via its antioxidant protective effects on the kidneys.

  7. New coating material for producing virgin coconut oil (VCO microcapsules

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    Amin, Z.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the microencapsulation efficiency (MEE of different grades of broken rice (RB and breadfruit (BB-based maltodextrin as a coating material, using virgin coconut oil (VCO as a model system. The VCO was generally found to be well microencapsulated using BB, RB or commercial (COM maltodextrin at a core/wall material ratio of 1:3. In comparison to a different dextrose equivalent (DE group, both RB and BB maltodextrins with DE values of 10-14 showed higher MEE values (84.81-94.39% than maltodextrins with DE value of 15-19 (78.23-79.65%. Low DE value maltodextrins were shown higher glass transition temperatures than high DE value maltodextrins under the same moisture content. Both RB and BB maltodextrins were found to be compatible with COM maltodextrin as shown in the microstructure appearance when viewed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM.

  8. Efek Olive Oil dan Virgin Coconut Oil terhadap Striae Gravidarum

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    Evi Pratami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of striae gravidarum (SG in pregnant women ranges from 50% to 90%. Effects of SG include itchy and hot feeling as well as dry skin. This situation also causes emotional disturbances that poses a cosmetic problem for most pregnant women. Nowadays, many pregnant women use olive oil to prevent SG, but it is relatively difficult to find and costly. In Indonesia, a similar oil, virgin coconut oil (VCO, has been used by many pregnant women for the same reason. The aim of this study was to analyze the differences and correlation between effects of olive oil and VCO against SG. The study was conducted in March−July 2012. An experimental study was performed on 80 pregnant women in Surabaya Municipality and they were divided into 2 groups using random permuted blocks. The results of this study showed that there was no difference in SG appearance based on the number of lines and levels of erythema between groups (p=0.156 and 1.00. Furthermore, there was a strong negative correlation between the effect of olive oil or VCO on the number of lines (r=-0.576 and -0.560 and the level of erythema (r=-0.699 and -0.586. In conclusion, there is no difference in the effect of olive oil and VCO against SG.

  9. The influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme ratio on preparation virgin coconut oil for candidate in-house reference materials

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    Rohyami, Yuli; Anjani, Rafika Debby; Purwanti, Napthalina Putri

    2017-03-01

    Virgin coconut oil is an excellent product which has result of oil processing business opportunities in the international market. Standardization of virgin coconut oil necessary to satisfy the requirements industry needs. This research is expected as procedure preparation of reference materials. Preparation of virgin coconut oil by Sacharomycescerevisiaeenzyme. Based on the results of this study concluded that the ratio of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can affect the yield of virgin coconut oil produced. The preparation of virgin coconut oil enzymatically using a variety of mass ratio of 0.001 to 0.006% is obtained yield average of 12.40%. The optimum separation of virgin coconut oil on the use of enzymes with a mass ratio of 0.002%. The average water content at a ratio of 0.002% is 0.04 % with a value of uncertainty is 0.005%. The average iodine number in virgin coconut oil produced is 2.4403 ± 0,1974 grams of iodine per 100 grams of oil and optimum iodine number is obtained from the manufacturing process virgin coconut oil with a ratio of 0.006% Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sacharomycescerevisiae with a ratio of 0.002% results virgin coconut oil with acid number 0.3068 ± 0.1098%. The peroxide value of virgin coconut oil between 0.0108 ± 0.009 to 0.0114 ± 0015milli-equivalent per kilograms. Organoleptic test results and test chemical parameters can be used as the test data that can be developed in prototype preparation of candidate in-house reference material in the testing standards of quality virgin coconut oil.

  10. Fermentation of tender coconut water by probiotic bacteria Bacillus coagulans

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    Aishwarya Singh Gangwar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coconut water is currently being considered as an elixir for patients suffering from diseases like dengue and malaria as well as chikungunia to provide hydration properties to the body. It has become a popular beverage for many people owing to its palatability and high mineral content. In this study, the growth, survival and fermentation performance of the probiotic bacterium Bacillus coagulans in coconut water was assessed in order to produce a novel non-dairy, probiotic beverage. The species was characterized on the basis of morphology, physiology and biochemical parameters and its probiotic attributes were assessed. Batch fermentations were carried out for 2 days at a constant 37°C, thereafter the samples were subjected to microbiological and chemical analysis. The results suggested that the specie produced lactic acid and was acid and bile tolerant. The pH and titratable acidity of probiotic fermented coconut water were found to be 4.4 and 0.53 % lactic acid, respectively. The viscosity of fermented coconut water increased significantly from an initial 5.13 mPa.s to 5.35 mPa.s because of the increase in soluble solids content due to exopolysaccharide production by B. coagulans during fermentation. Also, the overall acceptability score of probiotic coconut water was higher than tender coconut water, suggesting its feasibility for use as a probiotic beverage.

  11. The Effects of Virgin Coconut Oil on Bone Oxidative Status in Ovariectomised Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Abujazia, Mouna Abdelrahman; Muhammad, Norliza; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana

    2012-01-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) was found to have antioxidant property due to its high polyphenol content. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the virgin coconut oil on lipid peroxidation in the bone of an osteoporotic rat model. Normal female Sprague-Dawley rats aged 3 months old were randomly divided into 4 groups, with 8 rats in each group: baseline, sham, ovariectomised (OVX) control group, and OVX given 8% VCO in the diet for six weeks. The oxidative status of the bone was as...

  12. Effect of consumption of fresh and heated virgin coconut oil on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad Afiq Hamsi

    2014-03-27

    Mar 27, 2014 ... Abstract Background: It is a common practice to heat cooking oil and reuse it in order to cut expenses. The use of repeatedly heated cooking oil predisposes to various cardiovascular diseases. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is reported to possess antioxidant action. Aim: The study aimed to determine the effect of ...

  13. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of bioactive components present in virgin coconut oil

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    Yashi Srivastava

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The hot and cold extracted virgin coconut oil (VCO has been subjected to the various quality parameters. There was a no significant difference in iodine value, saponification value, refractive index, fatty acid profile, specific gravity, and moisture content of hot extracted virgin coconut oil (HEVCO, cold extracted virgin coconut oil (CEVCO, and copra oil (CCO samples. The phenolic components of the HEVCO, CEVCO, and CCO were found to be 650.35 ± 25.11 μg/g, 401.23 ± 20.11 μg/g, and 182.82 ± 15.24 μg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity ranged from 80 to 87% in HEVCO, 65 to 70% in CEVCO, and 35 to 45% in CCO. The results showed that VCO obtained from hot extraction process contained more total polyphenol, antioxidant activity, tocopherol, phytosterol, monoglycerides, and diglyceride content in comparison to CEVCO and CCO samples.

  14. ANALISIS JENIS DAN KONSENTRASI ENZIM TERHADAP DAYA SIMPAN VCO (VIRGIN COCONUT OIL

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    M FM Fuad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil products susceptible to damage. Several causes of oil damages is water, light, heat, oxygen, metals, acids, alkalis, and enzymes. This study aimed to obtain information about effect of several types of enzymes, namely crude extract of papain enzyme (from papaya, bromelain enzyme (from pineapple and zingibain enzyme (from ginger to the yield and shelf life of the virgin coconut oil was produced. The design of experiments in this study were split plot design with two plots were 3 (three levels of enzyme type as a main plot and 3 levels of enzyme concentration as a sub plot. Virgin coconut oil stored and tested % FFA content gradually to determine shelf life. Estimation of deterioration rate by using the Arrhenius equation. Shelf life determination based on % FFA of the virgin coconut oil. The results show that shelf life of VCOwith the shortest shelf life wasVCO produced by the papain enzyme, bromelain enzyme, and the longest wasVCO produced by zingibain enzyme, respectively.

  15. The influence of steaming and a ratio of grated coconut to water on the yield and quality of virgin coconut oil

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    Rahmah, N. L.; Istikoma, R.; Kumalaningsih, S.

    2018-03-01

    The quality of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) is determined by the quality of coconut milk. High quality of coconut milk can be obtained by proper handling of grated coconut as raw material. When coconut was shredded, the lipases are exposed which can hydrolyse the oil resulting free fatty acid (FFA).Steaming is a technique to inactivate lipases. In addition, a ratio of grated coconut to water and steaming duration are important factor to the VCO extraction. Therefore, this study aimed to obtain the best combination of steaming duration and suitable ratio of grated coconut to water in order to produce high quality VCO. The research design was Factorial Randomized Block Design consisted of 2 factors: steaming duration (5; 10; and 15 minutes) and grated coconut to water ratio (1:0; 1:1; 1:2; 1:3; and 1:4 w/v),each treatment was repeated twice. Parameters analyzed were FFA, moisture content, and yield values. The result showed that the best treatment was a treatment with 15 minutes steaming of grated coconut and 1:4 ratio of grated coconut to water. The best treatment VCO had characteristic as follows: FFA 0.054 %, moisture content 0.129 % and yield 17.563 %.

  16. Virgin coconut oil reverses hepatic steatosis by restoring redox homeostasis and lipid metabolism in male Wistar rats.

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    Narayanankutty, Arunaksharan; Palliyil, Devika Mukundan; Kuruvilla, Kezia; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C

    2018-03-01

    Hepatosteatosis, a form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is being increasingly recognized as a major health burden worldwide. Insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and imbalances in adipokine/cytokine interplay are reported to be involved in the onset and progression of this disease. Use of dietary nutraceuticals in prevention and treatment of NAFLD is emerging. Virgin coconut oil (VCO), a fermented product of fresh coconut kernel, has been shown to impede the development of hepatosteatosis in rats. This study analyzes the potential of VCO to reverse the already developed hepatosteatosis condition. Hyperglycemia, reduced glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, and hepatic macrovesicles in high-fructose-diet-fed rats (4 weeks) confirmed the development of hepatosteatosis. Natural reversion in these parameters was observed upon shifting to normal diet in untreated control animals. Administration of VCO, however, increased this natural reversion by improving high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (53.5%) and reducing hepatic and serum triacylglycerols (78.0 and 51.7%). Increased hepatic glutathione level (P < 0.01), antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) and reduced lipid peroxidation were also noticed in these animals. These observations were in concordance with reduced liver enzyme activities (P < 0.01) and restoration of altered hepatic architecture. The study indicates that VCO can be used as a nutraceutical against hepatosteatosis. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Retention levels of vegetable extractable beta-carotene preserved in virgin coconut oil and unadulterated honey

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    Mungai, Z. M.,

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dark green leafy vegetables such as Amaranthus spp. are known to be good sources of beta-carotene, a pro-vitamin A carotenoid with highly potent antioxidant property. As an antioxidant, beta-carotene scavenges for electron and thus terminates chain reactions, prevents recurrence and formation of unstable oxygen which otherwise initiate a chain reaction leading to such cases as cancer. While beta-carotene is supplied from consuming vegetables to provide vitamin A, it is also given as a supplement in cases of deficiency. However, it is highly degraded in the presence of light, heat, and oxygen posing a challenge to the methods of its preservation. Coconut oil and honey are popularly consumed in many countries facing vitamin A deficiency as good antioxidants and yet their role in preservation is largely unknown. The study reports the retention of beta-carotene extracted from Amaranthus spp. and separately preserved in virgin coconut oil (VCO and unadulterated honey for up to six months. HPLC and DPPH assay were used to determine beta-carotene and antioxidant activity respectively. Virgin coconut oil and honey had significantly different (p<0.001 antioxidant activities of 65.12±0.70 and 81.51±1.39 % radical scavenging activity respectively that compared well with those of BHT and ascorbic acid. The concentration of beta-carotene preserved in VCO and unadulterated honey degraded by 90%, though the final retention provided higher than the recommended daily allowance of retinol (0.216±0.001 and 0.312±0.003 retinol activity equivalent respectively when 100 mg is consumed. Virgin coconut oil and unadulterated honey can preserve beta-carotene if high amounts are used.

  18. Adjuvant potential of virgin coconut oil extract on antiretroviral therapy-induced testicular toxicity: An ultrastructural study.

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    Ogedengbe, O O; Jegede, A I; Onanuga, I O; Offor, U; Peter, A I; Akang, E N; Naidu, E C S; Azu, O O

    2018-04-01

    The effects of Virgin coconut oil as an adjuvant to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were investigated on the testicular ultrastructure and biochemical markers in rats. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 153-169 g were divided into four groups and treated as follows: control A (distilled water), B (HAART), C (HAART+Virgin coconut oil 10 ml/kg) and D (Virgin coconut oil [VCO] 10 ml/kg). Testicular segments were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Serum was assayed for testosterone, luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and testicular tissue for malondialdehyde and glutathione. Ultrastructure of basement membrane (Bm), mitochondria and spermatocytes was normal in the control group. HAART-treated group showed significant increase (p group. Mitochondrial cristae appear collapsed, and Sertoli cells showed cytoplasmic vacuolations. HAART+VCO group showed improved ultrastructural details in Bm, and Sertoli cell and Leydig cells show abundant lipid droplets. Virgin coconut oil-treated group showed thinning of Bm with otherwise normal ultrastructural features of organelles. HAART-treated group showed significant increase (p Virgin coconut oil improved testicular morphology and reversed HAART-induced ultrastructural alterations. Further studies on putative mechanism are required. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Fermentative Extraction of Coconut Oil to Maintain a Quality of Medium Chain Fatty Acid

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    Salahudin, Farid; Supriyatna, Nana

    2014-01-01

    Coconut oil is healthy vegetable oil because it contains Medium Chain Fatty Acid (MCFA). The used of bleaching agent and excessive heating in coconut oil process will produce low quality oil (rancid). Therefore, it is necessary to processing that does not use chemicals and excessive heating such as fermentation using microbe and enzyme. The aim of this study was to find out the effect of bromelin enzyme concentration and Saccharomyces cereviceae fermentation to MCFA content in coconut oil. Th...

  20. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.

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    Intahphuak, S; Khonsung, P; Panthong, A

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated some pharmacological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO), the natural pure oil from coconut [Cocos nucifera Linn (Palmae)] milk, which was prepared without using chemical or high-heat treatment. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of VCO were assessed. In acute inflammatory models, VCO showed moderate anti-inflammatory effects on ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. VCO exhibited an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammation by reducing the transudative weight, granuloma formation, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. VCO also showed a moderate analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as an antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermia. The results obtained suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of VCO.

  1. Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) Enriched with Zn as Immunostimulator for Vaginal Candidiasis Patient

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    WINARSI, HERY; HERNAYANTI,; PURWANTO, AGUS

    2008-01-01

    Disturbance on the immune system and deficiency of Zn is two factors which often trigger vaginal candidiasis patient. The aim of the research was to study the effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) enriched with Zn to the amount of neutrophil and lymphocyte subset cells, and the level of IL-2 and IgG in vaginal candidiasis patient. Thirty women were grouped into three (ten women in each group): A, B and C, and intervened for two months. Women in A group were intervened with two tablespoon/day; t...

  2. Maternal intake of dietary virgin coconut oil modifies essential fatty acids and causes low body weight and spiky fur in mice.

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    Gunasekaran, Renuka; Shaker, Mohammed Rafid; Mohd-Zin, Siti Waheeda; Abdullah, Aminah; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah Mydin

    2017-01-28

    Coconut oil is commonly used as herbal medicine worldwide. There is limited information regarding its effects on the developing embryo and infant growth. We investigated the effect of virgin coconut oil post-natally and until 6 weeks old in mice (age of maturity). Females were fed with either standard, virgin olive oil or virgin coconut oil diets 1 month prior to copulation, during gestation and continued until weaning of pups. Subsequently, groups of pups borne of the respective diets were continuously fed the same diet as its mother from weaning until 6 weeks old. Profiles of the standard and coconut oil diets were analysed by gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GCFID). Analysis of the mean of the total weight gained/ loss over 6 weeks revealed that in the first 3 weeks, pups whose mothers were fed virgin coconut oil and virgin olive oil have a significantly lower body weight than that of standard diet pups. At 6 weeks of age, only virgin coconut oil fed pups exhibited significantly lower body weight. We report that virgin coconut oil modifies the fatty acid profiles of the standard diet by inducing high levels of medium chain fatty acids with low levels of essential fatty acids. Furthermore, pups borne by females fed with virgin coconut oil developed spiky fur. Our study has demonstrated that virgin coconut oil could affect infant growth and appearance via maternal intake; we suggest the use of virgin coconut oil as herbal medicine to be treated with caution.

  3. The production of paper soaps from coconut oil and Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) with the addition of glycerine as plasticizer

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    Widyasanti, Asri; Miracle Lenyta Ginting, Anastasia; Asyifani, Elgina; Nurjanah, Sarifah

    2018-03-01

    Hand washing with soap is important because it is proven to clean hands from germs and bacteria. The paper soapswere made from coconut oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO) with the addition of glycerin as a plasticizer. The aims of this research were to determine both formulation of paper soap using coconut oil and VCO based with addition of glycerin, and to determine the quality of the paper soapswhich is a disposable hand soap. This research used laboratory experimental method using descriptive analysis. The treatments of this research were treatment A (paper soap without the addition of glycerin), treatment B (paper soap with the addition of glycerin 10% (w/w)), treatment C (paper soap with the addition of glycerin 15% (w/w)), treatment D (paper soap with the addition of glycerin of 20% (w/w)). Parameters tested were moisture content, stability of foam, pH value, insoluble material in ethanol, free alkali content, unsaponified fat, antibacterial activity test, and organoleptic test. The result of physicochemical characteristics for bothcoconut oil-paper soap and VCO-paper soap revealed that treatment C (the addition of glycerin 15% (w/w) was the best soap formulation. Coconut Oil papersoap 15% w/w glicerin had water content 13.72%, the content of insoluble material in ethanol 3.93%, the content of free alkali 0.21%, and the content of unsaponified fat 4.06%, pH value 10.78, stability of foam 97.77%, and antibacterial activity against S. aureus 11.66 mm. Meanwhile, VCO paper soap 15% w/w glicerin had the value of water content of 18.47%, the value stability of foam of 96.7%, the pH value of 10.03, the value of insoluble material in ethanol of 3.49%, the value of free alkali content 0.17%, the value of unsaponified fat 4.91%, and the value of inhibition diameter on the antibacterial activity test 15.28 mm. Based on Mandatory Indonesian National Standard of solid soap SNI 3532:2016 showed that both of paper soap had not been accorded with SNI 3532:2016, unless the

  4. The Effects of Virgin Coconut Oil on Bone Oxidative Status in Ovariectomised Rat

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    Mouna Abdelrahman Abujazia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin coconut oil (VCO was found to have antioxidant property due to its high polyphenol content. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the virgin coconut oil on lipid peroxidation in the bone of an osteoporotic rat model. Normal female Sprague-Dawley rats aged 3 months old were randomly divided into 4 groups, with 8 rats in each group: baseline, sham, ovariectomised (OVX control group, and OVX given 8% VCO in the diet for six weeks. The oxidative status of the bone was assessed by measuring the index of lipid peroxidation, which is malondialdehyde (MDA concentration, as well as the endogenous antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPX and superoxide dismutase (SOD in the tibia at the end of the study. The results showed that there was a significant decrease in MDA levels in the OVX-VCO group compared to control group. Ovariectomised rats treated with VCO also had significantly higher GPX concentration. The SOD level seemed to be increased in the OVX-VCO group compared to OVX-control group. In conclusion, VCO prevented lipid peroxidation and increased the antioxidant enzymes in the osteoporotic rat model.

  5. Pengaruh Pemanasan Kelapa Parut dan Teknik Pengunduhan Terhadap Rendemen dan Mutu Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO

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    Sutardi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO was produced from green variety ofnon-hybride coconut type. Grated coconut was heated at 500, 70°, and 90°C for 20, 30 and 40 minutes, respectively. Harvesting technique of VCO were done by conventional, utilization of stainless steel screen, and filter paper laminated stainless steel screen methods, respectively. Produced VCO was subsequently analyzed their productivity and quality parameters consisting of moisture content, acid number, free fatty acid (FFA, peroxide number, iodine number, saponification number, clearness and fatty acid profile of VCO. Statistical analysis was also conducted by using Analysis of Variance and Duncan Multiple Range Test with 5% significancy. The results showed that heating ofgrated coconut at 900C for 40 minutes produced 29.65 ±0.38% VCO, and it was the highest productivity.-Heating temperature ofgrated coconut and with any harvesting technique didn't statistitically have significant effect on productivity and quality of VCO. While, combination of heating temperature at 90°C and it was followed by harvesting technique using stainless steel screen produced the highest VCO i.e. 31.54 ± 0.58%. The best quality of VCO was characterized by 0.09 ± 0.01% moisture content, 0.20 ± 0.02 mg KOH/g oil of acid number, 0.12 ± 0.01% free fatty acid (FFA, 0.37 ± 0.01 meq/kg oil ofperoxide number, 5. 11 ± 0.01 g iod/100 g oil ofiodine number, 244. 12 ± 0.01 mg KOH/g oil saponification number and the VCO was clear and transparant. Fatty acid profile of selected VCO was dominated by medium chain fatty acid (C12:0 particularly lauric acid i.e. 50.26% and followed by 8.65% caprylic and 5,73% capric acids, respectively. "The quality parameters of VCO was able to meet the quality standard of VCO that was issued by APCC (Asia Pacific Coconut Community quality grade.

  6. COMPARISON OF PRETREATMENT STRATEGIES FOR CONVERSION OF COCONUT HUSK FIBER TO FERMENTABLE SUGARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck Y. Ding,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, coconut husk was employed as biomass feedstock for production of bioethanol, due to its abundance in Malaysia. Due to the complex structures of coconut husk, a pretreatment process is crucial in extracting fermentable sugars from the embedded cellulose matrix for subsequent ethanol fermentation process. The ground coconut husk was subjected to three different pretreatment processes inclusive of thermal, chemical, and microwave-assisted-alkaline techniques, prior to enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process. The composition profile of coconut husk was significantly altered upon the microwave-assisted-alkaline treatment as compared to the untreated sample, with the cellulose content increasing from 18-21% to 38-39% while lignin content decreased from 46-53% to 31-33%. Among the pretreatment methods applied, enzymatic hydrolysis of coconut husk pretreated by microwave-assisted-alkaline method recorded the highest yield of fermentable sugars, 0.279 g sugar/g substrate. SEM imaging showed the obvious and significant disruption of coconut husks’ structure after microwave-assisted-alkaline pretreatment. In conclusion, by employing suitable pretreatment technique in treating the lignocellulosic materials of coconut husk, the extracted fermentable sugar is a potential substrate for bioethanol production.

  7. Formulation and optimization of virgin coconut oil with Tween-80 incorporated in gellan gum hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muktar, Muhammad Zulhelmi; Rose, Laili bt Che; Amin, Khairul Anuar Mat

    2017-09-01

    The demand for wound care products especially advance and active wound care product are huge. Honey and virgin coconut oil (VCO) are well-known as an ancient treatment to treat wound with its great properties such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral. In this study, the potential of VCO incorporated in gellan gum (GG) hydrogel was examined. A surfactant, Tween-80 was introduced to reduce the interfacial tension between VCO and water. Ternary phase diagram was constructed to get the microemulsion of VCO. The compositions of VCO and Tween-80 at stable region were chosen and incorporated in GG solution. The swelling, water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) and gel fraction were significantly affected by the composition of VCO. Higher amount of VCO in GG hydrogel increased the tensile strength and gel fraction at a cost of decreased in swelling and WVTR values.

  8. Polyphenols of virgin coconut oil prevent pro-oxidant mediated cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illam, Soorya Parathodi; Narayanankutty, Arunaksharan; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C

    2017-07-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO), extracted from the fresh coconut kernel, is a food supplement enriched with medium chain saturated fatty acids and polyphenolic antioxidants. It is reported to have several health benefits including lipid lowering, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The pharmacological benefits of VCO have been attributed to its polyphenol content (VCOP), the mechanistic basis of which is less explored. Liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC/MS) analysis of VCOP documented the presence of gallic acid, ferulic acid (FA), quercetin, methyl catechin, dihydrokaempferol and myricetin glycoside. Pre-treatment of VCOP at different concentrations (25-100 μg/mL) significantly reduced the H 2 O 2 and 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) induced cell death in HCT-15 cells. Giving further insight to its mechanistic basis, oxidative stress induced alterations in glutathione (GSH) levels and activities of GR (Glutathione-Reductase), GPx (Glutathione-Peroxidase), GST (Glutathione-S-Transferase) and catalase (CAT) were restored to near-normal by VCOP, concomitantly reducing lipid peroxidation. The efficacy of VCOP was similar to that of Trolox and FA added in culture. The study thus suggests that VCOP protects cells from pro-oxidant insults by modulating cellular antioxidant status.

  9. Physicochemical and sensory properties of ice-cream formulated with virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, S Y; Leong, S K; Henna Lu, F S

    2010-12-01

    The substitution of milk fat with virgin coconut oil (VCO) was used to produce nutritious ice cream with pleasant coconut flavor and aroma. Three formulations were developed whereby formulation VCO4, VCO8 and VCO12 was substituted with 4%, 8% and 12% of VCO, respectively. The physicochemical properties of ice creams analyzed include overrun, meltdown, pH, titratable acidity, total solid, protein and fat content. The fatty acids profile of VCO formulated ice creams and their stabilities over 3 and 6 weeks storage were studied respectively using gas chromatography (GC). Qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and consumer affective test were performed among the trained and untrained panelists. Significant differences (p ice cream formulations were observed except titratable acidity. Increased VCO content in ice cream formulations lowered the melting resistance of ice cream. For GC analysis, the major fatty acid identified was lauric acid. Upon storage time, the concentration of unsaturated fatty acid decreased but the concentration of saturated fatty acid increased. The result of QDA showed that formulation VCO4, VCO8 and VCO12 were significantly (p ice cream. Formulation VCO12 was highly accepted by panelists in terms of the acceptance level of appearance, aroma, texture, flavor and overall acceptability. Hence, it has a potential marketable value.

  10. Phase Behaviour Study of Swiftlet Nest Using Virgin Coconut Oil with Non-Ionic Surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Salwa Abd Gani; Siti Zulaika Adisah; Siti Salwa Abd Gani

    2015-01-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is the oil that obtained from fresh and mature kernel of the coconut by mechanical or natural means with or without the application of heat, which does not lead to alteration of the nature of the oil. It have advantages such as strengthens the immune system because of its lauric acid content. It also has medium-chain fatty acids which heighten metabolism and energy, thus stimulating the thyroid. Swiftlet nest as an active ingredient need to be dispersed in a carrier system. Thus, ternary phase diagrams were constructed to find the suitable and stable system for it. The phase behavior of systems has been investigated by constructing ternary phase diagrams consisting of non-ionic surfactants/VCO:bird nest/water. The surfactants used were Sorbitan tri-oleate (Span 85), Sorbitan mono-oleate (Span 80), Sorbitan monolaurate (Span 20), Polyoxyethylene(20) sorbitan tri-oleate (Tween 85) and Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan mono-oleate (Tween 80). These systems include several phase regions such as homogeneous, isotropic, two-phase and three-phase regions. Different hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) value of non-ionic surfactants exhibit different ternary diagram characteristics. A lower HLB shows a more oil-soluble and a more water-soluble surfactant (larger homogeneous and isotropic region in ternary phase diagrams) whereas high value of HLB shows the reverse of that result. The results show that the T85/VCO:bird nest/water system gave better performance than the other four individual surfactant systems. As a conclusion, high hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) values of surfactant were found to be a good surfactant for the formulation of VCO:bird nest emulsion for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes. (author)

  11. Virgin coconut oil protects against liver damage in albino rats challenged with the anti-folate combination, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otuechere, Chiagoziem A; Madarikan, Gbemisola; Simisola, Tinuala; Bankole, Olubukola; Osho, Adeleke

    2014-05-01

    Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic. However, its use is associated with toxic reactions. Virgin coconut oil (VCO), derived from coconut, has been widely used throughout history for its medicinal value. The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial actions of VCO against TMP-SMX-induced alterations in serum biochemical end points. Twenty rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 (control) received no drug, whereas group 2 received TMP-SMX (8/40 mg/kg) twice daily for 7 days. Group 3 was administered coconut oil at a dose of 600 mg/kg body weight per day. The last group was treated with TMP-SMX (8/40 mg/kg) and coconut oil (600 mg/kg) simultaneously. Blood samples were collected from all groups on the 8th day of the experiment for measurement of serum biochemical parameters. Organ weights and coefficients were also evaluated. TMP-SMX caused a significant (p0.05) in the activities of serum aminotransferases, total acid phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, uric acid, cholesterol, albumin, and urea levels. Supplementation of VCO ameliorated TMP-SMX-induced effects by restoring the levels of total bilirubin, alkaline phospahatase, and lactate dehydrogenase. The results of this study demonstrate that the active components of coconut oil had protective effects against the toxic effects induced by TMP-SMX administration, especially in the liver of rats.

  12. Solid state fermentation for extracellular polysaccharide production by Lactobacillus confusus with coconut water and sugar cane juice as renewable wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Techapun, Charin; Shinkawa, Hidenori; Sasaki, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production by Lactobacillus confusus in liquid and solid state fermentation was carried out using coconut water and sugarcane juice as renewable wastes. High concentrations of EPS of 62 (sugarcane juice) and 18 g/l of coconut water were produced in solid state fermentation when nitrogen sources were reduced 5-fold from the original medium.

  13. A Pilot Study: The Efficacy of Virgin Coconut Oil as Ocular Rewetting Agent on Rabbit Eyes

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    Haliza Abdul Mutalib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. An open-label pilot study of virgin coconut oil (VCO was conducted to determine the safety of the agent as ocular rewetting eye drops on rabbits. Methods. Efficacy of the VCO was assessed by measuring NIBUT, anterior eye assessment, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value before instillation and at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks after instillation. Friedman test was used to analyse any changes in all the measurable variables over the period of time. Results. Only conjunctival redness with instillation of saline agent showed significant difference over the period of time (P0.05. There were no changes in the NIBUT, limbal redness, palpebral conjunctiva redness, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value over the period of time for each agent (P>0.05. Conclusion. VCO acts as safe rewetting eye drops as it has shown no significant difference in the measurable parameter compared to commercial brand eye drops and saline. These study data suggest that VCO is safe to be used as ocular rewetting agent on human being.

  14. Microemulsion Formulation of Combination of Virgin Coconut Oil and Rice Bran Oil for Hair Growth

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    Wira Noviana Suhery

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on micro emulsion formulation of combination of virgin coconut oil (VCO and rice bran oil (RBO as a hair growth promoter has been done. The purpose of this study was to formulate and produce the best formula that is physically stable and optimally promoting the hair growth by varying the content of VCO and RBO in the form of micro emulsions. These dosage formulations were prepared in three formulas using 45% tween 80 as surfactants and 20% glycerin as co surfactant i.e.: F,I containing a combination of VCO and RBO 1:1; FII (1:2 and FIII (2:1. Physical evaluation of the preparation was carried out for 8 weeks of storage which included organoleptic examination, pH, homogeneity, density, globule particle size, phase freeze thaw, and rabbit hair growth activity test for 18 days. Based on the results of the evaluation, it was found that the FI, FII and FIII micro emulsion formulations were physically stable for 8 weeks of storage with a pH ranging from 6.7 to 7.0, density of 1.085-1.088 g/mL, average globul particle size of FI (34.6 nm , FII (54 nm and FIII (68.8 nm. The best formulas is FIII for hair growth length of 1.26 cm for 18 days.

  15. Virgin coconut oil supplementation ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced systemic toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, S S; Manalil, J J; Ramavarma, S K; Suseela, I M; Thekkepatt, A; Raghavamenon, A C

    2016-02-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is an unrefined kernal oil, prepared from Cocos nucifera L., having substantial nutritional and medicinal value. Experimental studies have suggested its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory and hypolipidemic effects. The present study assesses its effect on formalin-induced chronic inflammation and cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced systemic toxicity in murine models. Oral administration of VCO effectively reduced formalin-induced paw oedema in mice with more or less similar efficacy as that of diclofenac. The CTX-induced hike in blood urea, creatinine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and liver marker enzymes in mice was marginally decreased by VCO (8 g/kg body weight) ingestion orally. The liver and kidney catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, together with cellular glutathione and TBARS levels, were found to be improved in these animals. Overall the study reveals the protective efficacy of VCO against secondary toxicity induced by CTX possibly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Virgin coconut oil extract mitigates testicular-induced toxicity of alcohol use in antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogedengbe, O O; Naidu, E C S; Akang, E N; Offor, U; Onanuga, I O; Peter, A I; Jegede, A I; Azu, O O

    2018-04-14

    The consumption of alcohol by people living with HIV/AIDS is associated with a graver prognosis. Long-term use of antiretrovirals may have certain health challenges that may be aggravated by concomitant alcohol use. This study investigated virgin coconut oil (VCO) as an adjuvant to the deleterious effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and alcohol on the cyto-architecture and functioning of the testis. Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 165~176 g, were divided into eight groups and treated according to protocol. Testicular histology, stereological parameters, seminal fluid, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, the antioxidants marker malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant glutathione (GSH) were examined. The use of ethanol alone and ethanol + HAART showed extensive degeneration in the seminiferous epithelium, decreased semen quality, disorganized basement membrane and widened, hypocellular interstitium. GSH was significantly decreased in the ethanol alone treated group with no significant effect on testosterone, LH, and MDA levels. Adjuvant treatment with VCO at low dose (2.5 mL/kg/bw) improved sperm motility with a partial restoration of the histopathological alterations. High doses of VCO (5.0 mL/kg/bw) showed greater improvement with respect to sperm counts, increased FSH hormonal and GSH antioxidant levels, and a well-preserved testicular cyto-architecture. © 2018 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  17. Preparation, purification and stability of radioiodine-131 labeled virgin coconut oil (VCO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aang Hanafiah Ws; Eva Maria Widyasari; Nanny Kartini Oekar

    2011-01-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been known as the oil containing medium chain saturated fatty acids and beneficial to counteract and cure various diseases. However, scientific disclosures relating to dynamic and its kinetic studies in the body are still very rare in the literature. One method that can explain this phenomenon is the pharmacological assessment using radionuclide labeled compounds. This paper describes the preparation of 131 I-VCO and its characterization. The labeling was carried out by direct and indirect method, while the purification was done by solvent extraction using chloroform. Determination of radiochemical purity was performed by the method of ascending paper chromatography using Whatman-1 as stationary phase and 0.02 N solution of ammonium citrate at pH 9 as mobile phase. The results obtained show that the VCO can be labeled by radioiodine-131 through the indirect method with a yield of labeling of 75.7 ± 19.3%, radiochemical purity level of 95.9 ± 2.6%, and the radioactive concentration of 57 mCi/mL. In absolute ethanol at cold temperature (4°C), 131 I-VCO was stable for 4 days with a radiochemical purity level was still above 90%, but decreased significantly after being stored eight days with purity level below 20%. Hopefully with the success of 131 I-VCO labeling and its character, the pharmacological parameters can be studied more carefully, so that the use of VCO for both preventive and therapeutic purposes has a scientific foundation. (author)

  18. Preparation and physicochemical evaluation of emulsified virgin coconut oil (VCO)-carica papaya extract concoction using Tween80

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Hazreen; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan; Fadhilah, Mohd Faizulhelmi; Omar, Dzolkhifli; Asib, Norhayu

    2016-11-01

    Carica papaya is a member of the Caricaceae. Its leaves have been used in folk medicine for centuries. Recent studies have shown its beneficial effects as an anti-inflammatory agent (Owoyele et al 2008) and anti-tumour15 as well as antioxidant and wound healing properties7. The study has shown that the effect of carica papaya leaves juice intake also can accelerate the rate of increase in platelet count among the patients infected with dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever18. With all the goodness of carica papaya leaves, a formulation with addition of virgin coconut oil (VCO) is produced to give an enhanced supplement beverage to market nowadays. Virgin coconut oil is well known as anti-oxidant4. The combination of these two substances gives a balance combination in healthy supplement. In recent years the application of emulsion is rapidly increasing in many fields such as cosmetics and paints. Emulsions are dispersions of droplets of one liquid in another, immiscible, liquid in which the droplets are of colloidal or near-colloidal sizes. The combination of water and oil (VCO) with addition of non-ionic surfactant Tween80 was constructed using ternary phase diagram. By considering the Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) value of each substance will help in producing a stable emulsion.

  19. A COCONUT EXTRA VIRGIN OIL-RICH DIET INCREASES HDL CHOLESTEROL AND DECREASES WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE AND BODY MASS IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Diuli A; Moreira, Annie S B; de Oliveira, Glaucia M M; Raggio Luiz, Ronir; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-11-01

    saturated fat restriction has been recommended for coronary arterial disease, but the role of coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) extra virgin, lauric acid source in the management of lipid profile remains unclear. to evaluate the effect of nutritional treatment associated with the consumption of extra virgin coconut oil in anthropometric parameters and lipid profile. we conducted a longitudinal study of 116 adults of both sexes presenting CAD. Patients were followed in two stages: the first stage (basal-3 months), intensive nutritional treatment. In the second stage (3-6 months), the subjects were divided into two groups: diet group associated with extra virgin coconut oil consumption (GDOC) and diet group (DG). Held monthly anthropometric measurements: body mass, waist circumference (WC), neck circumference (PP), body mass index (BMI). Gauged to collected blood pressure and blood samples were fasted for 12 hours, for total cholesterol analysis and fractions apoproteins (Apo A-1 and B), glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), insulin (I). Comparing the averages at the beginning and end of the study employing the paired Student t-independent. And set the diastolic blood pressure by BMI using ANOVA. Analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package, being significant p groups for DC (-2.1 ± 2,7 cm; p virgin coconut oil consumption reduced the CC and increased HDL-C levels in patients with CAD. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of virgin coconut meal (VCM) on the rheological, micro-structure and baking properties of cake and batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Yashi; Semwal, Anil Dutt

    2015-12-01

    Virgin coconut meal (VCM) cakes were prepared by replacing refined wheat flour (maida) (5 to 20 % level) to check its effect on chemical, textural and rheological attributes of cake. The addition of VCM significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased redness (a*), yellowness (b*) while reduced lightness (L*) of cakes. The incorporation of VCM affects the hardness, adhesiveness gumminess and chewiness of cake. The effect of flour replacement with VCM increased the viscosity of batter which leads to increase in consistency index and lower the shearthining behavior. The viscoelastic behavior of cake batter in which elastic modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G") both were decreased with the increase in percentage of VCM. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed that the onset (To), end set (Tc) and enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) increased with the increased level of VCM.

  1. Behavior of microemulsion systems of virgin coconut oil (VCO) using igepal CO-520 and tween 80 surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safuan, A.; Hamdan, S.; Laili, C. R.

    2017-09-01

    Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) has been applied in many application and products. Formation of microemulsion region with surfactant was investigated by using phase diagram. The surfactants used are igepal CO-520 and tween 80. The studies showed that formation of microemulsion region were dependent on the behaviour of the surfactant toward VCO. The result showed that microemulsion regions were present in igepal CO-520 system formed a larger water-in-oil microemulsion region compared to tween 80 system. Certain weight ratios of VCO to surfactants were studied by using evaporation test in order to study the water loss of the microemulsion in ambient condition. The evaporation rate of samples was varies depending their compositon of VCO, surfactant and water.

  2. Fed-batch production of green coconut hydrolysates for high-gravity second-generation bioethanol fermentation with cellulosic yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jimmy; Demeke, Mekonnen M; Van de Velde, Miet; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R; Kerstens, Dorien; Sels, Bert F; Verplaetse, Alex; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro; Thevelein, Johan M; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2017-11-01

    The residual biomass obtained from the production of Cocos nucifera L. (coconut) is a potential source of feedstock for bioethanol production. Even though coconut hydrolysates for ethanol production have previously been obtained, high-solid loads to obtain high sugar and ethanol levels remain a challenge. We investigated the use of a fed-batch regime in the production of sugar-rich hydrolysates from the green coconut fruit and its mesocarp. Fermentation of the hydrolysates obtained from green coconut or its mesocarp, containing 8.4 and 9.7% (w/v) sugar, resulted in 3.8 and 4.3% (v/v) ethanol, respectively. However, green coconut hydrolysate showed a prolonged fermentation lag phase. The inhibitor profile suggested that fatty acids and acetic acid were the main fermentation inhibitors. Therefore, a fed-batch regime with mild alkaline pretreatment followed by saccharification, is presented as a strategy for fermentation of such challenging biomass hydrolysates, even though further improvement of yeast inhibitor tolerance is also needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does Inhalation of Virgin Coconut Oil Accelerate Reversal of Airway Remodelling in an Allergic Model of Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have been done to evaluate the effect of various natural products in controlling asthma symptoms. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is known to contain active compounds that have beneficial effects on human health and diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of VCO inhalation on airway remodelling in a rabbit model of allergic asthma. The effects of VCO inhalation on infiltration of airway inflammatory cells, airway structures, goblet cell hyperplasia, and cell proliferation following ovalbumin induction were evaluated. Allergic asthma was induced by a combination of ovalbumin and alum injection and/or followed by ovalbumin inhalation. The effect of VCO inhalation was then evaluated via the rescue or the preventive route. Percentage of inflammatory cells infiltration, thickness of epithelium and mucosa regions, and the numbers of goblet and proliferative cells were reduced in the rescue group but not in preventive group. Analysis using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry found that lauric acid and capric acid were among the most abundant fatty acids present in the sample. Significant improvement was observed in rescue route in alleviating the asthma symptoms, which indicates the VCO was able to relieve asthma-related symptoms more than preventing the onset of asthma. PMID:28660089

  4. A Comparative Study of the Physicochemical Properties of a Virgin Coconut Oil Emulsion and Commercial Food Supplement Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Phing Khor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO. In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4. C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV, which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.

  5. Polyphenolics isolated from virgin coconut oil inhibits adjuvant induced arthritis in rats through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysakh, A; Ratheesh, M; Rajmohanan, T P; Pramod, C; Premlal, S; Girish kumar, B; Sibi, P I

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated the protective efficacy of the polyphenolic fraction from virgin coconut oil (PV) against adjuvant induced arthritic rats. Arthritis was induced by intradermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant. The activities of inflammatory, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation were estimated. PV showed high percentage of edema inhibition at a dose of 80mg/kg on 21st day of adjuvant arthritis and is non toxic. The expression of inflammatory genes such as COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6 and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance were decreased by treatment with PV. Antioxidant enzymes were increased and on treatment with PV. The increased level of total WBC count and C-reactive protein in the arthritic animals was reduced in PV treated rats. Synovial cytology showed that inflammatory cells and reactive mesothelial cells were suppressed by PV. Histopathology of paw tissue showed less edema formation and cellular infiltration on supplementation with PV. Thus the results demonstrated the potential beneficiary effect of PV on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats and the mechanism behind this action is due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ketogenic Diet Based on Extra Virgin Coconut Oil Has No Effects in Young Wistar Rats With Pilocarpine-Induced Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Isabelle T; M Rêgo, Elisabete; Bueno, Nassib B; Gomes, Tâmara C; Oliveira, Suzana L; Trindade-Filho, Euclides M; Cabral, Cyro R; Machado, Tacy S; Galvão, Jaqueline A; R Ataide, Terezinha

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) based on extra virgin coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L., VCO), on the treatment of epileptic rats. Two sets of experiments were conducted. First, male Wistar rats underwent induction of status epilepticus (SE) with the administration of pilocarpine intraperitoneally 21 animals reached spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) and were randomly allocated to the dietary regimens and video-monitored for 19 days. In the second experiment, 24 animals were randomized immediately after the induction of SE and followed for 67 days. Diets were as follows: Control (AIN-93G; 7% lipid), KetoTAGsoya (KD based on soybean oil; 69.79% lipid), and KetoTAGcoco (KD based on VCO; 69.79% lipid). There were no differences in the latency to the first crisis, total frequency, and duration of the SRS between groups in 2 experiments. The data suggest no effects of KD, with or without VCO, in rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. © 2018 AOCS.

  7. Enhanced memory in Wistar rats by virgin coconut oil is associated with increased antioxidative, cholinergic activities and reduced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Nur Syafiqah; Lim, Siong Meng; Mani, Vasudevan; Abdul Majeed, Abu Bakar; Ramasamy, Kalavathy

    2017-12-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been reported to possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-stress properties. Capitalizing on these therapeutic effects, this study investigated for the first time the potential of VCO on memory improvement in vivo. Thirty male Wistar rats (7-8 weeks old) were randomly assigned to five groups (n = six per group). Treatment groups were administered with 1, 5 and 10 g/kg VCO for 31 days by oral gavages. The cognitive function of treated-rats were assessed using the Morris Water Maze Test. Brains were removed, homogenized and subjected to biochemical analyses of acetylcholine (ACh) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), antioxidants [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRx)], lipid peroxidase [malondialdehyde (MDA)] as well as nitric oxide (NO). α-Tocopherol (αT; 150 mg/kg) was also included for comparison purposes. VCO-fed Wistar rats exhibited significant (p  33%) and NO (≥ 34%). Overall, memory improvement by VCO was comparable to αT. VCO has the potential to be used as a memory enhancer, the effect of which was mediated, at least in part, through enhanced cholinergic activity, increased antioxidants level and reduced oxidative stress.

  8. Virgin Coconut Oil Prevents Blood Pressure Elevation and Improves Endothelial Functions in Rats Fed with Repeatedly Heated Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badlishah Sham Nurul-Iman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to explore the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO in male rats that were fed with repeatedly heated palm oil on blood pressure, plasma nitric oxide level, and vascular reactivity. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (i control (basal diet, (ii VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral, (iii five-times-heated palm oil (15% (5HPO, and (iv five-times-heated palm oil (15% and VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral (5HPO + VCO. Blood pressure was significantly increased in the group that was given the 5HPO diet compared to the control group. Blood pressure in the 5HPO + VCO group was significantly lower than the 5HPO group. Plasma nitric oxide (NO level in the 5HPO group was significantly lower compared to the control group, whereas in the 5HPO + VCO group, the plasma NO level was significantly higher compared to the 5HPO group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO group exhibited attenuated relaxation in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside as well as increased vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the control group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO + VCO group showed only attenuated vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the 5HPO group. In conclusion, VCO prevents blood pressure elevation and improves endothelial functions in rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil.

  9. Does Inhalation of Virgin Coconut Oil Accelerate Reversal of Airway Remodelling in an Allergic Model of Asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Kamalaldin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been done to evaluate the effect of various natural products in controlling asthma symptoms. Virgin coconut oil (VCO is known to contain active compounds that have beneficial effects on human health and diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of VCO inhalation on airway remodelling in a rabbit model of allergic asthma. The effects of VCO inhalation on infiltration of airway inflammatory cells, airway structures, goblet cell hyperplasia, and cell proliferation following ovalbumin induction were evaluated. Allergic asthma was induced by a combination of ovalbumin and alum injection and/or followed by ovalbumin inhalation. The effect of VCO inhalation was then evaluated via the rescue or the preventive route. Percentage of inflammatory cells infiltration, thickness of epithelium and mucosa regions, and the numbers of goblet and proliferative cells were reduced in the rescue group but not in preventive group. Analysis using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry found that lauric acid and capric acid were among the most abundant fatty acids present in the sample. Significant improvement was observed in rescue route in alleviating the asthma symptoms, which indicates the VCO was able to relieve asthma-related symptoms more than preventing the onset of asthma.

  10. Virgin coconut oil supplementation attenuates acute chemotherapy hepatotoxicity induced by anticancer drug methotrexate via inhibition of oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famurewa, Ademola C; Ufebe, Odomero G; Egedigwe, Chima A; Nwankwo, Onyebuchi E; Obaje, Godwin S

    2017-03-01

    The emerging health benefit of virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been associated with its potent natural antioxidants; however, the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of VCO against methotrexate-induced liver damage and oxidative stress remains unexplored. The study explored the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of VCO against oxidative stress and liver damage induced by anticancer drug methotrexate (MTX) in rats. Liver damage was induced in Wistar rats pretreated with dietary supplementation of VCO (5% and 15%) by intraperitoneal administration of MTX (20mg/kg bw) on day 10 only. After 12days of treatment, assays for serum liver biomarkers (aminotransferases), alkaline phosphatase, albumin and total protein as well as hepatic content of malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) were carried out. Liver was used to examine histopathological changes. MTX administration induced significant increase in serum liver enzymes along with marked decrease in albumin and total protein compared to control group. Hepatic activities of antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased, while malondialdehyde increased significantly. Treatment with VCO supplemented diet prior to MTX administration attenuated MTX-induced liver injury and oxidative stress evidenced by significant improvements in serum liver markers, hepatic antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde comparable to control group. Histopathological alterations were prevented and correlated well with the biochemical indices. The study suggests antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of VCO supplementation against hepatotoxicity and oxidative damage via improving antioxidant defense system in rats. Our findings may have beneficial application in the management of hepatotoxicity associated with MTX cancer chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Studied on Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) and Olive Oil (OO) as an Alternative for Stabilizer of Radiation Vulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) Preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syuhada Ramli; Sofian Ibrahim; Mohd Noorwadi Mat Lazim

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) and olive oil (OO) as an alternative stabilizer in the radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL). Potassium laurite (KL) as a stabilizer considered as a control of RVNRL sample were compared to mixed ratio 1:1 KL: VCO and 1:1 KL: OO stabilizer formulation. Total solid content (TSC) and tensile strength (TS) results showed no significant different between the formulations. Mechanical stability time (MST) indicates higher stability of RVNRL with addition of VCO. The fatty acid composition in VCO indicate VCO was acting well as stabilizer for latex stabilizer formulation. (author)

  12. An integrated green process: Subcritical water, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation, for biohydrogen production from coconut husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharja, Maktum; Junianti, Fitri; Ranggina, Dian; Nurtono, Tantular; Widjaja, Arief

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an integrated green process of subcritical water (SCW), enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of coconut husk (CCH) to biohydrogen. The maximum sugar yield was obtained at mild severity factor. This was confirmed by the degradation of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The tendency of the changing of sugar yield as a result of increasing severity factor was opposite to the tendency of pH change. It was found that CO 2 gave a different tendency of severity factor compared to N 2 as the pressurizing gas. The result of SEM analysis confirmed the structural changes during SCW pretreatment. This study integrated three steps all of which are green processes which ensured an environmentally friendly process to produce a clean biohydrogen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Coconut oil induced production of a surfactant-compatible lipase from Aspergillus tamarii under submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arijit; Bhattacharya, Sourav; Shivakumar, Srividya; Shakya, Sujina; Sogane, Swathi Shankar

    2017-02-01

    Filamentous fungi are efficient producers of lipases. The present study focuses on identification of a potent lipolytic fungus and enhancement of lipase production through optimization of nutritional and cultural conditions under submerged fermentation. Molecular characterization of the fungus by 18S rDNA sequencing revealed its identity as Aspergillus tamarii with 98% homology. Maximum lipase production was noted in mineral salts medium supplemented with coconut oil (2.5%, v/v). A combination of ammonium chloride (2%, w/v) and tryptone (2%, w/v) facilitated maximum lipase production at pH 5 of the production medium. A carbon: nitrogen ratio of 1:4 led to significant (p oil stain removal activity of a commercially available detergent by 2.2-fold. The current findings suggest the potentiality of this fungal lipase to be used in detergent formulation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Improvement of Medium Chain Fatty Acid Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil via Solid-State Fermentation Using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Khoramnia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO, respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  15. Improvement of medium chain fatty acid content and antimicrobial activity of coconut oil via solid-state fermentation using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoramnia, Anahita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ajdari, Zahra; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER) method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs) considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion) and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO), respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  16. The utilization of coconut waste fermentated by aspergillus niger and saccharomyces cerevisiae on meat quality of weaning males rex rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, T. H.; Ginting, N.; Yunilas; Hasnudi; Mirwandono, E.; Siregar, G. A.; Sinaga, I. G.; Sembiring, I.

    2018-02-01

    Coconut waste (CW) could be applied for animal feed while its nutrition quality were low. This study aims to investigate fermented CW effect on meat quality of Rex rabbit which feed by fermented CW either by Aspergillus niger or Tape Yeast. This research was conducted in rabbit farm Brastagi, using 24 male Rex rabbits with initial weight 1012 ± 126.67 gram in July-October 2016. The design used was complete randomized design : 6 treatment 4 replications. Treatment were T1 (unfermented 10%); T2 (unfermented 20%); T3 (a.niger fermentation 10%); T4 (a niger fermentation 20%); T5 (tape yeast fermentation 10%) and T6 (tape yeast fermentation 20%). The parameters were pH, meat texture either raw or cooked, water content, fat content, protein content of meat and cooking loss. The results showed that effect of treatment was not significantly different (P>0.05) on pH and raw meat texture, but significantly different (Pmeat cooked and meat fat content and very significantly different effect ( P> 0,01) on cooking loss, water content and protein content of meat. The conclusion of this research was the utilization of fermented CW by Aspergillius niger and Tape Yeast improved the quality of Rex rabbit meat

  17. Dodecanoic -Acid in Extra Virgin Coconut Oil, May Reduce the Incidence of Heart Disease and Cancer in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Zaminpira; Somayeh Zaminpira

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Lauric-acid is a 12-carbon, medium-length, long-chain fatty acid that makes up around 50 percent of the fatty acids within coconut oil. It is a powerful compound that is sometimes extracted from the coconut for use in developing monolaurin. Monolaurin is an anti-microbial agent that is able to fight bacteria, viruses, yeasts, and other pathogens. Since one cannot ingest lauric-acid alone because it is irritating and not found alone in nature, one is most likely to consume it in the ...

  18. Virgin olive oil, palm olein and coconut oil diets do not raise cell adhesion molecules and thrombogenicity indices in healthy Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, P T; Ng, T K W; Lee, V K M; Nesaretnam, K

    2015-06-01

    Effects of high-protein diets that are rich in saturated fats on cell adhesion molecules, thrombogenicity and other nonlipid markers of atherosclerosis in humans have not been firmly established. We aim to investigate the effects of high-protein Malaysian diets prepared separately with virgin olive oil (OO), palm olein (PO) and coconut oil (CO) on cell adhesion molecules, lipid inflammatory mediators and thromobogenicity indices in healthy adults. A randomized cross-over intervention with three dietary sequences, using virgin OO, PO and CO as test fats, was carried out for 5 weeks on each group consisting of 45 men and women. These test fats were incorporated separately at two-thirds of 30% fat calories into high-protein Malaysian diets. For fasting and nonfasting blood samples, no significant differences were observed on the effects of the three test-fat diets on thrombaxane B2 (TXB2), TXB2/PGF1α ratios and soluble intracellular and vascular cell adhesion molecules. The OO diet induced significantly lower (Pvirgin OO do not alter the thrombogenicity indices-cellular adhesion molecules, thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and TXB2/prostacyclin (PGF1α) ratios. However, the OO diet lowered plasma proinflammatory LTB4, whereas the PO diet raised the antiaggregatory plasma PGF1α in healthy Malaysian adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT 00941837.

  19. Enzymatic interesterification on the physicochemical properties of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with palm olein and virgin coconut oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dollah, S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic interesterification (IE of palm olein (PO and virgin coconut oil (VCO with the high oleic acid (86% Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO could yield a good source of oleic acid fat stock that may contain desirable nutritional and physical properties. Lipozyme RMIM resulted in different functionalities for the MoO/PO and MoO/VCO blends due to inherent changes in triacylglycerol (TAG compositions which, in turn, led to different trends in DSC thermograms and solid fat contents (SFC. The enzymatic IE of MoO/VCO increased U2S and S2U (up to 20% medium and long chain, MLCT while it decreased U3 (triunsaturated and S3 (trisaturated TAGs. The IE of the MoO/PO blends increased U2S and S3 (MMP, myristic, myristic, palmitic and decreased S2U, resulting in a lowering of melting points and SFC for MoO/VCO, while showing an increase in them for MoO/PO. A 2.55% increase in S3 after 24 h MoO/PO 30:70 IE revealed a 6.5% harder oil at 10 °C which may imply a wider application compared to the original liquid oils. Novel MLCTs with improved nutritional and physical properties were generated in the MoO/VCO blends after IE due to the incorporation of oleic acid and medium chain fatty acids. MoO/PO 50:50 and 70:30 w/w after 12 h IE and MoO/VCO 30:70 are suitable for incorporation into the fat phase in ice-cream formulations while, the spreadability and plasticity of MoO/VCO 70:30 improved at low temperatures. Both interesterified blends could be used as high oleic acid frying oils.La interesterificación enzimática (IE de la oleína de palma (PO, aceite de coco virgen (VCO con alto contenido en ácido oleico (86% y aceites de semilla de Moringa oleífera (MOO podría ser una buena fuente de ácido oleico con propiedades nutricionales y físicas deseables. La lipozyme RMIM produce diferentes funcionalidades para las mezclas MoO/PO y MoO/ VCO debido a los cambios inherentes en la composición de triacilgliceroles (TAG que, a su vez, dieron lugar a diferentes

  20. Coconut Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water because the immature coconuts are green in color. Coconut water is different than coconut milk. Coconut milk is produced from an emulsion of the grated meat of a mature coconut. Coconut water is commonly ...

  1. The Impact of Virgin Coconut Oil and High-Oleic Safflower Oil on Body Composition, Lipids, and Inflammatory Markers in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret; Hutchins, Andrea; Fryda, Lisa

    2017-04-01

    This randomized crossover study compared the impact of virgin coconut oil (VCO) to safflower oil (SO) on body composition and cardiovascular risk factors. Twelve postmenopausal women (58.8 ± 3.7 year) consumed 30 mL VCO or SO for 28 days, with a 28-day washout. Anthropometrics included body weight and hip and waist circumference. Fat percent for total body, android and gynoid, fat mass, and lean mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Women maintained their typical diet recording 28 days of food records during the study. Results were analyzed with SPSS v24 with significance at P ≤ .05. Comparisons are reported as paired t-test since no intervention sequence effect was observed. VCO significantly raised total cholesterol, TC (+18.2 ± 22.8 mg/dL), low-density lipoprotein (+13.5 ± 16.0 mg/dL), and high-density lipoprotein, HDL (+6.6 ± 7.5 mg/dL). SO did not significantly change lipid values. TC and HDL were significantly different between test oils. The TC/HDL ratio change showed a neutral effect of both VCO and SO. One person had adverse reactions to VCO and increased inflammation. VCO decreased IL-1β for each person who had a detected sample. The impact of VCO and SO on other cytokines varied on an individual basis. This was the first study evaluating the impact of VCO on body composition in Caucasian postmenopausal women living in the United States. Results are suggestive that individuals wishing to use coconut oil in their diets can do so safely, but more studies need to be conducted with larger sample sizes, diverse populations, and more specific clinical markers such as particle size.

  2. Dietary Supplementation with Virgin Coconut Oil Improves Lipid Profile and Hepatic Antioxidant Status and Has Potential Benefits on Cardiovascular Risk Indices in Normal Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famurewa, Ademola C; Ekeleme-Egedigwe, Chima A; Nwali, Sophia C; Agbo, Ngozi N; Obi, Joy N; Ezechukwu, Goodness C

    2018-05-04

    Research findings that suggest beneficial health effects of dietary supplementation with virgin coconut oil (VCO) are limited in the published literature. This study investigated the in vivo effects of a 5-week VCO-supplemented diet on lipid profile, hepatic antioxidant status, hepatorenal function, and cardiovascular risk indices in normal rats. Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: 1 control and 2 treatment groups (10% and 15% VCO-supplemented diets) for 5 weeks. Serum and homogenate samples were used to analyze lipid profile, hepatorenal function markers, hepatic activities of antioxidant enzymes, and malondialdehyde level. Lipid profile of animals fed VCO diets showed significant reduction in total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels; high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level increased significantly (p risk indices. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, remarkably reduced and activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-were markedly increased in VCO diet-fed rats. The VCO diet significantly modulated creatinine, sodium (Na + ), potassium (K + ), chloride (Cl - ), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) compared to control. The findings suggest a beneficial effect of VCO on lipid profile, renal status, hepatic antioxidant defense system, and cardiovascular risk indices in rats.

  3. An Artificial Neural Network Based Analysis of Factors Controlling Particle Size in a Virgin Coconut Oil-Based Nanoemulsion System Containing Copper Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Shazwani; Basri, Mahiran; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Abdul Malek, Emilia; Abedi Karjiban, Roghayeh

    2016-01-01

    A predictive model of a virgin coconut oil (VCO) nanoemulsion system for the topical delivery of copper peptide (an anti-aging compound) was developed using an artificial neural network (ANN) to investigate the factors that influence particle size. Four independent variables including the amount of VCO, Tween 80: Pluronic F68 (T80:PF68), xanthan gum and water were the inputs whereas particle size was taken as the response for the trained network. Genetic algorithms (GA) were used to model the data which were divided into training sets, testing sets and validation sets. The model obtained indicated the high quality performance of the neural network and its capability to identify the critical composition factors for the VCO nanoemulsion. The main factor controlling the particle size was found out to be xanthan gum (28.56%) followed by T80:PF68 (26.9%), VCO (22.8%) and water (21.74%). The formulation containing copper peptide was then successfully prepared using optimum conditions and particle sizes of 120.7 nm were obtained. The final formulation exhibited a zeta potential lower than -25 mV and showed good physical stability towards centrifugation test, freeze-thaw cycle test and storage at temperature 25°C and 45°C.

  4. An Artificial Neural Network Based Analysis of Factors Controlling Particle Size in a Virgin Coconut Oil-Based Nanoemulsion System Containing Copper Peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazwani Samson

    Full Text Available A predictive model of a virgin coconut oil (VCO nanoemulsion system for the topical delivery of copper peptide (an anti-aging compound was developed using an artificial neural network (ANN to investigate the factors that influence particle size. Four independent variables including the amount of VCO, Tween 80: Pluronic F68 (T80:PF68, xanthan gum and water were the inputs whereas particle size was taken as the response for the trained network. Genetic algorithms (GA were used to model the data which were divided into training sets, testing sets and validation sets. The model obtained indicated the high quality performance of the neural network and its capability to identify the critical composition factors for the VCO nanoemulsion. The main factor controlling the particle size was found out to be xanthan gum (28.56% followed by T80:PF68 (26.9%, VCO (22.8% and water (21.74%. The formulation containing copper peptide was then successfully prepared using optimum conditions and particle sizes of 120.7 nm were obtained. The final formulation exhibited a zeta potential lower than -25 mV and showed good physical stability towards centrifugation test, freeze-thaw cycle test and storage at temperature 25°C and 45°C.

  5. An Artificial Neural Network Based Analysis of Factors Controlling Particle Size in a Virgin Coconut Oil-Based Nanoemulsion System Containing Copper Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Shazwani; Basri, Mahiran; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Abdul Malek, Emilia; Abedi Karjiban, Roghayeh

    2016-01-01

    A predictive model of a virgin coconut oil (VCO) nanoemulsion system for the topical delivery of copper peptide (an anti-aging compound) was developed using an artificial neural network (ANN) to investigate the factors that influence particle size. Four independent variables including the amount of VCO, Tween 80: Pluronic F68 (T80:PF68), xanthan gum and water were the inputs whereas particle size was taken as the response for the trained network. Genetic algorithms (GA) were used to model the data which were divided into training sets, testing sets and validation sets. The model obtained indicated the high quality performance of the neural network and its capability to identify the critical composition factors for the VCO nanoemulsion. The main factor controlling the particle size was found out to be xanthan gum (28.56%) followed by T80:PF68 (26.9%), VCO (22.8%) and water (21.74%). The formulation containing copper peptide was then successfully prepared using optimum conditions and particle sizes of 120.7 nm were obtained. The final formulation exhibited a zeta potential lower than -25 mV and showed good physical stability towards centrifugation test, freeze-thaw cycle test and storage at temperature 25°C and 45°C. PMID:27383135

  6. Repeatedly heated palm kernel oil induces hyperlipidemia, atherogenic indices and hepatorenal toxicity in rats: Beneficial role of virgin coconut oil supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famurewa, Ademola C; Nwankwo, Onyebuchi E; Folawiyo, Abiola M; Igwe, Emeka C; Epete, Michael A; Ufebe, Odomero G

    2017-01-01

    The literature reports that the health benefits of vegetable oil can be deteriorated by repeated heating, which leads to lipid oxidation and the formation of free radicals. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is emerging as a functional food oil and its health benefits are attributed to its potent polyphenolic compounds. We investigated the beneficial effect of VCO supplementation on lipid profile, liver and kidney markers in rats fed repeatedly heated palm kernel oil (HPO). Rats were divided into four groups (n = 5). The control group rats were fed with   a normal diet; group 2 rats were fed a 10% VCO supplemented diet; group 3 administered 10 ml HPO/kg b.w. orally; group 4 were fed 10% VCO + 10 ml HPO/kg for 28 days. Subsequently, serum markers of liver damage (ALT, AST, ALP and albumin), kidney damage (urea, creatinine and uric acid), lipid profile and lipid ratios as cardiovascular risk indices were evaluated. HPO induced a significant increase in serum markers of liver and kidney damage as well as con- comitant lipid abnormalities and a marked reduction in serum HDL-C. The lipid ratios evaluated for atherogenic and coronary risk indices in rats administered HPO only were remarkably higher than control. It was observed that VCO supplementation attenuated the biochemical alterations, including the indices of cardiovascular risks. VCO supplementation demonstrates beneficial health effects against HPO-induced biochemical alterations in rats. VCO may serve to modulate the adverse effects associated with consumption of repeatedly heated palm kernel oil.

  7. Polyphenols isolated from virgin coconut oil attenuate cadmium-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress due to their antioxidant properties and potential benefits on cardiovascular risk ratios in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famurewa, Ademola Clement; Ejezie, Fidelis Ebele

    2018-01-01

    Literature has confirmed the pathogenic role of cadmium (Cd) and its exposure in the induction of dyslipidemia implicated in the development and increasing incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The current study explored whether polyphenolics isolated from virgin coconut oil (VCO) prevent Cd-induced dyslipidemia and investigate the underlying mechanism of action, in rats. Rats were pretreated with VCO polyphenols (10, 20 and 50 mg/kg body weight; orally) 2 weeks prior to concurrent Cd administration (5 mg/kg) for 5 weeks. Subsequently, serum concentrations of lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular risk ratios were determined. Hepatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were analyzed. Sub-chronic Cd administration significantly increased the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol while markedly reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Hepatic activities of SOD and CAT as well as GSH content were suppressed by Cd, whereas MDA level was obviously increased. The co-administration of VCO polyphenol with Cd remarkably restored lipid profile and cardiovascular risk ratios and stabilized antioxidant defense systems comparable to control group. This is the first study presenting that polyphenols isolated from VCO prevent Cd-induced lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular risk ratios by improving antioxidant defense systems.

  8. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) by normalizing NLRP3 inflammasome showed potential neuroprotective effects in Amyloid-β induced toxicity and high-fat diet fed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Fatemeh; Khazaei, Mozafar; Komaki, Alireza; Amiri, Iraj; Jalili, Cyrus

    2018-05-02

    Both dyslipidemia and Alzheimer disease (AD) are associated with aging. In this study, the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on inflammasome and oxidative stress in Alzheimer's model (receiving Amyloid-β (Aβ)) and high-fat diet (HFD) model were determined. A total of 120 male Wistar rats, were divided into 12 groups (n = 10), including; healthy control, sham surgery, sham surgery receiving normal saline, HFD, HFD + 8% VCO, HFD + 10% VCO, Aβ received rats, Aβ + 8%VCO, Aβ + 10%VCO, HFD + Aβ, HFD + Aβ+8%VCO, and HFD + Aβ + 10%VCO. Following memory and learning tests, blood sample prepared from the heart and hippocampus of rats in each group was kept at -70 °C for genes expression, oxidative stress, and biochemical tests. Aβ and HFD significantly impaired memory and learning by activating of both NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and oxidative stress (p<0.05), while treatment with both 8 and 10% VCO normalized inflammasome genes expression and oxidative stress (p<0.05). The Congo Red, Cresyl Violet staining and immunohistochemistry (IHC) test revealed that VCO improved hippocampus histological changes, reduced Aβ plaques and phosphorylated Tau. High-fat diet has exacerbated the effects of Aβ, while VCO showed potential neuroprotective effect. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Polyphenols isolated from virgin coconut oil attenuate cadmium-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress due to their antioxidant properties and potential benefits on cardiovascular risk ratios in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola Clement Famurewa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Literature has confirmed the pathogenic role of cadmium (Cd and its exposure in the induction of dyslipidemia implicated in the development and increasing incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The current study explored whether polyphenolics isolated from virgin coconut oil (VCO prevent Cd-induced dyslipidemia and investigate the underlying mechanism of action, in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were pretreated with VCO polyphenols (10, 20 and 50 mg/kg body weight; orally 2 weeks prior to concurrent Cd administration (5 mg/kg for 5 weeks. Subsequently, serum concentrations of lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular risk ratios were determined. Hepatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT as well as reduced glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA contents were analyzed. Results: Sub-chronic Cd administration significantly increased the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol while markedly reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Hepatic activities of SOD and CAT as well as GSH content were suppressed by Cd, whereas MDA level was obviously increased. The co-administration of VCO polyphenol with Cd remarkably restored lipid profile and cardiovascular risk ratios and stabilized antioxidant defense systems comparable to control group. Conclusion: This is the first study presenting that polyphenols isolated from VCO prevent Cd-induced lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular risk ratios by improving antioxidant defense systems.

  10. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of Kerabala: a value-added ayurvedic formulation from virgin coconut oil inhibits pathogenesis in adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratheesh, M; Sandya, S; Pramod, C; Asha, S; Svenia, Jose P; Premlal, S; GrishKumar, B

    2017-02-01

    Kerabala (CB) is a novel ayurvedic formulation used for treating various inflammatory diseases. This formulation was made from virgin coconut oil and it comprises extracts of Sida cordifolia, coconut milk and sesame oil. The current study was performed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory action of CB on carrageenan-induced acute and adjuvant-induced chronic experimental models. 5 mg/kg bwt was found to be potent dose from carrageenan model and evaluated its effect in adjuvant-induced chronic arthritic model. The antioxidant assays like SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, lipid peroxidation product, nitrate level and GSH were measured in paw tissue. Hematological parameters like hemoglobin (HB) count, ESR, WBC count, plasma CRP levels were analyzed. By RT-PCR, the inflammatory markers like cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) expressions were evaluated. The extracellular matrix proteins like MMP-2 and MMP-9 were determined by zymography and its expression by western blotting. Histopathology and cytology of paw tissue and synovium were analyzed. The result indicated that there was a significant increment in the levels of antioxidant enzymes on CB administration. The hematological markers such as ESR, WBC and plasma CRP levels were reduced by CB treatment and it also increases the HB level. The upregulated gene level expressions of inflammatory markers like COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6 were down regulated by administration of CB. MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression significantly reduced by CB administration. Massive influx of inflammatory cell infiltration, proliferative collagen in histological analysis of paw tissue of arthritic rat was decreased by CB administration. Synovial cytology of CB administrated group shows reduced number of reactive mesothelial cells and synovial inflammatory cells. This current study shows that ayurvedic drug CB has an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and

  11. Effect of different concentrations of egg yolk and virgin coconut oil in Tris-based extenders on chilled and frozen-thawed bull semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarig, A A; Wahid, H; Rosnina, Y; Yimer, N; Goh, Y M; Baiee, F H; Khumran, A M; Salman, H; Ebrahimi, M

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 8% virgin coconut oil (VCO) combined with different percentages of egg yolk in Tris extender on the quality of chilled and frozen-thawed bull semen. A total of 24 ejaculates from four bulls were collected using an electroejaculator. Semen samples were diluted with 8% VCO in Tris extender which contained different concentrations 0% (control), 4%, 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% egg yolk. The diluted semen samples were divided into two fractions: one was chilled and stored at 4°C until evaluation after 24, 72, and 144h; the second fraction was processed by chilling for 3h at 4°C to equilibrate, then packaged in 0.25ml straws and frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen at -196°C until evaluation after 7 and 14 days. Both chilled and frozen semen samples were then thawed at 37°C and assessed for general motility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA), viability, acrosome integrity, and morphology (eosin-nigrosin), membrane integrity (hypo-osmotic swelling test) and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)). The results indicate treatments with 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% egg yolk with 8% VCO had greater sperm quality (Psemen. In conclusion, the use of 8% VCO combined with 20% egg yolk in a Tris-based extender enhanced the values for chilled and frozen-thawed quality variables of bull sperm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of different concentrations of soybean lecithin and virgin coconut oil in Tris-based extender on the quality of chilled and frozen-thawed bull semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tarig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of soybean lecithin (SL and virgin coconut oil (VCO in Tris-based extender on chilled and frozen-thawed bull semen quality parameters. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 ejaculates were collected from four bulls via an electroejaculator. Semen samples were diluted with 2% VCO in Tris-based extender which consists of various concentrations of SL (1, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75%. A 20% egg yolk in Tris used as a positive control (C+. The diluted semen samples were divided into two fractions; one for chilling which were stored at 4°C for 24, 72, and 144 h before evaluated for semen quality parameters. The second fraction used for freezing was chilled for 3 h at 4°C, packed into 0.25 mL straws and then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. The samples were then evaluated after 7 and 14 days. Chilled and frozen semen samples were thawed at 37°C and assessed for general motility using computer-assisted semen analysis, viability, acrosome integrity and morphology (eosin-nigrosin stain, membrane integrity, and lipid peroxidation using thiobarbituric acid reaction test. Results: The results showed that all the quality parameters assessed were significantly (p<0.05 improved at 1.5% SL concentration in chilled semen. Treatment groups of 1, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75% SL were higher in quality parameters than the control group (C+ in chilled semen. However, all the quality parameters in frozen-thawed semen were significantly higher in the C+ than the treated groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, supplementation of 1.5% SL in 2% VCO Tris-based extender enhanced the chilled bull semen. However, there was no marked improvement in the frozen-thawed quality parameters after treatment.

  13. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of virgin coconut oil supplementation abrogate acute chemotherapy oxidative nephrotoxicity induced by anticancer drug methotrexate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famurewa, Ademola C; Aja, Patrick M; Maduagwuna, Ekenechukwu K; Ekeleme-Egedigwe, Chima A; Ufebe, Odomero G; Azubuike-Osu, Sharon O

    2017-12-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is an efficacious anticancer agent constrained in clinical use due to its toxicity on non-targeted tissue, a considerable source of worry to clinicians. Because the toxicity is associated with oxidative stress and inflammation, the study explored antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) supplementation in nephrotoxicity induced by MTX in rats. Rats were randomized into 4 groups (n=6) as follows: Control group; MTX group injected with single dose of MTX (20mg/kg, ip) on day 14; VCO (5%)+MTX and VCO (15%)+MTX groups were pre-treated with VCO diet and injected with single dose of MTX (20mg/kg, ip) on day 14. After 3 days of MTX injection, serum kidney markers, renal activities of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione (GSH) content were determined. Lipid peroxidation level and inflammatory markers- interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide (NO) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were estimated in kidney. Histopathological alterations were examined for kidney damage. MTX nephrotoxicity was evidenced by markedly elevated serum renal markers along with significant decreases in renal GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes confirmed by histopathology. Lipid peroxidation level, IL-6, NO and CRP markedly increased compared to control. VCO supplementation prior to MTX injection attenuated MTX-induced oxidative nephrotoxicity via prominent increases in GSH and antioxidant enzyme activities in a dose-dependent manner. The renal inflammatory markers and MDA depleted considerably compared to MTX control group. Histopathological alterations were mitigated to confirm the biochemical indices. VCO supplementation demonstrates nephroprotective activity by attenuating MTX oxidative nephrotoxicity via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in kidney. Our results suggested that VCO may benefit cancer patients on MTX chemotherapy against kidney injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro fermentation characteristics of novel fibers, coconut endosperm fiber and chicory pulp, using canine fecal inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, M R C; Mitsuhashi, Y; Bauer, L L; Fahey, G C; Buff, P R; Swanson, K S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of in vitro fermentation of coconut endosperm fiber (CEF), chicory pulp (CHP), and selective blends of these substrates on SCFA production and changes in microbiota using canine fecal inocula. A total of 6 individual substrates, including short-chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS; a well-established prebiotic source), pectin (PEC; used as a positive control), pelletized cellulose (PC; used as a negative control), beet pulp (BP; considered the gold standard fiber source in pet foods), CEF, and CHP, and 3 CEF:CHP blends (75:25% CEF:CHP [B1], 50:50% CEF:CHP [B2], and 25:75% CEF:CHP [B3]) were tested. Triplicate samples of each substrate were fermented for 0, 8, and 16 h after inoculation. A significant substrate × time interaction (P fiber substrates. Future research should investigate the effects of CEF, CHP, and their blends on gastrointestinal health and fecal quality in dogs.

  15. Improving the quality of matured coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) water by low alcoholic fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae: antioxidant and volatile profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanfei; Chen, Wenxue; Chen, Weijun; Chen, Haiming

    2018-03-01

    Matured coconut water (MCW) is a by-product in the coconut milk industry that is usually discarded due to its unpleasant flavor. In this study, low-alcohol coconut water (LACW) was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae to improve the quality of MCW. Volatile components and nonvolatile flavor-related elements were estimated to compare the qualities of the MCW and LACW. Besides measuring the kinetic changes, the levels of fructose, glucose, sucrose and ethanol contents were also determined. The results of the organic acid assays showed that tartaric, pyruvic and succinic acids were the primary organic acids present in LACW and increased significantly with fermentation. The resulting volatile composition assay indicated that esters, alcohols and fatty acids were significantly influenced by fermentation and yeast strains. Moreover, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power values increased significantly throughout the process, correlating with the enhancement of total phenolic content.

  16. Paper sludge (PS) to bioethanol: Evaluation of virgin and recycle mill sludge for low enzyme, high-solids fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshoff, Sonja; Gottumukkala, Lalitha Devi; van Rensburg, Eugéne; Görgens, Johann

    2016-03-01

    Paper sludge (PS) from the paper and pulp industry consists primarily of cellulose and ash and has significant potential for ethanol production. Thirty-seven PS samples from 11 South African paper and pulp mills exhibited large variation in chemical composition and resulting ethanol production. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of PS in fed-batch culture was investigated at high solid loadings and low enzyme dosages. Water holding capacity and viscosity of the PS influenced ethanol production at elevated solid loadings of PS. High viscosity of PS from virgin pulp mills restricted the solid loading to 18% (w/w) at an enzyme dosage of 20 FPU/gram dry PS (gdPS), whereas an optimal solid loading of 27% (w/w) was achieved with corrugated recycle mill PS at 11 FPU/gdPS. Ethanol concentration and yield of virgin pulp and corrugated recycle PS were 34.2g/L at 66.9% and 45.5 g/L at 78.2%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of coconut and fish oils on ruminal methanogenesis, fermentation, and abundance and diversity of microbial populations in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, A K; Yu, Z

    2013-03-01

    Coconut (CO) and fish (FO) oils were previously shown to inhibit rumen methanogenesis and biohydrogenation, which mitigates methane emission and helps improve beneficial fatty acids in meat and milk. This study aimed at investigating the comparative effects of CO and FO on the methanogenesis, fermentation, and microbial abundances and diversity in vitro rumen cultures containing different doses (0, 3.1, and 6.2 mL/L) of each oil and 400mg feed substrate using rumen fluid from lactating dairy cows as inocula. Increasing doses of CO and FO quadratically decreased concentrations of methane, but hydrogen concentrations were only increased quadratically by CO. Both oils linearly decreased dry matter and neutral detergent fiber digestibility of feeds but did not affect the concentration of total volatile fatty acids. However, CO reduced acetate percentage and acetate to propionate ratio and increased the percentages of propionate and butyrate to a greater extent than FO. Ammonia concentration was greater for CO than FO. As determined by quantitative real-time PCR, FO had greater inhibition to methanogens than CO, but the opposite was true for protozoal, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and Fibrobacter succinogenes. Ruminococcus albus was not affected by either oil. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles revealed that bacterial and archaeal community composition were changed differently by oil type. Based on Pareto-Lorenz evenness curve analysis of the DGGE profiles, CO noticeably changed the functional organization of archaea compared with FO. In conclusion, although both CO and FO decreased methane concentrations to a similar extent, the mode of reduction and the effect on abundances and diversity of archaeal and bacterial populations differed between the oils. Thus, the use of combination of CO and FO at a low dose may additively lower methanogenesis in the rumen while having little adverse effect on rumen fermentation. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy

  18. The effect of low calorie structured lipid palm mid fraction, virgin coconut oil and canola oil blend on rats body weight and plasma profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Aftar Mizan Abu; Ayob, Mohd Khan; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of low calorie cocoa butter substitutes, the structured lipids (SLs) on rats' body weight and plasma lipid levels. The SLs were developed from a ternary blending of palm mid fraction (PMF), virgin coconut oil (VCO) and canola oil (CO). The optimized blends were then underwent enzymatic acidolysisusing sn-1,3-specific lipase. This process produced A12, a SL which hasa solid fat content almost comparable to cocoa butter but has low calories. Therefore, it has a high potential to be used for cocoa butter substitute with great nutritional values. Fourty two Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups and were force feed for a period of 2 months (56 days) and the group were Control 1(rodent chow), Control 2(cocoa butter), Control 3(PMF:VCO:CO 90:5:5 - S3 blend), High doseSL (A12:C8+S3), Medium dose SL (A12:C8+S3) and Low dose SL (A12:C8+S3). The body weight of each rat was recorded once daily. The plasma profile of treated and control rats, which comprised of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride was measured on day 0 (baseline) and day 56 (post-treatment). Low calorie structured lipid (SL) was synthesized through acidolysis reaction using sn 1-3-specific lipase of ThermomycesLanuginos (TLIM) among 25 samples with optimum parameter obtained from the RSM. Blood samples for plasma separation were collected using cardiac puncture and requiring anesthesia via tail vein(Anesthetics for rats: Ketamine/Xylazine) for day 0 and day 56. Results of the study showed that rats in group 1 and group 2 has gained weight by 1.66 g and 4.75 g respectively and showed significant difference (p0.05) between G3 on day 0 and 56 days for total cholesterol. Meanwhile, total plasma HDLcholesterol content of rats fed with C8:0 was significantly higher (pstructured lipids effectively altered the plasma cholesterol levels of experimental rats.

  19. Pengaruh pemberian minyak kelapa virgin terhadap sekresi air susu ibu dan pemeriksaan asam lemak rantai sedang.

    OpenAIRE

    Astuti, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is a coconut meat processed without the addition of chemicals with low or without heating. Virgin coconut oil has been used by people in health care, especially as ointment for babies, massage oil, expedite the delivery process, smoothing the skin and nourish the hair. Virgin coconut oil was analyzed results containing medium chain fatty acids (MCFA). Medium chain fatty acids give the adventages for pregnancy and breastfeesing women. This study aimed to determine the ...

  20. Antigenotoxicity of Dietary Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lim-Sylianco

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzo(apyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, methylmethanesulfonate and tetracycline induced formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes indicating that these substances are genotoxic to bone marrow cells of the experimental mice.Genotoxicity of these substances to germ cells was also observed when low fertility index and high percentage dead implants were induced in experimental mice.When each genotoxin was administered to mice fed with diets containing 18 % coconut oil for 23 days, the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was greatly reduced. Antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil was very much greater than dietary soybean oil.Germ cell genotoxicity of each genotoxin was also reduced when male mice fed the 18 % coconut oil diet were used. When male mice treated with the genotoxin was mated with virgin females, fertility index was increased in the group fed with coconut oil diet. Percentage dead implants was reduced. The antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil on germ cells far exceeds that of dietary soybean oil.Dietary restriction of coconut oil diets enhanced the antigenotoxic activity of coconut oil in bone marrow cells and germs cells.Among the triacylglycerols of coconut oil, trilaurin gave the best antigenotoxic activity in bone marrow cells. Trilaurin is the major triacylglycerol in coconut oil.

  1. Flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikantan, Musuvadi R.; Kingsly Ambrose, Rose P.; Alavi, Sajid

    2015-10-01

    Coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake are important co-products of virgin coconut oil that are used in the animal feed industry. Flour from these products has a number of potential human health benefits and can be used in different food formulations. The objective of this study was to find out the flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours at three moisture levels. Coconut milk residue flour with 4.53 to 8.18% moisture content (w.b.) had bulk density and tapped density of 317.37 to 312.65 and 371.44 to 377.23 kg m-3, respectively; the corresponding values for virgin coconut oil cake flour with 3.85 to 7.98% moisture content (wet basis) were 611.22 to 608.68 and 663.55 to 672.93 kg m-3, respectively. The compressibility index and Hausner ratio increased with moisture. The angle of repose increased with moisture and ranged from 34.12 to 36.20 and 21.07 to 23.82° for coconut milk residue flour and virgin coconut oil cake flour, respectively. The coefficient of static and rolling friction increased with moisture for all test surfaces, with the plywood offering more resistance to flow than other test surfaces. The results of this study will be helpful in designing handling, flow, and processing systems for coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake flours.

  2. KARAKTERISTIK PRODUK FERMENTASI DARI BAHAN BAKU KOMBINASI SUSU KAMBING DENGAN EKSTRAK KEDELAI, EKSTRAK JAGUNG, ATAU SANTAN KELAPA [Characterization of Fermented Products Made From Caprine Milk in Combination with Soy Extract, Corn Extract or Coconut Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartati Chairunnisa*

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the best combination of caprine milk with soy extract, corn extract, or coconut extract in the production of flavored fermented milk products. Products were analyzed for the lactic acid content, crude protein, viscosity and also organoleptic properties (color, texsture, flavour, overall acceptance. This study was performed by a Completely Randomized Design with four kind of treatments, i.e.caprine, caprine milk in combination with soy extract, corn extract, or coconut extract with five replications. The result indicated that the caprine milk in combination with soy extract resulted an acceptable flavored fermented milk product containing 0.78% lactic acid, 6.62% crude protein, and had a viscosity of 2120 centipoise. The texture of the most liked flavoured fermented milk product was viscous to most viscous, and the flavour was slightly sour to sour.

  3. Crab As A Coconut Oil Separating Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Margino, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The role of sterilized and nonsterilized crab extract on the separation of coconut oil was examined using grated coconut meat as substrate. Sterilized crab extract was prepared by suspension and centrifugation of crushed crab and then filtrated using Millipore Utter. Sterilized crab extract has proteolytic activity but not lipolytic one. It was found that the sterilized crab extract supported the growth of proteolytic microbes, isolated from fermentation process of coconut oil. Both sterilize...

  4. The effect of topical virgin coconut oil on SCORAD index, transepidermal water loss, and skin capacitance in mild to moderate pediatric atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Mara Therese Padilla; Abad-Casintahan, Flordeliz; Lopez-Villafuerte, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin disease characterized by defects in the epidermal barrier function and cutaneous inflammation, in which transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is increased and the ability of the stratum corneum to hold water is impaired, causing decreased skin capacitance and hydration. This study investigated the effects of topical virgin coconut oil (VCO) and mineral oil, respectively, on SCORAD (SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis) index values, TEWL, and skin capacitance in pediatric patients with mild to moderate AD, using a randomized controlled trial design in which participants and investigators were blinded to the treatments allocated. Patients were evaluated at baseline, and at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. A total of 117 patients were included in the analysis. Mean SCORAD indices decreased from baseline by 68.23% in the VCO group and by 38.13% in the mineral oil group (P group, 47% (28/59) of patients achieved moderate improvement and 46% (27/59) showed an excellent response. In the mineral oil group, 34% (20/58) of patients showed moderate improvement and 19% (11/58) achieved excellent improvement. The VCO group achieved a post-treatment mean TEWL of 7.09 from a baseline mean of 26.68, whereas the mineral oil group demonstrated baseline and post-treatment TEWL values of 24.12 and 13.55, respectively. In the VCO group, post-treatment skin capacitance rose to 42.3 from a baseline mean of 32.0, whereas that in the mineral oil group increased to 37.49 from a baseline mean of 31.31. Thus, among pediatric patients with mild to moderate AD, topical application of VCO for eight weeks was superior to that of mineral oil based on clinical (SCORAD) and instrumental (TEWL, skin capacitance) assessments. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. Effect of lauric acid and coconut oil on ruminal fermentation, digestion, ammonia losses from manure, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A N; Vander Pol, M; Agle, M; Zaman, S; Schneider, C; Ndegwa, P; Vaddella, V K; Johnson, K; Shingfield, K J; Karnati, S K R

    2009-11-01

    This experiment (replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design) was conducted to investigate the effects of lauric acid (LA) or coconut oil (CO) on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, ammonia losses from manure, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition in lactating cows. Treatments consisted of intraruminal doses of 240 g of stearic acid/d (SA; control), 240 g of LA/d, or 530 g of CO/d administered once daily, before feeding. Between periods, cows were inoculated with ruminal contents from donor cows and allowed a 7-d recovery period. Treatment did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield, or milk composition. Ruminal pH was slightly increased by CO compared with the other treatments, whereas LA and CO decreased ruminal ammonia concentration compared with SA. Both LA and CO decreased protozoal counts by 80% or more compared with SA. Methane production rate in the rumen was reduced by CO compared with LA and SA, with no differences between LA and SA. Treatments had no effect on total tract apparent dry matter, organic matter, N, and neutral detergent fiber digestibility coefficients or on cumulative (15 d) in vitro ammonia losses from manure. Compared with SA, LA and CO increased milk fat 12:0, cis-9 12:1, and trans-9 12:1 content and decreased 6:0, 8:0, 10:0, cis-9 10:1, 16:0, 18:0, cis 18:1, total 18:2, 18:3 n-3 and total polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Administration of LA and 14:0 (as CO) in the rumen were apparently transferred into milk fat with a mean efficiency of 18 and 15%, respectively. In conclusion, current data confirmed that LA and CO exhibit strong antiprotozoal activity when dosed intraruminally, an effect that is accompanied by decreases in ammonia concentration and, for CO, lowered methane production. Administration of LA and CO in the rumen also altered milk FA composition.

  6. Effects of feeding lauric acid or coconut oil on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation pattern, digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feeding of coconut oil (CO), in which lauric acid (La) comprises about 50% of the fatty acid composition, as a practical rumen protozoa (RP) suppressing agent, to assess whether the source of La affects ruminal fermentation and animal performance and to test whether suppressing RP improves N utilization, nutrient digestion, nutrient flow at the omasal canal, and milk production. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) and 15 primiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experiment with 14d of adaptation and 14d of sample collection. Diets were fed as total mixed ration and contained (dry matter basis) 10% corn silage, 50% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate. The control diet contained 3% (dry matter basis) calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) as a ruminally inert fat source and had no added La or CO. Diets with La and CO were formulated to contain equal amounts of La (1.3%, dry matter basis). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Both CO and La reduced RP numbers by about 40%. Lauric acid reduced yield of milk and milk components; however, CO did not affect yield of milk and yields of milk components. Both La and CO caused small reductions in total VFA concentration; CO increased molar proportion of ruminal propionate, reduced ruminal ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, suggesting reduced protein degradation, and reduced milk urea N and blood urea N concentrations, suggesting improved protein efficiency. Lauric acid reduced total-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as well as ruminal apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as measured at the omasal canal; however, CO did not alter fiber digestion. Microbial protein flow at the omasal canal, as well as the flow of N fractions at

  7. VCO Production from Fresh Old Coconut Bunch by Circulating and Pumping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Maulana Azimatun Nur

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available VCO (Virgin Coconut Oil is one of coco-diesel source, made without high heating and chemicals. Commercial processes production, such fermentation and centrifugation usually need more time and expensive in cost and investment. Circulating by pumping through a nozzle is a new process method invented to produce VCO. The process followed by coalescence method, breaking emulsion by hitting particles through pipe and nozzle. The problem of this method was that the product gave lower yield than another method and not yet qualified. This research was purposed to discover correlation between pressure and time of circulation variables against yield and content (FFA, Peroxide, water content represented by SNI (national Indonesian standard. Producing VCO initiated by producing coconut milk from fresh old coconut, then each 1 litre milk were pumped through the pipe and nozzle with variation of circulations pressures and time. The results were decanted for 10 hours so the oil and water would be separated. The oil at upper layer was taken as final product. Then the last step was analysed the oils and oil cake (blondo. The results showed that pressure and time of circulating variables gave impact to the yield. On optimum variables, 2 atm pressure and 15 minutes of circulating gave better results with 97% yield. This operating variables also affecting oil quality. The minimum water content is 0.1%, free fatty acid is 0.18% and peroxide value is 2 mg/kg eq. The results showed that all of parameters meet the SNI standard.

  8. VCO Production from Fresh Old Coconut Bunch by Circulating and Pumping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Maulana Azimatun Nur

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available VCO (Virgin Coconut Oil is one of coco-diesel source, made without high heating and chemicals. Commercial processes production, such fermentation and centrifugation usually need more time and expensive in cost and investment. Circulating by pumping through a nozzle is a new process method invented to produce VCO. The process followed by coalescence method, breaking emulsion by hitting particles through pipe and nozzle. The problem of this method was that the product gave lower yield than another method and not yet qualified. This research was purposed to discover correlation between pressure and time of circulation variables against yield and content (FFA, Peroxide, water content represented by SNI (national Indonesian standard. Producing VCO initiated by producing coconut milk from fresh old coconut, then each 1 litre milk were pumped through the pipe and nozzle with variation of circulations pressures and time. The results were decanted for 10 hours so the oil and water would be separated. The oil at upper layer was taken as final product. Then the last step was analysed the oils and oil cake (blondo. The results showed that pressure and time of circulating variables gave impact to the yield. On optimum variables, 2 atm pressure and 15 minutes of circulating gave better results with 97% yield. This operating variables also affecting oil quality. The minimum water content is 0.1%, free fatty acid is 0.18% and peroxide value is 2 mg/kg eq. The results showed that all of parameters meet the SNI standard.

  9. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known as "medium chain triglycerides." Some of these fats work differently than other types of saturated fat in the body. When applied ... in food amounts. But coconut oil contains a type of fat that can increase cholesterol levels. So people should ...

  10. Effect of supplementing coconut or krabok oil, rich in medium-chain fatty acids on ruminal fermentation, protozoa and archaeal population of bulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panyakaew, P.; Boon, N.; Goel, G.; Yuangklang, C.; Schonewille, J.T.; Hendriks, W.H.; Fievez, V.

    2013-01-01

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), for example, capric acid (C10:0), myristic (C14:0) and lauric (C12:0) acid, have been suggested to decrease rumen archaeal abundance and protozoal numbers. This study aimed to compare the effect of MCFA, either supplied through krabok (KO) or coconut (CO) oil, on

  11. Response of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tepritidae) to white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugar solutions with varying degrees of fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured the EAG response of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), the Caribbean fruit fly to six different sugars (white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugars). Wild and lab female flies of different physiological states (immature and mature) were tested in dry crystals and 10% su...

  12. Bioethanol production from coconut husk fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirelle Márcio Santos Cabral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Population growth and the increasing search for healthy foods have led to a major consumption of coconut water and, hence, to an environmental impact caused by the inappropriate disposal of green coconut husks. This lignocellulosic biomass has deserved attention of researchers concerning the seeking of new usages, as, for example, in renewable fuels production technologies. This study examines the potential of green coconut husk fibers as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol. The coconut fibers were pretreated through an alkaline method, hydrolyzed enzymatically and submitted to ethanol fermentation with commercial yeasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Despite the significant loss of cellulose (4.42% in relation to the fiber and 17.9% concerning the original cellulose content, the alkaline pretreatment promoted an efficient solubilization of lignin (80%, turning the coconut fibers into a feasible raw material for 2G ethanol production studies. Enzymatic hydrolysis converted 87% of the sugars and the ethanolic fermentation consumed 81% of the substrate in the hydrolyzate, leading to a sugar to ethanol convertion efficiency of 59.6%. These results points out that green coconut husks are a promising alternative to the production of renewable energy.

  13. fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... genes in glycolysis pathway, trehalose and steroid biosynthesis and heat shock proteins (HSP) in .... com) and prepared for microarray construction and analysis. .... a single time point of the late stage of VHG fermentation.

  14. Enhanced barrier functions and anti-inflammatory effect of cultured coconut extract on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soomin; Jang, Ji Eun; Kim, Jihee; Lee, Young In; Lee, Dong Won; Song, Seung Yong; Lee, Ju Hee

    2017-08-01

    Natural plant oils have been used as a translational alternative to modern medicine. Particularly, virgin coconut oil (VCO) has gained popularity because of its potential benefits in pharmaceutical, nutritional, and cosmetic applications. Cultured coconut extract (CCE) is an alternative end product of VCO, which undergoes a further bacterial fermentation process. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CCE on human skin. We analyzed the expression of skin barrier molecules and collagens after applying CCE on human explanted skin. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of CCE, the expression of inflammatory markers was analyzed after ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. The CCE-treated group showed increased expression of cornified cell envelope components, which contribute to protective barrier functions of the stratum corneum. Further, the expression of inflammatory markers was lower in the CCE-treated group after exposure to UVB radiation. These results suggest an anti-inflammatory effect of CCE against UVB irradiation-induced inflammation. Additionally, the CCE-treated group showed increased collagen and hyaluronan synthase-3 expression. In our study, CCE showed a barrier-enhancing effect and anti-inflammatory properties against ex vivo UVB irradiation-induced inflammation. The promising effect of CCE may be attributed to its high levels of polyphenols and fatty acid components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. COCONUT WATER VINEGAR: NEW ALTERNATIVE WITH IMPROVED PROCESSING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD ANAS OTHAMAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vinegar is a condiment made from various sugary and starchy materials by alcoholic and subsequent acetic fermentation. Vinegar can be produced via different methods and from various types of raw material. A new alternative substrate for vinegar production namely mature coconut water has been tested and was compared with 2 common substrates which were coconut sap and pineapple juice. Substrates such as sap and juices have been found to have high amount of total soluble solids which corresponding to high sugar content in the substrates which is more than 14oBrix. Therefore, both substrates could be directly used for vinegar production without requirement of other carbon sources. However, coconut water which showed low Brix value need to be adjusted to 14oBrix by adding sucrose prior to the fermentation process. Substrates fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae have yielded 7-8% of alcohol within 7-10 days aerobic incubation at room temperature. The alcoholic medium were then used as a seed broth for acetic fermentation with Acetobactor aceti as inoculums and fermented for approximately 2 months to obtain at least 4% of acetic acid. Investigation on the effect of inoculum sizes and implementation of back-slopping technique were performed to improve the processing method for coconut water vinegar production. The results show that 10% of inoculum size was the best for acetic acid fermentation and the back-slopping technique has helped to reduce the process time of coconut water vinegar production.

  16. Coconut Allergy Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Anagnostou, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Despite concerns voiced often by food-allergic patients, allergy to coconut is rare, not directly associated with nut allergy and few cases are reported so far in the literature. We present an interesting case of coconut allergy in a child that was previously tolerant to coconut and regularly exposed via both the skin and gastrointestinal route.

  17. COCONUT WATER VINEGAR: NEW ALTERNATIVE WITH IMPROVED PROCESSING TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD ANAS OTHAMAN; SHAIFUL ADZNI SHARIFUDIN; AZLINA MANSOR; AINAA ABD KAHAR; KAMARIAH LONG

    2014-01-01

    Vinegar is a condiment made from various sugary and starchy materials by alcoholic and subsequent acetic fermentation. Vinegar can be produced via different methods and from various types of raw material. A new alternative substrate for vinegar production namely mature coconut water has been tested and was compared with 2 common substrates which were coconut sap and pineapple juice. Substrates such as sap and juices have been found to have high amount of total soluble solids which correspo...

  18. Coconut and Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Carl P.; Mosbach, Klaus; Bibit, Venuso C.; Watson, Colin H.

    1967-01-01

    Raw, unprocessed coconut supports the growth of salmonellae as well as that of other enteric bacteria, salmonellae being particularly resistant to subsequent desiccation. Original contamination is not due to carriers or to polluted water supplies, but to contact with bacteria-containing soils followed by dispersion via infected coconut milk and shells. Pasteurization of raw coconut meat in a water bath at 80 C for 8 to 10 min effectively killed such bacteria, did not injure the product, and provided a prophylactic method now widely used by the coconut industry. PMID:5340650

  19. Coconut Oil Extract Mitigates Testicular Injury Following Adjuvant Treatment with Antiretroviral Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogedengbe, Oluwatosin O; Jegede, Ayoola I; Onanuga, Ismail O; Offor, Ugochukwu; Naidu, Edwin Cs; Peter, Aniekan I; Azu, Onyemaechi O

    2016-10-01

    Increased access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has made the management of drug toxicities an increasingly crucial component of HIV. This study investigated the effects of adjuvant use of coconut oil and HAART on testicular morphology and seminal parameters in Sprague- Dawley rats. Twelve adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 153~169 g were distributed into four groups (A-D) and treated as follows: A served as control (distilled water); B (HAART cocktail- Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Nevirapine); C (HAART + Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg) and D (Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg). After 56 days of treatment, animals were killed and laparotomy to exercise the epididymis for seminal fluid analyses done whilst testicular tissues were processed for histomorphometric studies. Result showed a significant decline in sperm motility ( P coconut oil + HAART resulted in significant decrease in seminiferous tubular diameter ( P coconut oil alone (which showed normal histoarchitecture levels). While derangements in testicular and seminal fluid parameters occurred following HAART, adjuvant treatment with Virgin coconut oil restored the distortions emanating thereof.

  20. Intercrops under coconut plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmud, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The successes of growing intercrops under coconut plantations are controlled by environmental factors which are influenced by the coconut growth and characters, interception of solar radiation, as well as the coconut space and system of planting. Assuming that soil fertility be able to be manipulated by certain treatments, then climatic factors become priority to be considered for selection of intercrops. Coconut palms grow well on areas of 500 m asl., 27-32 deg. C temperature, and 1,500-3,000 mm in annual rainfall with even distribution throughout the year. Each kind (tall, dwarf, hybrid) of coconut performs specific growth characters, mainly on its root system and canopy coverage, as well as general conditions due to its growth phase (young, productive, senile). Above such conditions greatly influence the kind of crops suitable for development under coconut trees. However space and system of coconut planting give various conditions of interception solar radiation to ground surface, which means by manipulating both space and system, environmental requirement is able to be achieved accordingly [in

  1. Yogurt from Coconut and Tigernuts | Akoma | Journal of Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yogurt was produced from milk obtained from coconut and tigernuts, singly, or in combination with fresh cow milk, by fermentation using starter cultures of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (1:1 v/v) at 300C for 12h, and analyzed for its chemical, proximate and organoleptical qualities. The results ...

  2. Effect of Acid mixtures on the Hydrolysis of Coconut Coir for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, coconut coir was hydrolysed to produce fermentable sugars using dilute nitric and acetic acid. The hydrolysis process was carried out according to a four variable Box-Behnken design which was used to develop a statistical model to describe the relationship between the concentration of fermentable sugars ...

  3. Use of array of conducting polymers for differentiation of coconut oil products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rañola, Rey Alfred G; Santiago, Karen S; Sevilla, Fortunato B

    2016-01-01

    An array of chemiresistors based on conducting polymers was assembled for the differentiation of coconut oil products. The chemiresistor sensors were fabricated through the potentiostatic electrodeposition of polyaniline (PANi), polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3-methylthiophene) (P-3MTp) on the gap separating two planar gold electrodes set on a Teflon substrate. The change in electrical resistance of the sensors was measured and observed after exposing the array to the headspace of oil samples. The sensor response was found rapid, reversible and reproducible. Different signals were obtained for each coconut oil sample and pattern recognition techniques were employed for the analysis of the data. The developed system was able to distinguish virgin coconut oil (VCO) from refined, bleached & deodorised coconut oil (RBDCO), flavoured VCO, homemade VCO, and rancid VCO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Coconut Products Improve Signs of Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Sunil K; Carnahan, Sharyn; Brown, Lindsay

    2017-12-01

    Increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome warrants identification of potential therapeutic options for intervention. This study tested commercially available Virgin Coconut Oil and Coconut Nourish, as coconuts are rich sources of lauric and myristic acids. Male Wistar rats were fed either corn starch diet (C); high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (H); high-carbohydrate, high-virgin coconut oil diet (HV); or high-carbohydrate, high-coconut Nourish diet (HN) for 16 weeks. Metabolic, liver, and cardiovascular health parameters were measured during and at the end of the study. Virgin coconut oil lowered body weight (C 386±8g, H 516±13g, HV 459±10g), blood glucose concentrations (C 4.2±0.1 mmol/L, H 5.4±0.2 mmol/L, HV 4.6±0.2 mmol/L), systolic blood pressure (C 127±5mmHg, H 149±4mmHg, HV 133±3mmHg,) and diastolic stiffness (C 25.0±1.7, H 31.4±1.2, HV 25.2±2.3,) with improved structure and function of the heart and liver. Coconut Nourish increased total body lean mass (C 255±10g, H 270±16g, HN 303±15g) and lowered plasma total cholesterol concentrations (C 1.6±0.2 mmol/L, H 1.7±0.1 mmol/L, HN 1.0±0.0 mmol/L), systolic blood pressure (C 127±5mmHg, H 149±4mmHg, HN 130±3mmHg) and diastolic stiffness (C 25.0±1.7, H 31.4±1.2, HN 26.5±1.0), improved structure and function of the heart and liver but increased plasma concentrations of triglycerides (C 0.3±0.1 mmol/L, H 1.1±0.4 mmol/L, HN 1.8±0.2 mmol/L) and non-esterified fatty acids (C 1.2±0.3 mmol/L, H 3.3±0.8 mmol/L, HN 5.6±0.4 mmol/L). Thus, the fiber and protein in coconut Nourish and the medium-chain saturated fatty acids in virgin coconut oil may improve cardiovascular and liver complications in obesity.

  5. Lovely clone of coconuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branton, R.; Blake, J.

    1983-05-01

    It has taken over 10 years research and development to clone oil palms and coconut palms successfully. Unilever has recently built a tissue culture factory in England with a potential capacity for producing half a million clonal oil palms a year for export. Research on the cloning of coconut palms is reported here. Cloned palms may increase yields from oil palms by 20 to 30 percent and yields from coconut could be as high as five-fold over unselected stock. Improved yields would not only increase the yield of oil and copra but also the harvests of husk and shell which are immense potential sources of energy; the 1978 Philippine harvest of over 12 million nuts is equivalent in terms of energy to 3.8 billion litres of petrol (31 x 10/sup 12/ kcal).

  6. Coconut oil supplementation and physical exercise improves baroreflex sensitivity and oxidative stress in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Naiane F B; Porpino, Suênia K P; Monteiro, Matheus M O; Gomes, Enéas R M; Braga, Valdir A

    2015-04-01

    The hypothesis that oral supplementation with virgin coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) and exercise training would improve impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and reduce oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was tested. Adult male SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were divided into 5 groups: WKY + saline (n = 8); SHR + saline (n = 8); SHR + coconut oil (2 mL·day(-1), n = 8); SHR + trained (n = 8); and SHR + trained + coconut oil (n = 8). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was recorded and BRS was tested using phenylephrine (8 μg/kg, intravenous) and sodium nitroprusside (25 μg·kg(-1), intravenous). Oxidative stress was measured using dihydroethidium in heart and aorta. SHR + saline, SHR + coconut oil, and SHR + trained group showed higher MAP compared with WKY + saline (175 ± 6, 148 ± 6, 147 ± 7 vs. 113 ± 2 mm Hg; p coconut oil, SHR + trained group, and SHR + trained + coconut oil groups presented lower MAP compared with SHR + saline group (148 ± 6, 147 ± 7, 134 ± 8 vs. 175 ± 6 mm Hg; p Coconut oil combined with exercise training improved BRS in SHR compared with SHR + saline group (-2.47 ± 0.3 vs. -1.39 ± 0.09 beats·min(-1)·mm Hg(-1); p coconut oil group presented reduced oxidative stress compared with SHR + saline in heart (622 ± 16 vs. 774 ± 31 AU, p coconut oil reduced oxidative stress in SHR compared with SHR + saline group (454 ± 33 vs. 689 ± 29 AU, p coconut oil combined with exercise training improved impaired BRS and reduced oxidative stress in SHR.

  7. Nutritional value of whole coconut, coconut powder, and coconut fiber treated with sodium hydroxide for sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cardoso de Araújo Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The growing consumption of green coconut - fresh and industrialized - in Brazil generates a large volume of wastes and coproducts that justifies the search for alternatives for their use in animal feeding. The most limiting factor to the inclusion of these coproducts in ruminant diets is their high fiber content, which may restrict intake and performance. The present study determined the composition and in vitro dry matter degradability of whole coconut, coconut powder, and coconut fiber treated with sodium hydroxide (0%, 3%, and 6% and the effect of including whole coconut hydrolyzed with 6% sodium hydroxide at different concentrations (25%, 30%, 35%, and 40% in the diet on apparent digestibility of nutrients, performance, and feeding behavior of sheep. Alkalinization decreased the hemicellulose, NDF, and ADF contents of the evaluated coproducts. Whole coconut and coconut powder provided greater in vitro degradation of DM compared with coconut fiber, with highest values obtained with the inclusion of 6% sodium hydroxide. Inclusion of whole coconut in the diets did not affect the intakes of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF, but influenced weight gain, feed conversion, and apparent digestibility of DM and NDF. Regarding the feeding behavior of the animals, the inclusion of whole coconut in the diet only affected their rumination time. Whole coconut hydrolyzed with 6% NAOH can be included in diets for feedlot sheep at up to 35% without reducing intake or weight gain.

  8. Analysis of Comprehensive Utilization of Coconut Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Kan; Liang, Dong; Zhang, Xirui

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the coconut cultivation in China, and the current comprehensive utilization of waste resources generated during cultivation and processing of coconut. The wastes generated in the process of cultivation include old coconut tree trunk, roots, withered coconut leaves, coconut flower and fallen cracking coconut, mainly used for biogas extraction, direct combustion and power generation, brewing, pharmacy, and processing of building materials; the wastes generated ...

  9. Radioisotope studies on coconut nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, P.K.

    1979-01-01

    Studies on coconut nutrition using radioisotopes are reviewed. Methods of soil placement and plant injection techniques for feeding nutrients to coconut have been studied, and irrigation practices for efficient uptake and utilization of nutrients are suggested. The absorption, distribution and translocation pattern of radioactive phosphorus and its incorporation into the nucleic acid fraction in healthy and root (wilt) diseased coconut palms have been studied. Carbon assimilation rates (using carbon-14) in spherical, semispherical and erect canopied coconut palms having different yield characteristics are reviewed and discussed. (author)

  10. Statement on virginity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Virginity testing (virginity examination) is a gynecological examination that is intended to correlate the status and appearance of the hymen with previous sexual contact to determine whether a female has had or is habituated to sexual intercourse. Virginity examinations are practiced in many countries, often forcibly, including in detention places; on women who allege rape or are accused of prostitution; and as part of public or social policies to control sexuality. The Independent Forensic Expert Group (IFEG) - thirty-five preeminent independent forensic experts from eighteen countries specialized in evaluating and documenting the physical and psychological effects of torture and ill-treatment - released a statement on the practice in December 2014. In its statement, the IFEG outlines the physical and psychological effects of forcibly conducting virginity examinations on females based on its collective experience. The Group assesses whether, based on the effects, forcibly conducted virginity examinations constitute cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or torture. Finally, the IFEG addresses the medical interpretation, relevance, and ethical implications of such examinations. The IFEG concludes that virginity examinations are medically unreliable and have no clinical or scientific value. These examinations are inherently discriminatory and, in almost all instances, when conducted forcibly, result in significant physical and mental pain and suffering, thereby constituting cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or torture. When virginity examinations are forcibly conducted and involve vaginal penetration, the examination should be considered as sexual assault and rape. Involvement of health professionals in these examinations violates the basic standards and ethics of the professions. Copyright © 2015 Torture. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Adsorption of gold onto γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane grafted coconut pith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, M.; Akhtar, J.

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate adsorption kinetic and adsorption thermodynamics of Au(III) ions onto γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane grafted coconut pith. The results from equilibrium adsorption were fitted in various adsorption isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich and the best fit for the experimental data was Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity for virgin coconut pith (VCP) and the grafted coconut pith (GCP) were 256.41 and 285.59 mg/g, respectively. The kinetic data was verified using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, elovich equation and intraparticle diffusion model. The correlation results suggested that the pseudo-second-order model fits the experimental data well. A thermodynamic study revealed the endothermic nature of reaction due to positive enthalpy (?Ho) values and negative values of Gibbs free energy (?Go) describes the spontaneity of adsorption process. The regenerability of VCP and GCP adsorbents were investigated with NaOH (1.0 M).

  12. PHILIPPINE COCONUT INDUSTRY AND THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Oniki, Shunji

    1992-01-01

    This study explores effects of Philippines' coconut policies on the performance in the international market. Analysis of the coconut sector found that the Philippine government successfully changed the structure of the coconut industry during the 1970's using a fund collected as coconut levies. Since the Philippines dominated the international trade market of coconut products, it could exercise dominant market power in the world trade, by integrating the domestic sector. However, the industri...

  13. Study of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Dilute Acid Pretreated Coconut Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Agustriyanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coconut husk is classified as complex lignocellulosic material that contains cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and some other extractive compounds. Cellulose from coconut husk can be used as fermentation substrate after enzymatic hydrolysis. In contrary, lignin content from the coconut husk will act as an inhibitor in this hydrolysis process. Therefore, a pretreatment process is needed to enhance the hydrolysis of cellulose. The objective of this research is to investigate the production of the glucose through dilute acid pretreatment and to obtain its optimum operating conditions. In this study, the pretreatment was done using dilute sulfuric acid in an autoclave reactor. The pretreatment condition were varied at 80°C, 100°C, 120°C and 0.9%, 1.2%, 1.5% for temperature and acid concentration respectively. The acid pretreated coconut husk was then hydrolyzed using commercial cellulase (celluclast and β-glucosidase (Novozyme 188. The hydrolysis time was 72 hours and the operating conditions were varied at several temperature and pH. From the experimental results it can be concluded that the delignification temperature variation has greater influence than the acid concentration. The optimum operating condition was obtained at pH 4 and 50°C which was pretreated at 100°C using 1.5% acid concentration. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved. (Selected Paper from International Conference on Chemical and Material Engineering (ICCME 2012Received: 28th September 2012, Revised: 2nd October 2012, Accepted: 4th October 2012[How to Cite: R. Agustriyanto, A. Fatmawati, Y. Liasari. (2012. Study of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Dilute Acid Pretreated Coconut Husk. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 137-141. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4046.137-141] [How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4046.137-141 ] | View in 

  14. Combined subcritical water and enzymatic hydrolysis for reducing sugar production from coconut husk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharja, Maktum; Junianti, Fitri; Nurtono, Tantular; Widjaja, Arief

    2017-05-01

    Coconut husk wastes are abundantly available in Indonesia. It has a potential to be used into alternative renewable energy sources such as hydrogen using enzymatic hydrolysis followed by a fermentation process. Unfortunately, enzymatic hydrolysis is hampered by the complex structure of lignocellulose, so the cellulose component is hard to degrade. In this study, Combined Subcritical Water (SCW) and enzymatic hydrolysis are applied to enhance fermentable, thereby reducing production of sugar from coconut husk. There were two steps in this study, the first step was coconut husk pretreated by SCW in batch reactor at 80 bar and 150-200°C for 60 minutes reaction time. Secondly, solid fraction from the results of SCW was hydrolyzed using the mixture of pure cellulose and xylanase enzymes. Analysis was conducted on untreated and SCW-treated by gravimetric assay, liquid fraction after SCW and solid fraction after enzymatic hydrolysis using DNS assay. The maximum yield of reducing sugar (including xylose, arabinose glucose, galactose, mannose) was 1.254 gr per 6 gr raw material, representing 53.95% of total sugar in coconut husk biomass which was obtained at 150°C 80 bar for 60 minutes reaction time of SCW-treated and 6 hour of enzymatic hydrolysis using mixture of pure cellulose and xylanase enzymes (18.6 U /gram of coconut husk).

  15. A database for coconut crop improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Velamoor; Manimekalai, Ramaswamy; Devakumar, Krishnamurthy; Rajesh; Karun, Anitha; Niral, Vittal; Gopal, Murali; Aziz, Shamina; Gunasekaran, Marimuthu; Kumar, Mundappurathe Ramesh; Chandrasekar, Arumugam

    2005-12-08

    Coconut crop improvement requires a number of biotechnology and bioinformatics tools. A database containing information on CG (coconut germplasm), CCI (coconut cultivar identification), CD (coconut disease), MIFSPC (microbial information systems in plantation crops) and VO (vegetable oils) is described. The database was developed using MySQL and PostgreSQL running in Linux operating system. The database interface is developed in PHP, HTML and JAVA. http://www.bioinfcpcri.org.

  16. The physicochemical characteristics and anaerobic degradability of desiccated coconut industry waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanakya, H N; Khuntia, Himanshu Kumar; Mukherjee, Niranjan; Aniruddha, R; Mudakavi, J R; Thimmaraju, Preeti

    2015-12-01

    Desiccated coconut industries (DCI) create various intermediates from fresh coconut kernel for cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The mechanized and non-mechanized DCI process between 10,000 and 100,000 nuts/day to discharge 6-150 m(3) of malodorous waste water leading to a discharge of 264-6642 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) daily. In these units, three main types of waste water streams are coconut kernel water, kernel wash water and virgin oil waste water. The effluent streams contain lipids (1-55 g/l), suspended solids (6-80 g/l) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) at concentrations that are inhibitory to anaerobic bacteria. Coconut water contributes to 20-50% of the total volume and 50-60% of the total organic loads and causes higher inhibition of anaerobic bacteria with an initial lag phase of 30 days. The lagooning method of treatment widely adopted failed to appreciably treat the waste water and often led to the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (propionic acid) along with long-chain unsaturated free fatty acids. Biogas generation during biological methane potential (BMP) assay required a 15-day adaptation time, and gas production occurred at low concentrations of coconut water while the other two streams did not appear to be inhibitory. The anaerobic bacteria can mineralize coconut lipids at concentrations of 175 mg/l; however; they are severely inhibited at a lipid level of ≥350 mg/g bacterial inoculum. The modified Gompertz model showed a good fit with the BMP data with a simple sigmoid pattern. However, it failed to fit experimental BMP data either possessing a longer lag phase and/or diauxic biogas production suggesting inhibition of anaerobic bacteria.

  17. Design and manufacture a coconut milk squeezer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayan Surata, I.; Gde Tirta Nindhia, Tjokorda; Budyanto, D.; Yulianto, A. E.

    2017-05-01

    The process of cooking oil production generally is started by grating the ripe coconut meat, then pressing the grated meat to obtain coconut milk, and finally heating the coconut milk to obtain the cooking oil. Pressing mechanism to obtain coconut milk is a very important step and decisive in the process of producing cooking oil. The amount of milk produced depends on the pressure applied at the time of pressing grated coconut. The higher the pressure, the more milk is obtained. Some commercial mechanical pressing tools that available in the market are not efficient due to the working steps too much and take long time per cycle of work. The aims of this study was to design and manufacture a power screw squeezer for the collection of coconut milk. Power screw produces a compressive force in the cylinder to push and press the grated coconut until the end of the cylinder while the coconut milk and coconut dregs flow out simultaneously. Screw press was designed using straight shaft configuration with square profile. Performance test was done to investigate the actual capacity and yield of milk produced. The results showed that squeezer of grated coconut worked well with capacity an average of 13,63 kg/h and coconut milk yield of 58%.

  18. EXPLOITING A BENEFIT OF COCONUT MILK SKIM IN COCONUT OIL PROCESS AS NATA DE COCO SUBSTRATE

    OpenAIRE

    Setiaji, Bambang; Setyopratiwi, Ani; Cahyandaru, Nahar

    2010-01-01

    A research to know influence of mixing concentration of coconut water and sucrose concentration to coconut milk skim as nata de coco substrate has been conducted. The variation was taken from mixing coconut water (0%, 25%, 35% and 50% and 100% as control) and the sucrose concentration (0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%). Coconut milk skim boiled before used as substrat, yielded a coconut protein (blondo). The result of research showed that coconut milk skim can be used as nata de coco substrate with mixi...

  19. Coconut processing technologies for rural transformation – Case study on coconut water vinegar

    OpenAIRE

    6. Seeja Thomachan, Deepu Mathew and Habeeburrahman P. V.

    2010-01-01

    The role of coconut based technologies in social development of rural India is described based on the influence of coconut vinegar technology in the rural women of Malappuram district, Kerala state, India

  20. Coconut Program Area Research Planning and Prioritization

    OpenAIRE

    Aragon, Corazon

    2000-01-01

    The coconut industry is one of the country's major pillars in employment generation and foreign exchange earnings. However, local production problems, the expansion in coconut hectarage of neighboring countries, and recent developments in biotechnology research on other competing crops that have high lauric oil content might affect its long-term sustainability and viability. In a highly liberalized global trade environment, innovation and creativity in the country's coconut industry are neede...

  1. Antigenotoxicity of Dietary Coconut Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Lim-Sylianco; A.P. Guevara; L. Sylianco-Wu

    1992-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, methylmethanesulfonate and tetracycline induced formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes indicating that these substances are genotoxic to bone marrow cells of the experimental mice.Genotoxicity of these substances to germ cells was also observed when low fertility index and high percentage dead implants were induced in experimental mice.When each genotoxin was administered to mice fed with diets containing 18 % coconut oil for 23 days, the f...

  2. Microencapsulation of babassu coconut milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audirene Amorim Santana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to obtain babassu coconut milk powder microencapsulated by spray drying process using gum Arabic as wall material. Coconut milk was extracted by babassu peeling, grinding (with two parts of water, and vacuum filtration. The milk was pasteurized at 85 ºC for 15 minutes and homogenized to break up the fat globules, rendering the milk a uniform consistency. A central composite rotatable design with a range of independent variables was used: inlet air temperature in the dryer (170-220 ºC and gum Arabic concentration (10-20%, w/w on the responses: moisture content (0.52-2.39%, hygroscopicity (6.98-9.86 g adsorbed water/100g solids, water activity (0.14-0.58, lipid oxidation (0.012-0.064 meq peroxide/kg oil, and process yield (20.33-30.19%. All variables influenced significantly the responses evaluated. Microencapsulation was optimized for maximum process yield and minimal lipid oxidation. The coconut milk powder obtained at optimum conditions was characterized in terms of morphology, particle size distribution, bulk and absolute density, porosity, and wettability.

  3. Kinetic study of enzymatic hydrolysis of acid-pretreated coconut coir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, Akbarningrum; Agustriyanto, Rudy

    2015-12-01

    Biomass waste utilization for biofuel production such as bioethanol, has become more prominent currently. Coconut coir is one of lignocellulosic food wastes, which is abundant in Indonesia. Bioethanol production from such materials consists of more than one step. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis is crucial steps to produce sugar which can then be fermented into bioethanol. In this research, ground coconut coir was pretreated using dilute sulfuric acid at 121°C. This pretreatment had increased the cellulose content and decreased the lignin content of coconut coir. The pretreated coconut coir was hydrolyzed using a mix of two commercial cellulase enzymes at pH of 4.8 and temperature of 50°C. The enzymatic hydrolysis was conducted at several initial coconut coir slurry concentrations (0.1-2 g/100 mL) and reaction times (2-72 hours). The reducing sugar concentration profiles had been produced and can be used to obtain reaction rates. The highest reducing sugar concentration obtained was 1,152.567 mg/L, which was produced at initial slurry concentration of 2 g/100 mL and 72 hours reaction time. In this paper, the reducing sugar concentrations were empirically modeled as a function of reaction time using power equations. Michaelis-Menten kinetic model for enzymatic hydrolysis reaction is adopted. The kinetic parameters of that model for sulfuric acid-pretreated coconut coir enzymatic hydrolysis had been obtained which are Vm of 3.587×104 mg/L.h, and KM of 130.6 mg/L.

  4. Randomised trial of coconut oil, olive oil or butter on blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors in healthy men and women.

    OpenAIRE

    Khaw, Kay-Tee; Sharp, Stephen John; Finikarides, Leila; Afzal, Islam; Lentjes, Maria Antonetta; Luben, Robert; Forouhi, Nita Gandhi

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: High dietary saturated fat intake is associated with higher blood concentrations of LDL-cholesterol, an established risk factor for coronary heart disease. However, there is increasing interest in whether various dietary oils or fats with different fatty acid profiles such as extra virgin coconut oil may have different metabolic effects but trials have reported inconsistent results. We aimed to compare changes in blood lipid profile, weight, fat distribution, an...

  5. Development of Young Coconut (Cocos nucifera Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polemer M. Cuarto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to develop wine from young coconut water. This investigated the acceptability of the quality attributes of young coconut wine compared with commercial wine. Using a 5 - point hedonic scale, sensory evaluation test was done by the panelists (N=30 to evaluate the accep tability of the product quality attributes such as color, aroma and taste. Results of the sensory evaluation showed that young coconut wine has a pale light color, powerful aroma and sweet taste. Results also showed that panelists choose the color and tast e of the young coconut wine as its desirable attributes. Statistical analysis (p<0.05 showed significant difference in the color and aroma between young coconut wine and commercial wine but no significant difference in terms of taste.

  6. SIFAT FUNGSIONAL ISOLAT PROTEIN ‘BLONDO’ (COCONUT PRESSCAKE DARI PRODUK SAMPING PEMISAHAN VCO (VIRGIN COCONUT OIL DENGAN BERBAGAI METODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Permatasari

    2015-11-01

    OHC tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan antar metode (p≤ 0,05. Hasil penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa metode fisik menghasilkan sifat fungsional terbaik. Kata kunci: Sifat fungsional, isolat protein, blondo, VCO

  7. Fighting Lethal Yellowing Disease for Coconut Farmers (CIFSRF ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Copra is the dried kernel of the coconut, which is used to extract coconut oil. Coconut is the main income source for the coastal region's poor farmers. Over the past 10 years, Côte d'Ivoire lethal yellowing disease has destroyed more than 350 hectares of coconut and caused losses of 12,000 tons of copra per year.

  8. Virgin mother or bastard child?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Crossan

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Virginal conception presumes divine intervention, but divine inter-vention does not necessarily presume virginal conception. In the case of Mary, two phenomena, both unusual in Jewish tradition, are found, namely divine and virginal conception. This article argues that the virginity claim by Christian Jews preceded and generated the adultery accusation by non-Christian Jews. It does so by stating three points. Firstly, that the earliest dated text containing the accusation of Jesus’ bastardy is dependent on the redactional text of Matthew. Secondly, that the general structure of Matthew 1-2 and especially its dyad of Divorce and Remarriage is dependent on the popular traditions about Moses’ conception and birth. Thirdly, that the pre-Matthean tradition of divine and virginal conception is rather a reaction against Roman tradition than coming from Jewish tradition. However, this argument does not take Jesus out of Jewish tradition but, places the Judaism of Jesus’ time firmly within the Roman Empire. It is a Judaism which opposed Rome’s ideological ascendancy and theological eschatology. This article will also be published in A Feminist Companion to (Mariology or (the Jesus Movement, edited by Amy-Jill Levine, Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.

  9. [COCONUT OIL: NON-ALTERNATIVE DRUG TREATMENT AGAINST ALZHEIMER´S DISEASE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu Yang, Iván; De la Rubia Ortí, Jose Enrique; Selvi Sabater, Pablo; Sancho Castillo, Sandra; Rochina, Mariano Julián; Manresa Ramón, Noemí; Montoya-Castilla, Inmaculada

    2015-12-01

    Alzheimer's dementia is the most prevalent nowadays. As for treatment, there is no definitive cure drug, thus new therapies are needed. In this regard the medium chain triglycerides are a direct source of cellular energy and can be a nonpharmacological alternative to the neuronal death for lack of it, that occurs in Alzheimer patients. to evaluate the impact of coconut oil in the development of Alzheimer's dementia, in any degree of dementia. Also determine whether this improvement influences within variables such as sex and suffering or not Type II Diabetes Mellitus. a prospective study was conducted in patients with Alzheimer's dementia, with a control and an intervention group which was administered 40 ml/day of extra virgin coconut oil. The parameters evaluated were the mini test scores Lobo cognitive test, pre and post intervention in both groups. it was observed in subjects taking the product, a statistically significant increase in test score MECWOLF and therefore an improvement in cognitive status, improving especially women's, those without diabetes mellitus type II, and severe patients. this study, although preliminary, demonstrated the positive influence of coconut oil at the cognitive level of patients with Alzheimer's, this improvement being dependent on sex, presence or absence of diabetes and degree of dementia. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. KOMBUCHA DENGAN VARIASI KADAR GULA KELAPA SEBAGAI SUMBER KARBON [Kombucha from Different Coconut Sugar Concentration as a Carbon Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkuria Karyantina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha has been known as traditional medicine that can cure various diseases, such as hypercholesterol. Kombucha made of fermented sweetened tea using symbiotic growth of khamir and bacteria. Functional properties of kombucha related to metabolite that has been produced during fermentation process, glucuronic acid. The aim of this research was to get a fit carbon source that can produce kombucha which have highest glucuronic acid. The result showed that microbe that dominated at the beginning through the end of fermentation process was a group of khamir, i.e 1.81x107 ; 1.43x106 ; 2.40x107 ; 7.00x104 CFU/mL for 1, 4, 7, and 10% of additive coconut sugar. Kombucha at 4% of coconut sugar yielded 8.86 ppm of glucuronic acid. Meanwhile, kombucha with 10% of coconut sugar yielded 6.22 ppm of glucuronic acid. Total acid has no corelation with glucuronid acid formation during the fermentation process.

  11. Green coconut mesocarp pretreated by an alkaline process as raw material for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jimmy; Demeke, Mekonnen M; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R; Van de Velde, Miet; Verplaetse, Alex; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro; Thevelein, Johan M; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2016-09-01

    Cocos nucifera L., coconut, is a palm of high importance in the food industry, but a considerable part of the biomass is inedible. In this study, the pretreatment and saccharification parameters NaOH solution, pretreatment duration and enzyme load were evaluated for the production of hydrolysates from green coconut mesocarp using 18% (w/v) total solids (TS). Hydrolysates were not detoxified in order to preserve sugars solubilized during the pretreatment. Reduction of enzyme load from 15 to 7.5 filter paper cellulase unit (FPU)/g of biomass has little effect on the final ethanol titer. With optimized pretreatment and saccharification, hydrolysates with more than 7% (w/v) sugars were produced in 48h. Fermentation of the hydrolysate using industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains produced 3.73% (v/v) ethanol. Our results showed a simple pretreatment condition with a high-solid load of biomass followed by saccharification and fermentation of undetoxified coconut mesocarp hydrolysates to produce ethanol with high titer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physicochemical characteristics of commercial coconut oils produced in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth Kumar, P. K.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical characteristics and phytonutrient compositions of commercially available coconut oils [prepared from either copra (unrefined coconut oil- UCNO; Refined Bleached and Deodorized coconut oil- RBDCNO or from milk extracted from wet mature coconut (virgin coconut oil- VCNO] were analyzed and compared with the quality of VCNO. The color (2.6, 0.0, 1.6 lovibond units, free fatty acid value (0.61, 0.58, 0.53%, and peroxide value (1.35, 0.0, 0.0 meq.O2Kg−1 of UCNOs, VCNOs, and RBDCNOs, respectively, indicated higher units of color and peroxide value for UCNOs, and similar free fatty acid values to the other two oils. The UCNOs showed a slightly lower saponification value and higher iodine value as compared to VCNO. The composition of lauric acid (55.8%, medium chain fatty acids (69.65% and medium chain triglycerides (59.27% mainly dicapricmonolaurin (14.32%, dilauricmonocaprin (18.89% and trilaurin (21.88% were significantly higher in VCNO. The % phytosterol, phenolics and tocopherol + tocotrienol contents of UCNOs, VCNO and RBDCNO were 83.7, 54.9 and 81.4 mg; 9.4, 1.8 and 2.1 mg; 4.9, 2.8 and 4 mg, respectively. In UCNOs the values were significantly higher than in VCNO and RBDCNO. These results showed that UCNOs have more phytonutrients compared to VCNO and RBDCNO.Se analizaron y compararon las características físico-químicas y la composición de fitonutrientes de aceites de coco disponibles comercialmente preparados a partir de copra [aceite de coco sin refinar, UCNO; aceite de coco decolorado, y desodorizado (RBDCNO] y de la leche extraída de coco húmedo madurado [aceite de coco virgen (VCNO]. El color (2,6; 0,0; 1,6 unidades lovibond, los ácidos grasos libres (0,61; 0,58; 0,53% y el índice de peróxidos (1,35; 0,0; 0,0 meq·O2Kg−1 para UCNOs, VCNOs y RBDCNOs respectivamente, indican valores superiores de color y PV para UCNOs y FFA similar que para los otros dos aceites. Los aceites UCNOs mostraron valores de

  13. Virgin's Knight tackles climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2008-11-01

    "There is no greater or more immediate challenge than that posed by climate change," said Sir Richard Branson, chairman of the Virgin group, via video-link at the 59th International Astronautical Congress (IAC) held in Glasgow in the UK at the end of September. That grand statement may seem like a lot of hot air for the entrepreneur best known for his attempt to circumnavigate the globe by balloon. But Branson went on to reveal that Virgin Galactic, which aims to fly passengers 100 km into space for 200 000 per trip, will also provide room on its craft for a series of scientific experiments to study the Earth's atmosphere.

  14. The Purification and Characterization of Lipases from Lasiodiplodia theobromae, and Their Immobilization and Use for Biodiesel Production from Coconut Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesagowda, Balaji; Ponugupaty, Ebenezer; Barbosa-Dekker, Aneli M; Dekker, Robert F H

    2017-12-18

    The coconut kernel-associated fungus, Lasiodiplodia theobromae VBE1, was grown on coconut cake with added coconut oil as lipase inducer under solid-state fermentation conditions. The extracellular-produced lipases were purified and resulted in two enzymes: lipase A (68,000 Da)-purified 25.41-fold, recovery of 47.1%-and lipase B (32,000 Da)-purified 18.47-fold, recovery of 8.2%. Both lipases showed optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 35 °C, were activated by Ca 2+ , exhibited highest specificity towards coconut oil and p-nitrophenyl palmitate, and were stable in iso-octane and hexane. Ethanol supported higher lipase activity than methanol, and n-butanol inactivated both lipases. Crude lipase immobilized by entrapment within 4% (w/v) calcium alginate beads was more stable than the crude-free lipase preparation within the range pH 2.5-10.0 and 20-80 °C. The immobilized lipase preparation was used to catalyze the transesterification/methanolysis of coconut oil to biodiesel (fatty acyl methyl esters (FAMEs)) and was quantified by gas chromatography. The principal FAMEs were laurate (46.1%), myristate (22.3%), palmitate (9.9%), and oleate (7.2%), with minor amounts of caprylate, caprate, and stearate also present. The FAME profile was comparatively similar to NaOH-mediated transesterified biodiesel from coconut oil, but distinctly different to petroleum-derived diesel. This study concluded that Lasiodiplodia theobromae VBE1 lipases have potential for biodiesel production from coconut oil.

  15. Utilization of acid pre-treated coconut dregs as a substrate for production of detergent compatible lipase by Bacillus stratosphericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Zin, Nur Bainun; Mohamad Yusof, Busyra; Oslan, Siti Nurbaya; Wasoh, Helmi; Tan, Joo Shun; Ariff, Arbakariya B; Halim, Murni

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, many efforts have been directed to explore the methods to reduce the production costs of industrial lipase by improving the yield and the use of low-cost agricultural wastes. Coconut dregs, which is a lignocellulosic by-product from coconut oil and milk processing plants, is rich in cellulose (36%) and crude fat (9%). A newly isolated Bacillus stratosphericus has been demonstrated to perform cellulose hydrolysis on coconut dregs producing fermentable sugars. The highest extracellular lipase activity of 140 U/mL has been achieved in submerged fermentation with acid pre-treated coconut dregs. The lipase was found to be active over a wide range of temperatures and pHs. The activity of lipase can be generally increased by the presence of detergent ingredients such as Tween-80, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, hydrogen peroxide and phosphate per sulphate. The great compatibility of lipase in commercial detergents has also underlined its potential as an additive ingredient in biodetergent formulations.

  16. Studies on coconut products utilization in the National Institute of Science and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A review covering the composition of coconut husk, shell, water, and oil and studies on improving the processing of coconuts, especially the integrated coconut process and production of protein from coconut. 65 references.

  17. Virgin Olive Oil and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Sergio; Bermudez, Beatriz; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Jaramillo, Sara; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco Jg

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of high blood pressure (BP) along with other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors on human health has been studied for many years. These studies have proven a link between unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle with the onset of hypertension, which is a hallmark of CV and cerebrovascular diseases. The Mediterranean diet, declared by the UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural Heritage since 2013, is rich in vegetables, legumes, fruits and virgin olive oil. Thanks to its many beneficial effects, including those with regard to lowering BP, the Mediterranean diet may help people from modern countries to achieve a lower occurrence of CV disease. Data from human and animal studies have shown that the consumption of virgin olive oil shares most of the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet. Virgin olive oil is the only edible fat that can be consumed as a natural fruit product with no additives or preservatives, and contains a unique constellation of bioactive entities, namely oleic acid and minor constituents. In this review, we summarize what is known about the effects of virgin olive oil on hypertension.

  18. Virginity: A Very Personal Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... means to lose their virginity and begin a sexual relationship. For these teens, there are many reasons for abstinence (not having ... reviewed: October 2013 More on this topic for: ... Pressured. Should I Give In? Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying About Sexually Transmitted Diseases ( ...

  19. Coconut, date and oil palm genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...

  20. Harvestable energy from the coconut palm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banzon, J A

    1984-01-01

    The harvestable energy from the coconut palm is in the form of husks, shells and oil from the nuts and the leaf petioles with a regular monthly production of a bunch of nuts and one leaf. From the known energy content of the husks, nut shells and petioles, the number of palm trees required to provide the total energy for domestic cooking at wood equivalent to 1-3 kg firewood per day ranges from 5-14 for husks, shells and petioles, or 15-47 if the material is first converted to charcoal. In order to provide diesel fuel containing 10% coconut oil and cope with the annual increase in such a demand, the coconut crop would have to increase at the rate of 1 nut per bunch per month from 3-11 nuts to 12 nuts over the next 8 years. Highest coconut sap yield in ethanol terms, amounts to 109 MJ/month per palm which equals the oil in a 20-nut fruit bunch, thus indicating possible greater energy harvest from coconut sap than from coconut oil.

  1. Effect of Coconut Fillers on Hybrid Coconut Kevlar Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Jani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This project focuses on the conversion of naturally available coconut fibers and shells into a useful composite. In addition to it, some mechanical properties of the resultant composite is determined and also the effect of coconut shell fillers on the composite is also investigated. The few portion of the composite is incorporated with synthetic Kevlar fiber, thus the coconut fiber is hybridized to enhance the mechanical properties of coconut. In this work two types of composite is fabricate, kevelar coconut fibre (kc composite and kevelarcoco nut fibre coconut shell filler (kccsf composite. Coconut fibers have low weight and considerable properties among the natural fibers, while coconut fillers have a good ductile and impact property. The natural fibers and fillers are treated with Na-OH to make it free of organic impurities. Epoxy resin is used as the polymer matrix. Two composite are produced one with fillers and the other without the fillers using compression molding method. Mechanical properties like tensile strength, flexural strength and water absorption tests are done with ASTM standard. It is observed that that the addition of filler materials improves the adhesiveness of the fibers leading to the increase in the above mentioned properties. The density of the composite is also low hence the strength to weight ratio is very high. The water absorption test also showed that the resultant composite had a small adhesion to water and absorption of water.

  2. Experimental study on the strength parameter of Quarry Dust mixed Coconut Shell Concrete adding Coconut Fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matangulu Shrestha, Victor; Anandh, S.; Sindhu Nachiar, S.

    2017-07-01

    Concrete is a heterogeneous mixture constitute of cement as the main ingredient with a different mix of fine and coarse aggregate. The massive use of conventional concrete has a shortfall in its key ingredients, natural sand and coarse aggregate, due to increased industrialisation and globalisation. To overcome the shortage of material, an alternate material with similar mechanical properties and composition has to be studied, as replacement of conventional concrete. Coconut shell concrete is a prime option as replacement of key ingredients of conventional concrete as coconut is produced in massive quantity in south East Asia. Coconut shell concrete is lightweight concrete and different research is still ongoing concerning about its mix design and composition in the construction industry. Concrete is weak in tension as compared to compression, hence the fibre is used to refrain the crack in the concrete. Coconut fibre is one of many fibres which can be used in concrete. The main aim of this project is to analyse the use of natural by-products in the construction industry, make light weight concrete and eco-friendly construction. This project concerns with the comparison of the mechanical properties of coconut shell concrete and conventional concrete, replacing fine aggregate with quarry dust using coconut fibre. M25 grade of concrete was adopted and testing of concrete was done at the age of 3, 7 and 28 days. In this concrete mix, sand was replaced completely in volumetric measurement by quarry dust. The result was analysed and compared with addition of coconut fibre at varying percentage of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%. From the test conducted, coconut shell concrete with quarry dust has the maximum value at 4% of coconut fibre while conventional concrete showed the maximum value at 2% of coconut fibre.

  3. Pullulan production from coconut by-products by Aureobasidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... Key words: Pullulan, Aureobasidium pullulans, coconut water, coconut milk, characterization, FT-IR. ... sugars such as sucrose, glucose, fructose, maltose, starch, or ... sate, cornmeal hydrolysates, corn syrup, fuel ethanol.

  4. Mestica calappa, the Coconut pearl, trick or true?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    A bibliographic study is made of Mestica calappa, the Coconut pearl. It is concluded that if pearls do grow in coconuts, they are exceedingly rare, and the ones analyzed on structure and chemical composition were fake ones.

  5. Antiulcerogenic effects of coconut (Cocos nucifera) extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nneli, R O; Woyike, O A

    2008-07-01

    A warm water crude extract of coconut milk and a coconut water dispersion were investigated for their antiulcerogenic effects in male Wistar albino rats. Ulcers were induced in the male rats by subcutaneous administration of indomethacin (40 mg/kg) using standard procedures. The ulcer inhibition rate (UIR) was taken as a measure of the cytoprotection offered by test substances. Coconut milk (2 mL daily oral feeding) produced a stronger percentage (54%) reduction in the mean ulcer area than coconut water (39%). The effect of coconut milk was similar to the effect of sucralfate that reduced the mean ulcer area by 56% in this study. Sucralfate is a conventional cytoprotective agent. The results showed that coconut milk and water via macroscopic observation had protective effects on the ulcerated gastric mucosa. It is concluded that coconut milk offered stronger protection on indomethacin-induced ulceration than coconut water in rats.

  6. Assessment of Fertility Status of Soils Supporting Coconut ( Cocus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coconut cultivation is mostly practiced in the Western and Central regions of Ghana. Information on the fertility status of the soils on which coconuts are grown and possible fertilizer recommendation is not common. Since coconut yield is generally related to the fertility status of the soil, a study was conducted to evaluate the ...

  7. Properties of Activated Carbon Prepared from Coconut Shells in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials commonly used for preparation of activated carbons include coal and coconut shells. Ghana generates over 30,000 tonnes of coconut shells annually from coconut oil processing activities but apart from a small percentage of the shells, which is burned as fuel, the remaining is usually dumped as waste.

  8. Calligraphy design for coconut garbage use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. K. M.; Maulina, M.

    2018-03-01

    Coconut trees have contributed to the social life of mankind, ranging from basic personal needs such as food to the need to manage the environment. Human life requires not only food, but requires an artistic need. Certain art affects social life psychologically, and the human psychological condition is also influenced by the environment of life, especially garbage. A few of calligraphy art is designed based on using the garbage. Therefore, this paper aims to propose the calligraphy based on the use of natural garbage from coconut trees.

  9. Removal of toxic Congo red dye from water employing low-cost coconut residual fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, K C; Naik, Aduja; Chaurasiya, Ram Saran; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2017-05-01

    The coconut residual fiber (CRF) is the major byproduct obtained during production of virgin coconut oil. Its application as a biosorbent for adsorption of Congo red was investigated. The CRF was subjected to different pretreatments, namely, pressure cooking, hexane treatment, acid treatment and their combinations. The pretreatment of CRF with the combination of hexane, acid, and pressure cooking resulted in the highest degree of adsorption. The equilibrium data were analyzed and found to fit best to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard free energy (ΔG 0 kJ mol -1 ), standard enthalpy (ΔH 0 , kJ mol -1 ) and standard entropy (ΔS 0 , kJ mol -1 K -1 ) of the systems were calculated by using the Langmuir constant. The ΔG 0 , ΔH 0 and ΔS 0 were found to be 16.51 kJ mol -1 , -19.39 kJ mol -1 and -0.12 kJ mol -1 K -1 , respectively, at 300 K. These thermodynamic parameters suggest the present adsorption process to be non-spontaneous and exothermic. The adsorption process was observed to follow pseudo-second-order kinetics. The results suggest that CRF has potential to be a biosorbent for the removal of hazardous material (Congo red dye) with a maximum adsorption capacity of 128.94 mg g -1 at 300 K.

  10. Incorporation of coconut shell based nanoparticles in kenaf/coconut fibres reinforced vinyl ester composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Abdul Khalil H. P.; Masri, M.; Saurabh, Chaturbhuj K.; Fazita, M. R. N.; Azniwati, A. A.; Sri Aprilia, N. A.; Rosamah, E.; Dungani, Rudi

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, a successful attempt has been made on enhancing the properties of hybrid kenaf/coconut fibers reinforced vinyl ester composites by incorporating nanofillers obtained from coconut shell. Coconut shells were grinded followed by 30 h of high energy ball milling for the production of nanoparticles. Particle size analyzer demonstrated that the size of 90% of obtained nanoparticles ranged between 15-140 nm. Furthermore, it was observed that the incorporation of coconut shell nanofillers into hybrid composite increased water absorption capacity. Moreover, tensile, flexural, and impact strength increased with the filler loading up to 3 wt.% and thereafter decrease was observed at higher filler concentration. However, elongation at break decreased and thermal stability increased in nanoparticles concentration dependent manner. Morphological analysis of composite with 3% of filler loading showed minimum voids and fiber pull outs and this indicated that the stress was successfully absorbed by the fiber.

  11. African Journals Online: Virgin Islands (British)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Virgin Islands (British). Home > African Journals Online: Virgin Islands (British). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal ...

  12. Comparison of in vivo toxicity, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of coconut, nipah and pineapple juice vinegars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Keong Yeap, Swee; Beh, Boon Keen; Romli, Muhammad Firdaus; Yusof, Hamidah Mohd; Kristeen-Teo, Ye Wen; Sharifuddin, Shaiful Adzni; Long, Kamariah; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2018-01-01

    Vinegar is widely used as a food additive, in food preparation and as a food supplement. This study compared the phenolic acid profiles and in vivo toxicities, and antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of coconut, nipah and pineapple juice vinegars, which were respectively prepared via a two-step fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae 7013 INRA and Acetobacter aceti vat Europeans. Pineapple juice vinegar, which had the highest total phenolic acid content, also exhibited the greatest in vitro antioxidant capacity compared to coconut juice and nipah juice vinegars. Following acute and sub-chronic in vivo toxicity evaluation, no toxicity and mortality were evident and there were no significant differences in the serum biochemical profiles between mice administered the vinegars versus the control group. In the sub-chronic toxicity evaluation, the highest liver antioxidant levels were found in mice fed with pineapple juice vinegar, followed by coconut juice and nipah juice vinegars. However, compared to the pineapple juice and nipah juice vinegars, the mice fed with coconut juice vinegar, exhibited a higher population of CD4 + and CD8 + T-lymphocytes in the spleen, which was associated with greater levels of serum interleukin-2 and interferon-γ cytokines. Overall, the data suggested that not all vinegar samples cause acute and sub-chronic toxicity in vivo. Moreover, the in vivo immunity and organ antioxidant levels were enhanced, to varying extents, by the phenolic acids present in the vinegars. The results obtained in this study provide appropriate guidelines for further in vivo bioactivity studies and pre-clinical assessments of vinegar consumption. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Properties of microcrystalline cellulose obtained from coconut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study revealed that the cellulose material compares favourably with Avicel PH 101 as well as official requirement specified in the British Pharmacopoeia 1993 for microcrystalline cellulose. Keywords: Coconut fruit fibre, microcrystalline cellulose, powder properties. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources Vol. 3 (1) 2006: ...

  14. Morphological and anatomical studies of the coconut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.H.D.

    1970-01-01

    In the northern part of the Peruvian coastal region coconut palms were discovered which in addition to normal fruits produce larger numbers of bicarpellate fruits than have been previously recorded.

    Deviations from the occurrence of 3 carpels in palm-fruits are discussed. In addition to the

  15. The genome draft of coconut (Cocos nucifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yong; Xu, Pengwei; Fan, Haikuo; Baudouin, Luc; Xia, Wei; Bocs, Stéphanie; Xu, Junyang; Li, Qiong; Guo, Anping; Zhou, Lixia; Li, Jing; Wu, Yi; Ma, Zilong; Armero, Alix; Issali, Auguste Emmanuel; Liu, Na; Peng, Ming; Yang, Yaodong

    2017-11-01

    Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera,2n = 32), a member of genus Cocos and family Arecaceae (Palmaceae), is an important tropical fruit and oil crop. Currently, coconut palm is cultivated in 93 countries, including Central and South America, East and West Africa, Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands, with a total growth area of more than 12 million hectares [1]. Coconut palm is generally classified into 2 main categories: "Tall" (flowering 8-10 years after planting) and "Dwarf" (flowering 4-6 years after planting), based on morphological characteristics and breeding habits. This Palmae species has a long growth period before reproductive years, which hinders conventional breeding progress. In spite of initial successes, improvements made by conventional breeding have been very slow. In the present study, we obtained de novo sequences of the Cocos nucifera genome: a major genomic resource that could be used to facilitate molecular breeding in Cocos nucifera and accelerate the breeding process in this important crop. A total of 419.67 gigabases (Gb) of raw reads were generated by the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform using a series of paired-end and mate-pair libraries, covering the predicted Cocos nucifera genome length (2.42 Gb, variety "Hainan Tall") to an estimated ×173.32 read depth. A total scaffold length of 2.20 Gb was generated (N50 = 418 Kb), representing 90.91% of the genome. The coconut genome was predicted to harbor 28 039 protein-coding genes, which is less than in Phoenix dactylifera (PDK30: 28 889), Phoenix dactylifera (DPV01: 41 660), and Elaeis guineensis (EG5: 34 802). BUSCO evaluation demonstrated that the obtained scaffold sequences covered 90.8% of the coconut genome and that the genome annotation was 74.1% complete. Genome annotation results revealed that 72.75% of the coconut genome consisted of transposable elements, of which long-terminal repeat retrotransposons elements (LTRs) accounted for the largest proportion (92.23%). Comparative analysis of the

  16. Coconut (Cocos nucifera l.) pollen cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karun, A; Sjini, K K; Niral, V; Amarnth, C H; Remya, P; Rajesh, M K; Samsudeen, K; Jerard, B A; Engelmann, F

    2014-01-01

    Coconut genetic resources are threatened by pests and pathogens, natural hazards and human activities. Cryopreservation is the only method allowing the safe and cost-effective long-term conservation of recalcitrant seed species such as coconut. The objective of this work was to test the effect of cryopreservation and of cryostorage duration on coconut pollen germination and fertility. Pollen of two coconut varieties (West Coast Tall WWCTW and Chowghat Orange Dwarf CODC) was collected in March-May over three successive years, desiccated to 7.5 % moisture content (FW) and cryopreserved by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. Germination and pollen tube length (PTL) of desiccated and cryopreserved pollen were not significantly different for both WCT and COD over the three harvest months of the three consecutive years of study. Pollen germination ranged from 24 to 32 % in desiccated pollen whereas it was between 26 and 29 % in cryopreserved COD pollen. In the case of WCT, germination ranged from 30 to 31 % in desiccated pollen, while it was between 28 and 32 % in cryopreserved pollen. PTL of cryopreserved pollen ranged between 224-390 nm and 226-396 mm for COD and WCT, respectively. Germination of COD pollen varied between 29.0 and 44.1 % after 4 years and 1.0/1.5 years cryostorage, respectively. Germination of WCT pollen did not change significantly between 0 and 6 years cryostorage, being comprised between 32 (24 h) and 40 % (1.5 years). Germination and vigour of cryopreserved pollen were generally higher compared to that of pollen dried in oven and non-cryopreserved. Normal seed set was observed in COD and WCT palms using pollen cryostored for 6 months and 4 years. Cryopreserved pollen of five Tall and five Dwarf accessions displayed 24-31 % and 25-49 % germination, respectively. These results show that it is now possible to establish pollen cryobanks to contribute to coconut germplasm long-term conservation.

  17. Workability and Compressive Strength for Concrete With Coconut Shell Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman Alif Syazani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the compressive strength and workability of concrete added with coconut shells. Comparisons were made between conventional concrete with concrete mix coconut shell. In this study, the concretes were mixes with coconut shell by percentage of weight concrete which is 0%, 5%, and 10%. The coconut shell has been crushed first, then it was sieved, to get the optimum size which, that retained on the 5mm sieve and passing 10mm sieve. Experimental tests conducted in this study are slump test and compressive test. The results from this study are workability of concrete added with 0% and 5% of coconut shell has medium degree of workability compared to concrete added with 10% that has low workability. For the compressive strength, the concrete added with 5% and 10% of coconut shell has lower strength compared with normal concrete.

  18. Vibrational analysis of coconut fiber-PP composites

    OpenAIRE

    Gelfuso, Maria Virginia; Thomazini, Daniel; Souza, Júlio César Silva de; Lima Junior, José Juliano de

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers have been studying coconut fibers due to its being a natural and renewable source. Moreover, coconut waste is discarded in landfills, bringing environmental problems because this material, although natural, takes time to be degraded. The use of natural fibers such as coconut fibers has become industrially attractive because of its low cost, high availability and desired mechanical properties for some applications, such as panels, ceilings, and partition boards and automotive ...

  19. SPATIAL DYNAMICS OF CEARÁ’S COCONUT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Vieira Cavalcante

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to discuss the spatial dynamics of coconut production in the State of Ceará (Brazil while highlighting the spatialization of this process and the characterization of the coconut production spaces in Ceará’s territory. It also debates the effect agricultural activity has on the space production process, empirically evidenced from the coconut cultivation analysis.

  20. The morphology of coconut fiber surface under chemical treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Arsyad, Muhammad; Wardana, I Nyoman Gede; Pratikto,; Irawan, Yudy Surya

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of chemical treatment on the coconut fiber surface morphology. This study is divided into three stages, preparation of materials, treatment and testing of coconut fiber. The first treatment is coconut fiber soaked in a solution of NaOH for 3 hours with concentration, respectively 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. The second treatment is coconut fiber soaked in KMnO4 solution with a concentration of 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, and 1% for 3 hours. The third ...

  1. Coconut oil consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyres, Laurence; Eyres, Michael F; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C

    2016-04-01

    Coconut oil is being heavily promoted as a healthy oil, with benefits that include support of heart health. To assess the merits of this claim, the literature on the effect of coconut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in humans was reviewed. Twenty-one research papers were identified for inclusion in the review: 8 clinical trials and 13 observational studies. The majority examined the effect of coconut oil or coconut products on serum lipid profiles. Coconut oil generally raised total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a greater extent than cis unsaturated plant oils, but to a lesser extent than butter. The effect of coconut consumption on the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was often not examined. Observational evidence suggests that consumption of coconut flesh or squeezed coconut in the context of traditional dietary patterns does not lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, due to large differences in dietary and lifestyle patterns, these findings cannot be applied to a typical Western diet. Overall, the weight of the evidence from intervention studies to date suggests that replacing coconut oil with cis unsaturated fats would alter blood lipid profiles in a manner consistent with a reduction in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Evidence Based Decline in Coconut Productivity along the Coastline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... production in Tanzania due to implementation of the National Coconut Development Program (NCDP). However, since phasing out of NCDP in 2004, little is known and even less is documented on the status of coconut production and productivity in the country. This study was conducted along the coastal belt where more ...

  3. Assessment of nutritional status of soil supporting coconut (Cocus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-02-05

    Feb 5, 2007 ... Assessment of nutritional status of soil supporting coconut ... Infact coconut plays a vital role in the ... A high fertility status of the supporting soils is required for high .... the amount/concentration of basic fertility elements of the.

  4. Germination response of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    mainly for the soap industry, cosmetics, and candle wax (Campbell et al., 2000). Coconut cultivars are ... In addition, a number of aging coconut plantations are now being uprooted in order to make way for the planting of more portable crops (Muhammed, 2013). Therefore, there is an urgent need to implement efficient.

  5. Characterization and diversity assessment in coconut collections of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUBDIC

    conservation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with the aim to characterize morphological, biochemical and nut component traits and to assess the diversity among 24 exotic and six indigenous in coconut accessions conserved at World Coconut Germplasm. Centre (WCGC) in Andaman and Nicobar Islands ...

  6. Overview of the Epidemiology of Coconut Lethal Yellowing Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was also to compare the level of LYD susceptibility in the local West African Tall (WAT) variety and the MYD x VTT hybrid, recommended for replanting under the Coconut Sec-tor Development Project (CSDP). Structured survey questionnaires were administered for 15 months to obtain information on every CSPD coconut ...

  7. Host Finding Behaviour of the Coconut Mite Aceria Guerreronis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melo, J.W.S.; Lima, D.B.; Sabelis, M.W.; Pallini, A.; Gondim Jr., M.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    For the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, its host plant, the coconut palm, is not merely a source of food, but more generally a habitat to live in for several generations. For these minute organisms, finding a new plant is difficult and risky, especially because their main mode of dispersal

  8. Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut ...REPORT DATE 2012 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut Island

  9. evaluation of growth of young coconut and nut yield of old coconut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    nutrient status under coconut-cassava intercropping systems. Experiment I was ... farmer's income/ food security base and helps in weed control ... GenStat Discovery Edi- tion 3 statistical ..... nut, it did not impact on nut yield since it was not a limiting ... Evaluation of crop management options ... (1996). Manual on standard-.

  10. Behaviour of Coconut Mites Preceding Take-off to Passive Aerial Dispersal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melo, J.W.S.; Lima, D.B.; Sabelis, M.W.; Pallini, A.; Gondim Jr., M.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    For more than three decades the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is one of the most important pests of coconut palms and has recently spread to many coconut production areas worldwide. Colonization of coconut palms is thought to arise from mites dispersing aerially after take-off from other

  11. Panel Board From Coconut Fibre And Pet Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiman, Norhayati; Kaamin, Masiri; Abd. Kadir, Aslila; Sahat, Suhaila; Zaini, Aziza; Raihana Nor Zentan, Siti; Ain Ahmad, Nur; Amran, Wan Haizatul Aisyhah Wan

    2018-03-01

    The rate of global deforestation and its impact on the environment has led particle board manufacture to search for alternative feedstock, especially in countries where wood is less available compared to other cellulosic natural product. Based on the properties of coconut fibre and PET bottle, these two materials can be recycle as raw material for manufacture of panel board. As for this study, the coconut fibre were used as the filler and PET bottle as outer lining of the panel board. Two types of coconut fibre were used which are grinding and un-grinding coconut fibre. At first, the coconut fibre are undergoes softening, grinding, drying and sieving process, while PET bottle was cleaning, shredding, sieving before compacted using hydraulic hot press machine. There are four types of testing that been carried out which are swelling, water absorption, Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR). The result show the conventional board has the highest value for MOE test, so it's indicate that the conventional board is less strength from the coconut fibre board. As for water absorption test, the average water absorption of coconut fibre based panel board is less than conventional board. Overall, the coconut fibre board is better than conventional panel board because coconut fibre board are less swelling, has low water absorption, high modulus of rupture and low modulus of elasticity. Based on the finding, this coconut fibre panel board has potential as a stronger and long-lasting panel board than the conventional board in the market. Other than that, the panel also have their own aesthetic value since the recycled plastic bottle used as outer lining is colourful and giving aesthetic value.

  12. Panel Board From Coconut Fibre And Pet Bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngadiman Norhayati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of global deforestation and its impact on the environment has led particle board manufacture to search for alternative feedstock, especially in countries where wood is less available compared to other cellulosic natural product. Based on the properties of coconut fibre and PET bottle, these two materials can be recycle as raw material for manufacture of panel board. As for this study, the coconut fibre were used as the filler and PET bottle as outer lining of the panel board. Two types of coconut fibre were used which are grinding and un-grinding coconut fibre. At first, the coconut fibre are undergoes softening, grinding, drying and sieving process, while PET bottle was cleaning, shredding, sieving before compacted using hydraulic hot press machine. There are four types of testing that been carried out which are swelling, water absorption, Modulus of Elasticity (MOE and Modulus of Rupture (MOR. The result show the conventional board has the highest value for MOE test, so it’s indicate that the conventional board is less strength from the coconut fibre board. As for water absorption test, the average water absorption of coconut fibre based panel board is less than conventional board. Overall, the coconut fibre board is better than conventional panel board because coconut fibre board are less swelling, has low water absorption, high modulus of rupture and low modulus of elasticity. Based on the finding, this coconut fibre panel board has potential as a stronger and long-lasting panel board than the conventional board in the market. Other than that, the panel also have their own aesthetic value since the recycled plastic bottle used as outer lining is colourful and giving aesthetic value.

  13. U.S. Virgin Islands Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1 arc-second Virgin Islands DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM encompasses the Virgin...

  14. Fermentation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pretreated Coconut Coir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbarningrum Fatmawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the effect of concentration and temperature on the cellulose and lignin content, and the reducing sugars produced in the enzymatic hydrolysis of coconut coir. In this research, the coconut coir is pretreated using 3%, 7%, and 11% NaOH solution at 60oC, 80oC, and 100oC. The pretreated coir were assayed by measuring the amount of cellulose and lignin and then hydrolysed using Celluclast and Novozyme 188 under various temperature (30oC, 40oC, 50oC and pH (3, 4, 5. The hydrolysis results were assayed for the reducing sugar content. The results showed that the alkaline delignification was effective to reduce lignin and to increase the cellulose content of the coir. The best delignification condition was observed at 11% NaOH solution and 100oC which removed 14,53% of lignin and increased the cellulose content up to 50,23%. The best condition of the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained at 50oC and pH 4 which produced 7,57 gr/L reducing sugar. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 2nd October 2012; Revised: 31st January 2013; Accepted: 6th February 2013[How to Cite: Fatmawati, A., Agustriyanto, R., Liasari, Y. (2013. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pre-treated Coconut Coir. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 34-39 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39[Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39] | View in  |

  16. A photovoltaic generator on coconut island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, N. R.

    A description is given of the design principles of a photovoltaic—diesel power generator that has been constructed on Coconut Island, Torres Strait, to supply a village of 130 people with 240 V: 50 Hz electricity. Even though the solar fraction is only 0.4, the system sets a precedent for Australia with an array size of 23 kW. The uniqueness arises, however, from the fact that it is a stand-alone, inverter-driven system of considerable size with a sine-wave output.

  17. Analysis of monoglycerides, diglycerides, sterols, and free fatty acids in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) oil by 31P NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayrit, Fabian M; Buenafe, Olivia Erin M; Chainani, Edward T; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S

    2008-07-23

    Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( (31)P NMR) was used to differentiate virgin coconut oil (VCO) from refined, bleached, deodorized coconut oil (RCO). Monoglycerides (MGs), diglycerides (DGs), sterols, and free fatty acids (FFAs) in VCO and RCO were converted into dioxaphospholane derivatives and analyzed by (31)P NMR. On the average, 1-MG was found to be higher in VCO (0.027%) than RCO (0.019%). 2-MG was not detected in any of the samples down to a detection limit of 0.014%. On the average, total DGs were lower in VCO (1.55%) than RCO (4.10%). When plotted in terms of the ratio [1,2-DG/total DGs] versus total DGs, VCO and RCO samples grouped separately. Total sterols were higher in VCO (0.096%) compared with RCO (0.032%), and the FFA content was 8 times higher in VCO than RCO (0.127% vs 0.015%). FFA determination by (31)P NMR and titration gave comparable results. Principal components analysis shows that the 1,2-DG, 1,3-DG, and FFAs are the most important parameters for differentiating VCO from RCO.

  18. Development and utilization of protein enriched feed by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) fermentation in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanapat, M.; Piadang, Nattayana; Boonnop, K.; Polyorach S; Nontaso, N.; Khampa, S.

    2006-09-01

    The two experiments have been carried out to investigate on the development and supplementation of yeast fermented cassava chip (YEFECAP) and yeast-fermented liquid (YEL) with coconut oil (CCO) in concentrate containing soybean meal or cassava hay in rumen ecology, digestibility, nitrogen balance and feed intakes in ruminants. This paper reports on the progress of the on-going work with in vivo digestion trials which are currently evaluating the protein value of the two sources and their effects on the rumen fermentation, microorganisms, fermentation end-products, blood metabolite, nitrogen balance nutrient digest abilities. Based on the preliminary data, the two proteins sources have potential protein and feeding values as protein sources and rumen enhancers for possible rumen fermentation and the subsequent ruminant productivity.

  19. Virginity loss narratives in "teen drama" television programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Maura

    2010-09-01

    "Teen drama" television programs use sexual scripts that provide a framework for narrating virginity loss (Gagnon & Simon, 1973). Drawing on the work of Carpenter (2005), this study identifies the following sexual scripts in virginity-loss narratives: (a) the abstinence script, which places a high value on virginity and emphasizes delaying virginity loss; (b) the urgency script, which defines virginity as a stigma and virginity loss as necessary to maintain social status and affirm gendered identity; and (c) the management script, which suggests teenagers' sexual behavior is inevitable and focuses on managing the physical, social, and emotional risks associated with virginity loss. Reliance on different scripts resulted in varied meanings of virginity, characteristics of the storylines, consequences of virginity loss, and implications for sexually healthy messages. The narratives included positive components, such as contraception use and portrayals of consensual sex, but also contained problematic elements, such as a lack of female desire and underrepresentation of racial, ethnic, and sexual minority characters. This article suggests that an analysis of the sexual scripts used in virginity-loss narratives provides insight into both the messages about virginity provided to teenagers as well as the social construction of the multiple meanings of virginity.

  20. Production and characterization of rhamnolipid biosurfactant from waste frying coconut oil using a novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, S; Jayachandran, K

    2013-02-01

    To improve biosurfactant production economics by the utilization of potential low-cost materials. In an attempt to utilize cost-effective carbon sources in the fermentative production of biosurfactants, various pure and waste frying oils were screened by a standard biosurfactant producing strain. Considering the regional significance, easy availability and the economical advantages, waste frying coconut oil was selected as the substrate for further studies. On isolation of more competent strains that could use waste frying coconut oil efficiently as a carbon source, six bacterial strains were isolated on cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-methylene blue agar plate, from a soil sample collected from the premises of a coconut oil mill. Among these, Pseudomonas aeruginosa D was selected as the potential producer of rhamnolipid. Spectrophotometric method, TLC, methylene blue active substance assay, drop collapse technique, surface tension measurement by Du Nouy ring method and emulsifying test confirmed the rhamnolipid producing ability of the selected strain and various process parameters were optimized for the production of maximum amount of biosurfactant. Rhamnolipid components purified and separated by ethyl acetate extraction, preparative silica gel column chromatography, HPLC and TLC were characterized by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry as a mixture of dirhamnolipids and monorhamnolipids. The rhamnolipid homologues detected were Rha-Rha-C(10) -C(10) , Rha-C(12) -C(10) and Rha-C(10) -C(8) /Rha-C(8) -C(10) . These results indicated the possibility of waste frying coconut oil to be used as a very effective alternate substrate for the economic production of rhamnolipid by a newly isolated Ps. aeruginosa D. Results of this study throws light on the alternate use of already used cooking oil as high-energy source for producing a high value product like rhamnolipid. This would provide options for the food industry other than the recycling and reuse of waste frying

  1. Predicting extra virgin olive oil freshness during storage by fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio-Ruiz, R.; Tena, N.; Romero, I.; Aparicio, R.; García-González, D.L.; Morales, M.T.

    2017-01-01

    Virgin olive oil quality relates to flavor and unique health benefits. Some of these properties are at the most desirable level when the oil is just extracted, since it is not a product that improves with age. On the contrary, the concentrations of many compounds change during its shelf-life. These changes reveal the aging of the oil but do not necessarily mean decay in sensory properties, so in some cases an aged oil from healthy olives may be better qualified than a fresh one from olives affected by fermentation. The aim of this work is to analyze different methodologies proposed for assessing the quality of virgin olive oil with implications in freshness and aging of the oil, and to highlight the possibilities of rapid spectrofluorimetric techniques for assessing oil freshness by checking the evolution of pigments during storage. The observed change in the selected spectral features and mathematical modelling over time was compared with the accepted model for predicting the amount of pyropheophytin a, which is based on isokinetic studies. The best regression was obtained for 655 nm (adjusted-R2 = 0.91) wavelength, which matches the distinctive band of pigments. The two mathematical models described in this study highlight the usefulness of pigments in the prediction of the shelf-life of extra virgin olive oil. [es

  2. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: Arecaceae): in health promotion and disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DebMandal, Manisha; Mandal, Shyamapada

    2011-03-01

    Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated for its multiple utilities, mainly for its nutritional and medicinal values. The various products of coconut include tender coconut water, copra, coconut oil, raw kernel, coconut cake, coconut toddy, coconut shell and wood based products, coconut leaves, coir pith etc. Its all parts are used in someway or another in the daily life of the people in the traditional coconut growing areas. It is the unique source of various natural products for the development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. The parts of its fruit like coconut kernel and tender coconut water have numerous medicinal properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, immunostimulant. Coconut water and coconut kernel contain microminerals and nutrients, which are essential to human health, and hence coconut is used as food by the peoples in the globe, mainly in the tropical countries. The coconut palm is, therefore, eulogised as 'Kalpavriksha' (the all giving tree) in Indian classics, and thus the current review describes the facts and phenomena related to its use in health and disease prevention. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Phosphorus in virgin peat soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armi Kaila

    1956-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the total and organic P content of virgin peat soils is studied on the basis of 217 peat samples mostly collected from Northern Finland and consisting of 32 Sp, 34 CSp, 62 SCp, 12 EuSCp, 36 BCp, and 41 Cp samples. The material was found to be satisfactorily typical for a study of Finnish peat soils as to the pH, ash and N contents. Only the BCp samples were, in some respect, of a poorer quality than in general. The total P content of the 217 samples ranged from 190 to 2350 ppm or from 30 to 2440 kg/ha. In the Sp and BCp groups the mean P content was equal, 580 ± 80 ppm and 560 ± 90 ppm resp., and significantly lower than the corresponding value in all the other groups which was 950 ±120 ppm in the Cp-group, 980 ± 290 in the EuSCp-group, 800 ± 60 in the SCp-group, and 800 ± 120 ppm in the CSp-group. A low but significant correlation was found to exist between the degree of land quality estimated on the basis of the surface vegetation and the P content of the surface samples: r = 0.361***. When the BCp samples were excluded an even closer correlation was detected: r = 0.481***. The correlation coefficient between the total P content and the degree of humification was r = 0.317***, that between the total P and the ash contents r = 0.289**, and that between the total P and N contents r = 0.206*. The organic P content of the 217 samples ranged from 130 to 1950 ppm with an average of 600 ± 40 ppm. The Sp and BCp groups showed significantly lower means, 430 ± 60 ppm and 440 ±7O ppm resp., than the other groups with averages of 630 ± 120 ppm in the CSp-group, 620 ± 50 ppm in the SCp-group, 770 ± 100 ppm in the Cp-group and 820 ± 280 in the EuSCp-group. The organic P content was very closely correlated with the total P content; the total correlation coefficient was r = 0.934***. The connection with the degree of humification was not distinct: the total correlation coefficient was r = 0.336***, but the partial correlation

  4. Pyrolysis of Coconut Shell: An Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ganapathy Sundaram

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fixed-bed slow pyrolysis experiments of coconut shell have been conducted to determine the effect of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and particle size on the pyrolysis product yields. The effect of vapour residence time on the pyrolysis yield was also investigated by varying the reactor length. Pyrolysis experiments were performed at pyrolysis temperature between 400 and 600°C with a constant heating rate of 60°C/min and particle sizes of 1.18-1.80 mm. The optimum process conditions for maximizing the liquid yield from the coconut shell pyrolysis in a fixed bed reactor were also identified. The highest liquid yield was obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 550 °C, particle size of 1.18-1.80 mm, with a heating rate of 60 °C/min in a 200 mm length reactor. The yield of obtained char, liquid and gas was 22-31 wt%, 38-44 wt% and 30-33 wt% respectively at different pyrolysis conditions. The results indicate that the effects of pyrolysis temperature and particle size on the pyrolysis yield are more significant than that of heating rate and residence time. The various characteristics of pyrolysis oil obtained under the optimum conditions for maximum liquid yield were identified on the basis of standard test methods.

  5. Protein phosphorylation during coconut zygotic embryo development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islas-Flores, I.; Oropeza, C.; Hernandez-Sotomayor, S.M.T.

    1998-01-01

    Evidence was obtained on the occurrence of protein threonine, serine, and tyrosine (Tyr) kinases in developing coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos, based on in vitro phosphorylation of proteins in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP, alkaline treatment, and thin-layer chromatography analysis, which showed the presence of [32P]phosphoserine, [32P]phosphothreonine, and [32P]phosphotyrosine in [32P]-labeled protein hydrolyzates. Tyr kinase activity was further confirmed in extracts of embryos at different stages of development using antiphosphotyrosine monoclonal antibodies and the synthetic peptide derived from the amino acid sequence surrounding the phosphorylation site in pp60src (RR-SRC), which is specific for Tyr kinases. Anti-phosphotyrosine western blotting revealed a changing profile of Tyr-phosphorylated proteins during embryo development. Tyr kinase activity, as assayed using RR-SRC, also changed during embryo development, showing two peaks of activity, one during early and another during late embryo development. In addition, the use of genistein, a Tyr kinase inhibitor, diminished the ability of extracts to phosphorylate RR-SRC. Results presented here show the occurrence of threonine, serine, and Tyr kinases in developing coconut zygotic embryos, and suggest that protein phosphorylation, and the possible inference of Tyr phosphorylation in particular, may play a role in the coordination of the development of embryos in this species

  6. Durability of coconut shell powder (CSP) concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. S.; Shahidan, S.; Senin, M. S.; Shamsuddin, S. M.; Anak Guntor, N. A.; Zuki, S. S. Mohd; Khalid, F. S.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Razak, N. H. S.

    2017-11-01

    The rising cost of construction in developing countries like Malaysia has led concrete experts to explore alternative materials such as coconut shells which are renewable and possess high potential to be used as construction material. Coconut shell powder in varying percentages of1%, 3% and 5% was used as filler material in concrete grade 30 and evaluated after a curing period of 7 days and 28days respectively. Compressive strength, water absorption and carbonation tests were conducted to evaluate the strength and durability of CSP concrete in comparison with normal concrete. The test results revealed that 1%, 3% and 5% of CSP concrete achieved a compressive strength of 47.65 MPa, 45.6 MPa and 40.55% respectively. The rate of water absorption of CSP concrete was recorded as 3.21%, 2.47%, and 2.73% for 1%, 3% and 5% of CSP concrete respectively. Although CSP contained a carbon composition of 47%, the carbonation test showed that CSP no signs of carbon were detected inside the concrete. To conclude, CSP offers great prospects as it demonstrated relatively high durability as a construction material.

  7. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: HYDRO (Hydrology)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  8. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  9. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammals)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  10. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: REPTILES (Reptiles and Amphibians)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  11. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  12. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  13. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: INDEX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  14. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  15. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: HABITATS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  16. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  17. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Lines and Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  18. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: BIRDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  19. Past and present uses of Nuclear techniques in Coconut Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasekera, C.; Fernando, D.N.S.

    1995-01-01

    Several experiments have been conducted in the 1960's using radioactive phosphorous to study the physiological and growth process of the coconut palm. As a result valuable information on the effective root system and the uptake of fertilizer of the coconut palm, have been obtained. Accordingly precise recommendations on the placement and application of fertilizers were made. Investigations conducted by using stable carbon isotopes have shown the possibility to screen palms for high yield and water-use efficiency. Root water extraction pattern of coconut palms under different soil types and climatic conditions was studied by using neutron moisture probe

  20. Study on reinforced lightweight coconut shell concrete beam behavior under shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunasekaran, K.; Annadurai, R.; Kumar, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Coconut shell used as aggregate in concrete production. • Coconut shell concrete beam behavior studied under shear. • Coconut shell concrete beam behavior are compared with control concrete beams. - Abstract: Lightweight concrete has been produced using crushed coconut shell as coarse aggregate. The shear behavior of reinforced concrete beam made with coconut shell is analyzed and compared with the normal control concrete. Eight beams, four with coconut shell concrete and four with normal control concrete were fabricated and tested. Study includes the structural shear behavior, shear capacity, cracking behavior, deflection behavior, ductility, strains in concrete and in reinforcement. It was observed that the shear behavior of coconut shell concrete is comparable to that of other lightweight concretes. The results of concrete compression strain and steel tension strain showed that coconut shell concrete is able to achieve its full strain capacity under shear loadings. However, the failure zones of coconut shell concrete were larger than for control concrete beams

  1. Assessment of the genetic diversity of Kenyan coconut germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP-PROBOOK

    2016-10-05

    Oct 5, 2016 ... Genetic diversity and relationship among 48 coconut individuals (Cocos nucifera L.) collections from ... Cluster analysis was constructed using DARwin program version 6.0. ... effective crop improvement programme.

  2. Comparison of RNA extraction methods in Thai aromatic coconut water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nopporn Jaroonchon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many researches have reported that nucleic acid in coconut water is in free form and at very low yields which makes it difficult to process in molecular studies. Our research attempted to compare two extraction methods to obtain a higher yield of total RNA in aromatic coconut water and monitor its change at various fruit stages. The first method used ethanol and sodium acetate as reagents; the second method used lithium chloride. We found that extraction using only lithium chloride gave a higher total RNA yield than the method using ethanol to precipitate nucleic acid. In addition, the total RNA from both methods could be used in amplification of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase2 (Badh2 genes, which is involved in coconut aroma biosynthesis, and could be used to perform further study as we expected. From the molecular study, the nucleic acid found in coconut water increased with fruit age.

  3. Rigid Polyurethane Foam Reinforced Coconut Coir Fiber Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Azham Azmi

    2012-01-01

    This research work studied the properties of composite foam panels. Coconut coir fibers were used as reinforcement in polyurethane (PU) foam in order to increase the properties of foam. This composite foam panels were fabricated by using polyurethane molded method. The polyurethane foam panels reinforced from 5 to 20wt% coconut coir were produced to investigate the physical and mechanical test via density test and three point bending test respectively. It was found that the density test resul...

  4. Randomised trial of coconut oil, olive oil or butter on blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaw, Kay-Tee; Sharp, Stephen J; Finikarides, Leila; Afzal, Islam; Lentjes, Marleen; Luben, Robert; Forouhi, Nita G

    2018-03-06

    High dietary saturated fat intake is associated with higher blood concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), an established risk factor for coronary heart disease. However, there is increasing interest in whether various dietary oils or fats with different fatty acid profiles such as extra virgin coconut oil may have different metabolic effects but trials have reported inconsistent results. We aimed to compare changes in blood lipid profile, weight, fat distribution and metabolic markers after four weeks consumption of 50 g daily of one of three different dietary fats, extra virgin coconut oil, butter or extra virgin olive oil, in healthy men and women in the general population. Randomised clinical trial conducted over June and July 2017. General community in Cambridgeshire, UK. Volunteer adults were recruited by the British Broadcasting Corporation through their websites. Eligibility criteria were men and women aged 50-75 years, with no known history of cancer, cardiovascular disease or diabetes, not on lipid lowering medication, no contraindications to a high-fat diet and willingness to be randomised to consume one of the three dietary fats for 4 weeks. Of 160 individuals initially expressing an interest and assessed for eligibility, 96 were randomised to one of three interventions; 2 individuals subsequently withdrew and 94 men and women attended a baseline assessment. Their mean age was 60 years, 67% were women and 98% were European Caucasian. Of these, 91 men and women attended a follow-up assessment 4 weeks later. Participants were randomised to extra virgin coconut oil, extra virgin olive oil or unsalted butter and asked to consume 50 g daily of one of these fats for 4 weeks, which they could incorporate into their usual diet or consume as a supplement. The primary outcome was change in serum LDL-C; secondary outcomes were change in total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC and HDL-C), TC/HDL-C ratio and non

  5. The chemical composition and biological properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Jean W H; Ge, Liya; Ng, Yan Fei; Tan, Swee Ngin

    2009-12-09

    Coconut water (coconut liquid endosperm), with its many applications, is one of the world's most versatile natural product. This refreshing beverage is consumed worldwide as it is nutritious and beneficial for health. There is increasing scientific evidence that supports the role of coconut water in health and medicinal applications. Coconut water is traditionally used as a growth supplement in plant tissue culture/micropropagation. The wide applications of coconut water can be justified by its unique chemical composition of sugars, vitamins, minerals, amino acids and phytohormones. This review attempts to summarise and evaluate the chemical composition and biological properties of coconut water.

  6. Alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, P

    1961-01-04

    The addition of C/sub 6-10/ alcohols to the fermenting sugar solutions, increased the yield of alcohol by 1.5 to 5%. The best additives were (additive, % additive in sugar solution, % increased in yield of alcohol): hexanol, 0.03, 2.5; heptanol, 0.05, 3; nonanol, 0.01, 3; 2-ethylbutanol, 0.05, 4; 2-ethylhexanol, 0.05, 5; a mixture of C/sub 7-9/ alcohols from the Oxo synthesis, 0.05, 4.5, and a mixture of C/sub 10/ alcohols 0.05, 3.

  7. Gamma ray attenuation studies in concrete reinforced with coconut shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnu, C.V.; Joseph, Antony

    2017-01-01

    Gamma ray absorption studies on wood in general is an area of interest. In Kerala, though coconut tree is a common plantation, a systematic study of gamma ray attenuation in coconut shell has not been reported. In the present study, we have made an attempt to carry out such measurements on coconut shells collected from Trichur district. Coconut shells in to the size of 4cm × 4cm was used in these studies and 662 KeV gamma ray counts were measured using 8K channel NaI(Tl) detector. Subsequently we extended these studies by reinforcing concrete with crushed coconut shells, arranged in a layer by layer fashion. Concrete is usually a choice for shielding nuclear radiations. The effect of reinforcing them with coconut shell is also an area of interest. We have carried out absorption studies by using two types of sand also in the concrete mixture. Common sand is not amply available and people use M-sand (Manufactured sand) instead. In the concrete blocks we selectively used common sand and m-sand and its effects on gamma absorption were also investigated. We have estimated both linear and mass attenuation coefficients and the half value layer (HVL) parameter was determined from them. We have noticed an increase in µ/ρ with increase in density of concrete, achieved through the reinforcement. (author)

  8. Virgin almond oil: Extraction methods and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncero, J.M.; Alvarez-Orti, M.; Pardo-Gimenez, A.; Gomez, R.; Rabadan, A.; Pardo, J.E.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper the extraction methods of virgin almond oil and its chemical composition are reviewed. The most common methods for obtaining oil are solvent extraction, extraction with supercritical fluids (CO2) and pressure systems (hydraulic and screw presses). The best industrial performance, but also the worst oil quality is achieved by using solvents. Oils obtained by this method cannot be considered virgin oils as they are obtained by chemical treatments. Supercritical fluid extraction results in higher quality oils but at a very high price. Extraction by pressing becomes the best option to achieve high quality oils at an affordable price. With regards chemical composition, almond oil is characterized by its low content in saturated fatty acids and the predominance of monounsaturated, especially oleic acid. Furthermore, almond oil contains antioxidants and fat-soluble bioactive compounds that make it an oil with interesting nutritional and cosmetic properties.

  9. Virgin almond oil: Extraction methods and composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roncero, J.M.; Alvarez-Orti, M.; Pardo-Gimenez, A.; Gomez, R.; Rabadan, A.; Pardo, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the extraction methods of virgin almond oil and its chemical composition are reviewed. The most common methods for obtaining oil are solvent extraction, extraction with supercritical fluids (CO2) and pressure systems (hydraulic and screw presses). The best industrial performance, but also the worst oil quality is achieved by using solvents. Oils obtained by this method cannot be considered virgin oils as they are obtained by chemical treatments. Supercritical fluid extraction results in higher quality oils but at a very high price. Extraction by pressing becomes the best option to achieve high quality oils at an affordable price. With regards chemical composition, almond oil is characterized by its low content in saturated fatty acids and the predominance of monounsaturated, especially oleic acid. Furthermore, almond oil contains antioxidants and fat-soluble bioactive compounds that make it an oil with interesting nutritional and cosmetic properties.

  10. The sensory wheel of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojet, Jos

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available During a 3-year FLAIR study extra virgin olive oils, varying in species, degree of ripeness and extraction method, were evaluated by 6 different institutes according to QDA or GDI-methods in order to identify parameters related to the quality of extra virgin olive oil. The current COI-method yields a poor between-panel reproducibility. This could well be caused by a difference in the perception of positive quality aspects. Whereas the QDA-method is especially suitable for determining sensory profiles according to the perception of the consumer, the COI-method should be tailored to detect possible defects only.
    In order to cluster all attributes to one condensed set of sensory attributes for describing virgin olive oil, the COI and QDA data of ail panels were pooled and analyzed separately for appearance, texture and flavour. This approach resulted in a set of 3 appearance, 3 texture and 12 flavour descriptors which can be conveniently represented graphically in the form of a "sensory wheel".
    On the basis of the findings it is recommended to base the "extra virgin" qualification for olive oils solely on the absence of defects. The between-panel reproducibility of such a simplified COI-test can be assessed by means of ring tests and improved by training with reference products. When an oil passes this screening it can be profiled subsequently using the attributes of the sensory wheel. Such a profile can be linked to preferential profiles derived from consumer studies enabling the production of most preferred olive oils.

  11. Annualized TASAR Benefits for Virgin America Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Virgin America. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that about 25,000 gallons of fuel and about 2,500 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Virgin America in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Virgin America TASAR requests peaked at two to four requests per hour per sector in high-altitude Oakland and Salt Lake City center sectors east of San Francisco.

  12. Physicochemical and functional properties of protein concentrate from by-product of coconut processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodsamran, Pattrathip; Sothornvit, Rungsinee

    2018-02-15

    Coconut cake, a by-product from milk and oil extractions, contains a high amount of protein. Protein extraction from coconut milk cake and coconut oil cake was investigated. The supernatant and precipitate protein powders from both coconut milk and oil cakes were compared based on their physicochemical and functional properties. Glutelin was the predominant protein fraction in both coconut cakes. Protein powders from milk cake presented higher water and oil absorption capacities than those from oil cake. Both protein powders from oil cake exhibited better foaming capacity and a better emulsifying activity index than those from milk cake. Coconut proteins were mostly solubilized in strong acidic and alkaline solutions. Minimum solubility was observed at pH 4, confirming the isoelectric point of coconut protein. Therefore, the coconut residues after extractions might be a potential alternative renewable plant protein source to use asa food ingredient to enhance food nutrition and quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. effect of farming practices and farm history on incidence of coconut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    African Crop Science Journal by African Crop Science Society is licensed under ... Management of coconut (Cocos nucifera) lethal yellowing disease (CLYD), which has killed about eight million coconut ...... International Journal of Emerging.

  14. The Supplementation of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO in The Ration To Increase Carcass Weight and Decrease Duck Meat Cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Siti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out at Kediri, Tabanan Regency and Animal Nutrition Laboratory to study the effect of the supplementation VCO in the ration to increase carcass weight and decrease duck meat cholesterol. The experiment used a completely randomized design (CRD with five treatments and four replicates. Each of the replicate used five male Balinese ducks with the same weight. The five treatments were diets without VCO as a control (A, ration with 1% VCO (B, ration with 2% VCO (C, ration with 3% VCO (D and ration with 4% VCO (E respectively. Ration and water offered ad libitum. The variables measured were carcass weight, physical carcass composition and meat cholesterol. The result of this experiment showed that the carcass weight, the carcass percentage, the percentage of carcass meat in the B, C, D and E treatments were not significantly (P>0.05 higher than the control, so the percentage of fat carcass subcutan (including skin and carcass bone percentage were not significantly (P>0.05 lower than the control. Triglyceride in treatment 3% VCO in diets (D was significantly (P0.05 higher than the control. The total cholesterol content and LDL in those four treatments were not significantly (P>0.05 lower than the control. From the result of this experiment can be concluded that the supplementation of 1-4% VCO in the ration has not increased to the carcass weight and decreased the duck meat cholesterol.   Keywords : VCO, duck, carcass weight, and  meat cholesterol

  15. 21 CFR 178.3600 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 178.3600... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3600 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester identified in § 172.816(a) of this chapter may be safely used as a processing...

  16. Ex-ante analysis of economic returns from biological control of coconut mite in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleke, J.M.; Manyong, V.; Mignouna, D.; Isinika, A.; Mutabazi, K.; Hanna, R.; Sabelis, M.

    2013-01-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, has been identified as one of the pests that pose a threat to the coconut industry in Benin. The study presents the simulation results of the economic benefits of the biological control of coconut mites in Benin using a standard economic surplus model. In

  17. 46 CFR 148.04-21 - Coconut meal pellets (also known as copra pellets).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coconut meal pellets (also known as copra pellets). 148.04-21 Section 148.04-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS... § 148.04-21 Coconut meal pellets (also known as copra pellets). (a) Coconut meal pellets; (1) Must...

  18. 21 CFR 573.660 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 573.660 Section 573.660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.660 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil...

  19. 21 CFR 172.816 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 172.816 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.816 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the...

  20. How does coconut oil affect cognitive performance in alzheimer patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Rubia Ortí, José Enrique; Sánchez Álvarez, Carmen; Selvi Sabater, Pablo; Bueno Cayo, Alma María; Sancho Castillo, Sandra; Rochina, Mariano Julián; Hu Yang, Iván

    2017-03-30

    Introduction: Alzheimer’s disease is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative dementia in developed world. This fact, coupled with the lack cure, makes new no pharmacological therapeutic strategies such as nutrient management to investigate. In this regard, it stresses the possible influence of coconut oil as alternative energy source capable of stopping the progressively neuronal death that occurs in this disease. Objectives: To assess the cognitive impact of coconut oil in Alzheimer’s patients, and specifically in orientation, language-building, fixing, calculation-concentration and memory areas. Methods: Prospective, longitudinal, qualitative, analytical and experimental study through a clinical trial where 44 patients with Alzheimer’s in region of Ribera (Valencia), of which half was selected to receive during 21 days, 40 ml coconut oil daily divided between breakfast (20 ml) and food (20 ml). Before and after administration of the oil, they were evaluated through cognitive test Mini-Mental State Examination to determine possible changes. Results: It was observed in patients who received coconut oil, that cognitive improvement after completion of the intervention, statistically significant improved in the orientation and language-construction areas. Conclusions: Coconut oil appears to improve cognitive abilities of Alzheimer’s patients, with different intensity depending on the cognitive area.

  1. In vitro culture of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Florent; Malaurie, Bernard; N'Nan, Oulo

    2011-01-01

    Coconut is a very important crop for millions of people in tropical countries. With coconut, in vitro culture protocols have been developed with two main objectives, viz. the large scale production of particular types of coconuts and the international exchange and conservation of coconut germplasm. The methods described in this chapter have been developed in the framework of collaborative activities between research institutes in Côte d'Ivoire and France. Two coconut embryo in vitro collecting protocols have been established, one consisting of storing the disinfected embryos in a KCl solution until they are brought back to the laboratory, where they are re-disinfected and inoculated in vitro under sterile conditions, and the other including in vitro inoculation of the embryos in the field. For international germplasm exchange, zygotic embryos inoculated in vitro in plastic test tubes or endosperm cylinders containing embryos in plastic bags are used. For in vitro culture, embryos are inoculated on semi-solid medium supplemented with sucrose and activated charcoal and placed in the dark, and then transferred to light conditions with the same (solid or liquid) medium once the first true leaf is visible and the root system has started developing.

  2. Kinetic study of hydrolysis of coconut fiber into glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhaimin, Sudiono, Sri

    2017-03-01

    Kinetic study of hydrolysis of coconut fiber into glucose has been done. The aim of this research was to study of the effect of time and temperature to the glucose as the result of the conversion of coconut fiber. The various temperature of the hydrolysis process were 30 °C, 48 °C, 72 °C and 95 °C and the various time of the hydrolysis process were 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 minutes. A quantitative analysis was done by measured the concentration of the glucose as the result of the conversion of coconut fiber. The result showed that the rate constant from the various temperature were 3.10-4 minute-1; 8.10-4 minutees-1; 84.10-4 minute-1, and 205.10-4 minute-1, and the energy activation was 7,69. 103 kJ/mol.

  3. Hypolipidemic effect of hemicellulose component of coconut fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhurani, J A; Rajamohan, T

    1998-08-01

    The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) isolated from coconut kernel was digested with cellulase and hemicellulase and the residual fiber rich in hemicellulose (without cellulose) and cellulose (with out hemicellulose) were fed to rats and compared with a fiber free group. The results indicate that hemicellulose rich fiber showed decreased concentration of total cholesterol, LDL + VLDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol, while cellulose rich fiber showed no significant alteration. There was increased HMG CoA reductase activity and increased incorporation of labeled acetate into free cholesterol. Rats fed hemicellulose rich coconut fiber produced lower concentration of triglycerides and phospholipids and lower release of lipoproteins into circulation. There was increased concentration of hepatic bile acids and increased excretion of faecal sterols and bile acids. These results indicate that the hemicellulose component of coconut fiber was responsible for the observed hypolipidemic effect.

  4. Anaerobic degradation of coconut husk leachate using UASB-reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neena, C; Ambily, P S; Jisha, M S

    2007-07-01

    Reffing of coconut husk, the majorprocess in quality coir fibre extraction, causes serious pollution with brackish water lagoons of Kerala. An attempt is made to treat the coconut husk leachate by using a laboratory scale UASB-reactor The experiment was conducted with loading of leachate from 1 kg of fresh coconut husk. The anaerobic treatment was done continuously The parameters like VFA, pH, COD and polyphenols were analysed regularly during the evaluation of the reactor performance. The polyphenol, VFA and COD were diminished gradually with time. The pH of the reactor during the study was found to be in the range of 6-8. The biogas production was increased with loading and about 82% of the total COD/kg husk could be converted to biogas. The maximum polyphenol loading in the reactor was reached to about 298.51 mg/l of husk.

  5. Antioxidant Activity of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Protein Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zheng, Yajun; Zhang, Yufeng; Xu, Jianguo; Gao, Gang

    2018-03-20

    Coconut cake is an abundant and good potential edible protein source. However, until now it has not been extensively used in the food industry. To promote its usage, the characterization, nutrition value and antioxidant activity of coconut cake protein fractions (albumin, globulin, prolamine, glutelin-1 and glutelin-2) were studied. Results revealed that all the albumin, globulin, glutelin-1 and glutelin-2 fractions showed a high nutrition value. The prolamine, glutelin-1 and glutelin-2 all exhibited good radical scavenging activity and reducing power, and the globulin and prolamine showed high ion chelating ability (89.14-80.38%). Moreover, all the fractions except glutelin-2 could effectively protect DNA against oxidative damage. Several peptides containing five to eight amino acids with antioxidant activity were also identified by LC-MS/MS from the globulin and glutelin-2 fractions. The results demonstrated that the coconut cake protein fractions have potential usages in functional foods.

  6. Gamma ray attenuation studies on concrete reinforced with coconut shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnu, C.V.; Antony, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The fact that radiation could be harmful has led to the development of wide variety of shields to protect against it. For nuclear radiation shielding, a larger quantity of shielding material is required and therefore, the study of propagation of radiation flux in shielding materials is an essential requirement for shield design. Concrete has proven to be an excellent and versatile shielding material with well-established linear attenuation for neutrons and gamma rays. Coconut being naturally available, it can be used readily in concrete, still maintaining almost all the qualities of the original form of concrete. Concrete obtained using coconut shell as a coarse aggregate satisfies the requirements of concrete. Coconut shell aggregate possess acceptable strength which is required for structural concrete

  7. Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staatz, Mortimer Hay; Bauer, Herman L.

    1951-01-01

    The Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada, is near the Oregon-Nevada border in the Sheldon Game Refuge. Nineteen claims owned by Jack and Toni Crane were examined, sampled, and tested radiometrically for uranium. Numerous discontinuous layers of opal are interbedded with a gently-dipping series of vitric tuff and ash which is at least 300 ft thick. The tuff and ash are capped by a dark, vesicular basalt in the eastern part of the area and by a thin layer of terrace qravels in the area along the west side of Virgin Valley. Silicification of the ash and tuff has produced a rock that ranges from partly opalized rock that resembles silicified shale to completely altered rock that is entirely translucent, and consists of massive, brown and pale-green opal. Carnotite, the only identified uranium mineral, occurs as fracture coatings or fine layers in the opal; in places, no uranium minerals are visible in the radioactive opal. The opal layers are irregular in extent and thickness. The exposed length of the layers ranges from 8 to 1, 200 ft or more, and the thickness of the layers ranges from 0. 1 to 3. 9 ft. The uranium content of each opal layer, and of different parts of the same layer, differs widely. On the east side of Virgin Valley four of the seven observed opal layers, nos. 3, 4, 5, and 7, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 002 to 0. 12 percent. Two samples, taken 5 ft apart across opal layer no. 7, contained 0. 003 and 0. -049 percent uranium. On the west side of the valley only four of the fifteen observed opal layers, nos; 9, , 10, 14, and 15, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 004 to 0. 047 percent. Material of the highest grade was found in a small discontinuous layer of pale-green opal (no. 4) on the east side of Virgin Valley. The grade of this layer ranged from 0. 027 to 0. 12 percent uranium.

  8. Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio-physical ... virgin olive oil was developed by entrapping it in the oily phase of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. ... The evaluation parameters consisted of color, smell, phase separation, ...

  9. Coconut (Cocos nucifera) Ethanolic Leaf Extract Reduces Amyloid-β (1-42) Aggregation and Paralysis Prevalence in Transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans Independently of Free Radical Scavenging and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manalo, Rafael Vincent; Silvestre, Maries Ann; Barbosa, Aza Lea Anne; Medina, Paul Mark

    2017-04-21

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been the subject of several studies which have aimed to alleviate Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, focusing on in vitro antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities. Here, we studied an underutilized and lesser-valued part of the coconut tree, specifically the leaves, using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Coconut leaf extract (CLE) was screened for antioxidant and AChE inhibitory properties in vitro and therapeutic effects in two strains of transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans expressing amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ 1-42 ) in muscle cells. CLE demonstrated free radical scavenging activity with an EC 50 that is 79-fold less compared to ascorbic acid, and an AChE inhibitory activity that is 131-fold less compared to Rivastigmine. Surprisingly, in spite of its low antioxidant activity and AChE inhibition, CLE reduced Aβ deposits by 30.31% in CL2006 in a dose-independent manner, and reduced the percentage of paralyzed nematodes at the lowest concentration of CLE (159.38 μg/mL), compared to dH₂O/vehicle (control). Phytochemical analysis detected glycosides, anthocyanins, and hydrolyzable tannins in CLE, some of which are known to be anti-amyloidogenic. Taken together, these findings suggest that CLE metabolites alternatively decrease AB 1-42 aggregation and paralysis prevalence independently of free radical scavenging and AChE inhibition, and this warrants further investigation on the bioactive compounds of CLE.

  10. Virgin galactic the first ten years

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Thirty years ago when Sir Richard Branson called up Boeing and asked if they had a spare 747, few would have predicted the brash entrepreneur would so radically transform the placid business of air travel. But today, Branson flies airlines on six continents, employs hundreds of jets and, in 2014, was predicting that his spaceship company – Virgin Galactic – would soon open the space frontier to commercial astronauts, payload specialists, scientists and space tourists. With more than 600 seats sold at $250,000 each, what started off as a dream to send people just for the excitement to look back and marvel at Earth, was on the cusp of finally being turned into a business. Then, on October 21, 2014, tragedy struck. SpaceShipTwo was on its most ambitious test flight to date. Seconds after firing its engine, Virgin Galactic’s spaceship was breaking through the sound barrier. In just the three seconds that it took for the vehicle to climb from Mach 0.94 to Mach 1.02, co-pilot Mike Alsbury made what many close...

  11. Virgin olive oil yeasts: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, Gino; Zullo, Biagi Angelo

    2018-04-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge on virgin olive oil yeasts. Newly produced olive oil contains solid particles and micro drops of vegetation water in which yeasts reproduce to become the typical microbiota of olive oil. To date, about seventeen yeast species have been isolated from different types of olive oils and their by-products, of which six species have been identified as new species. Certain yeast species contribute greatly to improving the sensorial characteristics of the newly produced olive oil, whereas other species are considered harmful as they can damage the oil quality through the production of unpleasant flavors and triacylglycerol hydrolysis. Studies carried out in certain yeast strains have demonstrated the presence of defects in olive oil treated with Candida adriatica, Nakazawaea wickerhamii and Candida diddensiae specific strains, while other olive oil samples treated with other Candida diddensiae strains were defect-free after four months of storage and categorized as extra virgin. A new acetic acid producing yeast species, namely, Brettanomyces acidodurans sp. nov., which was recently isolated from olive oil, could be implicated in the wine-vinegary defect of the product. Other aspects related to the activity of the lipase-producing yeasts and the survival of the yeast species in the flavored olive oils are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Post-consumption Problem of Green Coconut in Brazil: Alternatives and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pacheco Martins

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This literature review explores the problem of post-consumption of green coconut in Brazil. It starts by offering an analysis of the general aspects of the coconut industry and its derivatives. It also highlights the origins of coconut by-products, as well as the impacts of the industry in rural and urban management. The properties and potential uses of coconut by-products are also evaluated. The review presents diverse theoretical approaches regarding the concept of sustainable development as applied to product design. Results reveal a wide range of potential applications of coconut by-products in the field of engineering, although there is still an evident lack of research into the management and logistics of the coconut production chain. We argue that the concept of sustainability must be interpreted broadly, but also objectively, in any future research in order to facilitate the sustainable consumption and post-consumption of the green coconut.

  13. Potential of using coconut shell particle fillers in eco-composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarki, J., E-mail: sarksj@yahoo.com [Department of Fire and Safety, Kaduna International Airport, Kaduna-State (Nigeria); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria (Nigeria); Hassan, S.B., E-mail: hassbolaji@yahoo.com [Department of Fire and Safety, Kaduna International Airport, Kaduna-State (Nigeria); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria (Nigeria); Aigbodion, V.S., E-mail: aigbodionv@yahoo.com [Department of Fire and Safety, Kaduna International Airport, Kaduna-State (Nigeria); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria (Nigeria); Oghenevweta, J.E. [Department of Fire and Safety, Kaduna International Airport, Kaduna-State (Nigeria); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria (Nigeria)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > The production and characterization of the composites has been done. - Abstract: Morphology and mechanical properties of coconut shell particles reinforced epoxy composites were evaluated to assess the possibility of using it as a new material in engineering applications. Coconut shell filled composites were prepared from epoxy polymer matrix containing up to 30 wt% coconut shell fillers. The effects of coconut shell particle content on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the composite surfaces indicates that there are fairly good interfacial interaction between coconut shell particles and epoxy matrix. It was shown that the value of tensile modulus and tensile strength values increases with the increase of coconut shell particles content, while the impact strength slightly decreased, compared to pure epoxy resin. This work has shown that coconut shell particles can be used to improve properties of epoxy polymer composite to be used in eco-buildings.

  14. The development of 2 acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP in Thai aromatic coconut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nopporn Jaroonchon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coconut water and coconut meat from 1-9 month-old aromatic coconut fruit were used to monitor the development of the aromatic compound; 2 acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP concomitant with the development of each fruit part. 2-AP was also determined in other parts of fruit as well as in other parts of the tree. The aromatic coconut fruit development represented a double sigmoidal curve. The coconut water and coconut meat were detected when the fruit was two and five months old, respectively. Total soluble solids and titratable acidity increased as the fruit got older and reached the optimum taste when the fruit was 6-7 months old. 2-AP in coconut water and meat was found in fruit of 6 months of age at the earliest, then increased with fruit age, and it was found in all parts of the fruit and other parts of the tree in various amounts.

  15. Potential of using coconut shell particle fillers in eco-composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarki, J.; Hassan, S.B.; Aigbodion, V.S.; Oghenevweta, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The production and characterization of the composites has been done. - Abstract: Morphology and mechanical properties of coconut shell particles reinforced epoxy composites were evaluated to assess the possibility of using it as a new material in engineering applications. Coconut shell filled composites were prepared from epoxy polymer matrix containing up to 30 wt% coconut shell fillers. The effects of coconut shell particle content on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the composite surfaces indicates that there are fairly good interfacial interaction between coconut shell particles and epoxy matrix. It was shown that the value of tensile modulus and tensile strength values increases with the increase of coconut shell particles content, while the impact strength slightly decreased, compared to pure epoxy resin. This work has shown that coconut shell particles can be used to improve properties of epoxy polymer composite to be used in eco-buildings.

  16. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božanić; Irena Rogelj

    2003-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  17. Study on reinforced lightweight coconut shell concrete beam behavior under flexure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunasekaran, K.; Annadurai, R.; Kumar, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Use of coconut shell as aggregate in concrete. ► Behavior of coconut shell concrete under flexure. ► SEM images of cement, sand, coconut shell and coconut shell aggregate concrete. ► Coconut shell hollow blocks and precast slabs are used in practice. - Abstract: Coconut shell has been used as coarse aggregate in the production of concrete. The flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beam made with coconut shell is analyzed and compared with the normal control concrete. Twelve beams, six with coconut shell concrete and six with normal control concrete, were fabricated and tested. This study includes the moment capacity, deflection, cracking, ductility, corresponding strains in both compression and tension, and end rotation. It was found that the flexural behavior of coconut shell concrete is comparable to that of other lightweight concretes. The results of concrete compression strain and steel tension strain showed that coconut shell concrete is able to achieve its full strain capacity under flexural loadings. Under serviceability condition, deflection and cracking characteristics of coconut shell concrete are comparable with control concrete. However, the failure zones of coconut shell concrete were larger than for control concrete beams. The end rotations of the coconut shell concrete beams just prior to failure values are comparable to other lightweight concretes. Coconut shell concrete was used to produce hollow blocks and precast slab in 2007 and they are being subjected to some practical loading till today without any problems such as deflection, bending, cracks, and damages for the past five years

  18. GUT FERMENTATION SYNDROME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    individuals who became intoxicated after consuming carbohydrates, which became fermented in the gastrointestinal tract. These claims of intoxication without drinking alcohol, and the findings on endogenous alcohol fermentation are now called Gut. Fermentation Syndrome. This review will concentrate on understanding ...

  19. Alcoholic fermentation of whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, A S; Holland, J W

    1958-09-10

    The lactose of whey and other milk products is rapidly fermented to ethanol by means of Candida pseudotropicalis strain XI. The fermentation is complete in about 12 hours and yields about 45% ethanol based on the weight of lactose. Conditions favoring the fermentation and inhibiting lactic acid production include pH 4.5, 30/sup 0/, and continuous aeration.

  20. Refrigerated Shelf Life of a Coconut Water-Oatmeal Mix and the Viability of Lactobacillus Plantarum Lp 115-400B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmasena, Muthu; Barron, Felix; Fraser, Angela; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-08-10

    Non-dairy probiotic products have the advantage of being lactose-free and can be manufactured to sustain the growth of probiotics. In this study, coconut water and oatmeal were used with the probiotic, Lactobacillus plantarum Lp 115-400B ( L. plantarum ) as a starter culture. Two separate treatments were carried out probiotic (P) and probiotic and prebiotic (PP) added. In both treatments, oatmeal-coconut water matrix was inoculated with 7 log CFU/g of L. plantarum and fermented at 27 °C for 10 h. For the PP treatment, 1 g of inulin/100 mL of the product was added additionally. The fermented products were then refrigerated (4 °C) and the viability of L. plantarum , pH, total acidity, and apparent viscosity of the matrix were monitored at selected time intervals. The shelf life to reach was defined by maintenance of L. plantarum count of 7 log CFU/g product. Refrigerated shelf life was determined to be seven-weeks for the P treatment and five-weeks for PP treatment. A significant reduction of pH was observed at the end of the considered shelf life; conversely, the apparent viscosity of the product did not change significantly.

  1. Refrigerated Shelf Life of a Coconut Water-Oatmeal Mix and the Viability of Lactobacillus Plantarum Lp 115-400B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu Dharmasena

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-dairy probiotic products have the advantage of being lactose-free and can be manufactured to sustain the growth of probiotics. In this study, coconut water and oatmeal were used with the probiotic, Lactobacillus plantarum Lp 115-400B (L. plantarum as a starter culture. Two separate treatments were carried out probiotic (P and probiotic and prebiotic (PP added. In both treatments, oatmeal-coconut water matrix was inoculated with 7 log CFU/g of L. plantarum and fermented at 27 °C for 10 h. For the PP treatment, 1 g of inulin/100 mL of the product was added additionally. The fermented products were then refrigerated (4 °C and the viability of L. plantarum, pH, total acidity, and apparent viscosity of the matrix were monitored at selected time intervals. The shelf life to reach was defined by maintenance of L. plantarum count of 7 log CFU/g product. Refrigerated shelf life was determined to be seven-weeks for the P treatment and five-weeks for PP treatment. A significant reduction of pH was observed at the end of the considered shelf life; conversely, the apparent viscosity of the product did not change significantly.

  2. Characterization and diversity assessment in coconut collections of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization and genetic diversity assessment among 30 conserved coconut accessions collected from Pacific Ocean Islands and Nicobar Islands for morphological traits, physico-chemical traits of tender nut water, leaf biochemical parameters and molecular characterization by using random amplified polymorphic ...

  3. Antimicrobial properties of coconut husk aqueous extract on cariogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria B Cyriac

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The husk fibers of coconut (Cocos nucifera are reported to be used by people of rural areas of South India for daily cleaning their teeth. As the beneficial effects of this plant material, with respect to antimicrobial properties against common cariogenic bacteria, are not scientifically proven, the present study was conducted. Materials and Methods: The husk of coconut was collected and aqueous extract was prepared and antimicrobial properties against common oral pathogens like Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus were performed by agar well diffusion method. The values obtained were then subjected to statistical analysis using one way ANOVA and Tukey HSD. Results: Aqueous extract of coconut husk showed a concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity against different tested organisms with zone of inhibition ranging from 4.44 to 15.33 mms. However, the efficacy was less in comparison to chlorhexidine. Conclusion: Inhibitory action against cariogenic bacteria exhibited by aqueous extract of coconut husk indicate presence of highly effective active compounds in these extracts, which can be identified and incorporated into modern oral care systems for controlling dental caries.

  4. Sorption of Lead (II Ions on Activated Coconut Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Jahangard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, various toxic chemicals/compounds have been widely detected at dangerous levels in drinking water in many parts of the world posing a variety of serious health risks to human beings. One of these toxic chemicals is lead, so this paper aimed to evaluate of efficiency coconut husk as cheap adsorbent for removal lead under different conditions. Methods: In the spring of 2015, batch studies were performed in laboratory (Branch of Hamadan, Islamic Azad University, to evaluate the influences of various experimental parameters like pH, initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time and the effect of temperature on the adsorption capacity of coconut husk for removal lead from aqueous solution. Results: Optimum conditions for Pb (II removal were pH 6, adsorbent dosage 1g/100ml of solution and equilibrium time 120 min. The adsorption isotherm was also affected by temperature since the adsorption capacity was increased by raising the temperature from 25 to 45 °C. The equilibrium adsorption isotherm was better described by Freuindlich adsorption isotherm model. Conclusion: It is evident from the literature survey that coconut-based biosorbents have shown good potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. Coconut husk-based activated carbon can be a promising adsorbent for removal of Pb from aqueous solutions.

  5. Effect of Coconut ( cocus Nucifera ) and Palm Kernel ( eleasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Coconut ( cocus Nucifera ) and Palm Kernel ( eleasis Guinensis ) Oil Supplmented Diets on Serum Lipid Profile of Albino Wistar Rats. ... were fed normal rat pellet. At the end of the feeding period, animals were anaesthetized under chloroform vapor, dissected and blood obtained via cardiac puncture into tubes.

  6. Germination response of coconut ( Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of liquid and solid media in the propagation of coconut (Cocos nucifera) zygotic embryos at initiation stage. Eeuwen's medium supplemented with growth hormones naphthalene acetic acid ( NAA) and indole butyric acid (IBA) at different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5mg/l) were ...

  7. Germination response of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The study investigated the effects of liquid and solid media in the propagation of coconut (Cocos nucifera) zygotic embryos at initiation stage. Eeuwen's medium supplemented with growth hormones naphthalene acetic acid ( NAA) and indole butyric acid (IBA) at different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and ...

  8. Experimental studies on an indigenous coconut shell based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experimental studies are carried out to characterize an indigenous, coconut shell based, activated carbon suitable for storage of natural gas. Properties such as BET surface area, micropore volume, average pore diameter and pore size distribution are obtained by using suitable instruments and techniques. An experimental ...

  9. Influence of In vitro Digestion on Antioxidative Activity of Coconut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidative stability of coconut meat protein hydrolysates (CMPHs) in the gastrointestinal tract, and evaluate the changes in antioxidant activity, amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution of CMPHs during gastrointestinal (GI )digestion. Methods: A two-stage in vitro digestion ...

  10. Ivestigation of uranium adsorption by using coconut shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslani, M.A.A.; Akyil, S.; Aytas, S.; Eral, M.

    2001-01-01

    At the present study, we investigated the basic features of uranium uptake from dilute aqueous solution by using coconut shell and the effect of uranium on this adsorption phenomena. It has also been shown that the adsorption of uranium was affected with some factors such as pH, uranium concentration, and contact time

  11. Emission Characterization of Diesel Engine Run on Coconut Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    KEYWORDS: Diesel engine, diesel, coconut oil biodiesel, blends, emissions. Introduction ... Automobile exhaust ... power loss, the increase in fuel consumption and the increase in ... diesel fuel in terms of power and torque and none or ... gas analyzer (Motorscan 8050) made in Italy which .... different injection pressures.

  12. Determination of ultraviolet filter activity on coconut oil cosmetic cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiyati, Eni

    2017-08-01

    A research on determination of ultraviolet (UV) filter activity of cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material has been done. The cream was made by mixing the oil phase (coconut oil, stearic acid, lanolin and cetyl alcohol) at 70°C and the water phase (glycerin, aquadest and triethanolamine) at 70°C, while stirring until reached a temperature of 35°C. It was made also a cream with inorganic sunscreen TiO2 and organic sunscreen benzophenone-3 as a comparison. To study the UV filter activity, each cream was determined the UV absorption using UV spectrophotometer. The results show that cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material absorbs UV rays in the region of UV-C, whereas the cream with TiO2 absorbs the UV rays from UV-C to UV-A and cream with benzophenone-3 absorbs the UV rays from UV-B to UV-A region. This means that, the cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material has an activity as UV-C filter. If this cream is expected to have an activity as a sunscreen, it must be added an inorganic or organic sunscreen or a mixture of both as an active materials.

  13. Binderless board and moulded products produced from whole coconut husks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Snijder, M.H.B.

    2002-01-01

    A simple and efficient technology has been developed to produce high strength - high density board materials from whole coconut husks, without the addition of chemical binders. The board material has been shown to exhibit excellent properties, which are comparable with or even superior to commercial

  14. Coconut leaf bioactivity toward generalist maize insect pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical plants are often more resistant to insects than temperate plants due to evolution of robust defenses to cope with a more constant insect threat. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) has very few chewing leaf feeding insect pests and was tested against two omnivorous leaf feeding caterpillar species,...

  15. Characteristics of lipase isolated from coconut (Cocos nucifera linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... Lipase from coconut plant grown under complete nutrient conditions showed ... 35°C and had a broad optimum pH of 7.5 – 8.5. Key words: Lipase .... inhibited by the ex- cess of substrate concentration or change of physio-.

  16. Assessment of the genetic diversity of Kenyan coconut germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity and relationship among 48 coconut individuals (Cocos nucifera L.) collections from the Coastal lowland of Kenya were analyzed using 15 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs. Diversity parameters were calculated using Popgene Software version 1.31. The gene diversity values ranged from 0.0408 ...

  17. Lime and fertilizer recommendation system for coconut trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Nogueira Guedes Pereira Rosa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fertilizer recommendation to most agricultural crops is based on response curves. Such curves are constructed from field experimental data, obtained for a particular condition and may not be reliable to be applied to other regions. The aim of this study was to develop a Lime and Fertilizer Recommendation System for Coconut Crop based on the nutritional balance. The System considers the expected productivity and plant nutrient use efficiency to estimate nutrient demand, and effective rooting layer, soil nutrient availability, as well as any other nutrient input to estimate the nutrient supply. Comparing the nutrient demand with the nutrient supply the System defines the nutrient balance. If the balance for a given nutrient is negative, lime and, or, fertilization is recommended. On the other hand, if the balance is positive, no lime or fertilizer is needed. For coconut trees, the fertilization regime is divided in three stages: fertilization at the planting spot, band fertilization and fertilization at the production phase. The data set for the development of the System for coconut trees was obtained from the literature. The recommendations generated by the System were compared to those derived from recommendation tables used for coconut crop in Brazil. The main differences between the two procedures were for the P rate applied in the planting hole, which was higher in the proposed System because the tables do not pay heed to the pit volume, whereas the N and K rates were lower. The crop demand for K is very high, and the rates recommended by the System are superior to the table recommendations for the formation and initial production stage. The fertilizer recommendations by the System are higher for the phase of coconut tree growth as compared to the production phase, because greater amount of biomass is produced in the first phase.

  18. Germination rate is the significant characteristic determining coconut palm diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Hugh C

    2012-01-01

    This review comes at a time when in vitro embryo culture techniques are being adopted for the safe exchange and cryo-conservation of coconut germplasm. In due course, laboratory procedures may replace the options that exist among standard commercial nursery germination techniques. These, in their turn, have supplanted traditional methods that are now forgotten or misunderstood. Knowledge of all germination options should help to ensure the safe regeneration of conserved material. This review outlines the many options for commercial propagation, recognizes the full significance of one particular traditional method and suggests that the diversity of modern cultivated coconut varieties has arisen because natural selection and domestic selection were associated with different rates of germination and other morphologically recognizable phenotypic characteristics. The review takes into account both the recalcitrant and the viviparous nature of the coconut. The ripe fruits that fall but do not germinate immediately and lose viability if dried for storage are contrasted with the bunches of fruit retained in the crown of the palm that may, in certain circumstances, germinate to produce seedlings high above ground level. Slow-germinating and quick-germinating coconuts have different patterns of distribution. The former predominate on tropical islands and coastlines that could be reached by floating when natural dispersal originally spread coconuts widely-but only where tides and currents were favourable-and then only to sea-level locations. Human settlers disseminated the domestic types even more widely-to otherwise inaccessible coastal sites not reached by floating-and particularly to inland and upland locations on large islands and continental land masses. This review suggests four regions where diversity has been determined by germination rates. Although recent DNA studies support these distinctions, further analyses of genetic markers related to fruit abscission and

  19. Germination rate is the significant characteristic determining coconut palm diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Hugh C.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale This review comes at a time when in vitro embryo culture techniques are being adopted for the safe exchange and cryo-conservation of coconut germplasm. In due course, laboratory procedures may replace the options that exist among standard commercial nursery germination techniques. These, in their turn, have supplanted traditional methods that are now forgotten or misunderstood. Knowledge of all germination options should help to ensure the safe regeneration of conserved material. Scope This review outlines the many options for commercial propagation, recognizes the full significance of one particular traditional method and suggests that the diversity of modern cultivated coconut varieties has arisen because natural selection and domestic selection were associated with different rates of germination and other morphologically recognizable phenotypic characteristics. The review takes into account both the recalcitrant and the viviparous nature of the coconut. The ripe fruits that fall but do not germinate immediately and lose viability if dried for storage are contrasted with the bunches of fruit retained in the crown of the palm that may, in certain circumstances, germinate to produce seedlings high above ground level. Significance Slow-germinating and quick-germinating coconuts have different patterns of distribution. The former predominate on tropical islands and coastlines that could be reached by floating when natural dispersal originally spread coconuts widely—but only where tides and currents were favourable—and then only to sea-level locations. Human settlers disseminated the domestic types even more widely—to otherwise inaccessible coastal sites not reached by floating—and particularly to inland and upland locations on large islands and continental land masses. This review suggests four regions where diversity has been determined by germination rates. Although recent DNA studies support these distinctions, further analyses of genetic markers

  20. Major oil spills, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bills, C.E.; Whiting, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The destruction caused by Hurricane Hugo resulted in two major oil spills on the island of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Roughly 10,000 barrels of oil were discharged from damaged storage tanks at the Hess Oil Virgin Island Corporation and 14,000 barrels of oil were discharged from the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority facility in Christiansted. Pollution responders overcame the lack of power, water, food lodging, communications and transportation to perform an effective cleanup of these spills. This paper presents details of the pollution response effort as coordinated by the Federal On Scene Coordinator

  1. Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for the Production of Bacteriocin Fermentate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-30

    FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ” by Anthony Sikes Wayne Muller and Claire Lee March 2015...From - To) October 2010 – November 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPTIMIZATION OF FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ...nisin and pediocin. Whey + yeast extract was the best performing whey fermentation media. The nisin producer strain Lactococcus. lactis ssp. lactis was

  2. Controlling alchohol fermentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leedham, P A; Tubb, R S

    1983-09-21

    In the initial stages of a fermentation of carbohydrate to EtOH, the growth of the yeast is controlled by monitoring the pH of a fermenting liquid or wort and controlling the supply of O/sub 2/ in accordance with the pH. The temperature of the fermenting liquid is also controlled in dependence upon the pH. The control of the fermentation process is carried out automatically by an apparatus including a fermentation vessel, a pH sensor arranged to provide an output signal representative of the pH of the liquid in the vessel, memory means to store information on the required pH with regard to the fermentation time, means to inject O/sub 2/ into the fermenting liquid and control means to compare the output signal of the pH sensor at a particular time with that of the required pH at that time, and in the event of the pH of the fermenting liquid lagging behind that required, actuate the means to inject O/sub 2/ into the fermenting liquid to increase the O/sub 2/ content of the fermenting liquid.

  3. Use of coconut fibre reinforced concrete and coconut-fibre ropes for seismic-resistant construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali, Majid

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake-resistant and economical housing is the most desirable need in rural areas of developing countries. These regions often suffer significant loss of life during a seismic event. To enable an efficient and cost-effective solution, a new concept of construction, i.e. a wallette of interlocking blocks with movability at the interface and rope reinforcement, is investigated. The novel interlocking block is made of coconut fibre reinforced concrete (CFRC. The reason for using coconut fibre is their highest toughness amongst natural fibres. This paper describes the in-plane behaviour of the interlocking wallette under earthquake loadings. The wallette response is measured in terms of induced acceleration, block uplift, top maximum relative displacement and rope tension. The applied earthquake loadings cannot produce any damage in the structure, i.e. blocks and/or ropes. The response of the wallette is explained in detail along with correlation of materials aspect with structural behaviour.En las zonas rurales de los países en desarrollo, entre las características principales que deben reunir las viviendas es que sean tanto económicas como sismoresistentes, ya que en estas zonas la pérdida de vidas humanas debido a los terremotos es aun elevada. A fin de hallar una solución que cumple con estos requisitos de manera técnica y económicamente efectiva, se ha investigado un nuevo concepto constructivo: un murete de bloques conjugados con movilidad en el interfaz y reforzado con cuerda. Este novedoso bloque conjugable está realizado en hormigón reforzado con fibra de coco (CFRC, elegida por su alta tenacidad, la mayor de entre las fibras naturales. El artículo describe el comportamiento dentro del plano del murete conjugado frente a las cargas sísmicas. La respuesta de esta estructura se ha medido en función de la aceleración inducida, el levantamiento de los bloques, el desplazamiento relativo máximo y la tensión de las cuerdas

  4. Christiansted, Virgin Islands Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Christiansted, Virgin Islands Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  5. Estimated Bathymetry of the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This classification of estimated depth represents the relative bathymetry of the U.S. Virgin Islands shallow waters based on Landsat imagery for NOAA's Coastal...

  6. Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami...

  7. Increment and mortality in a virgin Douglas-fir forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Steele; Norman P. Worthington

    1955-01-01

    Is there any basis to the forester's rule of thumb that virgin forests eventually reach an equilibrium where increment and mortality approximately balance? Are we wasting potential timber volume by failing to salvage mortality in old-growth stands?

  8. 36 CFR 7.74 - Virgin Islands National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall anchors or any other mooring device be cast or dragged or placed, so as to strike or otherwise... of the Virgin Islands. (e) Fishing. (1) Taking of fishes or any other marine life in any way except...

  9. They say coconut oil can aid weight loss, but can it really?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, M E

    2017-10-01

    There has in recent years, been much media speculation and consumer interest in the beneficial satiating properties of consuming coconut oil and its potential to aid weight loss. However, the media has primarily cited studies using medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) oil. The current perspective looks at the research that is available on coconut oil. It examines if and how MCT-related research can be applied to coconut oil and if there is potential for coconut oil to aid weight loss. The current report indicates a lack of consistent evidence on the topic of coconut oil, satiety and weight loss. Given both the publicity and the increased consumption of coconut oil further research, particularly long-term clinical trials, in this area are warranted.

  10. A refreshing beverage from mature coconut water blended with lemon juice

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, O. P.; Archana, B. S.; Singh, Asha; Raju, P. S.; Bawa, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Coconut water obtained from the mature coconuts was blended with lemon juice to develop a refreshing beverage. The levels of total soluble solids (°Brix) in the coconut beverage and lemon juice (%), were optimized using response surface methodology and considering pH, CIE L* value and sensory attributes (colour, aroma, taste, consistency and overall acceptability) as responses. A number total of 14 experiments were carried out following Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) keeping 6 expe...

  11. Through Internal Control System, Jatirogo Organic Coconut Sugar Farmers Gained Access to the Export Market

    OpenAIRE

    Setyowati, Theresia Eko

    2014-01-01

    By founding Jatirogo organic coconut sugar ICS, 1,554 farmer members now have stronger bargaining power in marketing organic coconut sugar. Jatirogo organic coconut sugar ICS has succeeded to export its organic gula semut. By obtaining international certifications (EU Regulation, NOP-USDA, and JAS), KSU Jatirogo sends organic gula semut to various countries, such as the United States, Australia, and European and Asian countries, by collaborating with KSU Jatirogo and exporting companies. ...

  12. Measurement of transpiration and biomass of coconut palm with tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasu, K.; Wahid, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of transpiration rate and biomass of coconut palm have been made using tritiated water as a tracer. The method of tracer injection into the coconut trunk and the extraction of tritiated water from coconut leaves are outlined. The transpiration rate of the tree selected for the study was found to be 2.2 litres/hour with a total biomass of 172 kg. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs

  13. STUDY ON IMPACT AND TENSILE PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE WITH COCONUT SHELL AS COARSE AGGREGATE

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ranjith*

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical properties of coconut shell aggregate concrete (CSAC) namely splitting tensile strength, impact strength have been determined and a comparison is made with conventional granite aggregate concrete (CGAC) in the 30 days short-term experimental investigation. From the test results it is observed that coconut shell aggregate concrete has considerably sufficient strength. But the splitting tensile strength of coconut shell aggregate concrete is 50 % less than that of conventional gr...

  14. Matter transfer during virgin olive oil elaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Herrera, Carlos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the process of elaboration of virgin olive oil (whose main stages are crushing, malaxation and centrifugation the transfer of several minor components to the triacylglycerol constituent of the oily globules originally present in the cells of the fruit mesocarp is produced. Such minor components are chemical species present in the olive fruits, as well as those resulting from chemical or enzymatic processes which take place in the olive paste upon crushing. In this paper several types of transferable minor components, as well as those parameters affecting the rates of transfer are studied.Geometric and physical variations of interfacial regions between the oil and other systems in contact with it are discussed. These systems are olive vegetation water, olive pulp components, and fragments of the woody endocarp, as well as the atmospheric air and the tools and equipment of the oil mill.This article concludes with some considerations about the improvements of virgin olive oils achieved by controlling the transfer of minor components.Durante la elaboración del aceite de oliva virgen (cuyas principales etapas son molturación, batido y centrifugación se producen transferencias de diversos componentes menores a los triacilgliceroles originalmente presentes en los glóbulos oleosos de las células del mesocarpio de los frutos. Estos componentes menores son especies químicas presentes en las aceitunas, así como especies resultantes de procesos químicos o enzimáticos que se producen en la pasta a partir de la molturación. En este artículo se estudian diversos tipos de componentes menores transferibles, así como aquellos parámetros que afectan sus velocidades de transferencia.Se discuten las variaciones geométricas y físicas de las regiones interfaciales situadas entre el aceite y los otros sistemas en contacto con el mismo. Estos sistemas son el agua de vegetación, los componentes de la pulpa y los fragmentos de endocarpio

  15. Nutritional evaluation of structured lipid containing omega 6 fatty acid synthesized from coconut oil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Reena; Lokesh, Belur R

    2003-06-01

    Coconut oil is rich in medium chain fatty acids, but deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Structured lipids (SL) enriched with omega 6 PUFA were synthesized from coconut oil triglycerides by employing enzymatic acidolysis with free fatty acids obtained from safflower oil. Rats were fed a diet containing coconut oil, coconut oil-safflower oil blend (1:0.7 w/ w) or structured lipid at 10% levels for a period of 60 days. The SL lowered serum cholesterol levels by 10.3 and 10.5% respectively in comparison with those fed coconut oil and blended oil. Similarly the liver cholesterol levels were also decreased by 35.9 and 26.6% respectively in animals fed structured lipids when compared to those fed on coconut oil or the blended oil. Most of the decrease observed in serum cholesterol levels of animals fed structured lipids was found in LDL fraction. The triglyceride levels in serum showed a decrease by 17.5 and 17.4% while in the liver it was reduced by 45.8 and 23.5% in the structured lipids fed animals as compared to those fed coconut oil or blended oil respectively. Differential scanning calorimetric studies indicated that structured lipids had lower melting points and solid fat content when compared to coconut oil or blended oils. These studies indicated that enrichment of coconut oil triglycerides with omega 6 fatty acids lowers its solid fat content. The omega 6 PUFA enriched structured lipids also exhibited hypolipidemic activity.

  16. Variation of structures of ingredients of desiccated coconut during hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian XIONG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Owing to the high content of lignocellulose, desiccated coconut become a healthy material for dietary fiber supplementation. In this study, the changes in solubility of the fibers of desiccated coconut were evaluated. The changes of the pHs and weight losses were studied. Furthermore, variations of the ingredient structures of desiccated coconut by hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. After hydrolysis 30 s, the pHs of all systems increased, while six hours later, the pH of only system with initial pH = 1.00 decreased. The decline of pH only existed in hydrolysis systems with initial pH = 1.00, there is no relevant with the quantities of desiccated coconut. The lower initial pH of hydrolysis system was, the less the intrinsic viscosity of the desiccated coconut after hydrolysis was, the small the crystallinity was. After hydrolysis, the microstructure of the desiccated coconut become looser, and the secondary structure of the coconut protein became more stable and ordered. The results suggest that the hydrolysis of desiccated coconut mainly occurred in the branched chain and the non-crystalline region of lignocellulose, which transforms some insoluble dietary fiber into soluble dietary fiber. This improves the nutritional value of desiccated coconut.

  17. Coconut oil attenuates the effects of amyloid-β on cortical neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafar, Firoozeh; Mearow, Karen M

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplementation has been studied as an approach to ameliorating deficits associated with aging and neurodegeneration. We undertook this pilot study to investigate the effects of coconut oil supplementation directly on cortical neurons treated with amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in vitro. Our results indicate that neuron survival in cultures co-treated with coconut oil and Aβ is rescued compared to cultures exposed only to Aβ. Coconut oil co-treatment also attenuates Aβ-induced mitochondrial alterations. The results of this pilot study provide a basis for further investigation of the effects of coconut oil, or its constituents, on neuronal survival focusing on mechanisms that may be involved.

  18. Factors affecting the yield of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of coconut shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yun; Yang, Yi; Qin, Zhanbin; Sun, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Coconut is a high-quality agricultural product of the Asia-Pacific region. In this paper, coconut shell which mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin was used as a raw material for coconut shell oil from coconut shell pyrolysis. The influence of the pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and particle size on coconut oil yield was investigated, and the effect of heating rate on coconut oil components was discussed. Experimental results show that the maximum oil yield of 75.74 wt% (including water) were obtained under the conditions that the final pyrolysis temperature 575 °C, heating rate 20 °C/min, coconut shell diameter about 5 mm. Thermal gravimetric analysis was used and it can be seen that coconut shell pyrolysis process can be divided into three stages: water loss, pyrolysis and pyrocondensation. The main components of coconut-shell oil are water (about 50 wt%), aromatic, phenolic, acid, ketone and ether containing compounds.

  19. Strength Analysis of Coconut Fiber Stabilized Earth for Farm Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enokela, O. S.; P. O, Alada

    2012-07-01

    Investigation of the strength characteristic of soil from alluvial deposit of River Benue in makurdi stabilized with coconut fiber as a stabilizer was carried as local building material for farm structure. Processed coconut fibers were mixed with the soil at four different mix ratios of 1% fiber, 2% fiber, 3% fiber and 4% fiber by percentage weight with 0% fiber as control. Compaction test and compressive strength were carried out on the various stabilizing ratio. From the compaction test, the correlation between the maximum dry density and optimum moisture content is a second order polynomial with a coefficient of 63% obtained at1.91kg/m3and 20.0% respectively while the compressive strength test shows an optimum failure load of 8.62N/mm2 at 2%fibre:100% soil mix ratio at 2.16 maximum dry density.

  20. Preliminary results on epidemiology of Coconut Lethal Yellowing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnot François

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies are of major importance in understanding the determinants of plant diseases in order to control the risks of their spreading. A research programme on the epidemiology of coconut lethal yellowing, or Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD, in Ghana was launched in March 2007. The objective was to characterize the distribution and spread of the disease in space and time at various scales, and their relation with the environment. This article presents the general strategy used to evaluate the incidence of CSPWD along with the environmental, ecological and agronomical variables at regional level. A survey was undertaken on 1,166 plots of Coconut Sector Development Project (CSDP planted with Malayan Yellow Dwarf (MYD × Vanuatu Tall (VTT hybrids in Western Region and Central Region. Preliminary results on the distribution of CSPWD and outside variables at regional scale, along with their relations, are given.

  1. "We are Arabs:" The Embodiment of Virginity Through Arab and Arab American Women's Lived Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Sarah; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Sommers, Marilyn S

    2015-12-01

    Virginity is part of our existence in the world as embodied sexual subjects. While many meanings are associated with virginity, in most of the Arab world virginity relates to the presence of a hymen and extends to encompass the honor of the Arab community, and virginity loss commonly relate to first vaginal intercourse. This study explored the meanings of virginity from the perspectives of Arab and Arab American women. A qualitative phenomenological approach, informed by the philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, was used to conduct in-depth interviews with ten women. We identified one over-arching theme Virginity as Identity , and two major themes Embodiment of Virginity and "We are Arabs." To reach an embodied virginity, participants went through a disembodied virginity process, reflecting society's perceptions and values of virginity related to anatomical presence of a hymen and society's honor. "We are Arabs" describes the ways women identified with the Arab ethnic identity as a shared overall identification, but differed from one lived experience to another, and influenced how participants embodied virginity. Our participants provided a better understanding of the diverse meanings of virginity that move beyond the binary of virginity and virginity loss, and into a spectrum of embodied meanings. Findings suggest the need for future research around sexuality in Arab Americans with attention to socio-political contexts in order to understand the nature and context of sexual initiation and its impact on sexual behaviors and well-being.

  2. Transient Stress Waves in Study of Coconut Physical Properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, Jan; Dvořáková, Pavla

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2010), s. 19-25 ISSN 0732-8818 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA201990701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : stress waves * double-pulse holography * coconut * exploding wires Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.505, year: 2010 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/121567342/PDFSTART

  3. Treated Coconut Coir Pith as Component of Cementitious Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Koňáková, Dana; Vejmelková, Eva; Čáchová, Monika; Siddique, Jamal Akhter; Polozhiy, Kirill; Reiterman, Pavel; Keppert, Martin; Černý, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presented paper deals with utilization of raw and treated coir pith as potential component of cementitious composites. The studied material is coir pith originating from a coconut production. Its applicability as cement mixture component was assessed in terms of the physical properties of concrete containing different amount of coir pith. Basic physical properties, compressive and bending strength, and hygric transport characteristics as well as thermal properties belong among the studied...

  4. Biochemical and nutritional characterization of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) haustorium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Arivalagan; Bhardwaj, Rakesh; Padmanabhan, Sugatha; Suneja, Poonam; Hebbar, K B; Kanade, Santosh R

    2018-01-01

    Study was conducted to determine the biochemical constituents in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) haustorium, a spongy tissue formed during coconut germination. Results indicated that 100g of dried coconut haustorium contained 1.05±0.2% ash, 44.2±4.6% soluble sugar, 24.5±3.2% starch, 5.50±0.3% protein, 1.99±0.9% fat, 5.72±0.4% soluble dietary fibre, 20.3±1.9% insoluble dietary fibre, and 146±14.3mg phenolics. Mineral profiling showed that it contained 145±8.6, 104±9.6, 33.9±8.2, 30.9±1.9, 9.45±2.1, 0.292±0.1, 2.53±0.2 and 1.20±0.1mg of K, Mg, Ca, P, Mn, Cu, Fe and Zn, respectively. Antioxidant activity assay indicated that 100g haustorium was equivalent to 1918±173, 170±20.4, 72.8±14.7 and 860±116mg of Trolox as measured by CUPRAC, FRAP, DPPH and ABTS, respectively. Amino acid score indicated that methionine+cysteine (57.6%), phenylalanine+tyrosine (32.6%), leucine (45.7%) and isoleucine (68%) are found less in haustorium. Further studies needed in developing nutritionally balanced formulations using coconut haustorium, which will be useful for lactose intolerant children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Kesejahteraan Karyawan PT. Royal Coconut Kabupaten Minahasa Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Londa, Very Y; Kaunang, Markus; Karim, Dian Fitriani

    2015-01-01

    Employee welfare is a form of welfare services provided by the company to the employees who have given power, mind and their services. Company Parties have an obligation to make efforts to motivate employees to provide benefits that can improve employee productivity. Welfare programs provided by the company to employees of PT. Royal Coconut North Minahasa yet either. Using qualitative methodology, research results show that the well-being of employees is not a good idea due to the PT. Royal C...

  6. The Application of Coconut Fiber as Dissipative Silencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madlan, M. A.; Ghazali, M. I.; Zaman, I.; Kasron, M. Z.; Ying, T. C.

    2017-01-01

    Heat ventilation air conditioning system (HVAC) is one of the ducting systems that broadly applied in the building. There are HVAC silencers in the market, however the sound absorptive material commonly used is mineral wool. In this research study, a sound absorptive material made of coconut fiber was tested to identify its performance as a potential replacement of green material for ducting silencer. The experiment was carried out in a testing apparatus that follows the BS EN ISO 11691:2009 standard. Different configurations of sound absorptive material and contents of coconut fiber were investigated in the study. The trend of insertion loss at 1/3 octave frequency was identified where at frequency below 3000Hz, the insertion loss of dissipative silencer is observed high at certain frequency with a very narrow range. At 3000Hz, the insertion loss of 4dB to 6dB is constant until 4000Hz and drops until 5000Hz before it increases again steadily up to 13dB at 10000Hz. A similar trend was observed for different configuration of sound absorptive material. Despite the configuration different, the outcome shows that the insertion loss is increasing with higher content of coconut fiber.

  7. Study on the transmission of coconut Lethal Yellowing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe René

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on the Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD vector in Ghana began from 1990 (1990-1997 ; 2002-2004 and did not give convincing results. From July 2005, new test standards were applied : shading, daily collections and releasing of insects at the less hot hours and use of various sizes of cages and test plants. More than 70,000 Myndus. adiopodoumeensis were introduced in cage for 28 months (520 adults/seedling/month. Controls in polymerase chain reaction (PCR on the five coconut of this Myndus cage and on 935 adults were always negative. The tests of transmission with M. adiopodoumeensis apparently not a vector of the disease were thus stopped. The phytoplasma of the CSPWD was identified by PCR in a coconut having received 4,380 Diostrombus (four species of Derbidae 4 months after the beginning of the test. This coconut never presented symptom of the disease 28 months later and all the successive PCR were negative. Auchenorrhyncha collected by sweeping on the adventitious plants in and around the plot during the day were also tested without success. The hypothesis of a ground transmission was also taken into account because of the presence of scale insects and nematodes.

  8. Transesterification of coconut oil for FAME production using ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriadi, Eko; Marlinda, Lenny; Prajitno, Danawati Hari; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2017-05-01

    To overcome energy crisis, the vegetable oils-derived biofuel can be chosen as an alternative to petroleum-based diesel. The transesterification of coconut oil in methanol with K/γ-Al2O3 catalyst using ultrasound-assisted to produce fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) as one of type biofuel was studied. The reaction occurred in batch reactor at a 9 : 1 molar ratio of methanol to coconut oil. The following reaction conditions were used in the catalytic test : concentration of catalyst to oil of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5%, the reaction time of 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 s, and the frequency ultrasonication of 20 and 40 KHz. At first, the preparation of K/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was done and followed by transesterification process. After reaction, the phase separation and purification from impurities were done. Finally, FAME was analized based on this parameters, i.e., yield, density, viscosity, and flash point. FAME yield of 93.76% was obtained at the frequency ultrasonication of 40 kHz with K/γ-Al2O3 catalyst concentration to oil of 2.5 wt.% for 150 s. It's the best conditions for FAME production by transesterification of coconut oil using ultrasound-assisted.

  9. Sensory evaluation of gamma irradiated coconut cream powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Foziah Ali; Norimah Yusof; Zainab Harun

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of gamma irradiation (5, 10 and 15kGy) and storage on the sensory quality of coconut cream powder. Ageing process was achieved using GEER oven at 60 degree C for seven days, which is equivalent to one-year storage at room temperature. The sensory evaluation was conducted to determine the level of acceptance on four parameters, namely odour, colour, creamy taste and overall acceptance. Twenty (20) taste panelists gave their score from scale] (least acceptable) to 5 (most acceptable). The results showed that there was a significant different (P 0. 05) in all the sensory properties. The sensory evaluation of stored samples showed that there was significant different (P>0.05) in odour, creamy taste, colour and overall acceptance compared to the control. Based on the overall acceptance, gamma irradiation as low as 5 kGy could affect the sensory quality of coconut cream powder. The possibility of using doses lower than 5 kGy for decontamination of coconut cream powder could be considered in the future study. The irradiated product was not acceptable after one-year storage. (Author)

  10. Extraction and Characterization of Nano cellulose from Coconut Fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Liyana Ahmad; Ishak Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Coconut husk fibers has been modified by some chemical treatments to extract cellulose nano crystals (CNC), which are alkali treatment, bleaching and acid hydrolysis using concentrated sulphuric acid. The effect of the treatments on the coconut husk fibers has been analysed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). Meanwhile, the morphology observation and thermal stability of the fiber have been analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) respectively. The analyses show that the chemical modification could eliminate some of the lignin and hemicelluloses of the fiber. Nano cellulose extracted from acid hydrolysis has been analysed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to define the size of extracted nano cellulose. The cellulose nano crystals from coconut fibre has the average diameter and length in the range 13.7±6.2 nm and 172.3±8.4 nm, respectively. The obtained nano cellulose may have the potential applications in the fields of biomedical, oil adsorption, membrane, pharmaceutical and bio composites. (author)

  11. Hipertrofia mamaria virginal: caso clínico Virginal breast hypertrophy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Gabilondo Zubizarreta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos un caso de hipertrofia virginal mamaria cuya aparición, controlada desde los 11 años, se estudió y diagnosticó mediante biopsia - aspiración como hipertrofia tipo filoides, siendo tratada quirúrgicamente mediante mamoplastia de reducción con patrón de Wise tradicional y colgajo horizontal bipediculado para el traslado del complejo areolar, que ha conservado la sensibilidad y la vascularización. La intervención única se realizó a los 12 años de edad de la paciente y, tras 5 años de seguimiento postoperatorio, conserva la sensibilidad en las areolas y un aspecto de volumen y forma satisfactorio para la paciente, sin prótesis ni retoques de ningún tipo y con cicatrices aceptables.We present a case of 12 years old patient, with a juvenile or virginal mammary hypertrophy and the postoperative result 5 years later without further recurrence and without any other treatment. We decided to perform a breast reduction like Wise´s style, with bipedicle horizontal flap to transport nipple-areola complex to the new location, and to keep sensibility. Five years later, the outcome is satisfactory to the patient, with very pleasant breast volume and shape, discret scars, good sensibility and without recurrence nor other surgical treatment.

  12. Studies on continuous fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, K

    1958-01-01

    Continuous fermentation of molasses with a combined system of agitated vessel and flow pipe is studied. A new apparatus was designed. The rate of the fermentation was faster with this apparatus than with the former apparatus which was composed of two vessels.

  13. Food Technologies: Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation refers to the use of microorganisms to achieve desirable food properties in the fermented food or beverage. Although the word ‘fermentation’ indicates ‘anaerobic metabolism,’ it is also used in a broader sense to indicate all anaerobic and aerobic microbiological and biochemical

  14. Research in fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A K

    1966-01-01

    The following aspects of the biochemistry of fermentation were discussed: carbohydrate, amino acid, S, and phosphate metabolisms in the yeast cell; pantothenic acid and biotin as the essential growth factors in yeast metabolisms; effects of different aeration conditions on yeast growth, mitochondria development, and lipid contents. Gas chromatographic studies of fermentation products are also discussed.

  15. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds,

  17. Fermented milk for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle...

  18. 75 FR 20785 - Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the Requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance; Technical... ester of coconut oil fatty acids; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. This document is being... requirement of a tolerance for ``polyglyceryl phthalate ester of coconut oil fatty acids'' pursuant to a...

  19. Virginity testing in South Africa: re-traditioning the postcolony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Umhlanga is a ceremony celebrating virginity. In South Africa, it is practiced, among others, by the Zulu ethnic group who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu Natal. After falling into relative disuse in the Zulu community, the practice of virginity testing made a comeback some 10 years ago at around the time of the country's first democratic election and coinciding with the period when the HIV pandemic began to take hold. In July 2005 the South African Parliament passed a new Children's Bill which will prohibit virginity testing of children. The Bill has been met with outrage and public protest on the part of Zulu citizens. Traditional circumcision rites are also addressed in the new bill but are not banned. Instead, male children are given the right to refuse to participate in traditional initiation ceremonies which include circumcision. This paper asks why the practice of virginity testing is regarded as so troubling to the new democratic order that the state has chosen to take the heavy-handed route of banning it. The paper further asks why the state's approach to traditional male circumcision has been so different to its approach to virginity testing. Finally, the paper asks what these two challenging cases in the country's new democracy tell us about the nature of liberal democratic citizenship in South Africa 10 years after apartheid's formal demise.

  20. Virgin queen attraction toward males in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Florian; Cholé, Hanna; Lafon, Grégory; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2017-07-24

    Although the honeybee is a crucial agricultural agent and a prominent scientific model organism, crucial aspects of its reproductive behaviour are still unknown. During the mating season, honeybee males, the drones, gather in congregations 10-40 m above ground. Converging evidence suggests that drones emit a pheromone that can attract other drones, thereby increasing the size of the congregation. Virgin queens join the vicinity of the congregation after it has formed, and mate with as many as 20 males in mid-air. It is still unclear which sensory cues help virgin queens find drone congregations in the first place. Beside visual cues for long-range orientation, queens may use olfactory cues. We thus tested virgin queens' olfactory orientation on a walking simulator in which they have full control over odour stimulation. We show that sexually-mature virgin queens are attracted to the odour bouquet from a group of living drones. They are not attracted to the bouquet from a group of workers. In addition, non-sexually receptive females (workers) of the same age are not attracted to the drone odour bouquet. Interpreted in the context of mating, these results may suggest that virgin queens use volatile olfactory cues from the drones to find the congregations.

  1. Influence of application strategy of coconut soap on the development of sooty blotch on apple

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, J. G.; Haseli, A.; Tamm, L.

    2002-01-01

    Sooty blotch causes heavy losses in Swiss organic apple production. In 2000 and 2001 a late season application strategy with coconut soap (Biofa Cocana RF) was evaluated. Coconut soap reduced disease occurrence in ali experiments. However, the efficacy was much higher in 2000 than in 2001, probably due to a much higher disease pressure in 2001.

  2. Quantitative Characterization of Nut Yield and Fruit Components in Indigenous Coconut Germplasm in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. C. N. Perera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut (Cocos nucifera L. is a tropical palm offering multiple uses. Conservation of coconut germplasm has been undertaken globally in view of its economic importance. This research was designed to evaluate nine Sri Lankan indigenous coconut germplasm representing the three varieties Typica, Nana, and Aurantiaca. Total annual nut yield and the weights of fresh nut, husked nut, split nut, and fresh and dry kernel were scored and analyzed with analysis of variance. The annual average number of bunches varied from 14.9 to 16.8 which is significantly higher than the generally accepted 12–14 bunches in tall coconuts. The high potential of phenotypes Ran thembili and Gon thembili for kernel production was revealed. The high potential of Gon thembili, Sri Lanka Tall, and Ran thembili to produce fibre was also identified. Phenotypes Ran thembili and Gon thembili displayed their potential as pure cultivars and as parents in hybridization. King coconut, Red dwarf, and Bodiri were shown to be suitable as beverage coconuts due to the high production of nuts, bunches, and the quantity of nut water. This study reiterated the importance of conservation and characterization of indigenous coconut varieties globally for their effective use in the genetic improvement of the coconut palm.

  3. Production process for high density high performance binderless boards from whole coconut husk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Keijsers, E.R.P.

    2004-01-01

    Coconuts are typically growing in coastal areas of tropical countries. The husk is abundantly available as cheap residue from coconut production in many areas, which is known to yield the coarse coir fibre. In this project a simple and efficient technology has been developed to produce high

  4. Diet enriched with fresh coconut decreases blood glucose levels and body weight in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Venugopal; Shankar, Nagashree R; Mavathur, Ramesh; Mooventhan, A; Anju, Sood; Manjunath, N K

    2018-02-20

    Background There exist controversies about the health effects of coconut. Fresh coconut consumption on human health has not been studied substantially. Fresh coconut consumption is a regular part of the diet for many people in tropical countries like India, and thus there is an increasing need to understand the effects of fresh coconut on various aspects of health. Aim To compare the effects of increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) and fiber intake, provided by fresh coconut, versus monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and fiber intake, provided by a combination of groundnut oil and groundnuts, on anthropometry, serum insulin, glucose levels and blood pressure in healthy adults. Materials Eighty healthy volunteers, randomized into two groups, were provided with a standardized diet along with either 100 g fresh coconut or an equivalent amount of groundnuts and groundnut oil for a period of 90 days. Assessments such as anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood sugar and insulin levels were performed before and after the supplementation period. Results Results of this study showed a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar (FBS) in both the groups. However, a significant reduction in body weight was observed in the coconut group, while a significant increase in diastolic pressure was observed in the groundnut group. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that fresh coconut-added diet helps reduce blood glucose levels and body weight in normal healthy individuals.

  5. The presence of coconut in southern Panama in pre-Columbian times: clearing up the confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Luc; Gunn, Bee F; Olsen, Kenneth M

    2014-01-01

    The pre-Columbian presence of coconut on the Pacific coast of Panama is attested by a number of independent written accounts. However, recent papers question their accuracy and conclude that coconut was introduced to the region by the Spaniards after their conquests. Scope In order to examine the value of such claims, an extensive search was conducted of the relevant historical accounts of coconut in America and in the Orient. The Spanish chronicler Oviedo (1478-1557) is found to have effectively used fruit and seed size to distinguish coconut from other palms. In addition, it is shown that he has been inaccurately faulted with incorrectly representing a cluster of coconuts. The original drawing, a cluster of a native Bactris, was in the marginalia and was only assigned to coconut after Oviedo's death. Finally, the location is identified of a coastal Panamanian site described by Pedro Mártir de Anglería and where tidal dispersal of coconuts was observed. This previously overlooked evidence confirms the pre-historical presence of coconut in Panama. Genetic data indicate that it must have been brought there directly or indirectly from the Philippines. But when, where and by whom remains a subject of research. Further molecular marker studies, computer simulation of natural drift and archaeological research could contribute to this research.

  6. Wear rate and surface coating optimization of coconut coir-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The use of fuzzy logic for modeling surface parameters of coconut coir-based composite is the focus of this research paper. Natural fiber–polymer composite has been developed by combining coconut coir as a stimulator and polyester as a fixative. This sturdy material is resistant to scratches in the coating process on the ...

  7. Independent origins of cultivated coconut (Cocos nucifera L. in the old world tropics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee F Gunn

    Full Text Available As a portable source of food, water, fuel, and construction materials, the coconut (Cocos nucifera L. played a fundamental role in human migrations and the development of civilization across the humid tropics. Here we investigated the coconut's domestication history and its population genetic structure as it relates to human dispersal patterns. A sample of 1,322 coconut accessions, representing the geographical and phenotypic diversity of the species, was examined using ten microsatellite loci. Bayesian analyses reveal two highly genetically differentiated subpopulations that correspond to the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic oceanic basins. This pattern suggests independent origins of coconut cultivation in these two world regions, with persistent population structure on a global scale despite long-term human cultivation and dispersal. Pacific coconuts show additional genetic substructure corresponding to phenotypic and geographical subgroups; moreover, the traits that are most clearly associated with selection under human cultivation (dwarf habit, self-pollination, and "niu vai" fruit morphology arose only in the Pacific. Coconuts that show evidence of genetic admixture between the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic groups occur primarily in the southwestern Indian Ocean. This pattern is consistent with human introductions of Pacific coconuts along the ancient Austronesian trade route connecting Madagascar to Southeast Asia. Admixture in coastal east Africa may also reflect later historic Arab trading along the Indian Ocean coastline. We propose two geographical origins of coconut cultivation: island Southeast Asia and southern margins of the Indian subcontinent.

  8. Topical Coconut Oil in Very Preterm Infants: An Open-Label Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Tobias; Pupala, Sameer; Hibbert, Julie; Doherty, Dorota; Patole, Sanjay

    2018-01-01

    The immature fragile skin of preterm infants represents an inadequate protective barrier. The emollient and anti-infective properties of coconut oil make it a potentially beneficial topical agent for this population. Our aim was to evaluate feasibility, safety, and the effects of topical coconut oil on skin condition in very preterm infants. An open-label randomised controlled trial in preterm infants coconut oil (5 mL/kg) twice daily for 21 days, starting within 24 h of birth. The neonatal skin condition was the primary outcome, and was assessed using the Neonatal Skin Condition Score (NSCS) on days 1, 7, 14, and 21. The number of coconut oil applications was recorded to assess clinical feasibility and all enrolled infants were monitored for adverse effects of topical coconut application, such as skin irritation. A total of 72 infants born coconut oil was feasible and without adverse effects. The NSCS was maintained in the coconut oil group throughout the intervention period, but deteriorated from a median (IQR) of 3 (3-4) on day 1 to 4 (4-4) on day 21 in the control group (p = 0.01). There were no differences in common neonatal outcomes, including sepsis, necrotising enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, chronic lung disease, and mortality. Topical coconut oil maintained a better skin condition in very preterm infants without adverse effects. This simple, safe, and affordable intervention warrants further investigation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Independent origins of cultivated coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in the old world tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Bee F; Baudouin, Luc; Olsen, Kenneth M

    2011-01-01

    As a portable source of food, water, fuel, and construction materials, the coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) played a fundamental role in human migrations and the development of civilization across the humid tropics. Here we investigated the coconut's domestication history and its population genetic structure as it relates to human dispersal patterns. A sample of 1,322 coconut accessions, representing the geographical and phenotypic diversity of the species, was examined using ten microsatellite loci. Bayesian analyses reveal two highly genetically differentiated subpopulations that correspond to the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic oceanic basins. This pattern suggests independent origins of coconut cultivation in these two world regions, with persistent population structure on a global scale despite long-term human cultivation and dispersal. Pacific coconuts show additional genetic substructure corresponding to phenotypic and geographical subgroups; moreover, the traits that are most clearly associated with selection under human cultivation (dwarf habit, self-pollination, and "niu vai" fruit morphology) arose only in the Pacific. Coconuts that show evidence of genetic admixture between the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic groups occur primarily in the southwestern Indian Ocean. This pattern is consistent with human introductions of Pacific coconuts along the ancient Austronesian trade route connecting Madagascar to Southeast Asia. Admixture in coastal east Africa may also reflect later historic Arab trading along the Indian Ocean coastline. We propose two geographical origins of coconut cultivation: island Southeast Asia and southern margins of the Indian subcontinent.

  10. Parisoschoenus obesulus Casey (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is not a pest of young coconut tree fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Jose I.L.; Sgrillo, Ricardo B.; Valle, Raul R.; Delabie, Jacques H.C.; Ferreira, Joana M.S.; Almeida, Alex-Alan F. de; Cividanes, Francisco J.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate if Parisoschoenus obesulus Casey only attacks naturally aborting coconuts and, consequently, is not a pest of young fruits of coconut tree. Aiming to test this hypothesis, inflorescences at diverse stages of physiological development were offered to individuals of P. obesulus. The Results showed that only aborting fruits were colonized by P. obesulus corroborating the established hypothesis. (author)

  11. Crystal structure of cocosin, a potential food allergen from coconut (Cocos nucifera) (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Coconut allergy cases have been reported, but only one coconut allergen has been identified. The 11S seed storage proteins belong to one of a few protein families that contain known food allergens in many food of plant sources. Cocosin, the 11S protein from cocosin remains to be character...

  12. Biodegradable Composites Based on Starch/EVOH/Glycerol Blends and Coconut Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unripe coconut fibers were used as fillers in a biodegradable polymer matrix of starch/Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH)/glycerol. The effects of fiber content on the mechanical, thermal and structural properties were evaluated. The addition of coconut fiber into starch/EVOH/glycerol blends reduced the ...

  13. Size of predatory mites and refuge entrance determine success of biological control of the coconut mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva, F.R.; de Moraes, G.J.; Lesna, I.; Sato, Y.; Vasquez, C.; Hanna, R.; Sabelis, M.W.; Janssen, A.

    2016-01-01

    Predators face the challenge of accessing prey that live in sheltered habitats. The coconut mite Aceriaguerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) lives hidden beneath the perianth, which is appressed to the coconut fruit surface, where they feed on the meristematic tissue. Its natural enemy, the

  14. Effect of farming practices and farm history on incidence of coconut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of coconut (Cocos nucifera) lethal yellowing disease (CLYD), which has killed about eight million coconut trees in Mozambique, has proved challenging. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of farming practices and related history, on the CLYD incidence in Mozambique. The methodology ...

  15. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  16. AKTIVITAS HIDROLISIS ENZIM LIPASE DARI KENTOS KELAPA TERHADAP MINYAK KELAPA Hidrolysis Activity of Lipase Enzyme from Coconut Houstorium for Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Su’i

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study hydrolysis conditions of houstorium lipases enzyme using coconut oil as substrate. Hydrolysis conditions studied were substrate (coconut oil concentration, enzyme substrate ratio, duration of hydro- lysis and effect of stirring to hydrolysis. The results show  that lipase of coconut houstorium may be optimally used at a coconut oil concentration of 10 %, enzyme to substrate ratio of 3 : 10 (v/v and hydrolysis for 60 minutes with stirring. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini mempelajari kondisi hidrolisis minyak kelapa yang optimum menggunakan enzim lipase dari kentos kelapa. Kondisi hidrolisis yang dipelajari meliputi konsentrasi substrat optium, perbandingan enzim : substrat dan lama hidrolisis yang optimum serta pengaruh pengadukan selama hidrolisis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, hidrolisis minyak kelapa menggunakan enzim lipase kentos kelapa menghasilkan asam lemak bebas paling banyak pada kon- sentrasi substrat (minyak kelapa 10 %, perbandingan enzim : substrat yaitu 3 : 10 (v/v, lama hidroloisa 60 menit dan dilakukan pengadukan selama hidrolisis.

  17. An ecological study for Sri Lanka about health effects of coconut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athauda, L K; Wickremasinghe, A R; Kumarendran, B; Kasturiratne, A

    2015-09-01

    An ecological correlation study was conducted to determine the association between consumption of coconut products and cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths in Sri Lanka. Data on coconut consumption patterns from 1961 to 2006 were abstracted from the FAO database, and mortality data from reports of the Department of Census and Statistics, and UN databases. Correlational and regression analyses were carried out. There was no increase in the per capita consumption of coconut products from 1961 to 2006 (range 54.1-76.2kg/ capita/year). The CVD death rates and the proportionate mortality rate due to CVD increased from 1961 to 2006. CVD death rates were significantly associated with per capita GDP, percentage of urban population, and elderly dependency ratio but not consumption of coconut products after adjusting for the other variables (R2=0.94). The results do not provide evidence at the population level that consumption of coconut products increases mortality due to cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Inductive effect of coconut water on germination of seeds and sprouting of corms of Dracontium grayumianum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino Torres, Carlos; Mosquera Gamboa, Ferley; Gonzalez, Robert Tulio

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the promotional effect of coconut water, gibberellic acid, cold stratification and mechanical scarification on seed germination of Dracontium grayumianum, and the effect of gibberellic acid and coconut water on the sprouting of corms of the same species. The seeds without the inductive treatment were unable to germinate, but the immersion in coconut water had significant effects, producing a germination rate of 50%, higher than the effect achieved with other treatments. The liquid endosperm of coconut also had favorable effect on the sprouting of corms under nursery conditions, like the treatment with gibberellic acid solution. This is the first report of the use of coconut water as a promoter of seed germination with high latency, which places this resource as an additional alternative, highly efficient, and cost-effective, for use in plant propagation strategies of species with seeds of deep dormancy.

  19. Behaviour of coconut mites preceding take-off to passive aerial dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

    2014-12-01

    For more than three decades the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is one of the most important pests of coconut palms and has recently spread to many coconut production areas worldwide. Colonization of coconut palms is thought to arise from mites dispersing aerially after take-off from other plants within the same plantation or other plantations. The underlying dispersal behaviour of the mite at take-off, in the airborne state and after landing is largely unknown and this is essential to understand how they spread from tree to tree. In this article we studied whether take-off to aerial dispersal of coconut mites is preceded by characteristic behaviour, whether there is a correlation between the body position preceding aerial dispersal and the direction of the wind, and whether the substrate (outer surface of coconut bracts or epidermis) and the wind speed matter to the decision to take-off. We found that take-off can sometimes be preceded by a raised body stance, but more frequently take-off occurs while the mite is walking or resting on its substrate. Coconut mites that become airborne assumed a body stance that had no relation to the wind direction. Take-off was suppressed on a substrate providing food to coconut mites, but occurred significantly more frequently on the outer surface of coconut bracts than on the surface of the fruit. For both substrates, take-off frequency increased with wind speed. We conclude that coconut mites have at least some degree of control over take-off for aerial dispersal and that there is as yet no reason to infer that a raised body stance is necessary to become airborne.

  20. Growth of lowland broccoli coconut coir dust and peat based growing media using fertigation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Asiah; Abdul Rahman, Shyful Azizi; Nordin, Latiffah; Abdullah, Hazlina; Ruslan, Abdul Razak [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research MINT, Bangi (Malaysia). Agrotechnology and Bioscineces Div.; Taib, Mohd Idris [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research MINT, Bangi (Malaysia). Intelligent Group

    2004-07-01

    A study was carried out inside the greenhouse to determine the response of lowland broccoli (Brassica oleracea) plants grown in five mixtures of coconut coir dust and peat as the growing media. The growing mixes were prepared in the following ratios (% by vol): 100% coconut coir dust, 75% coconut coir dust + 25% peat, 50% coconut coir dust + 50% peat, 25% coconut coir dust + 75% peat and 100% peat. The plants were supplied with 200 mg 1-1 nitrogen using a computerized fertigation system developed at MINT Plants grown on 100% peat exhibited reduced plant growth and yield compared to plants grown on mixes containing coconut coir dust. Plants growth and yield were increased on growing media contained > 50% coconut coir dust; however, the highest total plant dry weight, plant height and yield were obtained from plants grown on 100% coconut coir dust. Total nitrogen concentration in the leaves and stems was not significantly different in all mixture of the growing media regardless of whether coconut coir dust or peat was used. In general, nitrate -nitrogen concentrations were lowest in the floret than in the leaves and stem tissues of plants grown on all growing media used in the study. However, nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the leaves, stems and florets were lowest in the plants grown on 100% peat compared to the plants grown on growing media containing coconut coir dust. The concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen in the florets, which ranged from 290 to 450 mg N kg-l/dry weight, are considered to be under permissible levels by European standards. (Author)

  1. Growth of lowland broccoli coconut coir dust and peat based growing media using fertigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asiah Ahmad; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Latiffah Nordin; Hazlina Abdullah; Abdul Razak Ruslan; Mohd Idris Taib

    2004-01-01

    A study was carried out inside the greenhouse to determine the response of lowland broccoli (Brassica oleracea) plants grown in five mixtures of coconut coir dust and peat as the growing media. The growing mixes were prepared in the following ratios (% by vol): 100% coconut coir dust, 75% coconut coir dust + 25% peat, 50% coconut coir dust + 50% peat, 25% coconut coir dust + 75% peat and 100% peat. The plants were supplied with 200 mg 1-1 nitrogen using a computerized fertigation system developed at MINT Plants grown on 100% peat exhibited reduced plant growth and yield compared to plants grown on mixes containing coconut coir dust. Plants growth and yield were increased on growing media contained > 50% coconut coir dust; however, the highest total plant dry weight, plant height and yield were obtained from plants grown on 100% coconut coir dust. Total nitrogen concentration in the leaves and stems was not significantly different in all mixture of the growing media regardless of whether coconut coir dust or peat was used. In general, nitrate -nitrogen concentrations were lowest in the floret than in the leaves and stem tissues of plants grown on all growing media used in the study. However, nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the leaves, stems and florets were lowest in the plants grown on 100% peat compared to the plants grown on growing media containing coconut coir dust. The concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen in the florets, which ranged from 290 to 450 mg N kg-l/dry weight, are considered to be under permissible levels by European standards. (Author)

  2. Protein modification by fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkholt, Helle Vibeke; Jørgensen, P.B.; Sørensen, Anne Dorthe

    1998-01-01

    The effect of fermentation on components of potential significance for the allergenicity of pea was analyzed. Pea flour was fermented with three lactic acid bacteria, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus raffinolactis, and Lactobacillus plantarum, and two fungi, Rhizopus microsporus, var....... oligosporus and Geotrichum candidum. Residual antigenicity against antipea antibodies was reduced to 10% by the three lactic acid bacteria and R. microsporus. Reactions to anti-pea profilin and anti-Bet v I were still detectable after fermentation. The contents of lectin and pea protease inhibitor were...

  3. Fermentative alcohol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  4. Exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus confusus TISTR 1498 using coconut water as an alternative carbon source: the effect of peptone, yeast extract and beef extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phisit Seesuriyachan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Coconut water (CW is a by-product of food industry and has little value in Thailand. It is usually discarded as a wasteinto the environment. Consequently, we developed a value added process of exopolysaccharide (EPS production usingLactobacillus confusus TISTR 1498 and coconut water. The effect of three expensive supplements (peptone, yeast extractand beef extract on EPS and biomass production was investigated at 35°C for 24 h. Using a mod-MRS-CW medium, preparedby replacing the de-ionized water with 100% CW and supplemented with 20 g/l crystalline sucrose and a reduced quantity(50% of the three expensive supplements (5 g/l of peptone, 2.5 g/l of yeast extract, and 2.5 g/l of beef extract gave thehighest yield of EPS (12.3 g/l. By optimizing the conditions for fermentation (pH 5.5, agitation speed at 50 rpm and initialsucrose concentration of 100 g/l, EPS yield increased up to 38.2 g/l. When compared with the modified MRS medium, themedium supplemented with CW was found to be suitable for the reduction of cost spent on the organic nitrogen and growthfactors (savings close to 50%.

  5. Minimizing emission of carbon dioxide in the coconut processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozada, Ernesto P.

    1998-01-01

    About 90% of the world's coconut production is made into copra. There are 2-3 million smoke kilns which are used by the coconut farmers for making copra. It is estimated that these kilns emit carbon dioxide from 247 to 366 gram of carbon per kg of copra produced. From the world copra production of 10 M tons, the total carbon released in copra making range is 2-3 Tg(telegram=10 12 grams) or 2-3M tons of carbon per year. To minimize carbon dioxide emission in copra making, kilns with better combustion characteristics and heat utilization efficiencies must be used. One of the most promising alternative dryers is a direct-fired, natural draft dryer known as the Los Banos (Lozada) Dryer. Developed at the University of the Philippines Los Banos, the dryer consist of a simple burner, a heat distributor and a drying bin. The burner combust coconut shell, corn cob, and wood pieces with extremely high efficiency thus minimizing fuel consumption and dramatically reducing the release of airborne pollutants. The resulting copra is practically smoke free. Tests have shown that carbon dioxide emissions from the Los Banos (Lozada) Dryer are about half of that released by the traditional smoke kilns. Furthermore, the dryer emits lower concentrations of CO (50 ppm vs 2000-3000 ppm), of NO x (5 ppm vs 400 ppm), and SO x (5 ppm vs 400 ppm). When used widely, significant reductions in the emissions of greenhouse and acid rain gases from biomass combustion will be attained. (About 500 units of the Los Banos (Lozada) Dryer are now in use in the Philippines and Papua New Guinea). (Author)

  6. Dark fermentative hydrogen production by defined mixed microbial cultures immobilized on ligno-cellulosic waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Sanjay K.S. [Microbial Biotechnology and Genomics, Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB), CSIR, Delhi University Campus, Mall Road, Delhi 110007 (India); Department of Biotechnology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Purohit, Hemant J. [Environmental Genomics Unit, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), CSIR, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440020 (India); Kalia, Vipin C. [Microbial Biotechnology and Genomics, Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB), CSIR, Delhi University Campus, Mall Road, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2010-10-15

    Mixed microbial cultures (MMCs) based on 11 isolates belonging to Bacillus spp. (Firmicutes), Bordetella avium, Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus mirabilis (Proteobacteria) were employed to produce hydrogen (H{sub 2}) under dark fermentative conditions. Under daily fed culture conditions (hydraulic retention time of 2 days), MMC6 and MMC4, immobilized on ligno-cellulosic wastes - banana leaves and coconut coir evolved 300-330 mL H{sub 2}/day. Here, H{sub 2} constituted 58-62% of the total biogas evolved. It amounted to a H{sub 2} yield of 1.54-1.65 mol/mol glucose utilized over a period of 60 days of fermentation. The involvement of various Bacillus spp. -Bacillus sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus thuringiensis as components of the defined MMCs for H{sub 2} production has been reported here for the first time. (author)

  7. Preliminary study on domestication of coconut crab (Birgus latro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Sulistiono

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary study on domestication of coconut crab (Birgus latro had been done since June - November 2004 and December - 2005 February 2006.  Study was carried out in two locations namely Laboratory of Sekolah Tinggi Kelautan dan Perikanan, Palu to study adult crab, and Laboratory of Ecobiology of Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Bogor Agricultural University to study crab in clomang stage.  Adult crabs were collected by using some fishing gears namely trap, net and directly using bamboo stick.  Domestication was done in rearing batch sized 1x1x1 m3 with artificial nests (30x15x15 cm3, and small batch for water (7x10x10 cm3.  While for clomang stage, crabs were reared in aquarium (80x40x40 cm3 with debris and small water batch.  Result showed that adult crab had a survival rate around 12.5-0%, and mortality around 50-87.5%.  A similar result was also in clomang stage, which was 12.5% for survival rate and 87.5% for mortality.  Adult coconut crab was preferred to feed coconut than other food likely vegetable and chick. Keywords: domestication, coconut crab, Birgus latro, food habit   ABSTRAK Penelitian awal mengenai kajian awal penangkaran kepiting kelapa (Birgus latro dilakukan pada bulan Juni - November 2004 dan Desember 2005 Februari 2006.  Pelaksanaan penelitian di lakukan di dua tempat, yaitu Laboratorium Sekolah Tinggi Kelautan dan Perikanan, Palu untuk percobaan kepiting dewasa, dan Laboratorium Ekobiologi Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan IPB Bogor,  untuk percobaan kepiting tahap klomang.  Kepiting dewasa ditangkap dengan menggunakan beberapa peralatan a.l. perangkap, jaring dan secara langsung dengan tongkat.  Penangkaran dilakukan di bak-bak peliharaan berukuran 1x1x1 m3 yang dilengkapi dengan tempat persembunyian (30x15x15 cm3, dan bak kecil tempat air (7x10x10 cm3.  Sedangkan kepiting tahap klomang dipelihara di akuarium (80x40x40 cm3 yang diberi daun/serasah dan tempat air.  Hasil uji coba penangkaran

  8. Dehydration improves cryopreservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisunandar; Sopade, Peter A; Samosir, Yohannes M S; Rival, Alain; Adkins, Steve W

    2010-12-01

    Cryopreservation of coconut can be used as a strategy to back up the establishment of living collections which are expensive to maintain and are under constant threat from biotic and abiotic factors. Unfortunately, cryopreservation protocols still need to be developed that are capable of producing a sizeable number of field-grown plants. Therefore, we report on the development of an improved cryopreservation protocol which can be used on a wide range of coconut cultivars. The cryopreservation of zygotic embryos and their recovery to soil-growing plants was achieved through the application of four optimised steps viz.: (i) rapid dehydration; (ii) rapid cooling; (iii) rapid warming and recovery in vitro and (iv) acclimatization and soil-supported growth. The thermal properties of water within the embryos were monitored using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in order to ensure that the freezable component was kept to a minimum. The feasibility of the protocol was assessed using the Malayan Yellow Dwarf (MYD) cultivar in Australia and then tested on a range of cultivars which were freshly harvested and studied in Indonesia. The most efficient protocol was one based on an 8-h rapid dehydration step followed by rapid cooling step. Best recovery percentages were obtained when a rapid warming step and an optimised in vitro culture step were used. Following this protocol, 20% (when cryopreserved 12 days after harvesting) and 40% (when cryopreserved at the time of harvest) of all MYD embryos cryopreserved could be returned to normal seedlings growing in soil. DSC showed that this protocol induced a drop in embryo fresh weight to 19% and significantly reduced the amount of water remaining that could produce ice crystals (0.1%). Of the 20 cultivars tested, 16 were found to produce between 10% and 40% normal seedlings while four cultivars generated between 0% and 10% normal seedlings after cryopreservation. This new protocol is applicable to a wide range of coconut

  9. Ferment first, then compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dany, Christian

    2012-11-01

    If communal organic waste is simply dumped, it is harmful to the environment. But if it is used to produce biogas, it can become a significant source of energy. Currently, there are two dry fermentation processes available. (orig.)

  10. Methanic fermentation of manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donadeo, M

    1954-06-01

    A comparison between the chemical composition of manure ripened in conventional ditches and that of manure anaerobically fermented in tanks led to the conclusion that the latter was not satisfactory; the resulting manure was less valuable.

  11. The cholesterol-lowering effect of coconut flakes in humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Loyola, Anacleta S; Mallillin, Aida C; Valdez, Divinagracia H; Askali, Faridah C; Castillo, Joan C; Resaba, Rosario L; Masa, Dina B

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of coconut flakes on serum cholesterol levels of humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol in 21 subjects. The serum total cholesterol of subjects differed and ranged from 259 to 283 mg/dL. The study was conducted in a double-blind randomized crossover design on a 14-week period, consisting of four 2-week experimental periods, with each experimental period separated by a 2-week washout period. The test foods were as follows: corn flakes as the control food, oat bran flakes as the reference food, and corn flakes with 15% and 25% dietary fiber from coconut flakes (made from coconut flour production). Results showed a significant percent reduction in serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (in mg/dL) for all test foods, except for corn flakes, as follows: oat bran flakes, 8.4 +/- 1.4 and 8.8 +/- 6.0, respectively; 15% coconut flakes, 6.9 +/- 1.1 and 11.0 +/- 4.0, respectively; and 25% coconut flakes, 10.8 +/- 1.3 and 9.2 +/- 5.4, respectively. Serum triglycerides were significantly reduced for all test foods: corn flakes, 14.5 +/- 6.3%; oat bran flakes, 22.7 +/- 2.9%; 15% coconut flakes, 19.3 +/- 5.7%; and 25% coconut flakes, 21.8 +/- 6.0%. Only 60% of the subjects were considered for serum triglycerides reduction (serum triglycerides >170 mg/dL). In conclusion, both 15% and 25% coconut flakes reduced serum total and LDL cholesterol and serum triglycerides of humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol levels. Coconut flour is a good source of both soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, and both types of fiber may have significant role in the reduction of the above lipid biomarker. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted to show a relationship between dietary fiber from a coconut by-product and a lipid biomarker. Results from this study serves as a good basis in the development of coconut flakes/flour as a functional food, justifying the increased production of coconut and coconut by-products.

  12. Solid substrate fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengerdy, R P

    1985-04-01

    Solid Substrate Fermentation (SSF) describes the microbiological tranformation of biological materials in their natural state, in contrast with liquid or submerged fermentations which are carried out in dilute solutions or slurries. The most important industrial microorganisms used in SSF are filamentous fungi and the critical factors in their growth are the control of the moisture level and the temperature. Traditionally, most SSFs are conducted in shallow trays (so that heat build up is avoided) and stacked in a moist chamber, however, the modern SSF should be able to mix large amounts of substrate for a uniform fermentation, maximum automization scale-up of the process, continuous operation and fermentation control and a promising new design is the Helical screw fermenter. At the present time SSF is used in the production of foods (e.g. mushrooms and oriental foods) in municipal, agricultural and industrial solid waste disposal and in the production of enzymes and speciality chemicals but it does not seem likely that it will replace prevalent liquid fermentation technologies. 29 references.

  13. Mini-cusab kiln for rapid small-scale manufacture of charcoal from scrub, coconut wood and coconut shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, E C.S.

    1978-05-01

    Following the development and operation of the mini-cusab kiln in New Zealand, FAO tested it successfully in the South Pacific where there is a glut of coconut wood, which has a very high moisture content. It is based on a 44 gallon drum and its construction and subsequent operation are described. It is designed to be supplied continuously with fuel until full of charcoal. The kilns have air ducts which are sealed with plugs as the level of charcoal formed by the continuous fueling rises within the kiln.

  14. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: U.S. Virgin Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangelhoff, Christine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Virgin Island music is syncretic, reflecting both African and European heritage. While older traditions including cariso and bamboula are virtually extinct, quelbe is popular throughout the islands, with bands such as Stanley and The Ten Sleepless Nights performing frequently.

  15. Virgin esitleb : Robin Hood ja sir Branson / Mart Raudsaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsaar, Mart, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Ettevõtja Richard Branson'i elust, karjäärist, juhtimisprintsiipidest ning tegevusest kaubamärgi Virgin loomisel, mis ühendab endas kaht lennufirmat, reisibürood, margiviina, koolat, muusikakaubamajasid, pensionifonde jne. Lisa: Branson - koolist väljalangenud miljardär

  16. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitaglione, P.; Savarese, M.; Paduano, A.; Scalfi, L.; Fogliano, V.; Sacchi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives to VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by

  17. Electrolytes, sugar, calories, osmolarity and pH of beverages and coconut water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavalittamrong, B; Pidatcha, P; Thavisri, U

    1982-09-01

    Oral rehydration has been recommended in patients with diarrhoea to replace fluid loss from the gastrointestinal tract and reduce the need for intravenous therapy. Beverages (i.e. Cola, Sprite etc.) and coconut water may be used as sources of oral fluid when glucose-electrolyte solution is not available. To evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of these soft drinks, the basic data such as electrolytes, sugar, calories, osmolarity and pH were determined. The electrolytes of the beverages were significantly lower (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water, especially potassium. The osmolarity of the beverages, which were 693 mOsm/l, was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water (288 mOsm/l); pH of the beverages (3.1) was more acidic (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water (5.4). While the sugar content of the beverages, which were 8.7 gm/dl, was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water (1.1 gm/dl). On comparison, all brands of beverages would give more calories than the coconut water however the coconut water would be absorbed more easily than any brand of soft drink beverage.

  18. Feasibility Study of Aseptic Homogenization: Affecting Homogenization Steps on Quality of Sterilized Coconut Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phungamngoen Chanthima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut milk is one of the most important protein-rich food sources available today. Separation of an emulsion into an aqueous phase and cream phase is commonly occurred and this leads an unacceptably physical defect of either fresh or processed coconut milk. Since homogenization steps are known to affect the stability of coconut milk. This work was aimed to study the effect of homogenization steps on quality of coconut milk. The samples were subject to high speed homogenization in the range of 5000-15000 rpm under sterilize temperatures at 120-140 °C for 15 min. The result showed that emulsion stability increase with increasing speed of homogenization. The lower fat particles were generated and easy to disperse in continuous phase lead to high stability. On the other hand, the stability of coconut milk decreased, fat globule increased, L value decreased and b value increased when the high sterilization temperature was applied. Homogenization after heating led to higher stability than homogenization before heating due to the reduced particle size of coconut milk after aggregation during sterilization process. The results implied that homogenization after sterilization process might play an important role on the quality of the sterilized coconut milk.

  19. A Simple Refining Technique of Coconut Oil for Small Holder Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Triyono

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple refining equipment and process for small holder industries of edible coconut oil has beeninvestigated. The equipment consisted of 20-L filtering and NaOH neutralization bottles. Filtration wasintended to remove impurities such as gums and pigment, while neutralization was to remove free fattyacids (FFA and other non-fat materials. In the experiment, the crude coconut oil was found to have impurityof 0.16%, FFA of 8.02%, saponification number of 270, and water content of 0.33%. The results showed thateither granular activated carbon (GAC or zeolite filtration can be chosen individually to remove physicalimpurity. The GAC or zeolite-filtered coconut oil contained impurity less than the SNI standard of 0.05%.In term of FFA; however, the NaOH neutralized coconut oil did not meet the SNI standard of 0.3%. AfterNaOH neutralization, the GAC filtered oil contained 1.20% FFA; while the zeolite filtered oil contained1.32%. These FFA contents were definitely higher than the SNI standard, but could satisfy APCC standardfor grade IV coconut oil which is 5%. The refined coconut oils could also satisfy the SNI standard ofsaponification number which is 196 – 206 at minimum. In term of water content, either the filtered or theneutralized oil could also satisfy the SNI standard of 0.3%. In short, the proposed technique could helpfarmers refine their raw coconut oil, and hopefully improve its marketability.

  20. Radiation processing of composite materials on the basis of coconut hair and plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owolabi, O.; Czvikovszky, T.

    1983-01-01

    Composite materials containing coconut hair as fibrous reinforcements and synthetic polyester resin as matrix were prepared. The coconut hair, together with the unsaturated polyester resin and other required ingredients (fillers, complexing agents, etc.) were pre-processed in a BRABENDER-type kneader or similar equipment to produce a bulk moulding compound ('BMC' or 'Premix') and later hot pressed for 10 minutes at 130 degC and 30 bars to produce sheets of 2 mm thickness. The tensile-, flexural- and impact strength of the sheets were measured and served as the main basis of comparison. The effect of increasing coconut hair percentage was studied. The effect of preirradiation of the coconut hair, pretreatment with hot sodium hydroxide solution and a combination of the two, to improve the coupling of the coconut hair and synthetic polyester were also studied. Composite materials were also made from a mixture of coconut hair and chopped glass fibers as reinforcements in the same BMC material. The radiation-treated coconut fiber gives a useful composite material for hot-press moulding. (author)

  1. Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of coconut oil and chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peedikayil, Faizal C; Remy, Vimal; John, Seena; Chandru, T P; Sreenivasan, Prathima; Bijapur, Gufran Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the most common organism causing dental caries. Various chemotherapeutic agents are available that help in treating the bacteria, with each having their own merits and demerits. Recent research has shown that coconut oil has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial action. Therefore, the present was conducted to determine the antibacterial efficacy of coconut oil and to compare it with chlorhexidine. A total of fifty female children aged 8-12 years were included in the study. Twenty five children were randomly distributed to each group, i.e., the study group (coconut oil) and the control group (chlorhexidine). The participants were asked to routinely perform oil swishing with coconut oil and chlorhexidine and rinse every day in the morning after brushing for 2-3 minutes. S. mutans in saliva and plaque were determined using a chairside method, i.e., the Dentocult SM Strip Mutans test. Patients were instructed to continue oil swishing for 30 days. S. mutans . counts in plaque and saliva on day 1, day 15, and day 30 were recorded and the results were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test. The results showed that there is a statistically significant decrease in S. mutans . count from coconut oil as well as chlorhexidine group from baseline to 30 days. The study also showed that in comparison of coconut oil and chlorhexidine there is no statistically significant change regarding the antibacterial efficacy. Coconut oil is as effective as chlorhexidine in the reduction of S. mutans .

  2. Analysis of Carrying Capacity of Agro-Ecosystem Coconut-Cattle in South Minahasa Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHS Salendu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Coconut plantation is very dominating in South Minahasa regency seen from its production of 49,907.33 tons in 2010. The land under coconut trees can be used for food crops or forage. The waste from food crops is the source of animal feed, while the livestock’s manure is used to improve soil fertility under coconut tree. The research objective was to analyse the carrying capacity of the agro-ecosystem of coconut-cattle. Regency and district were determined purposively. A total of 86 farmers as respondents were determined based on the ownership of at least 2 cattle and cattle selling experience. Data were analyzed using effective potential of livestock development and land capability index (IDD. The result showed that the maximum potential of land resources (PMSL was 30,872.94 animal unit (AU. The capacity increase in cattle population based on the soil resources was 18,208.94 AU. The maximum potential based on farmer house holds was 127,023.00 AU. The value of land capability index was 2.14. The conclusion was South Minahasa Regency was still potential for cattle development regarding land resources or workforce potentials. Development of cattle can be integrated with the coconut to maintain and improve agro-ecosystem sustainability of coconut plantation. Keywords: cattle, carrying capacity, agro-ecosystem, coconut Animal Production 14(1:56-62, January 2012

  3. Coconut water solutions for the preservation of spleen, ovary, and skin autotransplants in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino César, J M; Petroianu, A; de Souza Vasconcelos, L; Cardoso, V N; das Graças Mota, L; Barbosa, A J A; Vianna Soares, C D; Lima de Oliveira, A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of coconut water in the preservation of spleen, ovary, and skin autotransplantations in rats. Fifty female Wistar rats were divided randomly into 5 groups on the basis of the following tissue graft preservation solutions: group 1, lactated Ringer's; group 2, Belzer's solution; group 3, mature coconut water; group 4, green coconut water; and group 5, modified green coconut water. In group 5, the green coconut water solution was modified to obtain the same electrolyte composition as Belzer's solution. The spleen, ovaries, and a skin fragment were removed from each animal, stored for 6 hours in one of the solutions, and then re-implanted. The recoveries of tissue functions were assessed 90 days after surgery by means of spleen scintigraphy and blood tests. The implanted tissues were collected for histological analyses. Higher immunoglobulin G levels were observed in the animals of group 5 than in the animals of group 1. Differences in follicle-stimulating hormone levels were observed between groups 1 and 2 (P coconut water group (P coconut water allowed for the preservation of the spleen, ovaries, and skin for 6 hours, and the normal functions of these tissues were maintained in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary study of coconut water for graft tissues preservation in transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Miguel Schettino César

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to verify the effectiveness of coconut water in preserving tissues for transplant. METHODS: Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in five groups, according to the following preservation solutions for tissue grafts: Group 1: Lactated Ringer; Group 2: Belzer solution; Group 3: mature coconut water; Group 4: green coconut water; Group 5: modified coconut water. In Group 5, the green coconut water has been modified like the Belzer solution. From each animal we harvasted the spleen, ovaries and skin of the back segment. These tissues were preserved for six hours in one of the solutions. Then, the grafts were reimplanted. The recovery of the function of the implanted tissues was assessed 90 days after surgery, by splenic scintigraphy and blood exame. The implanted tissues were collected for histopathological examination. RESULTS: The serum levels did not differ among groups, except for the animals in Group 5, which showed higher levels of IgG than Group 1, and differences in relation to FSH between groups 1 and 2 (p <0.001, 4 and 2 (p = 0.03 and 5 and 2 (p = 0.01. The splenic scintigraphy was not different between groups. The ovarian tissue was better preserved in mature coconut water (p <0.007. CONCLUSION: the coconut water-based solutions preserves spleen, ovary, and rat skin for six hours, maintaining their normal function.

  5. Purification and characterization of a serine protease (CESP) from mature coconut endosperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panicker, Leelamma M; Usha, Rajamma; Roy, Samir; Mandal, Chhabinath

    2009-01-01

    Background In plants, proteases execute an important role in the overall process of protein turnover during seed development, germination and senescence. The limited knowledge on the proteolytic machinery that operates during seed development in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) prompted us to search for proteases in the coconut endosperm. Findings We have identified and purified a coconut endosperm protease (CESP) to apparent homogeneity. CESP is a single polypeptide enzyme of approximate molecular mass of 68 kDa and possesses pH optimum of 8.5 for the hydrolysis of BAPNA. Studies relating to substrate specificity and pattern of inhibition by various protease inhibitors indicated that CESP is a serine protease with cleavage specificity to peptide bonds after arginine. Purified CESP was often autolysed to two polypeptides of 41.6 kDa (CESP1) and 26.7 kDa (CESP2) and is confirmed by immunochemistry. We have shown the expression of CESP in all varieties of coconut and in all stages of coconut endosperm development with maximum amount in fully matured coconut. Conclusion Since the involvement of proteases in the processing of pre-proteins and maintenance of intracellular protein levels in seeds are well known, we suspect this CESP might play an important role in the coconut endosperm development. However this need to be confirmed using further studies. PMID:19426537

  6. Preliminary study of coconut water for graft tissues preservation in transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    César, Jorge Miguel Schettino; Petroianu, Andy; Vasconcelos, Leonardo de Souza; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Mota, Luciene das Graças; Barbosa, Alfredo José Afonso; Soares, Cristina Duarte Vianna; de Oliveira, Amanda Lima

    2015-01-01

    to verify the effectiveness of coconut water in preserving tissues for transplant. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in five groups, according to the following preservation solutions for tissue grafts: Group 1: Lactated Ringer; Group 2: Belzer solution; Group 3: mature coconut water; Group 4: green coconut water; Group 5: modified coconut water. In Group 5, the green coconut water has been modified like the Belzer solution. From each animal we harvested the spleen, ovaries and skin of the back segment. These tissues were preserved for six hours in one of the solutions. Then, the grafts were reimplanted. The recovery of the function of the implanted tissues was assessed 90 days after surgery, by splenic scintigraphy and blood exam. The implanted tissues were collected for histopathological examination. The serum levels did not differ among groups, except for the animals in Group 5, which showed higher levels of IgG than Group 1, and differences in relation to FSH between groups 1 and 2 (p coconut water (p coconut water-based solutions preserves spleen, ovary, and rat skin for six hours, maintaining their normal function.

  7. Study on reinforced lightweight coconut shell concrete beam behavior under torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunasekaran, K.; Ramasubramani, R.; Annadurai, R.; Prakash Chandar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of coconut shell as aggregate in concrete production. • Behavior of coconut shell concrete under torsion. • Pre and post cracking behavior and analysis. • Torsional reinforcement and ductility. • Crack width and stiffness. - Abstract: This research investigates and evaluates the results of coconut shell concrete beams subjected to torsion and compared with conventional concrete beams. Eight beams, four with coconut shell concrete and four with conventional concrete were fabricated and tested. Study includes the general cracking characteristics, pre cracking behavior and analysis, post cracking behavior and analysis, minimum torsional reinforcement, torsional reinforcement, ductility, crack width and stiffness. It was observed that the torsional behavior of coconut shell concrete is comparable to that of conventional concrete. Compare to ACI prediction, equation suggested by Macgregor is more conservative in calculating cracking torsional resistance. But for the calculation of ultimate torque strength ACI prediction is more conservative compared to the equation suggested by Macgregor. Indian standard is also conservative in this regard, but it was under estimated compared to ACI and Macgregor equations. Minimum torsional reinforcement in beams is necessary to ensure that the beam do not fail at cracking. Compared to conventional concrete specimens, coconut shell concrete specimens have more ductility. Crack width at initial cracking torque for both conventional and coconut shell concrete with corresponding reinforcement ratios is almost similar

  8. Preparation of Reducing Sugar Hydrolyzed from High-Lignin Coconut Coir Dust Pretreated by the Recycled Ionic Liquid [mmim][dmp] and Combination with Alkaline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanny Frans Sangian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to produce reducing sugar hydrolyzed from substrate, coconut coir dust pretreated by recycled ionic liquid and its combination with alkaline. The 1H NMR and FTIR were performed to ver-ify the synthesized ionic liquid methylmethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate ([mmim][dmp]. The structure of pretreated substrates was analyzed by XRD measurement. The used ionic liquid was recy-cled twice to re-employ for substrate pretreatment. The treated- and untreated-coconut coir dust were hydrolyzed into sugars using pure cellulase. The reaction, which called an enzymatic hydrolysis, was conducted at 60 °C, pH 3, for 48 h. The yields of sugar hydrolyzed from fresh IL-pretreated, 1R*IL-pretreated and 2R*IL-pretreated substrates were of 0.19, 0.15 and 0.15 g sugar / g cellu-lose+hemicellulose, respectively. Pretreatment with NaOH or the combination of NaOH+IL resulted in yields of reducing sugars of 0.25, 0.28 g/g, respectively. When alkaline combined with the recycled ionic liquids, NaOH+1R*IL, NaOH+2R*IL in the pretreatment, the yields of sugar were relatively similar to those obtained using alkaline followed by fresh ionic liquid. If the mixture enzymes, cellu-lase+xylanase, used to liberate sugars from fresh IL-pretreated, or recycled IL-pretreated substrates, the amount of sugar (concentration or yield increased slightly compared to that employing a single cel-lulase. These findings showed that recycled IL pretreatment of the high-lignin lignocellulose, coconut coir dust, is a new prospect for the economical manufacture of fermentable sugars and biofuel in the coming years. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 1st July 2014; Revised: 5th September 2014; Accepted: 5th September 2014 How to Cite: Sangian, H.F., Kristian, J., Rahma, S., Dewi, H., Puspasari, D., Agnesty, S., Gunawan, S., Widjaja, A. (2015. Preparation of Reducing Sugar Hydrolyzed from High-Lignin Coconut Coir Dust Pretreated by the Recycled Ionic Liquid [mmim

  9. Utilization of Ripe Coconut Fiber in Stone Matrix Asphalt Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahabir Panda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA is a gap graded mix; characterized by higher proportion of coarse aggregate, lower proportion of middle size aggregate and higher proportion of mineral filler. In the present laboratory study, commonly available one conventional VG 30 bitumen and another modified binder, namely CRMB 60 have been used along with a non-conventional natural fiber, namely coconut fiber which is abundantly available in India to provide improved engineering properties and at the same time preventing the usual draining of binder in SMA. The role of a particular binder and fiber with respect to their concentrations in the mix is studied for various engineering properties. Marshall procedure has been followed to determine the optimum binder and optimum fiber contents and also to study the relative advantages of fiber addition in the SMA mixtures. Thereafter, the engineering properties under both static as well as repeated load conditions and moisture susceptibility characteristics have been studied. It is observed that only a marginal 0.3% coconut fiber addition brings significant improvement in the engineering properties of SMA mixes.

  10. Mechanical properties of epoxy/coconut shell filler particle composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapuan, S.M.; Harimi, M.; Maleque, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the tensile and flexural properties of composites made from coconut shell filler particles and epoxy resin. The tensile and flexural tests of composites based on coconut shell filler particles at three different filler contents viz., 5%, 0% and 15%were carried out using universal tensile testing machine according to ASTM D 3039/D M-95a and ASTM D790-90 tensile respectively and their results were presented. Experimental results showed that tensile and flexural properties of the composites increased with the increase of the filler particle content. The composite materials demonstrate somewhat linear behavior and sharp structure for tensile and slight nonlinear behavior and sharp fracture of flexural testing. The relation between stress and percentage of filler for tensile and flexural tests were found to b linear with correlation factors of 0.9929 and 0.9973 respectively. Concerning the relation between the modulus and percentage of filler for tensile and flexural tests, it was found to be a quadratic relation with the same correlation factor approximated to 1. The same behavior was observed for the strain versus percentage of filler tensile and flexural tests, with the same correlation factor. (author)

  11. Molecular biology of Ganoderma pathogenicity and diagnosis in coconut seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandan, A; Radjacommare, R; Ramanathan, A; Raguchander, T; Balasubramanian, P; Samiyappan, R

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Ganoderma boninense was tested on coconut seedlings under greenhouse conditions and infection confirmed by using immunological and molecular diagnostic tools. Desiccation of older leaves and the emergence of sporophores were observed from pathogen-inoculated seedlings, whereas a control seedling does not show any pathogenic symptoms. Mature sporophores were formed within 10-13 weeks after inoculation. Polyclonal antibodies raised against mycelial proteins of Ganoderma were used for detection of Ganoderma in infected field palm and seedlings through indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. We adopted dot-immunobinding assay for the detection of Ganoderma from greenhouse and field samples. Under nucleic-acid-based diagnosis, G. boninense (167 bp) was detected from artificially inoculated seedlings and infected field palms by polymerase chain reaction. Apart from these, histopathological studies also support the Ganoderma pathogenicity in coconut seedlings. The pathogenicity test and combination of all the three diagnostic methods for Ganoderma could be highly reliable, rapid, sensitive and effective screening of resistance in planting material in the future.

  12. Consumer Preferences for Coconut Shell Charcoal in Suburban Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitri Yandri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Suburbs in Indonesia are not only characterized by the presence of residential areas, but also trading activities. These activities exist in order to support the needs of residents for goods and/or services. The complicated process that involves pull and push factors causes the suburbs to be well-known as economically potential areas, especially for micro, small, medium and large enterprises. One example of the trading subsectors is restaurants, both micro enterprises with traditional management and franchises patterns with professional management. Most of these restaurants provide barbequed menus which consume shell coconut charcoal. Then the question arises, is the quality of those commodity is the only reason for the restaurants in using it? This paper presents the elaboration of the research on consumer preferences in a suburban area of the consumption of coconut shell charcoal. By using the Fishbein Model, it is concluded that the aspect of belief and price attribute are in the first rank, which shows that those commodity is an expensive fuel, while the second rank is quality. The rest are models and after-sales service, respectively. From the aspect of evaluation, the respondents believe that quality is in the first rank that should be improved in the future. The second is price and the rest are after-sales service, packaging and models, respectively.

  13. Consumer Preferences for Coconut Shell Charcoal in Suburban Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitri Yandri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Suburbs in Indonesia are not only characterized by the presence of residential areas, but also trading activities. These activities exist in order to support the needs of residents for goods and/or services. The complicated process that involves pull and push factors causes the su-burbs to be well-known as economically potential areas, especially for micro, small, medium and large enterprises. One example of the trading subsectors is restaurants, both micro enterprises with traditional management and franchises patterns with professional management. Most of these restaurants provide barbequed menus which consume shell coconut charcoal. Then the question arises, is the quality of those commodity is the only reason for the restaurants in using it? This paper presents the elaboration of the research on consumer preferences in a suburban area of the consumption of coconut shell charcoal. By using the Fishbein Model, it is concluded that the aspect of belief and price attribute are in the first rank, which shows that those commodity is an expensive fuel, while the second rank is quality. The rest are models and after-sales service, respectively. From the aspect of evaluation, the respondents believe that quality is in the first rank that should be improved in the future. The second is price and the rest are after-sales service, packaging and models, respectively.

  14. Use of electron beam on aflatoxins degradation in coconut agar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Aquino, Simone; Goncalez, Edlayne; Correa, Benedito

    2009-01-01

    The fungi Aspergillus flavus are capable of producing toxic metabolites, such as aflatoxin, that is one of the most important human carcinogens, according to the 'International Agency for Research on Cancer'. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of electron beam irradiation on degradation of aflatoxin B1 present in laboratorial residues with a dose of 0 kGy and 5.0 kGy. The fungi were cultivated in potato dextrose agar (PDA) for 7 days and transferred to a coconut agar medium, incubated at a temperature of 25 deg C for 14 days to produce the laboratorial wastes (coconut agar) containing aflatoxins. The samples were conditioned in petri dish for radiation treatment of contaminated material and processed in the Electron Accelerator with 0 kGy and 5.0 kGy. Aflatoxin B 1 was extracted with chloroform and separated on a thin layer chromatography plate (TLC) with chloroform: acetone (9:1). All the control and irradiated samples were analyzed in a Shimadzu Densitometer. The detection limit of this methodology is 0.1μg kg -1 . The results indicate that the irradiated samples had a reduction of 75.49 % in the analyzed dose. (author)

  15. Glycaemic index of different coconut (Cocos nucifera)-flour products in normal and diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Valdez, Divinagracia H; Loyola, Anacleta S; Mallillin, Aida C; Askali, Faridah C; Castillo, Joan C; Masa, Dina B

    2003-09-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) of commonly consumed bakery products supplemented with increasing levels of coconut (Cocos nucifera) flour was determined in ten normal and ten diabetic subjects. Using a randomized crossover design, the control and test foods were fed in random order on separate occasions after an overnight fast. Blood samples were collected through finger prick before and after feeding and were analysed for glucose levels using a clinical chemistry analyser. The significantly low-GI (cake (GI 51.8 (sem 3.3)), with 200-250 g coconut flour/kg (Pflour/kg had GI ranging from 61.3 to 71.4. Among the test foods, pan de sal (GI 87.2 (sem 5.5)) and multigrain loaf (GI 85.2 (sem 6.8)) gave significantly higher GI with 50 and 100 g coconut flour/kg respectively (Pflour/kg respectively gave a GI ranging from 62.7 to 71.6 and did not differ significantly from the test foods with 150 g coconut flour/kg (Pflour. In conclusion, the GI of coconut flour-supplemented foods decreased with increasing levels of coconut flour and this may be due to its high dietary fibre content. The results of the present study may form a scientific basis for the development of coconut flour as a functional food. However, the fat content of coconut flour-supplemented food should always be considered to optimize the functionality of coconut fibre in the proper control and management of diabetes mellitus.

  16. Coconut oil has less satiating properties than medium chain triglyceride oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, R; Maher, T; Clegg, M E

    2017-10-01

    It is well established that the consumption of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) can increase satiety and reduce food intake. Many media articles promote the use of coconut oil for weight loss advocating similar health benefits to that of MCT. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of MCT oil compared to coconut oil and control oil on food intake and satiety. Following an overnight fast, participants consumed a test breakfast smoothie containing 205kcal of either (i) MCT oil (ii) coconut oil or (iii) vegetable oil (control) on three separate test days. Participants recorded appetite ratings on visual analogue scales and were presented with an ad libitum lunch meal of preselected sandwiches 180min after consumption of the breakfast. The results showed a significant difference in energy and macronutrient intakes at the ad libitum meal between the three oils with the MCT oil reducing food intake compared to the coconut and control oil. Differences in food intake throughout the day were found for energy and fat, with the control having increased food intake compared to the MCT and coconut. The MCT also increased fullness over the three hours after breakfast compared to the control and coconut oils. The coconut oil was also reported as being less palatable than the MCT oil. The results of this study confirm the differences that exist between MCT and coconut oil such that coconut oil cannot be promoted as having similar effects to MCT oil on food intake and satiety. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Proximity to encroaching coconut palm limits native forest water use and persistence on a Pacific atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Duberstein, Jamie A.; Cormier, Nicole; Young, Hillary S.; Hathaway, Stacie A.

    2015-01-01

    Competition for fresh water between native and introduced plants is one important challenge facing native forests as rainfall variability increases. Competition can be especially acute for vegetation on Pacific atolls, which depend upon consistent rainfall to replenish shallow groundwater stores. Patterns of sap flow, water use, and diameter growth of Pisonia grandis trees were investigated on Sand Islet, Palmyra Atoll, Line Islands, during a period of low rainfall. Sap flow in the outer sapwood was reduced by 53% for P. grandis trees growing within coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) stands (n = 9) versus away from coconut palm (n = 9). This suggested that water uptake was being limited by coconut palm. Radial patterns of sap flow into the sapwood of P. grandis also differed between stands with and without coconut palm, such that individual tree water use for P. grandis ranged from 14 to 67 L day−1, averaging 47·8 L day−1 without coconut palm and 23·6 L day−1 with coconut palm. Diameter growth of P. grandis was measured from nine islets. In contrast to sap flow, competition with coconut palm increased diameter growth by 89%, equating to an individual tree basal area increment of 5·4 versus 10·3 mm2 day−1. Greater diameter growth countered by lower rates of water use by P. grandis trees growing in competition with coconut palm suggests that stem swell may be associated with water storage when positioned in the understory of coconut palm, and may facilitate survival when water becomes limiting until too much shading overwhelms P. grandis. 

  18. Replanting/underplanting strategy for old coconut plantations in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollivier Jean

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available In most producing countries, the population of coconut palms is growing old, and ways of replacing them are rarely implemented to ensure that production is maintained and the future of the industry and its profitability are safeguarded. Rehabilitating/replanting coconut plantations and adopting appropriate intercropping systems is one of the main challenges to be taken up for the future of coconut in the Asia-Pacific region. The example of Papua New Guinea (PNG reveals one of the lowest yields per hectare among the countries in the Asia-Pacific zone. Almost 106,000 ha were planted between 1910 and 1940, amounting to around 40% of the current coconut plantings, hence 80 to 100,000 ha can be expected to disappear in the next twenty years. Faced with this forecast, the PNG Cocoa and Coconut Research Institute (PNG CCRI launched several operations, beginning with the creation of a coconut research centre on the PNG mainland: examination of a replanting strategy for old coconut plantings, based on hybrid planting material, distribution of improved planting material through the creation of a seed garden, and development of a system for controlling pest populations in high-risk zones. The experiments set up at the station are designed to optimize the felling date for old coconut palms, by measuring the effects of competition with the underplanted hybrids, and to determine from an economic point of view the best strategy to be applied for implementing rehabilitation and/or replanting programmes in old coconut plantings. This paper describes the results of these operations.

  19. The sugar cane and the coconut palm: research and development sources for environmental improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes two plants that were important in the past for the human development in tropical areas: the sugar cane and the coconut palm, being considered now as possible solution for environmental problems. The sugar cane can be considered as a precursor plant to obtaine recyclable combustible, able to correct along the time the hothouse effect happening at global level. As for the coconut palm, it has been demonstrated that the shell of the coconut palm is one of the best raw materials for the preparation of activated coal, an absorbent material used in environmental protection applications [es

  20. KAJIAN PELEPAH KELAPA SEBAGAI SERAT KOMPOSIT (STUDY OF COCONUT BRANCH AS COMPOSITE FIBER)

    OpenAIRE

    Seno Darmanto; Windu Sediono; Bambang Setyoko; Murni Murni

    2012-01-01

    Research is done to analyze coconut branch fiber as car body composite. Analyzing is based onmaterial, composition, and strength of material. Research was done in laboratory. Coconut branchfiber is obtained by natural drying process and cutting to become fiber with ±0,5 mm of length.Reinforcement and binder is determined polyester resin. Coir (coconut fiber) have 1.15 kg/m3 ofdensity, 1.15 MPa of strength dan modulus elastisitas 4 – 6 GPa. And based on specimen and studyof litera...

  1. Effects of different levels of coconut fiber on blood glucose, serum insulin and minerals in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindurani, J A; Rajamohan, T

    2000-01-01

    The effect of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from coconut kernel (Cocos nucifera L) in rats fed 5%, 15% and 30% level on the concentration of blood glucose, serum insulin and excretion of minerals was studied. Increase in the intake of fiber resulted in significant decrease in the level of blood glucose and serum insulin. Faecal excretion of Cu, Cr, Mn, Mg, Zn and Ca was found to increase in rats fed different levels of coconut fiber when compared to fiber free group. The result of the present investigation suggest that inclusion of coconut fiber in the diet results in significant hypoglycemic action.

  2. Market Potential of Pasteurized Coconut Water in the Philippine Beverage Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hanilyn Aguilar Hidalgo

    2017-01-01

    Trends in health and well-being are taking the lead in the beverage consumption movement.  The waning attractiveness of carbonated beverage may be attributed to the negative impression of the sugar content linking it to health problems.  Studies show that coconut water is found to be as effective as a sports drink for rehydration.  However, while coconut water may be an old commodity which is usually consumed as fresh, pasteurized coconut water (PCW) becomes a new entrant in the Philippine be...

  3. The Potential of Coconut Shell Powder (CSP) and Coconut Shell Activated Carbon (CSAC) Composites as Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Absorbing Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Nurbazilah Abdul Jabal; Seok, Y.B.; Hoon, W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture waste is potentially useful as an alternative material to absorb and attenuate electromagnetic interference (EMI). This research highlights the use of coconut shell powder (CSP) and coconut shell activated carbon (CSAC) as raw materials with epoxy resin and amine hardener composite to absorb microwave signals over frequency of 1 - 8 GHz. In order to investigate the suitability of these raw materials as EMI absorbing material, carbon composition of the raw materials is determined through CHNS Elemental Analysis. The surface morphology of the raw materials in term of porosity is investigated by using TM3000 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The complex permittivity of the composites is determined by using high temperature dielectric probe in conjunction with Network Analyzer. From the result, the Carbon% of CSP and CSAC is 46.70 % and 84.28 % respectively. In term of surface morphology, the surface porosity of CSP and CSAC is in the range of 2 μm and 1 μm respectively. For the dielectric properties, the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss factor for CSP and CSAC is 4.5767 and 64.8307 and 1.2144 and 13.8296 respectively. The materials more potentially useful as substitute materials for electromagnetic interference (EMI) absorbing are discussed. (author)

  4. Commercial Biomass Syngas Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Daniell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of gas fermentation for the production of low carbon biofuels such as ethanol or butanol from lignocellulosic biomass is an area currently undergoing intensive research and development, with the first commercial units expected to commence operation in the near future. In this process, biomass is first converted into carbon monoxide (CO and hydrogen (H2-rich synthesis gas (syngas via gasification, and subsequently fermented to hydrocarbons by acetogenic bacteria. Several studies have been performed over the last few years to optimise both biomass gasification and syngas fermentation with significant progress being reported in both areas. While challenges associated with the scale-up and operation of this novel process remain, this strategy offers numerous advantages compared with established fermentation and purely thermochemical approaches to biofuel production in terms of feedstock flexibility and production cost. In recent times, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology techniques have been applied to gas fermenting organisms, paving the way for gases to be used as the feedstock for the commercial production of increasingly energy dense fuels and more valuable chemicals.

  5. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  6. Assessment of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Cement Panel Influenced by Treated and Untreated Coconut Fiber Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Alida; Jamaludin, Shamsul Baharin; Anwar, Mohamed Iylia; Noor, Mazlee Mohd; Hussin, Kamarudin

    This project was conducted to produce a cement panel with the addition of treated and untreated coconut fiber in cement panel. Coconut fiber was added to replace coarse aggregate (sand) in this cement panel. In this project, the ratios used to design the mixture were 1:1:0, 1:0.97:0.03, 1:0.94:0.06, 1:0.91:0.09 (cement: sand: coconut fiber). The water cement ratio was constant at 0.55. The sizes of sample tested were, 160 mm x 40 mm x 40 mm for compression test, and 100 mm x 100 mm x 40 mm for density, moisture content and water absorption tests. After curing samples for 28 days, it was found that the addition of coconut fiber, further increase in compressive strength of cement panel with untreated coconut fiber. Moisture content of cement panel with treated coconut fiber increased with increasing content of coconut fiber whereas water absorption of cement panel with untreated coconut fiber increased with increasing content of coconut fiber. The density of cement panel decreased with the addition of untreated and treated coconut fiber.

  7. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous...... morphology, together with non-Newtonian rheological properties (shear thinning), result in poor oxygen transfer unless sufficient energy is provided to the fermentation. While genomic research may improve the organisms, there is no doubt that to enable further application in future it will be necessary...... to match such research with studies of oxygen transfer and energy supply to high viscosity fluids. Hence, the implementation of innovative solutions (some of which in principle are already possible) will be essential to ensure the further development of such fermentations....

  8. Assessment of Helicobacter pylori eradication by virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Manuel; Romero, Concepción; de Castro, Antonio; Vargas, Julio; Medina, Eduardo; Millán, Raquel; Brenes, Manuel

    2012-08-01

     A recent study conducted by Medina et al. disclosed that virgin olive oil has a bactericidal effect in vitro against Helicobacter pylori because of its contents of certain phenolic compounds with dialdehydic structures. We carried out two clinical trials to evaluate the effect of virgin olive oil on H. pylori-infected individuals.  Two different pilot studies were performed with 60 H. pylori-infected adults. In the first study, thirty subjects who tested positive for H. pylori received 30 g of washed virgin olive oil for 14 days, and after 1 month, the patients took 30 g of unwashed virgin olive oil for another 14 days. In a second study, a group of 30 subjects received 30 g of a different virgin olive oil for 14 days. Helicobacter pylori-infection status was checked by the urea breath test.  Helicobacter pylori was eradicated in 8 of 30 individuals when microorganism status was checked after 4-6 weeks from the first clinical intervention although 12 of 30 individuals did not show H. pylori infection at 24-72 hour of the last oil dose. Eradication rates were 27 and 40% by intention to treat and per protocol, respectively. Moreover, only 3 of 30 individuals were H. pylori negative after 4-6 weeks from the second clinical intervention but 5 of 30 were negative at 24-72 hour of the last oil dose. Eradication rates were 10 and 11% by intention to treat and per protocol, respectively. It must also be noted that 13 subjects withdrew from the studies because of taste and nausea drawbacks.  The administration of virgin olive oil showed moderate effectiveness in eradicating H. pylori. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings, especially with longer periods, different administration conditions, and several types of olive oils. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Fiber Optic Long Period Grating Based Sensor for Coconut Oil Adulteration Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Libish

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the development and demonstration of a Long-Period Grating (LPG based optical fiber sensor for determining the adulteration of coconut oil by palm oil. The fundamental principle of detection is the sensitive dependence of the resonance peaks of LPG on the changes of the refractive index of the environmental medium around the cladding surface of the grating. Refractive index sensing with LPGs employs light coupling between core and cladding modes in the grating section. The transmittance spectra of a long period grating element immersed in different mixtures of coconut oil and palm oil were recorded. Results show that resonance wavelengths and transmission intensities varied as a function of the adulteration level of coconut oil. Detection limit of adulteration was found to be 2 % for coconut oil–palm oil binary mixture.

  10. High free fatty acid coconut oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakpong, Piyanuch; Wootthikanokkhan, Sasiwimol [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Krungthep, 2 Nanglinchee Road, Sathorn, Bangkok 10120 (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Coconut oil having 12.8% free fatty acid (FFA) was used as a feedstock to produce biodiesel by a two-step process. In the first step, FFA level of the coconut oil was reduced to 0.6% by acid-catalyzed esterification. In the second step, triglycerides in product from the first step were transesterified with methanol by using an alkaline catalyst to produce methyl esters and glycerol. Effect of parameters related to these processes was studied and optimized, including methanol-to-oil ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time. Methyl ester content of the coconut biodiesel was determined by GC to be 98.4% under the optimum condition. The viscosity of coconut biodiesel product was very close to that of Thai petroleum diesel and other measured properties met the Thai biodiesel (B100) specification. (author)

  11. A study on the use of renewable energy for coconut dehusking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsudin Shamsul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A solar photovoltaic (PV coconut dehusking machine may become one important application of renewable energy especially in rural areas like in Sarawak. It will not only enhance the socio-economy in such areas but also indirectly reduce the risk of injuries from the process of dehusking coconuts manually. Thus the purpose of the study is to simulate the performance of the PV coconut dehusking machine by circuit modeling in Simulink and PVsyst software. Simulation results showed that it could match the rpm and torque required in the dry coconut shear test. Furthermore, when implemented, such a PV-powered machine is expected to offer better cost of ownership in the long term when compared to a dehusking machine that runs on fossil fuel based on the PVsyst software analysis.

  12. Antibacterial Effect of Carvacrol and Coconut Oil on Selected Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božik M.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils play a prominent role as flavouring agents and fragrances in the food and perfume industries. Carvacrol is a major component of various essential oils, such as oregano and thyme oils, and is responsible for their antimicrobial activity. Lauric acid is a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA with a high antibacterial potential. Both carvacrol and MCFAs have been used empirically as antimicrobial agents. Here, we tested the inhibitory properties of carvacrol and coconut (Cocos nucifera L. oil containing a high percentage of MCFAs against 5 harmful bacterial pathogens: Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus cecorum. Gas chromatography (GC-FID analysis of coconut oil showed a high concentration of lauric acid (41%. Microdilution antimicrobial assays showed that the combination of carvacrol and coconut oil had a stronger antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria than both agents separately. We conclude that carvacrol could significantly improve the antibacterial effect of coconut oil.

  13. Production of Methyl Laurate from Coconut Cream through Fractionation of Methyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnner P. Sitompul

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the production of methyl laurate from coconut cream through fractionation of methyl esters. Coconut oil was produced by wet processing of coconut cream. The esters were prepared by reacting coconut oil and methanol using homogeneous catalyst KOH in a batch reactor, followed by fractionation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME at various reduced pressures applying differential batch vacuum distillation. Experimental data were compared with simulation of a batch distillation employing the simple Raoult’s model and modified Raoult’s model of phase equilibria. Activity coefficients (γi were determined by optimization to refine the models. The modified Rault’s model with activity coefficients gave better agreement with the experimental data, giving the value of γi between 0,56-0,73. For a given boiling temperature, lower operating pressure produced higher purity of C10 and C12 FAME for respective distillates.

  14. Crystal Structure of Cocosin, A Potential Food Allergen from Coconut (Cocos nucifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tengchuan; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Caiying; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yu-Wei; Guo, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Cao, Min-Jie; Fu, Tong-Jen; McHugh, Tara H; Zhang, Yuzhu

    2017-08-30

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera) is an important palm tree. Coconut fruit is widely consumed. The most abundant storage protein in coconut fruit is cocosin (a likely food allergen), which belongs to the 11S globulin family. Cocosin was crystallized near a century ago, but its structure remains unknown. By optimizing crystallization conditions and cryoprotectant solutions, we were able to obtain cocosin crystals that diffracted to 1.85 Å. The cocosin gene was cloned from genomic DNA isolated from dry coconut tissue. The protein sequence deduced from the predicted cocosin coding sequence was used to guide model building and structure refinement. The structure of cocosin was determined for the first time, and it revealed a typical 11S globulin feature of a double layer doughnut-shaped hexamer.

  15. Complete sequence and comparative analysis of the chloroplast genome of coconut palm (Cocos nucifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Yi; Matzke, Antonius J M; Matzke, Marjori

    2013-01-01

    Coconut, a member of the palm family (Arecaceae), is one of the most economically important trees used by mankind. Despite its diverse morphology, coconut is recognized taxonomically as only a single species (Cocos nucifera L.). There are two major coconut varieties, tall and dwarf, the latter of which displays traits resulting from selection by humans. We report here the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of a dwarf coconut plant, and describe the gene content and organization, inverted repeat fluctuations, repeated sequence structure, and occurrence of RNA editing. Phylogenetic relationships of monocots were inferred based on 47 chloroplast protein-coding genes. Potential nodes for events of gene duplication and pseudogenization related to inverted repeat fluctuation were mapped onto the tree using parsimony criteria. We compare our findings with those from other palm species for which complete cp genome sequences are available.

  16. Performance of non-coconut base adsorbers in removal of iodine and organic iodides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, R.D.; Pasha, M.; Fowler, E.E.; Goldsmith, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Systems for the removal of radioactive iodine and organic iodides have used impregnated coconut shell activated carbons almost exclusively. Coconut shell carbons have some disadvantages: their geographical origin determines their trace chemical content; pore structures and impregnant effectiveness are highly dependent on activation and impregnation techniques. The authors report laboratory performance of a group of iodine-organic iodide adsorbers using bases other than coconut shell carbon. These have been evaluated in conformity with USAEC Regulatory Guide 1.52 and RDT M16 1T. Performance with regard to 131 I 2 and CH 3 131 I penetration and high-temperature elution have equaled or exceeded both the requirements of Guide 1.52 and results on typical coconut-shell carbons. Some performance outside Guide 1.52 ranges is included. Experimental problems in simulated LOCA testing are discussed. (U.S.)

  17. Cellulose nanowhiskers from coconut husk fibers: effect of preparation conditions on their thermal and morphological behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellulose nanowhiskers were prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis from coconut husk fibers which had previously been submitted to a delignification process. The effects of preparation conditions on the thermal and morphological behavior of the nanocrystals were investigated. Cellulose nanowhisker sus...

  18. Final report on the safety assessment of Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil and related ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Christina L; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2011-05-01

    Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil, oil from the dried coconut fruit, is composed of 90% saturated triglycerides. It may function as a fragrance ingredient, hair conditioning agent, or skin-conditioning agent and is reported in 626 cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0001% to 70%. The related ingredients covered in this assessment are fatty acids, and their hydrogenated forms, corresponding fatty alcohols, simple esters, and inorganic and sulfated salts of coconut oil. The salts and esters are expected to have similar toxicological profiles as the oil, its hydrogenated forms, and its constituent fatty acids. Coconut oil and related ingredients are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.

  19. Evolution of caesium 137 levels in coconut water and copra in french Polynesia, since 1967

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabis de Saint-Chamas, L.; Bablet, J.P.; Ducousso, R.; Arnould, C.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear experiments have been carried out by France in french Polynesia since 1966. The tests were first atmospheric, they have been underground since 1975. The experiment monitoring programme includes monitoring of 137 Cs contents in coconuts from the whole french polynesian territory. The methodology is described and the results of the 2 589 samples collected for 1967 to 1988 are presented. The maximum content found since 1967 is 52 Bq.kg -1 for coconut water and 289 Bq.kg -1 for coconut copra. The decrease of 137 Cs content is constant without discontinuity, whatever the distance from the explosion sites. The committed dose equivalent from 137 Cs delivered by coconut water and copra consumption represents only a few microsieverts a year [fr

  20. First report on the whitefly, Aleurodicus pseudugesii on the coconut palm, Cocos nucifera in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Omena, Rose Paula Mendonça; Guzzo, Elio Cesar; Ferreira, Joana Maria Santos; de Mendonça, Fernando Antônio Cavalcante; de Lima, Aurino Florencio; Racca-Filho, Francisco; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), is currently grown extensively throughout the intertropical zones of the world, including Brazil, where it constitutes an important source of income for growers. Although whiteflies are not normally considered coconut pests, these insects can damage crops directly by sucking the sap, which weakens the plant; indirect damage may be caused by sooty mold formation over the excreted honeydew and by the transmission of pathogens. Whiteflies have infested coconut plants in the northeastern, northern, and southeastern regions of Brazil. Infested materials were collected and the causative insect was identified as Aleurodicus pseudugesii Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). This is the first report of A. pseudugesii in Brazil as a pest of the coconut palm.

  1. A Survey on Robotic Coconut Tree Climbers - Existing Methods and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan Megalingam, Rajesh; Sakthiprasad, K. M.; Sreekanth, M. M.; Vamsy Vivek, Gedela

    2017-08-01

    As the coconut palm growers are struggling with the acute shortage of human coconut tree climbers to climb and harvest the coconuts, many are working towards possible alternatives to help them handle this situation. In this study paper we analyse the problems associated with the shortage of human coconut tree climbers in -depth. We also present details of various existing mechanical models available in the market and have not yet solved this issue. Along with this we discuss how robotics and automation could be a possible solution for this entire problem. In this context we discuss about the features of such robotic system and also give suggestions on various unmanned robotic models that can be designed and implemented.

  2. Koji for alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, T; Ogihara, H

    1956-06-25

    The pressed cake of fermented alcohol mash was used for preparing koji. The cake included considerable amounts of sugar, N-containing materials, enzymes, and vitamins, and gave a high-quality koji for alcohol fermentation. For example, the cake can be mixed with wheat bran and rice husks in the proportion 6:5:0 or 6:2:3 to make koji in the usual way. The saccharification power of the new koji was about 1.1 to 1.2 times as strong as that of usual koji prepared from wheat bran and rice husks.

  3. Mechanical characterization of the green coconut fiber for application in the footwear industry

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Célia Regina da; Sanches, Regina Aparecida; Ramos, Júlia Baruque; Filho, Jose Jorge Boueri; Guimarães, Barbara Maria Gama

    2013-01-01

    In the tropical countries, the green coconut water consumption generates a great problem with the fruit final destination. To minimize this problem, it is necessary to find applicability to the residues. In this sense, this study had as its objective to investigate the characteristics of the green coconut fiber, from the fruit disposed in the city of Francisco Morato – Sao Paulo, and to compare them to the characteristics from other natural fibers, to check the viability of ap...

  4. Mechanical Properties of Medium Density Fibreboard Composites Material Using Recycled Rubber and Coconut Coir

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mahzan; A.M. Ahmad Zaidi; M.I. Ghazali; N. Arsat; M.N. M. Hatta

    2010-01-01

    Natural fibre reinforced composite has emerged as highly potential replacement for synthetic fibres. Various natural waste fibres have been adopted for various engineering applications. This paper investigates the mechanical properties of medium density fibreboard composites material fabricated using recycled rubber and coconut coir. The suitability of using recycled rubber and coconut coir as a raw material and polyurethane as a resin in the manufacturer of medium density fibreboard was also...

  5. The effect of oil pulling with pure coconut oil on Streptococcus mutans: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha Komath Pavithran; Madhusudhan Krishna; Vinod A Kumar; Ashish Jaiswal; Arul K Selvan; Sudhir Rawlani

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Oil pulling as described in ancient Ayurveda involves the use of edible vegetable oils as oral antibacterial agents. It is a practice of swishing oil in the mouth for oral and systemic health benefits. Pure coconut oil has antimicrobial properties and is commonly available in all Indian households. Aim: This study aims to assess the effect of oil pulling therapy with pure coconut oil on Streptococcus mutans count and to compare its efficacy against sesame oil and saline. Materia...

  6. Biosorption of uranium in radioactive liquid organic waste by coconut fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Ferreira, Eduardo Gurzoni Alvares; Vieira, Ludmila Cabreira; Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Silva, Edson Antonio da

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive liquid organic waste needs special attention because the available treatment processes are often expensive and difficult to be managed. Biosorption is a potential technique since it allies low cost with relatively high efficiency. Biosorption has been defined as the property of certain biomolecules to bind and remove selected ions or other molecules from aqueous solutions. Biosorption using vegetable biomass from agricultural waste has become a very attractive technique because it involves the removal of heavy metal ions by low cost biosorbent. This technique could be employed in the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes. Among the biosorbent reported in the literature, coconut fiber (Cocos nucifera L.) is highlighted due to the large number of functional groups in its composition. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of coconut fiber to remove uranium from radioactive liquid organic waste. This work was divided into three stages: 1) Preparation and activation of the coconut fiber; 2) Physical characterization of the biomass, 3) Batch biosorption experiments. Two forms of coconut fiber were tested, raw and activated. The activation was performed with dilute HNO3 and NaOH solutions. The parameters evaluated for physical characterization of biomass were morphological characteristics of coconut fiber, real and apparent density and surface area. The biomass was suspended in 10 ml of solutions prepared with distillate water and radioactive liquid waste for 2 hours in the proportion of 0.2% w/v. After the contact time, the coconut fiber was removed by filtration and the supernatant, analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).The results were evaluated using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum capacity for the raw coconut fiber was lower than the activated one, removing only 1.14mg/g against 2.61mg/g. These results suggest that biosorption with coconut fiber in activated form can be applied in the

  7. Coconut water of different maturity stages ameliorates inflammatory processes in model of inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sadia Saleem; Najam, Rahila

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Coconut water is a natural beverage that is a part of daily diet of many people. This study was designed to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of coconut water of different maturation stages (young and mature) with rat paw edema model of inflammation using plethysmometer. Methodology: For this study, albino rats were selected and divided into four equal groups (10 rats in each group). Group 1 was set as control and administered distilled water 1 ml orally; Groups 2 and 3 were treated with young and mature coconut water, respectively, at 4 ml/100 g dose orally. Group 4 was treated with the standard drug (ibuprofen) at 400 mg/70 kg. 0.1 ml of 1% w/v acetic acid was administered in the subplantar tissue of rat paw 30 min after oral treatments of groups. Plethysmometer was used to measure rat paw edema. Results: Results revealed that both coconut water possess significant anti-inflammatory activity (P coconut water was 20.22%, 35.13%, 42.52%, and 36% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h of acetic acid administration, respectively. However, maximum percent inhibition (42.52%) was observed in the second phase of the inflammatory process. On the other hand, percent inhibition by mature coconut water was 18.80%, 25.94%, 24.13%, and 18.66% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h of acetic acid administration, respectively. However, maximum percent inhibition (25.94%) was observed in the first phase of the inflammatory process. Conclusions: This study strongly suggests the use of young coconut water for potent anti-inflammatory effect and mature coconut water for moderate anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:27366350

  8. Biosorption of uranium in radioactive liquid organic waste by coconut fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Ferreira, Eduardo Gurzoni Alvares; Vieira, Ludmila Cabreira; Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Edson Antonio da, E-mail: edson.silva2@unioeste.br [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive liquid organic waste needs special attention because the available treatment processes are often expensive and difficult to be managed. Biosorption is a potential technique since it allies low cost with relatively high efficiency. Biosorption has been defined as the property of certain biomolecules to bind and remove selected ions or other molecules from aqueous solutions. Biosorption using vegetable biomass from agricultural waste has become a very attractive technique because it involves the removal of heavy metal ions by low cost biosorbent. This technique could be employed in the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes. Among the biosorbent reported in the literature, coconut fiber (Cocos nucifera L.) is highlighted due to the large number of functional groups in its composition. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of coconut fiber to remove uranium from radioactive liquid organic waste. This work was divided into three stages: 1) Preparation and activation of the coconut fiber; 2) Physical characterization of the biomass, 3) Batch biosorption experiments. Two forms of coconut fiber were tested, raw and activated. The activation was performed with dilute HNO3 and NaOH solutions. The parameters evaluated for physical characterization of biomass were morphological characteristics of coconut fiber, real and apparent density and surface area. The biomass was suspended in 10 ml of solutions prepared with distillate water and radioactive liquid waste for 2 hours in the proportion of 0.2% w/v. After the contact time, the coconut fiber was removed by filtration and the supernatant, analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).The results were evaluated using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum capacity for the raw coconut fiber was lower than the activated one, removing only 1.14mg/g against 2.61mg/g. These results suggest that biosorption with coconut fiber in activated form can be applied in the

  9. Tissue culture and associated biotechnological interventions for the improvement of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang Thien; Bandupriya, H D Dharshani; López-Villalobos, Arturo; Sisunandar, S; Foale, Mike; Adkins, Steve W

    2015-11-01

    The present review discusses not only advances in coconut tissue culture and associated biotechnological interventions but also future research directions toward the resilience of this important palm crop. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is commonly known as the 'tree of life'. Every component of the palm can be used to produce items of value and many can be converted into industrial products. Coconut cultivation faces a number of acute problems that reduce its productivity and competitiveness. These problems include various biotic and abiotic challenges as well as an unstable market for its traditional oil-based products. Around 10 million small-holder farmers cultivate coconut palms worldwide on c. 12 million hectares of land, and many more people own a few coconut palms that contribute to their livelihoods. Inefficiency in the production of seedlings for replanting remains an issue; however, tissue culture and other biotechnological interventions are expected to provide pragmatic solutions. Over the past 60 years, much research has been directed towards developing and improving protocols for (i) embryo culture; (ii) clonal propagation via somatic embryogenesis; (iii) homozygote production via anther culture; (iv) germplasm conservation via cryopreservation; and (v) genetic transformation. Recently other advances have revealed possible new ways to improve these protocols. Although effective embryo culture and cryopreservation are now possible, the limited frequency of conversion of somatic embryos to ex vitro seedlings still prevents the large-scale clonal propagation of coconut. This review illustrates how our knowledge of tissue culture and associated biotechnological interventions in coconut has so far developed. Further improvement of protocols and their application to a wider range of germplasm will continue to open up new horizons for the collection, conservation, breeding and productivity of coconut.

  10. Genetic relationship and diversity among coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) accessions revealed through SCoT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, M K; Sabana, A A; Rachana, K E; Rahman, Shafeeq; Jerard, B A; Karun, Anitha

    2015-12-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is one of the important palms grown both as a homestead and plantation crop in countries and most island territories of tropical regions. Different DNA-based marker systems have been utilized to assess the extent of genetic diversity in coconut. Advances in genomics research have resulted in the development of novel gene-targeted markers. In the present study, we have used a simple and novel marker system, start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT), for its evaluation as a potential marker system in coconut. SCoT markers were utilized for assessment of genetic diversity in 23 coconut accessions (10 talls and 13 dwarfs), representing different geographical regions. Out of 25 SCoT primers screened, 15 primers were selected for this study based on their consistent amplification patterns. A total of 102 scorable bands were produced by the 15 primers, 88 % of which were polymorphic. The scored data were used to construct a similarity matrix. The similarity coefficient values ranged between 0.37 and 0.91. These coefficients were utilized to construct a dendrogram using the unweighted pair group of arithmetic means (UPGMA). The extent of genetic diversity observed based on SCoT analysis of coconut accessions was comparable to earlier findings using other marker systems. Tall and dwarf coconut accessions were clearly demarcated, and in general, coconut accessions from the same geographical region clustered together. The results indicate the potential of SCoT markers to be utilized as molecular markers to detect DNA polymorphism in coconut accessions.

  11. CoCoNuT: General relativistic hydrodynamics code with dynamical space-time evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmelmeier, Harald; Novak, Jérôme; Cerdá-Durán, Pablo

    2012-02-01

    CoCoNuT is a general relativistic hydrodynamics code with dynamical space-time evolution. The main aim of this numerical code is the study of several astrophysical scenarios in which general relativity can play an important role, namely the collapse of rapidly rotating stellar cores and the evolution of isolated neutron stars. The code has two flavors: CoCoA, the axisymmetric (2D) magnetized version, and CoCoNuT, the 3D non-magnetized version.

  12. Microbial degradation of coconut coir dust for biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uyenco, F.R.; Ochoa, J.A.K.

    Several species of white-rot fungi were studied for its ability to degrade the lignocellulose components of coir dust at optimum conditions. The most effective fungi was Phanerochaeta chrysosporium UPCC 4003. This organism degraded the lignocellulose complex of coir dust at a rate of about 25 percent in 4 weeks. The degradation process was carried on with minimal nitrogen concentration, coconut water supplementation and moisture levels between 85-90 percent. Shake flask cultures of the degraded coir dust using cellulolytic fungi were not effective. In fermentor cultures with Chaetomium cellulolyticum UPCC 3934, supplemented coir dust was converted into a microbial biomass product (MBP) with 15.58 percent lignin, 19.20 percent cellulose and 18.87 percent protein. More work is being done on the utilization of coir dust on a low technology.

  13. Extraction and characterization of coconut (Cocos nucifera L. coir dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. U. Israel1,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the characterization and extraction of coconut coir dust using water, acetone, acetone/water (70/30, (50/50 respectively. The acetone extract of the coir dust was phytochemically screened for tannins, polyphenols,flavanoids, phlobatannins. The moisture, ash, lignin, and cellulose contents of the coir dust were determined bymeasuring the cation exchange capacity (CEC and the pH were found to be 2.39 mmol g-1 and 6.4 respectively. The degree ofswelling of coir dust increased with increased solvent contact time. The percentage extract showed the best solvent systemto be acetone/water (70/30. In all the solvent systems, the smaller the particle size of coir dust, the greater the amount ofextract. The phytochemical screening of the acetone extract indicated significant amount of tannins, flavanoids and otherpolyphenols in coir dust.

  14. Cryopreservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajini, K K; Karun, A; Amamath, C H; Engelmann, F

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of preculture conditions, vitrification and unloading solutions on survival and regeneration of coconut zygotic embryos after cryopreservation. Among the seven plant vitrification solutions tested, PVS3 was found to be the most effective for regeneration of cryopreserved embryos. The optimal protocol involved preculture of embryos for 3 days on medium with 0.6 M sucrose, PVS3 treatment for 16 h, rapid cooling and rewarming and unloading in 1.2 M sucrose liquid medium for 1.5 h. Under these conditions, 70-80 survival (corresponding to size enlargement and weight gain) was observed with cryopreserved embryos and 20-25 percent of the plants regenerated (showing normal shoot and root growth) from cryopreserved embryos were established in pots.

  15. Coconut-based biosorbents for water treatment--a review of the recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2010-10-15

    Biosorption is an emerging technique for water treatment utilizing abundantly available biomaterials (especially agricultural wastes). Among several agricultural wastes studied as biosorbents for water treatment, coconut has been of great importance as various parts of this tree (e.g. coir, shell, etc.) have been extensively studied as biosorbents for the removal of diverse type of pollutants from water. Coconut-based agricultural wastes have gained wide attention as effective biosorbents due to low-cost and significant adsorption potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. In this review, an extensive list of coconut-based biosorbents from vast literature has been compiled and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants as available in the literature are presented. Available abundantly, high biosorption capacity, cost-effectiveness and renewability are the important factors making these materials as economical alternatives for water treatment and waste remediation. This paper presents a state of the art review of coconut-based biosorbents used for water pollution control, highlighting and discussing key advancement on the preparation of novel adsorbents utilizing coconut wastes, its major challenges together with the future prospective. It is evident from the literature survey that coconut-based biosorbents have shown good potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. However, still there is a need to find out the practical utility of such developed adsorbents on commercial scale, leading to the superior improvement of pollution control and environmental preservation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Young coconut water ameliorates depression via modulation of neurotransmitters: possible mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sadia Saleem; Najam, Rahila

    2016-10-01

    In the current era, plants are frequently tested for its antidepressant potential. Therefore young coconut water, a commonly used plant based beverage, was selected to explore its antidepressant potential. Rodents were selected for this study and forced swim test was conducted to explore antidepressant activity. Analysis of brain biogenic amines using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection and potentiation of noradrenaline toxicity model were also incorporated in this study to demonstrate probable antidepressant mechanism of action. Coconut water was administered orally at the dose of 4 ml/100 g. Young coconut water showed highly significant increase in struggling time (p coconut water. In noradrenaline toxicity model, it was observed that young coconut water is not a good adrenergic component as its lethality percentage in this test was observed 0 % unlike imipramine which showed lethality of 100 %. High performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection of rodent's brain revealed decline in 5-hydroxytryptamine, noradrenaline and dopamine, with concomitant decline in metabolites 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid and increase in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/5-hydroxytryptamine ratio. Findings from the exploration of monoamines suggest antidepressant effect of young coconut water via homeostasis of monoamines synthesis.

  17. Modelling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Eduardo H M; Kabuki, Dirce Y; Esper, Luciana M R; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Kuaye, Arnaldo Y

    2009-09-01

    The behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes in the fresh coconut water stored at 4 degrees C, 10 degrees C and 35 degrees C was studied. The coconut water was aseptically extracted from green coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) and samples were inoculated in triplicate with a mixture of 5 strains of L. monocytogenes with a mean population of approximately 3 log(10) CFU/mL. The kinetic parameters of the bacteria were estimated from the Baranyi model, and compared with predictions of the Pathogen Modelling Program so as to predict its behaviour in the beverage. The results demonstrated that fresh green coconut water was a beverage propitious for the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes and that refrigeration at 10 degrees C or 4 degrees C retarded, but did not inhibit, growth of this bacterium. Temperature abuse at 35 degrees C considerably reduced the lagtimes. The study shows that L. monocytogenes growth in fresh green coconut water is controlled for several days by storage at low temperature, mainly at 4 degrees C. Thus, for risk population this product should only be drunk directly from the coconut or despite the sensorial alterations should be consumed pasteurized.

  18. Virgin and recycled engine oil differentiation: a spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Al-Atoum, Lina

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the changes that occur during their use, used engine oils tend to differ in chemical and physical composition from a virgin oil. In general recycled oils have: much higher water and sediment levels than virgin oil; relatively higher concentrations of organic compounds (oxidation products); and relatively higher levels of metals such as Fe, Cd, Cr, Pb, etc. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate, assess and to observe, by means of the physical and the chemical properties of the oils, atomic absorption (AA), inductive couple plasma (ICP) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses the extent of the differences occurring between the virgin and recycled oil. In important part of this work was also the development of analytical techniques based on the use of FTIR spectroscopy; in relation to the rapid analysis of lubricants; in particular for the differentiation of virgin and recycled oil. The results obtained were expected to be useful for differentiation purposes, providing information on whether the metal concentrations and oxidation products could be an appropriate feature for differentiating a particular oil sample from the others. This work is categorized into a two-step procedure. Firstly, an evaluation of a typical FTIR spectrum of an engine oil sample (mono- and multigrade) is presented. The broad feature centered at 1716 cm(-1) is due to the presence of carbonyl containing degradation products of oil. A band observed at 1732, 1169, 1154 and 1270 cm(-1) assigned to the polymethacrylate stretching vibrations, allows the determination of viscosity modifier and pour point depressant additives. The observed differences in the specific spectral bands (1732, 1169, 1154 and 1270 and 1716 cm(-1)) are investigated and discussed. Secondly, an analytical technique for the measurement of the levels of the wear metals is also applied.

  19. Destroyed virgin longleaf pine stand lives-on digitally

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Gilbert; S. Kush; Rebecca J. Barlow

    2015-01-01

    The Flomaton Natural Area (FNA) once stood as one of the few remnant fragments of virgin, old-growth longleaf pine stands (Pinus palustris Mill.) in the Southeast. This 80-acre stand contained trees over 200 years old. A restoration effort began in 1994 to remove off-site trees and to reintroduce fire to the site after over 40 years of fire suppression. A geographic...

  20. Virgin queen attraction toward males in honey bees

    OpenAIRE

    Bastin, Florian; Chol?, Hanna; Lafon, Gr?gory; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Although the honeybee is a crucial agricultural agent and a prominent scientific model organism, crucial aspects of its reproductive behaviour are still unknown. During the mating season, honeybee males, the drones, gather in congregations 10?40?m above ground. Converging evidence suggests that drones emit a pheromone that can attract other drones, thereby increasing the size of the congregation. Virgin queens join the vicinity of the congregation after it has formed, and mate with as many as...

  1. Ethyl alcohol by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-02-13

    Ethanol is made from solutions poor in sugar and free of yeast carriers, e.g. from whey, by fermentation under sterile conditions. The CO/sub 2/ formed in the decomposition of sugar is used as an agitating medium to ensure good contact between the yeast and the sugar.

  2. Fermentative Alcohol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martín, Mariano; Sánchez, Antonio; Woodley, John M.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter we present some of key principles of bioreactor design for the production of alcohols by fermentation of sugar and syngas . Due to the different feedstocks, a detailed analysis of the hydrodynamics inside the units , bubble columns or stirred tank reactors , the gas-liquid mass...

  3. Fermentative production of isobutene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Bianca N M; van der Wulp, Albertus M; Duijnstee, Isabelle; van Maris, Antonius J A; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2012-02-01

    Isobutene (2-methylpropene) is one of those chemicals for which bio-based production might replace the petrochemical production in the future. Currently, more than 10 million metric tons of isobutene are produced on a yearly basis. Even though bio-based production might also be achieved through chemocatalytic or thermochemical methods, this review focuses on fermentative routes from sugars. Although biological isobutene formation is known since the 1970s, extensive metabolic engineering is required to achieve economically viable yields and productivities. Two recent metabolic engineering developments may enable anaerobic production close to the theoretical stoichiometry of 1isobutene + 2CO(2) + 2H(2)O per mol of glucose. One relies on the conversion of 3-hydroxyisovalerate to isobutene as a side activity of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase and the other on isobutanol dehydration as a side activity of engineered oleate hydratase. The latter resembles the fermentative production of isobutanol followed by isobutanol recovery and chemocatalytic dehydration. The advantage of a completely biological route is that not isobutanol, but instead gaseous isobutene is recovered from the fermenter together with CO(2). The low aqueous solubility of isobutene might also minimize product toxicity to the microorganisms. Although developments are at their infancy, the potential of a large scale fermentative isobutene production process is assessed. The production costs estimate is 0.9 Euro kg(-1), which is reasonably competitive. About 70% of the production costs will be due to the costs of lignocellulose hydrolysate, which seems to be a preferred feedstock.

  4. Influence of Fiber Volume Fraction on the Tensile Properties and Dynamic Characteristics of Coconut Fiber Reinforced Composite

    OpenAIRE

    Izzuddin Zaman; Al Emran Ismail; Muhamad Khairudin Awang

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of coconut fibers as reinforcement in polymer composites has been increased significantly due to their low cost and high specific mechanical properties. In this paper, the mechanical properties and dynamic characteristics of a proposed combined polymer composite which consist of a polyester matrix and coconut fibers are determined. The influence of fibers volume fraction (%) is also evaluated and composites with volumetric amounts of coconut fiber up to 15% are fabricated. In ...

  5. Rosie Carpe and the Virgin Mary: Modelling Modern Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Eaton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Marie NDiaye’s 2001 novel, Rosie Carpe, incorporates, as one of its several instances of parenting failure, the narrative of the decline of a single mother from adequacy to abuse. This narrative, which is the focus of this article, might be said to put flesh on the bones of Julia Kristeva’s deconstruction of the Virgin Mary in her 1980s essay ‘Stabat Mater’. Kristeva saw the Marian model as out of date but she interrogated its enduring power and its continuing influence on our cultural perceptions of maternity. NDiaye’s eponymous Rosie realises she is pregnant but has no idea how this has come about. Rosie is not represented as a woman who has a religious faith but she decides to accept her child as a holy miracle. This article analyses how the ‘mythology’ of the Virgin Mary, and other biblical intertext, is woven into the narrative of Rosie’s experience of motherhood, so as to counterpoint and illuminate Rosie’s bleak and raw inner experience of maternity, an experience which, while confirming that Rosie is not, and never could have been, a modern Virgin Mary nevertheless refreshes the human stories at the root of the Christian narrative.

  6. Annualized TASAR Benefit Estimate for Virgin America Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Virgin America. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that about 25,000 gallons of fuel and about 2,500 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Virgin America in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Virgin America TASAR requests peaked at two to four requests per hour per sector in high-altitude Oakland and Salt Lake City center sectors east of San Francisco.

  7. Production of liquid transport fuel from cellulose material (wood). III Laboratory preparation of wood sugars and fermentation to ethanol and yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitworth, D A; Harwood, V D

    1977-10-25

    A laboratory procedure is described for hydrolyzing cellulose material to sugars by the use of hot sulfuric acid. The procedure has been used routinely for assessing raw materials. Raw materials used were radiata pine (fresh wood and decayed thinnings), pine needles, sawdust from old dumps, newspaper, cardboard, beech wood, and coconut wood. The neutralized sugar-liquors produced, supplemented with fertilizer grade nutrients, were fermented with bakers' yeast and gave near optimal conversion of hexoses to ethanol and of pentoses to protein biomass. From 100 g radiata pine (wood: bark mix 85:15) 25 ml (20 g) of ethanol and 2 g yeast biomass were routinely produced, although fermentation rates were lower than with pure sugars. The results, however, clearly showed that, by a hot dilute sulfure acid hydrolysis followed by a yeast fermentation process, cellulose resources avaliable in New Zealand are suitable for conversion to ethanol. 5 table, 1 figure.

  8. Influence of pH, sucrose concentration and agitation speed on exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus confusus TISTR 1498 using coconut water as a raw material substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phisit Seesuriyachan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Coconut water (CW was used as a complex nitrogen source for exopolysaccharide (EPS production by Lactobacillus confusus TISTR 1498 to reduce the cost of fermentation medium. EPS production was carried out in a bioreactor using (0.5× modified MRS-sucrose-CW medium, in which three relatively expensive complex nitrogen sources (peptone, yeast extract and beef extract were halved relative to those present in (1× modified MRS-sucrose medium. Fermentation parameters (pH, sucrose concentration and agitation speed were varied in the process of optimisation. Under an optimised condition (pH 5.5, sucrose concentration of 100 g/L and agitation rate of 50 rpm, the maximum EPS level of 38.2 g/L was produced at 35C after 30 h of cultivation. This EPS concentration (38.2 g/L from the (0.5× medium was higher than those produced in the (1× modified MRS-sucrose and (1× modified MRS-sucrose-CW media (21.3 and 31.5 g/L respectively, both having the original concentration of all three complex nitrogen sources. Thus, in a bioreactor where the pH level was properly controlled, the EPS production was greatly enhanced. Sugar concentration also played an important role in the production of EPS.

  9. Contaminants assessment in the coral reefs of Virgin Islands National Park and Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A.; Garrison, Virginia H.; Alvarez, David A.; Echols, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Coral, fish, plankton, and detritus samples were collected from coral reefs in Virgin Islands National Park (VIIS) and Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICR) to assess existing contamination levels. Passive water sampling using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semi-permeable membrane devices found a few emerging pollutants of concern (DEET and galaxolide) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Very little persistent organic chemical contamination was detected in the tissue or detritus samples. Detected contaminants were at concentrations below those reported to be harmful to aquatic organisms. Extracts from the POCIS were subjected to the yeast estrogen screen (YES) to assess potential estrogenicity of the contaminant mixture. Results of the YES (estrogen equivalency of 0.17–0.31 ng/L 17-β-estradiol) indicated a low estrogenicity likelihood for contaminants extracted from water. Findings point to low levels of polar and non-polar organic contaminants in the bays sampled within VICR and VIIS.

  10. 137 CS content in coconut water and copra in French Polynesia: contribution to the dose for population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletiko, C.; Arnould, C.; Sarbach, J.; Bablet, J.P.; Ducousso, R.

    1992-01-01

    Coconut tree has the peculiarity to be a good integrator for alkaline metals. The isotope 137 of cesium, which was generated during previous atmospheric nuclear tests, has a high fission yield and a half-life of about 30 years; this nuclide is supposed to be still present in food chain in French Polynesia. In this food chain coconut water and coconut copra are ingested depending upon diet customs and areas of French Polynesia. For some islands, among local foodstuffs, cesium 137 content in coconut highly contributes to the dose. Spectrometry gamma results and annual doses calculation since 1966 are displayed. (author)

  11. Coconut oil is associated with a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feranil, Alan B; Duazo, Paulita L; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Adair, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35-69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu. Coconut oil intake was estimated using the mean of two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.5±8.9 grams). Lipid profiles were measured in morning plasma samples collected after an overnight fast. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency. Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol especially among pre-menopausal women, suggesting that coconut oil intake is associated with beneficial lipid profiles. Coconut oil consumption was not significantly associated with low density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride values. The relationship of coconut oil to cholesterol profiles needs further study in populations in which coconut oil consumption is common.

  12. Coconut Oil Aggravates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiomyopathy without Inducing Obesity, Systemic Insulin Resistance, or Cardiac Steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuramu, Ilayaraja; Amin, Ruhul; Postnov, Andrey; Mishra, Mudit; Jacobs, Frank; Gheysens, Olivier; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; De Geest, Bart

    2017-07-18

    Studies evaluating the effects of high-saturated fat diets on cardiac function are most often confounded by diet-induced obesity and by systemic insulin resistance. We evaluated whether coconut oil, containing C12:0 and C14:0 as main fatty acids, aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in C57BL/6 mice. Mortality rate after TAC was higher ( p coconut oil diet-fed mice than in standard chow-fed mice (hazard ratio 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1.16 to 4.64) during eight weeks of follow-up. The effects of coconut oil on cardiac remodeling occurred in the absence of weight gain and of systemic insulin resistance. Wet lung weight was 1.76-fold ( p coconut oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial capillary density ( p coconut oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial glucose uptake was 1.86-fold ( p coconut oil mice and was accompanied by higher myocardial pyruvate dehydrogenase levels and higher acetyl-CoA carboxylase levels. The coconut oil diet increased oxidative stress. Myocardial triglycerides and free fatty acids were lower ( p coconut oil mice. In conclusion, coconut oil aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy.

  13. Status of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) as a pest of coconut in the state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D C; de Moraes, G J; Dias, C T S

    2012-08-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, is one of the main pests of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of the coconut mite and other mites on coconut palms in the state of São Paulo and to estimate the possible role of predatory mites in the control of this pest. The effect of cultivated genotypes and sampling dates on the mite populations was also estimated. We sampled attached fruits, leaflets, inflorescences, and fallen fruits. The coconut mite was the main phytophagous mite found on attached and fallen fruits, with average densities of 110.0 and 20.5 mites per fruit, respectively. The prevalent predatory mites on attached and fallen fruits were Proctolaelaps bulbosus Moraes, Reis & Gondim Jr. and Proctolaelaps bickleyi (Bram), both Melicharidae. On leaflets, the tenuipalpids Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijsks) and Tenuipalpus coyacus De Leon and the tetranychid Oligonychus modestus (Banks) were the predominant phytophagous mites. On both leaflets and inflorescences, the predominant predatory mites belonged to the Phytoseiidae. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), predators widely associated with the coconut mite in northeastern Brazil and several other countries, were not found. The low densities of the coconut mite in São Paulo could be related to prevailing climatic conditions, scarcity of coconut plantations (hampering the dispersion of the coconut mite between fields), and to the fact that some of the genotypes cultivated in the region are unfavorable for its development.

  14. Coconut oil protects cortical neurons from amyloid beta toxicity by enhancing signaling of cell survival pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafar, F; Clarke, J P; Mearow, K M

    2017-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that has links with other conditions that can often be modified by dietary and life-style interventions. In particular, coconut oil has received attention as having potentially having benefits in lessening the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. In a recent report, we showed that neuron survival in cultures co-treated with coconut oil and Aβ was rescued compared to cultures exposed only to Aβ. Here we investigated treatment with Aβ for 1, 6 or 24 h followed by addition of coconut oil for a further 24 h, or treatment with coconut oil for 24 h followed by Aβ exposure for various periods. Neuronal survival and several cellular parameters (cleaved caspase 3, synaptophysin labeling and ROS) were assessed. In addition, the influence of these treatments on relevant signaling pathways was investigated with Western blotting. In terms of the treatment timing, our data indicated that coconut oil rescues cells pre-exposed to Aβ for 1 or 6 h, but is less effective when the pre-exposure has been 24 h. However, pretreatment with coconut oil prior to Aβ exposure showed the best outcomes. Treatment with octanoic or lauric acid also provided protection against Aβ, but was not as effective as the complete oil. The coconut oil treatment reduced the number of cells with cleaved caspase and ROS labeling, as well as rescuing the loss of synaptophysin labeling observed with Aβ treatment. Treatment with coconut oil, as well as octanoic, decanoic and lauric acids, resulted in a modest increase in ketone bodies compared to controls. The biochemical data suggest that Akt and ERK activation may contribute to the survival promoting influence of coconut oil. This was supported by observations that a PI3-Kinase inhibitor blocked the rescue effect of CoOil on Aβ amyloid toxicity. Further studies into the mechanisms of action of coconut oil and its constituent medium chain fatty acids are warranted

  15. The smell of virgins: mating status of females affects male swimming behaviour in Oithona davisae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    in the presence of virgin when compared with mated females and that the cue is waterborne. The ability to distinguish between virgin and mated females may reduce male mortality during mate search and the cost related to mating behaviour (precopula) in both sexes. We estimate that at realistic population densities...... the ability of males to distinguish between virgin and mated females saves them several hours per day of dangerous and energetically expensive fast female tracking...

  16. TESTING VIRGINITY: HIV/AIDS, MODERNITY & ETHNICITY IN POST-APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Leak, Tia-Nicole

    2012-01-01

    TESTING VIRGINITY: HIV/AIDS, MODERNITY & ETHNICITY IN POST-APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICA TESTING VIRGINITY: HIV/AIDS, MODERNITY & ETHNICITY IN POST-APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICAAt the heart of this thesis is an examination of virginity testing as a practice steeped in tradition and born anew to fight the scourge of HIV/AIDS among the Zulu in South Africa. Virginity testing as an HIV/AIDS education and prevention program contrasts with the nationally-supported and internationally-funded loveLife program w...

  17. Nitrogen utilisation of lowland cauliflower grown on coconut coir dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Asiah

    2004-07-01

    Strong wind, high rainfall, the spread of diseases during rainy season and pests problems in open field agriculture have led to the current trend in growing vegetables under protected environment. The occurrence of soil borne disease, and limited suitable land for agriculture are some of the reasons to look for alternative media such as coconut coir dust. The basic properties of coconut coir dust as a soil less growing medium and the utilisation of nitrogen (n) fertiliser for the lowland cauliflower grown in them have not been thoroughly investigated and are therefore not well understood. This study has been conducted by the need to provide a basis for determining optimal levels/ concentration and forms of nitrogen supply, and by the need to minimize environmental consequences of lowland cauliflower production. It focuses on the effects of N supply in terms of different levels of N and ionic N forms in the nutrient solution, on the growth, development and N utilisation of cauliflower grown in coconut coir dust under greenhouse condition in the lowlands. Based on the plant growth parameters studied coconut coir dust was found to be more suitable than oil palm empty fruit bunch as a growing medium. From the growth and development study using coconut coir dust, it can be deduced that the N requirement by the plant is less at later growth stage regardless of low or high level of N in the nutrient solution. However, low level of N of 50 mg l{sup -1} was found to be inadequate for plant growth and curd yield. The N concentration levels of 200 mg l{sup -1} in the nutrient solution optimised both the vegetative and curd production. A somewhat lower level of N (170 mg l{sup -1}) produced curd weight not significantly different from N level of 200 mg l{sup -1}. The plant growth and curd yield was reduced by about 29.0 % at 400 mg N l{sup -1}. The N level of 400 mg l{sup -1} in the nutrient solution may be in excess to that actually required by the plant, resulting in a high

  18. Nitrogen utilisation of lowland cauliflower grown on coconut coir dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asiah Ahmad

    2004-01-01

    Strong wind, high rainfall, the spread of diseases during rainy season and pests problems in open field agriculture have led to the current trend in growing vegetables under protected environment. The occurrence of soil borne disease, and limited suitable land for agriculture are some of the reasons to look for alternative media such as coconut coir dust. The basic properties of coconut coir dust as a soil less growing medium and the utilisation of nitrogen (n) fertiliser for the lowland cauliflower grown in them have not been thoroughly investigated and are therefore not well understood. This study has been conducted by the need to provide a basis for determining optimal levels/ concentration and forms of nitrogen supply, and by the need to minimize environmental consequences of lowland cauliflower production. It focuses on the effects of N supply in terms of different levels of N and ionic N forms in the nutrient solution, on the growth, development and N utilisation of cauliflower grown in coconut coir dust under greenhouse condition in the lowlands. Based on the plant growth parameters studied coconut coir dust was found to be more suitable than oil palm empty fruit bunch as a growing medium. From the growth and development study using coconut coir dust, it can be deduced that the N requirement by the plant is less at later growth stage regardless of low or high level of N in the nutrient solution. However, low level of N of 50 mg l -1 was found to be inadequate for plant growth and curd yield. The N concentration levels of 200 mg l -1 in the nutrient solution optimised both the vegetative and curd production. A somewhat lower level of N (170 mg l -1 ) produced curd weight not significantly different from N level of 200 mg l -1 . The plant growth and curd yield was reduced by about 29.0 % at 400 mg N l -1 . The N level of 400 mg l -1 in the nutrient solution may be in excess to that actually required by the plant, resulting in a high unused N nutrient

  19. Virginity Requirement Versus Sexually-Active Young People: What Girls and Boys Think About Virginity in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulumeoderhwa, Maroyi

    2018-04-01

    This article aims to explore Congolese male and female high school students' cultural attitudes concerning virginity. The study employed a qualitative approach to collect data from 56 boys and girls aged 16-20 years old. Eight focus group discussions and 40 individual interviews were conducted among participants from two urban and two rural high schools in South Kivu province. Findings indicate that men are disappointed when they marry non-virgin girls. In fact, most male and female participants perceived girls who were virgins as trustworthy individuals. They believe that the girl's virginity loss brings shame to her family. However, some female participants clearly dissociate from societal views or norms about virginity, and remark that virginity itself is not the key to a successful household nor a guarantee for remaining faithful after marriage. Such traditional norms-in the context of high levels of rape-place enormous pressure on young women and cause them to lie about virginity because they fear losing their fiancés. They indicated that they would lie about it regardless of any consequences they may encounter. In fact, some traditional beliefs need to be challenged and modified.

  20. Electro-Fermentation - Merging Electrochemistry with Fermentation in Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; Pepé Sciarria, Tommy; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; De Wever, Heleen; Puig, Sebastià; Andersen, Stephen J; Rabaey, Korneel; Pant, Deepak

    2016-11-01

    Electro-fermentation (EF) merges traditional industrial fermentation with electrochemistry. An imposed electrical field influences the fermentation environment and microbial metabolism in either a reductive or oxidative manner. The benefit of this approach is to produce target biochemicals with improved selectivity, increase carbon efficiency, limit the use of additives for redox balance or pH control, enhance microbial growth, or in some cases enhance product recovery. We discuss the principles of electrically driven fermentations and how EF can be used to steer both pure culture and microbiota-based fermentations. An overview is given on which advantages EF may bring to both existing and innovative industrial fermentation processes, and which doors might be opened in waste biomass utilization towards added-value biorefineries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Limits to ambulatory displacement of coconut mites in absence and presence of food-related cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

    2014-04-01

    Ambulatory movement of plant-feeding mites sets limits to the distances they can cover to reach a new food source. In absence of food-related cues these limits are determined by survival, walking activity, walking path tortuosity and walking speed, whereas in presence of food the limits are also determined by the ability to orient and direct the path towards the food source location. For eriophyoid mites such limits are even more severe because they are among the smallest mites on earth, because they have only two pairs of legs and because they are very sensitive to desiccation. In this article we test how coconut mites (Aceria guerreronis Keifer) are constrained in their effective displacement by their ability to survive in absence of food (meristematic tissue under the coconut perianth) and by their ability to walk and orient in absence or presence of food-related cues. We found that the mean survival time decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing humidity. Under climatic conditions representative for the Tropics (27 °C and 75 % relative humidity) coconut mites survived on average for 11 h and covered 0.4 m, representing the effective linear displacement away from the origin. Within a period of 5 h, coconut mites collected from old fruits outside the perianth moved further away from the origin than mites collected under the perianth of young fruits. However, in the presence of food-related cues coconut mites traveled over 30 % larger distances than in absence of these cues. These results show that ambulatory movement of eriophyoid mites may well bring them to other coconuts within the same bunch and perhaps also to other bunches on the same coconut palm, but it is unlikely to help them move from palm to palm, given that palms usually do not touch each other.

  2. Agricultural residues as fuel for producer gas generation. Report from a test series with coconut shells, coconut husks, wheat straw and sugar cane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, C

    1981-08-01

    This paper reports on results from a series of tests with four different types of agricultural residues as fuel for producer gas generation. The fuels are coconut shells, coconut husks, pelletized wheat straw and pressed sugar cane. The tests were made with a 73 Hp agricultural tractor diesel engine equipped with a standard gasifier developed for wood chips in Sweden, and run on a testbed at the Swedish National Machinery Testing Institute. The engine was operated on approximately 10 per cent diesel oil and 90 per cent producer gas. The gas composition, its calorific value and temperature, the pressure drop and the engine power were monitored. Detailed elementary analysis of the fuel and gas were carried out. Observations were also made regarding the important aspects of bridging and slagging in the gasifier. The tests confirmed that coconut shells make an excellent fuel for producer gas generation. After 8 hours of running no problems with slags and bridging were experienced. Coconut husks showed no bridging but some slag formation. The gasifier operated satisfactorily for this fuel. Pelletized wheat straw and pressed sugar cane appeared unsuitable as fuel in the unmodified test gasifier (Type F 300) due to slag formation. It is important to note, however, that the present results are not optimal for any of the fuel used, the gasifier being designed for wood-chips and not for the test-fuels used. Tests using appropriately modified gasifiers are planned for the future.

  3. Process for production of high density/high performance binderless boards from whole coconut husk: Part 2: Coconut husk morphology, composition and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Putten, van der J.C.; Anayron, C.; Josol, F.; Peralta, A.

    2006-01-01

    For production of compression moulded boards from whole coconut husk the auto-adhesive properties are derived from the intrinsic high lignin content. Since the properties of manufactured boards for a large part will depend on the input husk material these properties are studied here. Husks of

  4. Continuous alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidrkal, M; Nejedly, A

    1956-01-01

    Results are given of investigations on the continuous production of ethanol on a laboratory and on a semi-commercial scale. The suggested devices are particularly described. Under constant conditions the production cycle required 12 to 17 days, the acidity being 4.0 to 415 ml. 0.1 N NaOH/100 ml and the concentration of fermented wort 10.5 to 11%. The maximum production from 1 h of fermentation space during 24 h was 8.67 l of absolute alcohol when the efflux was divided into several basins; when the efflux of sweet wort was collected into one basin only, the maximum production was 7.20 l of absolute alcohol. The amount of alcohol produced was 62.20 l/100 kg sugar.

  5. Butanol by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongo, M

    1960-07-19

    BuOH is produced by inoculating a carbohydrate mash with Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum (ATCC 13564), fermenting the inoculated mash, and recovering the BuOH by fractional distillation. Thus, a medium containing sugar 4, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ 0.2, Ca superphosphate 0.1, and CoCO/sub 3/ 0.3% is inoculated with a C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum culture and cultivated at 30/sup 0/ until the acidity begins to decrease. Then the culture is transferred to a second medium of similar composition. This transfer is repeated a third time, and then the culture is transferred to the main mash (same composition) and fermented for 60 hours at 30/sup 0/. The yield of BuOH is 11.5 g/1 or 25.5% of the sugar supplied.

  6. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Minyak Kelapa Murni (Virgin Coconut Oil dan Minyak Jarak (Castor Oil terhadap Sifat Fisikokimia dan Organoleptik Sabun Mandi Cair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Widyasanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available VCO contains of lauric acid that perform to smooth and to moisturize the skin. Castor oil has ricinoleic acid that serves to protect the skin. Therefore, both of the oil are suitable to be the raw material for liquid soap making. This study aimed were to produce a liquid soap, to determine the exact concentration of VCO and castor oil for liquid soap and to find out the effect of VCO and Castor Oil concentrations to the characteristics of liquid soap. The method used was laboratory experimental method with descriptive analysis. The treatments in this study were A =concentrations of VCO 100 %, B = concentrations of VCO 80 % and castor oil 20 %, C = concentrations of VCO 50 % and castor oil 50 %, D = concentrations of VCO 20 % and castor oil 80 %, and E = concentrations of castor oil 100 %,  from 200 gram soap base. The parameter observed for liquid soap included chemical properties, physical properties of soap, and organoleptic test. The result shows that all treatments complies the requirement SNI 06-4085-1996. The formula of liquid soap with treatment B was revealed as the best product with 0.01 % of total alkali content, pH value of 9.16 , specific gravity 1.06, and total plate count 5colonies/g. This technology process of natural liquid soap production with the VCO and castor oil could be develop and apply in industrial scale.

  7. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Minyak Kelapa Murni (Virgin Coconut Oil) dan Minyak Jarak (Castor Oil) terhadap Sifat Fisikokimia dan Organoleptik Sabun Mandi Cair

    OpenAIRE

    Asri Widyasanti; Shayana Junita; Sarifah Nurjanah

    2017-01-01

    VCO contains of lauric acid that perform to smooth and to moisturize the skin. Castor oil has ricinoleic acid that serves to protect the skin. Therefore, both of the oil are suitable to be the raw material for liquid soap making. This study aimed were to produce a liquid soap, to determine the exact concentration of VCO and castor oil for liquid soap and to find out the effect of VCO and Castor Oil concentrations to the characteristics of liquid soap. The method used was laboratory experiment...

  8. The Utilization of VCO (Virgin Coconut Oil) in Manufacturing of Solid Soap with Red Betel Leaf Extract Addition (Paper Crotum Ruiz &Pav)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, M.

    2018-04-01

    Soap is a compound of sodium or potassium with fatty acids from vegetable oils or solid animal fats, soft or liquid, and foamy. Considering the potential of VCO as the raw material for making soap and supported by the benefits of red betel leaves, then this research is done by making solid bath soap from VCO which is supplemented with Red betel leaf extract. The purpose of this research is to make solid soap from VCO with an extract of red betel leaf based on SNINo.06-3532199. Analyzing VCO oil, which is used for the manufacture of soap, consists of analysis of saponification figures, Iodine number and peroxide number. Has made solid soap from VCO oil with Red betel leaf extract. From the five quality standards established under SNI 06-3532-1994 only two quality standards that can be done that is water quality and the amount of acidity. The percent of water quality obtained is 10% meanwhile the amount of acidity obtained is 9,32%. According to the data, it can be concluded that the solid soap made was not fulfill SNI 06-3532-1994.

  9. Effect of consumption of fresh and heated virgin coconut oil on the blood pressure and inflammatory biomarkers: An experimental study in Sprague Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Afiq Hamsi

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Repeatedly heated VCO caused an elevation in the BP. The BP elevation was associated with a significant increase in the inflammatory bio-markers (VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and CRP, TXB2 and a significant reduction in the plasma PGI2 level.

  10. NOAA TIFF Image - 1 m Backscatter Mosaic of the Virgin Passage and the St. John Shelf, U.S. Virgin Islands, Project NF-10-03, 2010, UTM 20 WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the Virgin Passage in the US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography Team, in...

  11. NOAA TIFF Image - 1 m Backscatter Mosaic of the Virgin Passage and the St. John Shelf, U.S. Virgin Islands, Project NF-10-03, 2010, UTM 20 WGS84 (NCEI Accession 0131854)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the Virgin Passage in the US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography Team, in...

  12. Continuous alcoholic fermentation of molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazimierz, J

    1962-01-01

    The first Polish plant for ontinuous alcohol fermentation of molasses is described. Continuous fermentation permits a better use of the installation, automatic control, and shorter fermentation time. It yields more CO/sub 2/ for dry ice manufacture and decreases corrosion of apparatus. From 22 to 24% mash is used, giving a yield of 61.1 of 100-proof alc./kg. sucrose and an average of 37 kg. of dry yeast/1000 l. alcohol

  13. Process for production of high density/high performance binderless boards from whole coconut husk : part I : Lignin as intrinsic thermosetting binder resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Teunissen, W.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Peralta, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Coconuts are abundantly growing in coastal areas of tropical countries. The coconut husk is available in large quantities as residue from coconut production in many areas, which is yielding the coarse coir fibre. The husk comprises ca. 30 wt.% coir fibres and 70 wt.% pith. Both fibre and pith are

  14. Isolation of Exosome-Like Nanoparticles and Analysis of MicroRNAs Derived from Coconut Water Based on Small RNA High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhehao; Yu, Siran; Li, Min; Gui, Xin; Li, Ping

    2018-03-21

    In this study, the presence of microRNAs in coconut water was identified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the results of high-throughput small RNA sequencing. In addition, the differences in microRNA content between immature and mature coconut water were compared. A total of 47 known microRNAs belonging to 25 families and 14 new microRNAs were identified in coconut endosperm. Through analysis using a target gene prediction software, potential microRNA target genes were identified in the human genome. Real-time PCR showed that the level of most microRNAs was higher in mature coconut water than in immature coconut water. Then, exosome-like nanoparticles were isolated from coconut water. After ultracentrifugation, some particle structures were seen in coconut water samples using 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate fluorescence staining. Subsequent scanning electron microscopy observation and dynamic light scattering analysis also revealed some exosome-like nanoparticles in coconut water, and the mean diameters of the particles detected by the two methods were 13.16 and 59.72 nm, respectively. In conclusion, there are extracellular microRNAs in coconut water, and their levels are higher in mature coconut water than in immature coconut water. Some exosome-like nanoparticles were isolated from coconut water, and the diameter of these particles was smaller than that of animal-derived exosomes.

  15. Adsorptive studies of hazardous dye Tropaeoline 000 from an aqueous phase on to coconut-husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Rajeev [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474011 (India)], E-mail: rajeevjain54@yahoo.co.in; Shrivastava, Meenakshi [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474011 (India)

    2008-10-30

    This contribution presents result pertaining to the adsorptive removal of water-soluble hazardous dye Tropaeoline 000, on to a low cost adsorbent-coconut-husk and its efficiency in the dye colour sorption was compared with activated carbon (AC). The results obtained from the batch experiments revealed the ability of the coconut-husk to remove the Tropaeoline 000 dye. The adsorption of dye was carried out at different pH, temperatures, amount of adsorbent, contact time, concentration of adsorbate (initial dye concentration) and particle size. The adsorption studies revealed that the ongoing adsorption validates both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm at temperatures 30, 40 and 50 deg. The adsorption isotherm data was also employed to calculate thermodynamic parameters like {delta}G{sup o}, {delta}H{sup o} and {delta}S{sup o}. The negative values of {delta}G{sup o} indicate that the dye adsorption process is a spontaneous in nature. The positive value of {delta}H{sup o} shows the endothermic nature of AC/coconut-husk system whereas negative value of {delta}H{sup o} indicates that the exothermic nature of AC/coconut-husk. The adsorption was found to undergo via a pseudo-second order adsorption kinetics and the results revealed that coconut-husk, an agricultural waste, proved to be an excellent low cost adsorbent.

  16. Development of Coconut Trunk Fiber Geopolymer Hybrid Composite for Structural Engineering Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalia, F.; Akifah, N.; Nurfadilla; Subaer

    2017-03-01

    A research on the influence of coconut fiber trunk on mechanical properties based on fly ash has been conducted. The aims of this study was to examine the mechanical properties of geopolymer composites by varrying the concentration of coconut trunk fiber. Geopolymer synthesized by alkali activated (NaOH+H2O+Na2O.3SiO2) and cured at the temperature 700C for one hour. Specimens were synthesized into 5 different mass of fiber 0 g, 0.25 g, 0.50 g, 0.75 g, and 1.00 g keeping fly ash constant. The highest compressive strength was 89.44 MPa for specimen added with 0.50 g of fiber. The highest flexural strength was 7.64 MPa for the same sample. The interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between the matrix of geopolymers and coconut fiber was conducted by using Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The chemical composition of the specimen was examined by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The thermal properties of coconut fiber trunk was analyzed using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). It was found that coconut fiber was able to improve the mechanical and microstructure properties of geopolymers composites.

  17. Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Coconut Fiber as a Concrete Admixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramli M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high cost of conventional construction materials is the dominating factor affecting housing systems worldwide. Because of this, further research into alternative materials in construction is required. The purpose of this study is to experimentally investigate the physical characteristics and mechanical properties of concrete produced using shredded coconut fibre composites. The following percentage amounts of fibre were tested: 0 % (control, 0.6 %, and 1.8 %. The coconut fibres were cut to a certain length according to previous studies which suggested that the most ideal length is around 30 - 60mm. The test results showed that the compressive strength of concrete decreased as the percentage of total fibre in the concrete mix increased. The experimental results also showed that coconut fibre concrete performed satisfactorily in terms of crack growth in comparison to that of conventional concrete. Finally, it was concluded that the use of coconut fibres has great potential in the production of lightweight concrete or normal concrete for use in the construction of concrete structures. As coconut fibre is a natural material that is easily available and cheap, it is a particularly good, low-cost alternative. Therefore, this material has the potential to overcome the problem of escalating costs in the industry.

  18. The effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile components of desiccated coconut during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, T.P.; Azanza, M.P.

    1989-11-01

    Flavor volatiles of desiccated and irradiated desiccated coconut stored for 24 weeks at room temperature were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Chromatograms of fresh coconut meat revealed sone esters, ketones, aldehydes and alcohols which were responsible for its fruity odor. The oily odor of fresh coconut meat was attributed to minimal amount of delta lactones. Freshly desiccated coconut contained the same volatiles responsible for the fresh fruity odor but the concentration of the delta lactones was considerably higher. The newly irradiated desiccated coconut had the highest concentration of the delta lactones with other volatiles such as ethyl caproate, 1-hexanol, and caprylic aldehyde being also present. With storage, development of oily odor to rancid odor was noted due to increasing amount of delta lactones. Corresponding decrease of volatiles responsible for the fresh fruity odor was noted as shown by the chromatographic profiles of both irradiated and unirradiated samples. Odor deterioration was more pronounced in the irradiated sample. Significant changes in moisture content, peroxide and iodine values, and free acid were observed during storage. No significant changes, however were noted in percent oil, pH and water activity. Significant difference in color, taste and general acceptability were noted at the start of storage with odor changes becoming more evident only after 4 weeks of storage. (Auth.). 69 refs.; 15 figs.; 14 tabs.; Appendix p. 90-205

  19. PREPARATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM SILK COTTON WOOD AND COCONUT SHELL BY PYROLISIS WITH CERAMIC FURNACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarto Haryadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of activated carbon from silk cotton wood and coconut shell has been done. Carbon was made by pyrolysis process in the Muchalal furnace with 3000 watt electric power. The electric power was increased gradually from 1000, 2000 and then 3000 watt with interval 2 hours during 7 hours. Carbon was activated in Muchalal furnace with 4000 watt electric power during 2 hours and flowed with nitrogen gas. Product of the activated carbon was compared to standart product with several analysis including the surface area, acetic acid adsorption, iod adsorption and vapour adsorption. The results of analysis showed that surface area for silk cotton wood carbon, coconut shell carbon, and E.Merck product were 288.8072 m2/g, 222.9387 m2/g and 610.5543 m2/g, respectively. Acetic acid adsorption for silk cotton wood carbon, coconut shell carbon, and standart product were 157.391 mg/g, 132.791 mg/g, and 186.911 mg/g, respectively. Iodine adsorption for cotton wood carbon, coconut shell carbon, and standart product were 251.685 mg/g, 207.270 mg/g and 310.905 mg/g, respectively. Vapour adsorption for cotton wood carbon, coconut shell carbon and standart product were 12%, 4%,and 14%., respectively Key words : Activated carbon, pyrolysis, Muchalal furnace

  20. Adsorptive studies of hazardous dye Tropaeoline 000 from an aqueous phase on to coconut-husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Rajeev; Shrivastava, Meenakshi

    2008-01-01

    This contribution presents result pertaining to the adsorptive removal of water-soluble hazardous dye Tropaeoline 000, on to a low cost adsorbent-coconut-husk and its efficiency in the dye colour sorption was compared with activated carbon (AC). The results obtained from the batch experiments revealed the ability of the coconut-husk to remove the Tropaeoline 000 dye. The adsorption of dye was carried out at different pH, temperatures, amount of adsorbent, contact time, concentration of adsorbate (initial dye concentration) and particle size. The adsorption studies revealed that the ongoing adsorption validates both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm at temperatures 30, 40 and 50 deg. The adsorption isotherm data was also employed to calculate thermodynamic parameters like ΔG o , ΔH o and ΔS o . The negative values of ΔG o indicate that the dye adsorption process is a spontaneous in nature. The positive value of ΔH o shows the endothermic nature of AC/coconut-husk system whereas negative value of ΔH o indicates that the exothermic nature of AC/coconut-husk. The adsorption was found to undergo via a pseudo-second order adsorption kinetics and the results revealed that coconut-husk, an agricultural waste, proved to be an excellent low cost adsorbent

  1. Variability in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm and hybrids for fatty acid profile of oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Naresh

    2011-12-28

    Coconut oil, the main product of coconut fruit, is the richest source of glycerol and lauric acid and hence is called lauric oil. This paper reports the fatty acid profile of oil from 60 Talls, 14 Dwarfs, and 34 hybrids. These include collections from 13 countries covering a large coconut-growing area of the world, apart from the indigenous ones. Capillary gas chromatography analysis of oil indicated a wider variation for the fatty acid profile than earlier reported. Apart from this, for the first time other fatty acids such as behenic and lignoceric acids were detected. Oil from cultivars and hybrids of coconut has significantly differed, particularly for commercially important fatty acids such as lauric acid and unsaturated fatty acids. However, coconut oil seems to have a conserved fatty acid profile, mainly because of low unsaturated fatty acids, indicating the possibility of grouping cultivars on the basis of their fatty acid profiles. The cluster analysis based on fatty acid profile indicated grouping together of geographically and typically closely related cultivars. Cultivars with high concentrations of specific fatty acids can be of potential use for industrial exploitation, whereas those with high concentrations of short- and medium-chain fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids are more suitable for human consumption. Cultivars and hybrids with high and low values for each of the fatty acids are also identified.

  2. Fire-retardant Polyester Composites from Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Wastes Reinforced with Coconut Fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Munirah Abdullah; Ishak Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Coconut fibre reinforced composite was prepared by blending unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) from waste PET with 0.3 v % of coconut fibre. The coconut fibres were pre-treated with sodium hydroxide followed by silane prior to inclusion into the UPR. The untreated coconut fibres reinforced composite were used as a control. DriconR as a phosphate type of flame retardant was then added to the composite to reduce the flammability of the composite. The amount of DriconR was varied from 0 to 10 wt % of the overall mass of resin. The burning properties and limiting oxygen index (LOI) of the treated and untreated composites increased with the addition of Dricon. The tensile strength and modulus of both composites were also increased with the addition of DriconR. The treated fibre composite with 5 wt % DriconR showed the highest burning time and LOI with the values of 101.5 s and 34 s, respectively. The optimum tensile strength and modulus for treated fibre composite was at 5 wt % DriconR whereas the untreated fibre composite was at 2.5 wt % loading of DriconR. Thermogravimetry (TGA) analysis indicated that the degradation temperature increased with the addition of DriconR up to 5 wt % into UPR/ coconut fibre composites. Morphological observations indicated better distribution of DriconR for treated fibre composite resulted in enhancement of the tensile properties of the treated fibre composite. (author)

  3. Sensory properties of Californian and imported extra virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Claudia; Guinard, Jean-Xavier

    2011-04-01

    Production and consumption of extra-virgin olive has been increasing in the United States, particularly in California. The objective of this study was to compare the sensory characteristics of 22 extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) from California, Italy, Spain, Chile, and Australia using a generic descriptive analysis. A total of 22 sensory attributes were identified and defined by the descriptive panel. With the exception of thick and citrus, all sensory attributes were significantly different among the oils. Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) showed that California oils differed from some imported EVOOs, mainly by their absence of defects. A second analysis, of only those attributes included in the International Olive Council (IOC) official scorecard, provided a less detailed description of the samples and did not allow for a full characterization of the oils. While the IOC attributes allowed for faster classification in terms of clean versus defective EVOOs, the more comprehensive descriptive analysis provided both more information and a more refined classification of the samples. Variety and region of origin were important factors in the classification of both Californian and imported EVOOs.   Measuring olive oil sensory quality using the IOC method-positive attributes of fruitiness, bitterness, and pungency, and defects including fusty, musty, winey, and rancid-allows for the certification of oils as extra virgin but it provides limited information on the sensory characteristics of the oils. A full descriptive profile, on the other hand, provides information that can be used by producers in the processing and marketing of their oils, and is a useful tool in the education of consumers about the wide range of (positive) sensory attributes in EVOO and the various sensory styles of EVOO.

  4. Premixed Combustion of Coconut Oil on Perforated Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K.G. Wirawan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Coconut oil premixed combustion behavior has been studied experimentally on perforated burner with equivalence ratio (φ varied from very lean until very rich. The results showed that burning of glycerol needs large number of air so that the laminar burning velocity (SL is the highest at very lean mixture and the flame is in the form of individual Bunsen flame on each of the perforated plate hole. As φ is increased the  SL decreases and the secondary Bunsen flame with open tip occurs from φ =0.54 at the downstream of perforated flame. The perforated flame disappears at φ = 0.66 while the secondary Bunsen flame still exist with SL increases following that of hexadecane flame trend and then extinct when the equivalence ratio reaches one or more. Surrounding ambient air intervention makes SL decreases, shifts lower flammability limit into richer mixture, and performs triple and cellular flames. The glycerol diffusion flame radiation burned fatty acids that perform cellular islands on perforated hole.  Without glycerol, laminar flame velocity becomes higher and more stable as perforated flame at higher φ. At rich mixture the Bunsen flame becomes unstable and performs petal cellular around the cone flame front. Keywords: cellular flame; glycerol; perforated flame;secondary Bunsen flame with open tip; triple flame

  5. New insulating particleboards from durian peel and coconut coir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khedari, J.; Charoenvai, S.; Hirunlabh, J. [King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand). Building Scientific Research Center

    2002-03-01

    The development of new particleboards from tropical fruit peels with low thermal conductivity as a component of construction panels for energy conservation of building is the main purpose of this study. Durian (Durio zibethinus) peels and coconut (Cocos nucifera) coir fibers were used as the raw material to manufacture particleboards. Two main parameters were investigated namely binder types, (UF 12%, PF 6% and IC 3%) and board density. In general, the effect of adhesive type on the properties of boards was not obvious whereas that of the density was more significant on most properties of boards. Experimental investigation indicated that the mechanical strength of all boards such as modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity increased with increasing board density, but it is still rather low. However, this decreased the dimensional stability, measured in term of thickness swelling, and thermal conductivity as well. Finally, as the raw materials are agriculture waste, manufacturing particleboards is therefore an economic and interesting option. Such natural particleboards with a low thermal conductivity could be utilized for specific applications as in insulating ceiling and walls.(author)

  6. Treated Coconut Coir Pith as Component of Cementitious Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Koňáková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with utilization of raw and treated coir pith as potential component of cementitious composites. The studied material is coir pith originating from a coconut production. Its applicability as cement mixture component was assessed in terms of the physical properties of concrete containing different amount of coir pith. Basic physical properties, compressive and bending strength, and hygric transport characteristics as well as thermal properties belong among the studied characteristics. It was proved that the concrete with 5% (by mass of cement of this waste material shows appropriate physical properties and it gives rise to an applicable material for building structures. Generally, the coir pith can be regarded as lightening additive. When 10% of coir pith was added, it has led to higher deterioration of properties than what is acceptable since such dosing is greatly increasing the total porosity. The influence of chemical treatment of coir pith was evaluated as well; both tested treatment methods improved the performance of cementitious composites while the acetylation was somewhat more effective the treatment by NaOH.

  7. Natural (Mineral, Vegetable, Coconut, Essential) Oils and Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M; Katalbas, Stephanie S; Pangasinan, Julia P

    2016-07-01

    Natural oils include mineral oil with emollient, occlusive, and humectant properties and the plant-derived essential, coconut, and other vegetable oils, composed of triglycerides that microbiota lipases hydrolyze into glycerin, a potent humectant, and fatty acids (FAs) with varying physico-chemical properties. Unsaturated FAs have high linoleic acid used for synthesis of ceramide-I linoleate, a barrier lipid, but more pro-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratios above 10:1, and their double bonds form less occlusive palisades. VCO FAs have a low linoleic acid content but shorter and saturated FAs that form a more compact palisade, more anti-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratio of 2:1, close to 7:1 of olive oil, which disrupts the skin barrier, otherwise useful as a penetration enhancer. Updates on the stratum corneum illustrate how this review on the contrasting actions of NOs provide information on which to avoid and which to select for barrier repair and to lower inflammation in contact dermatitis genesis.

  8. Antibiofilm activity of coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) husk fibre extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viju, N.; Satheesh, S.; Vincent, S.G.P.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, antibiofilm activity of coconut husk extract (CHE) was tested by various assays in the laboratory. The effects of CHE on extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production, hydrophobicity and adhesion ability of Pseudomonas sp., Alteromonas sp. and Gallionella sp. and the antimicrobial activity of the extract against these bacteria were assessed. CHE was found to possess antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains and affected the EPS production. The CHE affected the growth of the biofilm-forming bacteria in a culture medium. The hydrophobicity of the bacterial cells was also changed due to the CHE treatment. The active compound of the CHE was characterised by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. HPLC spectrum showed a single peak and the FT-IR spectrum indicated the presence of an OH-group-containing compound in the extract. In conclusion the CHE could be used as a source for the isolation of antifouling compounds. PMID:23961225

  9. Studies on the methods of inorganic nutrient application in coconut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, R.S.; Ray, P.K.; Ninan, S.

    1981-01-01

    Using carrier free 32 P, tagged single superphosphate and 86 Rb, the efficiency of different methods of plant injection and soil placement techniques for fertilizer applications was examined. In the plant injection techniques the radioactivity was fed to the palms through growing roots tips, cut ends of roots, stem injection and leaf axils. The application of radioactivity through the cut ends of roots was most efficient since 32 P was detected in 10 m tall palms, four hours after application. In stem, leaf axil and growing roots tips injection the 32 P was detected after 8, 12 and 18 h. Out of four methods of soil application, the quickest recovery of 32 P in the palms was detected after 7 days of placement when applied by the hole method. The 32 P activity in the palms through circular trenches, strips and basin methods was recorded after 8, 8 and 11 days of application respectively. The accumulation of 86 Rb was significantly higher than 32 P. With plant injection technique the accumulation of activity was found to be significantly higher than with soil placement methods. The rate of radioactivity absorption was 10 to 60 time faster in the former technique as compared to that of the latter. The application of radioactivity through cut ends of roots and circular trench methods, were found to be better and may recommended for nutrient application in coconut. (orig.)

  10. Research Opportunities on board Virgin Galactic's SpaceShipTwo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenborough, S.; Pomerantz, W.; Stephens, K.

    2013-09-01

    Virgin Galactic is building the world's first commercial spaceline. Our suborbital spaceflight system, pictured in Figure 1, consists of two vehicles: WhiteKnightTwo (WK2) and SpaceShipTwo (SS2). WhiteKnightTwo is a four-engine, dual-fuselage jet aircraft capable of high-altitude heavy lift missions, including, but not limited to fulfilling its role as a mothership for SpaceShipTwo, an air-launched, suborbital spaceplane capable of routinely reaching an apogee up to 110 kilometers. In conjunction, these two vehicles allow access to space and to regions of the atmosphere ranging from the troposphere to the thermosphere; additionally, they provide extended periods of microgravity in a reliable and affordable way. SpaceShipTwo, with a payload capacity of up to 1,300 lbs. (~600 kg), features payload mounting interfaces that are compatible with standard architectures such as NASA Space Shuttle Middeck Lockers, Cargo Transfer Bags, and server racks, in addition to custom structures. With the standard interface, payloads are allowed access to the large 17 inch diameter cabin windows for external observations. Each dedicated research flight will be accompanied by a Virgin Galactic Flight Test Engineer, providing an opportunity for limited in-flight interaction. In addition, tended payloads - a flight that includes the researcher and his or her payload - are also an option. At a price point that is highly competitive with parabolic aircraft and sounding rockets and significantly cheaper than orbital flights, SpaceShipTwo is a unique platform that can provide frequent and repeatable research opportunities. Suborbital flights on SpaceShipTwo offer researchers several minutes of microgravity time and views of the external environment in the upper atmosphere and in outer space. In addition to serving as an important research platform in and of itself, SpaceShipTwo also offers researchers a means to test, iterate, and calibrate experiments designed for orbital platforms

  11. U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Road Map: Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Olis, D.; Warren, A.

    2011-09-01

    This report lays out the strategy envisioned by the stakeholders in the U.S. Virgin Islands, U.S. Department of Energy, and U.S. Department of Interior to achieve the ambitious goal of achieving a 60% reduction in business-as-usual fossil fuel demand by 2025 (60x25) within the electricity sector. This work and supporting analysis provides a framework within which decisions can begin to be made, a concrete vision of what the future might hold, and a guide to determine what questions should follow.

  12. Fermentation of sugar-beet molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchenko, A L; Krishtul, F B

    1956-08-25

    Sugar-beet molasses is fermented with yeast separated from the mash, sterilized, and reactivated. To reduce sugar losses and hasten fermentation, the yeast is removed from the mash as the cells fall to the bottom during the fermentation process.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of seven WRKY genes across the palm subtribe Attaleinae (Areceaceae) identifies Syagrus as sister to the coconut

    Science.gov (United States)

    The origins of the coconut (Cocos nucifera) have been one of the "abominable mysteries" of palm systematics for decades. Previous studies with predominantly plastid genes have indicated an American ancestry for the coconut but with weak support and ambiguous sister relationships. We used primers d...

  14. Properties of Concrete partially replaced with Coconut Shell as Coarse aggregate and Steel fibres in addition to its Concrete volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyana Chakravarthy, P. R.; Janani, R.; Ilango, T.; Dharani, K.

    2017-03-01

    Cement is a binder material with various composition of Concrete but instantly it posses low tensile strength. The study deals with mechanical properties of that optimized fiber in comparison with conventional and coconut shell concrete. The accumulation of fibers arbitrarily dispersed in the composition increases the resistance to cracking, deflection and other serviceability conditions substantially. The steel fiber in extra is one of the revision in coconut shell concrete and the outcome of steel fiber in coconut shell concrete was to investigate and compare with the conventional concrete. For the given range of steel fibe from 0.5 to 2.0%, 12 beams and 36 cylindrical specimens were cast and tested to find the mechanical properties like flexural strength, split tensile, impact resistance and the modulus of elasticity of both conventional and coconut shell concrete has been studied and the test consequences are compared with the control concrete and coconut shell concrete for M25 Grade. It is fulfilled that, the steel fibers used in this venture has shown significant development in all the properties of conventional and coconut shell concrete while compared to controlled conventional and coconut shell concrete like, Flexural strength by 6.67 % for 1.0 % of steel fiber in conventional concrete and by 5.87 % for 1.5 % of steel fiber in coconut shell concrete.

  15. USE OF POWDERED COCONUT CHARCOAL AS A TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION MANIPULATION FOR ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on a procedure using powdered coconut charcoal to sequester organic contaminants and reduce toxicity in sediments as part of a series of toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) methods. Powdered coconut charcoal (PCC) was effective in reducing the toxicity of endos...

  16. Farmer’s perception of coconut mite damage and crop diversification alternatives in the coastal belt of Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleke, J.M.; Isinika, A.; Manyong, V.; Hanna, R.; Sabelis, M.

    2012-01-01

    This article analysed farmers' perceptions of the effects of coconut mite in their livelihood and assessed crop diversification as a copping strategy for reduced coconut production. A socio-economic model of farmers' decisions on intercropping as an indicator for overall crop diversity was

  17. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... kernel oil, or both oils. 172.861 Section 172.861 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the following...

  18. U.S. Virgin Islands National Park Coral Transplant Study, St. John, 1999-2009 (NODC Accession 0112724)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In a pilot project in the Caribbean (Virgin Islands National Park, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands), storm-produced fragments of Acropora palmata, Acropora...

  19. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of U.S. Virgin Islands (St. John), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  20. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of U.S. Virgin Islands (St. Croix-East), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  1. Bathymetry of NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (Inshore), St. John, US Virgin Islands 2005, 1M Grid, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 1 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of an inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument,...

  2. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of U.S. Virgin Islands (St. Thomas), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  3. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of U.S. Virgin Islands (St. Croix-West), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  4. Coral Reef Monitoring Needs Assessment Workshop U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Virgin Island Department of Planning and Natural Resources (DPNR) held a workshop September 11-13, 2007 in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) to begin the process of designing a monitoring program that meets multiple mana...

  5. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  6. Thermodynamics between RAP/RAS and virgin aggregates during asphalt concrete production : a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In hot-mix asphalt (HMA) plants, virgin aggregates are heated and dried separately before being mixed with : RAP/RAS and virgin asphalt binder. RAP/RAS materials are not heated or dried directly by a burner to avoid : burning of aged binder coating o...

  7. Exocrine pancreatic secretion is stimulated in piglets fed Fish oil compared with those fed Coconut Oil or Lard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Engberg, Ricarda M.

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets containing fat sources with different fatty acid composition (fish oil, coconut oil or lard, 10 g/100 g diet) on exocrine pancreatic secretion in piglets after weaning. A total of 16 barrows were weaned at 4 wk of age; 3 d later...... the coconut oil or lard diets. The output [U/(h. kg(0.75))] of lipase was higher in piglets fed fish oil than in piglets fed lard or coconut oil. The output of colipase was greater in piglets fed fish oil and coconut oil than in those fed lard. The dietary treatments did not affect the output of carboxylester...... hydrolase. The output of trypsin was significantly lower in piglets fed lard than in piglets fed fish oil or coconut oil diets and the output of carboxypeptidase B was greater in those fed the fish oil diet. Protein, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, elastase and amylase outputs did not differ among...

  8. Introduction of coconut palm nectar with value added in the tourism región of Quintana Roo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Rogelio Flores

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The coconut palm as consumption product has in other regions of the world an impact that could generate opportunities of economic growth in our country. To generate strategies of production, consumption and permanence of the coconut palm in the market, is a proposal that arises within the framework that INIFAP and Universidad de Colima and the School of Marketing beginning in 2006 up to this days. Through this document, is developing the main characteristics of the coconut palm, a proposal of standardization in the process of elaboration and pop marketing from the experiences obtained in Quintana Roo INIFAP research center and the marketing’s knowledge. Also are explained the processes which must be carried out for a similar process in any coconut region of Mexican country. This report is concluded with a model of competitiveness for the commercialization of the coconut palm.

  9. Prophylactic effect of coconut water (Cocos nucifera L.) on ethylene glycol induced nephrocalcinosis in male wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, M; Aggarwal, M; Puri, S; Singla, S K

    2013-01-01

    Many medicinal plants have been employed during ages to treat urinary stones though the rationale behind their use is not well established. Thus, the present study was proposed to evaluate the effect of coconut water as a prophylactic agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in a rat model. The male Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups. Animals of group I (control) were fed standard rat diet. In group II, the animals were administrated 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for the induction of nephrolithiasis. Group III animals were administrated coconut water in addition to ethylene glycol. All the treatments were continued for a total duration of seven weeks. Treatment with coconut water inhibited crystal deposition in renal tissue as well as reduced the number of crystals in urine. Furthermore, coconut water also protected against impaired renal function and development of oxidative stress in the kidneys. The results indicate that coconut water could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  10. Mathematical modeling of lipase and protease production by Penicillium restrictum in a batch fermenter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, D M; Sant'Anna, G L; Alves, T L

    1999-01-01

    This work presents a mathematical model that describes time course variations of extracellular lipase and protease activities for the batch fermentation of the fungus Penicillium restrictum, a new and promising strain isolated from soil and wastes of a Brazilian babassu coconut oil industry. The fermentation process was modeled by an unstructured model, which considered the following dependent variables: cells, fat acid, dissolved oxygen concentrations, lipase and protease activities, and cell lysate concentration. The last variable represents the amount of cells that has been lysed by the shear stress and natural cell death. Proteases released to the medium, as consequence of this process, enhance lipase inactivation. The model is able to predict the effects of some operation variables such as air flow rate and agitation speed. The mathematical model was validated against batch-fermentation data obtained under several operating conditions. Because substrate concentration has antagonistic effects on lipase activity, a typical optimization scheme should be developed in order to minimize these deleterious effects while maximizing lipase activity.

  11. Production of 6-pentyl-α-pyrone by trichoderma harzianum in solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Ramos, Aline; Fiaux, Sorele Batista; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira

    2008-10-01

    Many Trichoderma species are able to produce 6-pentyl-α-pyrone (6-PP), a lactone with coconut-like aroma. In the present work, several culture parameters were studied to enhance the production of 6-PP by Trichoderma harzianum 4040 in solid-state fermentation. Green coir powder added to a nutrient solution was used as support material for fermentation. A Plackett-Burman screening technique was applied, followed by a fractionary factorial design. The best culture conditions within the experimental domain studied were (100 g support)(-1): sucrose, 3 g; NaNO3, 0.24 g; (NH4)2SO4, 0.18 g; KH2PO4, 0.1 g; inoculum concentration, 2.2 × 10(6) spores; moisture level, 55%. The temperature established was 28°C. The fermentation under the selected conditions led to a 6-PP production six times higher (5.0 mg/g dry matter) than the initial one (0.8 mg/g dry matter) after seven days of cultivation.

  12. Modeling and investigation of submerged fermentation process to produce extracellular polysaccharide using Lactobacillus confusus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V; Prakash Maran, J

    2014-12-19

    The main objective of the present study is to investigate and optimize the Submerged fermentation (SMF) process parameters such as addition of coconut water, NaCl dose, incubation time and temperature on the production of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and biomass production using Lactobacillus confuses. Response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with four factors three level Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to model the SMF process. RSM analysis indicated good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. Three dimentional (3D) response surface plots were used to study the interactive effects of process variables on SMF process. The optimum process conditions for the maximum production of EPS and biomass were found to be as follows; addition of coconut water of 40%, NaCl dose of 15%, incubation time of 24h and temperature of 35°C. Under these conditions, 10.57 g/L of EPS and 3.9 g/L of biomass were produced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Resistance screening trials on coconut varieties to Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaicoe Robert Nketsia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD is a coconut lethal yellowing type disease (LY and is the single most serious threat to coconut cultivation in Ghana. The recommended disease management strategy is the cultivation of disease-resistant coconut varieties. More than 38 varieties have been screened for their resistance to CSPWD since 1956 and the results are reviewed in this paper. Two varieties, Sri Lanka Green Dwarf (SGD and Vanuatu Tall (VTT, have shown high resistance to the disease, and their hybrid (SGD × VTT is under observation to determine its performance. A programme to rehabilitate the CSPWD-devastated areas was started in 1999. Emerging results indicate that the MYD × VTT hybrid being used for the programme, succumbs to the disease under intense disease pressure. A redirection of the rehabilitation programme and the screening of more varieties are recommended.

  14. Optimization of fly ash as sand replacement materials (SRM) in cement composites containing coconut fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadzri, N. I. M.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Mazlee, M. N.; Jamal, Z. A. Z.

    2016-07-01

    The need of utilizing industrial and agricultural wastes is very important to maintain sustainability. These wastes are often incorporated with cement composites to improve performances in term of physical and mechanical properties. This study presents the results of the investigation of the response of cement composites containing coconut fiber as reinforcement and fly ash use as substitution of sand at different hardening days. Hardening periods of time (7, 14 and 28 days) were selected to study the properties of cement composites. Optimization result showed that 20 wt. % of fly ash (FA) is a suitable material for sand replacement (SRM). Meanwhile 14 days of hardening period gave highest compressive strength (70.12 MPa) from the cement composite containing 9 wt. % of coconut fiber and fly ash. This strength was comparable with the cement without coconut fiber (74.19 MPa) after 28 days of curing.

  15. KAJIAN PELEPAH KELAPA SEBAGAI SERAT KOMPOSIT (STUDY OF COCONUT BRANCH AS COMPOSITE FIBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seno Darmanto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Research is done to analyze coconut branch fiber as car body composite. Analyzing is based onmaterial, composition, and strength of material. Research was done in laboratory. Coconut branchfiber is obtained by natural drying process and cutting to become fiber with ±0,5 mm of length.Reinforcement and binder is determined polyester resin. Coir (coconut fiber have 1.15 kg/m3 ofdensity, 1.15 MPa of strength dan modulus elastisitas 4 – 6 GPa. And based on specimen and studyof literatures can show that increase of cellulose of natural fiber will increase modulus of elasticity.The Increasing of modulus of elasticity will be maximal with cellulose more than 60%. Color ofspecimen is transparent yellow.

  16. Enhancing nutrient recovery and compost maturity of coconut husk by vermicomposting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarnam, T P; Velmurugan, A; Pandey, Sanjay Kumar; Dam Roy, S

    2016-05-01

    Vermicompost was prepared by five different treatments from relatively resistant coconut husk mixed with either pig slurry or poultry manure. The recovery of vermicompost varied from 35% to 43% and it resulted in significant increase in pH, microbial biomass carbon, macro and micro nutrients concentration. Among the treatments highest relative N (1.6) and K (1.3) recovery were observed for 20% feedstock substitution by pig slurry while poultry manure substitution recorded highest P recovery (2.4). Compost maturity parameters significantly differed and well correlated. The characteristics of different treatments established the maturity indices as C/N 15-20; Cw1.5 and HI>15.0. The manurial value of the coconut husk compost was improved by feedstock substitution with pig slurry (80:20). The results revealed the technical feasibility of converting coconut husk into valuable compost by feedstock substitution with pig slurry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Variation in root activity with season and soil moisture in coconut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, Vandana; Balachandran, P.V.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at the College of Horticulture, Vellanikkara to study the effect of season and soil moisture regime on the physiological activity of roots in coconut. The experiment has been laid out in CRD with two replications at two different depths (20 and 75 cm) and moisture regimes (irrigated and rain fed) round the year. The 32 P uptake was higher during wet season as compared to dry season in monocrop of coconut. The absorption was more from the surface layers during wet season and roots explored deeper soil layers during dry season. Irrigation in general improved absorption of 32 P in coconut and resulted in higher uptake from the surface soil compared to that under rainfed condition. (author)

  18. Properties of concrete containing coconut shell powder (CSP) as a filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. S.; Shahidan, S.; Nasir, A. J.; Senin, M. S.; Zuki, S. S. Mohd; Ibrahim, M. H. Wan; Deraman, R.; Khalid, F. S.; Azhar, A. T. S.

    2017-11-01

    Coconut shellsare a type of agricultural waste which can be converted into useful material. Therefore,this study was conducted to investigate the properties of concrete which uses coconut shell powder (CSP) filler material and to define the optimum percentage of CSP which can be used asfiller material in concrete. Comparisons have been made between normal concrete mixes andconcrete containing CSP. In this study, CSP was added into concrete mixes invaryingpercentages (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%). The coconut shell was grounded into afine powder before use. Experimental tests which have been conducted in this study include theslump test, compressive test and splitting tensile strength test. CSP have the potential to be used as a concrete filler and thus the findings of this study may be applied to the construction industry. The use of CSP as a filler in concrete can help make the earth a more sustainable and greener place to live in.

  19. Removal of radium from aqueous solutions using adsorbent produced from coconut coir pith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalina Laili; Muhamat Omar; Mohd Zaidi Ibrahim; Esther Phillip; Mohd Abdul Wahab Yusof; Hassan, A.

    2008-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of the coconut coir pith as an adsorbent for the removal of radium from aqueous solutions. Experiments to establish adsorptions as a function of pH and contact time were carried out. The results showed that radium adsorption are dependent upon pH and contact time of coconut coir pith with aqueous solutions. 70-80% of radium were adsorbed in the neutral to alkaline pH range. The amount of radium adsorbed also increased with contact time, reaching an optimum after 250 min. Thus, it can be concluded that the coconut coir pith has the potential to be used as an adsorbent in radium removal from aqueous solutions. (Author)

  20. Single base substitution causing the fragrant phenotype and development of a type-specific marker in aromatic coconut (Cocos nucifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongvanrungruang, A; Mongkolsiriwatana, C; Boonkaew, T; Sawatdichaikul, O; Srikulnath, K; Peyachoknagul, S

    2016-09-19

    The fragrance gene, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Badh2), has been well studied in many plant species. The objectives of this study were to clone Badh2 and compare the sequences between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The complete coding region was cloned from cDNA of both aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The nucleotide sequences were highly homologous to Badh2 genes of other plants. Badh2 consisted of a 1512-bp open reading frame encoding 503 amino acids. A single nucleotide difference between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts resulted in the conversion of alanine (non-aromatic) to proline (aromatic) at position 442, which was the substrate binding site of BADH2. The ring side chain of proline could destabilize the structure leading to a non-functional enzyme. Badh2 genomic DNA was cloned from exon 1 to 4, and from exon 5 to 15 from the two coconut types, except for intron 4 that was very long. The intron sequences of the two coconut groups were highly homologous. No differences in Badh2 expression were found among the tissues of aromatic coconut or between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The amino acid sequences of BADH2 from coconut and other plants were compared and the genetic relationship was analyzed using MEGA 7.0. The phylogenetic tree reconstructed by the Bayesian information criterion consisted of two distinct groups of monocots and dicots. Among the monocots, coconut (Cocos nucifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) were the most closely related species. A marker for coconut differentiation was developed from one-base substitution site and could be successfully used.

  1. The role of dietary coconut for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease: potential mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, W M A D B; Martins, Ian J; Goozee, K G; Brennan, Charles S; Jayasena, V; Martins, R N

    2015-07-14

    Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated to provide a large number of products, although it is mainly grown for its nutritional and medicinal values. Coconut oil, derived from the coconut fruit, has been recognised historically as containing high levels of saturated fat; however, closer scrutiny suggests that coconut should be regarded more favourably. Unlike most other dietary fats that are high in long-chain fatty acids, coconut oil comprises medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA). MCFA are unique in that they are easily absorbed and metabolised by the liver, and can be converted to ketones. Ketone bodies are an important alternative energy source in the brain, and may be beneficial to people developing or already with memory impairment, as in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Coconut is classified as a highly nutritious 'functional food'. It is rich in dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals; however, notably, evidence is mounting to support the concept that coconut may be beneficial in the treatment of obesity, dyslipidaemia, elevated LDL, insulin resistance and hypertension - these are the risk factors for CVD and type 2 diabetes, and also for AD. In addition, phenolic compounds and hormones (cytokinins) found in coconut may assist in preventing the aggregation of amyloid-β peptide, potentially inhibiting a key step in the pathogenesis of AD. The purpose of the present review was to explore the literature related to coconut, outlining the known mechanistic physiology, and to discuss the potential role of coconut supplementation as a therapeutic option in the prevention and management of AD.

  2. 26 CFR 1.934-1 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 1.934-1 Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands. (a) General... Islands will be computed as follows: (A) Add to the income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands... income from such sources. (ii) Limitation. Tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands attributable to...

  3. Effect of sterilization dose on electron beam irradiated biodegradable polymers and coconut fiber based composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Yasko; Machado, Luci D.B., E-mail: ykodama@ipen.b, E-mail: lmachado@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oishi, Akihiro; Nakayama, Kazuo, E-mail: a.oishi@aist.go.j, E-mail: kazuo-nakayama@jcom.home.ne.j [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki-ken (Japan). Research Institute for Sustainable Chemical Innovation; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Tamada, Masao, E-mail: nagasawa.naotsugu@jaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Gunma-ken (Japan). Quantum Beam Science Directorate

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, annual production of coconut fruit is 1.5 billion in a cultivated area of 2.7 million ha. Coconut fiber applications as reinforcement for polymer composites, besides reducing the coconut waste, would reduce cost of the composite. On the other hand, biodegradable polymers have been receiving much attention due to the plastic waste problem. Poly(e-caprolactone), PCL, and poly(lactic acid), PLA, besides being biodegradable aliphatic polyesters, are biocompatible polymers. Considering the biomedical application of PLA and PCL, their products must be sterilized for use, and ionizing radiation has been widely used for medical devices sterilization. It is important to study the effect of ionizing radiation on the blends and composites due to the fact that they are based on biocompatible polymers. Is this research, hot pressed samples based on PLA:PCL (80:20, ratio of weight:weight) blend and the composites containing chemically treated or untreated coconut fiber (5, 10%) were irradiated by electron beams and gamma radiation from Co-60 source at doses in the range up to 200 kGy. Thermal mechanical analysis (TMA) and gel fraction measurements were performed in irradiated samples. From TMA curves it can be observed that thermal stability of samples with untreated coconut fiber slightly decreased with increasing fiber content. On the other hand, deformation increased with increasing fiber content. Acetylated coconut fibers slightly decreased thermal stability of samples. It seems that no interaction occurs between the natural fibers and the polymeric matrix due to irradiation. PLLA undergoes to main chain scission under ionizing irradiation according to thermal stability results and also because no gel fraction was observed. In contrast, PCL cross-linking is induced by ionizing radiation that increases thermal stability and decreases deformation. (author)

  4. The effect of oil pulling with pure coconut oil on Streptococcus mutans: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Komath Pavithran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oil pulling as described in ancient Ayurveda involves the use of edible vegetable oils as oral antibacterial agents. It is a practice of swishing oil in the mouth for oral and systemic health benefits. Pure coconut oil has antimicrobial properties and is commonly available in all Indian households. Aim: This study aims to assess the effect of oil pulling therapy with pure coconut oil on Streptococcus mutans count and to compare its efficacy against sesame oil and saline. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled concurrent parallel- triple blinded clinical trial was conducted. Thirty participants in age range of 20–23 years were randomly allocated into Group A (coconut oil, Group B (sesame oil, and Group C (saline, with 10 in each group. The participants were instructed to swish and pull 10 ml of oil on empty stomach, early morning for 10–15 min. Unstimulated saliva collected before and after oil pulling procedure was analyzed for colony forming units (CFU per ml saliva of S. mutans. The data were analyzed using paired t-test, ANOVA, and post hoc analysis using Tukey's honest significant difference. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: A statistically significant reduction in S. mutans CFU count after oil pulling with pure coconut oil (P = 0.001 was found. There was no statistically significant difference between sesame oil and coconut oil (P = 0.97 and between sesame oil and saline (P = 0.061. When efficacy of coconut oil against saline was evaluated, a statistical significant difference (P = 0.039 was found. Conclusion: Oil pulling is an effective method for oral hygiene maintenance as it significantly reduces S. mutans count in the saliva.

  5. Effect of sterilization dose on electron beam irradiated biodegradable polymers and coconut fiber based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Yasko; Machado, Luci D.B.; Oishi, Akihiro; Nakayama, Kazuo; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Tamada, Masao

    2009-01-01

    In Brazil, annual production of coconut fruit is 1.5 billion in a cultivated area of 2.7 million ha. Coconut fiber applications as reinforcement for polymer composites, besides reducing the coconut waste, would reduce cost of the composite. On the other hand, biodegradable polymers have been receiving much attention due to the plastic waste problem. Poly(e-caprolactone), PCL, and poly(lactic acid), PLA, besides being biodegradable aliphatic polyesters, are biocompatible polymers. Considering the biomedical application of PLA and PCL, their products must be sterilized for use, and ionizing radiation has been widely used for medical devices sterilization. It is important to study the effect of ionizing radiation on the blends and composites due to the fact that they are based on biocompatible polymers. Is this research, hot pressed samples based on PLA:PCL (80:20, ratio of weight:weight) blend and the composites containing chemically treated or untreated coconut fiber (5, 10%) were irradiated by electron beams and gamma radiation from Co-60 source at doses in the range up to 200 kGy. Thermal mechanical analysis (TMA) and gel fraction measurements were performed in irradiated samples. From TMA curves it can be observed that thermal stability of samples with untreated coconut fiber slightly decreased with increasing fiber content. On the other hand, deformation increased with increasing fiber content. Acetylated coconut fibers slightly decreased thermal stability of samples. It seems that no interaction occurs between the natural fibers and the polymeric matrix due to irradiation. PLLA undergoes to main chain scission under ionizing irradiation according to thermal stability results and also because no gel fraction was observed. In contrast, PCL cross-linking is induced by ionizing radiation that increases thermal stability and decreases deformation. (author)

  6. Hydrogen Production by Thermophilic Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niel, van E.W.J.; Willquist, K.; Zeidan, A.A.; Vrije, de T.; Mars, A.E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the many ways hydrogen can be produced, this chapter focuses on biological hydrogen production by thermophilic bacteria and archaea in dark fermentations. The thermophiles are held as promising candidates for a cost-effective fermentation process, because of their relatively high yields and broad

  7. TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS OF LESOTHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendekayi H. Gadaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the traditional methods of preparing fermented foods and beverages of Lesotho. Information on the preparation methods was obtained through a combination of literature review and face to face interviews with respondents from Roma in Lesotho. An unstructured questionnaire was used to capture information on the processes, raw materials and utensils used. Four products; motoho (a fermented porridge, Sesotho (a sorghum based alcoholic beverage, hopose (sorghum fermented beer with added hops and mafi (spontaneously fermented milk, were found to be the main fermented foods prepared and consumed at household level in Lesotho. Motoho is a thin gruel, popular as refreshing beverage as well as a weaning food. Sesotho is sorghum based alcoholic beverage prepared for household consumption as well as for sale. It is consumed in the actively fermenting state. Mafi is the name given to spontaneously fermented milk with a thick consistency. Little research has been done on the technological aspects, including the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of fermented foods in Lesotho. Some of the traditional aspects of the preparation methods, such as use of earthenware pots, are being replaced, and modern equipment including plastic utensils are being used. There is need for further systematic studies on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of these these products.

  8. Cycling and floating performance of symmetric supercapacitor derived from coconut shell biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Farshad; Khaleed, Abubakar A.; Ugbo, Faith U.; Oyeniran, Kabir O.; Momodu, Damilola Y.; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Dangbegnon, Julien K.; Manyala, Ncholu

    2016-11-01

    This work present two-step synthesizes route to low-cost mesoporous carbon from coconut shell. The electrochemical characterization of the coconut shell based activated carbon (CSAC) material as electrode for supercapacitor showed a specific capacitance of 186 F g-1, energy density of ˜11 Wh kg-1 and power density of 325 W kg-1 at a 0.5 A g-1 with an excellent stability after floating for 100 h and cycling for 10000 cycles in polymer gel electrolyte. The CSAC showed very good potential as a stable material for supercapacitors desirable for high power applications.

  9. Characterization of Coconut Shell Liquid Volatile Matter (CS-LVM) by Using Gas Chomatroghaphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahiding, Muhammad; Mashuni; Ilmawati, WOS; Ermawati; Rahmat; Arsyad, Jumiati; Riskayanti, S. S.

    2017-05-01

    Generally, the coconut shell is only used for the fuel of furnace or is just burnt in which this will just create pollution. One way of solving this problem is by re-processing the coconut shell as raw materials for making liquid volatile matter (LVM) by pyrolysis method. Coconut shell is part of the coconut fruit at which having biological function to protect fruit core and is located on the inner side of the fiber with a thickness ranging from 3-6 mm. Coconut shell is classified as hardwood, mainly composed of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose, with water content of approximately 6-9 %. Coconut shell is more suitable for pyrolysis process, since they contain less amount of ash, more amount of volatile matter and available with lower cost in rural areas during all the sessions of the year. This research was aimed at determining the influence of pyrolysis temperature towards the LVM volume of coconut shell. LVM was made of condensing the smoke of pyrolysis result from the coconut shell while the analysis of compound composition of LVMcoconut shell used Gas Chromatography. Based on the result of the research, it was known that the pyrolysis, at the temperatures of 400°C, 500°C, 600°C and 700°C can create LVM volume as many as 204.167 mL kg-1, 208,33 mL kg-1 and 216.67 mL kg-1. The LVM created from the pyrolysis at 400°C was made of ammonia (12. 41%), acetic acid (37.27%), phenol (31.66%), furfural (4.16%), and alcohol (5.01%). The LVM created from the pyrolysis at 500°C was made ofammonia (12.22%), hydrazine (5.61%), acetic acid (40.96%), phenol (32.82%), and alcohol (3.10%), furfural (5.30%). The LVM created from the pyrolysis at 600°C was made of ammonia (15.49%)), acetic acid (36,01%), phenol (32.85%)), alcohol (6.75%)), and furfural (4.62%). The LVM created from the pyrolysis at 700°C was made of ammonia (15,.), acetic acid (35.20%), phenol (22.60%), alcohol (5.07%), and furfural (4,90%). From this result, it can be seen that LVM has big advantages

  10. Premixed combustion of coconut oil in a hele-shaw cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Saroso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coconut oil combustion characteristic is observed experimentally by evaporating oil in the boiler then mix it with air before being burned at various equivalence ratios in the Hele-shaw cell. The result shows that, coconut oil tends to break into glycerol and fatty acid due to hydrolysis reaction producing the flame propagation, where the fatty acid flame propagates first then glycerol flame. Micro-explosion occurs when moisture from fatty acid combustion is absorbed by glycerol and higher heating due to higher flame speed produces more micro-explosion.

  11. Characterization of Glass Fibre – Coconut Coir– Human Hair Hybrid Composites

    OpenAIRE

    D. Senthilnathan; A Gnanavel Babu; G. B. Bhaskar; KGS. Gopinath

    2014-01-01

    A composite material is a combination of two or more materials arranged in the form of layer one on the other layer using binding material through some prescribed methods. In the Glass fibre coconut fibre human hair hybrid composite method, the epoxy resin is used as binding material, in which one layer is formed of glass fibre, followed by coconut fibre and then by human hair. By using hand layup method and by changing the above arrangement of layers, six types of laminates are prepared by u...

  12. Cycling and floating performance of symmetric supercapacitor derived from coconut shell biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Barzegar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work present two-step synthesizes route to low-cost mesoporous carbon from coconut shell. The electrochemical characterization of the coconut shell based activated carbon (CSAC material as electrode for supercapacitor showed a specific capacitance of 186 F g-1, energy density of ∼11 Wh kg-1 and power density of 325 W kg-1 at a 0.5 A g-1 with an excellent stability after floating for 100 h and cycling for 10000 cycles in polymer gel electrolyte. The CSAC showed very good potential as a stable material for supercapacitors desirable for high power applications.

  13. Production of Solid Fuel by Torrefaction Using Coconut Leaves As Renewable Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Domnina Bote Pestaño

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The reserves of non-renewable energy sources such as coal, crude oil and natural gas are not limitless, they gradually get exhausted and their price continually increases. In the last four decades, researchers have been focusing on alternate fuel resources to meet the ever increasing energy demand and to avoid dependence on crude oil. Amongst different sources of renewable energy, biomass residues hold special promise due to their inherent capability to store solar energy and amenability to subsequent conversion to convenient solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. At present, among the coconut farm wastes such as husks, shell, coir dust and coconut leaves, the latter is considered the most grossly under-utilized by in situ burning in the coconut farm as means of disposal. In order to utilize dried coconut leaves and to improve its biomass properties, this research attempts to produce solid fuel by torrefaction using dried coconut leaves for use as alternative source of energy. Torrefaction is a thermal method for the conversion of biomass operating in the low temperature range of 200oC-300oC under atmospheric conditions in absence of oxygen. Dried coconut leaves were torrefied at different feedstock conditions. The key torrefaction products were collected and analyzed. Physical and combustion characteristics of both torrefied and untorrefied biomass were investigated. Torrefaction of dried coconut leaves significantly improved the heating value compared to that of the untreated biomass.  Proximate compositions of the torrefied biomass also improved and were comparable to coal. The distribution of the products of torrefaction depends highly on the process conditions such as torrefaction temperature and residence time. Physical and combustion characteristics of torrefied biomass were superior making it more suitable for fuel applications. Article History: Received June 24th 2016; Received in revised form August 16th 2016; Accepted 27th 2016; Available

  14. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Ai Leng; Heard, Gillian; Cox, Julian

    2004-09-01

    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and physiological tests. During the fermentation of each of the four products, yeasts were enumerated from both the cellulosic pellicle and liquor of the Kombucha. The number and diversity of species varied between products, but included Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. While these yeast species are known to occur in Kombucha, the enumeration of each species present throughout fermentation of each of the four Kombucha cultures demonstrated for the first time the dynamic nature of the yeast ecology. Kombucha fermentation is, in general, initiated by osmotolerant species, succeeded and ultimately dominated by acid-tolerant species.

  15. A model for acoustic absorbent materials derived from coconut fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramis, J.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a methodology is proposed for obtaining empirical equations describing the sound absorption characteristics of an absorbing material obtained from natural fibers, specifically from coconut. The method, which was previously applied to other materials, requires performing measurements of air-flow resistivity and of acoustic impedance for samples of the material under study. The equations that govern the acoustic behavior of the material are then derived by means of a least-squares fit of the acoustic impedance and of the propagation constant. These results can be useful since they allow the empirically obtained analytical equations to be easily incorporated in prediction and simulation models of acoustic systems for noise control that incorporate the studied materials.En este trabajo se describe el proceso seguido para obtener ecuaciones empíricas del comportamiento acústico de un material absorbente obtenido a partir de fibras naturales, concretamente el coco. El procedimiento, que ha sido ensayado con éxito en otros materiales, implica la realización de medidas de impedancia y resistencia al flujo de muestras del material bajo estudio. Las ecuaciones que gobiernan el comportamiento desde el punto de vista acústico del material se obtienen a partir del ajuste de ecuaciones de comportamiento de la impedancia acústica y la constante de propagación del material. Los resultados son útiles ya que, al disponer de ecuaciones analíticas obtenidas empíricamente, facilitan la incorporación de estos materiales en predicciones mediante métodos numéricos del comportamiento cuando son instalados formando parte de dispositivos para el control del ruido.

  16. Coconut coir pith lignin: A physicochemical and thermal characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asoka Panamgama, L; Peramune, P R U S K

    2018-07-01

    The structural and thermal features of coconut coir pith lignin, isolated by three different extraction protocols incorporating two different energy supply sources, were characterized by different analytical tools. The three different chemical extraction protocols were alkaline - 7.5% (w/v) NaOH, organosolv - 85% (v/v) formic and acetic acids at 7:3 (v/v) ratio and polyethylene glycol (PEG): water ratio at 80:20wt%. The two sources of energy were thermal or microwave. Raw lignins were modified by epichlorohydrin to enhance reactivity, and the characteristics of raw and modified lignins were comparatively analysed. Using the thermal energy source, the alkaline and organosolv processes obtained the highest and lowest lignin yields of 26.4±1.5wt% and 3.4±0.2wt%, respectively, as shown by wet chemical analysis. Specific functional group analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) revealed that significantly different amounts of hydroxyl and carbonyl groups exist in alkaline, organosolv and PEG lignins. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) illustrated that the lowest degradation onset temperature was recorded for organosolv lignin, and the overall order was organosolv

  17. Chemometric applications to assess quality and critical parameters of virgin and extra-virgin olive oil. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana M; Maggio, Rubén M; Cerretani, Lorenzo

    2016-03-24

    Today virgin and extra-virgin olive oil (VOO and EVOO) are food with a large number of analytical tests planned to ensure its quality and genuineness. Almost all official methods demand high use of reagents and manpower. Because of that, analytical development in this area is continuously evolving. Therefore, this review focuses on analytical methods for EVOO/VOO which use fast and smart approaches based on chemometric techniques in order to reduce time of analysis, reagent consumption, high cost equipment and manpower. Experimental approaches of chemometrics coupled with fast analytical techniques such as UV-Vis spectroscopy, fluorescence, vibrational spectroscopies (NIR, MIR and Raman fluorescence), NMR spectroscopy, and other more complex techniques like chromatography, calorimetry and electrochemical techniques applied to EVOO/VOO production and analysis have been discussed throughout this work. The advantages and drawbacks of this association have also been highlighted. Chemometrics has been evidenced as a powerful tool for the oil industry. In fact, it has been shown how chemometrics can be implemented all along the different steps of EVOO/VOO production: raw material input control, monitoring during process and quality control of final product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Carbon source for fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-25

    Molasses is hydrolyzed and treated with Ca/sup 2 +/ to produce fructose and a good C-source for glutamic acid and lysine fermentation. Thus, sugarcane molasses was diluted with H/sub 2/O, adjusted to pH 1.5, and kept at 60/sup 0/ for 4 hr. Three liters of this solution was cooled to 0/sup 0/ and 262 g Ca(OH)/sub 2/ in a 30% solution was added, along with seed crystals of Ca-fructose additional product. Crystal addition product was recovered and dissolved; the solution contained 6.4g glucose and 168 g fructose, a 50% yield of fructose. The mother liquor was neutralized with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to precipitate the Ca. The supernatant contained 284 g glucose and 159 g fructose and was used as the C source in a fermentation medium in which Coryne-bacterium lilum produced glutamic acid. Yield was 49.0 g/L compared to 48.3 g/L when molasses was used as the C source.

  19. Lactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of fermenting cellobiose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Oh, Eun Joong; Pathanibul, Panchalee; Turner, Timothy L; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-09-20

    Lactose is an inevitable byproduct of the dairy industry. In addition to cheese manufacturing, the growing Greek yogurt industry generates excess acid whey, which contains lactose. Therefore, rapid and efficient conversion of lactose to fuels and chemicals would be useful for recycling the otherwise harmful acid whey. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a popular metabolic engineering host, cannot natively utilize lactose. However, we discovered that an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (EJ2) capable of fermenting cellobiose can also ferment lactose. This finding suggests that a cellobiose transporter (CDT-1) can transport lactose and a β-glucosidase (GH1-1) can hydrolyze lactose by acting as a β-galactosidase. While the lactose fermentation by the EJ2 strain was much slower than the cellobiose fermentation, a faster lactose-fermenting strain (EJ2e8) was obtained through serial subcultures on lactose. The EJ2e8 strain fermented lactose with a consumption rate of 2.16g/Lh. The improved lactose fermentation by the EJ2e8 strain was due to the increased copy number of cdt-1 and gh1-1 genes. Looking ahead, the EJ2e8 strain could be exploited for the production of other non-ethanol fuels and chemicals from lactose through further metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors influencing survival duration and choice of virgin queens in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärcher, Martin H.; Menezes, Cristiano; Alves, Denise A.; Beveridge, Oliver S.; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera-Lucia; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2013-06-01

    In Melipona quadrifasciata, about 10 % of the females develop into queens, almost all of which are killed. Occasionally, a new queen replaces or supersedes the mother queen or heads a new colony. We investigated virgin queen fate in queenright and queenless colonies to determine the effects of queen behaviour, body mass, nestmate or non-nestmate status, queenright or queenless colony status, and, when queenless, the effect of the time a colony had been queenless, on survival duration and acceptance. None of 220 virgin queens observed in four observation hives ever attacked another virgin queen nor did any of 88 virgin queens introduced into queenright colonies ever attack the resident queen. A new queen was only accepted in a queenless colony. Factors increasing survival duration and acceptance of virgin queens were to emerge from its cell at 2 h of queenlessness, to hide, and to avoid fights with workers. In this way, a virgin queen was more likely to be available when a colony chooses a new queen, 24-48 h after resident queen removal. Running, walking or resting, antennating or trophallaxis, played little or no role, as did the factors body mass or nestmate. "Queen choice" took about 2 h during which time other virgin queens were still being killed by workers. During this agitated process, the bees congregated around the new queen. She inflated her abdomen and some of the workers deposited a substance on internal nest surfaces including the glass lid of the observation hive.