WorldWideScience

Sample records for fermented starch industry

  1. Fermentative hydrolysis of starch in the spirits industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustinnikov, B.A.; Lazareva, A.N.

    1965-01-01

    Usefulness and costs of various materials used for starch hydrolysis were tested and discussed. Oscillations in composition of some starches during steaming and dextrinization were examined. Changes in hydrolysis products of some starch with and without simultaneous fermentation, in laboratory and industrial scales, were analyzed and results discussed.

  2. Batch and fed-batch fermentation of Bacillus thuringiensis using starch industry wastewater as fermentation substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Khanh Dang; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal; Valéro, José R; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2010-08-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki biopesticide was produced in batch and fed-batch fermentation modes using starch industry wastewater as sole substrate. Fed-batch fermentation with two intermittent feeds (at 10 and 20 h) during the fermentation of 72 h gave the maximum delta-endotoxin concentration (1,672.6 mg/L) and entomotoxicity (Tx) (18.5 x 10(6) SBU/mL) in fermented broth which were significantly higher than maximum delta-endotoxin concentration (511.0 mg/L) and Tx (15.8 x 10(6) SBU/mL) obtained in batch process. However, fed-batch fermentation with three intermittent feeds (at 10, 20 and 34 h) of the fermentation resulted in the formation of asporogenous variant (Spo-) from 36 h to the end of fermentation (72 h) which resulted in a significant decrease in spore and delta-endotoxin concentration and finally the Tx value. Tx of suspended pellets (27.4 x 10(6) SBU/mL) obtained in fed-batch fermentation with two feeds was the highest value as compared to other cases.

  3. China's Fermentation Industry Develops Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Output increases steadily The main products of China's fermen-tation industry include amino acid,organic acid, enzyme preparation,yeast, starch and starch sugar, spe-cial functional fermented products,etc. Monosodium glutamate is themain product of amino acid, and cit-ric acid is the main product of or-ganic acid.

  4. Fermentation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Fermentation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Fermentation of corn starch to ethanol with genetically engineered yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inlow, D; McRae, J; Ben-Bassat, A

    1988-07-05

    Expression of the glucoamylase gene from Aspergillus awamori by laboratory and distiller's strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae allowed them to ferment soluble starch. Approximately 95% of the carbohydrates in the starch were utilized. Glycerol production was significantly decreased when soluble starch was used instead of glucose. Ethanol yield on soluble starch was higher than that on glucose. The rate of starch fermentation was directly related to the level of glucoamylase activity. Strains with higher levels of glucoamylase expression fermented starch faster. The decline in starch fermentation rates toward the end of the fermentation was associated with accumulation of disaccharides and limit dextrins, poor substrates for glucoamylase. The buildup of these products in continuous fermentations inhibited glucoamylase activity and complete utilization of the starch. Under these conditions maltose-fermenting strains had a significant advantage over nonfermenting strains. The synthesis and secretion of glucoamylase showed no deleterious effects on cell growth rates, fermetation rates, and fermentation products.

  7. Fermentation alcohol from grain sorghum starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Preez, J.C.; De Jong, F.; Botes, P.J.; Lategan, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Grain sorghum is an attractive agricultural feedstock for ethanol production because of its high starch content and the fact that it is more drought-resistant than other cereal crops such as maize. The popular bird-proof grain sorghum variety was investigated. This was subjected to a chemical pretreatment to remove the polyphenolic compounds prior to starch hydrolysis and subsequent fermentation. Starch hydrolysis was accomplished with a commercial alpha-amylase for liquefaction and amyloglucosidase for saccharification. Depending on the saccharification conditions, the hydrolysate contained 65 to 128 g/litre glucose with corresponding maltose concentrations of 50 to 20 g/litre. Several yeast strains were evaluated for their ability to ferment maltose. The total saccharification plus fermentation time could be shortened substantially by inoculating after a brief saccharification period. The addition of ammonium chloride to the hydrolysate improved the fermentation rate. From a 30% grain sorghum slurry an ethanol concentration of over 12% (v/v) was obtained, which was 84% of the theoretical maximum. The data indicated that about 380 litres of ethanol could be produced per ton grain sorghum. 38 references.

  8. Impact of different pH control agents on biopesticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis during the fermentation of starch industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Khanh Dang; Tyagi, R D; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2009-06-01

    Different pH control agents (NaOH/H(2)SO(4)--SodSulp, NaOH/CH(3)COOH--SodAcet, NH(4)OH/CH(3)COOH--AmmoAcet and NH(4)OH/H(2)SO(4)--AmmoSulp) were used to investigate their effects on growth, enzyme production (alkaline protease and amylase), and entomotoxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1 (Btk) against eastern spruce budworm larvae (Choristoneura fumiferana) using starch industry wastewater (SIW) as a raw material in a 15-l fermentor. AmmoSulp and SodSulp were found to be the best pH control agents for alkaline protease and amylase production, respectively; whereas, the fermented broth obtained by using SodAcet as pH control agents recorded the highest delta-endotoxin production of 1043.0 mg/l and entomotoxicity value 18.4 x 10(9) SBU/l. Entomotoxicity of re-suspended centrifuged pellet in one-tenth of original volume in case of SodAcet as pH control agents was 26.7 x 10(9) SBU/l and was the highest value compared to three other pH control agents.

  9. Paraformaldehyde-resistant starch-fermenting bacteria in "starch-base" drilling mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MYERS, G E

    1962-09-01

    Starch-fermenting bacteria were found in each of 12 samples of nonfermenting starch-base drilling mud examined. Of the 12 samples, 3 contained very active starch-fermenting gram-positive spore-bearing bacilli closely resembling Bacillus subtilis. Similar active starch-fermenting bacteria were found in fermenting starch-base drilling mud and in corn starch and slough water used to prepare such mud. The active starch-fermenting microorganisms completely hydrolyzed 1% (w/v) corn starch within 24 hr at 37.5 C. The active starch-fermenting bacteria isolated from fermenting drilling mud were capable of surviving 12 hr of continuous exposure to 0.1% (w/w) paraformaldehyde or 1 hr of continuous exposure to 0.5% (w/w) paraformaldehyde, with no diminution in starch-fermenting ability. The same organisms fermented starch after 3 hr of continuous exposure to 0.5% (w/w) paraformaldehyde, but not after 4 hr of exposure. The phenomenon of rapid disappearance of paraformaldehyde from fermenting drilling mud was observed in the laboratory using a modified sodium sulfite test. Paraformaldehyde, initially present in a concentration of 0.192 lb per barrel of mud, completely disappeared in 9 hr at 22 to 23 C. A significant decrease in paraformaldehyde concentration was detected 0.5 hr after preparation of the mud. It is suggested that the presence of relatively high concentrations of ammonia and chloride in the mud may facilitate the disappearance of paraformaldehyde. The failure of 0.1% (w/w) paraformaldehyde to inhibit the strong starch-fermenting microorganisms isolated from fermenting drilling mud, and the rapid disappearance of paraformaldehyde from the mud, explains the fermentation of starch which occurred in this mud, despite the addition of paraformaldehyde.

  10. Alcoholic fermentation of starch by Arxula adeninivorans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, R.; Bode, R.; Birnbaum, D. (Inst. fuer Biochemie, Greifswald Univ. (Germany))

    1992-04-01

    Yeast strains of Arxula adeninivorans characterized by important industrially properties such as growth at 45deg C and starch utilization were tested for direct conversion of starch to ethanol. All strains produced 9-17 g/l ethanol at 30deg C and for smaller extent (0.2-0.5 g/l) at 45deg C. Ethanol tolerance and some intracellular enzyme activities were determined. Reasons for the relatively small ethanol production in relation to other amylolytic yeasts were the inhibitory effect of ethanol on growth and a low alcohol dehydrogenase level. A higher ethanol production is possible by inducing of ethanol insensitive mutants and cloning of a ADH-gene in A. adeninivorans. (orig.).

  11. Hydrolysis of starch and fermentable hydrolysates obtained therefrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, W.C.; Miller, F.D.

    1981-05-05

    Starch in slurry was liquefied by strong acid and a-amylase, saccharified in the presence of acid cation exchanger, and neutralized with NH/sub 4/OH to obtain an aqueous solution of fermentable sugar.

  12. Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results showed that almost all modified starches were resistant to syneresis, produced pastes more stable to stirred cooking, and some of them were difficult to cook. The sour cassava starches presented high acidity and resulted in clear and unstable pastes during stirred cooking, susceptible to syneresis.

  13. The enzymatic determination of starch in food, feed and raw materials of the starch industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunt, K.; Sanders, P.; Rozema, T.

    1998-01-01

    An enzymatic starch determination which can be used for the analysis of starch in a very broad range of different samples is evaluated, ranging from starch in plants, feed and food to industrial applications as starch in starch. The method is based on a complete enzymatic conversion of the starch

  14. 21 CFR 178.3520 - Industrial starch-modified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3520 Industrial starch-modified. Industrial starch... starch-modified: Polyethylene glycol (400) dilaurate. Polyethylene glycol (400) monolaurate...

  15. Quantifying Resistant Starch Using Novel, In Vivo Methodology and the Energetic Utilization of Fermented Starch in Pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, W.J.J.; Bosch, M.W.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2012-01-01

    To quantify the energy value of fermentable starch, 10 groups of 14 pigs were assigned to one of two dietary treatments comprising diets containing 45% of either pregelatinized (P) or retrograded (R) corn starch. In both diets, a contrast in natural 13C enrichment between the starch and nonstarch

  16. Quantifying Resistant Starch Using Novel, In Vivo Methodology and the Energetic Utilization of Fermented Starch in Pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, W.J.J.; Bosch, M.W.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2012-01-01

    To quantify the energy value of fermentable starch, 10 groups of 14 pigs were assigned to one of two dietary treatments comprising diets containing 45% of either pregelatinized (P) or retrograded (R) corn starch. In both diets, a contrast in natural 13C enrichment between the starch and nonstarch co

  17. Pullulanase: role in starch hydrolysis and potential industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hii, Siew Ling; Tan, Joo Shun; Ling, Tau Chuan; Ariff, Arbakariya Bin

    2012-01-01

    The use of pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) has recently been the subject of increased applications in starch-based industries especially those aimed for glucose production. Pullulanase, an important debranching enzyme, has been widely utilised to hydrolyse the α-1,6 glucosidic linkages in starch, amylopectin, pullulan, and related oligosaccharides, which enables a complete and efficient conversion of the branched polysaccharides into small fermentable sugars during saccharification process. The industrial manufacturing of glucose involves two successive enzymatic steps: liquefaction, carried out after gelatinisation by the action of α-amylase; saccharification, which results in further transformation of maltodextrins into glucose. During saccharification process, pullulanase has been used to increase the final glucose concentration with reduced amount of glucoamylase. Therefore, the reversion reaction that involves resynthesis of saccharides from glucose molecules is prevented. To date, five groups of pullulanase enzymes have been reported, that is, (i) pullulanase type I, (ii) amylopullulanase, (iii) neopullulanase, (iv) isopullulanase, and (v) pullulan hydrolase type III. The current paper extensively reviews each category of pullulanase, properties of pullulanase, merits of applying pullulanase during starch bioprocessing, current genetic engineering works related to pullulanase genes, and possible industrial applications of pullulanase.

  18. Pullulanase: Role in Starch Hydrolysis and Potential Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ling Hii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41 has recently been the subject of increased applications in starch-based industries especially those aimed for glucose production. Pullulanase, an important debranching enzyme, has been widely utilised to hydrolyse the α-1,6 glucosidic linkages in starch, amylopectin, pullulan, and related oligosaccharides, which enables a complete and efficient conversion of the branched polysaccharides into small fermentable sugars during saccharification process. The industrial manufacturing of glucose involves two successive enzymatic steps: liquefaction, carried out after gelatinisation by the action of α-amylase; saccharification, which results in further transformation of maltodextrins into glucose. During saccharification process, pullulanase has been used to increase the final glucose concentration with reduced amount of glucoamylase. Therefore, the reversion reaction that involves resynthesis of saccharides from glucose molecules is prevented. To date, five groups of pullulanase enzymes have been reported, that is, (i pullulanase type I, (ii amylopullulanase, (iii neopullulanase, (iv isopullulanase, and (v pullulan hydrolase type III. The current paper extensively reviews each category of pullulanase, properties of pullulanase, merits of applying pullulanase during starch bioprocessing, current genetic engineering works related to pullulanase genes, and possible industrial applications of pullulanase.

  19. Repeated fermentation from raw starch using Saccharomyces cerevisiae displaying both glucoamylase and α-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Syun-ichi; Yamada, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2012-05-10

    A diploid yeast strain displaying both α-amylase and glucoamylase was developed for repeated fermentation from raw starch. First, the construct of α-amylase was optimized for cell surface display, as there have been no reports of α-amylase-displaying yeast. The modified yeast displaying both glucoamylase and α-amylase produced 46.5 g/l of ethanol from 200 g/l of raw corn starch after 120 h of fermentation, and this was 1.5-fold higher when compared to native α-amylase-displaying yeast. Using the glucoamylase and modified α-amylase co-displaying diploid strain, we repeated fermentation from 100g/l of raw starch for 23 cycles without the loss of α-amylase or glucoamylase activity. The average ethanol productivity and yield during repeated fermentation were 1.61 g/l/h and 76.6% of the theoretical yield, respectively. This novel yeast may be useful for reducing the cost of bio-ethanol production and may be suitable for industrial-scale bio-ethanol production.

  20. Selection of potential microorganism for sago starch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUTH MELLIAWATI

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation process of sago starch for the production of bioproduct requires potential microorganism that have ability to hydrolyze sago starch. The purpose of this research was to get the potential of amylolytic microorganisms for their capability of amyloglucosidase activity and to know the sugar strains of the fermentation result. Eleven amylolytic microorganisms (9 strains of mold and 2 strains of yeast were obtained from the collection Research Centre for Biotechnology – Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI, Cibinong-Bogor were used. The selection step was carried out based on their capability of starch hydrolysis to reducing sugar. The best result indicates that the production of reducing sugar reached the highest 18.485 ppm and amyloglucosidase activities was 3.583 units by KTU-1 strain. The highest total acid obtained was 5.85 mg/mL by Rhizopus IFO.R5442. The cell biomass was obtained between 0.5 to 1.74 g dry weight/100 mL and pH of the final fermentation (72 h were 3.57 to 8.38.

  1. Effect of tapioca starch and amyloglucosidase concentration on very high gravity simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (VHG-SSF) of bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugih, A. K.; Santoso, I. V.; Kristijarti, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Tapioca starch is isolated from the root of cassava plant (Manihot esculenta). It is produced in a large quantity in Indonesia and other south east Asian countries. Tapioca starch has been commonly used as a feedstock for food as well as non-food industries. Due to its high carbohydrate content, tapioca starch has the potentiality to be used as a raw material for bioethanol production. In this research, a novel approach (Very High Gravity Simultaneous Sacharification and Fermentation/ VHG-SSF) to synthesise highly concentrated ethanol from tapioca starch was investigated. Tapioca starch suspension was first gelatinised for two hours at 90°C and hydrolised at the same temperature for another two hours using commercial α- amylase (Liquozyme Supra, 0.16%-v/ w starch). The pretreated suspension was sterilised and mixed with nitrogenous supplement. In order to start the fermentation, Saccharomyces cereviseae NRRL Y-132 inoculum (10%-v/v; 107 cells/ ml) and commercial amyloglucosidase (Dextrozyme GA, 35-105 AGU/ g starch) were added to the mixture. The initial total carbohydrate, yeast extract, and peptone concentrations of the fermentation broths were 30-40 %-w/v, 1%-w/v, and 2%-w/v, respectively. VHG-SSF was allowed to proceed for 6 days at 30°C with rotary shaker speed of 100 rpm. The concentration of glucose and ethanol during fermentation was monitored using HPLC. The experimental result shows that tapioca starch has been successfully converted to ethanol with a final concentration of 10.12-16.14 %-w/v, which is corresponding to yield of 34.68-56.83 %-w ethanol/ w-converted sugar. The result suggests that VHG-SSF is a prospective method to synthesise bioethanol from tapioca starch.

  2. Using biomass of starch-rich transgenic Arabidopsis vacuolar as feedstock for fermentative hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Yung-Chung; Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Chen, Chun-Yen [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Huang, Li-Fen; Chang, Jo-Shu [Yuan Ze Univ., Tao-yuan, Taiwan (China). Graduate School of Biotechnology and Bioengineering

    2010-07-01

    Cellulose is the major constitute of plant biomass and highly available in agricultural wastes and industrial effluents, thereby being a cost-effective feedstock for bioenergy production. However, most hydrogen producing bacteria (HPB) could not directly convert cellulosic materials (such as rice husk and rice straw) into hydrogen whereas most HPB could utilize sugar and starch for hydrogen production. In this work, we used an indigenous bacterial isolate Clostridium butyricum CGS2 as HPB, which could directly convert soluble starch into H2 with a maximum H2 production rate and a H2 yield of 205.07 ml H2/h/l and 6.46 mmol H2/g starch, respectively. However, C. butyricum CGS2 could not ferment pure cellulosic materials such as carboxymethyl cellulose and xylan. Moreover, we found that C. butyricum CGS2 could utilize rich husk to produce H2 at a rate of 13.19 ml H2/h/l due to the starch content in rice husk (H2 yield = 1.49 mmol H2/g rice husk). In contrast, since lacking starch content, rice straw cannot be converted to H2 by C. butyricum CGS2. The foregoing results suggest that increasing the starch content in the natural agricultural wastes may make them better feedstock for fermentative H2 production. Hence, a genetically modified plant (Arabidopsis vacuolar) was constructed to enhance its starch concentration. The starch concentration of mutant plant S1 increased to 10.67 mg/fresh weight, which is four times higher than that of wild type plant. Using mutant plant S1 as carbon source, C. butyricum CGS2 was able to give a high cumulative H2 production and H2 production rate of 285.4 ml H2/l and 43.6 ml/h/l, respectively. The cumulative H2 production and H2 production rate both increased when the concentration of the transgenic plant was increased. Therefore, this study successful demonstrated the feasibility of expressing starch on genetically-modified plants to create a more effective feedstock for dark H2 fermentation. (orig.)

  3. Yogurt fermentation in the presence of starch-lipid composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M; Kim, S

    2009-03-01

    The fermentation of yogurt in the presence of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% starch-lipid composite (SLC) was investigated. The pH, viscosity, and morphology of the mix were monitored during the fermentation process. The rate of drop in pH with time during incubation was not affected by the addition of SLC. However, it was found that the presence of SLC caused faster aggregation, which was clearly evidenced by the viscosity variation during the process of fermentation. An examination of the morphologies confirmed that aggregation occurred earlier in the presence of SLC and SLC did not form phase-separated domains. This study concludes that SLC would serve as a good additive (fat replacer and stabilizer) for the production of yogurt.

  4. Use of biomass energy. Saccharification of raw starch and ethanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, S.

    1982-01-01

    Raw starch was saccharified under acidic condition of pH 3.5 using black-koji amylase, and the resultant saccharidies were fermented to give ethanol in succession. White polished rice flour was fermented at 30 degrees C during the period of 7 to 10 days to give ethanol. Semi-continuous ethanol fermentation was carried out using corn starch and cassava starch. Batch ethanol fermentation was also carried out using cassava or sweet potato. Sweet potato was fermented using Rhizopus gluco-amylase. 11 references.

  5. Effect of fermentation conditions on biohydrogen production from cassava starch by anaerobic mixed cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Hai M.; Le, Kien A.; Tran, An T.; Le, Phung K.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a series of batch tests were conducted to investigate the effect of pH, temperature, fermentation time, and inoculums ratio to hydrogen production using cassava starch as a substrate. The statistical analysis of the experiment indicated that the significant effects for the fermentation yield were the main effect of temperature, pH and inoculums ratio. It was fouund that the suitable fermentation conditions of biohydrogen production should be at temperature 40 ° C; pH 6.5, inoculums to medium ratio 10 % and COD operation at 4800 g/mL. The maximum value of hydrogen volume produced was 76.22 mL. These affected has been evaluated and the result can be used as an reference for the pilot or industrial biohydrogen production.

  6. Continuous hydrogen production from starch by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Keigo; Tanisho, Shigeharu [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    This study was investigated the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on hydrogen production rate, hydrogen yield and the production rate of volatile fatty acid. The experiment was performed in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with a working volume of 1 L by using a Clostridium sp. The temperature of the CSTR was regulated 37 C. The pH was controlled 6.0 by the addition of 3 M of NaOH solution. Starch was used as the carbon source with the concentration of 30 g L{sup -1}. Hydrogen production rate increased from 0.9 L-H{sub 2} L-culture{sup -1} h{sup -1} to 3.2 L-H{sub 2} L-culture{sup -1} h{sup -1} along with the decrease of HRT from 9 h to 1.5 h. Hydrogen yield decreased at low HRT. The major volatile fatty acids are acetic acid, butyric acid and lactic acid. The production rates of acetic acid and butyric acid increased along with the decrease of HRT. On the other hand, the rate of lactic acid was low at high HRT while it increased at HRT 1.5 h. The increase of the production rate of lactic acid suggested one of the reasons that hydrogen yield decreased. (orig.)

  7. Effect of phytase application during high gravity (HG) maize mashes preparation on the availability of starch and yield of the ethanol fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulski, D; Kłosowski, G; Rolbiecka, A

    2014-10-01

    Phytic acid present in raw materials used in distilling industry can form complexes with starch and divalent cations and thus limit their biological availability. The influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis of phytate complexes on starch availability during the alcoholic fermentation process using high gravity (HG) maize mashes was analyzed. Indicators of the alcoholic fermentation as well as the fermentation activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae D-2 strain were statistically evaluated. Phytate hydrolysis improved the course of the alcoholic fermentation of HG maize mashes. The final ethanol concentration in the media supplemented with phytase applied either before or after the starch hydrolysis increased by 1.0 and 0.6 % v/v, respectively, as compared to the control experiments. This increase was correlated with an elevated fermentation yield that was higher by 5.5 and 2.0 L EtOH/100 kg of starch, respectively. Phytate hydrolysis resulted also in a statistically significant increase in the initial concentration of fermenting sugars by 14.9 mg/mL of mash, on average, which was a consequence of a better availability of starch for enzymatic hydrolysis. The application of phytase increased the attenuation of HG media fermentation thus improving the economical aspect of the ethanol fermentation process.

  8. Continuous butanol fermentation and feed starch retrogradation: butanol fermentation sustainability using Clostridium beijerinckii BA101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeji, T C; Qureshi, N; Blaschek, H P

    2005-01-26

    Use of starch solution as feed for butanol bioconversion processes employing Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 may have added economic advantage over the use of glucose. Acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) was produced from 30 gL(-1) starch solution using a continuous process. The bioreactor was fed at a dilution rate of 0.02 h(-1) and starch solution/feed volume (3 L) was replaced every 72 h. The continuous reactor fed with cornstarch solution (feed temperature 19 degrees C) produced approximately 6.0 gL(-1) total ABE. Increasing the feed storage temperature to 37 degrees C improved ABE production to 7.2 gL(-1) suggesting that retrogradation was occurring more rapidly at 19 degrees C. In both these cases the fermentation drifted toward acid production after approximately 260 h, consistent with the retrogradation of starch overtime. The use of soluble starch, which is less prone to retrogradation, resulted in the production of 9.9 gL(-1) ABE at 37 degrees C feed storage temperature, as compared to 7.2 gL(-1) ABE when cornstarch was used. It should be noted that gelatinized starch retrogradation takes place after sterilization and prior to use of the feed medium, and does not occur during long-term storage of the raw corn material in the months leading up to processing. The degree of hydrolysis of gelatinized starch decreased from 68.8 to 56.2% in 3 days when stored at 37 degrees C. Soluble starch which does not retrograde demonstrated no change in the degree of hydrolysis.

  9. The in vitro caecal fermentation of different starch sources in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Kermauner, Ajda; Lavrenčič, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to extend the knowledge of microbial fermentation of starch in the rabbit caecum using the in vitro gas production technique. Different sources of starch (wheat and maize grain, raw and cooked potato) and different starch isolates (wheat, maize and potato starch) were incubated with inoculum, prepared from rabbit caecum content. The gas production parameters such as total potential gas production (parameter "B"), gas production till 10 h of incubation (Gas10), m...

  10. Intestinal transport and fermentation of resistant starch evaluated by the hydrogen breath test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1994-01-01

    To study fermentability of different samples of resistant starch (RS), compared to one another and to lactulose, and to study the effect on gastric emptying of addition of RS to test meal. Finally to study if adaptation to RS results in a measurable change in fermentation pattern, (H2/CH4 product...... production). Sources of RS: Raw potato starch (RPS), 58% RS; corn flakes (CF), 5% RS; hylon VII high amylomaize starch, extrusion cooked and cooled (HAS) 30% RS; highly retrograded hylon VII high amylomaize starch (HRA) 89% RS.......To study fermentability of different samples of resistant starch (RS), compared to one another and to lactulose, and to study the effect on gastric emptying of addition of RS to test meal. Finally to study if adaptation to RS results in a measurable change in fermentation pattern, (H2/CH4...

  11. Towards industrially feasible treatment of potato starch processing waste by mixed cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingnan; Song, Jinzhu; Li, Ying; Niu, Jia; Wang, Zhenyu; Yang, Qian

    2013-10-01

    The present study aimed at reducing the pollution of the waste generated by the potato starch industry to the environment and transform the potato pulp and wastewater into single-cell protein (SCP) to be used as animal feed. The chemical oxygen demand of the wastewater was reduced from 26,700 to 9,100 mg/L by batch fermentation with mixed cultures in an aerated 10-L fermenter. The SCP products, with a crude protein content of 46.09 % (higher than soybean meal), were found palatable and safe for mice. During the treatment process, the microbial community was analyzed using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism for bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The results of the analysis suggested that Curacaobacter/Pseudoalteromonas and Paenibacillus/Bacillus were the main microorganisms in treating potato starch processing wastes. The 150-m(3)-scale fermentation demonstrated a potential for treatment in industrial applications. Fermentation of potato pulp and wastewater without adding an extra nitrogen source was a novel approach in treating the potato starch processing waste.

  12. Challenges in industrial fermentation technology research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Nørregaard, Anders; Bolic, Andrijana;

    2014-01-01

    Industrial fermentation processes are increasingly popular, and are considered an important technological asset for reducing our dependence on chemicals and products produced from fossil fuels. However, despite their increasing popularity, fermentation processes have not yet reached the same...... engineering challenges: scaling up and scaling down fermentation processes, the influence of morphology on broth rheology and mass transfer, and establishing novel sensors to measure and control insightful process parameters. The greatest emphasis is on the challenges posed by filamentous fungi, because...

  13. Application of Lactobacillus immobilized by Activated Carbon Fiber in Fermentation of Lactic Acid in Starch Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Peng; Chi, Guoda; Huang, Chenyong

    2010-11-01

    Activated carbon fibers (ACF) as the carrier of Lactobacillus was introduced into fermenting system, and a method of modifying the surface of ACF by HNO3-Fe (III) was established. Factors that affect ACF carrier's effect on immobilization of Lactobacillus were studied. HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 and FeCl3 solutions were respectively used to modify the surface properties of ACF. The amount of Fe (III) carried on ACF surface was 0.1563 mol/kg after ACF surface was modified by HNO3 for 5 h and then by 0.1 mol/L FeCl3 for 4 h, when the thickness of Lactobacillus on a single silk of carrier reached 40 μm. When ACF modified by HNO3-Fe (III) was applied in the fermentation of lactic acid in starch industry wastewater, the fermentation period reduced by 8 h and the output of L-lactic acid was 65.5 g/L, which was 3.3% more than that fermented without the carrier.

  14. Fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of native corn starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Grajek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The most important innovations in boethanol production in the last decade were: simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes (SSF, high gravity fermentation, the use of new enzyme preparation able to hydrolyse native granular starch and construction of genetically modified strains of microorganisms able to carry out simultaneous production of hydrolytic enzymes and fermentation of C6 and C5 sugars. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of ethanol fermentation using new type of amylolytic enzymes able to hydrolyse native corn starch in a SSF process. Material and methods. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of raw corn flour by fed-batch processes using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain Red Star Ethanol Red and Stargen 001 enzyme preparation was performed. As experimental variable were investigated: fermentation temperature (35-37-40°C, rate of mash stirring (100 and 200 rpm, fermentation time (0-92 h and dosage of corn flour (different portion and different time. Results. It was found that optimal temperature for fed-batch SSF process was 37°C at initial pH of 5.0. However, the yeast intensively fermented the saccharides also at 40°C. The fermentation stirring rate has significant effect on starch utilization and fermentation production. The prolongation of fermentation time over 72 h has no substantiation in additional ethanol production. In all experimental fermentations the level of produced organic acids was very low, significantly below toxic concentration for the yeast. Conclusions. It was stated that the use of new method of starch raw material preparation resulted in satisfied fermentation yield and allowed to reduce energy requirements for starch liquefaction.  

  15. Improving hydrogen production from cassava starch by combination of dark and photo fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Huibo; Cheng, Jun; Zhou, Junhu; Song, Wenlu; Cen, Kefa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2009-02-15

    The combination of dark and photo fermentation was studied with cassava starch as the substrate to increase the hydrogen yield and alleviate the environmental pollution. The different raw cassava starch concentrations of 10-25 g/l give different hydrogen yields in the dark fermentation inoculated with the mixed hydrogen-producing bacteria derived from the preheated activated sludge. The maximum hydrogen yield (HY) of 240.4 ml H{sub 2}/g starch is obtained at the starch concentration of 10 g/l and the maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 84.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h is obtained at the starch concentration of 25 g/l. When the cassava starch, which is gelatinized by heating or hydrolyzed with {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase, is used as the substrate to produce hydrogen, the maximum HY respectively increases to 258.5 and 276.1 ml H{sub 2}/g starch, and the maximum HPR respectively increases to 172 and 262.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h. Meanwhile, the lag time ({lambda}) for hydrogen production decreases from 11 h to 8 h and 5 h respectively, and the fermentation duration decreases from 75-110 h to 44-68 h. The metabolite byproducts in the dark fermentation, which are mainly acetate and butyrate, are reused as the substrates in the photo fermentation inoculated with the Rhodopseudomonas palustris bacteria. The maximum HY and HPR are respectively 131.9 ml H{sub 2}/g starch and 16.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h in the photo fermentation, and the highest utilization ratios of acetate and butyrate are respectively 89.3% and 98.5%. The maximum HY dramatically increases from 240.4 ml H{sub 2}/g starch only in the dark fermentation to 402.3 ml H{sub 2}/g starch in the combined dark and photo fermentation, while the energy conversion efficiency increases from 17.5-18.6% to 26.4-27.1% if only the heat value of cassava starch is considered as the input energy. When the input light energy in the photo fermentation is also taken into account, the whole energy conversion efficiency is 4.46-6.04%. (author)

  16. Lactobacillus amylovorus, a new starch-hydrolyzing species from cattle waste-corn fermentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, L.K.

    1981-01-01

    The morphology, physiology and fermentation characteristics of this hitherto unrecognized species are described. The new Lactobacillus species can be differentiated from L. acidophilus, L. jensenii, and L. leichmannii on the basis of starch fermentation, G + C content, vitamin requirements and stereoisomerism of lactic acid produced. The type strain of L. amylovorus is NRRL B-4540. (Refs. 39).

  17. The effect of fermentation and addition of vegetable oil on resistant starch formation in wholegrain breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddrick, Oliver; Jones, Oliver A H; Hughes, Jeff G; Kong, Ing; Small, Darryl M

    2015-08-01

    Resistant starch has potential health benefits but the factors affecting its formation in bread and baked products are not well studied. Here, the formation of resistant starch in wholemeal bread products was evaluated in relation to the processing conditions including fermentation time, temperature and the inclusion of palm oil as a vitamin source. The effects of each the factor were assessed using a full factorial design. The impact on final starch content of traditional sourdough fermentation of wholemeal rye bread, as well as the bulk fermentation process of wheat and wheat/oat blends of wholemeal bread, was also assessed by enzyme assay. Palm oil content was found to have a significant effect on the formation of resistant starch in all of the breads while fermentation time and temperature had no significant impact. Sourdough fermentation of rye bread was found to have a greater impact on resistant starch formation than bulk fermentation of wheat and wheat blend breads, most likely due the increased organic acid content of the sourdough process.

  18. Starch hydrolysis and its effect on product yield and microbial contamination in yeast ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Z; Grajek, W

    1991-05-01

    The influence of temperature and incubation time on starch gelatinization in wheat, rye and corn grain were studied. Rye starch was the most susceptlble to enzyme hydrolysls. Heat treatment of ground grain during starch gelatinlzation significantly reduced microblal contamination. In the batch fermentation of wheat, a high sugar utillization ranged from 92 to 94%. The highest alcohol yield was 65% from rye starch. The results obtained show that the high pressure cooking used for mash preparation can be replaced successfully by low temperature treatment.

  19. Fermentation of grain sorghum starch by co-cultivation of Schwanniomyces occidentalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, C.H.; Preez, J.C. du; Kilian, S.G. (Orange Free State Univ., Bloemfontein (ZA). Dept. of Microbiology and Biochemistry)

    1992-01-01

    The amylases of a Schwanniomyces occidentalis mutant hydrolysed grain sorghum starch completely. Heat pretreatment to effect gelatinization was essential for total starch hydrolysis. Ethanol fermentations were conducted by using a stationary-phase culture of S. occidentalis in conjunction with Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment the sugars liberated from the grain sorghum starch by the amylases of S. occidentalis. Increasing the grain sorghum concentration from 8 to 28% (m/v) did not affect the final ethanol yield of 0.45 g ethanol/g glucose equivalents, although the fermentation rate decreased considerably at the higher slurry concentration, requiring 8 days for completion of the fermentation. A 28% grain sorghum slurry yielded 12.5% (w/v) ethanol, indicating that nearly 390 1 of ethanol could be produced per tonne grain sorghum, with about 430 kg residual biomass containing 43% crude protein. (Author).

  20. Dark hydrogen fermentation from hydrolyzed starch treated with recombinant amylase originating from Caldimonas taiwanensis On1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shing-Der; Sheu, Der-Shyan; Chen, Wen-Ming; Lo, Yung-Chung; Huang, Tian-I; Lin, Chiu-Yue; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2007-01-01

    Starch is one of the most abundant resources on earth and is suited to serve as a cost-effective feedstock for biological hydrogen production. However, producing hydrogen from direct fermentation of starch is usually inefficient, as the starch hydrolysis is often the rate-limiting step. Therefore, in the present work, enzymatic starch hydrolysis was conducted to enhance the feasibility of using starch feedstock for H2 production. The amylase (with a molecular weight of ca. 112 kDa) used for starch hydrolysis was produced from a recombinant E. coli harboring an amylase gene originating from Caldimonas taiwanensis On1. Using statistical experimental design, the optimal pH and temperature for starch hydrolysis with the recombinant amylase was pH 6.86 and 52.4 degrees C, respectively, at an initial starch concentration of 7 g/L. The hydrolyzed products contained mainly glucose, maltotriose, and maltotetrose, while a tiny amount of maltose was also detected. The enzymatically hydrolyzed products of soluble starch and cassava starch were used as the substrate for dark hydrogen fermentation using Clostridium butyricum CGS2 and Clostridium pasteurianum CH4. The highest H2 production rate (vH2) and yield (YH2) of C. butyricum CGS2 was 124.0 mL/h/L and 6.32 mmol H2/g COD, respectively, both obtained with the hydrolysate of cassava starch. The best H2 production rate (63.0 mL/h/L) of C. pasteurianum CH4 occurred when using hydrolyzed cassava starch as the substrate, whereas the highest yield (9.95 mmol H2/g COD) was obtained with the hydrolyzed soluble starch.

  1. THE DEPENDENCE OF GLYCEROL ACCUMULATION AND STARCH HYDROLYZATES FERMENTATION FROM WORT CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оliynichuk S. Т.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to study the dependence of ethanol accumulation by-products and secondary products (glycerol and propionic acid during the fermentation in the case of increasing the wort concentration from 12 to 21% by weight of sugar as an example of commonly used in the alcohol industry the commercial dry yeast company “Danisco” and experimental osmophilic strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae DS-02-E, isolated from a concentrated (80% DM of rye malt wort which spontaneously fermented. The enzyme preparations “AMYLEX 4T”, “ALPHALASE AFP” and “DIAZYME SSF” were used for the liquefaction and saccharification of starch wort. The finished industrial of both yeast strains were added to the fermentation flasks in an amount of 10% by volume of the primary wort. In the mature brew the unfermented carbohydrates content was determined by colorimetric method with anthrone reagent, alcohol — by glass areometer-alcoholometer, acidity — potentiometrically, the concentration of dry matter — by areometer, glycerol content — by photocolorimetry method. In the brew distillate a volatile impurities content, namely propionic acid, was determined using gas chromatography. Statistical processing of the results of three series of experiments were carried out by calculating the arithmetical mean value of 5 measurements, their standard deviations and errors. To determine the probable differences between the mean values were used Student’s t test. Differences were considered statistically significant at P < 0.05. Reduction for accumulation of glycerol (between 38 till 53% at higher concentrations of nutrient medium in the case of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae DS-02-E as compared with commercial dry yeast, reduction the formation of unwanted by-product of fermentation — propionic acid (up to 34%, a better ability of the experimental strain to accumulate sugar of wort and to accumulate ethanol (up to 0.1–0.25% vol. were shown. It

  2. Feasibility study on fermentative conversion of raw and hydrolyzed starch to hydrogen using anaerobic mixed microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ching-Hsiung [Department of Biological Engineering, Yung Ta Institute of Technology and Commerce, Pingtung (China); Lu, Wei-Bin [Department of Cosmetic Science, Chung Hwa College of Medical Technology, Tainan (China); Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701 (China)

    2007-11-15

    In this work, H{sub 2} was produced by anaerobic mixed microflora with phosphate-buffered medium containing starch or enzyme-treated starch hydrolyzate as the carbon substrate. The effect of pH on H{sub 2}-producing performance was examined for cultures converting raw starch or hydrolyzed starch into H{sub 2}. Response surface methodology was utilized to determine the best condition (41 C, pH 5.2, 2.1% (v/v) enzyme dosage, 27 h reaction time) for starch hydrolysis with concentrated crude amylase obtained from Bacillus subtilis ATCC 21332. The mixed culture was able to produce H{sub 2} at an optimal pH of 7.0 irrespective of raw or hydrolyzed starch. Direct starch fermentation attained a highest maximum H{sub 2} production rate (R{sub max}), overall H{sub 2} production rate (R{sub overall}), and H{sub 2} yield (Y{sub H2}) of 25.6 ml/h, 88 ml/h/l, and 5.28 mmol H{sub 2}/g starch (4.64 mmol H{sub 2}/g COD), respectively. In contrast, using hydrolyzed starch as the substrate gave rise to much better H{sub 2} producing performance, as the highest R{sub max}, R{sub overall}, and Y{sub H2} values increased to 43.1 ml/h, 210 ml/h/l, and 6.1 mmol H{sub 2}/g COD, respectively. This clearly demonstrates the advantage of using hydrolyzed starch for fermentative H{sub 2} production. The soluble metabolites consisted primarily of acetate (HAc), ethanol (EtOH), butyrate (HBu), and 2,3 butandiol. The amount of H{sub 2} produced from raw and hydrolyzed starch (especially, raw starch) could be estimated from formation of HAc and HBu known to stoichiometrically correlate with H{sub 2} production. (author)

  3. Alcohol fermentation from sago starch granules using raw sago starch digesting amylase from Penicillum brunneum No. 24 and Saccharomyces cerevisaiae No. 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haska, Nadirman (Hiroshima Univ., Kagamiyama (Japan). Lab. of Microbial Biochemistry); Ohta, Yoshiyuki (Hiroshima Univ., Kagamiyama (Japan). Lab. of Microbial Biochemistry)

    1993-07-01

    Treatment of the sago starch granules before incubation with the enzyme by heating to below gelatinization temperature at low pH condition was effective in improving the hydrolysis. Glucose could be produced from treated (at 60 C, pH 2.0) sago starch granules using the raw sago starch digesting amylase from our strain. Alcohol fermentation from the treated sago starch granules using the raw sago starch digesting amylase from Penicillium brunneum and a strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae No. 33 could produce ethanol under incubation conditions of 35 C, pH 4.8. Addition of yeast and an extra half dose of enzyme after 24 h enzyme reaction was sufficient to continue starch hydrolysis during fermentation. This condition resulted in a conversion of sago starch to ethanol at a rate of about 44% in 72 h culture time. (orig.)

  4. Effects of dietary starch content and rate of fermentation on methane production in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatew, B; Podesta, S C; Van Laar, H; Pellikaan, W F; Ellis, J L; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of starch varying in rate of fermentation and level of inclusion in the diet in exchange for fiber on methane (CH4) production of dairy cows. Forty Holstein-Friesian lactating dairy cows of which 16 were rumen cannulated were grouped in 10 blocks of 4 cows each. Cows received diets consisting of 60% grass silage and 40% concentrate (dry matter basis). Cows within block were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 different diets composed of concentrates that varied in rate of starch fermentation [slowly (S) vs. rapidly (R) rumen fermentable; native vs. gelatinized corn grain] and level of starch (low vs. high; 270 vs. 530g/kg of concentrate dry matter). Results of rumen in situ incubations confirmed that the fractional rate of degradation of starch was higher for R than S starch. Effective rumen degradability of organic matter was higher for high than low starch and also higher for R than S starch. Increased level of starch, but not starch fermentability, decreased dry matter intake and daily CH4 production. Milk yield (mean 24.0±1.02kg/d), milk fat content (mean 5.05±0.16%), and milk protein content (mean 3.64±0.05%) did not differ between diets. Methane expressed per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, per kilogram of dry matter intake, or as a fraction of gross energy intake did not differ between diets. Methane expressed per kilogram of estimated rumen-fermentable organic matter (eRFOM) was higher for S than R starch-based diets (47.4 vs. 42.6g/kg of eRFOM) and for low than high starch-based diets (46.9 vs. 43.1g/kg of eRFOM). Apparent total-tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and crude protein were not affected by diets, but starch digestibility was higher for diets based on R starch (97.2%) compared with S starch (95.5%). Both total volatile fatty acid concentration (109.2 vs. 97.5mM) and propionate proportion (16.5 vs. 15.8mol/100mol) were higher for R starch- compared with S starch

  5. Acidification and starch behaviour during co-fermentation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and soybean (Glycine max Merr) into gari, an African fermented food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Kongor, Edem John; Annor, George Amponsah; Adjonu, Randy

    2010-08-01

    Changes in acidification and starch behaviour were investigated during co-fermentation of cassava and soybean into gari, an African fermented product. Non-volatile acidity, pH and starch content were evaluated using standard analytical methods. Starch breakdown and pasting characteristics were also analysed using a Brabender viscoamylograph. Fermentation caused significant variations in the pH, non-volatile acidity and starch concentration. The pH decreased with concomitant increases in non-volatile acidity during co-fermentation of the cassava dough. Soy fortification up to 20% caused only minimal effects on the pH, titratable acidity and starch content during the fermentation period. Starch content decreased from 69.8% to 60.4% within the 48 h fermentation time in the unfortified sample, with similar trends noted at all levels of fortification. Starch pasting characteristics showed varied trends in pasting temperature, peak viscosity, viscosity at 95 degrees C and at 50 degrees C-hold with increasing fermentation time and soybean concentration. Cassava could be co-fermented with soybean up to 20% concentration during gari processing without significant effect on its process and product quality characteristics.

  6. Kinetic modeling of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of corn starch for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białas, Wojciech; Czerniak, Adrian; Szymanowska-Powałowska, Daria

    2014-01-01

    Fuel ethanol production, using a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) of native starch from corn flour, has been performed using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme. The quantitative effects of mash concentration, enzyme dose and pH were investigated with the use of a Box-Wilson central composite design protocol. Proceeding from results obtained in optimal fermentation conditions, a kinetics model relating the utilization rates of starch and glucose as well as the production rates of ethanol and biomass was tested. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to investigate corn starch granule surface after the SFF process. A maximum ethanol concentration of 110.36 g/l was obtained for native corn starch using a mash concentration of 25%, which resulted in ethanol yield of 85.71%. The optimal conditions for the above yield were found with an enzyme dose of 2.05 ml/kg and pH of 5.0. These results indicate that by using a central composite design, it is possible to determine optimal values of the fermentation parameters for maximum ethanol production. The investigated kinetics model can be used to describe SSF process conducted with granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes. The SEM micrographs reveal randomly distributed holes on the surface of granules.

  7. Lignocellulosic ethanol production by starch-base industrial yeast under PEG detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiumei; Xu, Wenjuan; Mao, Liaoyuan; Zhang, Chao; Yan, Peifang; Xu, Zhanwei; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2016-02-01

    Cellulosic ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass offers a sustainable solution for transition from fossil based fuels to renewable alternatives. However, a few long-standing technical challenges remain to be addressed in the development of an economically viable fermentation process from lignocellulose. Such challenges include the needs to improve yeast tolerance to toxic inhibitory compounds and to achieve high fermentation efficiency with minimum detoxification steps after a simple biomass pretreatment. Here we report an in-situ detoxification strategy by PEG exo-protection of an industrial dry yeast (starch-base). The exo-protected yeast cells displayed remarkably boosted vitality with high tolerance to toxic inhibitory compounds, and with largely improved ethanol productivity from crude hydrolysate derived from a pretreated lignocellulose. The PEG chemical exo-protection makes the industrial S. cerevisiae yeast directly applicable for the production of cellulosic ethanol with substantially improved productivity and yield, without of the need to use genetically modified microorganisms.

  8. Simultaneous raw starch hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation by glucoamylase from Rhizoctonia solani and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D; Dahiya, J S; Nigam, P

    1995-01-01

    Crude glucoamylase preparation from Rhizoctonia solani was used to saccharify raw and cooked starch. Various concentrations of potato starch and wheat flour from 10-40%, w/v were used for mashing but 30% was found to be the optimal and economical. The saccharified mash yielded 5.89%, v/v ethanol in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process using a yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC-39) at 35 degrees C for 4 days. Removal of inhibitory substances from the fermenting broth through dialysis caused considerable increase in ethanol production.

  9. Selection of barley grain affects ruminal fermentation, starch digestibility, and productivity of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, C; Oba, M; Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 lots of barley grain cultivars differing in expected ruminal starch degradation on dry matter (DM) intake, ruminal fermentation, ruminal and total tract digestibility, and milk production of dairy cows when provided at 2 concentrations in the diet. Four primiparous ruminally cannulated (123 +/- 69 d in milk; mean +/- SD) and 4 multiparous ruminally and duodenally cannulated (46 +/- 14 d in milk) cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin Square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 16-d periods. Primiparous and multiparous cows were assigned to different squares. Treatments were 2 dietary starch concentrations (30 vs. 23% of dietary DM) and 2 lots of barley grain cultivars (Xena vs. Dillon) differing in expected ruminal starch degradation. Xena had higher starch concentration (58.7 vs. 50.0%) and greater in vitro 6-h starch digestibility (78.0 vs. 73.5%) compared with Dillon. All experimental diets were formulated to supply 18.3% crude protein and 20.0% forage neutral detergent fiber. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by treatment. Milk fat concentration (3.55 vs. 3.29%) was greater for cows fed Dillon compared with Xena, but was not affected by dietary starch concentration. Ruminal starch digestion was greater for cows fed high-starch diets compared with those fed low-starch diets (4.55 vs. 2.49 kg/d), and tended to be greater for cows fed Xena compared with those fed Dillon (3.85 vs. 3.19 kg/d). Ruminal acetate concentration was lower, and propionate concentration was greater, for cows fed Xena or high-starch diets compared with cows fed Dillon or low-starch diets, respectively. Furthermore, cows fed Xena or high-starch diets had longer duration that ruminal pH was below 5.8 (6.6 vs. 4.0 and 6.4 vs. 4.2 h/d) and greater total tract starch digestibility (94.3 vs. 93.0 and 94.3 vs. 93.0%) compared with cows fed Dillon or low-starch diets, respectively. These results

  10. A simple one pot purification of bacterial amylase from fermented broth based on affinity toward starch-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Tanima; Chatterjee, Saptarshi; Bandyopadhyay, Arghya; Chattopadhyay, Dwiptirtha; Basu, Semanti; Sarkar, Keka

    2015-08-18

    Surface-functionalized adsorbant particles in combination with magnetic separation techniques have received considerable attention in recent years. Selective manipulation on such magnetic nanoparticles permits separation with high affinity in the presence of other suspended solids. Amylase is used extensively in food and allied industries. Purification of amylase from bacterial sources is a matter of concern because most of the industrial need for amylase is met by microbial sources. Here we report a simple, cost-effective, one-pot purification technique for bacterial amylase directly from fermented broth of Bacillus megaterium utilizing starch-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION). SPION was prepared by co-precipitation method and then functionalized by starch coating. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID, zeta potential, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The starch-coated nanoparticles efficiently purified amylase from bacterial fermented broth with 93.22% recovery and 12.57-fold purification. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed that the molecular mass of the purified amylase was 67 kD, and native gel showed the retention of amylase activity even after purification. Optimum pH and temperature of the purified amylase were 7 and 50°C, respectively, and it was stable over a range of 20°C to 50°C. Hence, an improved one-pot bacterial amylase purification method was developed using starch-coated SPION.

  11. Effects of dietary starch content and rate of fermentation on methane production in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatew, B.; Podesta, S.C.; Laar, van H.; Pellikaan, W.F.; St-Pierre, J.L.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of starch varying in rate of fermentation and level of inclusion in the diet in exchange for fiber on methane (CH4) production of dairy cows. Forty Holstein-Friesian lactating dairy cows of which 16 were rumen cannulated were grouped in 10 b

  12. Starch and fiber fractions in selected food and feed ingredients affect their small intestinal digestibility and fermentability and their large bowel fermentability in vitro in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, G E; Patil, A R; Murray, S M; Grieshop, C M; Merchen, N R; Fahey, G C

    2001-02-01

    The digestion of legumes, cereal grains, cereal and potato flours and grain-based foods in dogs was studied using two in vitro model systems. The first simulated the stomach and small intestine through the additions of acid and enzymes and large bowel fermentation through use of fecal inocula from dogs, and the second simulated small intestinal fermentation using canine ileal chyme as the bacterial source. All substrates were analyzed for total dietary fiber (TDF) including insoluble and soluble components, and starch fractions: rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, resistant starch (RS) and total starch. Legumes had high TDF and RS concentrations (mean 36.5 and 24.7%, respectively), resulting in lower ileal digestible starch and total digestible starch concentrations (mean 21 and 31%, respectively). Seventy-four percent of the TS in the cereal grains group was rapidly digestible starch plus slowly digestible starch compared with the flour group, where the corresponding value was 95%. This related to the processing of cereals to flours, in which TDF and RS concentrations were reduced markedly. This increased ileal digestible starch concentrations in the flour group (65%) versus the cereal grains group (60%). Ileal digestion of starch in grain-based food products like macaroni and spaghetti was high (96 and 92%, expressed as a percentage of TS, respectively). Fermentation of substrates with ileal microflora was influenced by substrate chemical composition, with the flour group exhibiting the highest organic matter disappearance values. The legume group had a high total short-chain fatty acid concentration (7.8 mmol/g organic matter fermented), perhaps as a result of fermentation of TDF as well as starch components. A database such as this one provides information about utilization of foods and feeds in the dog and potentially in humans.

  13. Production of ethanol by raw starch hydrolysis and fermentation of damaged grains of wheat and sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, K.; Kiransree, N.; Venkateswar Rao, L. [Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Microbiology

    1999-08-01

    The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was used to produce ethanol from raw starch of damaged quality wheat and sorghum grains by utilising crude amylase preparation from B. subtilis VB2 and an amylolytic yeast strain S. cerevisiae VSJ4. Various concentrations of damaged wheat and sorghum starch from 10% to 30%W/V were used and 25% was found to be optimum for damaged wheat and sorghum starch yielding 4.40%V/V and 3.50%V/V ethanol respectively. Whereas 25% raw starch of fine quality wheat and sorghum grains gave an yield of 5.60%V/V and 5.00%V/V respectively. The process was carried out at 35 C, 5.8 pH and 200 rpm for 4 days. (orig.) With 2 figs., 4 tabs., 14 refs.

  14. Simultaneous utilization of non-starch polysaccharides and starch and viscosity reduction for bioethanol fermentation from fresh Canna edulis Ker. tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuhong; Jin, Yanling; Fang, Yang; Li, Yuhao; Zhao, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Viscosity reduction and the effect of cell-wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) were investigated using Canna edulis Ker. for bioethanol fermentation. The fermentation mash treated with CWDEs was much thinner (2.12 Pas) than the control mash (8.42 Pas), the fermentation efficiency was increased from 90.46% to 96.11%. HPLC analysis revealed that after treated with CWDEs, glucose and total sugar were increased by 28.07% and 7.60%, respectively. Changes in the starch granules were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results suggested that the reduction in viscosity was caused by changes in saccharide composition and physical changes of the starch granules. This present study is of significance that non-starch polysaccharides and starch can be simultaneously utilized for bioethanol production using roots and tubers as feedstock.

  15. Direct fermentation of raw starch using a Kluyveromyces marxianus strain that expresses glucoamylase and alpha-amylase to produce ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongliang; Wang, Dongmei; Gao, Xiaolian; Hong, Jiong

    2014-01-01

    Raw starch and raw cassava tuber powder were directly and efficiently fermented at elevated temperatures to produce ethanol using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus that expresses α-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae as well as α-amylase and glucoamylase from Debaryomyces occidentalis. Among the constructed K. marxianus strains, YRL 009 had the highest efficiency in direct starch fermentation. Raw starch from corn, potato, cassava, or wheat can be fermented at temperatures higher than 40°C. At the optimal fermentation temperature 42°C, YRL 009 produced 66.52 g/L ethanol from 200 g/L cassava starch, which was the highest production among the selected raw starches. This production increased to 79.75 g/L ethanol with a 78.3% theoretical yield (with all cassava starch were consumed) from raw cassava starch at higher initial cell densities. Fermentation was also carried out at 45 and 48°C. By using 200 g/L raw cassava starch, 137.11 and 87.71 g/L sugar were consumed with 55.36 and 32.16 g/L ethanol produced, respectively. Furthermore, this strain could directly ferment 200 g/L nonsterile raw cassava tuber powder (containing 178.52 g/L cassava starch) without additional nutritional supplements to produce 69.73 g/L ethanol by consuming 166.07 g/L sugar at 42°C. YRL 009, which has consolidated bioprocessing ability, is the best strain for fermenting starches at elevated temperatures that has been reported to date.

  16. The ability of the rumen ciliate protozoan Diploplastron affine to digest and ferment starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wereszka, K; Michałowski, T

    2012-07-01

    The ciliate Diploplastron affine is known as a common species of the rumen fauna in cattle and sheep. This protozoon is able to digest cellulose, whereas its amylolytic activity is not well known. The objective of the reported studies was to examine the ability of D. affine to digest starch and to use this polysaccharide to cover the requirement for energy. The enzymatic studies showed that the protozoal cell extract degraded starch to reducing products with the rate being equivalent to 2.4 ± 0.47 μmol/L glucose per mg protein per min. Maltose, maltotriose and a small quantity of glucose were the end products of starch degradation. The degradation rate of maltose was only 0.05 μmol/L glucose per mg protein per min. Two peaks in α-amylase and a single peak in maltase activity were found following molecular filtration of ciliate cell extract, whereas three starch-degrading enzymes were identified by a zymographic technique. Incubation of the bacteria-free ciliates with starch in the presence of antibiotics resulted in a release of volatile fatty acids with the net rate of 25 pmol per protozoan per h. Acetic acid followed by butyric acid was the main product of starch fermentation. The results confirmed the ability of D. affine to utilize starch in energy-yielding processes.

  17. The study of the influence of temperature and initial glucose concentration on the fermentation process in the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain immobilized on starch gels by reversed-flow gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainioti, G Ch; Kapolos, J; Koliadima, A; Karaiskakis, G

    2012-01-01

    The technique of reversed-flow gas chromatography (RFGC) was employed for the determination of the alcoholic fermentation phases and of kinetic parameters for free and immobilized cell systems, at different initial glucose concentrations and temperature values. In addition to this, due to its considerable advantages over other techniques, RFGC was used for the characterization of a new biocatalyst, yeast cells immobilized on starch gel, and especially wheat starch gel. Immobilization of wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae AXAZ-1 was accomplished on wheat and corn starch gels in order to prepare new biocatalysts with great interest for the fermentation industry. The RFGC led with great accuracy, resulting from a literature review, to the determination of reaction rate constants and activation energies at each phase of the fermentation processes. A maximum value of rate constants was observed at initial glucose concentration of 205 g/L, where a higher number of yeast cells was observed. The increase of glucose concentrations had a negative influence on the growth of AXAZ-1 cells and rate constants were decreased. The decrease of fermentation temperature caused a substantial reduction in the viability of immobilized cells as well as in rate constant values. Activation energies of corn starch gel presented lower values than those of wheat starch gel. However, the two supports showed higher catalytic efficiency than free cell systems, proving that starch gels may act as a promoter of the catalytic activity of the yeast cells involved in the fermentation process.

  18. Recycle bioreactor for bioethanol production from wheat starch. 2. Fermentation and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, X.; Hill, G.A.; MacDonald, D.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    Bioethanol has been produced using sugars from cold hydrolysis of pure wheat starch, sterile wheat flour, and unsterile wheat flour. The conversion of sugars to ethanol from pure starch reached 96% of the theoretical maximum while that from sterile wheat flour was 69% and from unsterile wheat flour only 35%. These data indicate that sequential hydrolysis and fermentation of wheat flour is not feasible. However, the simultaneous cold hydrolysis and fermentation of both wheat starch and wheat flour proved successful. Both sugar sources produced 95% of the theoretical maximum amount of ethanol. The process could be repeated in a sequential batch fashion for over 110 h of operation, achieving high ethanol yields in each run. A scale-up design of bioethanol production using sequential batch, simultaneous cold starch hydrolysis, and fermentation indicates that this process would be economically feasible. High levels of revenue are generated from both the bioethanol and the byproduct: food-grade wheat gluten. The payback period is predicted to be < 2 years with a discounted cash flow rate of return of 46%. (author)

  19. Starch with high amylose content and low in vitro digestibility increases intestinal nutrient flow and microbial fermentation and selectively promotes bifidobacteria in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Prajwal R; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Gänzle, Michael G; van Kempen, Theo A T G; Zijlstra, Ruurd T

    2011-07-01

    Diets containing different starch types can affect enzymatic digestion of starch and thereby starch availability for microbial fermentation in the gut. However, the role of starch chemistry in nutrient digestion and flow and microbial profile has been poorly explained. Eight ileal-cannulated pigs (29.4 ± 0.9 kg body weight) were fed 4 diets containing 70% purified starch (amylose content, starch output, postileal crude protein yield, fecal total SCFA and total butyrate content, and gene copies of Bifidobacterium spp. in feces were higher (P starch diet than the remaining 3 starch diets. The in vitro starch digestion rate had a negative, nonlinear relationship with ileal starch flow (R(2) = 0.98; P starch flow was positively related to Bifidobacterium spp. (R(2) = 0.27; P starch with high amylose content and low in vitro digestibility increased postileal nutrient flow and microbial fermentation and selectively promoted Bifidobacterium spp. in the distal gut.

  20. Hindgut fermentation in pigs induced by diets with different sources of starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Suárez-Belloch

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A proportion of dietary starch reaches the hindgut, being fermented there. The characteristics of in vitro caecal fermentation and microbial community in pigs given different sources of starch were studied. Twenty-four Duroc × (Landrace × Large White gilts given diets based on barley (B, broken rice (R, maize (M or peas (P (n=6 for five weeks were slaughtered with 93.6 ± 6.41 kg. No differences (p>0.10 were recorded in caecal pH, total short chain fatty acid (SCFA and total bacterial concentration, nor in in vitro gas production from caecal contents, indicating the lack of a quantitative dietary effect on caecal environment. This could be partly due to the length of fasting time before slaughter (around 10 h. Molar SCFA proportions did not differ among diets; however, relative proportion of Lactobacillus sobrius/amylovorus as the species-type in starch digestion in hindgut of pigs, was highest with P diet (p = 0.010, and gas production from potato starch as substrate with P diet was highest at 2 h incubation (p = 0.012, and higher than B and R diets at 4 (p = 0.055 and 6 (p = 0.10 h incubation. Caecal bacterial biodiversity was higher for M and R diets than for P and B diets (Shannon index, p = 0.003. Sources of resistant or slowly digestible starch such as peas promote a microbial community with a different profile and higher capacity to ferment the starch arriving to the organ than other sources which are mostly digested in the small gut.

  1. Repeated batch fermentation from raw starch using a maltose transporter and amylase expressing diploid yeast strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Syun-ichi; Yamada, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2010-06-01

    We successfully demonstrated batch ethanol fermentation repeated ten times from raw starch with high ethanol productivity. We constructed a yeast diploid strain coexpressing the maltose transporter AGT1, alpha-amylase, and glucoamylase. The introduction of AGT1 allows maltose and maltotriose fermentation as well as the improvement of amylase activities. We also found that alpha-amylase activity during fermentation was retained by the addition of 10 mM calcium ion and that the highest alpha-amylase activity was 9.26 U/ml during repeated fermentation. The highest ethanol productivity was 2.22 g/l/h at the fourth batch, and after ten cycles, ethanol productivity of more than 1.43 g/l/h was retained, as was alpha-amylase activity at 6.43 U/ml.

  2. Challenges in industrial fermentation technology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Nørregaard, Anders; Bolic, Andrijana; Hernandez, Daniela Quintanilla; Hagemann, Timo; Heins, Anna-Lena; Larsson, Hilde; Mears, Lisa; Mauricio-Iglesias, Miguel; Krühne, Ulrich; Gernaey, Krist V

    2014-06-01

    Industrial fermentation processes are increasingly popular, and are considered an important technological asset for reducing our dependence on chemicals and products produced from fossil fuels. However, despite their increasing popularity, fermentation processes have not yet reached the same maturity as traditional chemical processes, particularly when it comes to using engineering tools such as mathematical models and optimization techniques. This perspective starts with a brief overview of these engineering tools. However, the main focus is on a description of some of the most important engineering challenges: scaling up and scaling down fermentation processes, the influence of morphology on broth rheology and mass transfer, and establishing novel sensors to measure and control insightful process parameters. The greatest emphasis is on the challenges posed by filamentous fungi, because of their wide applications as cell factories and therefore their relevance in a White Biotechnology context. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is introduced as a promising tool that can be used to support the scaling up and scaling down of bioreactors, and for studying mixing and the potential occurrence of gradients in a tank.

  3. Fermentation of Metroxylon sagu resistant starch type III by Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium bifidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew-Wai, Loo; Zi-Ni, Tan; Karim, Alias A; Hani, Norziah M; Rosma, Ahmad

    2010-02-24

    The in vitro fermentability of sago (Metroxylon sagu) resistant starch type III (RS(3)) by selected probiotic bacteria was investigated. Sago RS(3) with 12% RS content was prepared by enzymatic debranching of native sago starch with pullulanase enzyme, followed by autoclaving, cooling, and annealing. The fermentation of sago RS(3) by L. acidophilus FTCC 0291, L. bulgaricus FTCC 0411, L. casei FTCC 0442, and B. bifidum BB12 was investigated by observing the bacterial growth, carbohydrate consumption profiles, pH changes, and total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced in the fermentation media. Comparisons were made with commercial fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), Hi-maize 1043, and Hi-maize 240. Submerged fermentations were conducted in 30 mL glass vials for 24 h at 37 degrees C in an oven without shaking. The results indicated that fermentation of sago RS(3) significantly (P < 0.05) yielded the highest count of Lactobacillus sp. accompanied by the largest reduction in pH of the medium. Sago RS(3) was significantly the most consumed substrate compared to FOS and Hi-maizes.

  4. Impact of fermentation and addition of non-starch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes on microbial population and on digestibility of dried distillers grains with solubles in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venås Jakobsen, Grethe; Jensen, Bent Borg; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach;

    2015-01-01

    or with the addition of carbohydrases) and 40% of a basal diet composed mainly of maize starch: (1) a nonfermented liquid feed treatment (n-FLF); (2) a fermented liquid feed treatment (FLF); (3) the FLF supplemented with a mixture of xylanase and β-glucanase (XylGlu); and (4) the FLF supplemented with a mixture......-starch polysaccharides (NSP) compared to the fermented DDGS (from 341.8 g/kg DM to 312.9 g/kg DM, PFermenting DDGS prior to feeding led to significantly......Fluctuating prices on feedstock has led to a growing interest in alternative feed ingredients. Co-products from the biofuel industry are hence interesting to include in pig feeds, primarily due to the high protein content. Low nutritional value due to a high content of dietary fibre, however...

  5. Dark fermentation of ground wheat starch for bio-hydrogen production by fed-batch operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kargi, Fikret; Pamukoglu, M. Yunus [Department of Environmental Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2009-04-15

    Ground wheat solution was used for bio-hydrogen production by dark fermentation using heat-treated anaerobic sludge in a completely mixed fermenter operating in fed-batch mode. The feed wheat powder (WP) solution was fed to the anaerobic fermenter with a constant flow rate of 8.33 mL h{sup -1} (200 mL d{sup -1}). Cumulative hydrogen production, starch utilization and hydrogen yields were determined at three different WP loading rates corresponding to the feed WP concentrations of 10, 20 and 30 g L{sup -1}. The residual starch (substrate) concentration in the fermenter decreased with operation time while starch consumption was increasing. The highest cumulative hydrogen production (3600 mL), hydrogen yield (465 mL H{sub 2} g{sup -1} starch or 3.1 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose) and hydrogen production rate (864 mL H{sub 2} d{sup -1}) were obtained after 4 days of fed-batch operation with the 20 g L{sup -1} feed WP concentration corresponding to a WP loading rate of 4 g WP d{sup -1}. Low feed WP concentrations (10 g L{sup -1}) resulted in low hydrogen yields and rates due to substrate limitations. High feed WP concentrations (30 g L{sup -1}) resulted in the formation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in high concentrations causing inhibition on the rate and yield of hydrogen production. (author)

  6. Starch conversion of ganyong (Canna edulis Ker.) to bioethanol using acid hydrolysis and fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    LILY SURAYYA EKA PUTRI; DEDE SUKANDAR

    2008-01-01

    Starch of ganyong is one of the sources of ethanol which is able to be produced by acid hydrolysis and fermentation process. It had high concentration of carbohydrate that is 80%, so it could produce glucose highly within acid hydrolysis process. The result showed that the optimal amount of reducing sugar had been produced by nitrate acid 7% (dextrose equivalent, DE = 28.4). Nevertheless, type and concentration of acid had no significantly correlation to reducing sugar yielded. The total ...

  7. Comparison of different mixed cultures for bio-hydrogen production from ground wheat starch by combined dark and light fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmihci, Serpil; Kargi, Fikret

    2010-04-01

    Composition of the mixed culture was varied in combined dark-light fermentation of wheat powder starch in order to improve hydrogen gas formation rate and yield. Heat-treated anaerobic sludge and pure culture of Clostridium beijerinckii (DSMZ 791T) were combined with two different light fermentation bacteria of Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RS-NRRL and RS-RV) in order to select a more suitable mixture resulting in high hydrogen yield and formation rate. A combination of the anaerobic sludge and RS-NRRL yielded the highest cumulative hydrogen (CHF = 140 ml), the highest yield (0.36 mol H2 mol(-1) glucose) and specific hydrogen formation rate (2.5 ml H2 g(-1) biomass h(-1)). During dark fermentation (70 h) hydrogen was produced simultaneously by the dark and light fermentation bacteria using glucose from hydrolyzed starch. However, only light fermentation bacteria produced hydrogen from VFA's derived from dark fermentation after a long adaptation period.

  8. Production of D-lactic acid by bacterial fermentation of rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kazuki; Sogo, Kazuaki; Miura, Shigenobu; Kimura, Yoshiharu

    2004-11-20

    D-Lactic acid was synthesized by the fermentation of rice starch using microorganisms. Two species: Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Sporolactobacillus inulinus were found to be active in producing D-lactic acid of high optical purity after an intensive screening test for D-lactic acid bacteria using glucose as substrate. Rice powder used as the starch source was hydrolyzed with a combination of enzymes: alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, and pullulanase to obtain rice saccharificate consisting of maltose as the main component. Its average gross yield was 82.5%. Of the discovered D-lactic acid bacteria, only Lactobacillus delbrueckii could ferment both maltose and the rice saccharificate. After optimizing the fermentation of the rice saccharificate using this bacterium, pilot scale fermentation was conducted to convert the rice saccharificate into D-lactic acid with a D-content higher than 97.5% in a yield of 70%. With this yield, the total yield of D-lactic acid from brown rice was estimated to be 47%, which is almost equal to the L-lactic acid yield from corn. The efficient synthesis of D-lactic acid can open a way to the large scale application of high-melting poly(lactic acid) that is a stereocomplex of poly(L-lactide) and poly(D-lactide). Schematic representation of the production of D-lactic acid starting from brown rice as described here.

  9. High throughput biotechnology in traditional fermented food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Xu, Rong-man; Song, Jia; Wang, Wei-min

    2010-11-01

    Traditional fermented food is not only the staple food for most of developing countries but also the key healthy food for developed countries. As the healthy function of these foods are gradually discovered, more and more high throughput biotechnologies are being used to promote the old and new industry. As a result, the microflora, manufacturing processes and product healthy function of these foods were pushed forward either in the respect of profundity or extensiveness nowadays. The application and progress of the high throughput biotechnologies into traditional fermented food industries were different from each other, which was reviewed and detailed by the catalogues of fermented milk products (yogurt, cheese), fermented sausages, fermented vegetables (kimchi, sauerkraut), fermented cereals (sourdough) and fermented beans (tempeh, natto). Given the further promotion by high throughput biotechnologies, the middle and/or down-stream process of traditional fermented foods would be optimized and the process of industrialization of local traditional fermented food having many functional factors but in small quantity would be accelerated. The article presents some promising patents on traditional fermented food industry.

  10. Starch industry wastewater for production of biopesticides--ramifications of solids concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Khanh Dang; Tyagi, R D; Brar, S K; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2009-04-01

    Total solids (TS) concentrations ranging from 15 to 66 g L(-1) of starch industry wastewater (SIW) were tested as raw material for the production of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1 (Btk) biopesticide in shake flasks and a 15 L bench-scale fermenter. Shake flask studies revealed a higher delta-endotoxin concentration of Btk at 30 g L(-1) TS concentration and 2.5% (v v(-1)) volume of pre-culture. The fermenter experiments conducted using SIW at 30 g L(-1) TS concentration under controlled conditions of temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen showed higher spore count, enzyme production (protease and amylase) and delta-endotoxin concentration as compared with those of SIW at 15 g L(-1) TS concentration. The entomotoxicity, at the end of fermentation, with SIW at 30 g L(-1) solids concentration (17.8 x 10(9) SBU L(-1), measured against spruce budworm) was considerably higher as compared with entomotoxicity at 15 g L(-1) solids concentration (15.3 x 10(9) SBU L(-1)) and semi-synthetic medium (11.7 x 10(9) SBU L(-1)). The pellet, comprising spores and delta-endotoxin complex obtained after centrifugation and followed by resuspension (in supernatant) in one-tenth of the original volume, of SIW at 30 g L(-1) solids concentration media registered the highest potential for application (to protect forests against spruce budworm) than other media in term of entomotoxicity.

  11. Fermentation of starch by Klebsiella oxytoca P2, containing plasmids with {alpha}-amylase and pullulanase genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, V.L. dos; Araujo, E.F.; Barros, E.G. de; Guimaraes, W.V.

    1999-12-20

    Klebsiella oxytoca P2(pC46), an ethanol-producing recombinant, has been evaluated in fermentation of maltose and starch. The maximum ethanol produced by P2(pC46) was 0.34 g ethanol/g maltose and 0.38, 0.40, or 0.36 g ethanol/g starch in fermentation of 1, 2, or 4% starch, representing 68, 71, and 64% the theoretical yield. The pC46 plasmid transformed to cells of K. oxytoca P2 reduced the ethanol production from maltose and starch. In fermentation of starch after its digestion at 60 C for 24 h, in two-step fermentation, the time for maximum ethanol production was reduced to 12--24 h and the theoretical yield was around 90%. The increase in starch concentration resulted in lower {alpha}-amylase activity but in higher pullulanase activity. The high activity and thermostability of the amylolytic enzymes from this transformant suggest that it has a potential for amylolytic enzymes source.

  12. In vitro ruminal fermentation kinetic of diets containing forage cactus with urea and different starch sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann dos Santos Luz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate fermentation kinetic of diets based on cactus forage enriched with urea and Tifton 85 hay, containing different starch sources, using semi-automated in vitro gas production technique. Treatments were disposed in a randomized block design, with four replications, where concentrates were formulated as follows: cassava roots (FSMa, semi flint corn grains (FSMiSD, dent corn grains (FSMiD and wheat bran (FTMa. All diets were formulated to obtain 15% of crude protein. Gas pressure were measured 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 30, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after inoculation. For fast phase maximum gas volume (Vf1, both treatments containing corn did not differ (P>0.05. FTMa differed (P<0.05 from diets composed with corn, as main starch source. Specific degradation rate of fast fraction (Kd1 was higher (P<0.05 on FSMa and FTMa diets, compared with corn diets. Colonization time (L showed lower values (P<0.05 for FTMa diet. The lowest total gas production was observed on FTMa and the highest for FSMiD, varying from 225.49 to 268.31 mL/g, respectively. Cassava roots as starch source contributes to a faster fermentation, compared to both corns, allowing a better synchronization with faster degradation nitrogen sources.

  13. Fermentation Results and Chemical Composition of Agricultural Distillates Obtained from Rye and Barley Grains and the Corresponding Malts as a Source of Amylolytic Enzymes and Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Balcerek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of rye and barley starch hydrolysis in mashing processes using cereal malts as a source of amylolytic enzymes and starch, and to establish the volatile profile of the obtained agricultural distillates. In addition, the effects of the pretreatment method of unmalted cereal grains on the physicochemical composition of the prepared mashes, fermentation results, and the composition of the obtained distillates were investigated. The raw materials used were unmalted rye and barley grains, as well as the corresponding malts. All experiments were first performed on a semi-technical scale, and then verified under industrial conditions in a Polish distillery. The fermentable sugars present in sweet mashes mostly consisted of maltose, followed by glucose and maltotriose. Pressure-thermal treatment of unmalted cereals, and especially rye grains, resulted in higher ethanol content in mashes in comparison with samples subjected to pressureless liberation of starch. All agricultural distillates originating from mashes containing rye and barley grains and the corresponding malts were characterized by low concentrations of undesirable compounds, such as acetaldehyde and methanol. The distillates obtained under industrial conditions contained lower concentrations of higher alcohols (apart from 1-propanol than those obtained on a semi-technical scale.

  14. A structured approach to target starch solubilisation and hydrolysis for the sugarcane industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Marsha R; Rose, Ingrid; Chung, Yoo Jin; Eggleston, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    In sugarcane processing, starch is considered an impurity that negatively affects processing and reduces the quality of the sugar end-product. In the last decade, there has been a general world-wide increase in starch concentrations in sugarcane. Industrial α-amylases have been used for many years to mitigate issues arising from starch in the sugarcane industry. Mixed results have prompted further studies of the behaviour of different physical forms of starch and their interactions with α-amylases during processing. By using corn starch as a reference in model juices and syrups, processing parameters, activities, and hydrolysis of insoluble, swollen, and soluble starch forms were evaluated for two commercial α-amylases with high (HT) and intermediate (IT) temperature stability, respectively. The ability of starch to solubilise across a sugarcane factory is largely limited by increased Brix values. Optimum target locations and conditions for the application of α-amylases in sugarcane processing are discussed in detail.

  15. Fermentation of starch to ethanol by an amylolytic yeast Saccharomyces diastaticus SM-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Pandey, M; Saharan, B

    2002-03-01

    A total of fifteen yeast strains were isolated from natural sources including fruits, soil, molasses, honey and a variety of indigeneous fermented foods. Screening of these strains for growth, ethanol production and glucoamylase activity led to selection of a yeast strain SM-10 identified as S. diastaticus having maximum glucoamylase activity (80 units ml(-1)) and ethanol production from starch (3.5%). Ethanol production from wheat flour was found to be 1.75% which could be increased to 5.2% after treatment of wheat flour with pepsin, diastase and glucoamylase.

  16. Starch conversion of ganyong (Canna edulis Ker. to bioethanol using acid hydrolysis and fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILY SURAYYA EKA PUTRI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Starch of ganyong is one of the sources of ethanol which is able to be produced by acid hydrolysis and fermentation process. It had high concentration of carbohydrate that is 80%, so it could produce glucose highly within acid hydrolysis process. The result showed that the optimal amount of reducing sugar had been produced by nitrate acid 7% (dextrose equivalent, DE = 28.4. Nevertheless, type and concentration of acid had no significantly correlation to reducing sugar yielded. The total amount of glucose had correlation to amount of ethanol, in fermentation process. The optimal amount of ethanol was yielded from 4.81% of glucose and it produced about 4.84% ethanol. The more amount of glucose was yielded the more ethanol was produced. Controlling pH every 12 hours did not affected to production of ethanol significantly.

  17. Enzymatically Modified Starch Favorably Modulated Intestinal Transit Time and Hindgut Fermentation in Growing Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M. A.; Zebeli, Q.; Velde, K.; Grüll, D.; Molnar, T.; Kandler, W.; Metzler-Zebeli, B. U.

    2016-01-01

    Aside from being used as stabilizing agents in many processed foods, chemically modified starches may act as functional dietary ingredients. Therefore, development of chemically modified starches that are less digestible in the upper intestinal segments and promote fermentation in the hindgut receives considerable attention. This study aimed to investigate the impact of an enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on nutrient flow, passage rate, and bacterial activity at ileal and post-ileal level. Eight ileal-cannulated growing pigs were fed 2 diets containing 72% purified starch (EMS or waxy cornstarch as control) in a cross-over design for 10 d, followed by a 4-d collection of feces and 2-d collection of ileal digesta. On d 17, solid and liquid phase markers were added to the diet to determine ileal digesta flow for 8 h after feeding. Reduced small intestinal digestion after the consumption of the EMS diet was indicated by a 10%-increase in ileal flow and fecal excretion of dry matter and energy compared to the control diet (Pfeeding reduced ileal transit time of both liquid and solid fractions compared to the control diet (P<0.05). The greater substrate flow to the large intestine with the EMS diet increased the concentrations of total and individual short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in feces (P<0.05). Total bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance was not affected by diet, whereas the relative abundance of the Lactobacillus group decreased (P<0.01) by 50% and of Enterobacteriaceae tended (P<0.1) to increase by 20% in ileal digesta with the EMS diet compared to the control diet. In conclusion, EMS appears to resemble a slowly digestible starch by reducing intestinal transit and increasing SCFA in the distal large intestine. PMID:27936165

  18. High temperature simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch from inedible wild cassava (Manihot glaziovii) to bioethanol using Caloramator boliviensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Anselm P; Hosea, Ken M M; Elisante, Emrode; Mamo, G; Mattiasson, Bo

    2015-03-01

    The thermoanaerobe, Caloramator boliviensis was used to ferment starch hydrolysate from inedible wild cassava to ethanol at 60°C. A raw starch degrading α-amylase was used to hydrolyse the cassava starch. During fermentation, the organism released CO2 and H2 gases, and Gas Endeavour System was successfully used for monitoring and recording formation of these gaseous products. The bioethanol produced in stoichiometric amounts to CO2 was registered online in Gas Endeavour software and correlated strongly (R(2)=0.99) with values measured by HPLC. The organism was sensitive to cyanide that exists in cassava flour. However, after acclimatisation, it was able to grow and ferment cassava starch hydrolysate containing up to 0.2ppm cyanide. The reactor hydrogen partial pressure had influence on the bioethanol production. In fed-batch fermentation by maintaining the hydrogen partial pressure around 590Pa, the organism was able to ferment up to 76g/L glucose and produced 33g/L ethanol.

  19. Enhanced production of raw starch degrading enzyme using agro-industrial waste mixtures by thermotolerant Rhizopus microsporus for raw cassava chip saccharification in ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakarnpaiboon, Srisakul; Srisuk, Nantana; Piyachomkwan, Kuakoon; Sakai, Kenji; Kitpreechavanich, Vichien

    2017-09-14

    In the present study, solid-state fermentation for the production of raw starch degrading enzyme was investigated by thermotolerant Rhizopus microsporus TISTR 3531 using a combination of agro-industrial wastes as substrates. The obtained crude enzyme was applied for hydrolysis of raw cassava starch and chips at low temperature and subjected to nonsterile ethanol production using raw cassava chips. The agro-industrial waste ratio was optimized using a simplex axial mixture design. The results showed that the substrate mixture consisting of rice bran:corncob:cassava bagasse at 8 g:10 g:2 g yielded the highest enzyme production of 201.6 U/g dry solid. The optimized condition for solid-state fermentation was found as 65% initial moisture content, 35°C, initial pH of 6.0, and 5 × 10(6) spores/mL inoculum, which gave the highest enzyme activity of 389.5 U/g dry solid. The enzyme showed high efficiency on saccharification of raw cassava starch and chips with synergistic activities of commercial α-amylase at 50°C, which promotes low-temperature bioethanol production. A high ethanol concentration of 102.2 g/L with 78% fermentation efficiency was achieved from modified simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using cofermentation of the enzymatic hydrolysate of 300 g raw cassava chips/L with cane molasses.

  20. Glycemic Response and Fermentation of Crystalline Short Linear α-Glucans from Debranched Waxy Maize Starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Lauren R; Weber, Casey; Haub, Mark; Cai, Liming; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2015-11-04

    The glycemic index (GI) is used to rank foods based on postprandial blood glucose response. GI test requires that 50 g of available carbohydrate be used. Available carbohydrate is often calculated as total carbohydrate minus dietary fiber; yet, AOAC fiber methods do not always include resistant starch (RS). The objective of this study was to examine GI response and fermentation properties of crystalline short-chain α-glucan (CSCA), which has high RS content, but no total dietary fiber (TDF) content as measured by AOAC method 991.43. Using the standard GI method, 10 adults were fed 50 g of waxy maize starch and CSCA, consumed alone and in mixed formulation. Breath hydrogen was also determined over 6 h. Fifty grams of CSCA was not entirely available in vivo, and breath hydrogen testing indicated that CSCA was as likely to ferment. Products high in RS, but with no TDF, would yield reduced GI values, and this calls for the need of a method to define available carbohydrate.

  1. Combining enzymatic hydrolysis and dark-photo fermentation processes for hydrogen production from starch feedstock: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Yung-Chung; Chen, Shing-Der; Huang, Tien-I. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1 University Road, Tainan 701 (China); Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1 University Road, Tainan 701 (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1 University Road, Tainan 701 (China); Lin, Chiu-Yue [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung (China)

    2008-10-15

    In this work, an integrated enzymatic hydrolysis and dark-photo fermentation were employed to enhance the performance of H{sub 2} production from starch feedstock. The starch feedstock was first hydrolyzed in sequencing batch reactor containing indigenous starch hydrolytic bacterium Caldimonas taiwanensis On1, producing reducing sugar at a yield and rate of 0.5 g reducing sugar/g starch and 1.17 g reducing sugar/h/L, respectively, under the optimal condition of pH 7.0, 55 C and 1.0 vvm (air volume per reactor volume per minute) aeration rate. The hydrolyzed starch was continuously introduced to dark fermentation bioreactor, where the hydrolysate was converted to H{sub 2} at a rate of 0.22 L/h/L by Clostridium butyricum CGS2 at pH 5.8-6.0, 37 C and 12 h HRT. The resulting effluent from dark fermentation became the influent of continuous photo H{sub 2} production process inoculated with Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP3-5 under the condition of 35 C, 100 W/m{sup 2} irradiation, pH 7.0 and 48 h HRT. Combining enzymatic hydrolysis, dark fermentation and photo fermentation led to a marked improvement of overall H{sub 2} yield (up to 16.1 mmol H{sub 2}/g COD or 3.09 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose) and COD removal efficiency (ca. 54.3%), suggesting the potential of using the proposed integrated process for efficient and high-yield bioH{sub 2} production from starch feedstock. (author)

  2. Multivariate analysis of industrial scale fermentation data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Nørregård, Rasmus; Stocks, Stuart;

    , and thereforeareas offocus for optimising the processoperation.This requires multivariate methods which canutilise the complexdatasetswhich areroutinely collected, containing online measured variables and offline sample data.Fermentation processes are highly sensitive to operational changes, as well as between...

  3. Effect of starch source (corn, oats or wheat) and concentration on fermentation by equine fecal microbiota in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: The goal was to determine the effect of starch source (corn, oats and wheat) and concentration on: 1) total amylolytic bacteria, Group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC), lactobacilli, and lactate-utilizing bacteria, and 2) fermentation by equine microflora. Methods and Results: When fecal washed cel...

  4. Effect of cultivar, location and year on total starch, amylose, phosphorus content and starch grain size of high starch potato cultivars for food and industrial processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimková, Dagmar; Lachman, Jaromír; Hamouz, Karel; Vokál, Bohumil

    2013-12-15

    In recent time the interest of industry increases particularly in processing and use of potato high amylopectin (AMP) starches. Therefore the plant breeders effort to obtain "waxy" potato cultivars with low amylose (AMS) content. In this four-year study sixteen potato cultivars grown on five experimental locations were evaluated on the percentage of AMS/AMP by enzymatic method, starch content by the underwater weight method, phosphorus (P) content in starch digests spectrophotometrically, and starch granule size determined by laser diffraction method. Between enzymatic and iodine-potassium iodide method good correlation has been revealed (r=0.71). The correlation analysis between AMS and P levels showed a clear negative correlation. For all measured parameters (starch, AMS, P, starch granule size) significant impact of cultivar has been determined. Location and year have lower, but significant impact. No statistically significant effect of year on AMS has been found. The cultivar Amado distinguished with the highest AMP and P contents and the cultivar Westamyl showed all positive values interesting for growers and processors.

  5. Effect of trace minerals and starch on digestibility and rumen fermentation in diets for dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, F; Heinrichs, A J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different forms of trace minerals (TM) and the use of different starch levels in dairy heifer diets on rumen fermentation and digestibility. Eight rumen cannulated dairy heifers (15.4 ± 0.8 mo of age and 438.31 ± 18.08 kg of body weight) were subjected to a split-plot, 4 × 4 Latin square design with 19-d periods: 15d of adaptation and 4d of sampling. The whole-plot factor was type of TM; organic as proteinates (OTM) or inorganic sulfates (ITM), and the subplot was starch level (3.54, 12.95, 22.25, and 31.73%). Total collection of feces and urine was completed on d 15 to 19 to determine digestibility and TM excretion. Rumen contents were sampled on d 18 to 19 at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 22 h after feeding to measure pH and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations. Plasma samples were collected to evaluate TM concentrations and enzymatic activity for ceruloplasmin, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. Starch level affected pH, individual VFA concentrations, and nutrient excretion. Trace mineral intake was lower for OTM compared with ITM. No effect of TM form on dry matter digestibility was detected, but as level of starch increased, diet dry matter digestibility increased. Rumen pH was lower for diets with OTM, which is consistent with higher total VFA production and butyrate proportion observed for heifers fed OTM diets. These variables may be explained by the higher bioavailability of OTM and faster utilization and fermentation by rumen microorganisms. Heifers that consumed ITM had higher moisture in feces and higher urine excretion, which increased total manure production. Total excretion of TM was not different by treatment. Blood plasma mineral concentration was not different between treatments except for Mn, which was higher for OTM. Enzymatic activity was not affected by treatments. Mineral intake was reduced and blood mineral levels were not different, suggesting enhanced

  6. Characterization of chestnut (Castanea sativa, mill) starch for industrial utilization

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize the chestnut and its starch. Chemical composition of the chestnuts showed high level of starch. Moisture level in the raw nuts was around 50g/100g in wet basis and starch content, around 80g/100g in dry basis; other nut flour components were protein (5.58 g/100g), lipid (5.39 g/100g), crude fiber (2.34 g/100g) and ash (2.14 g/100g). Starch fraction was chemically characterized in order to identify the granule quality as compared with those of cassava and...

  7. Multivariate Analysis of Industrial Scale Fermentation Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Nørregård, Rasmus; Stocks, Stuart M.

    2015-01-01

    Multivariate analysis allows process understanding to be gained from the vast and complex datasets recorded from fermentation processes, however the application of such techniques to this field can be limited by the data pre-processing requirements and data handling. In this work many iterations...

  8. Use of mesophilic fungal amylases produced by solid-state fermentation in the cold hydrolysis of raw babassu cake starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Aline Machado; de Andréa, Thiago Vetter; Castilho, Leda dos Reis; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

    2010-11-01

    Amylases constitute one of the most important groups of industrial enzymes, presenting several applications, such as in the food, textile, and ethanol manufacturing. In this work, a starchy residue from the Brazilian agroindustry, namely babassu cake, was used for the production of amylases by solid-state fermentation and for obtaining sugar hydrolysates, which can be used as building blocks for future bioconversions. Eight filamentous fungi from the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium were screened. Regarding amylase production, A. awamori strains showed well-balanced endoamylase and exoamylase activities, while A. wentii produced an amylolytic complex much richer in the endo-acting enzymes. Simultaneous liquefaction and saccharification using the crude enzyme extracts from the four most promising fungal strains was then investigated applying DOE techniques. The highest total reducing sugar content (24.70 g L(-1)) was obtained by the crude extract from A. awamori IOC-3914, corresponding to a hydrolysis yield of 52% of total starch in the cake, while A. awamori IOC-3915 produced the most appropriate extract in terms of glucose release (maximum of 5.52 g L(-1)). Multivariate analysis of the DOE studies indicated that these extracts showed their best performance at 50-57 degrees C under acid conditions (pH 3.6-4.5), but were also able to act satisfactorily under milder conditions (36 degrees C and pH 5.0), when TRS and glucose released were about 65% of the maximum values obtained. These data confirm the high potential of the enzyme extracts under study for cold hydrolysis of starch.

  9. Incorporation of whey permeate, a dairy effluent, in ethanol fermentation to provide a zero waste solution for the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashar, Archana; Jin, Yiqiong; Mason, Beth; Chae, Michael; Bressler, David C

    2016-03-01

    This study proposes a novel alternative for utilization of whey permeate, a by-product stream from the dairy industry, in wheat fermentation for ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Whey permeates were hydrolyzed using enzymes to release fermentable sugars. Hydrolyzed whey permeates were integrated into wheat fermentation as a co-substrate or to partially replace process water. Cold starch hydrolysis-based simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was done as per the current industrial protocol for commercial wheat-to-ethanol production. Ethanol production was not affected; ethanol yield efficiency did not change when up to 10% of process water was replaced. Lactic acid bacteria in whey permeate did not negatively affect the co-fermentation or reduce ethanol yield. Whey permeate could be effectively stored for up to 4 wk at 4 °C with little change in lactose and lactic acid content. Considering the global abundance and nutrient value of whey permeate, the proposed strategy could improve economics of the dairy and biofuel sectors, and reduce environmental pollution. Furthermore, our research may be applied to fermentation strategies designed to produce value-added products other than ethanol. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of starch source (corn, oats or wheat) and concentration on fermentation by equine faecal microbiota in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, B E; Donley, T M; Lawrence, L M; Flythe, M D

    2015-11-01

    The goal was to determine the effect of starch source (corn, oats and wheat) and concentration on: (i) total amylolytic bacteria, Group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC), lactobacilli and lactate-utilizing bacteria, and (ii) fermentation by equine microbiota. When faecal washed cell suspensions were incubated with any substrate amylolytics increased over time. However, at 24 h there were 10 and 1000-fold more amylolytics with corn than wheat or oats respectively. Predominant amylolytics isolated were Enterococcus faecalis (corn, wheat) and Streptococcus bovis (oats). GPC increased with any substrate, but decreased during stationary phase in oats only. Lactobacilli decreased during stationary phase with corn only. By 24 h, oats had more lactate-utilizers and lactobacilli and fewer GPC than corn and wheat. More gas was produced from oats or wheat than from corn. These results indicate that the growth of bacteria and fermentative capacity associated with starch metabolism is starch source dependent. This study demonstrates a relationship between starch source and microbial changes independent of host digestion. However, future research is needed to evaluate the effect of starch source on the hindgut microbial community in vivo. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Direct starch fermentation to L-lactic acid by a newly isolated thermophilic strain, Bacillus sp. MC-07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Pramod; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Miyamoto, Hirokuni; Miyamoto, Hisashi; Okugawa, Yuki; Sakai, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    A newly isolated Bacillus sp. MC-07 showed 99.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the Bacillus thermoamylovorans LMG 18084(T). It demonstrated optimum and maximum growth temperatures of 50 and 62 °C, respectively. The ability of MC-07 to produce optically pure L-lactic acid via direct fermentation of starch without enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated at different pH values (6.0-8.0) by intermittent adjustments every 12 h. During batch fermentation in mineral salt medium containing 0.001 % yeast extract at pH 7.0, 20 g/L of soluble starch was utilized to produce 16.6 g/L L-lactic acid at 50 °C within 24 h of fermentation, with 100 % optical purity, 92.1 % lactic acid selectivity, and an L-lactic acid yield of 0.977 g/g. Direct starch fermentation at pHs 6.0, 6.5, 7.5, and 8.0 resulted in considerably lower concentrations of lactic acid than did at pH 7.0. Compared with B. thermoamylovorans LMG 18084(T), the ability of strain MC-07 to produce L-lactic acid was superior.

  12. Effects of starch loading rate on performance of combined fed-batch fermentation of ground wheat for bio-hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozmihci, Serpil; Kargi, Fikret [Department of Environmental Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2010-02-15

    Ground wheat powder solution (10 g L{sup -1}) was subjected to combined dark and light fermentations for bio-hydrogen production by fed-batch operation. A mixture of heat treated anaerobic sludge (AN) and Rhodobacter sphaeroides-NRRL (RS-NRRL) were used as the mixed culture of dark and light fermentation bacteria with an initial dark/light biomass ratio of 1/2. Effects of wheat starch loading rate on the rate and yield of bio-hydrogen formation were investigated. The highest cumulative hydrogen formation (CHF = 3460 ml), hydrogen yield (201 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} starch) and formation rate (18.1 ml h{sup -1}) were obtained with a starch loading rate of 80.4 mg S h{sup -1}. Complete starch hydrolysis and glucose fermentation were achieved within 96 h of fed-batch operation producing volatile fatty acids (VFA) and H{sub 2}. Fermentation of VFAs by photo-fermentation for bio-hydrogen production was most effective at starch loading rate of 80.4 mg S h{sup -1}. Hydrogen formation by combined fermentation took place by a fast dark fermentation followed by a rather slow light fermentation after a lag period. (author)

  13. Fermentation RS3 derived from sago and rice starch with Clostridium butyricum BCC B2571 or Eubacterium rectale DSM 17629.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwani, Endang Yuli; Purwadaria, Tresnawati; Suhartono, Maggy Thenawidjaja

    2012-02-01

    Resistant starch type 3 (RS3) is retrograded starch which is not digested by human starch degrading enzyme, and will thus undergo bacterial degradation in the colon. The main fermentation products are the Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA): acetate, propionate and butyrate. SCFA has significant benefit impact on the metabolism of the host. The objectives of this research were to study the SCFA profile produced by colonic butyrate producing bacteria grown in medium containing RS3. RS3 was made from sago or rice starch treated with amylase, pullulanase and the combination of amylase and pullulanase. Fermentation study was performed by using Clostridium butyricum BCC B2571 or Eubacterium rectale DSM 17629, which has been identified as capable of degradation of starch residue and also regarded as beneficial bacteria. Experimental result revealed that enzyme hydrolysis of retrograded sago or rice starch was beneficial to RS formation. RS3 derived from sago contained higher RS (31-38%) than those derived from rice starch (21-26%). This study indicated that C. butyricum BCC B2571 produced acetate, propionate and butyrate at molar ratio of 1.8 : 1 : 1, when the medium was supplemented with RSSA at concentration 1%. In the medium containing similar substrate, E. rectale DSM 17629 produced acetate, propionate and butyrate at molar ratio of 1.7 : 1 : 1.2. High levels of acetate, propionate and butyrate at molar ratio of 1.8 : 1 : 1.1 was also produced by E. rectale DSM 17629 in medium supplemented with RSSP at concentration 1%. The results showed that both bacteria responded differently to the RS3 supplementation. Such result provided insight into the possibility of designing RS3 as prebiotic with featured regarding SCFA released in the human colon with potential health implication.

  14. Modeling cereal starch hydrolysis during simultaneous saccharification and lactic acid fermentation; case of a sorghum-based fermented beverage, gowé.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestres, Christian; Bettencourt, Munanga de J C; Loiseau, Gérard; Matignon, Brigitte; Grabulos, Joël; Achir, Nawel

    2017-10-01

    Gowé is an acidic beverage obtained after simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sorghum. A previous paper focused on modeling the growth of lactic acid bacteria during gowé processing. This paper focuses on modeling starch amylolysis to build an aggregated SSF model. The activity of α-amylase was modeled as a function of temperature and pH, and the hydrolysis rates of both native and soluble starch were modeled via a Michaelis-Menten equation taking into account the maltose and glucose inhibition constants. The robustness of the parameter estimators was ensured by step by step identification in sets of experiments conducted with different proportions of native and gelatinized starch by modifying the pre-cooking temperature. The aggregated model was validated on experimental data and showed that both the pre-cooking and fermentation parameters, particularly temperature, are significant levers for controlling not only acid and sugar contents but also the expected viscosity of the final product. This generic approach could be used as a tool to optimize the sanitary and sensory quality of fermentation of other starchy products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A new raw-starch-digesting α-amylase: production under solid-state fermentation on crude millet and biochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maktouf, Sameh; Kamoun, Amel; Moulis, Claire; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Ghribi, Dhouha; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2013-04-01

    A new Bacillus strain degrading starch, named Bacillus sp. UEB-S, was isolated from a southern Tunisian area. Amylase production using solid-state fermentation on millet, an inexpensive and available agro-resource, was investigated. Response surface methodology was applied to establish the relationship between enzyme production and four variables: inoculum size, moisture-to-millet ratio, temperature, and fermentation duration. The maximum enzyme activity recovered was 680 U/g of dry substrate when using 1.38 × 10(9) CFU/g as inoculation level, 5.6:1 (ml/g) as moisture ratio (86%), for 4 days of cultivation at 37 degrees C, which was in perfect agreement with the predicted model value. Amylase was purified by Q-Sepharose anion-exchange and Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration chromatography with a 14-fold increase in specific activity. Its molecular mass was estimated at 130 kDa. The enzyme showed maximal activity at pH 5 and 70 degrees C, and efficiently hydrolyzed starch to yield glucose and maltose as end products. The enzyme proved its efficiency for digesting raw cereal below gelatinization temperature and, hence, its potentiality to be used in industrial processes.

  16. Dietary resistant starch upregulates total GLP-1 and PYY in a sustained day-long manner through fermentation in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) are anti-diabetes/obesity hormones secreted from the gut after meal ingestion. We have shown that dietary-resistant starch (RS) increased GLP-1 and PYY secretion, but the mechanism remains unknown. RS is a fermentable fiber that lowers the glycemic index of the diet and liberates short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) through fermentation in the gut. This study investigates the two possible mechanisms by which RS stimulates GLP-1 and PYY secretion...

  17. The effect of starch, inulin, and degradable protein on ruminal fermentation and microbial growth in rumen simulation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang H. Zhao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A rumen simulation technique apparatus with eight 800 mL fermentation vessels was used to investigate the effects of rumen degradable protein (RDP level and non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC type on ruminal fermentation, microbial growth, and populations of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria. Treatments consisted of two NFC types (starch and inulin supplemented with 0 g/d (low RDP or 1.56 g/d (high RDP sodium caseinate. No significant differences existed among dietary treatments in the apparent disappearance of dietary nutrients except for dietary N, which increased with increased dietary RDP (P<0.001. Compared with starch, inulin treatments reduced the molar proportion of acetate (P<0.001, the acetate:propionate ratio (P<0.001, and methane production (P=0.006, but increased the butyrate proportion (P<0.001. Increased dietary RDP led to increases in production of total volatile fatty acid (P=0.014 and methane (P=0.050, various measures of N (P≤0.046, and 16s rDNA copy numbers of Ruminococcus flavefaciens (P≤0.010. Non-fibre carbohydrate source did not affect daily microbial N flow regardless of dietary RDP, but ammonia N production was lower for inulin than for starch treatments under high RDP conditions (P<0.001. Compared with starch treatments, inulin depressed the copy numbers of Fibrobacter succinogenes in solid fraction (P=0.023 and R. flavefaciens in liquid (P=0.017 and solid fractions (P=0.007, but it increased the carboxymethylcellulase activity in solid fraction (P=0.045. Current results suggest that starch and inulin differ in ruminal volatile fatty acid fermentation but have similar effects on ruminal digestion and microbial synthesis in vitro, although inulin suppressed the growth of partial ruminal cellulolytic bacteria.

  18. Fermentation by amylolytic lactic acid bacteria and consequences for starch digestibility of plantain, breadfruit, and sweet potato flours

    OpenAIRE

    Haydersah, J.; Chevallier, I.; Rochette, Isabelle; Mouquet Rivier, Claire; Picq, Christian; Marianne Pépin, T.; Icard-Vernière, Christèle; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The potential of tropical starchy plants such as plantain (Musa paradisiaca), breadfruit (Artocarpus communis), and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) for the development of new fermented foods was investigated by exploiting the capacity of some lactic acid bacteria to hydrolyze starch. The amylolytic lactic acid bacteria (ALAB) Lactobacillus plantarum A6 and Lactobacillus fermentum Ogi E1 were able to change the consistency of thick sticky gelatinized slurries of these starchy fruits and tubers ...

  19. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch for ethanol production in a fluidized-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nghiem, N.P.; Davison, B.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Sun, M.Y.; Bienkowski, P.R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Immobilized Zymomonas mobilis has been used to produce ethanol from glucose in fluidized-bed reactor at volumetric productivity as high as 60 g/L-h and theoretical yield. This research was extended to study the production of ethanol from starch. The bacteria were co-immobilized with an industrial glucoamylase within small uniform beads (2 to 2.5 mm diameter) of k-carrageenan. The reactor was a glass column of 1.2 m in length with a uniform 2.54 cm diameter. The substrate included a commercially available maltodextrin and a soluble starch solution which was produced by hydrolysis of ground corn meals using amylase under the conditions commonly used in an industrial process. Light steep water was used as the complex nutrient source. Statistical experimental design was used to study the effects of substrate concentration and feed rate on ethanol yield and reactor productivity. The experiments were performed at 30{degrees}C and pH 5. The substrate concentration ranged from 93 to 2.7 g/L and the feed rates from 6.6 to 26.7 mL/min. The results of these studies will be discussed.

  20. Development of strains of the thermotolerant yeast Hansenula polymorpha capable of alcoholic fermentation of starch and xylan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronovsky, Andriy Y; Rohulya, Olha V; Abbas, Charles A; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2009-01-01

    The thermotolerant yeast Hansenula polymorpha ferments glucose and xylose to ethanol at high temperatures. However, H. polymorpha cannot utilize starchy materials or xylans. Heterologous amylolytic and xylanolytic enzymes have to be expressed in this yeast to provide for utilization and growth on starch and xylan. Genes SWA2 and GAM1 from the yeast Schwanniomyces occidentalis, encoding alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, respectively, were expressed in H. polymorpha. The expression was achieved by integration of the SWA2 and GAM1 genes under the strong constitutive promoter of the H. polymorpha glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (HpGAP) into H. polymorpha genome. Resulting transformants acquired the ability to grow on a minimal medium containing soluble starch as a sole carbon source. Ethanol production at high-temperature fermentation from starch by the recombinant strains was up to 10 g/L. The XYN2 gene encoding endoxylanase of the fungus Trichoderma reseei was expressed in H. polymorpha. Co-expression of xlnD gene coding for beta-xylosidase of the fungus Aspergillus niger and the XYN2 gene in H. polymorpha was achieved by integration of these genes under control of the HpGAP promoter. Resulting transformants were capable of growth and alcoholic fermentation on a minimal medium supplemented with birchwood xylan as a sole carbon source at 48 degrees C.

  1. Enhanced biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) from potato starch by Bacillus cereus strain 64-INS in a laboratory-scale fermenter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Iftikhar; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    To decrease the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production cost by supplying renewable carbon sources has been an important aspect in terms of commercializing this biodegradable polymer. The production of biodegradable poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHA) from raw potato starch by the Bacillus cereus 64-INS strain isolated from domestic sludge has been studied in a lab-scale fermenter. The bacterium was screened for the degradation of raw potato starch by a starch hydrolysis method and for PHA production by Nile blue A and Sudan black B staining. Shake-flask cultures of the bacterium with glucose [2% (w/v)] or raw potato starch [2% (w/v)] produced PHA of 64.35% and 34.68% of dry cell weight (DCW), respectively. PHA production was also carried out in a 5-L fermenter under control conditions that produced 2.78 g/L of PHA and PHA content of 60.53% after 21 hr of fermentation using potato starch as the sole carbon source. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analyses confirmed that the extracted PHA contained poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) as its major constituent (>99.99%) irrespective of the carbon source used. The article describes, for what we believe to be the first time, PHB production being carried out without any enzymatic or chemical treatment of potato starch at higher levels by fermentation. More work is required to optimize the PHB yield with respect to starch feeding strategies.

  2. Characterization of chestnut (Castanea sativa, mill starch for industrial utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to characterize the chestnut and its starch. Chemical composition of the chestnuts showed high level of starch. Moisture level in the raw nuts was around 50g/100g in wet basis and starch content, around 80g/100g in dry basis; other nut flour components were protein (5.58 g/100g, lipid (5.39 g/100g, crude fiber (2.34 g/100g and ash (2.14 g/100g. Starch fraction was chemically characterized in order to identify the granule quality as compared with those of cassava and corn. This fraction showed more lipids and proteins than the other starches. Chestnut starch granules showed peculiar shape, smaller than the control starches and low amount of damaged units. Chemical composition concerning amylose : amylopectin ratio was intermediate to that presented by cassava and corn starch granules. Water absorption at different temperatures as well as solubility were also intermediate but closer to that presented by cassava granules. The same behavior was observed in the interaction with dimethyl-sulfoxide. Native starch granules and those submitted to enzymatic treatment with commercial alpha-amylase and also with enzymes from germinated wheat were observed by scanning electronic microscopy. Water suspensions of chestnut starch granules were heated to form pastes that were studied comparatively to those obtained with cassava and corn starches. Viscographic pattern of chestnut starch pastes showed a characteristic profile with high initial viscosity but peak absence, high resistance to mechanical stirring under hot conditions and high final viscosity. There was no way to compare it with the paste viscographic profiles obtained with the control starches. Chestnut starch pastes were stable down to pH 4 but unstable at pH 3. The water losses observed in the chestnut starch pastes after freeze-thaw cycles showed more similarity to the pattern observed in corn starch pastes as well as clarity and strength of the gel. In general the results

  3. Sourdough fermentation or addition of organic acids or corresponding salts to bread improves nutritional properties of starch in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeberg, H G; Lönner, C H; Björck, I M

    1995-06-01

    Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to barley bread containing organic acids or corresponding salts were evaluated in healthy human subjects. The satiety score and the rate and extent of in vitro starch digestion were also studied. Lactic acid was generated by use of a homofermentative starter culture or added to the dough. In addition, products were baked with Ca-lactate, or with Na-propionate at two different concentrations. Consumption of the product baked with a high concentration of Na-propionate significantly lowered the postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses, and significantly prolonged the duration of satiety compared with all other breads. When subjects consumed the breads baked with sourdough, lactic acid and Na-propionate, their glucose and insulin responses were reduced compared with the wholemeal bread alone. The rate of in vitro amylolysis was reduced only by ingestion of the breads containing lactic acid, suggesting that the beneficial impact of Na-propionate on metabolic responses and satiety was related to effects other than a reduced rate of starch hydrolysis. All bread products had a similar concentration of in vitro resistant starch of 1.3-2.1 g/100 g (starch basis). It is concluded that sourdough baking and other fermentation processes may improve the nutritional features of starch. The results also demonstrate that certain salts of organic acids may have metabolic effects.

  4. Fermentative hydrogen production from glucose and starch using pure strains and artificial co-cultures ofClostridium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masset Julien

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pure bacterial strains give better yields when producing H2 than mixed, natural communities. However the main drawback with the pure cultures is the need to perform the fermentations under sterile conditions. Therefore, H2 production using artificial co-cultures, composed of well characterized strains, is one of the directions currently undertaken in the field of biohydrogen research. Results Four pure Clostridium cultures, including C. butyricum CWBI1009, C. pasteurianum DSM525, C. beijerinckii DSM1820 and C. felsineum DSM749, and three different co-cultures composed of (1 C. pasteurianum and C. felsineum, (2 C. butyricum and C. felsineum, (3 C. butyricum and C. pasteurianum, were grown in 20 L batch bioreactors. In the first part of the study a strategy composed of three-culture sequences was developed to determine the optimal pH for H2 production (sequence 1; and the H2-producing potential of each pure strain and co-culture, during glucose (sequence 2 and starch (sequence 3 fermentations at the optimal pH. The best H2 yields were obtained for starch fermentations, and the highest yield of 2.91 mol H2/ mol hexose was reported for C. butyricum. By contrast, the biogas production rates were higher for glucose fermentations and the highest value of 1.5 L biogas/ h was observed for the co-culture (1. In general co-cultures produced H2 at higher rates than the pure Clostridium cultures, without negatively affecting the H2 yields. Interestingly, all the Clostridium strains and co-cultures were shown to utilize lactate (present in a starch-containing medium, and C. beijerinckii was able to re-consume formate producing additional H2. In the second part of the study the co-culture (3 was used to produce H2 during 13 days of glucose fermentation in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR. In addition, the species dynamics, as monitored by qPCR (quantitative real-time PCR, showed a stable coexistence of C. pasteurianum and C

  5. Engineering industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for xylose fermentation and comparison for switchgrass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccharomyces physiology and fermentation related properties vary broadly among industrial strains. In this study, six industrial strains of varied genetic background were engineered to ferment xylose. Aerobic growth rates on xylose were 0.040 h**-1 to 0.167 h**-1. Fermentation of xylose, glucose/xy...

  6. Starches, resistant starches, the gut microflora and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, A R; Brown, I L; Topping, D L

    2000-03-01

    Starches are important as energy sources for humans and also for their interactions with the gut microflora throughout the digestive tact. Largely, those interactions promote human health. In the mouth, less gelatinised starches may lower risk of cariogensis. In the large bowel, starches which have escaped small intestinal digestion (resistant starch), together with proteins, other undigested carbohydrates and endogenous secretions are fermented by the resident microflora. The resulting short chain fatty acids contribute substantially to the normal physiological functions of the viscera. Specific types of resistant starch (e.g. the chemically modified starches used in the food industry) may be used to manipulate the gut bacteria and their products (including short chain fatty acids) so as to optimise health. In the upper gut, these starches may assist in the transport of probiotic organisms thus promoting the immune response and suppressing potential pathogens. However, it appears unlikely that current probiotic organisms can be used to modulate large bowel short chain fatty acids in adults although resistant starch and other prebiotics can do so. Suggestions that starch may exacerbate certain conditions (such as ulcerative colitis) through stimulating the growth of certain pathogenic organisms appear to be unfounded. Short chain fatty acids may modulate tissue levels and effects of growth factors in the gut and so modify gut development and risk of serious disease, including colo-rectal cancer. However, information on the relationship between starches and the microflora is relatively sparse and substantial opportunities exist both for basic research and food product development.

  7. Potato Starch Residue as a Substrate for Microbial Fermentation%利用微生物发酵马铃薯淀粉渣的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷恒; 曹兵海; 杨富裕; 徐春城

    2011-01-01

    生物技术的进步为马铃薯淀粉渣等食品工业加工副产品的有效利用提供了新的技术手段.马铃薯淀粉渣是马铃薯淀粉生产过程中产生的主要副产物,因其蛋白质含量较低,纤维素、半纤维素和果胶等含量高,所以作为动物饲料利用时营养价值较低.马铃薯淀粉渣来源丰富,可作为微生物发酵生产诸如酶、蛋白质饲料、有机酸以及膳食纤维等高附加值产品的理想基质.发酵技术用于马铃薯淀粉渣的生物转化备受人们的关注,微生物预处理过程不仅改进了底物的利用,而且能解决废弃物带来的环境污染问题.本文综述了近期通过生物技术手段开发马铃薯淀粉渣的高附加值产品及其工艺的研究进展.%Potato starch residue is the major by-product of the potato starch processing industry. It has low nutritive value because of its low protein content and high amounts of cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectin. Due to the abundant output of by-product, it can be used as an ideal substrate for microbial fermentation to product value-added products such as enzyme preparation, protein-enriched animal feed, organic acid and dietary fiber etc. Application of microbial fermentation technology can be an attractive possibility for such bioconversions. The processing by microbial fermentation has not only improving substrate utilization, but also helping to solve environmental pollution problems. This article reviews the recent research progress on the development of value-added products and techniques of potato starch residue by biotechnological means.

  8. Use of Protein Hydrolysates in Industrial Starter Culture Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummadi, Madhavi (Soni); Curic-Bawden, Mirjana

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used as starter cultures for fermenting foods long before the importance of microorganisms were recognized. The most important group of LAB are the lactococci, lactobacilli, streptococci, and pediococci. Additionally, bifidobacteria have been included as a probiotic, providing added value to the product. Since the genera involved are so diverse, the nutritional requirements (energy, carbon and nitrogen sources) differ significantly between and within species. Designing an optimum fermentation medium for production of active and vigorous LAB starter cultures and probiotics requires selecting the right raw ingredients, especially protein hydrolysates that can provide adequate nutrients for growth and viability. This chapter attempts to describe the application of various commercial protein hydrolysates used for production of dairy and meat starter cultures, with special emphasis on meeting the nitrogen requirements of industrially important LAB species.

  9. Dietary resistant starch upregulates total GLP-1 and PYY in a sustained day-long manner through fermentation in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, June; Martin, Roy J; Tulley, Richard T; Raggio, Anne M; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Shen, Li; Danna, Samuel Colby; Tripathy, Sasmita; Hegsted, Maren; Keenan, Michael J

    2008-11-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) are anti-diabetes/obesity hormones secreted from the gut after meal ingestion. We have shown that dietary-resistant starch (RS) increased GLP-1 and PYY secretion, but the mechanism remains unknown. RS is a fermentable fiber that lowers the glycemic index of the diet and liberates short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) through fermentation in the gut. This study investigates the two possible mechanisms by which RS stimulates GLP-1 and PYY secretion: the effect of a meal or glycemic index, and the effect of fermentation. Because GLP-1 and PYY secretions are stimulated by nutrient availability in the gut, the timing of blood sample collections could influence the outcome when two diets with different glycemic indexes are compared. Thus we examined GLP-1 and PYY plasma levels at various time points over a 24-h period in RS-fed rats. In addition, we tested proglucagon (a precursor to GLP-1) and PYY gene expression patterns in specific areas of the gut of RS-fed rats and in an enteroendocrine cell line following exposure to SCFAs in vitro. Our findings are as follows. 1) RS stimulates GLP-1 and PYY secretion in a substantial day-long manner, independent of meal effect or changes in dietary glycemia. 2) Fermentation and the liberation of SCFAs in the lower gut are associated with increased proglucagon and PYY gene expression. 3) Glucose tolerance, an indicator of increased active forms of GLP-1 and PYY, was improved in RS-fed diabetic mice. We conclude that fermentation of RS is most likely the primary mechanism for increased endogenous secretions of total GLP-1 and PYY in rodents. Thus any factor that affects fermentation should be considered when dietary fermentable fiber is used to stimulate GLP-1 and PYY secretion.

  10. The production of a new fungal alpha-amylase degraded the raw starch by means of solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkan, Bilal; Ertan, Figen

    2010-01-01

    In this study, it was intended to produce a new fungal amylase by solid-state fermentation and purification and also to determine some of its biochemical properties. It was found that Penicillium brevicompactum had the best enzyme activity according to screening methods with amylase degrading raw starch, and P. brevicompactum was selected as the amylase source. Wheat bran, rice husks, and sunflower oil meal were tested to determine the best solid substrate. Wheat bran was determined as the best of these. The fermentation conditions were optimized for the production of amylase. The optimum fermentation conditions were found to be an initial moisture level for the solid substrate of 55%, moistening agent of 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 5.0), incubation period of 7 d, inoculum concentration of 2.5 mL, and incubation temperature at 30 degrees C. Penicillium brevicompactum alpha-amylase was purified 45.98 times by the starch affinity method. The K(m) and V(max) values of alpha-amylase for soluble starch were 5.71 mg/mL and 666.6 U/mL, respectively. This amylase showed maximum activity at between 30 and 50 degrees C and at pH 5.0. Initial enzyme activity was kept at 100% after incubation at 30 degrees C for 45 min. Enzyme was stable in the pH range of 4.0-5.0. This enzyme was activated by Mn(2+), Cu(2+), and Na(+) ions, and was inhibited by Mg(2+), K(+), Fe(3+), and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). The molecular mass of P. brevicompactum alpha-amylase was found to be 32.5 kD by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  11. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on ruminal starch digestion are dependent upon dry matter intake for lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M S; Ying, Y

    2012-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate ruminal digestion responses to Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP) supplementation and to determine if responses are influenced by voluntary feed intake. Fifteen ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows with a wide range in preliminary dry matter intake (pDMI; 20.1 to 31.0 kg/d) measured during a 14-d preliminary period were used in a crossover design experiment. Treatments were SCFP and control (a mix of dry ground corn and soybean meal), top-dressed at the rate of 56 g/d per head. The base diet contained 28% NDF, 30% starch, and 16.5% CP and included corn silage, alfalfa silage, high-moisture corn, protein supplement, and a mineral and vitamin supplement. Treatment periods were 28 d, with the final 8d used for sample and data collection. Voluntary dry matter intake was determined during the last 4d of the preliminary period. Ruminal digestion kinetics were determined using the pool-and-flux method. Main effects of SCFP treatment and their interaction with pDMI were tested by ANOVA. An interaction was detected between SCFP treatment and pDMI for ruminal digestion rate of starch; SCFP increased the rate of starch digestion compared with the control for cows with pDMI below 26 kg/d and decreased it for cows with higher pDMI. This resulted in an interaction between treatment and pDMI for turnover rate of starch in the rumen and true and apparent ruminal starch digestibility because passage rate of starch from the rumen was not affected by treatment (mean=24.3%/h). Ruminal pH (mean=6.0), dry matter intake, milk yield and component percentages were not affected by treatment or its interaction with pDMI. Supplementation of SCFP reduced the rate of ruminal starch digestion for cows with higher feed intake, which could help stabilize the ruminal environment when large amounts of starch are consumed to support higher milk production.

  12. Agro-industrial residues and starch for growth and co-production of polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymer and α-amylase by Bacillus sp. CFR-67

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Shamala

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA and α-amylase (α-1,4 glucan-4-glucanohydrolase, E.C. 3.2.1.1 were co-produced by Bacillus sp. CFR-67 using unhydrolysed corn starch as a substrate. Bacterial growth and polymer production were enhanced with the supplementation of hydrolysates of wheat bran (WBH or rice bran (RBH individually or in combination (5-20 g L-1, based on weight of soluble substrates-SS. In batch cultivation, a mixture of WBH and RBH (1:1, 10 g L-1 of SS along with ammonium acetate (1.75 g L-1 and corn starch (30 g L-1 produced maximum quantity of biomass (10 g L-1 and PHA (5.9 g L-1. The polymer thus produced was a copolymer of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate of 95:5 to 90:10 mol%. Presence of WBH and corn starch (10-50 g L-1 in the medium enhanced fermentative yield of α-amylase (2-40 U mL-1 min-1. The enzyme was active in a wide range of pH (4-9 and temperature (40-60ºC. This is the first report on simultaneous production of copolymer of bacterial PHA and α-amylase from unhydrolysed corn starch and agro-industrial residues as substrates.

  13. A mathematical model of the formation of fermentable sugars from starch hydrolysis during high-temperature mashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller

    2000-08-01

    During the mashing process of brewing, activity of the amylolytic enzymes decays due to the high temperatures used to gelatinise the starch. Because the different enzymes produce different sugars, high temperatures can be exploited to modify the fermentability of resulting worts. This is especially useful when producing low alcohol beers. The expression a.exp(b.t)-c.exp(d.t) (where t is the temperature of the mash in degrees C) provides a simple but useful description of the activity of the amylases. Combining the activities of alpha- and beta-amylases results in a prediction of the resulting fermentability. A simple modification to the expression accommodates changes in mash thickness. The error of prediction is approximately 3 degrees of fermentability. The model is not appropriate for predicting the fermentability of worts produced at the lower standard mashing temperatures. It can be used without the necessity of analytical parameters so analyses that the brewer would not normally perform are not required. If increased accuracy is needed, the results of two previous mashes can be used to modify the parameters used.

  14. Fermentation in the Small Intestine Contributes Substantially to Intestinal Starch Disappearance in Calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Myrthe S.; Pantophlet, Andre J.; Berends, Harma; Pluschke, Anton M.; van den Borne, Joost J. G. C.; Hendriks, Wouter H.; Schols, Henk A.; Gerrits, Walter J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The proportion of starch disappearing from the small intestinal lumen is generally lower in ruminants than in monogastric animals, and there are indications that the starch digestion capacity in ruminants is limited. Objectives: Milk-fed calves were used to study the rate-limiting enzyme

  15. Induced production of chitinase to enhance entomotoxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis employing starch industry wastewater as a substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Khanh Dang; Yan, S; Tyagi, R D; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2009-11-01

    Induced production of chitinase during bioconversion of starch industry wastewater (SIW) to Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1 (Btk) based biopesticides was studied in shake flask as well as in computer-controlled fermentors. SIW was fortified with different concentrations (0%; 0.05%; 0.1%; 0.2%; 0.3% w/v) of colloidal chitin and its consequences were ascertained in terms of Btk growth (total cell count and viable spore count), chitinase, protease and amylase activities and entomotoxicity. At optimum concentration of 0.2% w/v colloidal chitin, the entomotoxicity of fermented broth and suspended pellet was enhanced from 12.4x10(9) (without chitin) to 14.4x10(9) SBU/L and from 18.2x10(9) (without chitin) to 25.1x10(9) SBU/L, respectively. Further, experiments were conducted for Btk growth in a computer-controlled 15 L bioreactor using SIW as a raw material with (0.2% w/v chitin, to induce chitinase) and without fortification of colloidal chitin. It was found that the total cell count, spore count, delta-endotoxin concentration (alkaline solubilised insecticidal crystal proteins), amylase and protease activities were reduced whereas the entomotoxicity and chitinase activity was increased with chitin fortification. The chitinase activity attained a maximum value at 24 h (15 mU/ml) and entomotoxicity of suspended pellet reached highest (26.7x10(9) SBU/L) at 36 h of fermentation with chitin supplementation of SIW. In control (without chitin), the highest value of entomotoxicity of suspended pellet (20.5x10(9) SBU/L) reached at 48 h of fermentation. A quantitative synergistic action of delta-endotoxin concentration, spore concentration and chitinase activity on the entomotoxicity against spruce budworm larvae was observed.

  16. Fermentation assisted byproduct recovery in the palm oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanton, W.R.

    1983-05-01

    The production of palm oil from Elaeis guineensis is a leading natural product industry in Malaysia, giving rise to a number of residues, including a rich, fruity liquor from the pulp. The liquor, of which 7-10 million tonnes a year are currently produced, has some 6% organic solids, including 0.7-1.0% or more of oil which physical processing has failed to extract. Present anaerobic digestion processes exploit only the energy and fertiliser value. Methods are described in this paper for thermophilic, microbially assisted digestion for component separation and recovery, exploiting the widely used techniques for fruit juice extraction involving enzymic breakdown of starch, pectin and other cell components. Anaerobiosis and acidogenesis help protect and release residual oil, concomitantly preserving the solids against rancidity and spoilage by ensilage. The separated wet solids are nutritive (17% protein on dry matter), biologically safe and attractive to livestock. Downstream use of the liquor is aided by the thermophilic digestion. (Refs. 33).

  17. Amylase production by Saccharomycopsis fibuligera A11 in solid-state fermentation for hydrolysis of Cassava starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Chi, Zhen-Ming; Chi, Zhe; Li, Mei

    2010-09-01

    The optimization of process parameters for high amylase production by Saccharomycopsis fibuligera A11 in solid-state fermentation was carried out using central composite design. Finally, the optimal parameters obtained with the response surface methodology (RSM) were moisture 610.0 ml/kg, inoculum 30.0 ml (OD(600 nm) = 20.0)/kg, the amount ratio of wheat bran to rice husk 0.42, cassava starch concentration 20.0 g/kg, temperature 28 degrees C, and natural pH. Under the optimized conditions, 4,296 U/g of dry substrate of amylase activity was reached in the solid-state fermentation culture of the yeast strain A11 within 160 h, whereas the predicted maximum amylase activity of 4,222 U/g of dry substrate of amylase activity was derived from the RSM regression. It was found that cassava starch can be actively converted into monosaccharides and oligosaccharides by the crude amylase.

  18. Microbial community structure of a starch-feeding fermentative hydrogen production reactor operated under different incubation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chin-Hung; Hung, Chun-Hsiung; Liau, Pei-Yu.; Liang, Chih-Ming [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 402 (China); Lee, Kuo-Shing [Department of Health and Safety and Environmental Engineering, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 40601 (China); Yang, Lee-Hao; Lin, Ping-Jei [Department Chemical Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724 (China); Lin, Chiu-Yue [Department Environmental Engineering and Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724 (China)

    2008-10-15

    The aim of this study was to establish the particular biohydrogen-production related microbial community structure in a starch-feeding dark fermentation agitated granular sludge bed (AGSB) reactor which was operated under pH 6.0 and 5.5 as well as under different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The bacterial community diversity and percent of their cell count of the bioreactor were ascertained using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) individually. Based on the comparison of bacterial structure and hydrogen production efficiency under different HRT, no conclusion could be made on whether the diversity of Clostridium community could directly affect the reactor performance in these two pH systems. However, bacterial cell counts showed that the viable number of dominated Clostridium sp. changed along with the hydrogen production rate (HPR). It was believed that it could directly affect the hydrogen production efficiency. The highest HPR and hydrogen yield (HY) occurred when the reactor was operated at HRT 0.5 h, while the ratio of Clostridium sp. cell count and Bifidobacterium sp. cell count over the total Eubacteria cell count were around 40% and 40-60%, respectively. Therefore, we suggested that bacterial species which could degrade starch, such as Bifidobacterium sp. in this study, broke down starch into small molecules first and then these less complex compounds were utilized by the Clostridium species for hydrogen production. (author)

  19. Development of FIA-enzyme systems for on-line monitoring of starch, cellulose and amygdalin concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umoh, E.

    1993-07-02

    Immobilized enzyme - FIA systems were developed for application in monitoring starch concentration during fermentation, cellulose concentration in hydrolysis process and amygdalin concentration in industrial effluents as an index of toxic potentiality of such effluents. The starch measuring system consisting of glucoamylase, glucose oxidase and mutarotase was employed to measure glucose and starch simultaneously. The system was used for on-line monitoring of starch concentration in a 24 hour Bacillus lichenifonnis fermentation and dextrin concentration in a 140 hour fermentation of Cephalosporium acremonium. The on-line measurements agree well with the concentrations determined off-line using both calorimetric and enzymatic methods. (orig.)

  20. Simultaneous and enhanced production of thermostable amylases and ethanol from starch by cocultures of Clostridium thermosulfurogenes and Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, H.H.; Zeikus, J.G.

    1985-05-01

    Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum and Clostridium thermosulfurogenes produced ethanol and amylases with different components as primary metabolites of starch fermentation. Starch fermentation parameters were compared in mono- and cocultures of these two thermoanaerobes to show that the fermentation was dramatically improved as a consequence of coordinate action of amylolytic enzymes and synergistic metabolic interactions between the two species. Under given monoculture fermentation conditions, neither species completely degraded starch during the time course of the study, whereas in coculture, starch was completely degraded. In monoculture starch fermentation, C. thermohydrosulfuricum produced lower levels of pullulanase and glucoamylase, whereas C. thermosulfurogenes produced lower levels of ..beta..-amylase and glucoamylase. In coculture fermentation, improvement of starch metabolism by each species was noted in terms of increased amounts and rates of increased starch consumption, amylase production, and ethanol formation. The single-step coculture fermentation completely degraded 2.5% starch in 30 h at 60/sup 0/C and produced 9 U of ..beta..-amylase per ml, 1.3 U of pullulanase per ml, 0.3 U of glucoamylase per ml, and > 120 mM ethanol with a yield of 1.7 mol/mol of glucose in starch. The potential industrial applications of the coculture fermentation and the physiological basis for the interspecies metabolic interactions are discussed.

  1. Simultaneous and Enhanced Production of Thermostable Amylases and Ethanol from Starch by Cocultures of Clostridium thermosulfurogenes and Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, H H; Zeikus, J G

    1985-05-01

    Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum and Clostridium thermosulfurogenes produced ethanol and amylases with different components as primary metabolites of starch fermentation. Starch fermentation parameters were compared in mono- and cocultures of these two thermoanaerobes to show that the fermentation was dramatically improved as a consequence of coordinate action of amylolytic enzymes and synergistic metabolic interactions between the two species. Under given monoculture fermentation conditions, neither species completely degraded starch during the time course of the study, whereas in coculture, starch was completely degraded. In monoculture starch fermentation, C. thermohydrosulfuricum produced lower levels of pullulanase and glucoamylase, whereas C. thermosulfurogenes produced lower levels of beta-amylase and glucoamylase. In coculture fermentation, improvement of starch metabolism by each species was noted in terms of increased amounts and rates of increased starch consumption, amylase production, and ethanol formation. The single-step coculture fermentation completely degraded 2.5% starch in 30 h at 60 degrees C and produced 9 U of beta-amylase per ml, 1.3 U of pullulanase per ml, 0.3 U of glucoamylase per ml, and >120 mM ethanol with a yield of 1.7 mol/mol of glucose in starch. The potential industrial applications of the coculture fermentation and the physiological basis for the interspecies metabolic interactions are discussed.

  2. The heat insulating properties of potato starch extruded with addition of chosen by- products of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdybel Ewa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at determination of time of heat transition through the layer of quince, apple, linen, rose pomace and potato pulp, as well as layer of potato starch and potato starch extruded with addition of above mentioned by-products. Additionally the attempt of creation a heat insulating barrier from researched raw material was made. The heat conductivity of researched materials was dependent on the type of material and its humidity. Extruded potato starch is characterized by smaller heat conductivity than potato starch extruded with addition of pomace. The obtained rigid extruded starch moulders were characterized by higher heat insulating properties than the loose beads. It is possible to use starch and by-products of food industry for production of heat insulating materials.

  3. Development of waxy cassava with different Biological and physico-chemical characteristics of starches for industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan-Shan; Dufour, Dominique; Sánchez, Teresa; Ceballos, Hernan; Zhang, Peng

    2011-08-01

    The quality of cassava starch, an important trait in cassava breeding programs, determines its applications in various industries. For example, development of waxy (having a low level of amylose) cassava is in demand. Amylose is synthesized by granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) in plants, and therefore, down-regulation of GBSSI expression in cassava might lead to reduced amylose content. We produced 63 transgenic cassava plant lines that express hair-pin dsRNAs homologous to the cassava GBSSI conserved region under the control of the vascular-specific promoter p54/1.0 from cassava (p54/1.0::GBSSI-RNAi) or cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S (35S::GBSSI-RNAi). After the screening storage roots and starch granules from field-grown plants with iodine staining, the waxy phenotype was discovered: p54/1.0::GBSSI-RNAi line A8 and 35S::GBSSI-RNAi lines B9, B10, and B23. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that there was no detectable GBSSI protein in the starch granules of plants with the waxy phenotype. Further, the amylose content of transgenic starches was significantly reduced (starch granules from the wild-type (about 25%). The inner structure of the waxy starch granules differed from that of the untransformed ones, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy analysis as well as morphological changes in the iodine-starch complex. Endothermic enthalpy was reduced in waxy cassava starches, according to differential scanning calorimeter analysis. Except B9, all waxy starches displayed the A-type X-ray diffraction pattern. Amylogram patterns of the waxy cassava starches were analyzed using a rapid viscosity analyzer and found to have increased values for clarity, peak viscosity, gel breakdown, and swelling index. Setback, consistency, and solubility were notably reduced. Therefore, waxy cassava with novel starch in its storage roots was produced using the biotechnological approach, promoting its industrial utilization.

  4. Effects of hindgut fermentation of non-starch polysaccharides on the stability of blood glucose and insulin levels and physical activity in empty sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    A fermentable non-starch polysaccharides (fNSP)-rich diet was previously shown to stabilise glucose and insulin levels and reduce physical activity in restricted-fed sows. Stable glucose levels may prevent interprandial hunger. Aim of the present study was to elucidate the specific role of fermentat

  5. Varying protein and starch in the diet of dairy cows. I. Effects on ruminal fermentation and intestinal supply of nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipharraguerre, I R; Clark, J H; Freeman, D E

    2005-07-01

    The main objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of the percentage and source of crude protein (CP) and the amount of starch in the diet of dairy cows on ruminal fermentation, nutrient passage to the small intestine, and nutrient digestibility. For this purpose, 6 multiparous Holstein cows fistulated in the rumen and duodenum that averaged 73 d in milk were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Two sources of CP [solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) and a mixture of SBM and a blend of animal-marine protein supplements plus ruminally protected Met (AMB)] and 3 levels of dietary protein (about 14, 16, and 18%) were combined into 6 treatments. On a dry matter (DM) basis, diets contained 25% corn silage, 20% alfalfa silage, 10% cottonseed, 26.7 to 37% corn grain, and 4 to 13.5% protein supplement. Intakes and digestibilities in the rumen and total tract of DM, organic matter, acid and neutral detergent fiber were unaffected by treatments. Increasing dietary CP from 14 to 18% decreased the intake and apparent ruminal and total tract digestion of starch, but increased the proportion of starch consumed by the cows that was apparently digested in the small intestine. At 14% CP, starch intake and total tract digestion were higher for the AMB diet than for the SBM diet, but the opposite occurred at 16% CP. Across CP sources, increasing CP in the diet from 14 to 18% increased the intakes of N and amino acids (AA), and ruminal outflows of nonammonia N, nonammonia nonmicrobial N, each individual AA except Met, total essential AA, and total AA. Across CP percentages, replacing a portion of SBM with AMB increased the intake of Met and Val and decreased the concentration of ammonia N in the rumen, but did not affect the intake of other essential AA or the intestinal supply of any essential AA and starch. The ruminal outflow of microbial N, the proportional contribution of Lys and Met to total AA delivered to the

  6. Starch gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Wajira S; Jackson, David S

    2009-01-01

    Starch occurs as highly organized structures, known as starch granules. Starch has unique thermal properties and functionality that have permitted its wide use in food products and industrial applications. When heated in water, starch undergoes a transition process, during which the granules break down into a mixture of polymers-in-solution, known as gelatinization. The sequence of structural transformations that the starch granule undergoes during this order-to-disorder transition has been extensively researched. None of the published starch gelatinization theories can fully and adequately explain the exact mechanism of sequential structural changes that starch granules undergo during gelatinization. This chapter analyzes several published theories and summarizes our current understanding of the starch gelatinization process.

  7. Gamma irradiation of sorghum flour: Effects on microbial inactivation, amylase activity, fermentability, viscosity and starch granule structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukisa, Ivan M.; Muyanja, Charles M. B. K.; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B.; Schüller, Reidar B.; Langsrud, Thor; Narvhus, Judith A.

    2012-03-01

    Malted and un-malted sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) flour was gamma irradiated with a dose of 10 kGy and then re-irradiated with 25 kGy. The effects of irradiation on microbial decontamination, amylase activity, fermentability (using an amylolytic L. plantarum MNC 21 strain), starch granule structure and viscosity were determined. Standard methods were used during determinations. The 10 kGy dose had no effect on microbial load of un-malted flour but reduced that of malted flour by 3 log cycles. Re-irradiation resulted in complete decontamination. Irradiation of malt caused a significant ( pgelatinization. Production of high dry matter density porridge (200 g dry matter/L) with a viscosity of 3500 cP was achieved by irradiation of un-malted flout at 10 kGy. Gamma irradiation can be used to decontaminate flours and could be utilized to produce weaning porridge from sorghum.

  8. The effect of rabbit age on in vitro caecal fermentation of starch, pectin, xylan, cellulose, compound feed and its fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrenčič, A

    2007-03-01

    In vitro gas production kinetics of six different substrates, pectin (PEC), xylan (XYL), starch (STA), cellulose (CEL), commercial compound feed (FEED; 201 g crude protein per kg, 155 g crude fibre per kg, 334 g neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) per kg and 190 g acid-detergent fibre (ADF) per kg) and an NDF prepared from commercial compound feed (NDFFEED) were determined using the caecum contents of weaned rabbits (36 days of age) and of rabbits at slaughter age (78 days of age) as inoculums. The cumulated gas production over 96 h of incubation was modelled with Gompertz model, and the kinetic parameters compared. The total potential gas production (parameter 'B' of the Gompertz model) was not affected (P>0.05) by the inoculum source, except with STA, where rabbits at slaughter weight had significantly higher total potential fermentability (314 ml/g dry matter (DM)) than those at weaning age (189 ml/g DM). Intensities of fermentation (maximum fermentation rate; MFR) of PEC (32.2 ml/h) and XYL (24.4 ml/h) were significantly greater in rabbits at weaning, while that of STA (45 ml/h) was significantly lower than at slaughter age (23.0, 14.3 and 14.0 ml/h for PEC, XYL and STA, respectively). The MFRs of CEL and NDFFEED were very similar between inoculum sources. In the first 10 h of fermentation which correspond to the normal retention time of the substrates in the caecum, the highest amount of gas was produced from PEC, followed by FEED and XYL. These substrates had a time of maximum fermentation rate (TMFR) at both rabbit ages short enough (8.0 and 9.5 h for PEC, 9.5 and 6.6 h for FEED, 13.7 and 14.2 h for XYL at weaning and at slaughter age, respectively) to be almost completely fermented in vivo.

  9. Direct Ethanol Production from Breadfruit Starch (Artocarpus communis Forst. by Engineered Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (ESSF using Microbes Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftachul Farida

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst. is one of sources for ethanol production, which has high starch content (89%. Ethanol production from breadfruit starch was conducted by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF technology using microbes consortium. The aim of the research was to examine a method to produce ethanol by SSF technology using microbes consortium at high yield and efficiency. The main research consisted of two treatments, namely normal SSF and enginereed SSF. The results showed that normal SSF using aeration and agitation during cultivation could produce ethanol at 11.15 ± 0.18 g/L, with the yield of product (Yp/s 0.34 g ethanol/g substrate; and yield of biomass (Yx/s 0.29 g cell/g substrate, respectively. A better result was obtained using engineered SSF in which aeration was stopped after biomass condition has reached the end of the exponential phase. The ethanol produced was 12.75 ± 0.04 g/L, with the yields of product (Yp/s 0.41 g ethanol/g substrate, and the yield of cell (Yx/s 0.09 g cell/g substrate.

  10. Characterisation of fermentation of high-gravity maize mashes with the application of pullulanase, proteolytic enzymes and enzymes degrading non-starch polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłosowski, Grzegorz; Mikulski, Dawid; Czupryński, Bogusław; Kotarska, Katarzyna

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the research was to assess the possibility of the fermentation productivity rising through the increase in corn mashes extract from 16-17 to 20-21 degrees Balling, yet keeping a 3-day fermentation period. The second goal was to obtain the highest possible utilization of starch in the raw material through deep enzymatic degradation and utilization of available sugars and simultaneous maintenance of high quality spirit. It was found that fulfilling the above during the 3-day fermentation period was possible with the application of pullulanase as an additional amylolytic enzyme. Adding pullulanase resulted in the acceleration of the starch hydrolysis degree, which led to lower amounts of unhydrolyzed dextrins and higher ethanol yield. When the supportive enzymes complex (pullulanase, protease and cellulase) was used, the final ethanol concentration reached 10.86+/-0.04% v/v, with ethanol yield at 68.41+/-0.23 dm(3) of absolute ethanol (A(100)) per 100 kg of starch, which was 95.25+/-0.32% at the theoretical value. The acceleration of starch enzymatic degradation and the application of a proteolytic preparation visibly shortened both initial and main fermentation phases. This in turn increased the time of the final fermentation phase and resulted in more extensive utilization of substrates by yeasts with simultaneous reduction of the final concentration of acetaldehyde (26.0+/-0.5 mg/dm(3)A(100)) and diethyl acetal of acetaldehyde (2.5+/-0.5 mg/dm(3)A(100)). The quality of spirit obtained was positively verified also in terms of relatively low concentration of higher alcohol (3912.2+/-9.8 mg/dm(3)A(100)). Preliminary analysis of costs (without raw-material) of 1 l distillate production indicated the possibility to reduce the costs by 18-20%.

  11. Effect of varying dietary starch and fiber levels and inoculum source (mule deer vs. dairy cow) on simulated rumen fermentation characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Matthew A; Harvey, Robyn M; Johnson, Nichole F; Koutsos, Elizabeth A; Kerley, Monty S

    2014-01-01

    This study measured starch and fiber digestion and microbial fermentation of three commercial exotic animal feeds using mule deer (MD) or dairy cow (DC) rumen inoculum. Diets were formulated to provide either high starch/low fiber (based on neutral detergent fiber fraction; NDF) with either alfalfa (diet A) or grain and oilseed byproducts (diet B) as the major fiber sources or low starch/high NDF (diet C). An initial batch culture incubation was run with diets inoculated with each rumen inoculum (n = 6; N = 36) over a 48 hr period with samples taken at different hour points for ammonia, pH, lactate, and volatile fatty acids (VFA). A second experiment was conducted where two continuous culture incubations (MD or DC) were run with six single-flow polycarbonate fermentation vessels per dietary treatment. Diets were fed two times a day over an 8-day period and sampled for ammonia, pH, and VFA before and after feeding on the last 3 days. On day 8, fermenter and effluent contents were collected and analyzed for nitrogen, dry matter digestibility (DMD), and organic matter digestibility (OMD). OMD was greater in MD (P = 0.02) and DMD tended to do the same (P = 0.06), but there were no differences due to diet (P > 0.05). Ammonia concentration was greater in DC (P digestibility, higher acetate:propionate (A:P) ratio and increased lactate levels prior to feeding likely led to diet C having a lower pH than diet A (6.59 vs. 6.66, respectively; P fermentation. Increasing fiber level did not negatively affect fermentation and may increase OMD by removal of negative associative affects by starch on cellulolytic bacteria.

  12. Batch dark fermentation of powdered wheat starch to hydrogen gas: Effects of the initial substrate and biomass concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argun, Hidayet; Kargi, Fikret; Kapdan, Ilgi K.; Oztekin, Rukiye [Department of Environmental Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2008-11-15

    Powdered wheat solution was fermented batchwise for bio-hydrogen production using heat-treated anaerobic-acidogenic sludge as the inoculum at initial pH of 7.0 and temperature of 37 C. In order to determine the most suitable wheat powder (WP) and cell concentrations yielding the highest hydrogen formation, initial WP concentration was varied between 5 and 30 g L{sup -1} at a constant initial biomass concentration (2.6 g L{sup -1}). The initial biomass concentration was varied between 0.5 and 5.0 g L{sup -1} at constant WP concentration of 20 g L{sup -1} in another set of experiments. Cumulative bio-hydrogen formation, hydrogen yield and the formation rate were maximum at the WP concentration of 20 g L{sup -1}. Higher WP concentrations resulted in lower fermentation performance probably due to substrate and product (VFA) inhibition. Similarly, hydrogen formation rate and the yield were maximum with a biomass concentration of 2.5 g L{sup -1}. Higher biomass concentrations resulted in lower hydrogen yield and formation rates due to product inhibition. The optimum initial biomass/substrate ratio maximizing the hydrogen yield and formation rate was found to be 0.125 g biomass g{sup -1} WP. A kinetic model was developed for bio-hydrogen formation from powdered wheat starch and the constants were determined by regression analysis. (author)

  13. Les produits de fermentation et leurs usages industriels Fermentation Products and Their Industrial Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlie J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Quelques intermédiaires chimiques peuvent être obtenus soit par culture anaérobie, soit par voie pétrochimique. En se limitant à l'acide lactique, l'acétone-butanol et l'acide acétique, on indique pour chacun d'eux les tonnages actuels. En comparant sur les plans technique et économique, fermentation et synthèse pétrochimique, on situe ces deux modes de production d'un même produit en fonction soit du prix du brut, soit du prix de la biomasse. On montre ainsi que l'acide lactique atteint déjà la compétitivité économique. Pour l'acétone-butanol, dans l'état actuel de la technique, il faut que le brut atteigne 45 $/b pour que la voie biomasse l'emporte sur la voie pétrochimique dans le cas du n-butanol ; dans le cas de l'acétone, la voie biomasse est déjà compétitive. Varions building-block chemicals from industrial synthesis can be obtained either by anaerobic culture or by petrochemical methods. By limiting ourselves to the leading compounds considered in this symposium, we will give for each of them the tonnages now produced and the synthesis method(s used. Fermentation and petrochemical synthesis will be compared from the technical and economic point of view. Whenever economic data so allow, we will attempt to situate these two production methods for the same product as a function of the possible evolution of crude-oil prices as well as that of the initial vegetal matter which price also depends on crude-oil price. For biosyntheses which have not yet reached their level of competitivity, the aim consists in forecasting the possibility of reaching it in the future.

  14. The potential of resistant starch as a prebiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Siti A; Sarbini, Shahrul R

    2016-01-01

    Resistant starch is defined as the total amount of starch and the products of starch degradation that resists digestion in the small intestine. Starches that were able to resist the digestion will arrive at the colon where they will be fermented by the gut microbiota, producing a variety of products which include short chain fatty acids that can provide a range of physiological benefits. There are several factors that could affect the resistant starch content of a carbohydrate which includes the starch granule morphology, the amylose-amylopectin ratio and its association with other food component. One of the current interests on resistant starch is their potential to be used as a prebiotic, which is a non-digestible food ingredient that benefits the host by stimulating the growth or activity of one or a limited number of beneficial bacteria in the colon. A resistant starch must fulfill three criterions to be classified as a prebiotic; resistance to the upper gastrointestinal environment, fermentation by the intestinal microbiota and selective stimulation of the growth and/or activity of the beneficial bacteria. The market of prebiotic is expected to reach USD 198 million in 2014 led by the export of oligosaccharides. Realizing this, novel carbohydrates such as resistant starch from various starch sources can contribute to the advancement of the prebiotic industry.

  15. Development of biological oxygen demand biosensor for monitoring the fermentation industry effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neelam; Singh, Ashish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A biosensor was developed for the determination of BOD value of fermentation industry effluent. The developed biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing the microbial consortium on cellulose acetate (CA) membrane in close proximity to a DO probe electrode. The microbial consortium was harvested from the fermentation industry effluent. The BOD biosensor was calibrated by using a solution containing the equivalent amount of glucose/glutamic acid (GGA) as a standard sample solution. The response time was optimized by immobilizing different concentrations of cell biomass on CA membrane. Once the response time was optimized, it was used for determination of BOD of fermentation industry effluent. For analysis of fermentation industry effluent, the response time was observed 7 minutes with detection limit 1 mg/L. Good linear range with GGA standard solution was observed, R (2) 0.99 with relative standard deviation (RSD) <%. The observed BOD value by biosensor showed a good comparison with the conventional method for the determination of BOD.

  16. Changes in fermentation and biohydrogenation intermediates in continuous cultures fed low and high levels of fat with increasing rates of starch degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascano, G J; Alende, M; Koch, L E; Jenkins, T C

    2016-08-01

    Excessive levels of starch in diets for lactating dairy cattle is a known risk factor for milk fat depression, but little is known about how this risk is affected by differences in rates of starch degradability (Kd) in the rumen. The objective of this study was to compare accumulation of biohydrogenation intermediates causing milk fat depression, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), when corn with low or high Kd were fed to continuous cultures. Diets contained (dry matter basis) 50% forage (alfalfa pellets and grass hay) and 50% concentrate, with either no added fat (LF) or 3.3% added soybean oil (HF). Within both the LF and HF diets, 3 starch degradability treatments were obtained by varying the ratio of processed (heat and pressure treatments) and unprocessed corn sources, giving a total of 6 dietary treatments. Each diet was fed to dual-flow continuous fermenters 3 times a day at 0800, 1600, and 2400h. Diets were fed for four 10-d periods, with 7d for adaptation and 3d for sample collection. Orthogonal contrasts were used in the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS to test the effects of fat, starch degradability, and their interaction. Acetate and acetate:propionate were lower for HF than for LF but daily production of trans-10 18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA were higher for HF than for LF. Increasing starch Kd from low to high increased culture pH, acetate, and valerate but decreased butyrate and isobutyrate. Changes in biohydrogenation intermediates (expressed as % of total isomers) from low to high starch Kd included reductions in trans-11 18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA but increases in trans-10 18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA. The results show that increasing the starch Kd in continuous cultures while holding starch level constant causes elevation of biohydrogenation intermediates linked to milk fat depression.

  17. Industrial PE-2 strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: from alcoholic fermentation to the production of recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Costa, Andrea; Nakayama, Darlan Gonçalves; Andrade, Letícia de Freitas; Catelli, Lucas Ferioli; Bassi, Ana Paula Guarnieri; Ceccato-Antonini, Sandra Regina; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

    2014-01-25

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most important microorganism used in the ethanol fermentation process. The PE-2 strain of this yeast is widely used to produce alcohol in Brazil due to its high fermentation capacity. The aim of the present study was to develop an expression system for recombinant proteins using the industrial PE-2 strain of S. cerevisiae during the alcoholic fermentation process. The protein chosen as a model for this system was CaneCPI-1, a cysteine peptidase inhibitor. A plasmid containing the CaneCPI-1 gene was constructed and yeast cells were transformed with the pYADE4_CaneCPI-1 construct. To evaluate the effect on fermentation ability, the transformed strain was used in the fermentation process with cell recycling. During the nine-hour fermentative cycles the transformed strain did not have its viability and fermentation ability affected. In the last cycle, when the fermentation lasted longer, the protein was expressed probably at the expense of ethanol once the sugars were exhausted. The recombinant protein was expressed in yeast cells, purified and submitted to assays of activity that demonstrated its functionality. Thus, the industrial PE-2 strain of S. cerevisiae can be used as a viable system for protein expression and to produce alcohol simultaneously. The findings of the present study demonstrate the possibility of producing recombinant proteins with biotechnological applications during the ethanol fermentation process.

  18. Enzymatic digestibility and ethanol fermentability of AFEX-treated starch-rich lignocellulosics such as corn silage and whole corn plant

    OpenAIRE

    Thelen Kurt D; Sousa Leonardo; Bals Bryan; Krishnan Chandraraj; Chundawat Shishir PS; Shao Qianjun; Dale Bruce E; Balan Venkatesh

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Corn grain is an important renewable source for bioethanol production in the USA. Corn ethanol is currently produced by steam liquefaction of starch-rich grains followed by enzymatic saccharification and fermentation. Corn stover (the non-grain parts of the plant) is a potential feedstock to produce cellulosic ethanol in second-generation biorefineries. At present, corn grain is harvested by removing the grain from the living plant while leaving the stover behind on the fi...

  19. Development of Biological Oxygen Demand Biosensor for Monitoring the Fermentation Industry Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam Verma; Ashish Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    A biosensor was developed for the determination of BOD value of fermentation industry effluent. The developed biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing the microbial consortium on cellulose acetate (CA) membrane in close proximity to a DO probe electrode. The microbial consortium was harvested from the fermentation industry effluent. The BOD biosensor was calibrated by using a solution containing the equivalent amount of glucose/glutamic acid (GGA) as a standard sample solution. The response t...

  20. Inoculated fermentation of green olives with potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures isolated from industrially fermented olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blana, Vasiliki A; Grounta, Athena; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2014-04-01

    The performance of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282, previously isolated from industrially fermented table olives and screened in vitro for probiotic potential, was investigated as starter cultures in Spanish style fermentation of cv. Halkidiki green olives. Fermentation was undertaken at room temperature in two different initial salt concentrations (8% and 10%, w/v, NaCl) in the brines. The strains were inoculated as single and combined cultures and the dynamics of their population on the surface of olives was monitored for a period of 114 days. The survival of inoculated strains on olives was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Both probiotic strains successfully colonized the olive surface at populations ranged from 6.0 to 7.0 log CFU/g throughout fermentation. PFGE analysis revealed that L. pentosus B281 presented higher colonization in both salt levels at the end of fermentation (81.2% and 93.3% in 8% and 10% NaCl brines, respectively). For L. plantarum B282 a high survival rate (83.3%) was observed in 8% NaCl brines, but in 10% NaCl the strain could not colonize the surface of olives. L. pentosus B281 also dominated over L. plantarum B282 in inoculated fermentations when the two strains were used as combined culture. The biochemical profile (pH, organic acids, volatile compounds) attained during fermentation and the sensory analysis of the final product indicated a typical lactic acid fermentation process of green olives.

  1. Overcoming hydrolysis of raw corn starch under industrial conditions with Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945a α-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šokarda Slavić, Marinela; Pešić, Milja; Vujčić, Zoran; Božić, Nataša

    2016-03-01

    α-Amylase from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945a (BliAmy) was proven to be very efficient in hydrolysis of granular starch below the temperature of gelatinization. By applying two-stage feeding strategy to achieve high-cell-density cultivation of Escherichia coli and extracellular production of BliAmy, total of 250.5 U/mL (i.e. 0.7 g/L) of enzyme was obtained. Thermostability of amylase was exploited to simplify purification. The hydrolysis of concentrated raw starch was optimized using response surface methodology. Regardless of raw starch concentration tested (20, 25, 30 %), BliAmy was very effective, achieving the final hydrolysis degree of 91 % for the hydrolysis of 30 % starch suspension after 24 h. The major A-type crystalline structure and amorphous domains of the starch granule were degraded at the same rates, while amylose-lipid complexes were not degraded. BliAmy presents interesting performances on highly concentrated solid starch and could be of value for starch-consuming industries while response surface methodology (RSM) could be efficiently applied for the optimization of the hydrolysis.

  2. Construction of killer industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 and its fermentation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijender K. Bajaj

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1, a time tested industrial yeast possesses most of the desirable fermentation characteristics like fast growth and fermentation rate, osmotolerance, high ethanol tolerance, ability to ferment molasses, and to ferment at elevated temperatures etc. However, this yeast was found to be sensitive against the killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, killer trait was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 by protoplast fusion with Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 475, a killer strain. The resultant fusants were characterized for desirable fermentation characteristics. All the technologically important characteristics of distillery yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 were retained in the fusants, and in addition the killer trait was also introduced into them. Further, the killer activity was found to be stably maintained during hostile conditions of ethanol fermentations in dextrose or molasses, and even during biomass recycling.

  3. Effect of Soybean Meal and Soluble Starch on Biogenic Amine Production and Microbial Diversity Using Rumen Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Dae Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of soybean meal (SM and soluble starch (SS on biogenic amine production and microbial diversity using in vitro ruminal fermentation. Treatments comprised of incubation of 2 g of mixture (expressed as 10 parts containing different ratios of SM to SS as: 0:0, 10:0, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, or 0:10. In vitro ruminal fermentation parameters were determined at 0, 12, 24, and 48 h of incubation while the biogenic amine and microbial diversity were determined at 48 h of incubation. Treatment with highest proportion of SM had higher (p<0.05 gas production than those with higher proportions of SS. Samples with higher proportion of SS resulted in lower pH than those with higher proportion of SM after 48 h of incubation. The largest change in NH3-N concentration from 0 to 48 h was observed on all SM while the smallest was observed on exclusive SS. Similarly, exclusive SS had the lowest NH3-N concentration among all groups after 24 h of incubation. Increasing methane (CH4 concentrations were observed with time, and CH4 concentrations were higher (p<0.05 with greater proportions of SM than SS. Balanced proportion of SM and SS had the highest (p<0.05 total volatile fatty acid (TVFA while propionate was found highest in higher proportion of SS. Moreover, biogenic amine (BA was higher (p<0.05 in samples containing greater proportions of SM. Histamines, amine index and total amines were highest in exclusive SM followed in sequence mixtures with increasing proportion of SS (and lowered proportion of SM at 48 h of incubation. Nine dominant bands were identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and their identity ranged from 87% to 100% which were mostly isolated from rumen and feces. Bands R2 (uncultured bacterium clone RB-5E1 and R4 (uncultured rumen bacterium clone L7A_C10 bands were found in samples with higher proportions of SM while R3 (uncultured Firmicutes bacterium clone NI_52, R7 (Selenomonas sp

  4. Production of raw-starch-digesting α-amylase isoform from Bacillus sp. under solid-state fermentation and biochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božić, Nataša; Slavić, Marinela Šokarda; Gavrilović, Anja; Vujčić, Zoran

    2014-07-01

    α-Amylase production by solid-state fermentation of different Bacillus sp. was studied previously on different fermentation media. However, no study has been reported on the influence of selected media on expression of desired amylase isoforms such as raw-starch-digesting amylase (RSDA). In this paper, the influence of different inexpensive and available agro-resources as solid media (corn, wheat and triticale) on α-amylase isoform induction from three wild-type Bacillus sp., selected among one hundred strains tested, namely 9B, 12B and 24A was investigated. For all three strains, tested amylases were detected in the multiple forms; however, number and intensity of each form differed depending on the solid media used for growth. To determine which isoform from Bacillus sp. 12B was RSDA, the suspected isoform was purified. The optimum pH for the purified α-amylase isoform was 6.0-8.0, while the optimum temperature was 60-90 °C. Isoform was considerably thermostable and Ca(2+)-independent, and actually the only α-amylase active towards raw starch. Purification and characterization of RSDA showed that not all of the solid media tested induced RSDA. From an economic point of view, it might be significant to obtain pure isoenzyme for potential use in the raw-starch hydrolysis, since it was 5 times more efficient in raw corn starch hydrolysis than the crude amylase preparation.

  5. Evaluation of a recombinant insect-derived amylase performance in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process with industrial yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celińska, Ewelina; Borkowska, Monika; Białas, Wojciech

    2016-03-01

    Starch is the dominant feedstock consumed for the bioethanol production, accounting for 60 % of its global production. Considering the significant contribution of bioethanol to the global fuel market, any improvement in its major operating technologies is economically very attractive. It was estimated that up to 40 % of the final ethanol unit price is derived from the energy input required for the substrate pre-treatment. Application of raw starch hydrolyzing enzymes (RSHE), combined with operation of the process according to a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) strategy, constitutes the most promising solutions to the current technologies limitations. In this study, we expressed the novel RSHE derived from an insect in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain dedicated for the protein overexpression. Afterwards, the enzyme performance was assessed in SSF process conducted by industrial ethanologenic or thermotolerant yeast species. Comparison of the insect-derived RSHE preparation with commercially available amylolytic RSH preparation was conducted. Our results demonstrate that the recombinant alpha-amylase from rice weevil can be efficiently expressed and secreted with its native signal peptide in S. cerevisiae INVSc-pYES2-Amy1 expression system (accounting for nearly 72 % of the strain's secretome). Application of the recombinant enzyme-based preparation in SSF process secured sufficient amylolytic activity for the yeast cell propagation and ethanol formation from raw starch. (Oligo)saccharide profiles generated by the compared preparations differed with respect to homogeneity of the sugar mixtures. Concomitantly, as demonstrated by a kinetic model developed in this study, the kinetic parameters describing activity of the compared preparations were different.

  6. Pretreatment of fermentation feed for lactic acid production. Liquefaction of potato starch in lactic acid solution; Nyusan hakko genryo no maeshori ni kansuru kenkyu. Nyusan ni yoru bareisho denpunshitsu no ekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, M.; Yokota, Y. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-07-10

    The liquefaction of potato starchy catalyzed by lactic acid produced in a fermentation process, was carried out as a means for pretreating lactic acid fermentation feed. Liquefaction yield and molecular weight distribution of liquefied starch fractions were largely dependent on pH values of solution. The feed was effectively liquefied in lactic acid solution, of which pH value was less than 3.5, under sterilization conditions of 388 K and 30 min. Starch in potato or its waste was also hydrolyzed into smaller molecular weight fractions, compared to soluble starch commercially available. The potato starch liquefaction proposed is considered to be a useful method for pretreatment of lactic acid fermentation feed. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Thermoanalytical and starch content evaluation of cassava bagasse as agro-industrial residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Lacerda

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Starch nutritional fractions as well as thermal properties and other analysis are essential for food and industrial application. Cassava bagasse is an important agro-industrial residue and its starch content was evaluated using two alternative methods. Thermal characterization and microscopy analyses helped to understand how hydrolysis digests starchy fraction of cassava bagasse. The melting point of cassava starch occurred at 169.2ºC. Regarding TG analyses, after moisture content, there were observed two main mass losses for all samples. Results suggest hydrolysis carried out using enzyme is less effective in order to convert total starch content in cassava bagasse. However, using sulfuric acid, fibers are affected by analyses conditions.As frações nutricionais bem como as propriedades térmicas e outras análises são essenciais para a indústria de alimentos e suas aplicações O bagaço de mandioca é um importante resíduo agroindustrial e seu teor de amido foi avaliado por dois métodos alternativos. A caracterização por análise térmica e microscopia ajudou na compreensão de como a hidrólise digere a fração amilácea do bagaço de mandioca, O ponto de fusão foi de 170ºC, a análise termogravimétrica (TG mostrou após a perda de umidade do material, duas principais perdas de massa em todas as amostras analisadas. Os resultados sugerem que a hidrólise enzimática é menos eficiente na conversão total de amido no bagaço de mandioca. No entanto, o uso de ácido sulfúrico degradou até mesmo a parcela fibrosa do material, afetando as condições de análise.

  8. Benzoic acid fermentation from starch and cellulose via a plant-like β-oxidation pathway in Streptomyces maritimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noda Shuhei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzoic acid is one of the most useful aromatic compounds. Despite its versatility and simple structure, benzoic acid production using microbes has not been reported previously. Streptomyces are aerobic, Gram-positive, mycelia-forming soil bacteria, and are known to produce various kinds of antibiotics composed of many aromatic residues. S. maritimus possess a complex amino acid modification pathway and can serve as a new platform microbe to produce aromatic building-block compounds. In this study, we carried out benzoate fermentation using S. maritimus. In order to enhance benzoate productivity using cellulose as the carbon source, we constructed endo-glucanase secreting S. maritimus. Results After 4 days of cultivation using glucose, cellobiose, or starch as a carbon source, the maximal level of benzoate reached 257, 337, and 460 mg/l, respectively. S. maritimus expressed β-glucosidase and high amylase-retaining activity compared to those of S. lividans and S. coelicolor. In addition, for effective benzoate production from cellulosic materials, we constructed endo-glucanase-secreting S. maritimus. This transformant efficiently degraded the phosphoric acid swollen cellulose (PASC and then produced 125 mg/l benzoate. Conclusions Wild-type S. maritimus produce benzoate via a plant-like β-oxidation pathway and can assimilate various carbon sources for benzoate production. In order to encourage cellulose degradation and improve benzoate productivity from cellulose, we constructed endo-glucanase-secreting S. maritimus. Using this transformant, we also demonstrated the direct fermentation of benzoate from cellulose. To achieve further benzoate productivity, the L-phenylalanine availability needs to be improved in future.

  9. Enzymatic digestibility and ethanol fermentability of AFEX-treated starch-rich lignocellulosics such as corn silage and whole corn plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelen Kurt D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corn grain is an important renewable source for bioethanol production in the USA. Corn ethanol is currently produced by steam liquefaction of starch-rich grains followed by enzymatic saccharification and fermentation. Corn stover (the non-grain parts of the plant is a potential feedstock to produce cellulosic ethanol in second-generation biorefineries. At present, corn grain is harvested by removing the grain from the living plant while leaving the stover behind on the field. Alternatively, whole corn plants can be harvested to cohydrolyze both starch and cellulose after a suitable thermochemical pretreatment to produce fermentable monomeric sugars. In this study, we used physiologically immature corn silage (CS and matured whole corn plants (WCP as feedstocks to produce ethanol using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (at low enzyme loadings and cofermentation (for both glucose and xylose using a cellulase-amylase-based cocktail and a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST strain, respectively. The effect on hydrolysis yields of AFEX pretreatment conditions and a starch/cellulose-degrading enzyme addition sequence for both substrates was also studied. Results AFEX-pretreated starch-rich substrates (for example, corn grain, soluble starch had a 1.5-3-fold higher enzymatic hydrolysis yield compared with the untreated substrates. Sequential addition of cellulases after hydrolysis of starch within WCP resulted in 15-20% higher hydrolysis yield compared with simultaneous addition of hydrolytic enzymes. AFEX-pretreated CS gave 70% glucan conversion after 72 h of hydrolysis for 6% glucan loading (at 8 mg total enzyme loading per gram glucan. Microbial inoculation of CS before ensilation yielded a 10-15% lower glucose hydrolysis yield for the pretreated substrate, due to loss in starch content. Ethanol fermentation of AFEX-treated (at 6% w/w glucan loading CS hydrolyzate (resulting

  10. Enzymatic digestibility and ethanol fermentability of AFEX-treated starch-rich lignocellulosics such as corn silage and whole corn plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Corn grain is an important renewable source for bioethanol production in the USA. Corn ethanol is currently produced by steam liquefaction of starch-rich grains followed by enzymatic saccharification and fermentation. Corn stover (the non-grain parts of the plant) is a potential feedstock to produce cellulosic ethanol in second-generation biorefineries. At present, corn grain is harvested by removing the grain from the living plant while leaving the stover behind on the field. Alternatively, whole corn plants can be harvested to cohydrolyze both starch and cellulose after a suitable thermochemical pretreatment to produce fermentable monomeric sugars. In this study, we used physiologically immature corn silage (CS) and matured whole corn plants (WCP) as feedstocks to produce ethanol using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (at low enzyme loadings) and cofermentation (for both glucose and xylose) using a cellulase-amylase-based cocktail and a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST) strain, respectively. The effect on hydrolysis yields of AFEX pretreatment conditions and a starch/cellulose-degrading enzyme addition sequence for both substrates was also studied. Results AFEX-pretreated starch-rich substrates (for example, corn grain, soluble starch) had a 1.5-3-fold higher enzymatic hydrolysis yield compared with the untreated substrates. Sequential addition of cellulases after hydrolysis of starch within WCP resulted in 15-20% higher hydrolysis yield compared with simultaneous addition of hydrolytic enzymes. AFEX-pretreated CS gave 70% glucan conversion after 72 h of hydrolysis for 6% glucan loading (at 8 mg total enzyme loading per gram glucan). Microbial inoculation of CS before ensilation yielded a 10-15% lower glucose hydrolysis yield for the pretreated substrate, due to loss in starch content. Ethanol fermentation of AFEX-treated (at 6% w/w glucan loading) CS hydrolyzate (resulting in 28 g/L ethanol

  11. Co-fermentation of hemicellulose and starch from barley straw and grain for efficient pentoses utilization in acetone-butanol-ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Kuittinen, Suvi; Zhang, Junhua; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Keinänen, Markku; Pappinen, Ari

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to efficiently use hemicellulose-based biomass for ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) production by co-fermentation with starch-based biomass. Two processes were investigated: (I) co-fermentation of sugars derived from hemicellulose and starch in a mixture of barley straw and grain that was pretreated with dilute acid; (II) co-fermentation of straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate and gelatinized grain slurry in which the straw was pretreated with dilute acid. The two processes produced 11.3 and 13.5 g/L ABE that contains 7.4 and 7.8 g/L butanol, respectively. In process I, pretreatment with 1.0% H2SO4 resulted in better ABE fermentability than with 1.5% H2SO4, but only 19% of pentoses were consumed. In process II, 95% of pentoses were utilized even in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate pretreated with more severe condition (1.5% H2SO4). The results suggest that process II is more favorable for hemicellulosic biomass utilization, and it is also attractive for sustainable biofuel production due to great biomass availability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recent progress on industrial fermentative production of acetone-butanol-ethanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ye; Sun, Zhihao

    2009-06-01

    China is one of the few countries, which maintained the fermentative acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production for several decades. Until the end of the last century, the ABE fermentation from grain was operated in a few industrial scale plants. Due to the strong competition from the petrochemical industries, the fermentative ABE production lost its position in the 1990s, when all the solvent fermentation plants in China were closed. Under the current circumstances of concern about energy limitations and environmental pollution, new opportunities have emerged for the traditional ABE fermentation industry since it could again be potentially competitive with chemical synthesis. From 2006, several ABE fermentation plants in China have resumed production. The total solvent (acetone, butanol, and ethanol) production capacity from ten plants reached 210,000 tons, and the total solvent production is expected to be extended to 1,000,000 tons (based on the available data as of Sept. 2008). This article reviews current work in strain development, the continuous fermentation process, solvent recovery, and economic evaluation of ABE process in China. Challenges for an economically competitive ABE process in the future are also discussed.

  13. Collaborative study concerning the enzymatic determination of starch in food, feed and raw materials of the starch industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunt, K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the collaborative study for establishing the repeatability and reproducibility of a recently developed new enzymatic starch determination. The ring test was in accordance to the ISO 5725 requirements for interlaboratory studies. The interlaboratory test resulted in a good relati

  14. Potato powders prepared by successive cooking-process depending on resistant starch content affect the intestinal fermentation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Sakura; Han, Kyu-Ho; Araki, Takahiro; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Wakabayashi, Tatsuya; Shimada, Kenichiro; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2017-02-01

    The effects of resistant starch (RS) in dry potato powders prepared by various processes on intestinal fermentation in rats were assessed. Rats were fed raw potato powder (RP), blanched potato powder (BP), steamed potato powder (SP), or drum-dried potato powder (DP) for 4 weeks. The cecal RS content was significantly higher in the RP group than in the control diet (CN) group and other dry potato powder groups. Cecum pH was significantly lower in the RP group compared to the CN group, and was also significantly lower than that in the SP, BP, and DP groups. Lactic acid bacteria levels in the RP group were significantly higher than those in the CN group, and levels in the SP group also increased relative to the control group. Lactobacillus levels in the RP group were higher than in the CN and other dry potato powder groups. Cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in the RP group followed by the SP group exhibited significantly higher levels relative to the control levels. Dry potato powders containing RS produced during the cooking process may represent a useful food material that increases intestinal concentrations of SCFA and enhances the growth of certain lactic acid bacteria.

  15. Present state and future prospects of the fermentation industry in the developing countries of Africa: the Nigerian case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okafor, N.

    1985-02-01

    Although the developing countries of Africa consume products of the fermentation industry, these are usually imported, mainly from Europe. Where the fermentation industry exists at all it is limited to the beer industry. Even this is planned from Europe, whence the major raw materials are also imported. Shortage of hard currency is however forcing a rethinking of the situation. The ultimate end of this is the indigenisation of the fermentation industry. This involves economic considerations, raw materials to be used, the desirable properties of the micro-organisms to be used, personnel, know-how, and the improvement of the process by research. An indigenous fermentation industry in the developing countries of Africa may not only lead to the local production of well-known fermentation products but may also lead to the industrialization of the manufacture of fermentation products currently produced by small-scale traditional methods. 6 references.

  16. Characteristics of Hydroxypropyl Starch of Sorghum Mutant Line ZH-30 and its Potential use in Paper Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Human

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum mutant line Zh-30 is a breeding line developed at the Center for the Application of Isotope and Radiation Technology, BATAN by using mutation techniques. Gamma irradiation with the dose of 300 Gy was used to induced plant genetic variability. Through selection processes in several generations, the mutant line Zh-30 was identified to have better agronomic characteristics, better grain quality and higher yield than the original variety. Research on starch quality of this mutant line was done to identify its potential use in a paper industry. Hydroxypropyl starch derivatives of this sorghum lines were prepared by varying alkalinity of the reaction mixtures using propylene oxide to reach Molar of Substitution (MS of 0–0.180. Its pasting behavior, paste properties and application in wet end paper processing were evaluated. The optimal amount of addition of hydroxypropyl starch was 1-2 %. At this level, drainage time was lower, so that it decreased paper machine speed. At higher level, it did not improve the burst and tensile strengths but tended to decrease the tear strength of handsheets. The properties of lower pasting temperature, higher water holding capacity lower retrogradation susceptibility, increased viscosity and stability of pastes suggested that hydroxypropyl starch of sorghum ZH-30 was suitable for use in wet end paper processing. Comparing to the original starch, the hydroxypropyl starch of sorghum Zh-30 could significantly improve the strength of handsheets.

  17. Heterologous expression of two Arabidopsis starch dikinases in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Xuan; Dees, Dianka; Huang, Xing Feng; Visser, Richard G.F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Starch phosphate esters influence physiochemical properties of starch granules that are essential both for starch metabolism and industrial use of starches. To modify properties of potato starch and understand the effect of starch phosphorylation on starch metabolism in storage starch, the starch di

  18. Batch fermentations on synthetic mixed sugar and starch medium with amylolytic lactic acid bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Guyot, J.P.; Kiel, P.

    2007-01-01

    The green crop drying industry in Denmark uses Italian rye grass, clover, and alfalfa as raw materials for the production of green pellets. The green crop drying industry solves its energy economical problems by heating and pressing of the green crop before drying. The produced sidestream is called...

  19. New fermentation processes for producing itaconic acid and citric acid for industrial uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaconic acid is an important industrial chemical that we have produced by fermentation of simple sugars using the yeast Pseudozyma antarctica. Itaconic acid is priced at ~$4 per kg and has an annual market volume of about 15,000 metric tons. Itaconic acid is used in the polymer industry and for m...

  20. Xylose fermentation efficiency and inhibitor tolerance of the recombinant industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain NAPX37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Cheng; Mitsumasu, Kanako; Gou, Zi-Xi; Gou, Min; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Guo-Ying; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Akamatsu, Takashi; Taguchi, Hisataka; Kida, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    Industrial yeast strains with good xylose fermentation ability and inhibitor tolerance are important for economical lignocellulosic bioethanol production. The flocculating industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain NAPX37, harboring the xylose reductase-xylitol dehydrogenase (XR-XDH)-based xylose metabolic pathway, displayed efficient xylose fermentation during batch and continuous fermentation. During batch fermentation, the xylose consumption rates at the first 36 h were similar (1.37 g/L/h) when the initial xylose concentrations were 50 and 75 g/L, indicating that xylose fermentation was not inhibited even when the xylose concentration was as high as 75 g/L. The presence of glucose, at concentrations of up to 25 g/L, did not affect xylose consumption rate at the first 36 h. Strain NAPX37 showed stable xylose fermentation capacity during continuous ethanol fermentation using xylose as the sole sugar, for almost 1 year. Fermentation remained stable at a dilution rate of 0.05/h, even though the xylose concentration in the feed was as high as 100 g/L. Aeration rate, xylose concentration, and MgSO4 concentration were found to affect xylose consumption and ethanol yield. When the xylose concentration in the feed was 75 g/L, a high xylose consumption rate of 6.62 g/L/h and an ethanol yield of 0.394 were achieved under an aeration rate of 0.1 vvm, dilution rate of 0.1/h, and 5 mM MgSO4. In addition, strain NAPX37 exhibited good tolerance to inhibitors such as weak acids, furans, and phenolics during xylose fermentation. These findings indicate that strain NAPX37 is a promising candidate for application in the industrial production of lignocellulosic bioethanol.

  1. Taming wild yeast: potential of conventional and nonconventional yeasts in industrial fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, Jan; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts are the main driving force behind several industrial food fermentation processes, including the production of beer, wine, sake, bread, and chocolate. Historically, these processes developed from uncontrolled, spontaneous fermentation reactions that rely on a complex mixture of microbes present in the environment. Because such spontaneous processes are generally inconsistent and inefficient and often lead to the formation of off-flavors, most of today's industrial production utilizes defined starter cultures, often consisting of a specific domesticated strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. bayanus, or S. pastorianus. Although this practice greatly improved process consistency, efficiency, and overall quality, it also limited the sensorial complexity of the end product. In this review, we discuss how Saccharomyces yeasts were domesticated to become the main workhorse of food fermentations, and we investigate the potential and selection of nonconventional yeasts that are often found in spontaneous fermentations, such as Brettanomyces, Hanseniaspora, and Pichia spp.

  2. Brettanomyces yeasts--From spoilage organisms to valuable contributors to industrial fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, Jan; Daenen, Luk; Malcorps, Philippe; Derdelinckx, Guy; Verachtert, Hubert; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-08-03

    Ever since the introduction of controlled fermentation processes, alcoholic fermentations and Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter cultures proved to be a match made in heaven. The ability of S. cerevisiae to produce and withstand high ethanol concentrations, its pleasant flavour profile and the absence of health-threatening toxin production are only a few of the features that make it the ideal alcoholic fermentation organism. However, in certain conditions or for certain specific fermentation processes, the physiological boundaries of this species limit its applicability. Therefore, there is currently a strong interest in non-Saccharomyces (or non-conventional) yeasts with peculiar features able to replace or accompany S. cerevisiae in specific industrial fermentations. Brettanomyces (teleomorph: Dekkera), with Brettanomyces bruxellensis as the most commonly encountered representative, is such a yeast. Whilst currently mainly considered a spoilage organism responsible for off-flavour production in wine, cider or dairy products, an increasing number of authors report that in some cases, these yeasts can add beneficial (or at least interesting) aromas that increase the flavour complexity of fermented beverages, such as specialty beers. Moreover, its intriguing physiology, with its exceptional stress tolerance and peculiar carbon- and nitrogen metabolism, holds great potential for the production of bioethanol in continuous fermentors. This review summarizes the most notable metabolic features of Brettanomyces, briefly highlights recent insights in its genetic and genomic characteristics and discusses its applications in industrial fermentation processes, such as the production of beer, wine and bioethanol. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Potential of amylolytic lactic acid bacteria to replace the use of malt for partial starch hydrolysis to produce African fermented pearl millet gruel fortified with groundnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songré-Ouattara, L T; Mouquet-Rivier, C; Icard-Vernière, C; Rochette, I; Diawara, B; Guyot, J P

    2009-04-15

    Fermentation and starch hydrolysis of a pre-cooked pearl millet-groundnut (MG) slurry inoculated with amylolytic lactic acid bacteria (ALAB) or by back slopping was investigated as a substitute for the addition of malt to prepare infant gruels. The ALAB collection strain Lb. plantarum A6, and the endogenous microflora provided by back slopping were more efficient in acidifying and partially hydrolysing starch in the MG slurry than Lb. plantarum 6.1, isolated from the traditional process in Burkina Faso. Large amounts of maltotriose and maltotetraose accumulated in slurry fermented by strain A6. No accumulation of maltose was observed, which could be an advantage to prevent the growth of microbial contaminants such as yeasts. Starch hydrolysis in the MG slurry inoculated with strain A6 or by back slopping enabled preparation of high-energy density gruels (84.7+/-4.4 and 80.4+/-23.8 kcal/100 g of gruel, respectively) of liquid consistency. However variability was higher with back slopping.

  4. Bacterial Community Dynamics during Swine Fermentation Using Starch as a Substrate with Different Feed Additives for Odor Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. J. Alam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted by in vitro fermentation and bacterial community analysis to investigate the reduction of odorous compounds in response to the use of feed additives (FA during carbohydrate overload in growing pigs. Soluble starch at 1% (control and various FA at 0.1% Ginseng meal (FA1; Persimmon leaf (FA2; Gingko nut (FA3 and Oregano lippia (FA4 were added to fecal slurry and incubated anaerobically for 12 and 24 h. In vitro parameters and microbial diversity of the dominant bacteria following fermentation were analyzed using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE, band cloning and sequencing of the V3 region. Results showed that total gas production increased with the advancement of incubation (p<0.05. pH values of FAs and control groups were decreased except the FA4 group which increased somewhat from 12 to 24 h (p<0.05. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N and H2S gas concentrations were comparatively lower in both stages in FA4 treatment than in the other groups (p<0.05. Hence, NH3-N concentrations in liquid phases were increased (p<0.05 from 12 to 24 h, but the trend was lowest in FA4 than in the other groups at both stages. The total VFA production was comparatively lower and butyrate levels were moderate in FA4 group than in the the other groups during both stages (p<0.05. Indirect odor-reducing compounds such as NO2, NO3 and SO4 concentrations were higher in the FA4 and FA3 than in the other groups at 24 h (p<0.05. After fermentation, ten dominant bands appeared, six of which appeared in all samples and four in only the FA4 treated group. The total number of DGGE bands and diversity was higher in the FA4-group compared to other groups. Additionally, similarity indices were lowest (71% in the FA4, which represented a different bacterial community compared with the other groups. These findings indicate that NH3-N, H2S and VFA production was minimal, and pH was also better in the FA4 group than in the other groups. Furthermore, the

  5. Application of Multivariate Analysis Tools to Industrial Scale Fermentation Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Nørregård, Rasmus; Stocks, Stuart M.;

    . 2014). This may be the case for fed-batch fermentation processes, where mechanistic modelling is challenging due to non-linear dynamics, and non-steady state operation. There is also a lack of sensors for key parameters which are considered to define the quality of the batch, such as product...

  6. Hydrolysate of corn starch saccharified with a dual-enzyme system and the effect on the crystallization of itaconic acid when used in fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Piwu; Chen Xiguang; Liu Jianjun; Wang Lingchong

    2008-01-01

    An improved process of hydrolysis of corn starch was adopted in the production of itaconic acid (IA), the aim was to decrease the unfermentable reducing sugar (RS) in the medium from the beginning of the fermentation and to increase the crystallization efficiency of IA from the fermentation broth.The glucose (GS) syrups saccharified by several combinations of glucoamylase and pullulanase were investigated and used as the carbohydrate source of the fermentation medium for the spore-initiated submerged fermentations experiments.Compared with the conventional process (with pullulanase controlled), the improved process decreased the RS residue in the fermentation broth from 3.01g/L to 1.35g/L and from 4.25g/L to 3.25g/L when the original RS of the medium were 100 and 120g/L, respectively.The crystallization efficiency of IA increased from 65% to 78.8% and from 69.58% to 82.81% with the original RS being 100 and 120g/L, respectively.

  7. Fermentable non-starch polysaccharides increases the abundance of Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas in ileal microbial community of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, E; Roos, S; Liu, H Y; Lindberg, J E

    2014-11-01

    Most plant-origin fiber sources used in pig production contains a mixture of soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). The knowledge about effects of these sources of NSP on the gut microbiota and its fermentation products is still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of feeding diets with native sources of NSP on the ileal and fecal microbial composition and the dietary impact on the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactic acid. The experiment comprised four diets and four periods in a change-over design with seven post valve t-cecum cannulated growing pigs. The four diets were balanced to be similar in NSP content and included one of four fiber sources, two diets were rich in pectins, through inclusion of chicory forage (CFO) and sugar beet pulp, and two were rich in arabinoxylan, through inclusion of wheat bran (WB) and grass meal. The gut microbial composition was assessed with terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length polymorphism and the abundance of Lactobacillus spp., Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas and the β-xylosidase gene, xynB, were assessed with quantitative PCR. The gut microbiota did not cluster based on NSP structure (arabinoxylan or pectin) rather, the effect was to a high degree ingredient specific. In pigs fed diet CFO, three TRFs related to Prevotellaceae together consisted of more than 25% of the fecal microbiota, which is about 3 to 23 times higher (PBacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas. The effect on SCFA was correlated to specific neutral sugars where xylose increased the ileal butyric acid proportion, whereas arabinose increased the fecal butyric acid proportion. Moreover, chicory pectin increased the acetic acid proportion in both ileal digesta and feces.

  8. In Vitro Fermentative Production of Plant Lignans from Cereal Products in Relationship with Constituents of Non-Starch Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bartkiene

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently special attention has been paid to dietary fibre-associated phytoestrogens such as plant lignans, which are related to the prevention of different hormone-dependent diseases. Therefore, phytoestrogens associated with dietary fibre and their metabolites are of interest for investigation. The aim of this work is to investigate the formation of enterolignans: enterolactone (ENL and enterodiol (END from their precursors by the action of intestinal microflora and their relationship with non-starch polysaccharides (NSP in various cereal products from wheat, rye, barley and oats. For the investigation of the bioconversion of plant lignans, a technique of in vitro fermentation was used and the quantitative analysis of their metabolites ENL and END was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with coulometric electrode array detection. The enterolignan formation in various cereal products ranged from 78.3 to 321.9 nmol/g depending on the product type: END from 8.7 to 149.3 nmol/g and ENL from 64.4 to 278.3 nmol/g. The lignan production in bran was about two times higher than that in whole flour of the same kind of cereals. Close correlations were found between the total NSP content and the total amount of enterolignans and ENL; between pentoses and the total amount of enterolignans and ENL; between arabinose or xylose and ENL; and between galactose and END values. Considering the correlations between hexoses and END as well as between pentoses and ENL found in cereals, it can be assumed that pentoses are closely related to the quantities of plant lignans in cereal products and their conversion to enterolignans.

  9. Effects of ruminal doses of sucrose, lactose, and corn starch on ruminal fermentation and expression of genes in ruminal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, M; Mewis, J L; Zhining, Z

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate effects of a ruminal dose of sucrose, lactose, and corn starch on ruminal fermentation and expression of genes in ruminal epithelial cells. Six ruminally cannulated nonlactating nonpregnant Holstein cows (body weight=725±69.6kg) were assigned to treatments in a 3×3 Latin square design with 7-d periods; 1d for data and sample collection followed by a 6-d washout period. Cows were fed a diet containing whole-crop barley silage and dry ground corn, and dietary neutral detergent fiber and crude protein contents were 41.8 and 13.2% [dry matter (DM) basis], respectively. Treatment was a pulse-dose of sucrose, lactose, and corn starch (3.0, 3.0, and 2.85kg of DM, respectively; providing similar amounts of hexose across the treatments) through the ruminal cannulas. All treatments were given with alfalfa silage (1.75kg DM) to prevent acute rumen acidosis. Rumen pH was continuously monitored, and rumen fluid was sampled at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180min after the dose. In addition, ruminal papillae were sampled from the ventral sac at 180min after the dose. Ruminal dosing with sucrose and lactose, compared with corn starch, increased ruminal total volatile fatty acid concentration and molar proportion of butyrate from 60 to 180min after the dose, and expression of genes for sodium hydrogen exchanger isoforms 1 and 2, and ATPase isoform 1 in ruminal epithelial cells. Ruminal dosing with sucrose, compared with lactose and corn starch, decreased rumen pH from 120 to 180min after the dose and molar proportion of acetate in ruminal fluid from 60 to 150min after the dose, and increased molar proportion of propionate in ruminal fluid from 60 to 150min, and expression of genes involved in butyrate metabolism (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase isoform 1) and anion exchange across ruminal apical cell membrane (putative anion transporter isoform 1). These results suggest that replacing dietary starch with sugars may affect ruminal

  10. Unraveling microbial ecology of industrial-scale Kombucha fermentations by metabarcoding and culture-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coton, Monika; Pawtowski, Audrey; Taminiau, Bernard; Burgaud, Gaëtan; Deniel, Franck; Coulloumme-Labarthe, Laurent; Fall, Abdoulaye; Daube, Georges; Coton, Emmanuel

    2017-05-01

    Kombucha, historically an Asian tea-based fermented drink, has recently become trendy in Western countries. Producers claim it bears health-enhancing properties that may come from the tea or metabolites produced by its microbiome. Despite its long history of production, microbial richness and dynamics have not been fully unraveled, especially at an industrial scale. Moreover, the impact of tea type (green or black) on microbial ecology was not studied. Here, we compared microbial communities from industrial-scale black and green tea fermentations, still traditionally carried out by a microbial biofilm, using culture-dependent and metabarcoding approaches. Dominant bacterial species belonged to Acetobacteraceae and to a lesser extent Lactobacteriaceae, while the main identified yeasts corresponded to Dekkera, Hanseniaspora and Zygosaccharomyces during all fermentations. Species richness decreased over the 8-day fermentation. Among acetic acid bacteria, Gluconacetobacter europaeus, Gluconobacter oxydans, G. saccharivorans and Acetobacter peroxydans emerged as dominant species. The main lactic acid bacteria, Oenococcus oeni, was strongly associated with green tea fermentations. Tea type did not influence yeast community, with Dekkera bruxellensis, D. anomala, Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Hanseniaspora valbyensis as most dominant. This study unraveled a distinctive core microbial community which is essential for fermentation control and could lead to Kombucha quality standardization. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. [Fermentation production of microbial catalase and its application in textile industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongxu; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2010-11-01

    Microbial catalase is an important industrial enzyme that catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. This enzyme has great potential of application in food, textile and pharmaceutical industries. The production of microbial catalase has been significantly improved thanks to advances in bioprocess engineering and genetic engineering. In this paper, we review the progresses in fermentation production of microbial catalase and its application in textile industry. Among these progresses, we will highlight strain isolation, substrate and environment optimization, enzyme induction, construction of engineering strains and application process optimization. Meanwhile, we also address future research trends for microbial catalase production and its application in textile industry. Molecular modification (site-directed mutagenesis and directed revolution) will endue catalase with high pH and temperature stabilities. Improvement of catalase production, based on the understanding of induction mechanism and the process control of recombinant stain fermentation, will further accelerate the application of catalase in textile industry.

  12. Screening of Inexpensive Nitrogen Sources for Production of L(+ Lactic Acid from Starch by Amylolytic Lactobacillus amylophilus GV6 in Single Step Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Altaf

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available L. amylophilus GV6 was studied for production of L(+ lactic acid in single step fermentation using starchy substrates. Seven types of inexpensive organic nitrogen supplements (flour of pigeon pea, red lentil gram, black gram, bengal gram, green gram, soya bean and baker’s yeast were evaluated for their potential to replace more expensive commercial nitrogen sources, peptone and yeast extract. Red lentil and baker’s yeast cells were found to be the best alternative nutrient sources of peptone and yeast extract for lactic acid production. L(+ lactic acid yield was about 92 % m(lactic acid/m(starch utilized in this study.

  13. Kivuguto traditional fermented milk and the dairy industry in Rwanda. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karenzi, E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods of fermenting milk involve the use of indigenous microorganisms, leading to the production of a variety of tastes in fermented milk products. Kivuguto is a fermented milk product, which is popular in Rwanda. Kivuguto is produced by traditional spontaneous acidification of raw milk by a microflora present both on utensils and containers used for milk preservation and in the near environment of cattle. Thus, this method does not allow the shelf stability of the product. Faced to such a situation, modern dairies now produce fermented milk and other dairy products using exotic strains. The main objectives of this paper are firstly, to provide documentation on the traditional production of kivuguto, as well as its by-products, and secondly, to describe the current situation of the dairy industry in Rwanda.

  14. Dynamic neural networks as a tool for the online optimization of industrial fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, T.; Enders, T.; Delgado, A. [Department of Fluid Mechanics and Process Automation, Technical University of Munich, Freising (Germany)

    2002-03-01

    A system for online optimization of industrial fermentation based on a model with dynamic neural networks is described. The developed dynamic neural network, consisting of adapted neurons to consider the process dynamics, can model the complex, non-linear fermentation of beer in order to predict the future process. The predicted trajectories of gravity, pH, and diacetyl are in agreement with the experimental data measured at an automated pilot fermenter. It was possible to predict the future course of the batch fermentation as soon as 12 h of process data were available. In combination with the variational principle, the process model was used to optimize productivity. The temperature trajectory is optimized using a cost functional, including technical and technological conditions of the brewery in order to reduce the process time by steady product quality. The results show a reduction of the process time of up to 20%, which leads to an increase in utilization capacity. (orig.)

  15. Performance evaluation of Pichia kluyveri, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in industrial tequila fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya-Delgado, L; Herrera-López, E J; Arrizon, Javier; Arellano-Plaza, M; Gschaedler, A

    2013-05-01

    Traditionally, industrial tequila production has used spontaneous fermentation or Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains. Despite the potential of non-Saccharomyces strains for alcoholic fermentation, few studies have been performed at industrial level with these yeasts. Therefore, in this work, Agave tequilana juice was fermented at an industrial level using two non-Saccharomyces yeasts (Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus) with fermentation efficiency higher than 85 %. Pichia kluyveri (GRO3) was more efficient for alcohol and ethyl lactate production than S. cerevisiae (AR5), while Kluyveromyces marxianus (GRO6) produced more isobutanol and ethyl-acetate than S. cerevisiae (AR5). The level of volatile compounds at the end of fermentation was compared with the tequila standard regulation. All volatile compounds were within the allowed range except for methanol, which was higher for S. cerevisiae (AR5) and K. marxianus (GRO6). The variations in methanol may have been caused by the Agave tequilana used for the tests, since this compound is not synthesized by these yeasts.

  16. Utilization of industrial enzymes in the evaluation of neutral detergent insoluble fiber content in high-starch samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiany Íris Gomes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It were performed two experiments to evaluate the utilization of industrial enzymes in the evaluation of NDF contents in high-starch materials. In the first experiment, it was verified the accuracy of estimates of neutral detergent fiber (NDF obtained with the utilization of three industrial enzymes (Termamyl 2X, Liquozyme Supra 2.2.X, and Amylase AG 300L at different volumes (50, 100, 250 or 500 mL/ sample. Samples were simulated to contain starch at 0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 g/kg using purified cellulose and starch (n = 240. In the second experiment, samples of corn grain and sorghum grain were evaluated considering the same enzyme types and volumes used in the first experiment adding aliquots without using enzyme (n = 104. There was no significant bias of NDF recovery for simulated samples containing starch up to 300 g/kg. Considering those samples, none difference among enzymes was observed. It was observed a more intense decrease in NDF content according to each enzyme unit added on corn when compared to sorghum. Considering NDF evaluation in samples with mass of 0.7 to 1.0 g, it can be recommended the utilization of 250 mL the ?-amylases Termamyl and 2X Liquozyme 2.2X with activities of 240 and 300 KNU/g, respectively.

  17. 植物乳杆菌发酵对大米淀粉理化性质的影响%Effect of fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum on the physicochemical properties of rice starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周显青; 张玉荣; 李亚军

    2011-01-01

    Early long-grain non-glutinous rice was fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum and then rice starch was extracted by protease protein removal method.The physicochemical properties of rice starch during fermentation were studied.The results showed that the transparency of starch paste after fermentation was reduced and the retrogradation was increased.The solubility of fermented rice starch was increased, while the swelling power was decreased in high-temperature phase, but the polarization cross of rice starch was not affected.%以早籼米为原料,利用植物乳杆菌发酵大米,采用酶法提取大米淀粉,研究发酵对大米淀粉理化性质的影响.结果表明:发酵后淀粉糊的透明度降低,凝沉性增强.淀粉的溶解度增加,而膨润力在高温阶段还有所降低,但发酵未影响大米淀粉的偏光十字.

  18. Revealing the factors influencing a fermentative biohydrogen production process using industrial wastewater as fermentation substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Boboescu, Iulian Zoltan; Ilie, Mariana; Gherman, Vasile Daniel; Mirel, Ion; Pap, Bernadett; Negrea, Adina; Kondorosi, Éva; Bíró, Tibor; Maróti, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    Background Biohydrogen production through dark fermentation using organic waste as a substrate has gained increasing attention in recent years, mostly because of the economic advantages of coupling renewable, clean energy production with biological waste treatment. An ideal approach is the use of selected microbial inocula that are able to degrade complex organic substrates with simultaneous biohydrogen generation. Unfortunately, even with a specifically designed starting inoculum, there is s...

  19. Separate and Simultaneous enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of wheat hemicellulose with recombinant xylose utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Lisbeth; Sørensen, H. R.; Dam, B. P;

    2006-01-01

    Fermentations with three different xylose-utilizing recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (F12, CR4, and CB4) were performed using two different wheat hemicellulose substrates, unfermented starch free fibers, and an industrial ethanol fermentation residue, vinasse. With CR4 and F12...

  20. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae for direct conversion of raw, uncooked or granular starch to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgens, Johann F; Bressler, David C; van Rensburg, Eugéne

    2015-01-01

    The production of raw starch-degrading amylases by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides opportunities for the direct hydrolysis and fermentation of raw starch to ethanol without cooking or exogenous enzyme addition. Such a consolidated bioprocess (CBP) for raw starch fermentation will substantially reduce costs associated with energy usage and commercial granular starch hydrolyzing (GSH) enzymes. The core purpose of this review is to provide comprehensive insight into the physiological impact of recombinant amylase production on the ethanol-producing yeast. Key production parameters, based on outcomes from modifications to the yeast genome and levels of amylase production, were compared to key benchmark data. In turn, these outcomes are of significance from a process point of view to highlight shortcomings in the current state of the art of raw starch fermentation yeast compared to a set of industrial standards. Therefore, this study provides an integrated critical assessment of physiology, genetics and process aspects of recombinant raw starch fermenting yeast in relation to presently used technology. Various approaches to strain development were compared on a common basis of quantitative performance measures, including the extent of hydrolysis, fermentation-hydrolysis yield and productivity. Key findings showed that levels of α-amylase required for raw starch hydrolysis far exceeded enzyme levels for soluble starch hydrolysis, pointing to a pre-requisite for excess α-amylase compared to glucoamylase for efficient raw starch hydrolysis. However, the physiological limitations of amylase production by yeast, requiring high biomass concentrations and long cultivation periods for sufficient enzyme accumulation under anaerobic conditions, remained a substantial challenge. Accordingly, the fermentation performance of the recombinant S. cerevisiae strains reviewed in this study could not match the performance of conventional starch fermentation processes

  1. Designer Yeasts for the Fermentation Industry of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isak S. Pretorius

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has enjoyed a long and distinguished history in the fermention industry. Owing to its efficiency in producing alcohol, S. cerevisiae is, without doubt, the most important commercial microorganism with GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe status. By brewing beer and sparkling wine, mankind’s oldest domesticated organism made possible the world’s first biotechnological processes. With the emergence of modern molecular genetics, S. cerevisiae has again been harnessed to shift the frontiers of mankind’s newest revolution, genetic engineering. S. cerevisiae is at the forefront of many of these developments in modern biotechnology. Consequently, the industrial importance of S. cerevisiae has extended beyond traditional fermentation. Today, the products of yeast biotechnologies impinge on many commercially important sectors, including food, beverages, biofuels, chemicals, industrial enzymes, pharmaceuticals, agriculture and the environment. Nevertheless, since ethyl alcohol produced by yeast fermentation is likely to remain the foremost worldwide biotechnological commodity for the foreseeable future, this review focuses on advances made with respect to the development of tailor- made yeast strains for the fermented beverage and biofuel industries.

  2. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of industrial sweetpotatoes for ethanol production and anthocyanins extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simultaneous saccharification fermentation (SSF) system was studied for ethanol production in flour industrial sweetpotato (ISP) feedstocks (lines: white DM02-180 and purple NC-413) as an integrated cost saving process, and to examine the feasibility of extracting anthocyanins from flour purple IS...

  3. Hyperphosphorylation of cereal starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    2011-01-01

    Plant starch is naturally phosphorylated at a fraction of the C6 and the C3 hydroxyl groups during its biosynthesis in plastids. Starch phosphate esters are important in starch metabolism and they also generate specific industrial functionality. Cereal grains starch contains little starch bound......-type phenotype. Transgenic cereal grains synthesized starch with higher starch bound phosphate content (7.5 (±0.67) nmol/mg) compared to control lines (0.8 (±0.05) nmol/mg) with starch granules showing altered morphology and lower melting enthalpy. Our data indicate specific action of GWD during starch...... biosynthesis and demonstrates the possibility for in planta production of highly phosphorylated cereal starch....

  4. Establishing the relative importance of damaged starch and fructan as sources of fermentable sugars in wheat flour and whole meal bread dough fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Nore; Laurent, Jitka; Lefevere, Bianca; Verspreet, Joran; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2017-03-01

    It is generally believed that maltose drives yeast-mediated bread dough fermentation. The relative importance of fructose and glucose, released from wheat fructan and sucrose by invertase, compared to maltose is, however, not documented. This is surprising given the preference of yeast for glucose and fructose over maltose. This study revealed that, after 2h fermentation of wheat flour dough, about 44% of the sugars consumed were generated by invertase-mediated degradation of fructan, raffinose and sucrose. The other 56% were generated by amylases. In whole meal dough, 70% of the sugars consumed were released by invertase activity. Invertase-mediated sugar release seems to be crucial during the first hour of fermentation, while amylase-mediated sugar release was predominant in the later stages of fermentation, which explains why higher amylolytic activity prolonged the productive fermentation time only. These results illustrate the importance of wheat fructan and sucrose content and their degradation for dough fermentations.

  5. Production of Solvent (acetone-butanol-ethanol in Continuous Fermentation by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864 Using Gelatinised Sago Starch as a Carbon Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liew, S. T.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Solvent production by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864 was carried out in a single stage continuous culture using 2 L stirred tank fermenter with gelatinised sago starch as a carbon source. From the study it was found that the condition could be adjusted to suit for acids production (high dilution rate and high pH or solvent production (low dilution rate and low pH by manipulating the dilution rate and culture pH of single stage continuous fermentation. The highest solvent concentration in outflow (9.10 g/L was obtained at pH 4.5 and dilution rate of 0.05 h^1, which corresponds to overall productivity of 0.46 g/L.h. However, the highest total solvent productivity (0.85 g/L.h was obtained at dilution rate of 0.11 h-1 and pH 4.5, which gave a total solvent yield of 0.29 g solvent/g sago starch. Although the total solvent productivity was greatly increased in continuous culture, the final solvent concentration attained in outflow was decreased by about 53% as compared to batch culture.

  6. Comprehensive Profiling of Proteome Changes Provide Insights of Industrial Penicillium chrysogenum During Pilot and Industrial Penicillin G Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-Sheng; Zhao, Yan; Qiao, Bin; Lu, Hua; Chen, Yao; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-07-01

    The intracellular proteomes of the Penicillium chrysogenum throughout pilot and industrial processes were investigated by using 2-DE combined with MALDI-TOF-TOF MS, respectively. We detected a total of 223 spots corresponding to 154 proteins and 231 spots corresponding to 157 proteins throughout pilot and industrial processes, respectively. The levels of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase increased (5.1- and 2.5-fold) under the pilot process, while its levels were no significant changes under the industrial process at 140 and 170 h when compared with that at 2 h. The levels of isocitrate lyase and fumarate hydratase were increased significantly under the industrial process, while their levels had no obvious changes after 20 h of fermentation throughout the pilot process. These results indicate that there were remarkable differences in carbohydrate metabolism (including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway, and tricarboxylic acid cycle) of P. chrysogenum during the pilot and industrial fermentations, which likely result in alterations of the primary metabolism and penicillin biosynthesis. Moreover, the differences in the levels of proteins involved in amino acid metabolisms (including valine, cysteine, and α-aminoadipic acid biosynthesis) indicated that the pilot and industrial processes influenced the supplies of penicillin precursors. Compared with that at 2 h, the maximum levels of superoxide (6.9-fold, at 32 h) and catalase (9-fold, at 80 h) during the industrial process and the maximum levels of superoxide (1.2-fold, at 20 h) and catalase (7.7-fold at 128 h) during the pilot process revealed the significant difference in cell redox homeostasis and stress responses during scale-up fermentation. Particularly, 10 spots corresponding to isopenicillin N synthetase and 4 spots corresponding to isopenicillin N (IPN) acyltransferase in pilot and industrial processes were identified, respectively. The levels of IPN acyltransferase (spots

  7. Metabolic engineering of microbial competitive advantage for industrial fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A Joe; Lam, Felix H; Hamilton, Maureen; Consiglio, Andrew; MacEwen, Kyle; Brevnova, Elena E; Greenhagen, Emily; LaTouf, W Greg; South, Colin R; van Dijken, Hans; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-08-05

    Microbial contamination is an obstacle to widespread production of advanced biofuels and chemicals. Current practices such as process sterilization or antibiotic dosage carry excess costs or encourage the development of antibiotic resistance. We engineered Escherichia coli to assimilate melamine, a xenobiotic compound containing nitrogen. After adaptive laboratory evolution to improve pathway efficiency, the engineered strain rapidly outcompeted a control strain when melamine was supplied as the nitrogen source. We additionally engineered the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica to assimilate nitrogen from cyanamide and phosphorus from potassium phosphite, and they outcompeted contaminating strains in several low-cost feedstocks. Supplying essential growth nutrients through xenobiotic or ecologically rare chemicals provides microbial competitive advantage with minimal external risks, given that engineered biocatalysts only have improved fitness within the customized fermentation environment.

  8. Raw Materials Inventory and Fermentation Process in Lemea Industry The Traditional Food of Rejang Tribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnia Harlina Dewi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional food is a food that is processed from surrounding natural and treated hereditary, so it became one of the pillars of food tenacity. Lemea is a traditional food of Rejang tribe that has not been properly inventoried. The purpose of this study is an inventory and characterization of physical, chemical and organoleptic of Lemea from various small industries in the districts. Characterization of traditional food Lemea required as a basis for the agro-industry design of Lemea of Rejang traditional standardized food (raw materials and processes, so resulting in consistent product quality, hygienic and attractive so as to compete with other containers food products, as well as preserving traditional food. The research method used was a survey method, by interviewing a small industry regarding raw materials used and the fermentation process of Lemea. Results show that the raw materials used are Mayan bamboo sprout (Kepahiyang and North Bengkulu District, Kepea bamboo sprout (South Lebong District and all kinds of bamboo sprout in the Rejang Lebong District, depending on available bamboo sprouts. The fish used in Central Bengkulu and Kepahiyang District is Tilapia fish, South Lebong District (White fish, North Bengkulu (Mayung fish. The fermentation process classified on 2 groups, namely (1 fermentation with the addition of rice porridge as a source of glucose and (2 without the addition of fermented rice porridge as a source of glucose. Lemea from various sources have variations in color, aroma, acidity, integrality, turbidity and overall appearance of different.

  9. Biotransformation and recovery of the isoflavones genistein and daidzein from industrial antibiotic fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J. Mark; Reeves, Andrew R.; Seshadri, Ramya; Cernota, William H.; Gonzalez, Melissa C.; Gray, Danielle L.; Wesley, Roy K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to follow the metabolic fate of isoflavone glucosides from the soybean meal in a model industrial fermentation to determine if commercially useful isoflavones could be harvested as coproducts from the spent broth at the end of the fermentation. The isoflavone aglycones, genistein and daidzein, together make up 0.1 - 0.2% of the soybean meal by weight but serve no known function in the manufacturing process. After feeding genistein to washed cells of the erythromycin-producing organism, Saccharopolyspora erythraea, the first biotransformation product (Gbp1) was determined by x-ray crystallography to be genistein-7-O-α-rhamnoside (rhamnosylgenistein). Subsequent feeding of rhamnosylgenistein to growing cells of S. erythraea led to the production of a second biotransformation product, Gbp2. Chromatographic evidence suggested that Gbp2 accumulated in the spent broth of the erythromycin fermentation. When the spent broth was hydrolyzed with acid or industrial enzyme preparations the isoflavone biotransformation products were returned back to their parental forms, genistein and daidzein, which were then recovered as coproducts. Desirable features of this method are that it does not require modification of the erythromycin manufacturing process or genetic engineering of the producing organism to be put into practice. A preliminary investigation of five additional antibiotic fermentations of industrial importance were also found to have isoflavone coproduct potential. PMID:23604533

  10. Biotransformation and recovery of the isoflavones genistein and daidzein from industrial antibiotic fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J Mark; Reeves, Andrew R; Seshadri, Ramya; Cernota, William H; Gonzalez, Melissa C; Gray, Danielle L; Wesley, Roy K

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to follow the metabolic fate of isoflavone glucosides from the soybean meal in a model industrial fermentation to determine if commercially useful isoflavones could be harvested as coproducts from the spent broth at the end of the fermentation. The isoflavone aglycones, genistein, and daidzein together make up 0.1-0.2 % of the soybean meal by weight but serve no known function in the manufacturing process. After feeding genistein to washed cells of the erythromycin-producing organism, Saccharopolyspora erythraea, the first biotransformation product (Gbp1) was determined by X-ray crystallography to be genistein-7-O-α-rhamnoside (rhamnosylgenistein). Subsequent feeding of rhamnosylgenistein to growing cells of Saccharopolyspora erythraea led to the production of a second biotransformation product, Gbp2. Chromatographic evidence suggested that Gbp2 accumulated in the spent broth of the erythromycin fermentation. When the spent broth was hydrolyzed with acid or industrial enzyme preparations, the isoflavone biotransformation products were returned back to their parental forms, genistein and daidzein, which were then recovered as coproducts. Desirable features of this method are that it does not require modification of the erythromycin manufacturing process or genetic engineering of the producing organism to be put into practice. A preliminary investigation of five additional antibiotic fermentations of industrial importance also found isoflavone coproduct potential.

  11. Comparison of the secondary metabolites in Penicillium chrysogenum between pilot and industrial penicillin G fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying-Xiu; Qiao, Bin; Lu, Hua; Chen, Yao; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2011-02-01

    The disparity of secondary metabolites in Penicillium chrysogenum between two scales of penicillin G fermentation (50 L as pilot process and 150,000 L as industrial one) was investigated by ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography tandemed with hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In industrial process, the pools of intracellular L-α-aminoadipyl-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (LLD-ACV) and isopenicillin N (IPN) were remarkably less than that in the pilot one, which indicated that the productivity of penicillin G might be higher in the large scale of fermentation. This conclusion was supported by the higher intracellular penicillin G concentration as well as its higher yield per unit biomass in industrial cultivation. The different changing tendencies of IPN, 6-aminopenicillanic acid and 6-oxopiperide-2-carboxylic acid between two processes also suggested the same conclusion. The higher content of intracellular LLD-ACV in pilot process lead to a similarly higher concentration of bis-δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine, which had an inhibitory effect on ACV synthetase and also subdued the activity of IPN synthetase. The interconversion of secondary metabolites and the influence they put on enzymes would intensify the discrepancy between two fermentations more largely. These findings provided new insight into the changes and regulation of secondary metabolites in P. chrysogenum under different fermentation sizes.

  12. Fermentation performance and intracellular metabolite patterns in laboratory and industrial xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaldivar, Jesus; Borges, A.; Johansson, B.

    2002-01-01

    Heterologous genes for xylose utilization were introduced into an industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae, strain A, with the aim of producing fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks. Two transformants, A4 and A6, were evaluated by comparing the performance in 4-1 anaerobic batch cultivations...... and xylose, respectively. The metabolite pattern differed depending on whether glucose or xylose was utilized. The levels of intracellular metabolites were higher in the industrial strains than in the laboratory strain during growth on xylose....

  13. Comparative study on the conventional and non thermal simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of Manihot glaziovii root starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargono, Kumoro, Andri Cahyo; Jos, Bakti

    2015-12-01

    Inconventional ethanol production process, starch is converted into dextrins via liquefaction using α-amylase enzyme at high temperature (90-120°C). Then, dextrins are saccharified by glucoamylase to obtain to monomeric sugars (glucose). Recently, a granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE), Stargen 002, was developed to convert starch into dextrins at low temperature (starch hydrolyzing enzymes and conventional enzymatic liquefaction and saccharification in cassava starch processing. Starch slurry concentrations were 20% w/v, and dosage of enzymes 0.50, 1.0 and 2%, respectively, were studied. After 48 hr process the final ethanol concentration for the respective enzyme concentration for conventional process were 34.90, 36.16 and 42.10 g/L, whereas for the non-thermal treatment, final ethanol concentration were 46.4, 57.62 and 59.65 g/L, respectively. By implementation of this non thermal process, the use of energy can be saved by carrying out saccharification step at lower temperature (30°C) could be realized.

  14. Enzymatic modification of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    substrate, and granular products were only obtained at low hydration of the starch. Hence, limiting hydration and gelatinization by using low-phosphate starch and high substrate oncentration was required for obtaining these products. Also high BE activity was a requirement and could partly compensate...... exclusively been conducted on gelatinized starch. This study provides a new concept for transferase-based modification of starches in granular state.......In the food industry approaches for using bioengineering are investigated as alternatives to conventional chemical and physical starch modification techniques in development of starches with specific properties. Enzyme-assisted post-harvest modification is an interesting approach to this, since...

  15. Enzymatic modification of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    In the food industry approaches for using bioengineering are investigated as alternatives to conventional chemical and physical starch modification techniques in development of starches with specific properties. Enzyme-assisted post-harvest modification is an interesting approach to this, since...... branching connecting larger chain segments. In case of high BE activity this transfer happened prior to hydration and phase separation. The starch substrates thereby became locked in their granular structure and blocked furher access of BE. Transferase-based modification of starch has today almost...... exclusively been conducted on gelatinized starch. This study provides a new concept for transferase-based modification of starches in granular state....

  16. The development of an industrial-scale fed-batch fermentation simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrick, Stephen; Ştefan, Andrei; Lovett, David; Montague, Gary; Lennox, Barry

    2015-01-10

    This paper describes a simulation of an industrial-scale fed-batch fermentation that can be used as a benchmark in process systems analysis and control studies. The simulation was developed using a mechanistic model and validated using historical data collected from an industrial-scale penicillin fermentation process. Each batch was carried out in a 100,000 L bioreactor that used an industrial strain of Penicillium chrysogenum. The manipulated variables recorded during each batch were used as inputs to the simulator and the predicted outputs were then compared with the on-line and off-line measurements recorded in the real process. The simulator adapted a previously published structured model to describe the penicillin fermentation and extended it to include the main environmental effects of dissolved oxygen, viscosity, temperature, pH and dissolved carbon dioxide. In addition the effects of nitrogen and phenylacetic acid concentrations on the biomass and penicillin production rates were also included. The simulated model predictions of all the on-line and off-line process measurements, including the off-gas analysis, were in good agreement with the batch records. The simulator and industrial process data are available to download at www.industrialpenicillinsimulation.com and can be used to evaluate, study and improve on the current control strategy implemented on this facility. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The 'Food Polymer Science' Approach to the Practice of Industrial R&D, Leading to Patent Estates Based on Fundamental Starch Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Louise; Levine, Harry

    2016-09-22

    This paper reviews the application of the 'Food Polymer Science' approach to the practice of industrial R&D, leading to patent estates based on fundamental starch science and technology . The areas of patents and patented technologies reviewed here include: a) soft-from-the-freezer ice creams and freezer-storage-stable frozen bread dough products, based on 'cryostabilization technology' of frozen foods, utilizing commercial starch hydrolysis products (SHPs); b) glassy-matrix encapsulation technology for flavors and other volatiles, based on structure-function relationships for commercial SHPs; c) production of stabilized whole-grain wheat flours for biscuit products, based on the application of 'solvent retention capacity' technology to develop flours with reduced damaged starch; d) production of improved-quality, low-moisture cookies and crackers, based on pentosanase enzyme technology; e) production of 'baked-not-fried', chip-like, starch-based snack products, based on the use of commercial modified-starch ingredients with selected functionality; f) accelerated staling of a starch-based food product from baked bread crumb, based on the kinetics of starch retrogradation, treated as a crystallization process for a partially crystalline glassy polymer system; g) a process for producing an enzyme-resistant starch, for use as a reduced-calorie flour replacer in a wide range of grain-based food products, including cookies, extruded expanded snacks, and breakfast cereals.

  18. Oxygen Control for an Industrial Pilot-Scale Fed-Batch Filamentous Fungal Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Bodizs, Levente; Titica, Mariana; Faria, Nuno; Srinivasan, Bala; Dochain, Denis; Bonvin, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    Industrial filamentous fungal fermentations are typically operated in fed- batch mode. Oxygen control represents an important operational challenge due to the varying biomass concentration. In this study, oxygen control is implemented by manipulating the substrate feed rate, i.e. the rate of oxygen consumption. It turns out that the setpoint for dissolved oxygen represents a trade-off since a low dissolved oxygen value favors productivity but can also induce oxygen limitation. This pape...

  19. Brettanomyces bruxellensis, essential contributor in spontaneous beer fermentations providing novel opportunities for the brewing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Crauwels, Sam; Steensels, Jan; Aerts, Guido; Willems, Kris; Verstrepen, Kevin; Lievens, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the non-conventional, wild yeast Brettanomyces, with B. bruxellensis (teleomorph Dekkera bruxellensis) as the most commonly encountered species, has gained more and more attention in academic research as well as the food and beverage industry. Brettanomyces is a distant relative of the classic brewing yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for its ambiguous role in food and beverage fermentations. Whilst still mainly considered a spoilage organism responsible for off...

  20. Industrial symbiosis: corn ethanol fermentation, hydrothermal carbonization, and anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brandon M; Jader, Lindsey R; Schendel, Frederick J; Hahn, Nicholas J; Valentas, Kenneth J; McNamara, Patrick J; Novak, Paige M; Heilmann, Steven M

    2013-10-01

    The production of dry-grind corn ethanol results in the generation of intermediate products, thin and whole stillage, which require energy-intensive downstream processing for conversion into commercial animal feed products. Hydrothermal carbonization of thin and whole stillage coupled with anaerobic digestion was investigated as alternative processing methods that could benefit the industry. By substantially eliminating evaporation of water, reductions in downstream energy consumption from 65% to 73% were achieved while generating hydrochar, fatty acids, treated process water, and biogas co-products providing new opportunities for the industry. Processing whole stillage in this manner produced the four co-products, eliminated centrifugation and evaporation, and substantially reduced drying. With thin stillage, all four co-products were again produced, as well as a high quality animal feed. Anaerobic digestion of the aqueous product stream from the hydrothermal carbonization of thin stillage reduced chemical oxygen demand (COD) by more than 90% and converted 83% of the initial COD to methane. Internal use of this biogas could entirely fuel the HTC process and reduce overall natural gas usage.

  1. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysate by the alternative industrial ethanol yeast Dekkera bruxellensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, J; South, E; Tiukova, I; Tiukova, L; Momeni, M H; Hansson, H; Ståhlberg, J; Horn, S J; Schnürer, J; Passoth, V

    2011-07-01

    Testing the ability of the alternative ethanol production yeast Dekkera bruxellensis to produce ethanol from lignocellulose hydrolysate and comparing it to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Industrial isolates of D. bruxellensis and S. cerevisiae were cultivated in small-scale batch fermentations of enzymatically hydrolysed steam exploded aspen sawdust. Different dilutions of hydrolysate were tested. None of the yeasts grew in undiluted or 1:2 diluted hydrolysate [final glucose concentration always adjusted to 40 g l⁻¹ (0.22 mol l⁻¹)]. This was most likely due to the presence of inhibitors such as acetate or furfural. In 1:5 hydrolysate, S. cerevisiae grew, but not D. bruxellensis, and in 1:10 hydrolysate, both yeasts grew. An external vitamin source (e.g. yeast extract) was essential for growth of D. bruxellensis in this lignocellulosic hydrolysate and strongly stimulated S. cerevisiae growth and ethanol production. Ethanol yields of 0.42 ± 0.01 g ethanol (g glucose)⁻¹ were observed for both yeasts in 1:10 hydrolysate. In small-scale continuous cultures with cell recirculation, with a gradual increase in the hydrolysate concentration, D. bruxellensis was able to grow in 1:5 hydrolysate. In bioreactor experiments with cell recirculation, hydrolysate contents were increased up to 1:2 hydrolysate, without significant losses in ethanol yields for both yeasts and only slight differences in viable cell counts, indicating an ability of both yeasts to adapt to toxic compounds in the hydrolysate. Dekkera bruxellensis and S. cerevisiae have a similar potential to ferment lignocellulose hydrolysate to ethanol and to adapt to fermentation inhibitors in the hydrolysate. This is the first study investigating the potential of D. bruxellensis to ferment lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Its high competitiveness in industrial fermentations makes D. bruxellensis an interesting alternative for ethanol production from those substrates. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied

  2. Isolation, identification and optimization of ethanol producing bacteria from Saccharomyces-based fermentation process of alcohol industries in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda Ebrahimi; Mojtaba Mohseni

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Due to the vast growth of world population, consumption of a lot of energy, limited energy supply and rising prices of fuel oil in the future, other alternative energy source is essential. Ethanol is renewable and a safe fuel and it is mainly based on microbial fermentation. The purpose of this study was isolation of high ethanol producing bacteria from the fermentation process of alcohol industries and optimization of growth conditions to be introduced to the industries. Materi...

  3. Feeding different types of cooked white rice to piglets after weaning influences starch digestion, digesta and fermentation characteristics and the faecal shedding of beta-haemolytic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluske, John R; Montagne, Lucile; Cavaney, Fiona S; Mullan, Bruce P; Pethick, David W; Hampson, David J

    2007-02-01

    Forty-eight, 21-d-old pigs were used to examine the effects of different types of cooked white rice on starch digestion, digesta and fermentation characteristics, shedding of beta-haemolytic Escherichia coli and performance after weaning. Pigs received one of three rice-based diets: (i) medium-grain Amaroo (AM), (ii) long-grain Doongara (DOON), and (iii) waxy (WAXY). The remainder of the diet consisted predominantly of animal proteins. A fourth diet contained mainly wheat, barley and lupins (WBL). On days 1, 3, 7 and 9 after weaning, a faecal swab was taken for assessment of beta-haemolytic E. coli and faecal consistency. Apparent digestibility of starch measured in the ileum 14 d after weaning was highest (P = 0.004) in AM and WAXY and lowest, but the same (P>0.05), in DOON and WBL. Starch digestibility in the rectum was highest in all rice diets (P < 0.001). Digesta viscosity was highest in pigs fed WBL in both the ileum (P < 0.001) and caecum (P = 0.027). Pigs fed rice generally had lighter (P < 0.05) gastrointestinal organs than pigs fed WBL. Performance of pigs was similar for all treatments; however, pigs fed rice-based diets had a higher (P < 0.001) carcass percentage than pigs fed WBL. Pigs fed WBL produced more acid (P < 0.05) but had lower molar proportions of acetate (P < 0.05), isobutyrate (P < 0.01) and isovalerate (P < 0.001) and a higher molar proportion of butyrate (P < 0.01) in the large intestine than pigs fed rice. Shedding of E. coli was low; however, pigs fed AM and WBL shed less E. coli than pigs fed other diets.

  4. Starch modification with microbial alpha-glucanotransferase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maarel, Marc J E C; Leemhuis, Hans

    2013-03-01

    Starch is an agricultural raw material used in many food and industrial products. It is present in granules that vary in shape in the form of amylose and amylopectin. Starch-degrading enzymes are used on a large scale in the production of sweeteners (high fructose corn syrup) and concentrated glucose syrups as substrate for the fermentative production of bioethanol and basic chemicals. Over the last two decades α-glucanotransferases (EC 2.4.1.xx), such as branching enzyme (EC 2.4.1.18) and 4-α-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25), have received considerable attention. These enzymes do not hydrolyze the starch as amylases do. Instead, α-glucanotransferases remodel parts of the amylose and amylopectin molecules by cleaving and reforming α-1,4- and α-1,6-glycosidic bond. Here we review the properties of α-glucanotransferases and discuss the emerging use of these enzymes in the generation of novel starch derivatives.

  5. Application of microbial α-amylase in industry - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Monteiro de Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Amylases are one of the main enzymes used in industry. Such enzymes hydrolyze the starch molecules into polymers composed of glucose units. Amylases have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, fermentation and pharmaceutical industries. α-Amylases can be obtained from plants, animals and microorganisms. However, enzymes from fungal and bacterial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. The production of α-amylase is essential for conversion of starches into oligosaccharides. Starch is an important constituent of the human diet and is a major storage product of many economically important crops such as wheat, rice, maize, tapioca, and potato. Starch-converting enzymes are used in the production of maltodextrin, modified starches, or glucose and fructose syrups. A large number of microbial α-amylases has applications in different industrial sectors such as food, textile, paper and detergent industries. The production of α-amylases has generally been carried out using submerged fermentation, but solid state fermentation systems appear as a promising technology. The properties of each α-amylase such as thermostability, pH profile, pH stability, and Ca-independency are important in the development of fermentation process. This review focuses on the production of bacterial and fungal α-amylases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications.

  6. Application of microbial α-amylase in industry - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Paula Monteiro; de Oliveira Magalhães, Pérola

    2010-10-01

    Amylases are one of the main enzymes used in industry. Such enzymes hydrolyze the starch molecules into polymers composed of glucose units. Amylases have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, fermentation and pharmaceutical industries. α-Amylases can be obtained from plants, animals and microorganisms. However, enzymes from fungal and bacterial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. The production of α-amylase is essential for conversion of starches into oligosaccharides. Starch is an important constituent of the human diet and is a major storage product of many economically important crops such as wheat, rice, maize, tapioca, and potato. Starch-converting enzymes are used in the production of maltodextrin, modified starches, or glucose and fructose syrups. A large number of microbial α-amylases has applications in different industrial sectors such as food, textile, paper and detergent industries. The production of α-amylases has generally been carried out using submerged fermentation, but solid state fermentation systems appear as a promising technology. The properties of each α-amylase such as thermostability, pH profile, pH stability, and Ca-independency are important in the development of fermentation process. This review focuses on the production of bacterial and fungal α-amylases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications.

  7. Influence of ensiling, exogenous protease addition, and bacterial inoculation on fermentation profile, nitrogen fractions, and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility in rehydrated and high-moisture corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Fredin, S M; Shaver, R D

    2015-10-01

    Exogenous protease addition may be an option to increase proteolysis of zein proteins and thus starch digestibility in rehydrated and high-moisture corn (HMC) ensiled for short periods. In addition, microbial inoculation may accelerate fermentation and increase acid production and thus increase solubilization of zein proteins. Four experiments were performed to evaluate the effect on fermentation profile, N fractions, and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility (ivSD) of the following: (1) rehydration and ensiling of dry ground corn; (2) exogenous protease addition to rehydrated un-ensiled and ensiled corn; (3) exogenous protease addition or inoculation in rehydrated ensiled corn; and (4) exogenous protease addition or inoculation in HMC. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 were performed with 7 treatments: dry ground corn (DGC); DGC rehydrated to a targeted dry matter content of 70% (REH); REH treated with exogenous protease (REH+); REH ensiled for 30 d (ENS); ENS treated with exogenous protease (ENS+); ENS treated with a microbial inoculant containing Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Enterococcus faecium, and Pediococcus sp. (ENSI); and ENS treated with exogenous protease and microbial inoculant (ENSI+). Experiment 1 compared DGC, REH, and ENS with ivSD being greater for ENS (64.9%) than DGC and REH (51.7% on average). Experiment 2 compared REH and ENS without or with exogenous protease addition (REH+ and ENS+, respectively). Ensiling and exogenous protease addition increased ivSD, but exogenous protease addition was more effective in ENS than REH (6.4 vs. 2.6 percentage unit increase). Experiment 3 compared the effects of exogenous protease addition and inoculation in ENS corn (ENS, ENS+, ENSI, and ENSI+). The addition of protease, but not inoculant, increased ivSD. Inoculation reduced pH and acetate, propionate, and ethanol concentrations, and increased lactate and total acid concentrations. In experiment 4, 8 treatments were a combination of HMC noninoculated

  8. Bioconversion of industrial solid waste--cassava bagasse for pullulan production in solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumaran, K R; Jothi, P; Ponnusami, V

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to produce commercially important pullulan using industrial solid waste namely cassava bagasse in solid state fermentation and minimize the solid waste disposal problem. First, influence of initial pH on cell morphology and pullulan yield was studied. Effect of various factors like fermentation time, moisture ratio, nitrogen sources and particle size on pullulan yield was investigated. Various supplementary carbon sources (3%, w/w) namely glucose, sucrose, fructose, maltose, mannose and xylose with cassava bagasse was also studied to improve the pullulan yield. After screening the suitable supplement, effect of supplement concentration on pullulan production was investigated. The pullulan from cassava bagasse was characterized by FTIR, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR. Molecular weight of pullulan from cassava bagasse was determined by gel permeation chromatography. Thus, cassava bagasse emerged to be a cheap and novel substrate for pullulan production.

  9. Population size drives industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation and is under genetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertin, Warren; Marullo, Philippe; Aigle, Michel; Dillmann, Christine; de Vienne, Dominique; Bely, Marina; Sicard, Delphine

    2011-04-01

    Alcoholic fermentation (AF) conducted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been exploited for millennia in three important human food processes: beer and wine production and bread leavening. Most of the efforts to understand and improve AF have been made separately for each process, with strains that are supposedly well adapted. In this work, we propose a first comparison of yeast AFs in three synthetic media mimicking the dough/wort/grape must found in baking, brewing, and wine making. The fermentative behaviors of nine food-processing strains were evaluated in these media, at the cellular, populational, and biotechnological levels. A large variation in the measured traits was observed, with medium effects usually being greater than the strain effects. The results suggest that human selection targeted the ability to complete fermentation for wine strains and trehalose content for beer strains. Apart from these features, the food origin of the strains did not significantly affect AF, suggesting that an improvement program for a specific food processing industry could exploit the variability of strains used in other industries. Glucose utilization was analyzed, revealing plastic but also genetic variation in fermentation products and indicating that artificial selection could be used to modify the production of glycerol, acetate, etc. The major result was that the overall maximum CO(2) production rate (V(max)) was not related to the maximum CO(2) production rate per cell. Instead, a highly significant correlation between V(max) and the maximum population size was observed in all three media, indicating that human selection targeted the efficiency of cellular reproduction rather than metabolic efficiency. This result opens the way to new strategies for yeast improvement.

  10. Solar-Energy Driven Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Starch to Bioethanol for Fuel-Cell Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabah, Betina; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Chitturi, Venkateswara Rao; Arava, Leela Mohana Reddy; Gedanken, Aharon

    2015-10-26

    A solar reactor was designed to perform the conversion of starch to ethanol in a single step. An aqueous starch solution (5 wt %) was fed into the reactor bed charged with Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and amylase, resulting in approximately 2.5 wt % ethanol collected daily (ca. 25 mL day(-1) ). A significant amount of ethanol (38 g) was collected over 63 days, corresponding to 84 % of the theoretical yield. The production of ethanol without additional energy input highlights the significance of this new process. The ethanol produced was also demonstrated as a potential fuel for direct ethanol fuel cells. Additionally, the secondary metabolite glycerol was fully reduced to a value-added product 1,3-propanediol, which is the first example of a fungal strain (Baker's yeast) converting glycerol in situ to 1,3-propanediol.

  11. Application of bipolar electrodialysis on recovery of free lactic acid after simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbuntam, Walaiporn; Sriroth, Klanarong; Piyachomkwan, Kuakoon; Tokiwa, Yutaka

    2008-10-01

    The efficiency of bipolar electrodialysis (BED) for the recovery of lactic acid from fermentation broth was evaluated. Three systems of BED (bipolar-anion, bipolar-cation and bipolar-anion-cation) at fixed voltage (20 V) were compared using a model solution of ammonium lactate (100 g l(-1)). Results showed that bipolar-anion (BED-anion) was the most beneficial in terms of lactate flux, current efficiency, energy consumption and recovery ratio. Consequently, BED-anion was used to purify lactic acid from fermentation broth which had been pre-treated with mono-polar electrodialysis (MED). The final lactic acid concentration and lactate flux obtained were 144 g l(-1) and 393 g m(-2) h(-1), respectively. Using the two-step process (MED and BED-anion) the concentration of fermentation broth was increased by 33% and the total energy consumption was 2.76 kW h kg(-1).

  12. Identification of the bacterial community responsible for traditional fermentation during sour cassava starch, cachaça and minas cheese production using culture-independent 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Inayara C. A.; Gomes, Fátima C. O.; Borelli, Beatriz M.; Faria Jr., César L. L.; Franco, Gloria R.; Mourão, Marina M.; Morais, Paula B.; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    We used a cultivation-independent, clone library-based 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to identify bacterial communities present during traditional fermentation in sour cassava starch, cachaça and cheese production in Brazil. Partial 16S rRNA gene clone sequences from sour cassava starch samples collected on day five of the fermentation process indicated that Leuconostoc citreum was the most prevalent species, representing 47.6% of the clones. After 27 days of fermentation, clones (GenBank accession numbers GQ999786 and GQ999788) related to unculturable bacteria were the most prevalent, representing 43.8% of the clones from the bacterial community analyzed. The clone represented by the sequence GQ999786 was the most prevalent at the end of the fermentation period. The majority of clones obtained from cachaça samples during the fermentation of sugar cane juice were from the genus Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus nagelli was the most prevalent at the beginning of the fermentation process, representing 76.9% of the clones analyzed. After 21 days, Lactobacillus harbinensis was the most prevalent species, representing 75% of the total clones. At the end of the fermentation period, Lactobacillus buchneri was the most prevalent species, representing 57.9% of the total clones. In the Minas cheese samples, Lactococcus lactis was the most prevalent species after seven days of ripening. After 60 days of ripening, Streptococcus salivarius was the most prevalent species. Our data show that these three fermentation processes are conducted by a succession of bacterial species, of which lactic acid bacteria are the most prevalent. PMID:24031676

  13. Influence of controlled inoculation of malolactic fermentation on the sensory properties of industrial cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Ainoa; de Revel, Gilles; Antalick, Guillaume; Herrero, Mónica; García, Luis A; Díaz, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Given the lack of research in the traditional cider making field when compared to the efforts devoted to winemaking, this work focused on the effects of controlled inoculation of the malolactic fermentation (MLF) on the sensory properties of cider. MLF develops spontaneously in cider making at industrial level. In this work, industrial cider samples were inoculated with selected indigenous Oenococcus oeni strains and the benefits on the aroma and flavour in cider production compared to non-inoculated ciders were evaluated. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR was used to monitor strain colonization ability, outnumbering the indigenous microbiota, after completion of the alcoholic fermentation at industrial scale (20,000 l). Aroma-active compounds of experimentally inoculated ciders were analysed by HPLC and GC-MS, and sensory profiles were determined by fractioning aroma extracts using reversed-phase HPLC. Principal component analysis allowed the identification of relationships and differences among ciders with or without inoculation, including several highly appreciated commercial ones obtained under spontaneous conditions. Under controlled inoculation conditions, not only could MLF be shortened by half but, interestingly, enhancement of aroma complexity and flavour resulted in ciders enriched with a higher fruity note. In addition, important aromatic groups analysed here had not been previously described, thus affording deeper knowledge on aroma characterization of apple cider.

  14. Hybrid Neural Network Model of an Industrial Ethanol Fermentation Process Considering the Effect of Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovanelli, Ivana C. C.; Rivera, Elmer Ccopa; da Costa, Aline C.; Filho, Rubens Maciel

    In this work a procedure for the development of a robust mathematical model for an industrial alcoholic fermentation process was evaluated. The proposed model is a hybrid neural model, which combines mass and energy balance equations with functional link networks to describe the kinetics. These networks have been shown to have a good nonlinear approximation capability, although the estimation of its weights is linear. The proposed model considers the effect of temperature on the kinetics and has the neural network weights reestimated always so that a change in operational conditions occurs. This allow to follow the system behavior when changes in operating conditions occur.

  15. Fermentation, Effect on Textural Properties *

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyanide and pH decreased, while crude protein, acidity, and apparent amy tose content increased in the fermented ... Fresh cassava roots of the 'Red Skin' ... starch at 854] were measured by the .... fermentation, granule surface corrosion,.

  16. Microbiota dynamics related to environmental conditions during the fermentative production of Fen-Daqu, a Chinese industrial fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Yan, Z.; Nout, M.J.R.; Smid, E.J.; Zwietering, M.H.; Boekhout, T.; Han, J.S.; Han, B.

    2014-01-01

    Chinese Daqu is used as a starter for liquor and vinegar fermentations. It is produced by solid state fermentation of cereal–pulse mixtures. A succession of fungi, lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp. was observed during the production of Daqu. Mesophilic bacteria followed by fungi, dominated the

  17. Microbiota dynamics related to environmental conditions during the fermentative production of Fen-Daqu, a Chinese industrial fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Yan, Zheng; Nout, M J Robert; Smid, Eddy J; Zwietering, Marcel H; Boekhout, Teun; Han, Jian-Shu; Han, Bei-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Chinese Daqu is used as a starter for liquor and vinegar fermentations. It is produced by solid state fermentation of cereal-pulse mixtures. A succession of fungi, lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp. was observed during the production of Daqu. Mesophilic bacteria followed by fungi, dominated the

  18. Effect of the particle size of maize, rice, and sorghum in extruded diets for dogs on starch gelatinization, digestibility, and the fecal concentration of fermentation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazolli, R S; Vasconcellos, R S; de-Oliveira, L D; Sá, F C; Pereira, G T; Carciofi, A C

    2015-06-01

    The influence of rice, maize, and sorghum raw material particle size in extruded dry dog food on the digestibility of nutrients and energy and the fecal concentration of fermentation products was investigated. Three diets with similar nutrient compositions were formulated, each with 1 starch source. Before incorporation into diets, the cereals were ground into 3 different particle sizes (approximately 300, 450, and 600 µm); therefore, a total of 9 diets were in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement (3 cereals and 3 particle sizes). Fifty-four beagle dogs (12.0 ± 0.1 kg BW) were randomly assigned to the diets, with 6 dogs per diet. The digestibility was measured with the chromium oxide method. The data were evaluated with ANOVA considering the carbohydrate source, grinding effect, and interactions. The means were compared with the Tukey test and polynomial contrasts (P gelatinization (SG) during extrusion. For rice diets, the MGD and SG did not change nutrient digestibility (P > 0.05); only GE digestibility was reduced at the largest MGD (P < 0.01). For maize and sorghum diets, the total tract apparent nutrient digestibility was reduced for foods with greater MGD and less SG (P < 0.01). A linear reduction in nutrient digestibility according to cereal particle size was observed for sorghum (r2 < 0.72; P < 0.01). Higher concentrations of fecal total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were observed for sorghum diets (P < 0.05) than for other diets. The rice diets led to the production of feces with less lactate (P < 0.05). The increase in raw material MGD did not influence fecal SCFA for rice diets, but for the dogs fed maize and sorghum foods, an increase in propionate and butyrate concentrations were observed as MGD increased (P < 0.05). In conclusion, for dogs fed different particle sizes of the cereal starches in the extruded diets, the digestibility and fecal characteristics were affected, and this effect was ingredient dependent.

  19. Dry fermented sausages of Southern Italy: a comparison of free amino acids and biogenic amines between industrial and homemade products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggio, Antonella; Belsito, Emilia L; De Marco, Rosaria; Di Gioia, Maria L; Liguori, Angelo; Siciliano, Carlo; Spinella, Mariagiovanna

    2012-04-01

    This paper compares some important parameters and the free amino acid and biogenic amine contents of cured industrial and homemade meat products. To this aim, industrial and homemade "soppressata" and "salsiccia", typical dry fermented sausages produced in Southern Italy, were analyzed. The homemade sausages showed a higher level of free biogenic amines than that manufactured industrially, most likely because biogenic amine formation in industrial products is limited by the use of starter cultures. The industrial sausages are characterized by a higher total free amino acid content than the homemade products. Overall, free amino acid and biogenic amine contents demonstrated that appreciable differences exist between homemade and industrial sausages.

  20. Selection from Industrial Lager Yeast Strains of Variants with Improved Fermentation Performance in Very-High-Gravity Worts▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huuskonen, Anne; Markkula, Tuomas; Vidgren, Virve; Lima, Luis; Mulder, Linda; Geurts, Wim; Walsh, Michael; Londesborough, John

    2010-01-01

    There are economic and other advantages if the fermentable sugar concentration in industrial brewery fermentations can be increased from that of currently used high-gravity (ca. 14 to 17°P [degrees Plato]) worts into the very-high-gravity (VHG; 18 to 25°P) range. Many industrial strains of brewer's yeast perform poorly in VHG worts, exhibiting decreased growth, slow and incomplete fermentations, and low viability of the yeast cropped for recycling into subsequent fermentations. A new and efficient method for selecting variant cells with improved performance in VHG worts is described. In this new method, mutagenized industrial yeast was put through a VHG wort fermentation and then incubated anaerobically in the resulting beer while maintaining the α-glucoside concentration at about 10 to 20 g·liter−1 by slowly feeding the yeast maltose or maltotriose until most of the cells had died. When survival rates fell to 1 to 10 cells per 106 original cells, a high proportion (up to 30%) of survivors fermented VHG worts 10 to 30% faster and more completely (residual sugars lower by 2 to 8 g·liter−1) than the parent strains, but the sedimentation behavior and profiles of yeast-derived flavor compounds of the survivors were similar to those of the parent strains. PMID:20081007

  1. 76 FR 13629 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information-Fermentation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Controls Information--Fermentation-Derived Intermediates, Drug Substances, and Related Drug Products for... 216 entitled ``Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls (CMC) Information-- Fermentation-Derived... fermentation-derived intermediates, drug substances, and related drug products for veterinary medicinal use...

  2. 77 FR 14022 - Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information-Fermentation-Derived...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Controls Information--Fermentation-Derived Intermediates, Drug Substances, and Related Drug Products for... entitled ``Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls (CMC) Information-- Fermentation-Derived Intermediates... fermentation-derived intermediates, drug substances, and related drug products for veterinary medicinal use...

  3. Application of New-type Organic Nitrogen in Alcohol Fermentation by Wheat Starch%新型有机氮在小麦淀粉酒精发酵中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志军; 施清; 罗天; 韩永超; 刘小民; 李志军

    2014-01-01

    对有机氮-发酵促进剂SP1在小麦淀粉酒精发酵过程中的应用进行了实验室及大生产试验和分析。结果表明,在酒母培养中添加发酵促进剂SP1对小麦酒精发酵有明显的促进作用,酒母形态明显改善,相对酒母出芽率提高了5.83%,细胞活力提升明显,能有效抑制杂菌对发酵系统的干扰,稳定发酵终了酸度、降低发酵残糖水平,有效地提高了原料的利用率。%Lab test and production test of the application of organic nitrogen-fermentation promoter SP1 in alcohol fermentation by wheat starch were done. The results showed that, the addition of fermentation promoter SP1 in wine yeast culture could significantly promote alcohol fermenta-tion by wheat starch, evidently improve wine yeast properties (yeast budding rate increased by 5.83%), increase cell activities, effectively inhibit the interference of bacteria to the fermentation, stabilize the final acidity at the end of the fermentation, reduce the residual sugar content in the fermentation, and effectively increase the utilization rate of raw materials. (Trans. by YUE Yang).

  4. Biscoitos de polvilho azedo enriquecidos com fibras solúveis e insolúveis Fermented cassava starch biscuits enriched with soluble and insoluble fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Martins Montenegro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a utilização de farelo de trigo e polidextrose como fontes de fibra no enriquecimento de biscoitos de polvilho. Utilizou-se a Metodologia de Superfície de Resposta para verificar a influência da adição destes ingredientes nos parâmetros de qualidade dos biscoitos. As respostas avaliadas do planejamento experimental fatorial completo 2² foram o volume específico, a dureza instrumental, a umidade e a cor - parâmetros L, a* e b*. Para as respostas: volume específico e dureza instrumental, todos os fatores foram significativos, a 95% de confiança, com R² = 0,9307 e 0,8091, respectivamente. Pela análise das superfícies geradas, pode-se observar que o farelo de trigo e a polidextrose reduziram o volume específico e o farelo teve maior efeito no aumento da dureza. A substituição de polvilho azedo por farelo de trigo e polidextrose nas proporções de 1,5 e 5%, respectivamente, gerou uma amostra rica em fibras, com 6,23% de fibra alimentar (calculado teoricamente, sem prejuízo considerável para as características de expansão e dureza, e com boa aceitação sensorial.This work evaluated the use of wheat bran and polidextrose as fiber sources to enrich fermented cassava starch biscuits. The Response Surface Methodology was used to verify the influence of the addition of these fiber sources on the quality parameters of the biscuits. The responses of the 2² central composite rotational experimental design that were evaluated were specific volume, hardness, and moisture and color - parameters L, a*, and b*. For the specific volume and hardness responses, all factors were significant: 95% confidence level, with R² of 0.9307 and 0.8091, respectively. Analyzing the surfaces obtained it could be observed that the wheat bran and polidextrose reduced the specific volume and the wheat bran had a greater effect in increasing hardness. The substitution of fermented cassava starch by wheat bran and polidextrose in

  5. High-titer production of astaxanthin by the semi-industrial fermentation of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Juan Luis; Rodríguez-Sáiz, Marta; Schleissner, Carmen; Díez, Bruno; Peiro, Enrique; Barredo, José Luis

    2010-07-20

    An improved semi-industrial process for astaxanthin production by fermentation of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous has been developed. The culture medium was designed at the flask scale, reaching an astaxanthin cellular content of 3.0 mgg(-1) cell weight and a volumetric yield of 119 mgL(-1) broth. Astaxanthin production in flask was significantly improved by white light (4.0 mgg(-1) and 221 mgL(-1)), and by ultraviolet light (4.4 mgg(-1) and 235 mgL(-1)). The scale-up to 10- and 800-L fermentors was developed by feeding with glucose. Representative data for illuminated fermentation processes are presented and discussed at the 10-L scale, where 420 mgL(-1) (4.7 mgg(-1)) astaxanthin were produced, and the 800-L scale, with productivities of 350 mgL(-1) (4.1 mgg(-1)) astaxanthin. The purity of the astaxanthin in the broth was about 84%, with accumulation of the following carotenoids other than astaxanthin: 4% beta-carotene, 4% canthaxanthin, 5% HDCO, 1% zeaxanthin and 2% phoenicoxanthin. This technology can be easily scaled-up to an industrial application for the production of this xanthophyll widely demanded nowadays.

  6. Bioethanol production from starchy biomass by direct fermentation using saccharomyces diastaticus in batch free and immobilized cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilonzo, P.M.; Margaritis, A. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering; Yu, J.; Ye, Q. [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Biochemical Engineering Research Inst. and State Key Lab

    2006-07-01

    The feasibility of using amylolytic yeasts for the direct fermentation of starchy biomass to ethanol was discussed. Although amylolytic yeasts such as Saccharomycopsis, Lipomyces, and Schwaniomyces secrete both {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase enzymes that synergistically enhance starch degradation, they are not suitable for industrial bio-ethanol production because of low tolerance for ethanol and slow fermentation rate. For that reason, this study examined the direct ethanol fermentation of soluble starch or dextrin with the amylolytic yeast Saccharomyces diastaticus in batch free and immobilized cells systems. Saccharomyces diastaticus secretes glucoamylase and can therefore assimilate and ferment starch and starch-like biomass. The main focus of the study was on parameters leading to higher ethanol yields from high concentration of dextrin and soluble starch using batch cultures. A natural attachment method was proposed in which polyurethane foam sheets were used as the carrier for amylolytic yeasts immobilization in ethanol fermentations. The support was chosen because it was inexpensive, autoclavable, pliable and could be tailored to suit process requirements regarding net surface charge, shape and size. It was found that Saccharomyces diastaticus was very efficient in terms of fermentation of high initial concentrations of dextrin or soluble starch. Higher concentrations of ethanol were produced. In batch fermentations, the cells fermented high dextrin concentrations more efficiently. In particular, in batch fermentation, more than 92 g-L of ethanol was produced from 240 g-L of dextrin, at conversion efficiency of 90 per cent. The conversion efficiency decreased to 60 per cent but a higher final ethanol concentration of 147 g/L was attained with a medium containing 500 g/L of dextrin. In an immobilized cell bioreactor, Saccharomyces diastaticus produced 83 g/L of ethanol from 240 g/L of dextrin, corresponding to ethanol volumetric productivity of 9.1 g

  7. Oxidação dos amidos de mandioca e de milho comum fermentados: desenvolvimento da propriedade de expansão Oxidation of fermented cassava and corn starches: development of the expansion property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Renato Guerra Dias

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Amidos de mandioca e de milho comum foram fermentados em laboratório a 20 °C, sendo uma fração seca ao sol e outra oxidada com peróxido de hidrogênio e secada artificialmente, visando o desenvolvimento da propriedade de expansão. Estudou-se a fermentação em 0, 10, 30 e 50 dias, sendo a propriedade de expansão no forneamento avaliada pelo teste do biscoito e o comportamento viscoamilográfico pelo RVA. Verificou-se que a fermentação promove modificação que auxilia na oxidação dos amidos de mandioca e de milho elevando a acidez titulável do produto. O amido de mandioca fermentado oxidado com exposição solar ou com peróxido de hidrogênio pode desenvolver a propriedade de expansão, já o amido de milho comum nessas condições não tem essa capacidade. Os melhores resultados para a propriedade de expansão foram no amido de mandioca oxidado com peróxido de hidrogênio aos 50 dias de fermentação.Cassava and corn starches were fermented in the laboratory at 20 °C, and a fraction was in the sun while another fraction was oxidized with hydrogen peroxide and dried artificially to develop the expansion property. Fermentation in 0, 10, 30 and 50 days was checked and the expansion property was evaluated by the baking test and viscoamilograph behavior (RVA. Fermentation was found to cause changes that help the oxidation of cassava and corn starches, increasing the product's titrable acidity. The fermented cassava starch, oxidized by exposure to sunlight or hydrogen peroxide, may develop the expansion property, but the corn starch did not display that ability under these conditions. The best results for the expansion property were obtained with cassava starch oxidized with hydrogen peroxide after 50 days of fermentation.

  8. A resistant-starch enriched yogurt: fermentability, sensory characteristics, and a pilot study in children [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5cb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayanush Aryana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity and the vulnerability of the pediatric age group have highlighted the critical need for a careful consideration of effective, safe, remedial and preventive dietary interventions.  Amylose starch (RS2 from high-amylose maize (HAM ferments in the gut and affects body weight.   One hundred and ten children, of 7-8 (n=91 or 13-14 (n=19 years of age scored the sensory qualities of a yogurt supplemented with either HAM-RS2 or an amylopectin starch.  The amylopectin starch yogurt was preferred to the HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt by 7-8 year old panelists (P<0.0001.  Appearance, taste, and sandiness scores given by 13- to 14-year-old panelists were more favorable for the amylopectin starch yogurt than for HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt (P<0.05.  HAM-RS2 supplementation resulted in acceptable (≥6 on a 1-9 scale sensory and hedonic ratings of the yogurt in 74% of subjects.  Four children consumed a HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt for four weeks to test its fermentability in a clinical trial.  Three adolescents, but not the single pre-pubertal child, had reduced stool pH (P=0.1 and increased stool short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs (P<0.05 including increased fecal acetate (P=0.02, and butyrate (P=0.089 from resistant starch (RS fermentation and isobutyrate (P=0.01 from protein fermentation post-treatment suggesting a favorable change to the gut microbiota.  HAM-RS2 was not modified by pasteurization of the yogurt, and may be a palatable way to increase fiber intake and stimulate colonic fermentation in adolescents.  Future studies are planned to determine the concentration of HAM-RS2 that offers the optimal safe and effective strategy to prevent excessive fat gain in children.

  9. The effect of SO2 on the production of ethanol, acetaldehyde, organic acids, and flavor volatiles during industrial cider fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Mónica; García, Luis A; Díaz, Mario

    2003-05-21

    SO(2) is widely used in cider fermentation but also in other alcoholic beverages such as wine. Although the authorized limit is 200 ppm total SO(2), the International Organizations recommend its total elimination or at least reduction due to health concerns. Addition of SO(2) to apple juice at levels frequently used in industrial cidermaking (100 mg/L) induced significantly higher acetaldehyde production by yeast than that obtained without SO(2). Although the practical implications of acetaldehyde evolution under cidermaking conditions has been overcome by research and few data are available, this compound reached levels in two 2000 L bioreactors that may have prevented the occurrence of simultaneous alcoholic and malolactic fermentation. It was observed that malolactic fermentation had a positive effect promoting reduction of acetaldehyde levels in cider fermented with juice, SO(2)-treated or not. The addition of SO(2) clearly delayed malolactic fermentation comparing to the control, affecting not the onset of the malolactic fermentation but the rate of malic acid degradation. This compound, however, had a stimulatory effect on alcoholic fermentation.

  10. Direct fermentation of gelatinized cassava starch to acetone, butanol, and ethanol using Clostridium acetobutylicum mutant obtained by atmospheric and room temperature plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han-guang; Luo, Wei; Wang, Qiang; Yu, Xiao-bin

    2014-04-01

    The mutant strain designated as ART18, obtained from the wild-type strain Clostridium acetobutylicum PW12 treated by atmospheric and room temperature plasma, showed higher solvent tolerance and butanol production than that of the wild-type strain. The production of butanol was 11.3 ± 0.5 g/L, 31 % higher than that of the wild-type strain when it was used for acetone, butanol, and ethanol fermentation in P2 medium. Furthermore, the effects of cassava flour concentration, pH regulators, and vitamins on the ABE production were also investigated. The highest butanol production of 15.8 ± 0.8 g/L and butanol yield (0.31 g/g) were achieved after the above factors were optimized. When acetone, butanol, and ethanol fermentation by ART18 was carried out in a 15-L bioreactor, the butanol production, the productivity of butanol, and the total solvent were 16.3 ± 0.9, 0.19, and 0.28 g/L(/)h, respectively. These results indicate that ART18 is a promising industrial producer in ABE fermentation.

  11. The future of starch bioengineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Sagnelli, Domenico; Blennow, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Plant starches regularly require extensive modification to permit subsequent applications. Such processing is usually done by the use of chemical and/or physical treatments. The use of recombinant enzymes produced by large-scale fermentation of GM microorganisms is increasingly used in starch...... processing and modification, sometimes as an alternative to chemical or physical treatments. However, as a means to impart the modifications as early as possible in the starch production chain, similar recombinant enzymes may also be expressed in planta in the developing starch storage organ such as in roots...... concepts of hybrid starch-based polysaccharides. In planta starch bioengineering is generally challenged by yield penalties and inefficient production of the desired product. However, in some situations, GM crops for starch bioengineering without deleterious effects have been achieved....

  12. Application of microbial α-amylase in industry – A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Paula Monteiro; de Oliveira Magalhães, Pérola

    2010-01-01

    Amylases are one of the main enzymes used in industry. Such enzymes hydrolyze the starch molecules into polymers composed of glucose units. Amylases have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, fermentation and pharmaceutical industries. α-Amylases can be obtained from plants, animals and microorganisms. However, enzymes from fungal and bacterial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. The production of α-amylase is essential for conversion of starches into oligosaccharides. Starch is an important constituent of the human diet and is a major storage product of many economically important crops such as wheat, rice, maize, tapioca, and potato. Starch-converting enzymes are used in the production of maltodextrin, modified starches, or glucose and fructose syrups. A large number of microbial α-amylases has applications in different industrial sectors such as food, textile, paper and detergent industries. The production of α-amylases has generally been carried out using submerged fermentation, but solid state fermentation systems appear as a promising technology. The properties of each α-amylase such as thermostability, pH profile, pH stability, and Ca-independency are important in the development of fermentation process. This review focuses on the production of bacterial and fungal α-amylases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications. PMID:24031565

  13. Evaluation of kinetic models for industrial acetic fermentation: proposal of a new model optimized by genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sáiz, José M; Pizarro, Consuelo; Garrido-Vidal, Diego

    2003-01-01

    The most important kinetic models developed for acetic fermentation were evaluated to study their ability to explain the behavior of the industrial process of acetification. Each model was introduced into a simulation environment capable of replicating the conditions of the industrial plant. In this paper, it is proven that these models are not suitable to predict the evolution of the industrial fermentation by the comparison of the simulation results with an average sequence calculated from the industrial data. Therefore, a new kinetic model for the industrial acetic fermentation was developed. The kinetic parameters of the model were optimized by a specifically designed genetic algorithm. Only the representative sequence of industrial concentrations of acetic acid was required. The main novelty of the algorithm is the four-composed desirability function that works properly as the response to maximize. The new model developed is capable of explaining the behavior of the industrial process. The predictive ability of the model has been compared with that of the other models studied.

  14. 淀粉水解酶在食品工业中的应用%Application of Starch Hydrolyzing Enzymes in Food Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦国宝; 石方方; 丁长河; 屈建行; 屈凌波; 刘仲敏

    2015-01-01

    淀粉水解酶是指一类能催化水解淀粉酶的总称,不同使用用途及生产目的使用的淀粉水解酶的类别也不相同,本文分别介绍了淀粉水解酶中的α-淀粉酶,β-淀粉酶,异淀粉酶,葡萄糖淀粉酶的作用机理、酶性质以及在食品工业中的应用情况,为生产中淀粉水解酶的应用提供一些参考。%Starch hydrolase refers to a class of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of starch in general, different starch hydrolyzing enzymes are used with different using purpose and production. This paper introduced the function⁃al mechanism and characteristics of several starch hydrolysis enzymes, such asα-amylase,β-amylase, isoamylase, glucamylase and their applications in the food industry, providing some reference for the application of starch hydroly⁃sis enzymes in production.

  15. Isolation, identification and optimization of ethanol producing bacteria from Saccharomyces-based fermentation process of alcohol industries in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Ebrahimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the vast growth of world population, consumption of a lot of energy, limited energy supply and rising prices of fuel oil in the future, other alternative energy source is essential. Ethanol is renewable and a safe fuel and it is mainly based on microbial fermentation. The purpose of this study was isolation of high ethanol producing bacteria from the fermentation process of alcohol industries and optimization of growth conditions to be introduced to the industries. Materials and methods: The samples that were collected from fermentation tanks of alcohol industries were enriched in ZSM medium. To isolate the ethanol producing bacteria, the enriched culture was transferred on RMA agar. Bacterial growth conditions and their effects on ethanol production were optimized based on pH, growth temperature, agitation, fermentation time, initial substrate concentration and carbon and nitrogen sources. In addition, the morphological, physiological and molecular characterizations were investigated for identification of the isolates.Results: Three bacterial isolates ZYM7, ZYM8 and ZYM9 were isolated from fermentation tank. All isolates were able to produce ethanol 5.00, 7.60 and 4.00 gL-1 after 48 hours, respectively. The results demonstrated that all isolates were able to consume most sugars sources specially pentose carbon xylose. The isolate ZYM7 produced 13.00 gL-1 ethanol by consumption of xylose. The results of morphological and physiological characteristics showed that ZYM7 belonged to Lactobacillus sp. and ZYM8 and ZYM9 belonged to Acetobacter sp. Moreover, 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses exhibited that ZYM7 was similar to Lactobacillus rhamnosus with 99% homology and ZYM8 and ZYM9 were similar to Acetobacter pasteurianus with 99 and 98% homology, respectively.Discussion and conclusion: The results showed that that the isolated bacteria were suitable candidates to produce ethanol from raw material enriched with

  16. Ethanol production from residual wood chips of cellulose industry: acid pretreatment investigation, hemicellulosic hydrolysate fermentation, and remaining solid fraction fermentation by SSF process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neumara Luci Conceição; Betancur, Gabriel Jaime Vargas; Vasquez, Mariana Peñuela; Gomes, Edelvio de Barros; Pereira, Nei

    2011-04-01

    Current research indicates the ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic materials, such as residual wood chips from the cellulose industry, as new emerging technology. This work aimed at evaluating the ethanol production from hemicellulose of eucalyptus chips by diluted acid pretreatment and the subsequent fermentation of the generated hydrolysate by a flocculating strain of Pichia stipitis. The remaining solid fraction generated after pretreatment was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, which was carried out simultaneously with glucose fermentation [saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process] using a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The acid pretreatment was evaluated using a central composite design for sulfuric acid concentration (1.0-4.0 v/v) and solid to liquid ratio (1:2-1:4, grams to milliliter) as independent variables. A maximum xylose concentration of 50 g/L was obtained in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The fermentation of hemicellulosic hydrolysate and the SSF process were performed in bioreactors and the final ethanol concentrations of 15.3 g/L and 28.7 g/L were obtained, respectively.

  17. Industrial scale garage-type dry fermentation of municipal solid waste to biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, M Y; Li, R H; Li, J; Wedwitschka, H; Nelles, M; Stinner, W; Zhou, H J

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this study was to through monitoring the 1st industrial scale garage-type dry fermentation (GTDF) MSW biogas plant in Bin County, Harbin City, Heilongjiang Province, China, to investigate its anaerobic digestion (AD) performance and the stability of process. After a monitoring period of 180days, the results showed that the volumetric biogas production of the digesters and percolate tank was 0.72 and 2.22m(3) (m(3)d)(-1), respectively, and the specific biogas yield of the feedstock was about 270m(3)CH4tVS(-1), which indicated that the GTDF is appropriate for the Chinese MSW. This paper also raised some problems aimed at improving the process stability and AD efficiency.

  18. Single-cell level based approach to investigate acetate metabolism during batch industrial fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; Larsen, Poul; Eriksen, Niels T.

    and control the overflow metabolism phenomenon in E. coli. Even though acetate formation by E. coli have been studied for more than three decades, the literature published presents the results based on the average measurement of the whole population. The averaged data can mask the distribution of the activity......Acetate is a product of Escherichia coli overflow metabolism when the bacteria are grown under aerobic conditions and glucose is present in excessive amount. It is an undesirable byproduct that affects growth, physiology, and performance of E. coli when used in industrial bioprocesses; its...... on the sub-population level. We hypothesized that during the fermentation process, bacterial subpopulation exist, which exhibit different metabolic strategies towards the acetate. In this study, pure culture of Escherichia coli MG1655 was used to investigate in situ acetate metabolism at single-cell level...

  19. Amylase production by solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial wastes using Bacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajshree Saxena

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentation was carried out using various agro- industrial wastes with the best amylase producing strain isolated from soil. Different physicochemical conditions were varied for maximum enzyme production. The strain produced about 5400 units/g of amylase at 1:3 moisture content, 20% inoculum, after 72 h of incubation with Mustard Oil seed cake as the substrate. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme activity were found to be 50ºC and 6 respectively. The enzyme was found to be thermostable at 70ºC for about 2 h without any salt. It showed stability at pH range 5-7. The metal ions as Na+, Ca++, Mg++ and Co++ enhanced the enzyme activity.

  20. Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteriophage (phi)241 isolated from an industrial cucumber fermentation at high acidity and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel phage, (phi)241, specific for Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated from an industrial cucumber fermentation where both acidity (pH less than or equal to 3.7) and salinity (greater than or equal to 5% NaCl) were high. The phage belongs to the Myoviridae family. Its latent period was 15 min a...

  1. Study of process variables in industrial acetic fermentation by a continuous pilot fermentor and response surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Vidal, Diego; Pizarro, Consuelo; González-Sáiz, José M

    2003-01-01

    The modeling and optimization of industrial processes requires an intensive study of the factors involved. In this work, a continuous pilot system for studying the industrial process of acetic fermentation is developed. A Doehlert design is applied to the five variables involved in the pilot process. This experimental design allows reduction of the experimental burden and the maximum amount of information to be obtained, studying the factors at different levels depending on their significance. The experimental system provides a robust measure of the specific growth rate and the rates of substrates consumption and acetic acid production, related to the flow of effluent stream evaluated in the steady state. The results demonstrate the growth-associated kinetics of substrates and product, and the yield factors are calculated with low values of variances for the coefficients, i.e., within the range 1-11%. The specific growth rate suits the quadratic model proposed. The response surfaces generated by the model are applied to explain the behavior of the bacterial growth and, therefore, the effects of the process variables studied over the acetic acid production. Very low levels of ethanol or oxygen make the acetification rate decrease, and a saturation effect with high levels of ethanol or oxygen is also deduced. The effects of the aeration rate, agitation, and overpressure suggest a kind of inhibition of the acetic acid production caused by the oxygen that has not been practically studied before. The temperature strengthens the inhibitory effect of the ethanol and the oxygen. The conclusions of this work consolidate the structure of a hybrid model for the acetic fermentation.

  2. Application and Prospects of Modified Starch in Food Industry%变性淀粉在食品工业中的应用及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩

    2013-01-01

    Modified starch is widely used in emerging food industry;its role is often superior to ordinary raw starch, and compared with the original starch, it saves the production cost, also can improve food quality and structure features. This paper studies the basic properties of modified starch and its application in food industry, carries on the thorough discussion and analysis of the scientific development trend.%变性淀粉在新兴的食品工业中被广泛使用,其发挥的作用往往优于普通原淀粉,且比原淀粉更加节约生产成本,还可以改善食品质构特性。本文就变性淀粉的基本性质及在食品工业中的应用情况进行了深入的探讨,并对其发展趋势作出科学的分析。

  3. RT-PCR–DGGE Analysis to Elucidate the Dominant Bacterial Species of Industrial Spanish-Style Green Table Olive Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Cabello, Antonio; Bautista-Gallego, Joaquín; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cocolin, Luca; Jiménez-Díaz, Rufino; Arroyo-López, Francisco N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the dominant bacterial species metabolically active through the industrial production of Spanish-style Manzanilla and Gordal olives. For this purpose, samples (brines and fruits) obtained at 0, 15, and 90 fermentation days were analyzed by a culture-independent approach to determine viable cells by reverse transcription of RNA and further PCR-DGGE analysis, detecting at least 7 different species. Vibrio vulnificus, Lactobacillus plantarum group, and Lactobacillus parafarraginis were present in samples from both cultivars; Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Halolactobacillus halophilus were detected only in Gordal samples, while Staphylococcus sp. was exclusively found at the onset of Manzanilla fermentations. Physicochemical data showed a typical fermentation profile while scanning electron microscopy confirmed the in situ biofilm formation on the olive epidermis. Different Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Enterococcus species, not detected during the fermentation process, were also found in the solid marine salt used by the industry for preparation of brines. Elucidation of these non-lactic acid bacteria species role during fermentation is then an appealingly challenge, particularly regarding safety issues. PMID:27582739

  4. Engineered Trx2p industrial yeast strain protects glycolysis and fermentation proteins from oxidative carbonylation during biomass propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Pastor Rocío

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the yeast biomass production process, protein carbonylation has severe adverse effects since it diminishes biomass yield and profitability of industrial production plants. However, this significant detriment of yeast performance can be alleviated by increasing thioredoxins levels. Thioredoxins are important antioxidant defenses implicated in many functions in cells, and their primordial functions include scavenging of reactive oxygen species that produce dramatic and irreversible alterations such as protein carbonylation. Results In this work we have found several proteins specifically protected by yeast Thioredoxin 2 (Trx2p. Bidimensional electrophoresis and carbonylated protein identification from TRX-deficient and TRX-overexpressing cells revealed that glycolysis and fermentation-related proteins are specific targets of Trx2p protection. Indeed, the TRX2 overexpressing strain presented increased activity of the central carbon metabolism enzymes. Interestingly, Trx2p specifically preserved alcohol dehydrogenase I (Adh1p from carbonylation, decreased oligomer aggregates and increased its enzymatic activity. Conclusions The identified proteins suggest that the fermentative capacity detriment observed under industrial conditions in T73 wine commercial strain results from the oxidative carbonylation of specific glycolytic and fermentation enzymes. Indeed, increased thioredoxin levels enhance the performance of key fermentation enzymes such as Adh1p, which consequently increases fermentative capacity.

  5. Application of microbial α-amylase in industry - A review

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Amylases are one of the main enzymes used in industry. Such enzymes hydrolyze the starch molecules into polymers composed of glucose units. Amylases have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, fermentation and pharmaceutical industries. α-Amylases can be obtained from plants, animals and microorganisms. However, enzymes from fungal and bacterial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. The production of α-amylase is essential f...

  6. Brettanomyces yeasts - From spoilage organisms to valuable contributors to industrial fermentations

    OpenAIRE

    Steensels, Jan; Daenen, Luk; Malcorps, Philippe; Derdelinckx, Guy; Verachtert, Hubert; Verstrepen, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Ever since the introduction of controlled fermentation processes, alcoholic fermentations and Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter cultures proved to be a match made in heaven. The ability of S. cerevisiae to produce and withstand high ethanol concentrations, its pleasant flavour profile and the absence of health-threatening toxin production are only a fewof the features that make it the ideal alcoholic fermentation organism. However, in certain conditions or for certain specific fermentation pro...

  7. Vacuum stripping of ethanol during high solids fermentation of corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihadeh, Jameel K; Huang, Haibo; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, Mike E; Singh, Vijay

    2014-05-01

    In corn-ethanol industry, yeast stress inducing glucose concentrations produced during liquefaction and subsequent high ethanol concentrations produced during fermentation restrict slurry solids to 32 % w/w. These limits were circumvented by combining two novel technologies: (1) granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme (GSHE) to break down starch simultaneously with fermentation and (2) vacuum stripping to remove ethanol. A vacuum stripping system was constructed and applied to fermentations at 30, 40, and 45 % solids. As solids increased from 30 to 40 %, ethanol yield decreased from 0.35 to 0.29 L/kg. Ethanol yield from 45 % solids was only 0.18 L/kg. An improvement was conducted by increasing enzyme dose from 0.25 to 0.75 g/g corn and reducing yeast inoculum by half. After improvement, ethanol yield from 40 % solids vacuum treatment increased to 0.36 L/kg, comparable to ethanol yield from 30 % solids (control).

  8. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  9. Technical and economic assessments of storage techniques for long-term retention of industrial-beet sugar for non-food industrial fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Ramirez, Juan Manuel

    Industrial beets may compete against corn grain as an important source of sugars for non-food industrial fermentations. However, dependable and energy-efficient systems for beet sugar storage and processing are necessary to help establish industrial beets as a viable sugar feedstock. Therefore, technical and economic aspects of beet sugar storage and processing were evaluated. First, sugar retention was evaluated in whole beets treated externally with either one of two antimicrobials or a senescence inhibitor and stored for 36 wk at different temperature and atmosphere combinations. Although surface treatment did not improve sugar retention, full retention was enabled by beet dehydration caused by ambient air at 25 °C and with a relative humidity of 37%. This insight led to the evaluation of sugar retention in ground-beet tissue ensiled for 8 wk at different combinations of acidic pH, moisture content (MC), and sugar:solids. Some combinations of pH ≤ 4.0 and MC ≤ 67.5% enabled retentions of at least 90%. Yeast fermentability was also evaluated in non-purified beet juice acidified to enable long-term storage and partially neutralized before fermentation. None of the salts synthesized through juice acidification and partial neutralization inhibited yeast fermentation at the levels evaluated in that work. Conversely, yeast fermentation rates significantly improved in the presence of ammonium salts, which appeared to compensate for nitrogen deficiencies. Capital and operating costs for production and storage of concentrated beet juice for an ethanol plant with a production capacity of 76 x 106 L y-1 were estimated on a dry-sugar basis as U.S. ¢34.0 kg-1 and ¢2.2 kg-1, respectively. Storage and processing techniques evaluated thus far prove that industrial beets are a technically-feasible sugar feedstock for ethanol production.

  10. Influence of genetic background of engineered xylose-fermenting industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Daiane Dias; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Hector, Ronald E; Dien, Bruce S; Mertens, Jeffrey A; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2017-09-11

    An industrial ethanol-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with genes of fungal oxido-reductive pathway needed for xylose fermentation integrated into its genome (YRH1415) was used to obtain haploids and diploid isogenic strains. The isogenic strains were more effective in metabolizing xylose than YRH1415 strain and able to co-ferment glucose and xylose in the presence of high concentrations of inhibitors resulting from the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass (switchgrass). The rate of xylose consumption did not appear to be affected by the ploidy of strains or the presence of two copies of the xylose fermentation genes but by heterozygosity of alleles for xylose metabolism in YRH1415. Furthermore, inhibitor tolerance was influenced by the heterozygous genome of the industrial strain, which also showed a marked influenced on tolerance to increasing concentrations of toxic compounds, such as furfural. In this work, selection of haploid derivatives was found to be a useful strategy to develop efficient xylose-fermenting industrial yeast strains.

  11. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for n-butanol production from maltose and soluble starch by overexpressing α-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Le; Xu, Mengmeng; Tang, I-Ching; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2015-07-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum does not have the enzymes needed for using maltose or starch. Two extracellular α-glucosidases encoded by agluI and agluII from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 catalyzing the hydrolysis of α-1,4-glycosidic bonds in maltose and starch from the non-reducing end were cloned and expressed in C. tyrobutyricum (Δack, adhE2), and their effects on n-butanol production from maltose and soluble starch in batch fermentations were studied. Compared to the parental strain grown on glucose, mutants expressing agluI showed robust activity in breaking down maltose and produced more butanol (17.2 vs. 9.5 g/L) with a higher butanol yield (0.20 vs. 0.10 g/g) and productivity (0.29 vs. 0.16 g/L h). The mutant was also able to use soluble starch as substrate, although at a slower rate compared to maltose. Compared to C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824, the mutant produced more butanol from maltose (17.2 vs. 11.2 g/L) and soluble starch (16.2 vs. 8.8 g/L) in batch fermentations. The mutant was stable in batch fermentation without adding antibiotics, achieving a high butanol productivity of 0.40 g/L h. This mutant strain thus can be used in industrial production of n-butanol from maltose and soluble starch.

  12. Isolation of a novel high erythritol-producing Pseudozyma tsukubaensis and scale-up of erythritol fermentation to industrial level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeya, Marimuthu; Lee, Kyoung-Mi; Tiwari, Manish Kumar;

    2009-01-01

    This study isolated a novel erythritol-producing yeast strain, which is capable of growth at high osmolarity. Characteristics of the strain include asexual reproduction by multilateral budding, absence of extracellular starch-like compounds, and a negative Diazonium blue B color reaction......, it produced 245 g/L of erythritol, corresponding to 2.86 g/L/h productivity and 61% yield, the highest erythritol yield ever reported by an erythritol-producing microorganism. Erythritol production was scaled up from a laboratory scale (7 L fermenter) to pilot (300 L) and plant (50,000 L) scales using...... the dissolved oxygen as a scale-up parameter. Erythritol production at the pilot and plant scales was similar to that at the laboratory scale, indicating that the production of erythritol by P. tsukubaensis KN75 holds commercial potential....

  13. How the physical forms of starch affect filterability at a carbonatation refinery. Part I: Filterability of industrial sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study using the USDA starch research method was conducted to evaluate the effects of total, insoluble, and soluble starch on raw sugar filterability and viscosity. Sugar quality parameters, i.e., pol, colour, invert, ash, and dextran, were measured in fifty-five international raw sugars supplied b...

  14. Investigation of the instability and low water kefir grain growth during an industrial water kefir fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, David; Van Jean, Amandine; Dumont, Jean; De Vuyst, Luc

    2017-04-01

    A poorly performing industrial water kefir production process consisting of a first fermentation process, a rest period at low temperature, and a second fermentation process was characterized to elucidate the causes of its low water kefir grain growth and instability. The frozen-stored water kefir grain inoculum was thawed and reactivated during three consecutive prefermentations before the water kefir production process was started. Freezing and thawing damaged the water kefir grains irreversibly, as their structure did not restore during the prefermentations nor the production process. The viable counts of the lactic acid bacteria and yeasts on the water kefir grains and in the liquors were as expected, whereas those of the acetic acid bacteria were high, due to the aerobic fermentation conditions. Nevertheless, the fermentations progressed slowly, which was caused by excessive substrate concentrations resulting in a high osmotic stress. Lactobacillus nagelii, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bifidobacterium aquikefiri, Gluconobacter roseus/oxydans, Gluconobacter cerinus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Zygotorulaspora florentina were the most prevalent microorganisms. Lb. hilgardii, the microorganism thought to be responsible for water kefir grain growth, was not found culture-dependently, which could explain the low water kefir grain growth of this industrial process.

  15. 橡实淀粉生料发酵生产燃料酒精工艺研究%Study on Fuel Ethanol Production by Fermentation of Acorn Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李安平; 谢碧霞; 田玉峰; 丁颜鹏

    2011-01-01

    The author studied the production technology of fuel ethanol through fermentation of uncooked material,of which raw material was acorn starch; The results showed that the extractation method by ultrasonic wave could improve the ratio of tannin removal. The optimal fermentation conditions were summed up through single factor tests and orthogonal tests as follows: the material -to -water ratio as 16: 10, α -amylase as 50 U/g, glucoamylase as 190 U/g, fermentation temperature as 25 ℃, fermentation time as 7 d.%对以橡实淀粉为原料生料发酵生产燃料酒精的工艺条件进行了研究.结果表明:采用超声波助提法可有效脱除单宁,提高橡实淀粉的燃料酒精转化率.单因素试验和正交试验得出的橡实淀粉生料发酵最佳工艺参数为料水比16:10,α-淀粉酶50 U/g,糖化酶190U/g,发酵温度25℃,发酵时间7 d.

  16. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Kamila Lewicka; Przemysław Siemion; Piotr Kurcok

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation ...

  17. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications.

  18. SIMULTANEOUS PRETREATMENT OF LIGNOCELLULOSE AND HYDROLYSIS OF STARCH IN MIXTURES TO SUGARS

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Mixtures of starch and lignocelluloses are available in many industrial, agricultural, and municipal wastes and residuals. In this work, dilute sulfuric acid was used for simultaneous pretreatment of lignocellulose and hydrolysis of starch, to obtain a maximum amount of fermentable sugar after enzymatic hydrolysis with cellulase and β-glucosidase. The acid treatment was carried out at 70-150°C with 0-1% (v/v) acid concentration and 5-15% (w/v) solids concentration for 0-40 minutes. Under the ...

  19. Exploring the yeast biodiversity of green table olive industrial fermentations for technological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Gallego, J; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Barrio, E; Querol, A; Garrido-Fernández, A; Arroyo-López, F N

    2011-05-27

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in identifying and characterizing the yeast populations associated with diverse types of table olive elaborations because of the many desirable technological properties of these microorganisms. In this work, a total of 199 yeast isolates were directly obtained from industrial green table olive fermentations and genetically identified by means of a RFLP analysis of the 5.8S-ITS region and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rDNA gene. Candida diddensiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia membranifaciens were the most abundant yeast species isolated from directly brined Aloreña olives, while for Gordal and Manzanilla cultivars they were Candida tropicalis, Pichia galeiformis and Wickerhamomyces anomalus. In the case of Gordal and Manzanilla green olives processed according to the Spanish style, the predominant yeasts were Debaryomyces etchellsii, C. tropicalis, P. galeiformis and Kluyveromyces lactis. Biochemical activities of technological interest were then qualitatively determined for isolates belonging to all yeast species. This preliminary screening identified two isolates of W. anomalus with interesting properties, such as a strong β-glucosidase and esterase activity, and a moderate catalase and lipolytic activity, which were also confirmed by quantitative assays. The results obtained in this survey show the potential use that some yeast species could have as starters, alone or in combination with lactic acid bacteria, during olive processing.

  20. Oxygen-limited cellobiose fermentation and the characterization of the cellobiase of an industrial Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Alexandre Libanio Silva; de Fátima Rodrigues de Souza, Raquel; Baptista Torres, Rochane Regina Neves; Leite, Fernanda Cristina Bezerra; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Vidal, Esteban Espinosa; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of a novel yeast with a natural capacity to produce ethanol from lignocellulosic substrates (second-generation ethanol) is of great significance for bioethanol technology. While there are some yeast strains capable of assimilating cellobiose in aerobic laboratory conditions, the predominant sugar in the treatment of lignocellulosic material, little is known about this ability in real industrial conditions. Fermentations designed to simulate industrial conditions were conducted in synthetic medium with glucose, sucrose, cellobiose and hydrolyzed pre-treated cane bagasse as a different carbon source, with the aim of further characterizing the fermentation capacity of a promising Dekkera bruxellensis yeast strain, isolated from the bioethanol process in Brazil. As a result, it was found (for the first time in oxygen-limiting conditions) that the strain Dekkera bruxellensis GDB 248 could produce ethanol from cellobiose. Moreover, it was corroborated that the cellobiase activity characterizes the enzyme candidate in semi-purified extracts (β-glucosidase). In addition, it was demonstrated that GDB 248 strain had the capacity to produce a higher acetic acid concentration than ethanol and glycerol, which confirms the absence of the Custer effect with this strain in oxygen-limiting conditions. Moreover, it is also being suggested that D. bruxellensis could benefit Saccharomyces cerevisiae and outcompete it in the industrial environment. In this way, it was confirmed that D. bruxellensis GDB 248 has the potential to produce ethanol from cellobiose, and is a promising strain for the fermentation of lignocellulosic substrates.

  1. Single-cell level based approach to investigate acetate metabolism during batch industrial fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; Larsen, Poul; Eriksen, Niels T.

    accumulation causes the decrease of productivity as it represents a waste of carbon source that would otherwise be converted to biomass and product. As the acetate accumulation problem is of the utmost importance in batch fermentation processes, various strategies have been developed to explain, understand...... on the sub-population level. We hypothesized that during the fermentation process, bacterial subpopulation exist, which exhibit different metabolic strategies towards the acetate. In this study, pure culture of Escherichia coli MG1655 was used to investigate in situ acetate metabolism at single-cell level...... during glucose fermentation. Batch fermentations were performed in order to examine consecutive stages of acetate metabolism during the fermentation process (production, co-consumption with glucose, consumption as single substrate). Uptake of glucose and acetate at single-cell level was observed...

  2. The impact of yeast fermentation on dough matrix properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Jayaram, Vinay B; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-08-01

    Most studies on dough properties are performed on yeastless dough to exclude the complicating, time-dependent effect of yeast. Baker's yeast, however, impacts dough matrix properties during fermentation, probably through the production of primary (CO2 and ethanol) and secondary (glycerol, acetic acid and succinic acid) metabolites. The aim of this study is to obtain a better understanding of the changes in yeasted dough behavior introduced by fermentation, by investigating the impact of yeast fermentation on Farinograph dough consistency, dough spread, Kieffer rig dough extensibility and gluten agglomeration behavior in a fermented dough-batter gluten starch separation system. Results show that fermentation leads to a dough with less flow and lower extensibility that breaks more easily under stress and strain. The dough showed less elastic and more plastic deformation behavior. Gluten agglomerates were smaller for yeasted dough than for the unyeasted control. These changes probably have to be attributed to metabolites generated during fermentation. Indeed, organic acids and also ethanol in concentrations produced by yeast were previously shown to have similar effects in yeastless dough. These findings imply the high importance of yeast fermentation metabolites on dough matrix properties in industrial bread production. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Starch hydrolysis by Strepto-coccus equinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DUNICAN, L K; SEELEY, H W

    1962-02-01

    Dunican, Lawrence K. (Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.) and Harry W. Seeley. Starch hydrolysis by Streptococcus equinus. J. Bacteriol. 82:264-269. 1962.-In a study of starch hydrolysis by strains of Streptococcus equinus, 52 isolates were obtained and their amylolytic abilities determined. It was found that all the strains could hydrolyze starch to some extent when grown in the presence of an easily fermentable carbohydrate, viz., glucose. Without this carbohydrate the organisms did not hydrolyze starch. The hydrolysis of starch was inhibited when the organisms were grown in an atmosphere of 5% CO(2) and 95% N(2), even if grown in the presence of a fermentable monosaccharide. S. bovis, which was used as a reference organism, readily hydrolyzed starch in the absence of monosaccharides and in atmospheres containing CO(2). In no instance did S. equinus hydrolyze the starch to the level of reducing sugars. Negligible amounts of reducing sugars were recovered when the cell-free filtrates of S. equinus were incubated with starch. With S. bovis, the yield of reducing sugars under such conditions was almost quantitative. These facts extend further the differences between these related organisms. The ability to synthesize an internal starchlike polysaccharide was noted in most of the strains of S. equinus. Synthesis was found when the organisms were grown on maltose or on a starch medium containing a small amount of fermentable monosaccharide.

  4. POTENSI SPAGHETTINI KOMPOSIT SEMOLINA DURUM-PATI GANYONG DALAM PEMBENTUKAN SHORT CHAIN FATTY ACID DAN ASAM LAKTAT PADA FERMENTASI MENGGUNAKAN MIKROFLORA FESES MANUSIA (Potential Production of Short Chain Fatty Acid and Lactic Acid from Durum and Canna Starch-Based Spaghettini Through Fermentation by Human Colonic Microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefani Amanda Harmani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays people have started considering the health beneficial value in selecting food. Government’s demand for utilization of local food and food diversification is also increasing. Considering those reasons, the objective of this study was to create a way of food diversification using local ingredient which has physiological benefits for human health. Resistant starch can improve human colonic health through fermentation by colonic microflora to produce Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA and lactic acid. This research was conducted by combining canna starch with semolina durum into a composite flour for spaghettini production. Various type of canna tuber and canna starch proportion were used in the composite flour. Semolina durum contained higher resistant starch (20% than red canna starch (17.7% and green canna starch (15.4%. Combination of durum and red canna starch-based spaghettini produced higher amount of resistant starch, SCFA, and lactic acid than combination of durum and green canna starch- based spaghettini. Durumcanna based spaghettini had the ability to produce SCFA and lactic acid during in vitro fermentation using human colonic microflora although the concentration was lower than those of only durum spaghettini. Keywords: Canna starch, spaghettini, resistant starch, SCFA, lactic acid ABSTRAK Kriteria pemilihan makanan oleh masyarakat kini mulai mempertimbangkan nilai kesehatan dari suatu makanan. Sementara, permintaan pemerintah untuk pemanfaatan bahan baku lokal dan diversifikasi pangan pokok pun semakin meningkat. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini dilaksanakan untuk mewujudkan penganekaragaman pangan berbasis tepung komposit dari bahan baku lokal yang memiliki nilai fungsional untuk kesehatan kolon. Resistant Starch (RS dapat meningkatkan kesehatan kolon melalui hasil fermentasinya oleh bakteri usus besar yang berupa Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA dan asam laktat. Penelitian dilakukan dengan mengkombinasikan pati ganyong dan semolina

  5. The Oenological Potential of Hanseniaspora uvarum in Simultaneous and Sequential Co-fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Industrial Wine Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristezza, Mariana; Tufariello, Maria; Capozzi, Vittorio; Spano, Giuseppe; Mita, Giovanni; Grieco, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In oenology, the utilization of mixed starter cultures composed by Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts is an approach of growing importance for winemakers in order to enhance sensory quality and complexity of the final product without compromising the general quality and safety of the oenological products. In fact, several non-Saccharomyces yeasts are already commercialized as oenological starter cultures to be used in combination with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while several others are the subject of various studies to evaluate their application. Our aim, in this study was to assess, for the first time, the oenological potential of H. uvarum in mixed cultures (co-inoculation) and sequential inoculation with S. cerevisiae for industrial wine production. Three previously characterized H. uvarum strains were separately used as multi-starter together with an autochthonous S. cerevisiae starter culture in lab-scale micro-vinification trials. On the basis of microbial development, fermentation kinetics and secondary compounds formation, the strain H. uvarum ITEM8795 was further selected and it was co- and sequentially inoculated, jointly with the S. cerevisiae starter, in a pilot scale wine production. The fermentation course and the quality of final product indicated that the co-inoculation was the better performing modality of inoculum. The above results were finally validated by performing an industrial scale vinification The mixed starter was able to successfully dominate the different stages of the fermentation process and the H. uvarum strain ITEM8795 contributed to increasing the wine organoleptic quality and to simultaneously reduce the volatile acidity. At the best of our knowledge, the present report is the first study regarding the utilization of a selected H. uvarum strain in multi-starter inoculation with S. cerevisiae for the industrial production of a wine. In addition, we demonstrated, at an industrial scale, the importance of non-Saccharomyces in

  6. Global expression profiling of Bacillus subtilis cells during industrial-close fed-batch fermentations with different nitrogen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgen, Britta; Tobisch, Steffen; Wümpelmann, Mogens; Gördes, Dirk; Koch, Andreas; Thurow, Kerstin; Albrecht, Dirk; Hecker, Michael; Schweder, Thomas

    2005-11-05

    A detailed gene expression analysis of industrial-close Bacillus subtilis fed-batch fermentation processes with casamino acids as the only nitrogen source and with a reduced casamino acid concentration but supplemented by ammonia was carried out. Although glutamine and arginine are supposed to be the preferred nitrogen sources of B. subtilis, we demonstrate that a combined feeding of ammonia and casamino acids supports cell growth under fed-batch fermentation conditions. The transcriptome and proteome analyses revealed that the additional feeding of ammonia in combination with a reduced amino acid concentration results in a significantly lower expression level of the glnAR or tnrA genes, coding for proteins, which are mainly involved in the nitrogen metabolism of B. subtilis. However, the mRNA levels of the genes of the ilvBHC-leuABD and hom-thrCB operons were significantly increased, indicating a valine, leucine, isoleucine, and threonine limitation under these fermentation conditions. In contrast, during the fermentation with casamino acids as the only nitrogen source, several genes, which play a crucial role in nitrogen metabolism of B. subtilis (e.g., glnAR, nasCDE, nrgAB, and ureABC), were up-regulated, indicating a nitrogen limitation under these conditions. Furthermore, increased expression of genes, which are involved in motility and chemotaxis (e.g., hag, fliT) and in acetoin metabolism (e.g., acoABCL), was determined during the fermentation with the mixed nitrogen source of casamino acids and ammonia, indicating a carbon limitation under these fermentation conditions. Under high cell density and slow growth rate conditions a weak up-regulation of autolysis genes could be observed as well as the induction of a number of genes involved in motility, chemotaxis and general stress response. Results of this study allowed the selection of marker genes, which could be used for the monitoring of B. subtilis fermentation processes. The data suggest for example aco

  7. Feasibility study on recovering hydrogen energy from industrial wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Der BAI; Chia-Jung HSIAO [Energy and Resource Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195, sec. 4 Chung Hsing Rd., Chutung, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 301 R.O.C. (China)

    2006-07-01

    Three wastewater obtained from different industries were evaluated for the feasibility of hydrogen fermentation. Because of the various components of the wastewater, the characteristics of the hydrogen accumulation were different. Several stages with different hydrogen producing rate were observed during the batch hydrogen fermentation of each wastewater. The obvious hydrogen consumption was observed in the last phase of hydrogen fermentation of the wastewater from the winery. It is similar to the reported hydrogen fermentation characteristic of starch. The wastewater coming from the fructose manufactory has the greatest hydrogen potential nearly 150 L-H{sub 2}/kg-COD. The wastewater from food industry has the lower hydrogen potential of 65 L-H{sub 2}/kg-COD. Some of its compounds were not suitable for hydrogen production. The lowest hydrogen potential was observed in the fermentation of the wastewater from the winery, because hydrogen consumption affects the hydrogen recovery from the wastewater from winery. (authors)

  8. Feasibility study on recovering hydrogen energy from industrial wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Der Bai; Chia-Jung Hsiao [Energy and Resource Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195, sec. 4 Chung Hsing Rd., Chutung, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 301 R.O.C. (China)

    2006-07-01

    Three wastewater obtained from different industries were evaluated for the feasibility of hydrogen fermentation. Because of the various components of the wastewater, the characteristics of the hydrogen accumulation were different. Several stages with different hydrogen producing rate were observed during the batch hydrogen fermentation of each wastewater. The obvious hydrogen consumption was observed in the last phase of hydrogen fermentation of the wastewater from the winery. It is similar to the reported hydrogen fermentation characteristic of starch. The wastewater coming from the fructose manufactory has the greatest hydrogen potential nearly 150 L-H{sub 2}/kg-COD. The wastewater from food industry has the lower hydrogen potential of 65 L-H{sub 2}/kg-COD. Some of its compounds were not suitable for hydrogen production. The lowest hydrogen potential was observed in the fermentation of the wastewater from the winery, because hydrogen consumption affects the hydrogen recovery from the wastewater from winery. (authors)

  9. Performance comparison of two herbal and industrial medicines using nanoparticles with a starch/cellulose shell and alginate core for drug delivery: In vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Behzadi, Sahar

    2017-07-18

    In this study, the performance of two kinds of industrial and herbal drugs encapsulated in nanoparticles with a shell of starch and cellulose and an alginate core were examined as a new technique for nanoparticle drug delivery. The test method involved creating a suspension of starch and alginate, which was then dried, mixed with cellulose, and heated to form core-shell nanoparticles. The industrial drug calcitonin and an extract of the herb Amaranthus retroflexcus L. were added separately and in combination to the nanoparticles, and the performance of each configuration was evaluated. Variables like shape, size of nanoparticle, and pH were examined for their effect in vitro. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed for optimization of parameters. The properties of the nanoparticles were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). The most optimal conditions for formation of the smallest nanoparticles were found to be pH 4 with a concentration of 0.15g starch, 0.04g alginate, and 0.01g cellulose, which resulted in a spherical nanoparticle size of 25.6-68.7nm. This novel method for helping bone regeneration offers a potentially major advance in the medical treatment of osteoporosis. The results of optimization indicated that the most optimal conditions of the tests were performed at pH 4, CA=0.04, CS=0.21, and CC=0.01. In acidic pH the size of nanoparticles was less than 100nm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolation of a novel high erythritol-producing Pseudozyma tsukubaensis and scale-up of erythritol fermentation to industrial level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeya, Marimuthu; Lee, Kyoung-Mi; Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Kim, Jung-Soo; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Kim, Sang-Yong; Kim, In-Won; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2009-05-01

    This study isolated a novel erythritol-producing yeast strain, which is capable of growth at high osmolarity. Characteristics of the strain include asexual reproduction by multilateral budding, absence of extracellular starch-like compounds, and a negative Diazonium blue B color reaction. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 26S rDNA sequence and physiological analysis indicated that the strain belongs to the species Pseudozyma tsukubaensis and has been named P. tsukubaensis KN75. When P. tsukubaensis KN75 was cultured aerobically in a fed-batch culture with glucose as a carbon source, it produced 245 g/L of erythritol, corresponding to 2.86 g/L/h productivity and 61% yield, the highest erythritol yield ever reported by an erythritol-producing microorganism. Erythritol production was scaled up from a laboratory scale (7 L fermenter) to pilot (300 L) and plant (50,000 L) scales using the dissolved oxygen as a scale-up parameter. Erythritol production at the pilot and plant scales was similar to that at the laboratory scale, indicating that the production of erythritol by P. tsukubaensis KN75 holds commercial potential.

  11. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lewicka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation are discussed. Properties of microwave radiation and its impact on starch (with particular regard to modifications described in literature are characterized.

  12. The microbial diversity of an industrially produced lambic beer shares members of a traditionally produced one and reveals a core microbiota for lambic beer fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitaels, Freek; Wieme, Anneleen D; Janssens, Maarten; Aerts, Maarten; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-08-01

    The microbiota involved in lambic beer fermentations in an industrial brewery in West-Flanders, Belgium, was determined through culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. More than 1300 bacterial and yeast isolates from 13 samples collected during a one-year fermentation process were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry followed by sequence analysis of rRNA and various protein-encoding genes. The bacterial and yeast communities of the same samples were further analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified V3 regions of the 16S rRNA genes and D1/D2 regions of the 26S rRNA genes, respectively. In contrast to traditional lambic beer fermentations, there was no Enterobacteriaceae phase and a larger variety of acetic acid bacteria were found in industrial lambic beer fermentations. Like in traditional lambic beer fermentations, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces pastorianus, Dekkera bruxellensis and Pediococcus damnosus were the microorganisms responsible for the main fermentation and maturation phases. These microorganisms originated most probably from the wood of the casks and were considered as the core microbiota of lambic beer fermentations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Improvement of raw starch digestibility by ion-beam mutation of Aspergillus awamori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsal, Aryanti [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia); Takigami, Machiko; Ito, Hitoshi

    1998-09-01

    Aspergillus awamori possess the ability to express raw starch digestibility. For the effective utilization of starchy crops produced in South-Asian countries, it is important to achieve the digestion of raw starchs for industrial fermentation process. In this study, higher ratio of mutant strains of Aspergillus awamori IFO4033 were isolated by irradiation of C{sup 5+} ion-beam on freeze dried spores with improvement of enzyme production for two-to threefold in the extracellular {alpha}-amylase compared with gamma-irradiation. The digestibility of raw starch from cassava, sago and sukun increased remarkably about two-to threefold by some mutant strains obtained from irradiation of C{sup 5+} ion-beam. (author)

  14. Linking phylogenetic identities of bacteria to starch fermentation in an in vitro model of the large intestine by RNA-based stable isotope probing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovatcheva-Datchary, P.; Egert, M.; Maathuis, A.; Rajilić-Stojanović, M.; Graaf, A.A.de; Smidt, H.; Vos, W.M.de; Venema, K.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Carbohydrates, including starches, are an important energy source for humans, and are known for their interactions with the microbiota in the digestive tract. Largely, those interactions are thought to promote human health. Using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-based stable isotope probing (SIP), w

  15. Single-cell level based approach to investigate bacterial metabolism during batch industrial fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; Larsen, Poul; Eriksen, Niels T.

    Escherichia coli fermentations have been studied for decades, but most results are based on average measurements of the whole populations of cells, whilst averaged data can mask the distribution of activities at the sub-population or single-cell level. A population of genetically identical cells ...

  16. Catalytic depolymerisation of starch-based industrial waste:use of non-conventional activation methods and novel reaction media

    OpenAIRE

    Hernoux-Villière, A. (Audrey)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The rapid increase of energy demand for transportation generates a rise of environmental pollution, stimulating the development of alternative sources of energy. Biomass is considered as the main organic carbon source of energy to substitute petroleum permitting sustainable production of chemicals and transportation fuels. Biowastes, residues and non-edible feedstock possess high potential resources avoiding food competition. This research aims to convert starch-based industria...

  17. Optimization of manganese peroxidase production from Schizophyllum sp. F17 in solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Yang, Bing; Yang, Yang; Jia, Rong

    2014-03-01

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP), a crucial enzyme in lignin degradation, has wide potential applications in environmental protection. However, large-scale industrial application of this enzyme is limited due to several factors primarily related to cost and availability. Special attention has been paid to the production of MnP from inexpensive sources, such as lignocellulosic residues, using solid-state fermentation (SSF) systems. In the present study, a suitable SSF medium for the production of MnP by Schizophyllum sp. F17 from agro-industrial residues has been optimized. The mixed solid medium, comprising pine sawdust, rice straw, and soybean powder at a ratio of 0.52:0.15:0.33, conferred a maximum enzyme activity of 11.18 U/g on the sixth day of SSF. The results show that the use of wastes such as pine sawdust and rice straw makes the enzyme production more economical as well as helps solve environmental problems.

  18. Ethanol Production Kinetics by a Thermo-Tolerant Mutant of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae from Starch Industry Waste (Hydrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ali Shah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A thermo-tolerant and deoxyglucose-resistant mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was developed and employed to convert them to fuel ethanol in a 150 litre fermenter. Maximum ethanol production was achieved when fermentation of dextrozyme- treated hydrol was carried out for about 36 hours under optimized fermenting conditions. The maximum specific ethanol production rate (qP, and overall ethanol yield (YP/S were found to be 2.82 g L-1 h-1 and 0.49 g/g respectively. Determination of activation energy for cell growth (Ea= 20.8 kJ/mol and death (Ed = 19.1 kJ/mol and product formation and inactivation (EP=35.8 kJ/mol and Edp = 33.5 kJ/mol revealed the thermo-stability of the organism for up to 47°C.

  19. Raman Spectroscopic Profile of Ethanol Fermentation in High Gravity Cassava Starch Brewing%浓醪乙醇发酵的单细胞拉曼光谱表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李自达; 赖钧灼; 廖威; 刘军贤; 王桂文

    2012-01-01

    应用激光镊子拉曼光谱技术收集500 L发酵罐中木薯淀粉浓醪乙醇发酵过程底物、产物及酵母单细胞的拉曼光谱,以期从单细胞水平为乙醇发酵提供新的认识.结果显示:1)拉曼光谱可以实时监测浓醪乙醇发酵过程底物与产物的变化;2)酵母细胞胞内物质的变化存在类似于产物变化的前发酵期、主发酵期和后发酵期3个阶段,但出现的时间要比产物变化晚约4 h;3)为适应浓醪发酵环境,酵母细胞的生理状态和胞内物质在不断地进行调整,随着环境乙醇浓度的升高,酵母细胞在胞内累积蛋白质和脂类物质,蛋白质二级结构逐渐变为以无规则卷曲为主;4)发酵后期,酵母细胞在胞内累积大量的嘌呤类物质,但细胞间含量存在异质性.上述结果表明,单细胞拉曼光谱技术提供了一种研究微生物发酵的新方法,可从新的角度获知乙醇发酵过程酵母细胞内外的变化信息.%Raman spectroscopy is used to characterize the process of ethanol fermentation and look into the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells at single-cell level. The ethanol fermentation using high-concentration cassava starch as feedstock is processed in a 500 L fermentor and the Raman spectra of substrate, product and individual yeast cell are acquired by using laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS). Major results are as follows: 1) Raman spectroscopy can monitor the dynamic changes of substrate and product during the ethanol fermentation; 2) the changes of intracellular components of yeast cells exhibit three stages, I. E., primary fermentation, main fermentation and later fermentation, which are similar to those of products, but there is a delay of about 4 hi 3) yeast cells amend its physiological state and intracellular compounds to adapt to the high osmotic stress at the initial stage and the high ethanol concentration at the later stage of fermentation. Random coiling dominates the secondary structure of

  20. 马铃薯氧化淀粉制备及在食品中的应用进展%Preparation and application of oxidized potato starch in food industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张高鹏; 吴立根; 屈凌波; 刘亚伟; 刘洁

    2015-01-01

    马铃薯氧化淀粉是马铃薯淀粉与氧化剂在一定温度、时间、pH等作用下产生的一种淀粉衍生物。该文论述了以次氯酸盐、过氧化氢、高锰酸钾、二氧化氯等氧化剂制备马铃薯氧化淀粉的最佳工艺,阐述了马铃薯氧化淀粉在焙烤食品、蒸煮食品、油炸食品、冷冻食品等中的应用,并展望马铃薯氧化淀粉在食品行业中的发展趋势。%Oxidized potato starch is a starch derivativeof potato starch andoxidants in the roleof acertain temperature,time,pH andotherconditions. In this paper,theoxidized starch preparation processoptimization with hypochlorite,hydrogen peroxide,potassium permanganate,chlorine dioxide asoxidation were reviewed,and the applicationsofoxidized potato starch were discussed in bakery products,steamed foods,fried foods,frozen foods and soon. Lastly this paper focusedon looking forward to the development prospects and trendsofoxidized potato starch in the food industry.

  1. Screening of agro-industrial wastes for citric acid bioproduction by Aspergillus niger NRRL 2001 through solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Gurpreet S; Brar, Satinder K; Kaur, Surinder; Verma, Mausam

    2013-05-01

    The citric acid (CA) industry is currently struggling to develop a sustainable and economical process owing to high substrate and energy costs. Increasing interest in the replacement of costly synthetic substrates by renewable waste biomass has fostered research on agro-industrial wastes and screening of raw materials for economical CA production. The food-processing industry generates substantial quantities of waste biomass that could be used as a valuable low-cost fermentation substrate. The present study evaluated the potential of different agro-industrial wastes, namely apple pomace (AP), brewer's spent grain, citrus waste and sphagnum peat moss, as substrates for solid state CA production using Aspergillus niger NRRL 2001. Among the four substrates, AP resulted in highest CA production of 61.06 ± 1.9 g kg(-1) dry substrate (DS) after a 72 h incubation period. Based on the screening studies, AP was selected for optimisation studies through response surface methodology (RSM). Maximum CA production of 312.32 g kg(-1) DS was achieved at 75% (v/w) moisture and 3% (v/w) methanol after a 144 h incubation period. The validation of RSM-optimised parameters in plastic trays resulted in maximum CA production of 364.4 ± 4.50 g kg(-1) DS after a 120 h incubation period. The study demonstrated the potential of AP as a cheap substrate for higher CA production. This study contributes to knowledge about the future application of carbon rich agro-industrial wastes for their value addition to CA. It also offers economic and environmental benefits over traditional ways used to dispose off agro-industrial wastes. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Characterization of normal and waxy corn starch for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Jiang, Hongxin; Blanco, Michael; Jane, Jay-lin

    2013-01-16

    Objectives of this study were to compare ethanol production between normal and waxy corn using a cold fermentation process and to understand effects of starch structures and properties on ethanol production. Ethanol yields positively correlated (p starch contents of kernels of the normal and waxy corn. The average starch-ethanol conversion efficiency of waxy corn (93.0%) was substantially greater than that of normal corn (88.2%). Waxy corn starch consisted of very little amylose and mostly amylopectin that had a shorter average branch chain length than normal corn amylopectin. Regression analyses showed that average amylopectin branch chain lengths and percentage of long branch chains (DP > 37) of waxy corn starch negatively correlated with the starch hydrolysis rate and the ethanol yield. These results indicated that starch structures and properties of the normal and waxy corn had significant effects on the ethanol yield using a cold fermentation process.

  3. Molecular characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from industrially fermented Greek table olives

    OpenAIRE

    Doulgeraki, Agapi; Pramateftaki, Paraskevi; Argyri, Anthoula; Nychas, George John; Tassou, Chrysoula; Panagou, Efstathios

    2012-01-01

    A total of 145 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates have been recovered from fermented table olives and brine and characterized at strain level with molecular tools. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) of ApaI macrorestriction fragments was applied for strain differentiation. Species differentiation was based either on Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) (black olives) or on restriction analysis of the amplified 16S rRNA gene (PCR-ARDRA) (brine and green olives). Species ide...

  4. Production of Alpha Amylase by Bacillus cereus in Submerged Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen H. Raplong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have the ability to secrete enzymes when they are grown in the presence of certain substrates. Amylases are among the most important industrial enzymes and are of great significance in biotechnological studies. Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus were isolated using mannitol egg yolk polymyxin B (MYP agar a highly selective media for Bacillus cereus isolation. The isolates were tested for α-amylase production on nutrient agar supplemented with starch and in submerged fermentation. The bacteria isolated and identified (using the Microgen Bacillus identification kit were all Bacillus cereus and SB2 had the largest zone of hydrolysis of 12mm on nutrient agar supplemented with starch as well as the highest enzyme activity of 1.62U/ml. Amylase activity of 2.56U/ml was obtained after 24 hours incubation in submerged fermentation. When amylase enzyme production parameters where optimized, maximum amylase activity was obtained at a pH of 6.5, temperature of 350C, incubation time of 24 hours and 4% inoculums concentration. Bacillus cereus SB2 is a potential isolate for alpha-amylase production with soluble starch as the sole carbon source in submerged fermentation.

  5. 固态发酵降低上部低次烟叶中淀粉及蛋白质的含量%Decomposing of starch and protein of upper leaves of flue-cured tobacco by solid-state fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李士林; 许赣荣; 汤朝起

    2014-01-01

    The content of starch and protein in the upper leaves of flue-cured tobacco was decreased by solid-state fermentation, and the amount of the anaerobic bacteria and yeast during the fermentation process was also detected. Monofactorial and orthogonal experiments were carried out for the optimization of the condition of solid-state fermentation. The experimental results showed that the influential extent of decomposition rate of the starch and protein was in the order of fermentation time ( C ) > fermentation temperature(A) > moisture content of the tobacco (B). The best condition for solid-state fermentation was A2B2C3, i.e., fermentation temperature was 45 ℃,moisture content of the tobacco was 50% and fermentation time was 9 d. Under these conditions, the starch and protein decomposition rates were 20�41% and 12�35%, respectively. Therefore, the content of starch and protein in the upper leaves of flue-cured tobacco could be quickly decreased in a short time.%利用固态发酵的方法降低上部低次烟叶中淀粉和蛋白质的含量,并对发酵过程中的厌氧细菌和酵母的数量进行检测。采用单因素和正交试验对固态发酵的条件进行优化,结果表明:各因素对发酵上部低次烟叶影响显著性主次次序依次为发酵时间( C)、发酵温度( A)和发酵水分质量分数( B),固态发酵的最佳条件为A2 B2 C3,即温度45℃、水分质量分数50%、发酵时间9 d。在该发酵条件下,上部低次烟叶的淀粉降解率为20�41%,蛋白质降解率为12�35%。通过固态厌氧发酵的方法可取得较好的、短期内快速降解上部低次烟叶中淀粉和蛋白质含量的效果。

  6. Chemically Modified Starch; Allyl- and Epoxy-Starch Derivatives: Their Synthesis and Characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, M.C.R.; Boeriu, C.

    2014-01-01

    Both native and modified starches, such as starch that is pregelatinized, extruded, acid-converted, cross-linked, and substituted, are widely used in industry. This chapter describes a mild two-step process for the synthesis of novel, highly reactive granular epoxy-starch derivatives. Via this metho

  7. Chemically Modified Starch; Allyl- and Epoxy-Starch Derivatives: Their Synthesis and Characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, M.C.R.; Boeriu, C.

    2014-01-01

    Both native and modified starches, such as starch that is pregelatinized, extruded, acid-converted, cross-linked, and substituted, are widely used in industry. This chapter describes a mild two-step process for the synthesis of novel, highly reactive granular epoxy-starch derivatives. Via this metho

  8. Starch meets biotechnology : in planta modification of starch composition and functionalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Storage starch is an energy reservoir for plants and the major source of calories in the human diet. Starch is used in a broad range of industrial applications, as a cheap, abundant, renewable and biodegradable biopolymer. However, starch needs to be modified before it can fulfill the required prope

  9. Chemically Modified Starch; Allyl- and Epoxy-Starch Derivatives: Their Synthesis and Characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, M.C.R.; Boeriu, C.

    2014-01-01

    Both native and modified starches, such as starch that is pregelatinized, extruded, acid-converted, cross-linked, and substituted, are widely used in industry. This chapter describes a mild two-step process for the synthesis of novel, highly reactive granular epoxy-starch derivatives. Via this

  10. Multifunctional properties of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms grown on agro-industrial wastes in fermentation and soil conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassileva, Maria; Serrano, Mercedes; Bravo, Vicente; Jurado, Encarnación; Nikolaeva, Iana; Martos, Vanessa; Vassilev, Nikolay

    2010-02-01

    One of the most studied approaches in solubilization of insoluble phosphates is the biological treatment of rock phosphates. In recent years, various techniques for rock phosphate solubilization have been proposed, with increasing emphasis on application of P-solubilizing microorganisms. The P-solubilizing activity is determined by the microbial biochemical ability to produce and release metabolites with metal-chelating functions. In a number of studies, we have shown that agro-industrial wastes can be efficiently used as substrates in solubilization of phosphate rocks. These processes were carried out employing various technologies including solid-state and submerged fermentations including immobilized cells. The review paper deals critically with several novel trends in exploring various properties of the above microbial/agro-wastes/rock phosphate systems. The major idea is to describe how a single P-solubilizing microorganism manifests wide range of metabolic abilities in different environments. In fermentation conditions, P-solubilizing microorganisms were found to produce various enzymes, siderophores, and plant hormones. Further introduction of the resulting biotechnological products into soil-plant systems resulted in significantly higher plant growth, enhanced soil properties, and biological (including biocontrol) activity. Application of these bio-products in bioremediation of disturbed (heavy metal contaminated and desertified) soils is based on another important part of their multifunctional properties.

  11. Application and Progress of Modified Starch Flocculants Treating Industrial Wastewater%改性淀粉絮凝剂在工业废水处理中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨爽

    2015-01-01

    介绍了目前改性絮凝剂的种类,对其在工业废水处理中的应用进行了综述,并指出了改性淀粉絮凝剂在应用中存在的问题以及其应用前景。%The types of modified starch flocculants were introduced and reviewed as well as their application to in-dustrial wastewater treatment.The challenges and future development of applying the modified starch flocculants were presented.

  12. 利用马铃薯淀粉生产的废水及废渣发酵制备蛋白饲料%The Preparation of Fermented Protein Feed from Waste Water and Wastes of Potate Starch Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈辉; 李虹; 冯雷; 张露; 宋国勇

    2011-01-01

    Microorganism fermentation method was used to produce high value-added protein feed from waste-water and wastes of potato starch production. This can lower COD content in waste-water and comprehensive utilized the potato starch processing wastes. A yeast strain was screened in our laboratory, and the optimum preparation conditions of protein feed was determined as: 20% wastes in waste-water(W/V) , natural pH, 28℃, inoculation amount 10% , cultivation time 72 h. In the optimum condition, protein content of the protein feed production was 37.40% and waste-water COD decreased 72.29%.%以马铃薯淀粉生产的废水及废渣为原料,采用微生物发酵的方法,制备高附加值的蛋白饲料,同时降低废水的COD值,达到综合利用的目的。经试验筛选得到1株酵母,并确定了蛋白饲料的制各条件:废水中薯渣添加量20%、pH自然、温度28℃、接种量10%、发酵时间72h。在适宜条件下,制备的蛋白饲料蛋白含量达37.40%,废水COD降低72.29%。

  13. Industrial yogurt manufacture: monitoring of fermentation process and improvement of final product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, C; Panagiotidis, P; Koureli, R; Tzia, C

    2007-06-01

    Lactic acid fermentation during the production of skim milk and whole fat set-style yogurt was continuously monitored by measuring pH. The modified Gompertz model was successfully applied to describe the pH decline and viscosity development during the fermentation process. The viscosity and incubation time data were also fitted to linear models against ln(pH). The investigation of the yogurt quality improvement practices included 2 different heat treatments (80 degrees C for 30 min and 95 degrees C for 10 min), 3 milk protein fortifying agents (skim milk powder, whey powder, and milk protein concentrate) added at 2.0%, and 4 hydrocolloids (kappa-carrageenan, xanthan, guar gum, and pectin) added at 0.01% to whole fat and skim yogurts. Heat treatment significantly affected viscosity and acetaldehyde development without influencing incubation time and acidity. The addition of whey powder shortened the incubation time but had a detrimental effect on consistency, firmness, and overall acceptance of yogurts. On the other hand, addition of skim milk powder improved the textural quality and decreased the vulnerability of yogurts to syneresis. Anionic stabilizers (kappa-carrageenan and pectin) had a poor effect on the texture and palatability of yogurts. However, neutral gums (xanthan and guar gum) improved texture and prevented the wheying-off defect. Skim milk yogurts exhibited longer incubation times and higher viscosities, whereas they were rated higher during sensory evaluation than whole fat yogurts.

  14. Adaptation to the digestion of nutrients of a starch diet or a non-starch polysaccharide diet in group-housed pregnant sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Kemp, B.; Hartog, den L.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2002-01-01

    A trial was conducted with twenty group-housed pregnant sows to study the adaptation in nutrient digestibility to a starch-rich diet or a diet with a high level of fermentable non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) during a time period of 6 weeks. The starch-rich diet was primarily composed of wheat, peas

  15. AMYLASE PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER UNDER SOLID STATE FERMENTATION USING AGROINDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganthi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentation holds tremendous potentials for the production of the enzyme amylase by Aspergillus niger. Different solid substrates like rice bran, wheat bran, black gram bran, coconut oil cake, gingely oil cake and groundnut oil cake are rich in starch. These agro industrial residues are cheap raw materials for amylase production. Aspergillus niger BAN3E was identified to be the best producer of amylase. When A. niger BAN3E was incubated for 6 days at 37°C it showed high yield of amylase in groundnut oil cake substratein solid state fermentation. Sucrose and nitrogen improved the yield in the same medium.

  16. Competitiveness study of potato starch industry based on gray correlation analysis in Gansu Province%灰色关联分析的甘肃马铃薯淀粉产业竞争力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史永良; 杜英; 张爱宁; 张建韬

    2012-01-01

    基于对甘肃马铃薯淀粉产业发展现状的分析,探讨影响马铃薯淀粉产业竞争力的主要因素,在此基础上,建立竞争力评价指标体系,在对各评价指标独立比较研究的基础上,运用灰色关联分析方法对我国马铃薯淀粉主产区综合竞争力进行测算,基于测算结果,对甘肃马铃薯淀粉产业竞争力状况进行分析研究.%Based on analysis of the potato starch development in Cansu Province, the impact factors of the potato starch industry competitive were explored. On this basis, the industry competitiveness evaluation index system was established based on independent evaluation. The competitiveness of the potato starch in the main producing areas of China was estimated by grey correlation analysis; moreover, the situation of potato starch industry competitiveness in Gansu Province was analyzed based on the calculation results.

  17. Solid State Fermentation of a Raw Starch Digesting Alkaline Alpha-Amylase from Bacillus licheniformis RT7PE1 and Its Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Tabassum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamic and kinetic properties of solids state raw starch digesting alpha amylase from newly isolated Bacillus licheniformis RT7PE1 strain were studied. The kinetic values Qp, Yp/s, Yp/X, and qp were proved to be best with 15% wheat bran. The molecular weight of purified enzyme was 112 kDa. The apparent Km and Vmax values for starch were 3.4 mg mL−1 and 19.5 IU mg−1 protein, respectively. The optimum temperature and pH for α-amylase were 55°C, 9.8. The half-life of enzyme at 95°C was 17h. The activation and denaturation activation energies were 45.2 and 41.2 kJ mol−1, respectively. Both enthalpies (ΔH∗ and entropies of activation (ΔS∗ for denaturation of α-amylase were lower than those reported for other thermostable α-amylases.

  18. Recovery Processes of Organic Acids from Fermentation Broths in the Biomass-Based Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian-Zhu; Jiang, Xing-Lin; Feng, Xin-Jun; Wang, Ji-Ming; Sun, Chao; Zhang, Hai-Bo; Xian, Mo; Liu, Hui-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The new movement towards green chemistry and renewable feedstocks makes microbial production of chemicals more competitive. Among the numerous chemicals, organic acids are more attractive targets for process development efforts in the renewable-based biorefinery industry. However, most of the production costs in microbial processes are higher than that in chemical processes, among which over 60% are generated by separation processes. Therefore, the research of separation and purification processes is important for a promising biorefinery industry. This review highlights the progress of recovery processes in the separation and purification of organic acids, including their advantages and disadvantages, current situation, and future prospects in terms of recovery yields and industrial application.

  19. Engineering Yarrowia lipolytica to produce biodiesel from raw starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Dulermo, Thierry; Nicaud, Jean Marc

    2015-01-01

    In the last year, the worldwide concern about the abuse of fossil fuels and the seeking for alternatives sources to produce energy have found microbial oils has potential candidates for diesel substitutes. Yarrowia lipolytica has emerged as a paradigm organism for the production of bio-lipids in white biotechnology. It accumulates high amounts of lipids from glucose as sole carbon sources. Nonetheless, to lower the cost of microbial oil production and rival plant-based fuels, the use of raw and waste materials as fermentation substrate is required. Starch is one of the most abundant carbohydrates in nature and it is constituted by glucose monomers. Y. lipolytica lacks the capacity to breakdown this polymer and thus expensive enzymatic and/or physical pre-treatments are needed. In this work, we express heterologous alpha-amylase and glucoamylase enzymes in Y. lipolytica. The modified strains were able to produce and secrete high amounts of active form of both proteins in the culture media. These strains were able to grow on starch as sole carbon source and produce certain amount of lipids. Thereafter, we expressed both enzymes in an engineered strain able to overaccumulate lipids. This strain was able to produce up to 21 % of DCW as fatty acids from soluble starch, 5.7 times more than the modified strain in the wild-type background. Media optimization to increase the C/N ratio to 90 increased total lipid content up to 27 % of DCW. We also tested these strains in industrial raw starch as a proof of concept of the feasibility of the consolidated bioprocess. Lipid production from raw starch was further enhanced by the expression of a second copy of each enzyme. Finally, we determined in silico that the properties of a biodiesel produced by this strain from raw starch would fit the established standards. In this work, we performed a strain engineering approach to obtain a consolidated bioprocess to directly produce biolipids from raw starch. Additionally, we proved

  20. Whole process reclamation and utilization of wastes produced in the biological fermentation industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ling-jun; LI Da-peng; MA Fang; Chein-chi Chang; XU Shan-wen; QIU Shan

    2008-01-01

    Wastes yielded in the vintage process and the biological fermentation of itaconic acid and sodium gluconate of a winery in Shandong,such as grain stillage,melon lees,cornstarch protein residues,itaconic acid mother liquid,itaconic acid mycelium and sodium gluconate mycelium,were studied.Hish-activity biological protein feed,foliar fertilizer and irrigation fertilizer were generated from these wastes by applying biological/microbial technologies.Meanwhile,a whole set of technological pathways Was put forward.As a result,the optimal economical and social benefits can be obtained with low natural resource consumption and environmental costs by converting wastes into useful matters.In conclusion,through the utilization of limited resources in the whole process of reclamation and utilization of wastes,the harmony promotion Can be achieved between the economic system and the natural ecosystem.

  1. 中国甘薯淀粉产业发展现状与前景展望%Situation and Prospect of Sweet Potato Starch Processing Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴起伟; 钮福祥; 孙健; 曹静

    2015-01-01

    The current status and problems of sweet potato starch processing industry in China were analyzed and the development countermeasures and prospects were also put forward in this paper. At present, the processing method of sweet potato starch in China is still in the family-style small workshop, the small and medium-sized enterprises machinery processing, while the large enterprise with mechanized automation processing is in developing. Shandong and Henan as well as other provinces are the sweet potato starch production concentrated areas. The restricting factors in the development of sweet potato starch industry mainly included technology backward, high energy consumption, big environmental pollution, low rate of comprehensive utilization for by-product, etc.. The development of sweet potato starch processing industry in the future should be strived to promote large-scale and intensive, to fundamentally change the way of small and scattered processing, meanwhile, to further strengthen the high sweet potato starch variety breeding and special machinery innovation and technology research for sweet potato starch processing, to highly improve the efficiency of sweet potato starch processing and to raise the economic output.%对中国当前甘薯淀粉加工产业现状和问题进行了分析,提出了发展对策和前景展望。目前中国甘薯淀粉加工方式仍然以家庭作坊式、中小型企业机械加工为主,大型企业自动化加工已开始起步。山东、河南等省是目前中国甘薯淀粉生产比较集中的地区。影响甘薯淀粉产业发展的主要制约因素是技术工艺落后、能耗高、环境污染大、副产物综合利用率低等。今后甘薯淀粉产业发展应着力推进规模化、集约化,从根本上改变小而散的加工方式,同时加强高淀粉甘薯品种选育及专用型甘薯淀粉加工机械研制与工艺创新,进一步提高甘薯淀粉加工产出率和经济效益。

  2. Starch--value addition by modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharanathan, Rudrapatnam N

    2005-01-01

    Starch is one of the most important but flexible food ingredients possessing value added attributes for innumerable industrial applications. Its various chemically modified derivatives offer a great scope of high technological value in both food and non-food industries. Modified starches are designed to overcome one or more of the shortcomings, such as loss of viscosity and thickening power upon cooking and storage, particularly at low pH, retrogradation characteristics, syneresis, etc., of native starches. Oxidation, esterification, hydroxyalkylation, dextrinization, and cross-linking are some of the modifications commonly employed to prepare starch derivatives. In a way, starch modification provides desirable functional attributes as well as offering economic alternative to other hydrocolloid ingredients, such as gums and mucilages, which are unreliable in quality and availability. Resistant starch, a highly retrograded starch fractionformed upon food processing, is another useful starch derivative. It exhibits the beneficial physiological effects of therapeutic and nutritional values akin to dietary fiber. There awaits considerable opportunity for future developments, especially for tailor-made starch derivatives with multiple modifications and with the desired functional and nutritional properties, although the problem of obtaining legislative approval for the use of novel starch derivatives in processed food formulations is still under debate. Nevertheless, it can be predicted that new ventures in starch modifications and their diverse applications will continue to be of great interest in applied research.

  3. Physicochemical properties of maca starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Li, Guantian; Wang, Sunan; Yao, Weirong; Zhu, Fan

    2017-03-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) is gaining research attention due to its unique bioactive properties. Starch is a major component of maca roots, thus representing a novel starch source. In this study, the properties of three maca starches (yellow, purple and black) were compared with commercially maize, cassava, and potato starches. The starch granule sizes ranged from 9.0 to 9.6μm, and the granules were irregularly oval. All the maca starches presented B-type X-ray diffraction patterns, with the relative degree of crystallinity ranging from 22.2 to 24.3%. The apparent amylose contents ranged from 21.0 to 21.3%. The onset gelatinization temperatures ranged from 47.1 to 47.5°C as indicated by differential scanning calorimetry. Significant differences were observed in the pasting properties and textural parameters among all of the studied starches. These characteristics suggest the utility of native maca starch in products subjected to low temperatures during food processing and other industrial applications.

  4. Starch Applications for Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jason

    2013-03-01

    Starch is one of the most abundant and economical renewable biopolymers in nature. Starch molecules are high molecular weight polymers of D-glucose linked by α-(1,4) and α-(1,6) glycosidic bonds, forming linear (amylose) and branched (amylopectin) structures. Octenyl succinic anhydride modified starches (OSA-starch) are designed by carefully choosing a proper starch source, path and degree of modification. This enables emulsion and micro-encapsulation delivery systems for oil based flavors, micronutrients, fragrance, and pharmaceutical actives. A large percentage of flavors are encapsulated by spray drying in today's industry due to its high throughput. However, spray drying encapsulation faces constant challenges with retention of volatile compounds, oxidation of sensitive compound, and manufacturing yield. Specialty OSA-starches were developed suitable for the complex dynamics in spray drying and to provide high encapsulation efficiency and high microcapsule quality. The OSA starch surface activity, low viscosity and film forming capability contribute to high volatile retention and low active oxidation. OSA starches exhibit superior performance, especially in high solids and high oil load encapsulations compared with other hydrocolloids. The submission is based on research and development of Ingredion

  5. Impact of pressure on physicochemical properties of starch dispersions

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi

    2016-09-02

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can be employed as a non-thermal sterilization technique in the food industry while inducing structure and physicochemical changes of the food macromolecules like starch. The effect of HHP on starch depends on various factors including starch type and concentration, pressurization temperature, time, and suspending media. In this review, we summarize the influence of HHP on the structure, gelatinization, retrogradation, and modification of starches from different botanical origins. Suggestions for future research are provided to better understand the mechanism of HHP on starch, and on how HHP can be used in the starch industry. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Overnight Soaked Sweet Potato for Ethyl Alcohol Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K. Mishra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to develop an efficient method of production of ethyl alcohol by fermentation of sweet potato powder. The method emphasized on enhancement of "-amylase accessibility by overnight soaking of sweet potato powder and decreasing unwanted bacterial fermentation by utilizing simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The crystalline structure of starch limits the accessibility of "-amylase to starch during enzymatic hydrolysis and thus reduces hydrolysis rate. This might be the reason for longer hydrolysis time. Effect of overnight soaking in water on eight variety of sweet potato was investigated followed by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF. The result reflected the advantage of overnight soaking on "-amylase accessibility to starch, which favor higher hydrolysis rate. Implementing SSF, the fermentation process become efficient due to less free sugar at an instant and maximum efficiency of 96.7% was achieved in a 64.65% starch containing substrate.

  7. Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2012-01-01

    Background Starch is stored in higher plants as granules composed of semi-crystalline amylopectin and amorphous amylose. Starch granules provide energy for the plant during dark periods and for germination of seeds and tubers. Dietary starch is also a highly glycemic carbohydrate being degraded...... to glucose and rapidly absorbed in the small intestine. But a portion of dietary starch, termed "resistant starch" (RS) escapes digestion and reaches the large intestine, where it is fermented by colonic bacteria producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA) which are linked to several health benefits. The RS...... is preferentially derived from amylose, which can be increased by suppressing amylopectin synthesis by silencing of starch branching enzymes (SBEs). However all the previous works attempting the production of high RS crops resulted in only partly increased amylose-content and/or significant yield loss. Results...

  8. Progress in the production of bioethanol on starch-based feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragiša Savić

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol produced from renewable biomass, such as sugar, starch, or lignocellulosic materials, is one of the alternative energy resources, which is both renewable and environmentally friendly. Although, the priority in global future ethanol production is put on lignocellulosic processing, which is considered as one of the most promising second-generation biofuel technologies, the utilizetion of lignocellulosic material for fuel ethanol is still under improvement. Sugar- based (molasses, sugar cane, sugar beet and starch-based (corn, wheat, triticale, potato, rice, etc. feedstock are still currently predominant at the industrial level and they are, so far, economically favorable compared to lingocelluloses. Currently, approx. 80 % of total world ethanol production is obtained from the fermentation of simple sugars by yeast. In Serbia, one of the most suitable and available agricultural raw material for the industrial ethanol production are cereals such as corn, wheat and triticale. In addition, surpluses of this feedstock are being produced in our country constantly. In this paper, a brief review of the state of the art in bioethanol production and biomass availability is given, pointing out the progress possibilities on starch-based production. The progress possibilities are discussed in the domain of feedstock choice and pretreatment, optimization of fermentation, process integration and utilization of the process byproducts.

  9. Cassava starch effluent treatment with concomitant SCP production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilal, V B; Narayanan, C S; Balagopalan, C

    1991-03-01

    Yeasts and yeast-like organisms were chosen for the aerobic treatment of cassava starch factory effluent. A mixed culture of Candida utills and Endomycopsis fibuliger efficiently and rapidly utilized both starch and free sugars. After 28 h fermentation the protein content of the biomass was 22% (w/w), which remained unchanged during the remainder of the fermentation (60 h). This treatment removed 94% of the COD and 91% of the BOD.

  10. Food Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Vos, de W.M.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this book is on state of the art technologies and scientific developments in academia and industry that contribute to the characterization and specification of fermentation starter microorganisms, to the present-day experimental approaches in product and process development and control,

  11. Preparation, characterization and utilization of starch nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Sung Soo; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2015-02-01

    Starch is one of the most abundant biopolymers in nature and is typically isolated from plants in the form of micro-scale granules. Recent studies reported that nano-scale starch particles could be readily prepared from starch granules, which have unique physical properties. Because starch is environmentally friendly, starch nanoparticles are suggested as one of the promising biomaterials for novel utilization in foods, cosmetics, medicines as well as various composites. An overview of the most up-to-date information regarding the starch nanoparticles including the preparation processes and physicochemical characterization will be presented in this review. Additionally, the prospects and outlooks for the industrial utilization of starch nanoparticles will be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. MORPHOLOGICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MAIZE STARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Corina Popescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize, rice, wheat and potato are the main sources of starches which differ significantly in composition, morphology,thermal, rheological and retrogradation properties. Starch has unique thermal properties and functionality that havepermitted its wide use in food products and industrial applications.The structure of the starch granule results from the physical arrangement of amylose and amylopectin. Amylose contentof starches from different maize types ranged between 15.3% and 25.1%. Amylopectin is considered responsible for thecrystalline structure of starch granules.The morphological and physicochemical characteristics of maize starch are related to the enzymes involved in itsbiosynthesis.The surface of the starch granule plays a fundamental rôle as the first barrier to processes such as granule hydration,enzyme attack, and chemical reaction with modifying agents. Major parameters describing the solid surface are:specific surface area, total pore volume, mean pore radius (diameter and pore volume distribution in relation to poreradius (diameter.

  13. Influence of the operating parameters on the flux during microfiltration of the steepwater in the starch industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šereš Zita I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the work is the possibility of applying microfiltration through a ceramic tubular membrane with 100 nm pore sizes to the steepwater obtained in the production process of corn starch. The dry matter content should be reduced in the steepwater permeate. Thus the consumption of the process water would be reduced, the nutrients from the steepwater could be exploited as feed and the wastewater problem would consequently be solved. The objective of the work was to examine the influence of the operating parameters on the permeate flux during steepwater microfiltration. The parameters that vary in the course of microfiltration, were the transmembrane pressur and flow rate, while the permeate flux and dry matter content of the permeate and retentate were the dependent parameters, constantly monitored during the process. Another objective of this study was to investigate the influence of static turbulence promoter on the permeate flux during steepwater microfiltration. Static mixers enhance permeate flux, thus the microfiltration can be performed longer. As a result of the statistical analysis, the optimal conditions for steepwater microfiltration were determined. The maximum value of the permeate flux without mixer (25 lm-2h-1 was achieved at a pressure of 2 bars and a flow rate around 100 lh-1. With the use of static mixer the flux is 2,5 times higher compared to the one obtained without the mixer. The dry matter content of the permeat after 2.5 hours of mucrofiltration was lowered by 40%.

  14. Comparison of the Energy Consumption and Composition of Acorn Starch Alcoholic Fermentation of Two Materials%橡实淀粉生料酒精发酵与传统酒精发酵的能耗和成分组成比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李安平; 田玉峰; 谢碧霞; 林亲录

    2012-01-01

    The alcohol conversion rate, energy consumption and the composition of alcoholic fermentation liquid of uncooked and cooked acorn starch were investigated. The results showed that: the alcohol fermentation conversion rates of the two materials were not significantly different (P >0.05) , and the uncooked acorn starch fermentation eliminated the need for cooking, liquefaction and saccharification, reducing energy consumption. Processing 50 g acorns into ethanol saved 182.215 kJ compared with the whole process of fermentation process. HPLC and GC-MS chromatogram showed that the uncooked fermentation method, compared with the traditional fermentation method, produced a similar amount of alcohol, but its quality was higher.%对橡实淀粉酒精生料发酵法和传统酒精发酵法的酒精转化率、能耗和发酵醪液的组成成分进行比较研究.结果表明:生料发酵法与传统发酵法在酒精转化率方面没有显著性差异(P>0.05),但生料发酵省去了蒸煮、液化和糖化等几道工序,减少了能耗.以50 g橡实为原料加工成酒精,生料发酵法比传统发酵法节省热能消耗182.215 kJ.HPLC及GC-MS色谱显示,生料发酵法与传统发酵法相比,两者所产酒精量接近,但酒精质量更高.

  15. Digestion of so-called resistant starch sources in the human small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, RJ; Hagedoorn, RE; de Graaff, R; Elzinga, H; Tabak, S; Yang, YX; Stellaard, F

    2000-01-01

    Background: Resistant starch sources, which are only partially digested in the small intestine, can be used to increase colonic availability of short-chain fatty acids. Objective: To study the characteristics of the fermentation of resistant starch, the digestion of resistant starch in the small int

  16. Unique features of several microbial α-amylases active on soluble and native starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarian, Fean Davisunjaya

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the main energy store of major agricultural crops such as corn, potato, rice and wheat. Various amylase type enzymes are used to convert cooked starch to glucose that goes into bioethanol fermentation. Only a few amylase type enzymes have been described that can act on the starch granule i

  17. Is there variation in resistant starch among high amylose rice varieties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistant starch (RS) is the fraction of the starch and the products of starch degradation that resist digestion in the small intestines of healthy humans and is partially or entirely fermented in the colon by the microbiota. RS in food lowers postprandial glucose concentration and has potential in ...

  18. Microbial export of lactic and 3-hydroxypropanoic acid : implications for industrial fermentation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maris, AJA; Konings, WN; Pronk, Jack T.; Dijken, J.P. van

    2004-01-01

    Lactic acid and 3-hydroxypropanoic acid are industrially relevant microbial products. This paper reviews the current knowledge on export of these compounds from microbial cells and presents a theoretical analysis of the bioenergetics of different export mechanisms. It is concluded that export can be

  19. Microbial export of lactic and 3-hydroxypropanoic acid : implications for industrial fermentation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maris, AJA; Konings, WN; Pronk, Jack T.; Dijken, J.P. van

    2004-01-01

    Lactic acid and 3-hydroxypropanoic acid are industrially relevant microbial products. This paper reviews the current knowledge on export of these compounds from microbial cells and presents a theoretical analysis of the bioenergetics of different export mechanisms. It is concluded that export can be

  20. Starch Biorefinery Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Läufer, Albrecht

    2017-03-07

    Nature uses enzymes to build and convert biomass; mankind uses the same enzymes and produces them on a large scale to make optimum use of biomass in biorefineries. Bacterial α-amylases and fungal glucoamylases have been the workhorses of starch biorefineries for many decades. Pullulanases were introduced in the 1980s. Proteases, cellulases, hemicellulases, and phytases have been on the market for a few years as process aids, improving yields, performance, and costs. Detailed studies of the complex chemical structures of biomass and of the physicochemical limitations of industrial biorefineries have led enzyme developers to produce novel tailor-made solutions for improving yield and profitability in the industry. This chapter reviews the development of enzyme applications in the major starch biorefining processes.

  1. Utilization of soluble starch by a recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum strain: growth and lysine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, Gerd; Auchter, Marc; Berens, Stephan; Kalinowski, Jörn; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2006-07-13

    Corynebacterium glutamicum, well known for the industrial production of amino acids, grows aerobically on a variety of mono- and disaccharides and on alcohols and organic acids as single or combined sources of carbon and energy. Members of the genera Corynebacterium and Brevibacterium were here tested for their ability to use the homopolysaccharide starch as a substrate for growth. None of the 24 type strains tested showed growth on or degradation of this substrate, indicating that none of the strains synthesized and secreted starch-degrading enzymes. Introducing the Streptomyces griseus amy gene on an expression vector into the lysine-producer C. glutamicum DM1730, we constructed a C. glutamicum strain synthesizing and secreting alpha-amylase into the culture broth. Although some high-molecular-weight degradation products remained in the culture broth, this recombinant strain effectively used soluble starch as carbon and energy substrate for growth and also for lysine production. Thus, employment of our construct allows avoidance of the cost-intensive enzymatic hydrolysis of the starch, which commercially is used as a substrate in industrial amino acid fermentations.

  2. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mößeler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI, enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n=3 or without (n=3 pancreatic duct ligation (PL were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C, there was an almost complete pcD (>92% except for potato starch (61.5% which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%. Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions.

  3. The ability to use nitrate confers advantage to Dekkera bruxellensis over S. cerevisiae and can explain its adaptation to industrial fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros Pita, Will; Leite, Fernanda Cristina Bezerra; de Souza Liberal, Anna Theresa; Simões, Diogo Ardaillon; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2011-06-01

    The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been regarded as a contamination problem in industrial ethanol production because it can replace the originally inoculated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The present study deals with the influence of nitrate on the relative competitiveness of D. bruxellensis and S. cerevisiae in sugar cane ethanol fermentations. The industrial strain D. bruxellensis GDB 248 showed higher growth rates than S. cerevisiae JP1 strain in mixed ammonia/nitrate media, and nitrate assimilation genes were only slightly repressed by ammonia. These characteristics rendered D. bruxellensis cells with an ability to overcome S. cerevisiae populations in both synthetic medium and in sugar cane juice. The results were corroborated by data from industrial fermentations that showed a correlation between high nitrate concentrations and high D. bruxellensis cell counts. Moreover, the presence of nitrate increased fermentation efficiency of D. bruxellensis cells in anaerobic conditions, which may explain the maintenance of ethanol production in the presence of D. bruxellensis in industrial processes. The presence of high levels of nitrate in sugar cane juice may be due to its inefficient conversion by plant metabolism in certain soil types and could explain the periodical episodes of D. bruxellensis colonization of Brazilian ethanol plants.

  4. Advantages and limits to the fermentation of easily-degradable industrial and food wastes in sewage treatment works; Vorteile und Grenzen der Vergaerung von leicht abbaubaren Industrie- und Lebensmittelabfaellen in Abwasserreinigungsanlagen. Vergleich zu landwirtschaftlichen Anlagen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, N.; Wellinger, A. [Nova Energie GmbH, Aadorf (Switzerland); Bachmann, N. [EREP SA, Aclens (Switzerland)

    2009-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the advantages and limits that apply to the fermentation of industrial and food wastes in sewage treatment facilities in comparison to agricultural installations. For this ecological review, a material-flow analysis was made which permitted the nutrient loss to be quantified. The report presents data on the energy and carbon dioxide balances for the method and also looks at the method from an economical point of view. Co-fermentation in the wastewater treatment plant in Berne, Switzerland, and in agricultural plant are examined.

  5. Optimization of a low-cost defined medium for alcoholic fermentation--a case study for potential application in bioethanol production from industrial wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comelli, Raúl N; Seluy, Lisandro G; Isla, Miguel A

    2016-01-25

    In bioethanol production processes, the media composition has an impact on product concentration, yields and the overall process economics. The main purpose of this research was to develop a low-cost mineral-based supplement for successful alcoholic fermentation in an attempt to provide an economically feasible alternative to produce bioethanol from novel sources, for example, sugary industrial wastewaters. Statistical experimental designs were used to select essential nutrients for yeast fermentation, and its optimal concentrations were estimated by Response Surface Methodology. Fermentations were performed on synthetic media inoculated with 2.0 g L(-1) of yeast, and the evolution of biomass, sugar, ethanol, CO2 and glycerol were monitored over time. A mix of salts [10.6 g L(-1) (NH4)2HPO4; 6.4 g L(-1) MgSO4·7H2O and 7.5 mg L(-1) ZnSO4·7H2O] was found to be optimal. It led to the complete fermentation of the sugars in less than 12h with an average ethanol yield of 0.42 g ethanol/g sugar. A general C-balance indicated that no carbonaceous compounds different from biomass, ethanol, CO2 or glycerol were produced in significant amounts in the fermentation process. Similar results were obtained when soft drink wastewaters were tested to evaluate the potential industrial application of this supplement. The ethanol yields were very close to those obtained when yeast extract was used as the supplement, but the optimized mineral-based medium is six times cheaper, which favorably impacts the process economics and makes this supplement more attractive from an industrial viewpoint.

  6. MULTIOBJECTIVES ANALYSIS OF WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN TAPIOCA STARCH INDUSTRY: CASE STUDY - CIAMIS DISTRICT, WEST JAVA (Analisis Multiobyektif sistem Pengelolaan Air Limbah Industri Tapioka: Studi Kasus Kabupaten Ciamis, Jawa Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Chaerul

    2014-05-01

    Ciamis district is one of the industrial centers of tapioca starch in West Java. Industry has been utilizing solid waste into by-products, fertilizers and animal feeds, but the wastewater which consist a lot of organic substances still discharged directly into the water that potentially cause water pollution. This study aims to determine the wastewater treatment system that can be applied in tapioca starch industry based on five scenarios proposed by using fuzzy goal programming approach. The first objective is the achievement of stream standard (DO-dissolved oxygen and BOD-biochemical oxygen demand and wastewater quality standards. The second objective is to minimize the cost of wastewater treatment. Wastewater treatment system that proposed, consists of a primary, secondary and collective treatment that shared by some of the industries in one segment with 20% efficiency of BOD removal for primary, 60% for secondary and 85% for collective treatment. The results show that scenario five, which consists of primary, secondary and collective wastewater treatment is chosen for all industries by considering economic and environmental aspects. There was some improvement of water quality for the Cijolang middle-stream segment with DO 7.35 mg/L and BOD 3.68 mg/L; Citanduy middle-stream segment with DO 6.24 mg/L and BOD 2.37 mg/L, and also for Citanduy down-stream segment  with DO 6.11 mg/L and BOD 5.52 mg/L. The fulfillment of BOD pollutant load limits obtained with achieving BOD concentration of 6.32 to 27.89 mg/L of each industry with total cost incurred is IDR 62,689 per day. Fuzzy goal programming approach provides a solution in achievement and as useful information for decision-makers to improve the quality of the environment, especially in the district of Ciamis. ABSTRAK Kabupaten Ciamis merupakan salah satu sentra industri tapioka di Jawa Barat. Industri tapioka menghasilkan limbah cair dan limbah padat. Pelaku industri sudah memanfaatkan limbah padat menjadi produk

  7. Microbial export of lactic and 3-hydroxypropanoic acid: implications for industrial fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maris, Antonius J A; Konings, Wil N; van Dijken, Johannes P; Pronk, Jack T

    2004-10-01

    Lactic acid and 3-hydroxypropanoic acid are industrially relevant microbial products. This paper reviews the current knowledge on export of these compounds from microbial cells and presents a theoretical analysis of the bioenergetics of different export mechanisms. It is concluded that export can be a key constraint in industrial production, especially under the conditions of high product concentration and low extracellular pH that are optimal for recovery of the undissociated acids. Under these conditions, the metabolic energy requirement for product export may equal or exceed the metabolic energy yield from product formation. Consequently, prolonged product formation at low pH and at high product concentrations requires the involvement of alternative, ATP-yielding pathways to sustain growth and maintenance processes, thereby reducing the product yield on substrate. Research on export mechanisms and energetics should therefore be an integral part of the development of microbial production processes for these and other weak acids.

  8. Chemicals from biotechnology: molecular plant genetics will challenge the chemical and the fermentation industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, D

    1999-08-01

    Industrial biotechnology has evolved as a significant manufacturing tool for products like fuel-grade ethanol, organic acids and bulk amino acids, but most items are still speciality products for food and pharmaceutical applications. Current development projects within the chemical industry, including lactic acid and 1,3-propanediol based polymers and plastics, indicate that new biotechnological processes and products may soon approach the market place, clearly targeted at the leading petrochemical bulk outlets. This is flanked by a strategic shift by the major chemical companies in to "life sciences"-pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and the seed business as well as biotech fine chemicals. The recent tremendous achievements in molecular plant genetics and transgenic crop breeding will boost agrobiotechnology, agriculture and renewable raw materials as compelling projects for chemistry and biotechnology. New plant-based production routes may challenge established chemical and biochemical domains, but at the same time open new horizons to valuable feedstocks, intermediates and end-products.

  9. In Vitro Utilization of Amylopectin and High-Amylose Maize (Amylomaize) Starch Granules by Human Colonic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin; Conway, Patricia Lynne; Brown, Ian Lewis; Evans, Anthony John

    1999-01-01

    It has been well established that a certain amount of ingested starch can escape digestion in the human small intestine and consequently enters the large intestine, where it may serve as a carbon source for bacterial fermentation. Thirty-eight types of human colonic bacteria were screened for their capacity to utilize soluble starch, gelatinized amylopectin maize starch, and high-amylose maize starch granules by measuring the clear zones on starch agar plates. The six cultures which produced ...

  10. Ruminal fermentation of Nellore steers fed crude glycerine replacing starch vs. fibre-based energy ingredient in low or high concentrate diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Fonseca Lage

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Twelve ruminally cannulated steers (401.0 ± 41.5 kg and 24 mo were used in a replicated arrangement truncated Latin Square with six animals in six treatments and four periods to evaluate the effect of crude glycerine (CG; 80.3% of glycerol with starch or fiber-based energy ingredients in the concentrate on DMI, DM (DMD and NDF digestibility (NDFD and ruminal parameters. Experimental periods were 19 days (14 days for adaptation and 5 days to sampling. Diets were: CO - without CG and corn as ingredient of concentrate; CGC - inclusion of CG (10% of DM with corn in the concentrate; and CGSH - inclusion of CG (10% of DM with soybean hulls (SH in the concentrate. All three diets were offered at low (LC or high (HC concentrate level, CL (40 or 60%. Animals fed LC or HC diets had similar DMI, DMD and NDFD. Animals fed diets with CG associated with corn or SH had higher propionate concentrations and lower A:P ratio. Diets with HC increase the propionate but do not affect the NDFD. CG (10% of DM can be used to replace corn or SH in diets with 40 or 60% of concentrate, without affect NDFD.

  11. Comparative evaluation of microbial diversity and metabolite profiles in doenjang, a fermented soybean paste, during the two different industrial manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunmin; Lee, Sarah; Singh, Digar; Oh, Ji Young; Jeon, Eun Jung; Ryu, Hyung SeoK; Lee, Dong Wan; Kim, Beom Seok; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2017-04-15

    Two different doenjang manufacturing processes, the industrial process (IP) and the modified industrial process (mIP) with specific microbial assortments, were subjected to metabolite profiling using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). The multivariate analyses indicated that both primary and secondary metabolites exhibited distinct patterns according to the fermentation processes (IP and mIP). Microbial community analysis for doenjang using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), exhibited that both bacteria and fungi contributed proportionally for each step in the process viz., soybean, steaming, drying, meju fermentation, cooling, brining, and aging. Further, correlation analysis indicated that Aspergillus population was linked to sugar metabolism, Bacillus spp. with that of fatty acids, whereas Tetragenococcus and Zygosaccharomyces were found associated with amino acids. These results suggest that the components and quality of doenjang are critically influenced by the microbial assortments in each process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A study of the process of two staged anaerobic fermentation as a possible method for purifying sewage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Y.; Kouama, K.; Matsuo, T.

    1983-01-01

    Great attention has recently been given to the study of the processes of anaerobic fermentation, which may become alternatives to the existing methods for purifying waste waters which use aerobic microorganisms. A series of experimentswere conducted with the use of an artificially prepared liquid (fermented milk and starch) which imitates the waste to be purified, in order to explain the capabilities of the process of two staged anaerobic fermentation (DAS) as a method for purifying waste waters. The industrial system of the process includes: a fermentation vat for acetic fermentation with recirculation of the sediment, a primary settler, a fermentation tank for methane fermentation and a secondary settler. The process was conducted at a loading speed (based on Carbon) from 0.15 to 0.4 kilograms per cubic meter per day at a temperature of 38C. The degree of conversion of the fermented organic substances into volatile organic acids was not a function of the loading speed and was 54 to 57 percent in the acetic fermentation tank, where 95 to 97 percent of the organic material was broken down with the production of methane and carbon dioxide.

  13. Utilization of inulin-containing waste in industrial fermentations to produce biofuels and bio-based chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen R; Qureshi, Nasib; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Jones, Marjorie A; Jarodsky, Joshua M; Galindo-Leva, Luz Ángela; Lindquist, Mitchell R

    2017-04-01

    Inulins are polysaccharides that belong to an important class of carbohydrates known as fructans and are used by many plants as a means of storing energy. Inulins contain 20 to several thousand fructose units joined by β-2,1 glycosidic bonds, typically with a terminal glucose unit. Plants with high concentrations of inulin include: agave, asparagus, coffee, chicory, dahlia, dandelion, garlic, globe artichoke, Jerusalem artichoke, jicama, onion, wild yam, and yacón. To utilize inulin as its carbon and energy source directly, a microorganism requires an extracellular inulinase to hydrolyze the glycosidic bonds to release fermentable monosaccharides. Inulinase is produced by many microorganisms, including species of Aspergillus, Kluyveromyces, Penicillium, and Pseudomonas. We review various inulinase-producing microorganisms and inulin feedstocks with potential for industrial application as well as biotechnological efforts underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from processing inulin-containing crops. A multi-stage biorefinery concept is proposed to convert cellulosic and inulin-containing waste produced at crop processing operations to valuable biofuels and bioproducts using Kluyveromyces marxianus, Yarrowia lipolytica, Rhodotorula glutinis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as thermochemical treatments.

  14. The future of starch bioengineering: GM microorganisms or GM plants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Sagnelli, Domenico; Blennow, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Plant starches regularly require extensive modification to permit subsequent applications. Such processing is usually done by the use of chemical and/or physical treatments. The use of recombinant enzymes produced by large-scale fermentation of GM microorganisms is increasingly used in starch...... processing and modification, sometimes as an alternative to chemical or physical treatments. However, as a means to impart the modifications as early as possible in the starch production chain, similar recombinant enzymes may also be expressed in planta in the developing starch storage organ such as in roots......, tubers and cereal grains to provide a GM crop as an alternative to the use of enzymes from GM microorganisms. We here discuss these techniques in relation to important structural features and modifications of starches such as: starch phosphorylation, starch hydrolysis, chain transfer/branching and novel...

  15. Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of paper and pulp industry effluent for biohydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmidevi, Rajendran; Muthukumar, Karuppan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology Campus, Anna University Chennai, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2010-04-15

    Paper and pulp industry effluent was enzymatically hydrolysed using crude cellulase enzyme (0.8-2.2FPU/ml) obtained from Trichoderma reesei and from the hydrolysate biohydrogen was produced using Enterobacter aerogenes. The influence of temperature and incubation time on enzyme production was studied. The optimum temperature for the growth of T. reesei was found to be around 29 C. The enzyme activity of 2.5 FPU/ml was found to produce about 22 g/l of total sugars consisting mainly of glucose, xylose and arabinose. Relevant kinetic parameters with respect to sugars production were estimated using two fraction model. The enzymatic hydrolysate was used for the biohydrogen production using E. aerogenes. The growth data obtained for E. aerogenes were fitted well with Monod and Logistic equations. The maximum hydrogen yield of 2.03 mol H{sub 2}/mol sugar and specific hydrogen production rate of 225 mmol of H{sub 2}/g cell/h were obtained with an initial concentration of 22 g/l of total sugars. The colour and COD of effluent was also decreased significantly during the production of hydrogen. The results showed that the paper and pulp industry effluent can be used as a substrate for biohydrogen production. (author)

  16. Industrial culture media optimization for acetrobutilic Fermentation Optimización de un medio de cultivo industrial para la fermentación acetobutilica (abe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos J.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The industrial culture media for butanol-ethanol-acetone fermentation (ABE was optimized by experimental design. A butanol resistant mutant isolated from Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 1732 was used. This mutant produced 15.5 g/1 of total solvents, 30% more than the wild strain solvent production. Mutant strain resists a concentration of 2,5% v/v meanwhile the type strain resists 1 % v/v butanol concentration. Molasses of sugar cane as carbon source were used. The molasses concentration was determined based on the necessary glucose concentration for producing 15 g/1 of butanol as limit product in the ABE fermentation. The nutrients were calculated in according lo literature reports and lo highest biomasse production on vegetative medium 3.8g/l. For determining which variables have significant effect on the total solvent production, the PLAKET-BURMAN method was used. The final concentrations of the culture medium were determined by EVOP-Simplex method. A liter of optimized industrial medium is composed by: molasses 130 g, biotin 4.0 mg, PAB A 3.0 mg, KH2PO41.8 g, yeast extract 3.0 g, minerals stock 4 ml and distilled water lo complete 1 liter; pH 6.1 before sterilization. Using this medium the total solvents production was 24,6 g/1. The production increment is equivalent lo 58,7%, compared lo the mutant strain before the medium was optimized. En el presente trabajo se optimizó un medio de cultivo industrial para la fermentación acetobutilica (ABE mediante la aplicación de diseño de experimentos. Se empleó una mutante espontánea resistente al butanol aislada de la cepa de Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 1732 la cual tolera una concentración de butanol de 2.5% v/v. La mutante produce 15.5 g/1 de solventes totales que representan 30% más que la cepa silvestre. Para diseñar el medio se empleó como fuente de carbono, melazas de caña. Los nutrientes se calcularon de acuerdo con la máxima cantidad de biomasa obtenida en medio vegetativo (3

  17. Production of proteases from industrial wastes through solid-state fermentation at different scales. Potential applications

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    En aquest treball es proposa un procés biotecnològic respectuós del medi ambient per reduir l'impacte negatiu de l'augment dels residus industrials, a causa de l'acceleració del creixement de la població mundial en les últimes dècades. Consisteix en la valorització de residus locals riques en nitrogen, com la fibra de soja, els residus de pel i closca de cafè, per fermentació en estat sòlid (SSF) per obtenir un catalitzador biològic, com ara proteases. Es van dur a terme experiments de SSF en...

  18. Sixth taste – starch taste?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Zdrojewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientists from Oregon State University, USA, came up with the newest theory of the sixth taste – starch taste that might soon join the basic five tastes. This argument is supported by studies done on both animals and humans, the results of which seem to indicate the existence of separate receptors for starch taste, others than for sweet taste. Starch is a glucose homopolymer that forms an α-glucoside chain called glucosan or glucan. This polysaccharide constitutes the most important source of carbohydrates in food. It can be found in groats, potatoes, legumes, grains, manioc and corn. Apart from its presence in food, starch is also used in textile, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and stationery industries as well as in glue production. This polysaccharide is made of an unbranched helical structure – amylose (15–20%, and a structure that forms branched chains – amylopectin (80–85%. The starch structure, degree of its crystallisation or hydration as well as its availability determine the speed of food-contained starch hydrolysis by amylase. So far, starch has been considered tasteless, but the newest report shows that for people of different origins it is associated with various aliments specific for each culture. Apart from a number of scientific experiments using sweet taste inhibitors, the existence of the sixth taste is also confirmed by molecular studies. However, in order to officially include starch taste to the basic human tastes, it must fulfil certain criteria. The aim of the study is to present contemporary views on starch.

  19. Role of Resistant Starch in Improving Gut Health, Adiposity, and Insulin Resistance1234

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The realization that low–glycemic index diets were formulated using resistant starch led to more than a decade of research on the health effects of resistant starch. Determination of the metabolizable energy of the resistant starch product allowed for the performance of isocaloric studies. Fermentation of resistant starch in rodent studies results in what appears to be a healthier gut, demonstrated by increased amounts of short-chain fatty acids, an apparent positive change in the microbiota,...

  20. Engineering potato starch with a higher phosphate content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Xuan; Huang, Xing Feng; Visser, Richard G.F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphate esters are responsible for valuable and unique functionalities of starch for industrial applications. Also in the cell phosphate esters play a role in starch metabolism, which so far has not been well characterized in storage starch. Laforin, a human enzyme composed of a carbohydrate-bindi

  1. Process of converting starch to glucose and glucose to lactic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, TenLin; Sanville, C.Y.; Coleman, R.D.; Schertz, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    This document describes a method for converting starch into lactic acid of sufficient purity for use as a substrate for biodegradable plastics. The process is designed to work on industrial food waste streams such as potato wastes or cheese whey permeate. For potato waste, {alpha}-amylase and calcium chloride are added to the starch containing waste and incubated at a pH of 4--7, a temperature of 90--130{degree}C, and a pressure above 15 psi for not less than 15 minutes. At this point, glucoamylase is added and the mixture is incubated at a temperature of 50--70{degree}C and a pH below 6.5 for 4 hours. This results in the conversion of more than 90% of the starch into glucose, which is substantially free of microbial contamination. The hydrolysate is filtered, and introduced with additional nutrients to a fermentor containing a lactose producing microorganism to form a fermentation broth. This results in the fermentation of glucose to lactose, which is filtered and subjected to electrodialysis for purification. Conversion of glucose to lactic acid or lactate occurs with an efficiency of over 95%. 1 fig. (MHB)

  2. Morphological features and physicochemical properties of waxy wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanxin; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Chunzhong; Zhou, Xing

    2013-11-01

    Morphological features, granule composition, and physicochemical properties of waxy wheat starch were compared with those of normal wheat starch. The morphologies and granule populations were found to be similar for the two starches. However, waxy wheat starch contained a smaller proportion of B-type granules, had a larger average granule diameter, and a higher degree of crystallinity than normal wheat starch, as measured by particle size analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. These differences resulted in a higher gelatinization temperature, transition enthalpy, peak viscosity, breakdown, swelling power, lower peak viscosity temperature and final viscosity in waxy wheat starch. These points suggest that waxy wheat starch should have greater resistance to retrogradation during cooling and higher water-holding capacity under dry conditions. Highlighting the differences in physicochemical properties of waxy and normal wheat starches should help point toward effective applications of waxy wheat starch in the food industry.

  3. Resistant starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D J; Kendall, C W

    2000-03-01

    Initially, it was hoped that resistant starches (ie, starches that enter the colon) would have clear advantages in the reduction of colon cancer risk and possibly the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Recent studies have confirmed the ability of resistant starch to increase fecal bulk, to increase the molar ratio of butyrate in relation to other short-chain fatty acids, and to dilute fecal bile acids. However, reduction in fecal ammonia, phenols, and N-nitroso compounds have not been achieved. At this point the picture from the standpoint of colon cancer risk reduction is not clear. Nevertheless, there is a fraction of what has been termed resistant starch (RS1), which enters the colon and acts as slowly digested, or lente, carbohydrate. Foods in this class are low glycemic index and have been shown to reduce the risk of chronic disease. They have been associated with systemic physiologic effects such as reduced postprandial insulin levels and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Consumption of low glycemic index foods has been shown to be related to a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has in turn been related to a higher risk of colon cancer, especially colon cancer deaths. If carbohydrate has a protective role in colon cancer prevention, it may lie in the systemic effects of low glycemic index foods. The colonic advantages of different carbohydrates, therefore, remain to be documented. However, there is reason for optimism about the possible health advantages of so-called resistant starches that are slowly digested in the small intestine.

  4. Morphological and mechanical characterization of thermoplastic starch and its blends with polylactic acid using cassava starch and bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aims the use of an agro waste coming from the industrialization of cassava starch, known as cassava bagasse (BG). This material contains residual starch and cellulose fibers which can be used to obtain thermoplastic starch (TPS) and /or blends reinforced with fibers. In this context, it w...

  5. Starch-degrading polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Van V; Marletta, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    Polysaccharide degradation by hydrolytic enzymes glycoside hydrolases (GHs) is well known. More recently, polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs, also known as lytic PMOs or LPMOs) were found to oxidatively degrade various polysaccharides via a copper-dependent hydroxylation. PMOs were previously thought to be either GHs or carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), and have been re-classified in carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZY) database as auxiliary activity (AA) families. These enzymes include cellulose-active fungal PMOs (AA9, formerly GH61), chitin- and cellulose-active bacterial PMOs (AA10, formerly CBM33), and chitin-active fungal PMOs (AA11). These PMOs significantly boost the activity of GHs under industrially relevant conditions, and thus have great potential in the biomass-based biofuel industry. PMOs that act on starch are the latest PMOs discovered (AA13), which has expanded our perspectives in PMOs studies and starch degradation. Starch-active PMOs have many common structural features and biochemical properties of the PMO superfamily, yet differ from other PMO families in several important aspects. These differences likely correlate, at least in part, to the differences in primary and higher order structures of starch and cellulose, and chitin. In this review we will discuss the discovery, structural features, biochemical and biophysical properties, and possible biological functions of starch-active PMOs, as well as their potential application in the biofuel, food, and other starch-based industries. Important questions regarding various aspects of starch-active PMOs and possible economical driving force for their future studies will also be highlighted.

  6. A REVIEW ON BIODEGRADABLE STARCH BASED FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Molavi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, biodegradable edible films have become very important in research related to food, due to their compatibility with the environment and their use in the food packaging industry. Various sources can be used in the production of biopolymers as biodegradable films that include polysaccharides, proteins and lipids. Among the various polysaccharides, starch due to its low price and its abundance in nature is of significant importance. Several factors affect the properties of starch films; such as the source which starch is obtained from, as well as the ratio of constituents of the starch. Starch films have advantages such as low thickness, flexibility and transparency though; there are some downsides to mention, such as the poor mechanical properties and water vapor permeability. Thus, using starch alone to produce the film will led to restrictions on its use. To improve the mechanical properties of starch films and also increases resistance against humidity, several methods can be used; including the starch modifying techniques such as cross linking of starch and combining starch with other natural polymers. Other methods such as the use of lipid in formulations of films to increase the resistance to moisture are possible, but lipids are susceptible to oxidation. Therefore, new approaches are based on the integration of different biopolymers in food packaging.

  7. FUNCIONALES PROPERTIES SAGO STARCH (Maranta arundinacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemente Granados C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Maranta arundinacea sago whose rhizome is used in parts of Colombian for the production of products intended for human consumption. Starch was extracted and determined the functional properties of starches presented high water capacity % CRA (162,8% for sago, compared to 226% of cassava, a high rate of absorption of lipids % I.A.L (51% for sago, compared to 82,25% of cassava starch. Gelatinization temperature is relatively low (65-75ºC at 10 minutes compared to sago starch cassava with 70-75ºC in 20 minutes, has a high percentage of amylopectin (77% for sago starch, compared with 83,3% for cassava starch is a gel so that no retrograde and from a stable paste. As it is concluded that can be used as an alternative promising in the food industry.

  8. Recent advances of starch-based excipients used in extended-release tablets: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yan; Liu, Guodong; Gu, Zhengbiao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, polysaccharides, including starch and its derivatives, have been widely used in the pharmaceutical industry, including as diluents, fillers, binders, disintegrants and glidants. The use of native starch as excipient in extended-release tablets is limited due to its low compactibility and enzymatic degradability, leading to the formation of weakly structured tablets. To overcome these limitations and expand the application of starch as an excipient, researchers have modified starch by physical and chemical methods, as well as by enzymatic hydrolysis. Some starch derivatives, including retrograded starch, pregelatinized starch, carboxymethyl starch, starch acetate, cross-linked starch and grafted starch have recently been introduced as excipients in oral tablets to control drug release. In this review, applications of starch and its derivatives as extended release excipients are reviewed and future frontiers are described.

  9. Discarded oranges and brewer's spent grains as promoting ingredients for microbial growth by submerged and solid state fermentation of agro-industrial waste mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggelopoulos, Theodoros; Bekatorou, Argyro; Pandey, Ashok; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2013-08-01

    The exploitation of various agro-industrial wastes for microbial cell mass production of Kluyveromyces marxianus, kefir, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reported in the present investigation. Specifically, the promotional effect of whole orange pulp on cell growth in mixtures consisting of cheese whey, molasses, and potato pulp in submerged fermentation processes was examined. A 2- to 3-fold increase of cell mass was observed in the presence of orange pulp. Likewise, the promotional effect of brewer's spent grains on cell growth in solid state fermentation of mixtures of whey, molasses, potato pulp, malt spent rootlets, and orange pulp was examined. The cell mass was increased by 3-fold for K. marxianus and 2-fold for S. cerevisiae in the presence of these substrates, proving their suitability for single-cell protein production without the need for extra nutrients. Cell growth kinetics were also studied by measurements of cell counts at various time intervals at different concentrations of added orange pulp. The protein content of the fermented substrates was increased substantially, indicating potential use of mixed agro-industrial wastes of negligible cost, as protein-enriched livestock feed, achieving at the same time creation of added value and waste minimization.

  10. [Production of ethanol and isoflavones from steam-pretreated Radix Puerariae by solid state fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoguo; Chen, Hongzhang; Wang, Weidong

    2008-06-01

    The gelatinization process of the starch is replaced by unpolluted steam-pretreatment on the base of the Radix Puerariae rich in fiber and isoflavones. The production of ethanol and isoflavones by simultaneous saccharification and solid state fermentation (SSF) of steam-pretreatment Radix Puerariae is presented. The optimal technological conditions were obtained: Radix Puerariae being steam-pretreated at a saturated vapor pressure of 0.8 MPa for 3.5 min, glucoamylase(65 u/g), cellulase(1.5 u/g), 0.1%(NH4)2SO4, 0.1%KH2PO4 and activated yeasts being added in, and fermentation at 35-37 degrees C for 60 h. Under these conditions, the yield of ethanol and isoflavones from 100 g Radix Pureriae (dry basis) were 27.47 g and 4.43 g, respectively, the starch utilization rate was 95%. In comparison with the traditional fermentation technology, the simultaneous saccharification and SSF of steam-pretreatment Radix Puerariae is clean and energy-saving. It provides new way of the production of ethanol from the non-food starch material, and worthwhile to be explored and implemented in industry.

  11. Utilization of potato starch processing wastes to produce animal feed with high lysine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Liu, Bingnan; Song, Jinzhu; Jiang, Cheng; Yang, Qian

    2015-02-01

    This work aims to utilize wastes from the potato starch industry to produce single-cell protein (SCP) with high lysine content as animal feed. In this work, S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine hydrochloride-resistant Bacillus pumilus E1 was used to produce SCP with high lysine content, whereas Aspergillus niger was used to degrade cellulose biomass and Candida utilis was used to improve the smell and palatability of the feed. An orthogonal design was used to optimize the process of fermentation for maximal lysine content. The optimum fermentation conditions were as follows: temperature of 40°C, substrate concentration of 3%, and natural pH of about 7.0. For unsterilized potato starch wastes, the microbial communities in the fermentation process were determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Results showed that the dominant population was Bacillus sp. The protein quality as well as the amino acid profile of the final product was found to be significantly higher compared with the untreated waste product at day 0. Additionally, acute toxicity test showed that the SCP product was non-toxic, indicating that it can be used for commercial processing.

  12. Properties and applications of starch-converting enzymes of the α-amylase family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarel, Marc J.E.C. van der; Veen, Bart van der; Uitdehaag, Joost C.M.; Leemhuis, Hans; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2002-01-01

    Starch is a major storage product of many economically important crops such as wheat, rice, maize, tapioca, and potato. A large-scale starch processing industry has emerged in the last century. In the past decades, we have seen a shift from the acid hydrolysis of starch to the use of starch-converti

  13. Properties and applications of starch-converting enzymes of the alpha-amylase family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maarel, MJEC; van der Veen, B; Uitdehaag, JCM; Leemhuis, H; Dijkhuizen, L

    2002-01-01

    Starch is a major storage product of many economically important crops such as wheat, rice, maize, tapioca, and potato. A large-scale starch processing industry has emerged in the last century. In the past decades, we have seen a shift from the acid hydrolysis of starch to the use of starch-converti

  14. Engineering Potato Starch with a Higher Phosphate Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuan; Huang, Xing-Feng; Visser, Richard G. F.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphate esters are responsible for valuable and unique functionalities of starch for industrial applications. Also in the cell phosphate esters play a role in starch metabolism, which so far has not been well characterized in storage starch. Laforin, a human enzyme composed of a carbohydrate-binding module and a dual-specificity phosphatase domain, is involved in the dephosphorylation of glycogen. To modify phosphate content and better understand starch (de)phosphorylation in storage starch, laforin was engineered and introduced into potato (cultivar Kardal). Interestingly, expression of an (engineered) laforin in potato resulted in significantly higher phosphate content of starch, and this result was confirmed in amylose-free potato genetic background (amf). Modified starches exhibited altered granule morphology and size compared to the control. About 20–30% of the transgenic lines of each series showed red-staining granules upon incubation with iodine, and contained higher phosphate content than the blue-stained starch granules. Moreover, low amylose content and altered gelatinization properties were observed in these red-stained starches. Principle component and correlation analysis disclosed a complex correlation between starch composition and starch physico-chemical properties. Ultimately, the expression level of endogenous genes involved in starch metabolism was analysed, revealing a compensatory response to the decrease of phosphate content in potato starch. This study provides a new perspective for engineering starch phosphate content in planta by making use of the compensatory mechanism in the plant itself. PMID:28056069

  15. Bioconversion of renewable resources into ethanol: An economic evaluation of selected hydrolysis, fermentation, and membrane technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, N. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; Manderson, G.J. [Massey Univ., Palmerston North (New Zealand). Dept. of Process and Environmental Technology

    1995-03-01

    Four renewable agricultural resources were considered in a process design analysis for the industrial production of ethanol. Raw materials considered were wood, molasses, whey permeate, and starch. Final fermentation substrates were diluted and/or concentrated to give equivalent sugar concentrations for each case. Renewable resource costs were expressed as $/kg of sugar rather than /kg of the raw material. Molasses sugars were cheaper than sugars derived from the other raw materials. Various fermentation technologies were considered, including continuous culture and cell recycle. Ethanol recovery was examined using pervaporation and costs compared with distillation. The effects on ethanol prices of raw material costs, fermentation technology, product recovery, tax, plant size, and Lang factor are presented. Cultures of Candida shehatae, Zymomonas mobilis, Kluyveromyces marxianus var. lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (with Zymomonas mobilis) were used, depending on the substrate. The report identifies the most appropriate technologies in terms of final ethanol price.

  16. Development of industrial yeast strain with improved acid- and thermo-tolerance through evolution under continuous fermentation conditions followed by haploidization and mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumasu, Kanako; Liu, Ze-Shen; Tang, Yue-Qin; Akamatsu, Takashi; Taguchi, Hisataka; Kida, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    Continuous fermentation using the industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae diploid strain WW was carried out under acidic or high-temperature conditions to achieve acid- or thermo-tolerant mutants. Mutants isolated at pH 2.5 and 41°C showed improved growth and fermentation ability under acidic and elevated temperature conditions. Haploid strains WW17A1 and WW17A4 obtained from the mutated diploid strain WW17A showed better growth and 4.5-6.5% higher ethanol yields at pH 2.7 than the original strains. Haploid strain WW12T4 obtained from mutated diploid strain WW12T showed 1.25-1.50 times and 2.8-4.7 times higher total cell number and cell viability, respectively, than the original strains at 42°C. Strain AT, which had significantly improved acid- and thermo-tolerance, was developed by mating strain WW17A1 with WW12T4. Batch fermentation at 41°C and pH 3.5 showed that the ethanol concentration and yield achieved during fermentation by strain AT were 55.4 g/L and 72.5%, respectively, which were 10 g/L and 13.4% higher than that of the original strain WW. The present study demonstrates that continuous cultivation followed by haploidization and mating is a powerful approach for enhancing the tolerance of industrial strains. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Starch: its metabolism, evolution, and biotechnological modification in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeman, Samuel C; Kossmann, Jens; Smith, Alison M

    2010-01-01

    Starch is the most widespread and abundant storage carbohydrate in plants. We depend upon starch for our nutrition, exploit its unique properties in industry, and use it as a feedstock for bioethanol production. Here, we review recent advances in research in three key areas. First, we assess progress in identifying the enzymatic machinery required for the synthesis of amylopectin, the glucose polymer responsible for the insoluble nature of starch. Second, we discuss the pathways of starch degradation, focusing on the emerging role of transient glucan phosphorylation in plastids as a mechanism for solubilizing the surface of the starch granule. We contrast this pathway in leaves with the degradation of starch in the endosperm of germinated cereal seeds. Third, we consider the evolution of starch biosynthesis in plants from the ancestral ability to make glycogen. Finally, we discuss how this basic knowledge has been utilized to improve and diversify starch crops.

  18. Aroma interactions with starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Dysted

    Starches are used to enhance aroma perception in low-fat foods. Aroma compounds can bind physically to the starch in grooves on the surface or they can form complexes inside amylose helices. This study has been divided into two parts: one part regarding binding of aromas to starches and their aroma......-release, and another part regarding stimulation of a fungal secretome using different carbohydrates. In the first part, nine aromas and one aroma-mixture were mixed with nine different starches, including genetically modified starches. The objective of this sub-project was to bind aromas to the starches to 15 weight......-percent. Aroma binding was tested on both amorphous starches and on native starch granules. A series of aldehydes and alcohols were also tested for binding to the starches. The aromas with the highest volatility were positively retained by starch, whereas for aromas with a lower volatility the starch had...

  19. Cassava, yam, sweet potato and ñampi starch: functional properties and possible applications in the food industry. Harinas y almidones de yuca, ñame, camote y ñampí: propiedades funcionales y posibles aplicaciones en la industria alimentaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vargas Aguilar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A technical review was conducted to related physical and chemical properties of flours and starches from cassava, yams, taro and sweet potato. Amyloseamylopectin content, viscosity, nutritional value and fiber, were studied to relate them with starch functional properties. A relationship was obtained between amylose-amylopectin, viscosity and fiber content with the digestibility of those starches and the glycemic index values. The use of fermentation to enhance the nutritional value of these starches is known. Starch fermentation allows the production of gluten-free bread and energy drinks as an option to diversify products. It was also observed the relationship between the starch viscosity and the fat absorption in fried foods.Se realizó una revisión de las características fisicoquímicas de las harinas y almidones de yuca, ñame, ñampí y camote, tales como el contenido de amilosa-amilopectina, la viscosidad, el valor nutricional y la fibra, con el fin de relacionarlas con sus propiedades funcionales y técnico-funcionales. Se obtuvo una relación entre el contenido de amilosa-amilopectina, viscosidad y contenido de fibra en la digestibilidad de estos almidones y los valores de índice glicémico. Se encontró que es posible introducir modificaciones por medio de la fermentación para mejorar el valor funcional de estos almidones. La fermentación permite elaborar pan sin gluten y bebidas energéticas como nuevas opciones de productos. También se encontró que existe una relación entre la viscosidad de los almidones y la disminución de absorción de la grasa en frituras.

  20. Ocorrência do processo de fixação biológica de N2 atmosférico na fermentação de fécula de mandioca Biological fixation of atmospheric N2 in the initial phase of cassava starch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ermindo Cavallet

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A fase inicial do processo de fermentação natural de fécula de mandioca apresenta a ocorrência de fermentação vigorosa em apenas 24 h, mesmo com o meio tendo uma relação carbono/nitrogênio muito alta. Assim, o nitrogênio necessário à formação da biomassa nos primeiros estágios da fermentação seria originário de fora do sistema via fixação biológica de N2 atmosférico, já que o teor protéico disponível na fécula de mandioca é muito baixo. Para verificar tal hipótese, foram feitos dois experimentos fundamentados no balanço de nitrogênio na suspensão com grânulos de fécula durante as primeiras 120 h do processo fermentativo, conduzido sob temperatura ambiente e sob temperatura controlada a 28 °C. Não foram detectados aumentos de nitrogênio na fase estudada, o que sugere a não existência do processo de fixação biológica de N2 atmosférico. Os resultados sugerem que a origem do nitrogênio para o processo fermentativo é a própria fécula, que, quando na forma de polvilho apresenta alta relação C/N, porém, quando em suspensão essa relação abaixa propiciando uma fermentação vigorosa em apenas 24 h.The initial phase of natural fermentation of cassava starch presents vigorous fermentation within the first 24 h and is characterized by a high ration of carbon/nitrogen. Consequently, the necessary nitrogen to the formation of biomass would be originated from outside of the system because the available protein content from cassava starch is very low and depending on biological fixation of atmospheric N2. To verify that hypothesis two essays were conducted with the nitrogen balance in the starch granule suspension during the initial 120 h of the fermentation process. The essays were set at room temperature and at the controlled temperature of 28 °C. No increase in the nitrogen content was detected suggesting that no involvement of atmospheric N2. Results suggest that the origin of the nitrogen to the

  1. Bioconversion of starch to ethanol in a single-step process by coculture of amylolytic yeasts and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, G.; Singh, D.; Chaudhary, K. [CCS Haryana Agricultural Univ., Hisar (India). Dept. of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology; Nigam, P. [Ulster Univ., Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom). School of Applied Biological and Chemical Sciences

    2000-05-01

    Ethanol production by a coculture of Saccharomyces diastaticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 21 was 24.8 g/l using raw unhydrolysed starch in a single-step fermentation. This was 48% higher than the yield obtained with the monoculture of S. diastaticus (16.8 g/l). The maximum ethanol fermentation efficiency was achieved (93% of the theoretical value) using 60 g/l starch concentration. In another coculture fermentation with E. capsularis and S. cerevisiae 21, maximum ethanol yield was 16.0 g/l, higher than the yield with the monoculture of Endomycopsis capsularis. In batch fermentations using cocultures maximum ethanol production occurred in 48 h of fermentation at 30{sup o}C using 60 g/l starch. Fermentation efficiency was found lower in a two-step process using {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase-treated starch. (Author)

  2. Biorefinery development through utilization of biodiesel industry by-products as sole fermentation feedstock for 1,3-propanediol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzifragkou, Afroditi; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Kachrimanidou, Vasiliki; Dorado, Maria Pilar; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2014-05-01

    Rapeseed meal (RSM) hydrolysate was evaluated as substitute for commercial nutrient supplements in 1,3-propanediol (PDO) fermentation using the strain Clostridium butyricum VPI 1718. RSM was enzymatically converted into a generic fermentation feedstock, enriched in amino acids, peptides and various micro-nutrients, using crude enzyme consortia produced via solid state fermentation by a fungal strain of Aspergillus oryzae. Initial free amino nitrogen concentration influenced PDO production in batch cultures. RSM hydrolysates were compared with commercial nutrient supplements regarding PDO production in fed-batch cultures carried out in a bench-scale bioreactor. The utilization of RSM hydrolysates in repeated batch cultivation resulted in a PDO concentration of 65.5 g/L with an overall productivity of 1.15 g/L/h that was almost 2 times higher than the productivity achieved when yeast extract was used as nutrient supplement.

  3. Enhancement of the proline and nitric oxide synthetic pathway improves fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions in industrial baker's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasano Yu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast, mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is exposed to baking-associated stresses, such as air-drying and freeze-thaw stress. These baking-associated stresses exert severe injury to yeast cells, mainly due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to cell death and reduced fermentation ability. Thus, there is a great need for a baker's yeast strain with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Recently, we revealed a novel antioxidative mechanism in a laboratory yeast strain that is involved in stress-induced nitric oxide (NO synthesis from proline via proline oxidase Put1 and N-acetyltransferase Mpr1. We also found that expression of the proline-feedback inhibition-less sensitive mutant γ-glutamyl kinase (Pro1-I150T and the thermostable mutant Mpr1-F65L resulted in an enhanced fermentation ability of baker's yeast in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress and air-drying stress, respectively. However, baker's yeast strains with high fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stresses have not yet been developed. Results We constructed a self-cloned diploid baker's yeast strain with enhanced proline and NO synthesis by expressing Pro1-I150T and Mpr1-F65L in the presence of functional Put1. The engineered strain increased the intracellular NO level in response to air-drying stress, and the strain was tolerant not only to oxidative stress but also to both air-drying and freeze-thaw stresses probably due to the reduced intracellular ROS level. We also showed that the resultant strain retained higher leavening activity in bread dough after air-drying and freeze-thaw stress than that of the wild-type strain. On the other hand, enhanced stress tolerance and fermentation ability did not occur in the put1-deficient strain. This result suggests that NO is synthesized in baker's yeast from proline in response to oxidative stresses that induce ROS

  4. The future of starch bioengineering: GM microorganisms or GM plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Henrik eHebelstrup

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant starches regularly require extensive modification to permit subsequent applications. Such processing is usually done by the use of chemical and/or physical treatments. The use of recombinant enzymes produced by large-scale fermentation of GM microorganisms is increasingly used in starch processing and modification, sometimes as an alternative to chemical or physical treatments. However, as a means to impart the modifications as early as possible in the starch production chain, similar recombinant enzymes may also be expressed in planta in the developing starch storage organ such as in roots, tubers and cereal grains to provide a GM crop as an alternative to the use of enzymes from GM microorganisms. We here discuss these techniques in relation to important structural features and modifications of starches such as: starch phosphorylation, starch hydrolysis, chain transfer/branching and novel concepts of hybrid starch-based polysaccharides. In planta starch bioengineering is generally challenged by yield penalties and inefficient production of the desired product. However in some situations, GM crops for starch bioengineering without deleterious effects have been achieved.

  5. Development of stereotypic behaviour in sows fed a starch diet or a non-starch polysaccharide diet during gestation and lactation over two parities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Kemp, B.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Hartog, den L.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of feeding sows a starch diet or a diet with a high level of fermentable non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) during gestation, lactation or both gestation and lactation over the first two parities on the development of stereotypic behaviour was studied in sows housed in groups during gestati

  6. A fermentative approach towards optimizing directed biosynthesis of fumaric acid by Rhizopus oryzae 1526 utilizing apple industry waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Verma, Mausam

    2015-12-01

    The present research account deals with the bioproduction of fumaric acid (FA) from apple pomace ultrafiltration sludge (APUS) and apple pomace (AP) through fermentation. The filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae 1526 was used as a biocatalyst and its morphological impact on FA production was analysed in detail. For submerged fermentation, 40 g L(-1) of total solids concentration of APUS, pH 6.0, 30 °C, 200 rpm flask shaking speed and 72 h of incubation were found to be optimum for FA production (25.2 ± 1.0 g L(-1), 0.350 g (L(-1) h(-1))). Broth viscosity (cP), residual reducing sugar (g L(-1)) and ethanol (g L(-1)) produced as by-product, were also analysed. Plastic trays were used for solid state fermentation and at optimized level of moisture and incubation period, 52 ± 2.67 g FA per kg dry weight of AP was obtained. Changes in the total phenolic content (mg g(-1) dry weight of AP) were monitored at regular intervals. Utilization of APUS and AP for the directed synthesis of the high-value platform chemical FA by the fungal strain R. oryzae 1526 was an excellent display of fungal physiological and morphological control over a fermentative product.

  7. Fermentative production of aceton-butanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yassein, M.; Fouad, M.; Abou-Zeil, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    Fourteen different media were used in the fermentative production of acetone-butanol. The highest total yields were achieved in medium containing potatoe starch and soluble starch as C sources. The best concentrations of potato starch and soluble starch were 500.0 and 10.0 g/L respectively. Peptone was the most favourable N source. The best concentration of peptone was 4.0 g/L. CaCO/sub 3/ in 3.6 g/L acted as buffering agent in the fermentation process. The best initial pH value of the fermentation medium was 6.0. The optimum temperature was 32 to 33/sup 0/. The fermentation process required 120 hours to obtain maximum yields of acetone butanol.

  8. Process optimization for bioethanol production from cassava starch using novel eco-friendly enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanavas, S.; Padmaja, G.; Moorthy, S.N.; Sajeev, M.S.; Sheriff, J.T. [Division of Crop Utilization, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, 695 017 Kerala (India)

    2011-02-15

    Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a potential bioethanol crop, high operational costs resulted in a negative energy balance in the earlier processes. The present study aimed at optimizing the bioethanol production from cassava starch using new enzymes like Spezyme {sup registered} Xtra and Stargen trademark 001. The liquefying enzyme Spezyme was optimally active at 90 C and pH 5.5 on a 10% (w/v) starch slurry at levels of 20.0 mg (280 Amylase Activity Units) for 30 min. Stargen levels of 100 mg (45.6 Granular Starch Hydrolyzing Units) were sufficient to almost completely hydrolyze 10% (w/v) starch at room temperature (30 {+-} 1 C). Ethanol yield and fermentation efficiency were very high (533 g/kg and 94.0% respectively) in the Stargen + yeast process with 10% (w/v) starch for 48 h. Raising Spezyme and Stargen levels to 560 AAU and 91.2 GSHU respectively for a two step loading [initial 20% (w/v) followed by 20% starch after Spezyme thinning]/initial higher loading of starch (40% w/v) resulted in poor fermentation efficiency. Upscaling experiments using 1.0 kg starch showed that Stargen to starch ratio of 1:100 (w/w) could yield around 558 g ethanol/kg starch, with a high fermentation efficiency of 98.4%. The study showed that Spezyme level beyond 20.0 mg for a 10% (w/v) starch slurry was not critical for optimizing bioethanol yield from cassava starch, although an initial thinning of starch for 30 min by Spezyme facilitated rapid saccharification-fermentation by Stargen + yeast system. The specific advantage of the new process was that the reaction could be completed within 48.5 h at 30 {+-} 1 C. (author)

  9. Unique features of several microbial α-amylases active on soluble and native starch

    OpenAIRE

    Sarian, Fean Davisunjaya

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the main energy store of major agricultural crops such as corn, potato, rice and wheat. Various amylase type enzymes are used to convert cooked starch to glucose that goes into bioethanol fermentation. Only a few amylase type enzymes have been described that can act on the starch granule itself. Granular starch has a complex crystalline structure that prevents most amylases to directly act on it. In this PhD thesis the action of several amylases on native granular starch was studied...

  10. Co-fermentation of cellulose/xylan using engineered industrial yeast strain OC-2 displaying both β-glucosidase and β-xylosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Satoshi; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2011-09-01

    We constructed a recombinant industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain OC2-AXYL2-ABGL2-Xyl2 by inserting two copies of the β-glucosidase (BGL) and β-xylosidase (XYL) genes, and a gene cassette for xylose assimilation in the genome of yeast strain OC-2HUT. Both BGL and XYL were expressed on the yeast cell surface with high enzyme activities. Using OC2-AXYL2-ABGL2-Xyl2, we performed ethanol fermentation from a mixture of powdered cellulose (KC-flock) and Birchwood xylan, with the additional supplementation of a 30-g/l Trichoderma reesei cellulase complex mixture. The ethanol yield (gram per gram of added cellulases) of the strain OC2-AXYL2-ABGL2-Xyl2 increased approximately 2.5-fold compared to that of strain OC2-Xyl2, which lacked β-glucosidase and β-xylosidase activities. Notably, the concentration of additional T. reesei cellulase was reduced from 30 to 24 g/l without affecting ethanol production. The BGL- and XYL-displaying industrial yeast of the strain OC2-AXYL2-ABGL2-Xyl2 represents a promising yeast for reducing cellulase consumption of ethanol fermentation from lignocellulosic biomass by compensating for the inherent weak BGL and XYL activities of T. reesei cellulase complexes.

  11. Biotransformation of 1,8-cineole by solid-state fermentation of Eucalyptus waste from the essential oil industry using Pleurotus ostreatus and Favolus tenuiculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarini, Alejandra; Dambolena, José Sebastián; Lucini, Enrique; Jaramillo Mejía, Santiago; Albertó, Edgardo; Zygadlo, Julio A

    2016-03-01

    Biotechnological conversion of low-cost agro-industrial by-products, such as industrial waste or terpenes from the distillation of essential oils from plants into more valuable oxygenated derivatives, can be achieved by using microbial cells or enzymes. In Argentina, the essential oil industry produces several tons of waste each year that could be used as raw materials in the production of industrially relevant and value-added compounds. In this study, 1,8-cineole, one of the components remaining in the spent leaves of the Eucalyptus cinerea waste, was transformed by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using the two edible mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus and Favolus tenuiculus. As a result, two new oxygenated derivatives of 1,8-cineole were identified: 1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo [2.2.2]octan-6-ol and 1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo [2.2.2]octan-6-one. Additionally, changes in the relative percentages of other aroma compounds present in the substrate were observed during SSF. Both fungal strains have the ability to produce aroma compounds with potential applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  12. Properties of retrograded and acetylated starch produced via starch extrusion or starch hydrolysis with pullulanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelko, M; Zięba, T; Gryszkin, A; Styczyńska, M; Wilczak, A

    2013-09-12

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of serial modifications of starch, including firstly starch extrusion or hydrolysis with pullulanase, followed by retrogradation (through freezing and defrosting of pastes) and acetylation (under industrial conditions), on its susceptibility to amylolysis. The method of production had a significant effect on properties of the resultant preparations, whilst the direction and extent of changes depended on the type of modification applied. In the produced starch esters, the degree of substitution, expressed by the per cent of acetylation, ranged from 3.1 to 4.4 g/100 g. The acetylation had a significant impact on contents of elements determined with the atomic emission spectrometry, as it contributed to an increased Na content and decreased contents of Ca and K. The DSC thermal characteristics enabled concluding that the modifications caused an increase in temperatures and a decrease in heat of transition (or its lack). The acetylation of retrograded starch preparations increased their solubility in water and water absorbability. The modifications were found to exert various effects on the rheological properties of pastes determined based on the Brabender's pasting characteristics and flow curves determined with the use of an oscillatory-rotating viscosimeter. All starch acetates produced were characterized by ca. 40% resistance to amylolysis.

  13. Integral use of amaranth starch to obtain cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase, by Bacillus megaterium, to produce β-cyclodextrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belem Arce-Vázquez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase is an enzyme that produces cyclodextrins (CDs from starch and related carbohydrates, producing a mixture of α-, β-, and γ-CDs in different amounts. CGTase production, mainly by Bacillus sp., depends on fermentation conditions such as pH, temperature, concentration of nutrients, carbon and nitrogen sources, among others. Bacillus megaterium CGTase produces those three types of CDs, however, β-CD should prevail. Although waxy corn starch (CS is used industrially to obtain CGTase and CDs because of its high amylopectin content, alternative sources such as amaranth starch (AS could be used to accomplish those purposes. AS has high susceptibility to the amylolytic activity of CGTase because of its 80% amylopectin content. Therefore, the aim of this work was evaluate the AS as carbon source for CGTase production by B. megaterium in a submerged fermentation. Afterwards, the CGTase was purified partially and its activity to synthesize α-, β- and γ-CDs was evaluated using 1% AS as substrate. B. megaterium produced a 66 kDa CGTase (Topt=50°C; pHopt=8.0, from the early exponential growth phase which lasted 36 h. The maximum CGTase specific activity (106.62±8.33 U/mg protein was obtained after 36 h of culture. CGTase obtained with a Km=0.152 mM and a Vmax=13.4 µM/min yielded 40.47% total CDs using AS which was roughly twice as much as that of corn starch (CS; 24.48%. High costs to produce CDs in the pharmaceutical and food industries might be reduced by using AS because of its higher α-, β- and γ-CDs production (12.81%, 17.94% and 9.92%, respectively in a shorter time than that needed for CS.

  14. Integral Use of Amaranth Starch to Obtain Cyclodextrin Glycosyltransferase, by Bacillus megaterium, to Produce β-Cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Vázquez, María Belem; Ponce-Alquicira, Edith; Delgado-Fornué, Ezequiel; Pedroza-Islas, Ruth; Díaz-Godínez, Gerardo; Soriano-Santos, J.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) is an enzyme that produces cyclodextrins (CDs) from starch and related carbohydrates, producing a mixture of α-, β-, and γ-CDs in different amounts. CGTase production, mainly by Bacillus sp., depends on fermentation conditions such as pH, temperature, concentration of nutrients, carbon and nitrogen sources, among others. Bacillus megaterium CGTase produces those three types of CDs, however, β-CD should prevail. Although, waxy corn starch (CS) is used industrially to obtain CGTase and CDs because of its high amylopectin content, alternative sources such as amaranth starch (AS) could be used to accomplish those purposes. AS has high susceptibility to the amylolytic activity of CGTase because of its 80% amylopectin content. Therefore, the aim of this work was evaluate the AS as carbon source for CGTase production by B. megaterium in a submerged fermentation. Afterwards, the CGTase was purified partially and its activity to synthesize α-, β-, and γ-CDs was evaluated using 1% AS as substrate. B. megaterium produced a 66 kDa CGTase (Topt = 50°C; pHopt = 8.0), from the early exponential growth phase which lasted 36 h. The maximum CGTase specific activity (106.62 ± 8.33 U/mg protein) was obtained after 36 h of culture. CGTase obtained with a Km = 0.152 mM and a Vmax = 13.4 μM/min yielded 40.47% total CDs using AS which was roughly twice as much as that of corn starch (CS; 24.48%). High costs to produce CDs in the pharmaceutical and food industries might be reduced by using AS because of its higher α-, β- and γ-CDs production (12.81, 17.94, and 9.92%, respectively) in a shorter time than that needed for CS. PMID:27721811

  15. Microbiological Hydrogen Production by Anaerobic Fermentation and Photosynthetic Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asada, Y.; Ohsawa, M.; Nagai, Y.; Fukatsu, M.; Ishimi, K.; Ichi-ishi, S.

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogen gas is a clean and renewable energy carrier. Microbiological hydrogen production from glucose or starch by combination used of an anaerobic fermenter and a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter spheroides RV was studied. In 1984, the co-culture of Clostridium butyricum and RV strain to convert glucose to hydrogen was demonstrated by Miyake et al. Recently, we studied anaerobic fermentation of starch by a thermophilic archaea. (Author)

  16. Sequencing batch reactor enhances bacterial hydrolysis of starch promoting continuous bio-hydrogen production from starch feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shing-Der [Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu (China); Lo, Yung-Chung; Huang, Tian-I. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701 (China); Lee, Kuo-Shing [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung (China); Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701 (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)

    2009-10-15

    Bio-hydrogen production from starch was carried out using a two-stage process combining thermophillic starch hydrolysis and dark H{sub 2} fermentation. In the first stage, starch was hydrolyzed by Caldimonas taiwanensis On1 using sequencing batch reactor (SBR). In the second stage, Clostridium butyricum CGS2 was used to produce H{sub 2} from hydrolyzed starch via continuous dark hydrogen fermentation. Starch hydrolysis with C. taiwanensis On1 was operated in SBR under pH 7.0 and 55 C. With a 90% discharge volume, the reducing sugar (RS) production from SBR reactor reached 13.94 g RS/L, while the reducing sugar production rate and starch hydrolysis rate was 0.92 g RS/h/L and 1.86 g starch/h/L, respectively, which are higher than using other discharge volumes. For continuous H{sub 2} production with the starch hydrolysate, the highest H{sub 2} production rate and yield was 0.52 L/h/L and 13.2 mmol H{sub 2}/g total sugar, respectively, under a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12 h. The best feeding nitrogen source (NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}) concentration was 2.62 g/L, attaining a good H{sub 2} production efficiency along with a low residual ammonia concentration (0.14 g/L), which would be favorable to follow-up photo H{sub 2} fermentation while using dark fermentation effluents as the substrate. (author)

  17. High titer gluconic acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger from dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover without detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongsen; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2016-03-01

    This study reported a high titer gluconic acid fermentation using dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover (DDAP) hydrolysate without detoxification. The selected fermenting strain Aspergillus niger SIIM M276 was capable of inhibitor degradation thus no detoxification on pretreated corn stover was required. Parameters of gluconic acid fermentation in corn stover hydrolysate were optimized in flasks and in fermentors to achieve 76.67 g/L gluconic acid with overall yield of 94.91%. The sodium gluconate obtained from corn stover was used as additive for extending setting time of cement mortar and similar function was obtained with starch based sodium gluconate. This study provided the first high titer gluconic acid production from lignocellulosic feedstock with potential of industrial applications.

  18. Effect of maize starch concentration in the diet on starch and cell wall digestion in the dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, A M; Hindle, V A; Klop, A; Cone, J W

    2010-06-01

    An in vivo experiment was performed to determine the effect of level of maize starch in the diet on digestion and site of digestion of organic matter, starch and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). In a repeated change-over design experiment, three cows fitted with a rumen cannula and T-piece cannulae in duodenum and ileum received a low-starch (12% of ration dry matter) and a high-starch (33% of ration dry matter) diet. Starch level was increased by exchanging dried sugar beet pulp by ground maize. After a 2-week adaptation period, feed intake, rumen fermentation parameters (in vivo and in situ), intestinal flows, faecal excretion of organic matter, starch and NDF were estimated. When the high-starch diet was fed, dry matter intake was higher (19.0 kg/day vs. 17.8 kg/day), and total tract digestibility of organic matter, starch and NDF was lower when the low-starch diet was fed. Maize starch concentration had no significant effect on rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentration nor on the site of digestion of organic matter and starch and rate of passage of ytterbium-labelled forage. On the high-starch diet, an extra 1.3 kg of maize starch was supplied at the duodenum in relation to the low-starch diet, but only an extra 0.3 kg of starch was digested in the small intestine. Digestion of NDF was only apparent in the rumen and was lower on the high-starch diet than on the low-starch diet, mainly attributed to the reduction in sugar beet pulp in the high-starch diet. It was concluded that without the correction for the reduction in NDF digestion in the rumen, the extra supply of glucogenic (glucose and propionic acid) and ketogenic nutrients (acetic and butyric acid) by supplemented starch will be overestimated. The mechanisms responsible for these effects need to be addressed in feed evaluation.

  19. Resistant starch: an indigestible fraction of foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saura Calixto, F.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistant starch (RS, the dietary starch that scape digestion in the small intestine, can yields up to 20% of the starch in cereal and legume products. Several fractions contribute to the total RS of foods: retrograded amylose, starch inaccessible to digestive enzymes because of mechanical barriers, chemically modified starch fragments, undigested starch due to α-amylase inhibitors and starch complexed with other food components. RS is formed in products processed following heat treatments (baking, extrusion, autoclaving, etc.. RS produces significant fecal bulking and is partially fermentable by anaerobic bacteria of the colon. On the other hand, the relation of resistant starch with the glucose and insulin response in human subjects is an important nutritional effect. RS analytical methods are reported.

    El almidón resistente (RS, fracción de almidón de la dieta que no es digerido en el intestino delgado, puede alcanzar hasta un 20% del almidón en productos derivados de cereales y legumbres. Varias fracciones contribuyen al contenido total de almidón resistente: amilosa retrogradada, almidón inaccesible físicamente a los enzimas digestivos, almidón indigestible debido a inhibición de α-amilasas y almidón complejado con otros constituyentes de los alimentos. El almidón resistente se forma en productos que han sufrido tratamientos térmicos (panificación, extrusión, autoclave, etc. El RS aumenta el volumen de heces y es fermentado parcialmente en el colon por bacterias anaeróbicas. Igualmente, está relacionado con los niveles de glucosa en sangre y la respuesta de insulina en humanos. Se describen los métodos analíticos para su determinación.

  20. Pequi cake composition, hydrolysis and fermentation to bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Macedo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliense Camb fruits have been evaluated as a potential raw material for the newly established biodiesel industry. This scenario demands applications using the solid co-product derived from the extraction of pequi oil, called cake or meal. This study analyses the acid hydrolysis of carbohydrates present in the pequi meal in order to obtain fermentable sugars and evaluates their conversion to bioethanol. There was 27% starch in the pequi meal. The use of a CCRD experimental design type to study the acid saccharification of pequi meal results in 61.6% conversion of its starch content to reducing sugars. Positive and significant linear effects were observed for H2SO4 concentration and temperature factors, while the quadratic effect of H2SO4 concentration and the linear effect of solid-liquid ratio were negative. Even, with non-optimized fermentative condition using 1% of dried baker's yeast in conical flasks, it was possible to obtain a value equivalent to 53 L of ethanol per ton of hydrolyzed pequi meal.

  1. Dilute solution properties of canary seed (Phalaris canariensis) starch in comparison to wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Mahdi; Razavi, Seyed M A; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Hucl, Pierre; Patterson, Carol Ann

    2016-06-01

    Dilute solution properties of an unknown starch are important to understand its performance and applications in food and non-food industries. In this paper, rheological and molecular properties (intrinsic viscosity, molecular weight, shape factor, voluminosity, conformation and coil overlap parameters) of the starches from two hairless canary seed varieties (CO5041 & CDC Maria) developed for food use were evaluated in the dilute regime (Starch dispersions in DMSO (0.5g/dl)) and compared with wheat starch (WS). The results showed that Higiro model is the best among five applied models for intrinsic viscosity determination of canary seed starch (CSS) and WS on the basis of coefficient of determination (R(2)) and root mean square error (RMSE). WS sample showed higher intrinsic viscosity value (1.670dl/g) in comparison to CSS samples (1.325-1.397dl/g). Berry number and the slope of master curve demonstrated that CSS and WS samples were in dilute domain without entanglement occurrence. The shape factor suggested spherical and ellipsoidal structure for CO5041 starch and ellipsoidal for CDC Maria starch and WS. The molecular weight, coil radius and coil volume of CSSs were smaller than WS. The behavior and molecular characterization of canary seed starch showed its unique properties compared with wheat starch.

  2. Ethanol production with starch-based Tetraselmis subcordiformis grown with CO2 produced during ethanol fermentation%利用乙醇发酵副产CO2培养富含淀粉亚心型四爿藻作为其补充原料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖莎; 姚长洪; 薛松; 张卫; 白凤武

    2011-01-01

    建立了乙醇发酵耦联微藻培养系统,研究了利用酿酒酵母Saccharomyces cerevisiae乙醇发酵副产CO2为碳源,培养富含淀粉的亚心形四爿藻Tetraselmis subcordiformis,作为乙醇发酵补充原料的可行性.在连续光照条件下,间歇式培养7d,反应器中藻细胞密度达到2.0 g/L左右,胞内淀粉含量约45%.微藻细胞收集后,经超声处理和酶法水解,葡萄糖释放量为胞内淀粉总量的71.1%.S.cerevisiae发酵微藻生物质水解液生产乙醇,其得率达到理论值的87.6%.表明乙醇发酵耦联微藻培养可行,既减少了CO2向环境的排放,又收获了富含淀粉的微藻生物质作为乙醇发酵的补充原料,节省粮食类淀粉质原料的消耗.%A system coupling ethanol fermentation with microalgae culture was developed, in which CO2 produced during ethanol fermentation was used as carbon source for the growth of Tetraselmis subcordiformis, a microalgae accumulating starch intracellularly. The biomass concentration about 2.0 g DCW/L was achieved within the photobioreactor for the batchculture of 7 days, and intracellular starch accumulation was about 45%. Furthermore, ultrasonic pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis were applied to the microalgae biomass, and 71.1% of the intracellular starch was converted into glucose that was fermented sequentially to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae with an ethanol yield of 87.6% of the theoretical value, indicating that the microalgae biomass could be an alternative feedstock for ethanol production to save grain consumption, and in the meantime mitigate the CO2 emission.

  3. Genetic modification of cassava enhances starch production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Recently, a field test of transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) for enhanced starch production by the Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology & Ecology (SIPPE), the CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, proved successful. Through application of transgenic technologies in cassava, the starch quality of this tropical root crop was largely improved. The new cassava cultivars are believed to have a tremendous potential for industrial application in the future.

  4. Fermented and malted millet products in Africa: Expedition from traditional/ethnic foods to industrial value added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebiyi, J A; Obadina, A O; Adebo, O A; Kayitesi, E

    2016-05-31

    With the prevalent food insecurity in Africa, there is a growing need to utilize the available crops to develop nutritious, affordable and palatable food for the populace. Millet is critical in this role, relative to its abundance in the continent and good nutritional composition. For ages, fermentation and malting have been traditionally used to transform millet into variety of produce. A paradigm shift has however occurred over the years, giving birth to new commercially available products. This review thus appraises and gives an overview of traditional and modern fermented and malted products. Although, millet has been diversified to several products, its major food uses are still restrained to traditional consumers and largely remains underutilized. Considering the potential embedded in this grain, it is important to explore this crop through the application of appropriate modern fermentation and malting technologies. This will ensure the availability of ready to eat (RTE) and ready to use (RTU) food products and to a large extent address the incessant food security challenges plaguing Africa.

  5. Porous starch extracted from Chinese rice wine vinasse: characterization and adsorption properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyan; Jiao, Aiquan; Wei, Benxi; Wang, Yong; Wu, Chunsen; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2013-10-01

    Chinese rice wine vinasse (the fermentation residue after removal of the crude wine or beer) contains 20-30% residual native starch. These starches are partly hydrolyzed by amylase and glucoamylase during rice wine fermentation, indicating that it is a potential source of porous starch, which is a value-added material. In the present study, morphological, short-range order, crystalline, and thermal studies were determined to characterize the structural and chemical properties of vinasse starch. The results showed that vinasse starch granule had a rough and porous shape and was much more ordered than native starch. Vinasse starch also could tolerate a higher temperature than native starch. The water and oil adsorptive capacities of vinasse starch were 1.89 and 4.14 times higher than that of native rice starch. These results suggest that vinasse is an effective and economical source of porous starch for using as adsorbent. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of genes required for maximal tolerance to high-glucose concentrations, as those present in industrial alcoholic fermentation media, through a chemogenomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Miguel C; Raposo, Luís R; Palma, Margarida; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2010-04-01

    Chemogenomics, the study of genomic responses to chemical compounds, has the potential to elucidate the basis of cellular resistance to those chemicals. This knowledge can be applied to improve the performance of strains of industrial interest. In this study, a collection of approximately 5,000 haploid single deletion mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in which each nonessential yeast gene was individually deleted, was screened for strains with increased susceptibility toward stress induced by high-glucose concentration (30% w/v), one of the main stresses occurring during industrial alcoholic fermentation processes aiming the production of alcoholic beverages or bio-ethanol. Forty-four determinants of resistance to high-glucose stress were identified. The most significant Gene Ontology (GO) terms enriched in this dataset are vacuolar organization, late endosome to vacuole transport, and regulation of transcription. Clustering the identified resistance determinants by their known physical and genetic interactions further highlighted the importance of nutrient metabolism control in this context. A concentration of 30% (w/v) of glucose was found to perturb vacuolar function, by reducing cell ability to maintain the physiological acidification of the vacuolar lumen. This stress also affects the active rate of proton efflux through the plasma membrane. Based on results of published studies, the present work revealed shared determinants of yeast resistance to high-glucose and ethanol stresses, including genes involved in vacuolar function, cell wall biogenesis (ANP1), and in the transcriptional control of nutrient metabolism (GCN4 and GCR1), with possible impact on the design of more robust strains to be used in industrial alcoholic fermentation processes.

  7. The future of starch bioengineering:GM microorganisms or GM plants?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Henrik eHebelstrup; Domenico eSagnelli; Andreas eBlennow

    2015-01-01

    Plant starches regularly require extensive modification to permit subsequent applications. Such processing is usually done by the use of chemical and/or physical treatments. The use of recombinant enzymes produced by large-scale fermentation of GM microorganisms is increasingly used in starch processing and modification, sometimes as an alternative to chemical or physical treatments. However, as a means to impart the modifications as early as possible in the starch production chain, similar r...

  8. Anaerobic co-digestion of crude glycerin and starch industry effluent Codigestão anaeróbia de glicerina bruta e efluente de fecularia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Larsen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brazil's Biodiesel Production and Use Program introduces biodiesel in the Brazilian energy matrix, bringing along the perspective of a growth of the glycerin offer, co-product generated in the proportion of 10 kg for each 100 L of biodiesel. The aim of this study was to evaluate the addition of crude glycerin in the anaerobic digestion of cassava starch industry effluent (cassava wastewater, in a horizontal semi-continuous flow reactor of one phase in laboratory scale. It was used a reactor with a 8.77 L of useful volume, a medium support for corrugated conduit of polyvinyl chloride (PVC, temperature of 261 ºC, fed with cassava wastewater and glycerin, with hydraulic detention times of 4 and 5 days and increasing volumetric organic load of 3.05; 9.32; 14.83 and 13.59 g COD L-1 d-1, obtained with the addition of glycerin at 0; 2; 3 and 2% (v/v, respectively. The average removal efficiencies of TS and TVS were decreasing from the addition of glycerin to the cassava wastewater, averaging 81.19 to 55.58% for TS and 90.21 to 61.45% for TVS. The addition of glycerin at 2% increased the biogas production compared to the control treatment, reaching 1.979 L L-1 d-1. The biogas production as a function of the consumed COD was higher for the control treatment than for the treatments with addition of glycerin, which indicates lower conversion of organic matter into biogas.O Programa Nacional de Produção e Uso do Biodiesel introduziu o biodiesel na matriz energética brasileira, trazendo a perspectiva de aumento da oferta de glicerina, coproduto gerado na proporção de 10 kg para cada 100 L de biodiesel. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar a adição de glicerina bruta na digestão anaeróbia de efluente de indústria de fécula de mandioca (manipueira, em reator de fluxo semicontínuo horizontal de uma fase, em escala de laboratório. Foi utilizado um reator com volume útil de 8,77 L, meio suporte em eletroduto corrugado de policloreto

  9. Characterization of a Panela cheese with added probiotics and fava bean starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty Lactobacillus spp. and eight Bifidobacterium spp. were screened for their ability to ferment fava bean starch. B. breve ATCC 15700 and L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 were selected as probiotics for use in fresh style Panela cheese. Two types of fresh cheese (with and without 3% fava bean starch) ...

  10. Enhanced 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol production in sequential mixed fermentation with Torulaspora delbrueckii/Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals a situation of synergistic interaction between two industrial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eRenault

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the volatile thiol productions of 2 industrial strains of Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation (AF of Sauvignon Blanc must. In order to evaluate the influence of the inoculation procedure, sequential and simultaneous mixed cultures were carried out and compared to pure cultures of T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae. The results confirmed the inability of T. delbrueckii to release 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (4MSP and its low capacity to produce 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (3SHA, as already reported in previous studies. A synergistic interaction was observed between the two species, resulting in higher levels of 3SH (3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol and its acetate when S. cerevisiae was inoculated 24 hours after T. delbrueckii, compared to the pure cultures. To elucidate the nature of the interactions between these 2 species, the yeast population kinetics were examined and monitored, as well as the production of 3SH, its acetate and their related non-odorous precursors: Glut-3SH (glutathionylated conjugate precursor and Cys-3SH (cysteinylated conjugate precursor. For the first time, it was suggested that, unlike, S. cerevisiae, which is able to metabolize the two precursor forms, T. delbrueckii was only able to metabolize the glutathionylated precursor. Consequently, the presence of T. delbrueckii during mixed fermentation led to an increase in Glut-3SH degradation and Cys-3SH production. This overproduction was dependent on the T. delbrueckii biomass. In sequential culture, thus favouring T. delbrueckii development, the higher availability of Cys-3SH throughout AF (alcoholic fermentation resulted in more abundant 3SH and 3SHA production by S. cerevisiae

  11. Efficient production of pullulan by Aureobasidium pullulans grown on mixtures of potato starch hydrolysate and sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chao; Ma, Sai-Jian; Chang, Fan; Xue, Wen-Jiao

    Pullulan is a natural exopolysaccharide with many useful characteristics. However, pullulan is more costly than other exopolysaccharides, which limits its effective application. The purpose of this study was to adopt a novel mixed-sugar strategy for maximizing pullulan production, mainly using potato starch hydrolysate as a low-cost substrate for liquid-state fermentation by Aureobasidium pullulans. Based on fermentation kinetics evaluation of pullulan production by A. pullulans 201253, the pullulan production rate of A. pullulans with mixtures of potato starch hydrolysate and sucrose (potato starch hydrolysate:sucrose=80:20) was 0.212h(-1), which was significantly higher than those of potato starch hydrolysate alone (0.146h(-1)) and mixtures of potato starch hydrolysate, glucose, and fructose (potato starch hydrolysate:glucose:fructose=80:10:10, 0.166h(-1)) with 100gL(-1) total carbon source. The results suggest that mixtures of potato starch hydrolysate and sucrose could promote pullulan synthesis and possibly that a small amount of sucrose stimulated the enzyme responsible for pullulan synthesis and promoted effective potato starch hydrolysate conversion effectively. Thus, mixed sugars in potato starch hydrolysate and sucrose fermentation might be a promising alternative for the economical production of pullulan.

  12. Development of an industrial medium for economical 2,3-butanediol production through co-fermentation of glucose and xylose by Klebsiella oxytoca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiao-Jun; Huang, He; Du, Jun; Zhu, Jian-Guo; Ren, Lu-Jing; Li, Shuang; Nie, Zhi-Kui

    2009-11-01

    An industrial medium containing urea as a sole nitrogen source, low levels of corn steep liquor and mineral salts as nutrition factors to retain high 2,3-butanediol production through co-fermentation of glucose and xylose (2:1, wt/wt) by Klebsiella oxytoca was developed. Urea and corn steep liquor were identified as the most significant factors by the two-level Plackett-Burman design. Steepest ascent experiments were applied to approach the optimal region of the two factors and a central composite design was employed to determine their optimal levels. Under the optimal medium, the yield of 2,3-butanediol plus acetoin relative to glucose and xylose was up to 0.428 g/g, which was 85.6% of theoretical value. The cheap nitrogen source and nutrition factors combining the co-fermentation process using lignocellulose derived glucose and xylose as the carbon source in the developed medium would be a potential solution to improve the economics of microbial 2,3-butanediol production.

  13. Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Starch is stored in higher plants as granules composed of semi-crystalline amylopectin and amorphous amylose. Starch granules provide energy for the plant during dark periods and for germination of seeds and tubers. Dietary starch is also a highly glycemic carbohydrate being degraded to glucose and rapidly absorbed in the small intestine. But a portion of dietary starch, termed “resistant starch” (RS) escapes digestion and reaches the large intestine, where it is fermented by colonic bacteria producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA) which are linked to several health benefits. The RS is preferentially derived from amylose, which can be increased by suppressing amylopectin synthesis by silencing of starch branching enzymes (SBEs). However all the previous works attempting the production of high RS crops resulted in only partly increased amylose-content and/or significant yield loss. Results In this study we invented a new method for silencing of multiple genes. Using a chimeric RNAi hairpin we simultaneously suppressed all genes coding for starch branching enzymes (SBE I, SBE IIa, SBE IIb) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), resulting in production of amylose-only starch granules in the endosperm. This trait was segregating 3:1. Amylose-only starch granules were irregularly shaped and showed peculiar thermal properties and crystallinity. Transgenic lines retained high-yield possibly due to a pleiotropic upregualtion of other starch biosynthetic genes compensating the SBEs loss. For gelatinized starch, a very high content of RS (65 %) was observed, which is 2.2-fold higher than control (29%). The amylose-only grains germinated with same frequency as control grains. However, initial growth was delayed in young plants. Conclusions This is the first time that pure amylose has been generated with high yield in a living organism. This was achieved by a new method of simultaneous suppression of the entire complement of genes encoding starch branching enzymes. We

  14. Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carciofi Massimiliano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Starch is stored in higher plants as granules composed of semi-crystalline amylopectin and amorphous amylose. Starch granules provide energy for the plant during dark periods and for germination of seeds and tubers. Dietary starch is also a highly glycemic carbohydrate being degraded to glucose and rapidly absorbed in the small intestine. But a portion of dietary starch, termed “resistant starch” (RS escapes digestion and reaches the large intestine, where it is fermented by colonic bacteria producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA which are linked to several health benefits. The RS is preferentially derived from amylose, which can be increased by suppressing amylopectin synthesis by silencing of starch branching enzymes (SBEs. However all the previous works attempting the production of high RS crops resulted in only partly increased amylose-content and/or significant yield loss. Results In this study we invented a new method for silencing of multiple genes. Using a chimeric RNAi hairpin we simultaneously suppressed all genes coding for starch branching enzymes (SBE I, SBE IIa, SBE IIb in barley (Hordeum vulgare L., resulting in production of amylose-only starch granules in the endosperm. This trait was segregating 3:1. Amylose-only starch granules were irregularly shaped and showed peculiar thermal properties and crystallinity. Transgenic lines retained high-yield possibly due to a pleiotropic upregualtion of other starch biosynthetic genes compensating the SBEs loss. For gelatinized starch, a very high content of RS (65 % was observed, which is 2.2-fold higher than control (29%. The amylose-only grains germinated with same frequency as control grains. However, initial growth was delayed in young plants. Conclusions This is the first time that pure amylose has been generated with high yield in a living organism. This was achieved by a new method of simultaneous suppression of the entire complement of genes encoding starch

  15. Laccase and manganese peroxidase activities of Phellinus robustus and Ganoderma adspersum grown on food industry wastes in submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songulashvili, G; Elisashvili, V; Wasser, S; Nevo, E; Hadar, Y

    2006-09-01

    Phellinus robustus produced both laccase (700-4,000 U l(-1)) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) (1,000-11,300 U l(-1)) in fermentation of nine food wastes, whereas Ganoderma adspersum produced only laccase (600-34,000 U l(-1)). Glucose provided high laccase and MnP activity of P. robustus but repressed enzyme production by G. adspersum. Ammonium sulphate and ammonium tartrate increased the P. robustus laccase yield (3-fold), whereas the accumulation of MnP was not enhanced by additional nitrogen.

  16. The combination of glycerol metabolic engineering and drug resistance marker-aided genome shuffling to improve very-high-gravity fermentation performances of industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pin-Mei; Zheng, Dao-Qiong; Liu, Tian-Zhe; Tao, Xiang-Lin; Feng, Ming-Guang; Min, Hang; Jiang, Xin-Hang; Wu, Xue-Chang

    2012-03-01

    A challenge associated with the ethanol productivity under very-high-gravity (VHG) conditions, optimizing multi-traits (i.e. byproduct formation and stress tolerance) of industrial yeast strains, is overcome by a combination of metabolic engineering and genome shuffling. First, industrial strain Y12 was deleted with a glycerol exporter Fps1p and hetero-expressed with glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, resulting in the modified strain YFG12 with lower glycerol yield. Second, YFG12 was subjected to three rounds of drug resistance marker-aided genome shuffling to increase its ethanol tolerance, and the best shuffled strain TS5 was obtained. Compared with wild strain Y12, shuffled strain TS5 not only decreased glycerol formation by 14.8%, but also increased fermentation rate and ethanol yield by 3.7% and 7.6%, respectively. Moreover, the system of genetic modification and Cre/loxP in aid of three different drug-resistance markers presented in the study significantly improved breeding efficiency and will facilitate the application of breeding technologies in prototrophic industrial microorganisms.

  17. Thermomechanical treatment of starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goot, van der A.J.; Einde, van den R.M.

    2006-01-01

    Starch is used as a major component in many food and nonfood applications and determines the overall product properties to a large extent. It is therefore important to understand the effect of processing on starch. Many starch-based products are produced using a thermal as well as a mechanical treat

  18. Defining Starch Binding by Glucan Phosphatases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auger, Kyle; Raththagala, Madushi; Wilkens, Casper;

    2015-01-01

    Starch is a vital energy molecule in plants that has a wide variety of uses in industry, such as feedstock for biomaterial processing and biofuel production. Plants employ a three enzyme cyclic process utilizing kinases, amylases, and phosphatases to degrade starch in a diurnal manner. Starch...... is comprised of the branched glucan amylopectin and the more linear glucan amylose. Our lab has determined the first structures of these glucan phosphatases and we have defined their enzymatic action. Despite this progress, we lacked a means to quickly and efficiently quantify starch binding to glucan...... phosphatases. The main objective of this study was to quantify the binding affinity of different enzymes that are involved in this cyclic process. We established a protocol to quickly, reproducibly, and quantitatively measure the binding of the enzymes to glucans utilizing Affinity Gel Electrophoresis (AGE...

  19. Retrogradation of starches and maltodextrins of various origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sobolewska-Zielińska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The retrogradation which occurs during the processes food storage is an essential problem in food industry. In this study, the ability to retrogradate of native starches and maltodextrins of different botanical origin was analysed. Material and methods. The materials were starches of various botanical origin, including commercial samples: potato, tapioca, wheat, corn, waxy corn starches, and laboratory isolated samples: triticale and rice starches. The above starches were used as material for laboratory production of maltodextrins of medium dextrose equivalents (DE in the range from 8.27 to 12.75. Starches were analysed for amylose content, while the ratio of non-branched/long-chain-branched to short-chain-branched fractions of maltodextrins was calculated from gel permeation chromatography data. The susceptibility to retrogradation of 2% starch pastes and 2% maltodextrin solutions was evaluated according to turbidimetric method of Jacobson. Results. The greatest starch in turbidance of starch gels was observed within initial of the test. days. Initial retrogradation degree of cereal starches was higher than that of tuber and root starches. The waxy corn starch was the least prone to retrogradate. The increase in turbidance of maltodextrin solutions were minimal. Waxy corn maltodextrin was not susceptible to retrogradation. Among other samples, the lowest susceptibility to retrogradation after 14 days was found for rice maltodextrin, while the highest for wheat and triticale maltodextrin. Conclusions. On the basis of this study, the retrogradation dependence on the kind of starches and the maltodextrins was established and the author stated that all the maltodextrins have a much less ability to retrogradation than the native starches.

  20. Starch modification with microbial alpha-glucanotransferase enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Leemhuis, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Starch is an agricultural raw material used in many food and industrial products. It is present in granules that vary in shape in the form of amylose and amylopectin. Starch-degrading enzymes are used on a large scale in the production of sweeteners (high fructose corn syrup) and concentrated glucos

  1. Characterization of normal and waxy corn starch for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) Compare the differences of ethanol production between normal and waxy corn representing a diverse set of racial germplasm using a cold-fermentation process; 2) Understand the effects of starch structure and properties on ethanol production. Ethanol yields po...

  2. Properties and applications of starch-converting enzymes of the alpha-amylase family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maarel, MJEC; van der Veen, B; Uitdehaag, JCM; Leemhuis, H; Dijkhuizen, L

    2002-01-01

    Starch is a major storage product of many economically important crops such as wheat, rice, maize, tapioca, and potato. A large-scale starch processing industry has emerged in the last century. In the past decades, we have seen a shift from the acid hydrolysis of starch to the use of

  3. Inducing PLA/starch compatibility through butyl-etherification of waxy and high amylose starch

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wokadala, OC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrate Polymers Vol. 112 Inducing PLA/starch compatibility through butyl-etherification ofwaxy and high amylose starch Obiro Cuthbert Wokadalaa,b, Naushad Mohammad Emmambuxc,Suprakas Sinha Raya,b,c,∗ aDST/CSIR National Centre for Nanostructured... Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, 1-Meiring Naude Road, Brummeria, Pretoria 0001,South Africa bDepartment of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein, Johannesburg 2028, South Africa cDepartment of Food Science...

  4. Recent advances in microbial raw starch degrading enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiyan; Zhao, Pingjuan; Ge, Xiangyang; Xia, Yongjun; Hao, Zhikui; Liu, Jianwen; Peng, Ming

    2010-02-01

    Raw starch degrading enzymes (RSDE) refer to enzymes that can directly degrade raw starch granules below the gelatinization temperature of starch. These promising enzymes can significantly reduce energy and simplify the process in starch industry. RSDE are ubiquitous and produced by plants, animals, and microorganisms. However, microbial sources are the most preferred one for large-scale production. During the past few decades, RSDE have been studied extensively. This paper reviews the recent development in the production, purification, properties, and application of microbial RSDE. This is the first review on microbial RSDE to date.

  5. Effect of starch particles on foam stability and dilational viscoelasticity of aqueous-foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongqiang Zhang; Zhidong Chang; Wenli Luo; Shaonan Gu; Wenjun Li; Jianbo An

    2015-01-01

    Surface dilational rheological behavior and foam stability of starch/surfactant mixed solutions were studied at differ-ent starch concentrations and constant surfactant concentration. The results show that dilational viscoelasticity modulus, dilational elasticity modulus and dilational viscosity modulus increase with the concentration of starch particles. Foam stability increases with dilational viscoelasticity. Foam strength also increases with starch concentra-tion. Starch particles play a positive effect on foam stability and dilational viscoelasticity and the effect becomes more significant as drainage proceeds. Film pictures indicate that the film with 20%(by mass) starch particles is thicker than that without starch. Starch particles gather in Plateau border and resist drainage, making the foam more stable. © 2014 The Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China, and Chemical Industry Press. Al rights reserved.

  6. [Improvement of acetic acid tolerance and fermentation performance of industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae by overexpression of flocculent gene FLO1 and FLO1c].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhaoli; Cheng, Yanfei; Zhu, Hui; He, Xiuping; Zhang, Borun

    2015-02-01

    Flocculent gene FLO1 and its truncated form FLO1c with complete deletion of repeat unit C were expressed in a non-flocculent industrial strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae CE6 to generate recombinant flocculent strains 6-AF1 and 6-AF1c respectively. Both strains of 6-AF1 and 6-AF1c displayed strong flocculation and better cell growth than the control strain CE6-V carrying the empty vector under acetic acid stress. Moreover, the flocculent strains converted glucose to ethanol at much higher rates than the control strain CE6-V under acetic acid stress. In the presence of 0.6% (V/V) acetic acid, the average ethanol production rates of 6-AF1 and 6-AF1c were 1.56 and 1.62 times of that of strain CE6-V, while the ethanol production rates of 6-AF1 and 6-AF1c were 1.21 and 1.78 times of that of strain CE6-V under 1.0% acetic acid stress. Results in this study indicate that acetic acid tolerance and fermentation performance of industrial S. cerevisiae under acetic acid stress can be improved largely by flocculation endowed by expression of flocculent genes, especially FLO1c.

  7. Production and characterization of cellulose reinforced starch (CRT) films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudharsan, K; Chandra Mohan, C; Azhagu Saravana Babu, P; Archana, G; Sabina, K; Sivarajan, M; Sukumar, M

    2016-02-01

    Starch from Tamarind seed is considered to be a nonedible and inexpensive component, with many industrial applications. Extraction and characterization of tamarind seed starch was carried out for the synthesis of biopolymer. Tamarind seeds were collected, cleaned and further roasted, decorticated, and pulverized to get starch powder. Total starch content present in each tamarind seed is estimated to be around 65-70%. About 84.68% purified starch can be recovered from the tamarind seed. Defatted Tamarind seed starch has an amylose content of 27.55 wt.% and 72.45 wt.% of amylopectin. Morphological (SEM) and X-ray diffraction were used to evaluate crystallinity. Likewise, TGA and DSC of starch have also been analyzed. Thermal properties of starch obtained from tamarind seeds showed good thermal stability when compared to other starch sources such as Mesquite seed and Mango kernel. This study proved that the tamarind seed starch can be used as a potential biopolymer material. Thermo-stable biofilms were produced through initial optimization studies. Predictive response surface quadratic models were constructed for prediction and optimization of biofilm mechanical properties. Correlation coefficient values were calculated to me more than 0.90 for mechanical responses which implies the fitness of constructed model with experimental data.

  8. Citric acid production by solid-state fermentation on a semi-pilot scale using different percentages of treated cassava bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Prado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Citric acid is commercailly important product used in several industrial processes. Solid-state fermentation (SSF has become an alternative method for citric acid production using agro-industrial residues such as cassava bagasse (CB. Use of CB as substrate can avoid the environmental problems caused by its disposal in the environment. The aim of this work was to verify the effect of different percentages of gelatinized starch in CB on production of citric acid by SSF in horizontal drum and tray-type bioreactors. Gelatinization was used in order to make the starch structure more susceptible to consumption by the fungus. The best results (26.9 g/100g of dry CB were obtained in horizontal drum bioreactor using 100% gelatinized CB, although the tray-type bioreactor offers advantages and shows promise for large-scale citric acid production in terms of processing costs.

  9. A novel process for direct production of acetone-butanol-ethanol from native starches using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Vu Hong; Kobayashi, Genta

    2014-02-01

    In this work, a new approach for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production has been proposed. Direct fermentation of native starches (uncooked process) was investigated by using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme (GSHE) and Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Even the process was carried out under suboptimal condition for activity of GSHE, the production of ABE was similar with that observed in conventional process or cooked process in terms of final solvent concentration (21.3 ± 0.4 to 22.4 ± 0.4 g/L), butanol concentration (17.5 ± 0.4 to 17.8 ± 0.3 g/L) and butanol yield (0.33 to 0.37 g/g). The production of solvents was significantly dependent on the source of starches. Among investigated starches, corn starch was more susceptible to GSHE while cassava starch was the most resistant to this enzyme. Fermentation using native corn starch resulted in the solvent productivity of 0.47 g/L h, which was about 15 % higher than that achieved in cooked process. On the contrary, uncooked process using cassava and wheat starch resulted in the solvent productivity of 0.30 and 0.37 g/L h, which were respectively about 30 % lower than those obtained in cooked process. No contamination was observed during all trials even fermentation media were prepared without sterilization. During the fermentation using native starches, no formation of foam is observed. This uncooked process does not require cooking starchy material; therefore, the thermal energy consumption for solvent production would remarkably be reduced in comparison with cooked process.

  10. Barley callus: a model system for bioengineering of starch in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Nielsen, Morten M

    2012-01-01

    . In this way starch is adapted to a variety of specific end-uses. Recombinant DNA technologies offers an alternative to starch industrial processing. The plant biosynthetic pathway can be manipulated to design starches with novel structure and improved technological properties. In the future this may reduce......Background Starch is the most important source of calories for human nutrition and the majority of it is produced by cereal farming. Starch is also used as a renewable raw material in a range of industrial sectors. It can be chemically modified to introduce new physicochemical properties...

  11. Production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) in direct fermentation of cassava by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Vu Hong; Kanda, Kohzo; Kobayashi, Genta

    2010-05-01

    In this work, acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation characteristics of cassava starch and cassava chips when using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 was presented. The obtained results in batch mode using a 1-L fermenter showed that C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 was a hyperamylolytic strain and capable of producing solvents efficiently from cassava starch and cassava chips, which was comparable to when glucose was used. Batch fermentation of cassava starch and cassava chips resulted in 21.0 and 19.4 g/L of total solvent as compared with 24.2 g/L of total solvent when using glucose. Solvent productivity in fermentation of cassava starch was from 42% to 63% higher than that obtained in fermentation using corn and sago starches in the same condition. In fermentation of cassava starch and cassava chips, maximum butanol concentration was 16.9 and 15.5 g/L, respectively. Solvent yield and butanol yield (based on potential glucose) was 0.33 and 0.41, respectively, for fermentation of cassava starch and 0.30 and 0.38, respectively for fermentation using cassava chips.

  12. Researchers foment better ways to ferment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    Researchers in Australia and the US are experimenting with Zymomonas mobilis, the bacteria strain used to make tequila. It could reduce fermentation times because it can withstand substantially higher temperatures than yeast. MIT is experimenting with Clostridium thermocellum, a bacteria strain which has the ability to hydrolyze cellulose into glucose sugar and simultaneously ferment the glucose to ethanol. Purdue University is working with Rhizopus, used in the fermentation of certain Chinese wines where alcohol content approaches 18%. Other researchers are looking at enzyme-based processes to improve sugar yields from starch and cellulose, and Purdue is making a major effort to cut distillation energy consumption.

  13. Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually

  14. Description of Acetobacter oboediens sp. nov. and Acetobacter pomorum sp. nov., two new species isolated from industrial vinegar fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokollek, S J; Hertel, C; Hammes, W P

    1998-07-01

    Two strains of Acetobacter sp., LTH 2460T and LTH 2458T, have been isolated from running red wine and cider vinegar fermentations, respectively. Taxonomic characteristics of the isolates were investigated. Comparative analysis of the 165 rRNA sequences revealed > 99% similarity between strain LTH 2460T and the type strains of the related species Acetobacter europaeus and Acetobacter xylinus and between strain LTH 2458T and Acetobacter pasteurianus. On the other hand, low levels of DNA relatedness (< 34%) were determined in DNA-DNA similarity studies. This relatedness below the species level was consistent with specific physiological characteristics permitting clear identification of these strains within established species of acetic acid bacteria. Based on these results, the names Acetobacter oboediens sp. nov. and Acetobacter pomorum sp. nov. are proposed for strains LTH 2460T and LTH 2458T, respectively. The phylogenetic positions of the new species are reflected by a 16S rRNA-based tree. Furthermore, a 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe specific for A. oboediens was constructed.

  15. 瘤胃灌注不同来源淀粉对牦牛瘤胃发酵及血清生化指标的影响%Effects of Ruminal Infusion of Different Source Starches on Ruminal Fermentation and Serum Biochemical Indexes in Yaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段迎凯; 蒋洪文; 薛白; 王之盛; 邹华围; 赖松家

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of ruminal infusion of different source starches on ruminal fermentation and serum biochemical indexes in yaks. According to a 3 x 3 Latin square design, three yaks with permanent rumen cannulas and similar body weight of (244 ±15) kg were selected. The control group was fed the oat hay at the 1.2 times maintenance energy feeding level, and based on feeding the oat hay, the other 2 groups were infused corn starch (CS group) and resistant starch (RS group) 900 g/d, respectively. The experiment included three periods, and each period was 18 days (15 d-adaptation period and 3 d-sampling period). The results showed as follows; the Ph value of control group was significantly higher than that of the other two groups (P 0. 05) , and serum urea nitrogen content was significantly higher than that of the other two groups (P <0. 05). In conclusion, the supplementation of corn starch and resistant starch can reduce the NH3-N and urea nitrogen contents, increase the ruminal MCP synthesis and VFA content, and raise the blood glucose content; yaks are able to effectively utilize different source starches.%本试验旨在探讨瘤胃灌注不同来源淀粉对牦牛瘤胃发酵及血清生化指标的影响.选用3头装有永久性瘤胃瘘管、体况良好、体重相近[( 244±15) kg]的去势牦牛,采用3×3拉丁方试验设计,对照组按照1.2倍维持能量水平饲喂单一燕麦草(未灌注淀粉),玉米淀粉组和抗性淀粉组分别在对照组的饲喂基础上瘤胃灌注玉米淀粉和抗性淀粉900 g/d.试验分为3期,每期试验18 d(15 d预试期和3d采样期).结果表明:与对照组相比,灌注玉米淀粉和抗性淀粉显著降低瘤胃pH(P <0.05),极显著降低瘤胃氨态氮含量(P<0.01),灌注4h后显著提高瘤胃微生物蛋白质和挥发性脂肪酸含量(P<0.05).在灌注后4和6h,玉米淀粉组和抗性淀粉组血糖含量显著高于对照组(P<0.05),

  16. STARCH RETROGRADATION AND PRODUCTION OF RESISTANT STARCH IN COOKED RICE

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    After rice cooking, retrogradation of starch in a cooked rice progresses quickly at under gelatinization temperature. Cold rice (aging rice) is tasteless, firm and digested slowly. My aim in this report is explained the relationship between cold rice tasteless and indexes of starch retrogradation. Starch gelatinization degree, starch whiteness index and resistant starch content that were indexes of starch retrogradation did not change remarkably of cold and aging rice that were very firm and ...

  17. composition and physicochemical properties of starch from christ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thompson O. Izuagie

    alternative sources of starch for industrial products. Keywords: Christ thorn ... cosmetics, agrochemicals, ... water, decorticated to remove skin, dried and ground into flour, which was ... Five cycles of freeze-thaw were performed. The excluded ...

  18. Batch and continuous biohydrogen production from starch hydrolysate by Clostridium species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shing-Der; Lo, Yung-Chung; Wu, Ji-Fang [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China); Lee, Kuo-Shing [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung (China); Chen, Wen-Ming [Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung Marine University, Kaohsiung (China); Lin, Chiu-Yue [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung (China); Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)

    2008-04-15

    In this study, hydrogen gas was produced from starch feedstock via combination of enzymatic hydrolysis of starch and dark hydrogen fermentation. Starch hydrolysis was conducted using batch culture of Caldimonas taiwanensis On1 able to hydrolyze starch completely under the optimal condition of 55 C and pH 7.5, giving a yield of 0.46-0.53 g reducing sugar/g starch. Five H{sub 2}-producing pure strains and a mixed culture were used for hydrogen production from raw and hydrolyzed starch. All the cultures could produce H{sub 2} from hydrolyzed starch, whereas only two pure strains (i.e., Clostridium butyricum CGS2 and CGS5) and the mixed culture were able to ferment raw starch. Nevertheless, all the cultures displayed higher hydrogen production efficiencies while using the starch hydrolysate, leading to a maximum specific H{sub 2} production rate of 116 and 118 ml/g VSS/h, for Cl. butyricumCGS2 and Cl. pasteurianum CH5, respectively. Meanwhile, the H{sub 2} yield obtained from strain CGS2 and strain CH5 was 1.23 and 1.28 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose, respectively. The best starch-fermenting strain Cl. butyricum CGS2 was further used for continuous H{sub 2} production using hydrolyzed starch as the carbon source under different hydraulic retention time (HRT). When the HRT was gradually shortened from 12 to 2 h, the specific H{sub 2} production rate increased from 250 to 534 ml/g VSS/h, whereas the H{sub 2} yield decreased from 2.03 to 1.50 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose. While operating at 2 h HRT, the volumetric H{sub 2} production rate reached a high level of 1.5 l/h/l. (author)

  19. Guangzhou Chemical Industry%Study on Extraction Conditions of Isolated Soybean Protein in Microbial Fermentation Soybean Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙楠; 杜娜; 王霆

    2016-01-01

    采用碱提酸沉法对微生物发酵法制备的豆粕中提取大豆分离蛋白,并用凯氏定氮法测算大豆分离蛋白含量。研究碱提温度、液固比和碱提pH值及酸沉温度、时间和pH值对大豆分离蛋白提取率的影响。结果表明碱提的最佳工艺条件为:温度50℃、时间50 min、液固比10:1、 pH=9.0。酸沉的工艺参数为:温度45℃、时间40 min、 pH=4.5。所得大豆分离蛋白最高提取率为79.29%。%Alkaline extractionandacid precipitation were used to extract isolated protein from soybean meal produced by microbial fermentation. The content of isolated protein was calculated by kjeldahl method. Meanwhile, the extraction conditions of the isolated protein were studied. The optimum conditions of alkaline extractions were as follow: the temperature of extraction was 50℃, extracting time was 50 min, the ratio of liquidand solid was 10:1and pH was 9. 0. The optimum conditions of acid depositions were as follows:the temperature was 45 ℃,acid deposition time was 40 minand pH was 4. 5. The highest extraction yield of isolated protein was 79. 29%.

  20. Size characterization of barley starch granules by gravitational field-flow fractionation: a rapid, low-cost method to assess the brewing capability of different strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschiglian, Pierluigi; Zattoni, Andrea; Casolari, Sonia; Krumlova, Andrea; Budinska, Marcela; Chmelík, Josef

    2002-04-01

    Cereal starch occurs as two types of micrometer-sized granules, large and small. Large starch granules are more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis. When cereal starch is used for fermentation processes, as in brewing of barley malt, the barley strains with the highest content of large starch granules should be preferred. Gravitational field-flow fractionation (GFFF) is a separation method able to fractionate starch samples at low cost and short analysis time. In this work, the search for the best GFFF conditions for the analytical separation of barley starch within an inter-laboratory approach is presented. For different barley strains cultivated under monitored conditions the size distributions of starch granules is here quickly monitored and characterized by GFFF. As a consequence, dimensional characterization of barley starch can allow for the selection of the most suitable strains with the lowest content of non-degradable starch.

  1. Characteristics of some fermentative bacteria from a thermophilic methane-producing fermenter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varel, V.H.

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria from a 55/sup 0/C methane-producing beef waste fermenter were enumerated, isolated, and characterized. Direct microscopic bacterial counts were 5.2-6.8 X 10/sup 10/ per g fermenter effluent. Using a nonselective roll-tube medium which contained 40% fermenter effluent, 8.5-14.1% of microscopic count was culturable. Deletion of fermenter effluent significantly reduced the viable count. Sixty-four randomly picked strains were characterized. All were pleomorphic, gram-negative, anaerobic rods, many of which were difficult to grow in liquid media. The strains were divided into 5 major groups based on glucose fermentation, hydrogen sulfide production, starch hydrolysis, fermentation products, and morphology. Glucose was fermented by 75% of the isolates, 76% utilized starch, 25% produced hydrogen sulfide, 76% produced hydrogen, 37% produced indole, 21% hydrolyzed gelatin, and 13% were sporeformers. Ethanol, lactate, formate, acetate, and hydrogen were common fermentation products. Twenty-four representative strains had 1-12 flagella. Growth was observed between 35 and 73/sup 0/C. These studies indicate that species diversity among the isolated organisms was low. 38 references, 3 tables.

  2. Design of starch coated seed cotton dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model was developed for the design and analysis of a high temperature tunnel dryer, primarily used with a new cotton ginning product, EASIflo ® cottonseed (starch-coated cottonseed). This form of cottonseed has emerged as a viable, value-added product for the cotton ginning industry. Currently, li...

  3. Elaboração de biscoitos de chocolate com substituição parcial da farinha de trigo por polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de laranja Chocolate biscuits preparation with partial substitution of wheat flour by fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Alves Oliveira Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os consumidores estão cada vez mais exigentes e preocupados com a saúde e, por consequência, exigindo produtos naturais que deverão ser seguros e promover qualidade de vida. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de desenvolver biscoitos com farinhas mistas de polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de laranja, utilizando um planejamento fatorial 2³, com variáveis independentes: concentração de polvilho azedo, açúcar e farinha de albedo de laranja, e variáveis respostas: as características sensoriais: aparência, aroma, textura e sabor, além da impressão global, utilizando escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Os biscoitos foram avaliados também quanto às características físico-químicas. As médias obtidas para as características sensoriais estiveram na faixa que vai de cinco (não gostei nem desgostei até sete (gostei moderadamente, não apresentando diferença significativa (P≤0,05 para todas as características sensoriais avaliadas. Dessa maneira, foi possível escolher a formulação ideal obtida de acordo com os parâmetros nutricionais, por não existir diferença sensorial significativa, que foi 35% de polvilho azedo, 100% de açúcar e 7,5% de farinha de albedo de laranja. No teste sensorial comparativo com os biscoitos comercial, padrão e otimizado, as características sensoriais aparência, sabor e textura apresentaram diferença significativa (P≤0,05. As características físico-químicas apresentaram resultados correspondentes aos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, e o teor de fibra bruta do biscoito otimizado foi de 3,08%, assim, pode ser classificado como biscoito "fonte de fibras".The consumers are increasingly demanding and worried about health and, consequently, requiring natural products that should be safe and that promote life quality. The present research had the objective to develop biscuits with mixed flour of fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour, using a 2³ factorial

  4. Flexible fermentation of organically loaded industrial waste waters using a beverage manufacturer as an example; Flexible Vergaerung organisch belasteter Industrie-Abwaesser am Beispiel eines Getraenkeherstellers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganagin, Waldemar; Loewen, Achim; Nelles, Michael [HAWK Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst Hildesheim/Holzminden/Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany). Fachgebiet Nachhaltige Energie- und Umwelttechnik (NEUTec)

    2013-10-01

    Industrial organic waste water is usually treated directly in an own or public sewage treatment plant which is highly cost-intensive. The anaerobic digestion of those waste waters is sometimes difficult to control. HAWK is working in a project about this topic, where a fixed bed reactor is investigated for the operation as a flexible plant. For this reason a semi-industrial pilot plant was developed and the capability will be tested on several sites. The gas production ought to run according to the companies demands and is integrated in the operation and processes. This flexible plant is specifically designed to deal with small amounts of waste water with low organic components and even sometimes discontinuously loads. This process is tested in a beverage factory. The reactor was implemented in the existing infrastructure and their waste water is treated. The assessment of the measurements shows, that the fixed bed reactor can handle the organic compounds of the waste water very well and reduce them significantly. Even fluctuating loads and a low organic concentration do not harm the process. The effect of power generation is an additional benefit for this system This innovative approach with low energy input and additional profit from the power sale makes the waste water treatment on site as a real alternative to the conventional treatment. (orig.)

  5. Chemical profile, rumen degradation kinetics, and energy value of four hull-less barley cultivars: comparison of the zero-amylose waxy, waxy, high-amylose, and normal starch cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiran, Daalkhaijav; Yu, Peiqiang

    2010-10-13

    The objective of this study was to compare three new Canadian hull-less barley cultivars with altered starch characteristics (zero-amylose waxy, CDC Fibar; waxy, CDC Rattan; and high-amylose, HB08302) with conventional normal starch hull-less barley (HB) cultivar (CDC McGwire) in terms of ruminant feed value. The study revealed that altered starch HB cultivars possessed several desirable feed characteristics, distinct from conventional normal starch HB, although they were similar in some respects: (1) basic chemical and carbohydrate subfraction profiles varied; (2) starch degradation kinetics showed altered starch HB containing higher soluble starch, rumen undegraded starch, lower degradable starch, and slower degradation rate; (3) all altered starch HB cultivars had similar soluble and degradable starch, different from that of conventional normal starch HB; (4) two waxy HB cultivars were lower, whereas the high-amylose cultivar was similar in effective degradability of the starch as compared to conventional normal starch HB; (5) zero-amylose waxy HB had the greater effective degradability of protein among HB cultivars; and (6) amylopectin in HB had a positive relationship with protein supply (increasing amylopectin was correlated with increased effective degradability of protein). Overall, these results demonstrate that the alteration of starch structure in granule affects not only starch fermentation and utilization but also protein value in hull-less barley. In summary, the HB cultivars with modified starch might be a better feed grain for ruminants than the normal starch HB.

  6. Development of industrial-medium-required elimination of the 2,3-butanediol fermentation pathway to maintain ethanol yield in an ethanologenic strain of Klebsiella oxytoca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brent E; Yomano, L P; York, S W; Ingram, L O

    2005-01-01

    Fermentation efficiency and nutrient costs are both significant factors in process economics for the microbial conversion of cellulosic biomass to commodity chemicals such as ethanol. In this study, we have developed a more industrial medium (OUM1) composed of 0.5% corn steep liquor (dry weight basis) supplemented with mineral salts (0.2%), urea (0.06%), and glucose (9%). Although the growth of strain P2 was vigorous in this medium, approximately 14% of substrate carbon was diverted into 2,3-butanediol and acetoin under the low pH conditions needed for optimal cellulase activity during simultaneous saccharification. Deleting the central region of the budAB genes encoding alpha-acetolactate synthase and alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase eliminated the butanediol and acetoin coproducts and increased ethanol yields by 12%. In OUM1 medium at pH 5.2, strain BW21 produced over 4% ethanol in 48 h (0.47 g ethanol per g glucose). Average productivity (48 h), ethanol titer, and ethanol yield for BW21 in OUM1 medium (pH 5.2) exceeded that of the parent (strain P2) in rich laboratory medium (Luria broth).

  7. Study on Hydrolysis Process of Cassava Starch Used for Microbial Lipid Fermentation%用于微生物油脂发酵的木薯淀粉水解工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志斌; 颜日明; 曾庆桂; 汪涯; 朱笃

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the lipid production of cassava starch, the process of cassava starch hydrolysis (CSH) was optimized using orthogonal experimental design and Uniform design. The results showed that the content of α-amylase and glucoamylase and the liquefaction temperature significantly influenced cassava starch amylolysis. The dextrose equivalent value was up to 97.3% when content of α-amylase and glucose amylase and liquefaction tem-perature were 756 u/g, 602 u/g and 92℃ , respectively. While the CSH was used as a carbon source,the biomass and total lipid content of Trichosporon cutaneum were 16.38g/L and 7.22 g/L respectively, which increased by 46. 25% and 41.12% as compared with those using glucose as a carbon source. Therefore, cassava starch hydrolysis, as a novel carbon source, is an ideal route to produce microbial lipid.%为了提高木薯淀粉的发酵产脂能力,采用正交实验和均匀设计法对木薯淀粉酶法水解工艺进行了优化,结果表明d一淀粉酶量、糖化酶量和液化温度对木薯淀粉水解有显著影响。当淀粉酶量为756U/g,糖化酶量为602U/g,液化温度为92℃,其水解DE值达到97.3%。以该水解液进行皮状丝胞酵母B3(rcutaneumB3)油脂发酵时,其生物量和油脂产量分别为16.38g/L和7.22g/L,比葡萄糖作为碳源的生物量和油脂产量高46.25%和41.12%,利用木薯淀粉水解液作为新型发酵碳源生产微生物油脂是一种理想的途径。

  8. Solid-state fermentation: tool for bioremediation of adsorbed textile dyestuff on distillery industry waste-yeast biomass using isolated Bacillus cereus strain EBT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Avinash A; Kamatkar, Jeevan D; Khandare, Rahul V; Jadhav, Jyoti P; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2013-02-01

    Bioremediation of textile dyestuffs under solid-state fermentation (SSF) using industrial wastes as substrate pose an economically feasible, promising, and eco-friendly alternative. The purpose of this study was to adsorb Red M5B dye, a sample of dyes mixture and a real textile effluent on distillery industry waste-yeast biomass (DIW-YB) and its further bioremediation using Bacillus cereus EBT1 under SSF. Textile dyestuffs were allowed to adsorb on DIW-YB. DIW-YB adsorbed dyestuffs were decolorized under SSF by using B. cereus. Enzyme analysis was carried out to ensure decolorization of Red M5B. Metabolites after dye degradation were analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, HPLC, and GC-MS. DIW-YB showed adsorption of Red M5B, dyes mixture and a textile wastewater sample up to 87, 70, and 81 %, respectively. DIW-YB adsorbed Red M5B was decolorized up to 98 % by B. cereus in 36 h. Whereas B. cereus could effectively reduce American Dye Manufacture Institute value from DIW-YB adsorbed mixture of textile dyes and textile wastewater up to 70 and 100 %, respectively. Induction of extracellular enzymes such as laccase and azoreductase suggests their involvement in dye degradation. Repeated utilization of DIW-YB showed consistent adsorption and ADMI removal from textile wastewater up to seven cycles. HPLC and FTIR analysis confirms the biodegradation of Red M5B. GC-MS analysis revealed the formation of new metabolites. B. cereus has potential to bioremediate adsorbed textile dyestuffs on DIW-YB. B. cereus along with DIW-YB showed enhanced decolorization performance in tray bioreactor which suggests its potential for large-scale treatment procedures.

  9. New starch phenotypes produced by TILLING in barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sparla

    Full Text Available Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1:3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant for nutritional value or industrial applications. Here, the Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING approach was applied on the barley TILLMore TILLING population to identify 29 new alleles in five genes related to starch metabolism known to be expressed in the endosperm during grain filling: BMY1 (Beta-amylase 1, GBSSI (Granule Bound Starch Synthase I, LDA1 (Limit Dextrinase 1, SSI (Starch Synthase I, SSIIa (Starch Synthase IIa. Reserve starch of nine M3 mutant lines carrying missense or nonsense mutations was analysed for granule size, crystallinity and amylose/amylopectin content. Seven mutant lines presented starches with different features in respect to the wild-type: (i a mutant line with a missense mutation in GBSSI showed a 4-fold reduced amylose/amylopectin ratio; (ii a missense mutations in SSI resulted in 2-fold increase in A:B granule ratio; (iii a nonsense mutation in SSIIa was associated with shrunken seeds with a 2-fold increased amylose/amylopectin ratio and different type of crystal packing in the granule; (iv the remaining four missense mutations suggested a role of LDA1 in granule initiation, and of SSIIa in determining the size of A-granules. We demonstrate the feasibility of the TILLING approach to identify new alleles in genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Based on their novel physicochemical properties, some of the identified new mutations may have nutritional and/or industrial applications.

  10. Biosysthesis of Corn Starch Palmitate by Lipase Novozym 435

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Esterification of starch was carried out to expand the usefulness of starch for a myriad of industrial applications. Lipase B from Candida antarctica, immobilized on macroporous acrylic resin (Novozym 435, was used for starch esterification in two reaction systems: micro-solvent system and solvent-free system. The esterification of corn starch with palmitic acid in the solvent-free system and micro-solvent system gave a degree of substitution (DS of 1.04 and 0.0072 respectively. Esterification of corn starch with palmitic acid was confirmed by UV spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy. The results of emulsifying property analysis showed that the starch palmitate with higher DS contributes to the higher emulsifying property (67.6% and emulsion stability (79.6% than the native starch (5.3% and 3.9%. Modified starch obtained by esterification that possesses emulsifying properties and has long chain fatty acids, like palmitic acid, has been widely used in the food, pharmaceutical and biomedical applications industries.

  11. Effect of acid hydrolysis on starch structure and functionality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Copeland, Les

    2015-01-01

    Acid hydrolysis is an important chemical modification that can significantly change the structural and functional properties of starch without disrupting its granular morphology. A deep understanding of the effect of acid hydrolysis on starch structure and functionality is of great importance for starch scientific research and its industrial applications. During acid hydrolysis, amorphous regions are hydrolyzed preferentially, which enhances the crystallinity and double helical content of acid hydrolyzed starch. This review discusses current understanding of the effect of acid hydrolysis on starch structure and functionality. The effects of acid hydrolysis on amylose content, chain length distribution of amylopectin molecules, molecular and crystalline organization (including lamellar structure) and granular morphology are considered. Functional properties discussed include swelling power, gelatinization, retrogradation, pasting, gel texture, and in vitro enzyme digestibility. The paper also highlights some promising applications of acid hydrolyzed starch (starch nanocrystals) in the preparation of biodegradable nanocomposites, bio-hydrogen, and slowly digestible starch-based healthy foods.

  12. Effect of Hydroxypropylation on Functional Properties of Different Cultivars of Sweet Potato Starch in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Suraji; Gunaratne, Anil; Ranaweera, K. K. D. S.; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Starches obtained from different cultivars of sweet potatoes commonly consumed in Sri Lanka, were chemically modified with hydroxypropyl substitution, to analyze the changes in the physicochemical properties. Significant changes (P gelatinization and retrogradation enthalpies as well as gelatinization temperature were observed for derivatized starches compared to the native starch. Low levels of pasting stability with increased levels of breakdown and reduced cold paste viscosity were observed in the hydroxypropylated starch samples except for the Malaysian cultivar (S5). Chemically modified starch gels stored under cold storage did not show a syneresis for two weeks in the cycle and the frozen storage showed much improved stability in the starch gels within the four-week cycle. Chemical modification of sweet potato starch with hydroxyl propyl substitution can enhance the functional characteristics of the native starch which will improve its potential application in the food industry. PMID:26904619

  13. Organic acid profile of commercial sour cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEMIATE I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids are present in sour cassava starch ("polvilho azedo" and contribute with organoleptic and physical characteristics like aroma, flavor and the exclusive baking property, that differentiate this product from the native cassava starch. Samples of commercial sour cassava starch collected in South and Southeast Brazil were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. The HPLC equipment had a Biorad Aminex HPX-87H column for organic acid analysis and a refractometric detector. Analysis was carried out with 0.005M sulfuric acid as mobile phase, 0.6ml/min flow rate and column temperature of 60° C. The acids quantified were lactic (0.036 to 0.813 g/100g, acetic (0 to 0.068 g/100g, propionic (0 to 0.013 g/100g and butyric (0 to 0.057 g/100g, that are produced during the natural fermentation of cassava starch. Results showed large variation among samples, even within the same region. Some samples exhibited high acid levels, mainly lactic acid, but in these neither propionic nor butyric acids were detected. Absence of butyric acid was not expected because this is an important component of the sour cassava starch aroma, and the lack of this acid may suggest that such samples were produced without the natural fermentation step.

  14. Fermentation and recovery of L-glutamic acid from cassava starch hydrolysate by ion-exchange resin column Produção de ácido L-glutâmico a partir de um hidrolisado de amido de mandioca usando resina de troca iônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Madhavan Nampoothiri

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out with the aim of producing L-glutamic acid from Brevibacterium sp. by utilizing a locally available starchy substrate, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. Initial studies were carried out in shake flasks, which showed that even though the yield was high with 85-90 DE (Dextrose Equivalent value, the maximum conversion yield (~34% was obtained by using only partially digested starch hydrolysate, i.e. 45-50 DE. Fermentations were carried out in batch mode in a 5 L fermenter, using suitably diluted cassava starch hydrolysate, using a 85-90 DE value hydrolysate. Media supplemented with nutrients resulted in an accumulation of 21 g/L glutamic acid with a fairly high (66.3% conversation yield of glucose to glutamic acid (based on glucose consumed and on 81.74% theoretical conversion rate. The bioreactor conditions most conducive for maximum production were pH 7.5, temperature 30°C and an agitation of 180 rpm. When fermentation was conducted in fed-batch mode by keeping the residual reducing sugar concentration at 5% w/v, 25.0 g/L of glutamate was obtained after 40 h fermentation (16% more the batch mode. Chromatographic separation by ion-exchange resin was used for the recovery and purification of glutamic acid. It was further crystallized and separated by making use of its low solubility at the isoelectric point (pH 3.2.Pesquisas foram realizadas com o objetivo de produzir ácido glutâmico a partir de Brevibacterium sp. utilizando um substrato disponível na região, a mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz. Estudos iniciais, desenvolvidos em shaker, demonstraram que mesmo obtendo elevado rendimento com 85-90 DE (Dextrose Equivalent value, a taxa de conversão máxima (~34% foi obtida usando um hidrolisado de amido parcialmente digerido, i.e. 45-50 DE. As fermentações foram realizadas em um fermentador de 5 L, usando um hidrolisado de amido de mandioca adequadamente diluído, preparado à partir de um valor DE de 85-90. O

  15. Potato starch synthases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazarian-Firouzabadi, Farhad; Visser, Richard G.F.

    2017-01-01

    Starch, a very compact form of glucose units, is the most abundant form of storage polyglucan in nature. The starch synthesis pathway is among the central biochemical pathways, however, our understanding of this important pathway regarding genetic elements controlling this pathway, is still

  16. Potato starch synthases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazarian-Firouzabadi, Farhad; Visser, Richard G.F.

    2017-01-01

    Starch, a very compact form of glucose units, is the most abundant form of storage polyglucan in nature. The starch synthesis pathway is among the central biochemical pathways, however, our understanding of this important pathway regarding genetic elements controlling this pathway, is still insuffic

  17. Ethanol production from sorghum grains [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench]: evaluation of the enzymatic hydrolysis and the hydrolysate fermentability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Barcelos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of ethanol from sorghum grains was investigated in the present work. Initially, starch enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated using commercial α-amylase and glucoamylase, considering particle size, solid:liquid ratio and enzyme load as variables. The hydrolysate, in the best conditions (73 U of α-amylase/g grain and 1150 U glucoamylase/g grain, contained glucose at a concentration of approximately 250 g/L, which was fermented to produce ethanol in a bioreactor in batch mode. Using an industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the maximum ethanol concentration produced was roughly 106 g.L-1 in 24 h of fermentation, resulting in a volumetric productivity of 4.4 g.L-1.h-1 and a product yield based on the substrate consumed (0.499 g.g-1 close to the theoretical.

  18. Synergistic Effects of Agro-Industrial Wastes on Alpha Amylase Production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in Semi Solid Substrate Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yaraş

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns with the combinations of soybean meal (SM, wheat bran (WB and whey were utilized as the substrates for α-amylase production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NRRL B-645. As a result of the experiments, the highest α-amylase activity (4257 U/ml was obtained containing SM 20 g/l, WB 5 g/l, whey 5% (v/v, peptone 1 g/l, yeast extract (YE 0.5 g/l and (NH42SO4 1 g/l at 33 °C and 150 rpm for 48 h. This innovative process for the α-amylase production can be extended to different enzymes using various agro-industrial wastes.

  19. Process development for gelatinisation and enzymatic hydrolysis of starch at high concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    cum laude graduation (with distinction) Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch is encountered in day-to-day life for instance in the dishwasher during removal of stains with detergents or in our mouth during chewing of starch-based foods in the presence of saliva. The reaction is also important for the (food) industry, for example for the production of beer or bio-ethanol. In industry, it is usually preceded by gelatinisation to make the starch molecules available for the enzymes. Both gelatinisation...

  20. Starch Modification by Organic Acids and Their Derivatives: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđica Ačkar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Starch has been an inexhaustible subject of research for many decades. It is an inexpensive, readily-available material with extensive application in the food and processing industry. Researchers are continually trying to improve its properties by different modification procedures and expand its application. What is mostly applied in this view are their chemical modifications, among which organic acids have recently drawn the greatest attention, particularly with respect to the application of starch in the food industry. Namely, organic acids naturally occur in many edible plants and many of them are generally recognized as safe (GRAS, which make them ideal modification agents for starch intended for the food industry. The aim of this review is to give a short literature overview of the progress made in the research of starch esterification, etherification, cross-linking, and dual modification with organic acids and their derivatives.

  1. Effect of Cross-Linking and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Composite Modification on the Properties of Rice Starches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Qiang Liu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Native rice starch lacks the versatility necessary to function adequately under rigorous industrial processing, so modified starches are needed to meet the functional properties required in food products. This work investigated the impact of enzymatic hydrolysis and cross-linking composite modification on the properties of rice starches. Rice starch was cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (EPI with different concentrations (0.5%, 0.7%, 0.9% w/w, on a dry starch basis, affording cross-linked rice starches with the three different levels of cross-linking that were named R1, R2, and R3, respectively. The cross-linked rice starches were hydrolyzed by α-amylase and native, hydrolyzed, and hydrolyzed cross-linked rice starches were comparatively studied. It was found that hydrolyzed cross-linked rice starches showed a lower the degree of amylase hydrolysis compared with hydrolyzed rice starch. The higher the degree of cross-linking, the higher the capacity to resist enzyme hydrolysis. Hydrolyzed cross-linked rice starches further increased the adsorptive capacities of starches for liquids and decreased the trend of retrogradation, and it also strengthened the capacity to resist shear compared to native and hydrolyzed rice starches.

  2. Starch Bioengineering in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    the wild-type cultivar. These exciting results may provide a potential clean technological approach to starch modification by in-planta bioengineering and avoid environmental hazards resulting from post-harvest treatments by chemical modifications. The third study was to investigate the effects...... involved in this process, has enabled the genetic modification f crops in a rational manner to produce novel designer starches with improved functionality. The hypothesis of the present study is that the hyper-phosphorylation of cereal endosperm starch makes it easily accessible and degradable...... by the amylolytic enzymes while the amylose-only endosperm starch exhibits high resistance to degradation and hence less available for degradation. With the aim to investigate the hypothesis, starch molecular structures were modulated with the above mentioned modifications and were studied for the effects...

  3. Scleroglucan: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant A. Survase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides produced by a variety of microorganisms find multifarious industrial applications in foods, pharmaceutical and other industries as emulsifiers, stabilizers, binders, gelling agents, lubricants, and thickening agents. One such exopolysaccharide is scleroglucan, produced by pure culture fermentation from filamentous fungi of genus Sclerotium. The review discusses the properties, fermentative production, downstream processing and applications of scleroglucan.

  4. Role of resistant starch in improving gut health, adiposity, and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Michael J; Zhou, June; Hegsted, Maren; Pelkman, Christine; Durham, Holiday A; Coulon, Diana B; Martin, Roy J

    2015-03-01

    The realization that low-glycemic index diets were formulated using resistant starch led to more than a decade of research on the health effects of resistant starch. Determination of the metabolizable energy of the resistant starch product allowed for the performance of isocaloric studies. Fermentation of resistant starch in rodent studies results in what appears to be a healthier gut, demonstrated by increased amounts of short-chain fatty acids, an apparent positive change in the microbiota, and increased gene expression for gene products involved in normal healthy proliferation and apoptosis of potential cancer cells. Additionally, consumption of resistant starch was associated with reduced abdominal fat and improved insulin sensitivity. Increased serum glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) likely plays a role in promoting these health benefits. One rodent study that did not use isocaloric diets demonstrated that the use of resistant starch at 8% of the weight of the diet reduced body fat. This appears to be approximately equivalent to the human fiber requirement. In human subjects, insulin sensitivity is increased with the feeding of resistant starch. However, only 1 of several studies reports an increase in serum GLP-1 associated with resistant starch added to the diet. This means that other mechanisms, such as increased intestinal gluconeogenesis or increased adiponectin, may be involved in the promotion of improved insulin sensitivity. Future research may confirm that there will be improved health if human individuals consume the requirement for dietary fiber and a large amount of the fiber is fermentable.

  5. Role of Resistant Starch in Improving Gut Health, Adiposity, and Insulin Resistance1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Michael J; Zhou, June; Hegsted, Maren; Pelkman, Christine; Durham, Holiday A; Coulon, Diana B; Martin, Roy J

    2015-01-01

    The realization that low–glycemic index diets were formulated using resistant starch led to more than a decade of research on the health effects of resistant starch. Determination of the metabolizable energy of the resistant starch product allowed for the performance of isocaloric studies. Fermentation of resistant starch in rodent studies results in what appears to be a healthier gut, demonstrated by increased amounts of short-chain fatty acids, an apparent positive change in the microbiota, and increased gene expression for gene products involved in normal healthy proliferation and apoptosis of potential cancer cells. Additionally, consumption of resistant starch was associated with reduced abdominal fat and improved insulin sensitivity. Increased serum glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) likely plays a role in promoting these health benefits. One rodent study that did not use isocaloric diets demonstrated that the use of resistant starch at 8% of the weight of the diet reduced body fat. This appears to be approximately equivalent to the human fiber requirement. In human subjects, insulin sensitivity is increased with the feeding of resistant starch. However, only 1 of several studies reports an increase in serum GLP-1 associated with resistant starch added to the diet. This means that other mechanisms, such as increased intestinal gluconeogenesis or increased adiponectin, may be involved in the promotion of improved insulin sensitivity. Future research may confirm that there will be improved health if human individuals consume the requirement for dietary fiber and a large amount of the fiber is fermentable. PMID:25770258

  6. Rheological behavior of gamma-irradiated cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Orelio L.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. del, E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Cassava starch is the by-product of the process of pressing water out of cassava to make cassava meal. The juice has a fine starch, similar to rice or potato starch that, when dried, yields polvilho doce (sweet manioc starch); from the fermented juice comes polvilho azedo (sour manioc starch). Cassava starch can perform most of the functions where maize, rice and wheat starch are currently used. The aim of the present work was to determine the influence or ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of aqueous preparations of gamma-irradiated cassava starch at different concentrations. Samples of polvilho doce and polvilho azedo were obtained at the local market and irradiated in plastic bags in a Gammacell 220 with doses of 1, 3 e 5 kGy, dose rate ∼ 1.2 kGy h-1. A Brooksfield viscometer was employed for the viscosity measurements. The results showed a strong dependence of the viscosity with the concentration of the starch solutions. In most of the cases there was a decrease of viscosity with the increase of the radiation dose usually seen in irradiated polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the dose response relation of the two kind of starch was different. (author)

  7. Fermentation kinetics and production of volatile fatty acids and microbial protein by starchy feedstuffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Becker, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The rate and extent of rumen fermentation of different starch sources can be very different, depending on the origin of the starch, but more importantly on the technological treatment of the starchy feed ingredients. Therefore, feeding different starchy feed ingredients can contribute in a very diff

  8. Effects of flow field on the metabolic characteristics of Streptomyces lincolnensis in the industrial fermentation of lincomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Zhang, Jiang; Tan, Ya-Li; Li, Zhi-Hong; Yu, Xue-Feng; Xia, Jian-Ye; Chu, Ju; Ge, You-Qun

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the flow field in the existing fermentor with radial-flow impellers (C1) was studied using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package Fluent, then the fermentor with radial-axial flow impellers (C2) was constructed and was compared with the C1 fermentor by CFD and experimental research. The simulation results revealed that the flow field in C2 fermentor had characteristics such as higher turbulent kinetic energy, gas holdup and shear rates. Metabolic variables of Streptomyces lincolnensis in the two fermentors such as carbon and nitrogen source consumption rates, specific growth rates (μ), hyphae morphologies, and lincomycin productivities were further explored. The correlation analysis between the experimental measurements and the simulation results indicated that the hyphae clustering and dry cell weight (DCW) decreasing at production stage were eliminated in C2 fermentor, which had higher gas volumetric mass transfer coefficient (K(L)a), dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and consumption rates of nutrient materials. When C2 was employed in the fermentor, the specific growth rate of S. lincolnensis at growth stage was higher, and the maintenance metabolism together with secondary metabolism at production stage was kept at higher levels. As a result, the yield of lincomycin was achieved 7039 μg ml(-1) when the 60 m(3) industrial fermentor was equipped with C2, which was increased by 46% compared to that obtained in the C1 fermentor.

  9. 2,3-Butanediol production by Enterobacter aerogenes: selection of the optimal conditions and application to food industry residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perego, P.; Converti, A.; Del Borghi, A. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Genoa Univ. (Italy); Canepa, P. [Dept. of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, Genoa Univ. (Italy)

    2000-12-01

    Optimum values of temperature, pH, and starting substrate concentration are experimentally determined for 2,3-butanediol production by Enterobacter aerogenes through three set of batch fermentations of synthetic glucose solutions. The results of tests carried out at variable temperature show an optimum of 39 C and are used to estimate, for both fermentation and thermal inactivation, the activation enthalpies (7.19 and 23.6 kJ mol{sup -1}) and the related entropies (-0.32 and -0.27 kJ mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}). An optimum pH value of 6.0 is evidenced from batch runs at variable pH, whose results are also used to make reasonable hypotheses on the reaction controlling the metabolic pathway which leads to butanediol. The fermentability of different food industry wastes, namely starch hydrolysate, both raw and decoloured molasses, and whey, is finally checked. (orig.)

  10. Effects of Graded Abomasal Starch Infusion on Feed Intake, Lactation Performance,Gastrointestinal Fermentation and Blood Metabolism of Lactating Cows%真胃灌注不同水平淀粉对泌乳后期奶牛采食量、泌乳性能、胃肠道发酵和血液代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹杨; 李胜利; 曹志军; 杨占山

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was performed to assess the effects of infusion of graded starch in abomasum on feed intake,lactation performance,gastrointestinal fermentation and blood metabolism of lactating cows. Four Holstein cows fitted with permanent ruminal cannulas were arranged into four groups by a 4×4 Latin square de-sign. Cows were infused with 0,800,1 600 and 2 400 g / d starch in abomasum,respectively. The experiment lasted for 7 days,which was consisted of a 5-day pre-experimental period and a 2-day experimental period. The results showed as follows:1)dry matter intake of dairy cows was not affected by abomasal starch infusion at different levels(P>0.05);with the increase of abomasal starch infusion level,digestive energy intake( P =0.022)and net energy for lactation intake(P = 0.014)were linearly increased,while starch apparent digesti-bility was linearly decreased(P = 0.029). 2)With the increase of abomasal starch infusion level,milk fat per-centage(P = 0.024)and yield(P = 0.022)were quadratically increased,those in 1 600 g / d group reached the highest. 3)Butyric acid concentration in fecal fluid in 800 g / d group was significantly lower than that in 1 600 and 2 400 g / d groups(P0.05). In conclusion,milk fat percentage is quadratically increased with the increase of abomasal starch infusion level,and the peak amount of rumen es-caped starch that can be utilized by dairy cows at late lactation period is 1 600 g / d.%为了研究真胃灌注不同水平淀粉对泌乳后期奶牛采食量、泌乳性能、胃肠道发酵和血液代谢的影响,采用4×4拉丁方设计将4头安装有永久性瘤胃瘘管的荷斯坦2胎奶牛分为4组,分别向真胃内灌注0(对照组)、800、1600、2400 g / d 淀粉。共进行4期试验,每期7 d(5 d的预试期和2 d 的正试期)。结果表明:1)真胃灌注不同水平淀粉对奶牛干物质采食量无显著影响(P>0.05);奶牛的消化能( P =0.022)和泌乳净能采食量( P

  11. Inhibition of wheat starch retrogradation by tea derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihua; Sun, Binghua; Zhang, Shikang; Zhu, Yuejin; Tian, Yaoqi

    2015-12-10

    The effect of four industrial tea derivatives (tea polyphenols [TPS], tea water-soluble extracts [TSE], tea polysaccharides [TSS], and green tea powder [GTP]), on the retrogradation of wheat starch was investigated using texture profile analysis (TPA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rapid viscosity analysis (RVA), and the α-amylase-iodine method. The addition of the four tea derivatives resulted in decreased hardness and increased cohesiveness of the starch gel as shown by the TPA test. The DSC data demonstrated an increase in the enthalpy change of starch gelatinization and a decrease in the enthalpy change of starch recrystallite dissociation. The RVA results indicated that the peak viscosity, representing the intermolecular forces of wheat starch, was reduced after addition of TPS, TSE, and TSS, respectively, but was increased by GTP. Furthermore, the half crystallization time in the Avrami equation almost doubled after the separate addition of the tea derivatives.

  12. The production of chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator. Annual progress report, January 1993--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Venkatesh, K.V.; Choi, H.; Salicetti-Piazza, L.; Borgos-Rubio, N.; Okos, M.R.; Wankat, P.C.

    1994-03-15

    The basic objective of this project is to convert waste streams from the food processing industry to usable fuels and chemicals using novel bioreactors. These bioreactors should allow economical utilization of waste (whey, waste sugars, waste starch, bottling wastes, candy wastes, molasses, and cellulosic wastes) by the production of ethanol, acetone/butanol, organic acids (acetic, lactic, and gluconic), yeast diacetyl flavor, and antifungal compounds. Continuous processes incorporating various processing improvements such as simultaneous product separation and immobilized cells are being developed to allow commercial scale utilization of waste stream. The production of ethanol by a continuous reactor-separator is the process closest to commercialization with a 7,500 liter pilot plant presently sited at an Iowa site to convert whey lactose to ethanol. Accomplishments during 1993 include installation and start-up of a 7,500 liter ICRS for ethanol production at an industry site in Iowa; Donation and installation of a 200 liter yeast pilot Plant to the project from Kenyon Enterprises; Modeling and testing of a low energy system for recovery of ethanol from vapor is using a solvent absorption/extractive distillation system; Simultaneous saccharification/fermentation of raw corn grits and starch in a stirred reactor/separator; Testing of the ability of `koji` process to ferment raw corn grits in a `no-cook` process.

  13. Characterization of starch nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymońska, J.; Targosz-Korecka, M.; Krok, F.

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials already attract great interest because of their potential applications in technology, food science and medicine. Biomaterials are biodegradable and quite abundant in nature, so they are favoured over synthetic polymer based materials. Starch as a nontoxic, cheap and renewable raw material is particularly suitable for preparation of nanoparticles. In the paper, the structure and some physicochemical properties of potato and cassava starch particles of the size between 50 to 100 nm, obtained by mechanical treatment of native starch, were presented. We demonstrated, with the aim of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM), that the shape and dimensions of the obtained nanoparticles both potato and cassava starch fit the blocklets - previously proposed as basic structural features of native starch granules. This observation was supported by aqueous solubility and swelling power of the particles as well as their iodine binding capacity similar to those for amylopectin-type short branched polysaccharide species. Obtained results indicated that glycosidic bonds of the branch linkage points in the granule amorphous lamellae might be broken during the applied mechanical treatment. Thus the released amylopectin clusters could escape out of the granules. The starch nanoparticles, for their properties qualitatively different from those of native starch granules, could be utilized in new applications.

  14. Physicochemical and functional properties of yeast fermented brown rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Mediani, Ahmed; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, effects of fermentation on physicochemical and functional properties of brown rice flour (BRF) were investigated. Fermentation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology to achieve moderate acidity (pH 5-6), specifically pH 5.5 of brown rice batter with time, temperature and yeast concentration as the independent variables. The results indicated that brown rice batter was well fermented to maintain pH 5.5 at optimum conditions of 32 °C for 6.26 h using 1 % yeast concentration. Fermentation at moderate acidity significantly increased the levels of protein, total ash, insoluble fiber, soluble fibre, minerals, phenolics, antioxidants, resistant starch, riboflavin, pyridoxine, nicotinic acid, γ-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol. However, it reduced the contents of γ-oryzanol, γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, phytic acid, amylose and total starch. Foaming capacity, foaming stability, oil holding capacity, gelatinization temperatures, enthalpy and whiteness of BRF were increased after fermentation. In contrast, its swelling power, water solubility index, hot paste viscosity, breakdown, and setback significantly decreased. Microstructure of BRF was also influenced, where its starch granules released from its enclosed structure after fermentation. This investigation shows evidence that yeast fermentation modified the functionality of BRF and can be used as a functional food ingredient.

  15. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  16. Optimal Control of Beer Fermentation Process Using Differential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    process operation. Fermentation processes are increasingly used in industries, laboratories and locally for the ... Fig 1: The Model Diagram for the Fermentation Process. According ..... chemical engineering and chemical process technology.

  17. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous...... morphology, together with non-Newtonian rheological properties (shear thinning), result in poor oxygen transfer unless sufficient energy is provided to the fermentation. While genomic research may improve the organisms, there is no doubt that to enable further application in future it will be necessary...... to match such research with studies of oxygen transfer and energy supply to high viscosity fluids. Hence, the implementation of innovative solutions (some of which in principle are already possible) will be essential to ensure the further development of such fermentations....

  18. Otimização da produção de álcool de mandioca Optimizing of alcohol production from manioc starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Curvelo-Santana

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou otimizar o processo de hidrólise do amido de mandioca com α-amilase de A. niger e obter o álcool deste xarope. Os ensaios foram realizados a pH 4,8; em que variaram-se a concentração do amido (entre 7-22 g.L-1 e a temperatura (entre 30-59,1 ºC. Durante a fermentação, usaram-se nos mostos 2,2 e 5% de amido de mandioca. Os resultados da hidrólise mostraram que o tempo ficou entre 20-200 minutos; a análise RSM mostrou que o rendimento diminuiu nas concentrações médias; e as condições ótimas foram encontradas entre 55-59,1 ºC e com a concentração entre 7,9-10 ou 20-22 g.L-1, em que se hidrolisou 80% do amido. A melhor condição de fermentação foi obtida para o mosto contendo 5% de amido. Sua composição final foi de 0,668 g.L-1 de ART, 0,572 g.L-1 e de AR, 3,71 ºGL. O rendimento alcoólico foi de 45%, demonstrando que este processo é uma alternativa eficiente à indústria sucroalcooleira.The objective of this study was the optimization of the manioc root starch hydrolysis by α-amylase from A. niger and alcohol production from this starch syrup. Hydrolysis assays were performed at pH 4.8, the starch concentration and the temperature varied from 7 to 22 g.L-1, and 30 to 59.1 ºC, respectively. The starch contents during the syrup fermentation were 2.2 and 5%. The results of the starch hydrolysis showed that the hydrolysis time was between 20-200 minutes, the RSM analysis showed a decrease in the starch yield at the average concentration and above of 70% at high temperatures, and the optimal conditions were found at temperature between 55-59.1 ºC and concentration between 7.9-10 or 20-22 g.L-1; conditions at which 80% of the starch was hydrolyzed. The best fermentation condition was obtained for the must containing 5% of starch. The final fermentation composition obtained was of 0.68 g.L-1 ART and 0.572 g.L-1 AR. After the fermentation process, an alcohol yield of 45% was obtained showing that this

  19. Granular starch hydrolysis for fuel ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping

    Granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE) convert starch into fermentable sugars at low temperatures (≤48°C). Use of GSHE in dry grind process can eliminate high temperature requirements during cooking and liquefaction (≥90°C). In this study, GSHE was compared with two combinations of commercial alpha-amylase and glucoamylase (DG1 and DG2, respectively). All three enzyme treatments resulted in comparable ethanol concentrations (between 14.1 to 14.2% v/v at 72 hr), ethanol conversion efficiencies and ethanol and DDGS yields. Sugar profiles for the GSHE treatment were different from DG1 and DG2 treatments, especially for glucose. During simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the highest glucose concentration for the GSHE treatment was 7% (w/v); for DG1 and DG2 treatments, maximum glucose concentration was 19% (w/v). GSHE was used in one of the fractionation technologies (enzymatic dry grind) to improve recovery of germ and pericarp fiber prior to fermentation. The enzymatic dry grind process with GSHE was compared with the conventional dry grind process using GSHE with the same process parameters of dry solids content, pH, temperature, time, enzyme and yeast usages. Ethanol concentration (at 72 hr) of the enzymatic process was 15.5% (v/v), which was 9.2% higher than the conventional process (14.2% v/v). Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) generated from the enzymatic process (9.8% db) was 66% less than conventional process (28.3% db). Three additional coproducts, germ 8.0% (db), pericarp fiber 7.7% (db) and endosperm fiber 5.2% (db) were produced. Costs and amounts of GSHE used is an important factor affecting dry grind process economics. Proteases can weaken protein matrix to aid starch release and may reduce GSHE doses. Proteases also can hydrolyze protein into free amino nitrogen (FAN), which can be used as a yeast nutrient during fermentation. Two types of proteases, exoprotease and endoprotease, were studied; protease and urea

  20. In vitro utilization of amylopectin and high-amylose maize (Amylomaize) starch granules by human colonic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Conway, P L; Brown, I L; Evans, A J

    1999-11-01

    It has been well established that a certain amount of ingested starch can escape digestion in the human small intestine and consequently enters the large intestine, where it may serve as a carbon source for bacterial fermentation. Thirty-eight types of human colonic bacteria were screened for their capacity to utilize soluble starch, gelatinized amylopectin maize starch, and high-amylose maize starch granules by measuring the clear zones on starch agar plates. The six cultures which produced clear zones on amylopectin maize starch- containing plates were selected for further studies for utilization of amylopectin maize starch and high-amylose maize starch granules A (amylose; Sigma) and B (Culture Pro 958N). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to detect bacterial starch-degrading enzymes. It was demonstrated that Bifidobacterium spp., Bacteroides spp., Fusobacterium spp., and strains of Eubacterium, Clostridium, Streptococcus, and Propionibacterium could hydrolyze the gelatinized amylopectin maize starch, while only Bifidobacterium spp. and Clostridium butyricum could efficiently utilize high-amylose maize starch granules. In fact, C. butyricum and Bifidobacterium spp. had higher specific growth rates in the autoclaved medium containing high-amylose maize starch granules and hydrolyzed 80 and 40% of the amylose, respectively. Starch-degrading enzymes were cell bound on Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides cells and were extracellular for C. butyricum. Active staining for starch-degrading enzymes on SDS-PAGE gels showed that the Bifidobacterium cells produced several starch-degrading enzymes with high relative molecular (M(r)) weights (>160,000), medium-sized relative molecular weights (>66,000), and low relative molecular weights (starch.

  1. Starch and fiber properties affect their kinetics of digestion and thereby digestive physiology in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlstra, R T; Jha, R; Woodward, A D; Fouhse, J; van Kempen, T A T G

    2012-12-01

    Traditionally in swine nutrition, analyses of starch and fiber have focused on assessing quantity; however, both have a wide range of functional properties making them underappreciated nutrients. Starch ranging from low to high amylose changes from rapidly digestible in the upper gut to poorly digestible but fermentable in the lower gut thereby changing from a source of glucose to VFA source. Likewise, fibers ranging from low to high viscosity affect digesta flow and from slowly to rapidly fermentable alter production of VFA serving as energy for the gut or whole body. Our hypothesis is that total extent, kinetics, and site of digestion or fermentation of starch and fiber are important for whole body nutrient use and intestinal health. To elucidate their effects, we developed in vitro, lab-based methodologies to describe kinetics of digestion and fermentation and linked these with in vivo models including i) ileum cannulation to collect digesta, ii) portal-vein catheterization to sequentially sample blood, iii) slaughter method to collect site-specific intestinal tissue and digesta, and iv) indirect calorimetry. Using these methods, kinetics of nutrient absorption was associated with pancreatic and intestinal hormones released into the portal vein, intestinal microbiota, and gene expression in intestinal tissue and microbiota. These studies confirmed that slowly digestible starch is partially degraded in the distal small and large intestine and fermented into VFA including butyrate (10-fold increase in net portal appearance), which reduces insulin responses by 60% and whole body energy use. Starch entering the distal intestine altered mRNA abundance of nutrient transporters and was bifidogenic. Extremely viscous purified fiber dampened glycemic responses and reduced digesta passage rate by 50% thereby increasing ileal digestion of dietary nutrients whereas increased fiber in feed grains reduced nutrient digestibility. Fermentable fiber increased butyrate and

  2. Study on cultivate yeasty by using recuperated protein from industrial process chitin sewage as fermentation nitrogen source%甲壳素加工废水回收蛋白作发酵氮源的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱俊青; 魏敏; 匡春兰

    2013-01-01

    甲壳素加工废水回收蛋白作酒精发酵氮源实验是以活性干酵母为菌种制备种子液发酵,首先确定了以酵母浸膏为氮源的最佳发酵工艺条件为m(碳源):m(氮源)=4.5:1.甲壳素加工废水中回收的蛋白经丙酮萃取色素后,得蛋白干粉进行酒精发酵试验,酒精产率较低,故采用对甲壳素回收蛋白酸解再用于酒精发酵.结果表明:经酸解的回收蛋白是一种优良的氮源,用于酒精发酵效果与商品氮源相一致.%Using the recuperated protein from industrial process chitin sewage as alcoholic fermentation nitrogen source has been studied. Make active dried yeasts as the strain for seed liquid fermentation, the optimal fermentation condition is: m (carbon) : m (nitrogen) = 4. 5 : 1. After extracting pigment by acetone from recycling protein, protein powder was obtained for alcohol fermentation. The test showed that the production rate of alcohol is low; so the recuperated protein degraded by acid was obtained. The result turns out that the recuperated protein can be degraded by acid into an excellent nitrogen source, which can be used for the alcoholic fermentation just like the commercial nitrogen.

  3. Polyhydroxybutyrate production using agro-industrial residue as substrate by Bacillus sphaericus NCIM 5149

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha V. Ramadas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB using agro- industrial residues as the carbon source. Seven substrates, viz., wheat bran, potato starch, sesame oil cake, groundnut oil cake, cassava powder, jackfruit seed powder and corn flour were hydrolyzed using commercial enzymes and the hydrolyzates assessed for selecting the best substrate for PHB production. Jackfruit seed powder gave the maximum production of PHB under submerged fermentation using Bacillus sphaericus (19% at the initial pH of 7.5.

  4. Opportunities, perspectives and limits in lactic acid production from waste and industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Dragana D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In line with the goals of sustainable development and environmental protection today great attention is directed towards new technologies for waste and industrial by-products utilization. Waste products represent potentially good raw material for production other valuable products, such as bioethanol, biogas, biodiesel, organic acids, enzymes, microbial biomass, etc. Since the first industrial production to the present, lactic acid has found wide application in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In recent years, the demand for lactic acid has been increasing considerably owing to its potential use as a monomer for the production of poly-lactic acid (PLA polymers which are biodegradable and biocompatible with wide applications. Waste and industrial by-products such are whey, molasses, stillage, waste starch and lignocellulosic materials are a good source of fermentable sugars and many other substances of great importance for the growth of microorganisms, such as proteins, minerals and vitamins. Utilization of waste products for production of lactic acid could help to reduce the total cost of lactic acid production and except the economic viability of the process offers a solution of their disposal. Fermentation process depends on chemical and physical nature of feedstocks and the lactic acid producer. This review describes the characteristics, abilities and limits of microorganisms involved in lactic acid production, as well as the characteristics and types of waste products for lactic acid production. The fermentation methods that have been recently reported to improve lactic acid production are summarized and compared. In order to improve processes and productivity, fed-batch fermentation, fermentation with immobilized cell systems and mixed cultures and opportunities of open (non-sterilized fermentation have been investigated.

  5. Lactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of fermenting cellobiose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Oh, Eun Joong; Pathanibul, Panchalee; Turner, Timothy L; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-09-20

    Lactose is an inevitable byproduct of the dairy industry. In addition to cheese manufacturing, the growing Greek yogurt industry generates excess acid whey, which contains lactose. Therefore, rapid and efficient conversion of lactose to fuels and chemicals would be useful for recycling the otherwise harmful acid whey. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a popular metabolic engineering host, cannot natively utilize lactose. However, we discovered that an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (EJ2) capable of fermenting cellobiose can also ferment lactose. This finding suggests that a cellobiose transporter (CDT-1) can transport lactose and a β-glucosidase (GH1-1) can hydrolyze lactose by acting as a β-galactosidase. While the lactose fermentation by the EJ2 strain was much slower than the cellobiose fermentation, a faster lactose-fermenting strain (EJ2e8) was obtained through serial subcultures on lactose. The EJ2e8 strain fermented lactose with a consumption rate of 2.16g/Lh. The improved lactose fermentation by the EJ2e8 strain was due to the increased copy number of cdt-1 and gh1-1 genes. Looking ahead, the EJ2e8 strain could be exploited for the production of other non-ethanol fuels and chemicals from lactose through further metabolic engineering.

  6. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    Second World era international system (1945-1990) may not have done any good to ... wedge between the capitalist and socialist blocs, not only blurred Third World .... Politics and the Stages of Economic Growth, Cambridge: Cambridge ... complex industries producing mainly for export, but also producing for local.

  7. Probiotic table olives: microbial populations adhering on olive surface in fermentation sets inoculated with the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC2.1 in an industrial plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, Palmira; Valerio, Francesca; Sisto, Angelo; Lonigro, Stella Lisa; Lavermicocca, Paola

    2010-05-30

    This study reports the dynamics of microbial populations adhering on the surface of debittered green olives cv. Bella di Cerignola in fermentation sets inoculated with the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC2.1 in different brining conditions (4% and 8% (w/v) NaCl) at room temperature and 4 degrees C. The probiotic strain successfully colonized the olive surface dominating the natural LAB population and decreasing the pH of brines to fermentation. The dynamics of microbial populations associated with olive surface and belonging to the different groups indicated that inoculated olives held at room temperature did not host Enterobacteriaceae at the end of fermentation. Yeast populations were present in a low number (fermentation in all processes except for the one held at 4 degrees C. Also a notable incidence of Leuc. mesenteroides on olives was highlighted in this study during all fermentation. Results indicated that the human strain L. paracasei IMPC2.1 can be considered an example of a strain used in the dual role of starter and probiotic culture which allowed the control of fermentation processes and the realization of a final probiotic product with functional appeal.

  8. Cationic starches on cellulose surfaces. A study of polyelectrolyte adsorption.

    OpenAIRE

    Steeg, van der, P.A.H.

    1992-01-01

    Cationic starches are used on a large scale in paper industry as wet-end additives. They improve dry strength. retention of fines and fillers, and drainage. Closure of the white water systems in the paper mills hase increased the concentration of detrimental substances. This might be the reason for the poor retention of cationic starches observed in the last few years.The purpose of the research described in this thesis was to obtain a better understanding of the adsorption of cationic starch...

  9. Resistant starches and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Cyril W C; Emam, Azadeh; Augustin, Livia S A; Jenkins, David J A

    2004-01-01

    It was initially hypothesized that resistant starches, i.e., starch that enters the colon, would have protective effects on chronic colonic diseases, including reduction of colon cancer risk and in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Recent studies have confirmed the ability of resistant starch to increase fecal bulk, increase the molar ratio of butyrate in relation to other short-chain fatty acids, and dilute fecal bile acids. However the ability of resistant starch to reduce luminal concentrations of compounds that are damaging to the colonic mucosa, including fecal ammonia, phenols, and N-nitroso compounds, still requires clear demonstration. As such, the effectiveness of resistant starch in preventing or treating colonic diseases remains to be assessed. Nevertheless, there is a fraction of what has been termed resistant (RS1) starch, which enters the colon and acts as slowly digested or lente carbohydrate in the small intestine. Foods in this class are low glycemic index and have been shown to reduce the risk of chronic disease. They have been associated with systemic physiological effects such as reduced postprandial insulin levels and higher HDL cholesterol levels. Consumption of low glycemic index foods has been shown to be related to reductions in risk of coronary heart disease and Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has in turn been related to a higher risk of colon cancer. If carbohydrates have a protective role in colon cancer prevention this may lie partly in the systemic effects of low glycemic index foods. The colonic advantages of different carbohydrates, varying in their glycemic index and resistant starch content, therefore, remain to be determined. However, as recent positive research findings continue to mount, there is reason for optimism over the possible health advantages of those resistant starches, which are slowly digested in the small intestine.

  10. 橡实淀粉发酵生产酒精专用酵母菌株的筛选%Screening of special yeast for ethanol production by acorn starch fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李安平; 谢碧霞; 沈伟; 蒋雅茜

    2012-01-01

    从栓皮栎自然发酵基质中分离得到的36株酵母菌,经TTC平板显色图变化挑选出5株菌株,分别测试比较其发酵性能.结果表明:筛选的5株酵母菌菌落形态基本一致,但酵母菌XS03和XS04的死亡率显著低于XS01、XS02和XS05等3株酵母菌(P<0.05)的死亡率;在酒精浓度低于6%时,酵母菌XS03和XS04比酵母菌XS01、XS02和XS05等具有更高的耐酒精能力和耐高塘能力;发酵36 h后酵母XS03和XS04的失重率和出酒率显著高于XS01、XS02和XS05等3种菌种(P<0.05).%36 yeast strains has been isolated from cork oak natural fermentation matrix, of them, five strains were selected by using the TTC plate change color chart, their's fermentation performance were tested and compared each other. The results show that the colony morphology of the five yeast colonies were basically identical, but the yeast XS03 and XS04 mortality rate were significantly lower than the XS01, XS02 and XS05 other three yeast strains (P <0.05) mortality; under the condition of alcohol concentrations less than 6%, yeast XS03 and XS04 had higher alcohol tolerance and higher Gaotang resistance capacity than XS01, XS02 and XS05, etc. the weight loss rate and the yield of liquor of yeast XS03 and XS04 after being fermenting 36 hours, were significantly higher than that of XS01, XS02 and XS05(P<0.05).

  11. The in vitro effects of retrograded starch (resistant starch type 3) from lotus seed starch on the proliferation of Bifidobacterium adolescentis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Ying; Zheng, Baodong; Lu, Xu; Zhuang, Weijing

    2013-11-01

    Prebiotics such as oligosaccharides, fructans, and resistant starch (RS) stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria in large bowel and modify the human gastrointestinal environment. In this study, compared with glucose (GLU) and high amylose maize starch (HAMS), the in vitro effects of LRS3 and P-LRS3 (RS3 and purified RS3 prepared from lotus seed starch) on the proliferation of bifidobacteria were assessed by assessing the changes in optical density (OD), pH values, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and tolerance ability to gastrointestinal conditions. Significantly higher OD values were obtained from media containing LRS3 and P-LRS3, and especially in the medium containing P-LRS3, the OD value of which reached 1.36 when the concentration of the carbon source was 20 g L(-1). Additionally, the lag phase of bifidobacteria was 8 h in the medium with LRS3 or P-LRS3, whereas it was 16 h in the medium with GLU or HAMS. What is more, a higher content of butyric acid was obtained in the P-LRS3 medium. Compared with GLU and HAMS media, bifidobacteria had a higher tolerance to gastrointestinal conditions in LRS3 and P-LRS3 media. It shows that lotus seed resistant starch, especially P-LRS3, could stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria. The rough surface of resistant starch and the SCFAs produced during fermentation might influence the proliferation of bifidobacteria.

  12. Association mapping of starch chain length distribution and amylose content in pea (Pisum sativum L.) using carbohydrate metabolism candidate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Margaret A; Shaw, Martin; Cooper, Rebecca D; Frew, Tonya J; Butler, Ruth C; Murray, Sarah R; Moya, Leire; Coyne, Clarice J; Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail M

    2017-08-01

    Although starch consists of large macromolecules composed of glucose units linked by α-1,4-glycosidic linkages with α-1,6-glycosidic branchpoints, variation in starch structural and functional properties is found both within and between species. Interest in starch genetics is based on the importance of starch in food and industrial processes, with the potential of genetics to provide novel starches. The starch metabolic pathway is complex but has been characterized in diverse plant species, including pea. To understand how allelic variation in the pea starch metabolic pathway affects starch structure and percent amylose, partial sequences of 25 candidate genes were characterized for polymorphisms using a panel of 92 diverse pea lines. Variation in the percent amylose composition of extracted seed starch and (amylopectin) chain length distribution, one measure of starch structure, were characterized for these lines. Association mapping was undertaken to identify polymorphisms associated with the variation in starch chain length distribution and percent amylose, using a mixed linear model that incorporated population structure and kinship. Associations were found for polymorphisms in seven candidate genes plus Mendel's r locus (which conditions the round versus wrinkled seed phenotype). The genes with associated polymorphisms are involved in the substrate supply, chain elongation and branching stages of the pea carbohydrate and starch metabolic pathways. The association of polymorphisms in carbohydrate and starch metabolic genes with variation in amylopectin chain length distribution and percent amylose may help to guide manipulation of pea seed starch structural and functional properties through plant breeding.

  13. Sorption properties of modified potato starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Witczak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Starch is one of the biopolymers most commonly used in the food industry. In its native form its applications are limited. In contrast, its structure is relatively readily modified using various methods, producing starch derivatives of greatly diverse properties. The primary methods used to change characteristics of starch include acetylation and oxidation. Thus obtained raw materials are used as food additives. Stability of these raw materials and food products to a considerable extent depends on their composition and parameters characterizing storage facilities, i.e. relative humidity and temperature. One of the methods to specify adequate ambient conditions is based on water activity supplemented by sorption isotherms. As a result studies investigating correlations between water activity and moisture content are of importance for the optimization of storage conditions and design of certain food processing procedures. For this reason the aim of this study was to assess the effect of modification (oxidation, acetylation and their combination on sorption properties (described based on sorption isotherms of potato starch. Material and methods. Analyses were conducted on potato starch and its derivatives produced by acetylation, oxidation and co-modification (acetylation coupled with oxidation. Starch was oxidized using sodium chlorate (I, while acetylation was run using anhydrous acetic acid. Sorption isotherms were determined by the static desiccator method. Results were described applying selected mathematical methods equipped with physical interpretations (BET and GAB and empirical models (Halsey, Oswin, Henderson, Pelega, Lewicki, Blahovec-Yanniotis. Calculations were made using non-linear estimation. Results. The greatest water absorbability was found for native potato starch. Modifications caused a decrease in the amount of adsorbed water vapour, dependent on the applied modification. Acetylation resulted in significantly

  14. A Perspective on PSE in Fermentation Process Development and Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the chemical industry, the use of PSE methods and tools is not as widespread in industrial fermentation processes. This paper gives an overview of some of the main engineering challenges in industrial fermentation processes. Furthermore, a number of mathematical models are highlighted...... as examples of PSE methods and tools that are used in the context of industrial fermentation technology. Finally, it is discussed what could be done to increase the future use of PSE methods and tools within the industrial fermentation technology area....

  15. Characteristics of traditional Chinese shanlan wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongsheng; Luo, Xianqun; Wang, Xinguang

    2014-02-01

    Shanlan rice wine is made by a unique method by removing the saccharified liquid from wine mash constantly since it appeared during saccharification and fermentation. The objective of this study is to find the advantages of this technique of wine making by analyzing data of shanlan wine fermentation. Since the liquid was removed, the mash (rice) bed was fluffier than immersed in the saccharified liquid, under ambient condition constantly and it is favorable for starch degradation. This technique made shanlan rice wine tasted sweet and slightly acidic, lower content of alcohol and higher alcohol than in other non-distilled rice wines.

  16. Mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with resistant starch display marked shifts in the liver metabolome concurrent with altered gut bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-amylose maize resistant starch type 2 (HAMRS2) is a fermentable dietary fiber known to alter the gut milieu, including the gut microbiota, which may explain reported effects of resistant starch to ameliorate obesity-associated metabolic dysfunction. Our working hypothesis is that HAMRS2-induced...

  17. Constitutive expression of the DUR1,2 gene in an industrial yeast strain to minimize ethyl carbamate production during Chinese rice wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dianhui; Li, Xiaomin; Lu, Jian; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Liang; Xie, Guangfa

    2016-01-01

    Urea and ethanol are the main precursors of ethyl carbamate (EC) in Chinese rice wine. During fermentation, urea is generated from arginine by arginase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and subsequently cleaved by urea amidolyase or directly transported out of the cell into the fermentation liquor, where it reacts with ethanol to form EC. To reduce the amount of EC in Chinese rice wine, we metabolically engineered two yeast strains, N85(DUR1,2) and N85(DUR1,2)-c, from the wild-type Chinese rice wine yeast strain N85. Both new strains were capable of constitutively expressing DUR1,2 (encodes urea amidolyase) and thus enhancing urea degradation. The use of N85(DUR1,2) and N85(DUR1,2)-c reduced the concentration of EC in Chinese rice wine fermented on a small-scale by 49.1% and 55.3%, respectively, relative to fermentation with the parental strain. All of the engineered strains showed good genetic stability and minimized the production of urea during fermentation, with no exogenous genes introduced during genetic manipulation, and were therefore suitable for commercialization to increase the safety of Chinese rice wine.

  18. Impact of α-amylase during breadmaking on in vitro kinetics of starch hydrolysis and glycaemic index of enriched bread with bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Penella, Juan Mario; Laparra, José Moisés; Haros, Monika

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays, the use of enzymes has become a common practice in the bakery industry, as they can improve dough quality and texture of final product. However, the use of α-amylases could have a negative effect in the glycaemic load of product, due to the released sugars from the starch hydrolysis that are not used by yeasts during the fermentation process. This study evaluated the effect of the addition of α-amylase in bakery products with bran on in vitro kinetics of starch hydrolysis. The use of flour with a high degree of extraction or high bran amount could decrease the GI even with the inclusion of α-amylase in the formulation. It should be taken into account the amount of bran and α-amylase when formulating breads in order to obtain products with lower GI than white bread. However, the fact that kinetics of starch hydrolysis remained unaltered indicates that the use of α-amylase in bread-making processes could provide technological advantages improving quality of breads without markedly changes in their glycaemic index.

  19. High alcohol production by solid substrate fermentation from starchy substrates using thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sree, N.K.; Sridhar, M.; Suresh, K.; Rao, L.V. [Department of Microbiology, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    1999-06-01

    Solid Substrate Fermentation system (SSF) was used to produce ethanol from various starchy substrates like sweet sorghum, sweet potato, wheat flour, rice starch, soluble starch and potato starch using thermotolerant yeast isolate (VS{sub 3}) by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process. Alcohol produced was estimated by gas chromatography after an incubation time of 96 hrs at 37 C and 42 C. More ethanol was produced from rice starch and sweet sorghum. The maximum amount of ethanol produced from these substrates using VS{sub 3} was 10 g/100 g and 3.5 g/100 g substrate (rice starch) and 8.2 g and 7.5 g/100 g substrate (sweet sorghum) at 37 C and 42 C respectively. (orig.) With 2 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs.

  20. Morphology and structural properties of high-amylose rice starch residues hydrolysed by amyloglucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Jianmin; Yang, Yang; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Changquan; Zhang, Fengmin; Wang, Youping; Gu, Minghong; Liu, Qiaoquan; Wei, Cunxu

    2013-06-15

    High-amylose starches are attracting considerable attention because of their potential health benefits and industrial uses. Enzyme hydrolysis of starch is involved in many biological and industrial processes. In this paper, starches were isolated from high-amylose transgenic rice (TRS) and its wild type rice, Te-qing (TQ). The morphological and structural changes of starch residues following Aspergillus niger amyloglucosidase (AAG) hydrolysis were investigated. AAG hydrolysed TQ starch from the granule surface, and TRS starch from the granule interior. During AAG hydrolysis, the content of amorphous structure increased, the contents of ordered structure and single helix decreased, and gelatinisation enthalpy decreased in TQ and TRS starch residues. The A-type polymorph of TRS C-type starch was hydrolysed faster than the B-type polymorph. The short-range ordered structure and B-type polymorph in the peripheral region of the subgranule and the surrounding band of TRS starch increased the resistance of TRS starch to AAG hydrolysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fermentation of Xylose Causes Inefficient Metabolic State Due to Carbon/Energy Starvation and Reduced Glycolytic Flux in Recombinant Industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushika, Akinori; Nagashima, Atsushi; Goshima, Tetsuya; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, comprehensive, quantitative metabolome analysis was carried out on the recombinant glucose/xylose-cofermenting S. cerevisiae strain MA-R4 during fermentation with different carbon sources, including glucose, xylose, or glucose/xylose mixtures. Capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to determine the intracellular pools of metabolites from the central carbon pathways, energy metabolism pathways, and the levels of twenty amino acids. When xylose instead of glucose was metabolized by MA-R4, glycolytic metabolites including 3- phosphoglycerate, 2- phosphoglycerate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate were dramatically reduced, while conversely, most pentose phosphate pathway metabolites such as sedoheptulose 7- phosphate and ribulose 5-phosphate were greatly increased. These results suggest that the low metabolic activity of glycolysis and the pool of pentose phosphate pathway intermediates are potential limiting factors in xylose utilization. It was further demonstrated that during xylose fermentation, about half of the twenty amino acids declined, and the adenylate/guanylate energy charge was impacted due to markedly decreased adenosine triphosphate/adenosine monophosphate and guanosine triphosphate/guanosine monophosphate ratios, implying that the fermentation of xylose leads to an inefficient metabolic state where the biosynthetic capabilities and energy balance are severely impaired. In addition, fermentation with xylose alone drastically increased the level of citrate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and increased the aromatic amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine, strongly supporting the view that carbon starvation was induced. Interestingly, fermentation with xylose alone also increased the synthesis of the polyamine spermidine and its precursor S-adenosylmethionine. Thus, differences in carbon substrates, including glucose and xylose in the fermentation medium, strongly influenced the dynamic metabolism of MA-R4

  2. Combined enzymatic starch hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebesny, E.

    1989-07-01

    From researches so far there comes out that glucoamylase AMG 300 L and pullulanase Promozyme 200 L when used in quantities the same as in preparation of Dextrozyme 225/75 L Novo at an action on liquified starch by means of /alpha/-amylase after 48 h of saccharification already (similarly like Dextrozyme) are able to get up to 98 DE. Chromatographic analysis proved that glucoamylase AMG 300 L Novo and succouring it pullulanase Promozyme 200 L are working most effectively when both enzymes are added to the liquified starch medium simultaneously. From this comes out that pullulanase hydrolyzes better /alpha/-1,6 bonds in lowmolecular dextrins than in oligosaccharides G/sub 4/ to G/sub 7/ formed at previous action of glucoamylase. At an optimum ratio of glucoamylase and pullulanase in relation to the dissolved starch after 8 h of the hydrolysis there are neither iso-sugars (isomaltose, panose), no oligosaccharides higher than G/sub 5/ and no dextrins. At the solution of the starch by /alpha/-amylase and its hydrolysis by enzymatic preparation Fungamyl 800 L Novo, at doses 0.02-0.8% to d.s. of starch, already after 8 h the reaction of hydrolysis contents of 36-62% maltose in dry substance of hydrolyzates are reached with only traces of glucose. (orig.).

  3. Food microstructure and starch digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-01-01

    Microstructural characteristics of starch-based natural foods such as parenchyma or cotyledon cell shape, cell size and composition, and cell wall composition play a key role in influencing the starch digestibility during gastrointestinal digestion. The stability of cell wall components and the arrangement of starch granules in the cells may affect the free access of amylolytic enzymes during digestion. Commonly used food processing techniques such as thermal processing, extrusion cooking, and post-cooking refrigerated storage alter the physical state of starch (gelatinization, retrogradation, etc.) and its digestibility. Rheological characteristics (viscosity) of food affect the water availability during starch hydrolysis and, consequently, the absorption of digested carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract. The nonstarch ingredients and other constituents present in food matrix, such as proteins and lipids interact with starch during processing, which leads to an alteration in the overall starch digestibility and physicochemical characteristics of digesta. Starch digestibility can be controlled by critically manipulating the food microstructure, processing techniques, and food composition.

  4. Starch bioengineering in Brachypodium distachyon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanackovic, Vanja; Svensson, Jan Tommy; Glaring, Mikkel Andreas;

    2011-01-01

    Brachypodium distachyon was recently introduced as a model plant for temperate cereals (Opanowicz et al., 2008). We aim to establish Brachypodium as a model for cereal starch metabolism. Grain starch from two lines: Bd21 and Bd21-3 are being characterized. Microscopic, chemical and structural data...... including amylopectin chain length distribution, phosphate content and amylose content provided further evidence for the close relationship to temperate cereals even though starch content and starch granule size were considerably lower than that for barley (Hordeum vulgare). Bioinformatics analyses...... identified starch biosynthesis genes including seven soluble starch synthases (SS), three granule bound starch syntheses (GBSS), four starch branching enzymes (SBE), two glucan- and one phosphoglucan- water dikinases (GWD, PWD). Phylogenetic analysis based on the SS genes provided evidence for a close...

  5. Proteomic analysis of the enzymes involved in the starch biosynthesis of maize with different endosperm type and characterization of the starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-García, Erika; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Gómez-Montiel, Noel Orlando; Pando-Robles, Victoria; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo

    2013-08-30

    The characterization of starch maize with different endosperm type and the proteomic analysis of its biosynthetic enzymes at 20 and 50 days after pollination (DAP) was carried out. There were differences between both endosperm types at 20 DAP, mainly in starch accumulation, amylose content, granule size and crystallinity percentage, whereas at 50 DAP the differences found were not relevant in the case of starch content, granule size, chain length distribution and thermal properties. SSSI, SBEIIb and GBSSI enzymes were identified; however, SBEIIb was only identified in two samples: floury endosperm at 20 DAP and vitreous at 50 DAP. Starch did not show differences in its morphological or structural characteristics in either endosperm on reaching maturity. Starch biosynthetic enzymes identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight did not show a relationship to starch structure. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Physicochemical, morphological, and rheological characterization of Xanthosoma robustum Lego-like starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londoño-Restrepo, Sandra M; Rincón-Londoño, Natalia; Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Acosta-Osorio, Andrés A; Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Lucas-Aguirre, Juan C; Quintero, Víctor D; Pineda-Gómez, Posidia; del Real-López, Alicia; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2014-04-01

    This work presents the physicochemical and pasting characterization of isolated mafafa starch and mafafa flour (Xanthosoma robustum). According to SEM images of mafafa starches in the tuber, these starches form Lego-like shaped structures with diameters between 8 and 35 μm conformed by several starch granules of wedge shape that range from 2 to 7 μm. The isolated mafafa starch is characterized by its low contents of protein, fat, and ash. The starch content in isolated starch was found to be 88.58% while the amylose content obtained was 35.43%. X-ray diffraction studies confirm that isolated starch is composed mainly by amylopectin. These results were confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and thermo gravimetric analysis. This is the first report of the molecular parameters for mafafa starch: molar mass that ranged between 2×10(8) and 4×10(8) g/mol, size (Rg) value between 279 and 295 nm, and molecular density value between 9.2 and 9.7 g/(mol nm(3)). This study indicates that mafafa starch shows long chains of amylopectin this fact contributes to higher viscosity development and higher gel stability. The obtained gel phase is transparent in the UV-vis region. The viscosity, gel stability and optical properties suggest that there is potential for mafafa starch applications in the food industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance of high amylose starch-composited gelatin films influenced by gelatinization and concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhang; Wang, Kun; Xiao, Jingdong; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Yana; Liu, Anjun

    2017-01-01

    In order to study the impact of starch in film performance, high amylose corn starch was composited in gelatin films under different gelatinization conditions and, in high and low concentrations (10 and 50wt.%). It was found that hot water gelatinized starch (Gel-Shw) increased film mechanical strength and was dependent upon the starch concentration. The addition of an alkali component to the starch significantly enhanced the swelling of the starch granules and expedited the gelatinization process. Incorporation of starch, especially the alkalized starch (Sha), into the gelatin films decreased film solubility which improved its water resistance and water vapor permeability (WVP). Multiple techniques (DSC, TGA, FT-IR, and XRD) were used to characterize the process and results, including the crosslinking of the dissolved starch molecules and the particles formed from gelatinized starch during retrogradation process, which played an important role in improving the thermal stability of the composited gelatin films. Overall, the starch-gelatin composition provides a potential approach to improve gelatin film performance and benefit its applications in the food industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical, morphological and functional properties of Brazilian jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) seeds starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga, Marta Suely; de Albuquerque, Fabíola Samara Medeiros; Silva, Izis Rafaela Alves; do Amaral, Deborah Silva; Magnani, Marciane; Queiroga Neto, Vicente

    2014-01-15

    Starches used in food industry are extracted from roots, tubers and cereals. Seeds of jackfruit are abundant and contain high amounts of starch. They are discarded during the fruit processing or consumption and can be an alternative source of starch. The starch was extract from the jackfruit seeds and characterised to chemical, morphological and functional properties. Soft and hard jackfruit seeds showed starch content of 92.8% and 94.5%, respectively. Starch granules showed round and bell shape and some irregular cuts on their surface with type-A crystallinity pattern, similar to cereals starches. The swelling power and solubility of jackfruit starch increased with increasing temperature, showing opaque pastes. The soft seeds starch showed initial and final gelatinisation temperature of 36°C and 56°C, respectively; while hard seeds starch presented initial gelatinisation at 40°C and final at 61°C. These results suggest that the Brazilian jackfruit seeds starches could be used in food products.

  9. Characterisation of Physicochemical Properties of Propionylated Corn Starch and Its Application as Stabiliser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Fen Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of propionylated starches with diff erent degrees of substitution (DS was synthesised and their physicochemical properties and application as a stabiliser were investigated. Starch propionates with moderate DS were prepared by esterifi cation of native corn starch with propionic anhydride. By varying the reaction times of the esterification process, twelve starch propionates with DS of 0.47 to 0.94 were prepared. FTIR and NMR confirmed the introduction of propionyl groups to the starch. X-ray diffraction pattern showed reduced crystallinity in the starch propionates. The contact angle was found to increase proportionately with the increase in DS. Swelling power results showed that starch propionates were able to swell more than native corn starch at low temperature (40°C. Oil-in-water (O/W emulsions prepared using starch propionates (DS of 0.64 to 0.86 showed exceptional stability when challenged by centrifugation stress test. These stable O/W emulsions had viscosities in the range of 1236.7–3330.0 mPa·s. In conclusion, moderately substituted short-chain (propionylated starches could be a promising cold swelling starch, thickener and O/W emulsion stabiliser in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

  10. Effect of Cassava Starch Anaerobic Fermentation Liquid on Pumpkin Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality%木薯淀粉厌氧发酵液对南瓜生长发育、产量及果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓英毅; 陈群; 黄影花; 雷雪娇; 禤为翔; 韦仕飞; 韦思羽; 韦民政; 叶亦心; 郑虚; 张艺超; 莫干辉; 李韦柳; 张新宇; 王向导

    2016-01-01

    In order to ascertain the new resource utilizating way of cassava starch waste for environmental protection,this paper studied the effect of cassava starch anaerobic fermentation liquid (CSAFL)on pumpkin growth,yield and fruit quality,taking ‘Mibennangua’ as experimental material.The results showed that applying CSAFL could significantly promote the vegetative and reproductive growth,increase pumpkin yield and improve its fruit quality. Using CSAFL could also remarkably promote the growth of pumpkin main stem and leaves,increase leaf chlorophyll content. Besides,its fruit setting number per single plant,single fruit weight and yield were higher than that of the contrast by over 50%. Its fruit size,fruit shape index,contents of soluble solid,soluble sugar,soluble protein,starch and VC were significantly or very significantly increased than that of the contrast.Therefore,CSAFL can be used as additional fertilizer in pumpkin production,so as to realize the dual purposes of turning waste into wealth,and improving pumpkin yield and quality.%为了探明木薯淀粉废液的环保资源化利用新路子,以蜜本南瓜为试验材料,开展了木薯淀粉厌氧发酵液对南瓜生长发育、产量和果实品质的影响研究。结果表明,施用木薯淀粉厌氧发酵液能显著促进南瓜植株的营养生长和生殖生长,提高产量并改善果实的品质。施用木薯淀粉厌氧发酵液能显著促进植株主蔓和叶片的生长,增加叶片叶绿素含量,单株结瓜数、单瓜质量和产量均比常规施肥对照提高50%以上,其果实大小、果形指数、可溶性固形物、可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白、淀粉含量和VC含量也比对照显著或极显著提高。木薯淀粉厌氧发酵液可作为追肥在南瓜生产中应用,达到变废为宝、提高南瓜产量和品质的双重目的。

  11. Sorghum as a renewable feedstock for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhuan P. Nghiem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable efforts have been made in the USA and other countries to develop renewable feedstocks for production of fuels and chemicals. Among these, sorghum has attracted strong interest because of its many good characteristics such as rapid growth and high sugar accumulation, high biomass production potential, excellent nitrogen usage efficiency, wide adaptability, drought resistance, and water lodging tolerance and salinity resistance. The ability to withstand severe drought conditions and its high water usage efficiency make sorghum a good renewable feedstock suitable for cultivation in arid regions, such as the southern US and many areas in Africa and Asia. Sorghum varieties include grain sorghum, sweet sorghum, and biomass sorghum. Grain sorghum, having starch content equivalent to corn, has been considered as a feedstock for ethanol production. Its tannin content, however, may cause problems during enzyme hydrolysis. Sweet sorghum juice contains sucrose, glucose and fructose, which are readily fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and hence is a good substrate for ethanol fermentation. The enzyme invertase, however, needs to be added to convert sucrose to glucose and fructose if the juice is used for production of industrial chemicals in fermentation processes that employ microorganisms incapable of metabolizing sucrose. Biomass sorghum requires pretreatment prior to enzymatic hydrolysis to generate fermentable sugars to be used in the subsequent fermentation process. This report reviews the current knowledge on bioconversion of sorghum to fuels and chemicals and identifies areas that deserve further studies.

  12. Evaluation of lower-starch diets for lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, H M; Tucker, H A; Cotanch, K W; Krawczel, P D; Mooney, C S; Grant, R J; Eguchi, T

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to measure ruminal and lactational responses of Holstein dairy cows fed diets containing 3 different starch levels: 17.7 (low; LS), 21.0 (medium; MS), or 24.6% (high; HS). Twelve multiparous cows (118 ± 5 d in milk) were assigned randomly to dietary treatment sequence in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3-wk periods. All diets were fed as total mixed rations and contained approximately 30.2% corn silage, 18.5% grass silage, and 5.0% chopped alfalfa hay. Dietary starch content was manipulated by increasing dry ground corn inclusion (% of dry matter) from 3.4 (LS) to 10.1 (MS) and 16.9 (HS) and decreasing inclusion of beet pulp and wheat middlings from 6.7 and 13.4 (LS) to 3.4 and 10.1 (MS) or 0 and 6.8 (HS). In vitro 6-h starch digestibility of the diet increased as nonforage sources of fiber replaced corn grain (% of dry matter; 73.6, HS; 77.3, MS; 82.5, LS) resulting in rumen-fermentable starch content by 14.6, 16.2, and 18.1% for the LS, MS, and HS diets, respectively. Diets had similar neutral detergent fiber from forage and particle size distributions. Dry matter intake, solids-corrected milk yield, and efficiency of solids-corrected milk production were unaffected by diet, averaging 26.5 ± 0.8, 40.8 ± 1.6, and 1.54 ± 0.05 kg/d, respectively. Reducing dietary starch did not affect chewing time (815 ± 23 min/d), mean ruminal pH over 24h (6.06 ± 0.12), acetate-to-propionate ratio (2.4 ± 0.3), or microbial N synthesized in the rumen (585 ± 24 g/d). Total tract organic matter digestibility was higher for HS compared with MS and LS diets (69.2, 67.3, and 67.0%, respectively), but crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and starch digestibilities were unaffected. As dietary starch content decreased, in vitro ruminal starch fermentability increased and, consequently, the range between HS and LS in rumen-fermentable starch (3.5 percentage units) was less than the range in starch content (6.9 percentage units

  13. TECHNOLOGY OF THERMOPLASTIC STARCH PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Lukin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the manufacturing of bio-recyclable polymer products, which production and consumption has become an efficient way to protect environment from solid wastes in different countries of the world. The issue of environmental protection becomes global and the rapid growth of synthetic plastics application in many industries is a serious concern. There is a important task to improve the quality, safety and durability of products as well as their utilization after the expiration period. One of the most acceptable ways to solve these issues is to produce biodegradable materials based on natural materials, which are not harmful for environment and human health. A very common and effective method to give biological degradability to synthetic polymers is to insert starch into polymer composition in combination with other ingredients.

  14. Modification of Cilembu sweet potato starch with ethanoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudatussa'adah, A.; Rahmawati, Y.; Sudewi

    2016-04-01

    Cilembu sweet potato harvest was abundant, its use was still limited. Starch was required by various industries. Starch is generally beige, and requires a long time for the drying process. The purpose of this research was to produce a modified starch with ethanoic acid. The method used in this study was the experimental method. The results showed acid modified starch yield was 18%, with the color characteristics of L*: 96.38 ± 0.82; a*: -0.70±0.02 b*: 2.70±0.03 C: 2.79±0.02. Native starch yield was 16%, with the color characteristics of L*: 93.55 ± 0.91; a*: -0.86±0.06 b*: 2.93±0.04 C: 3.05±0.03. The conclusion