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Sample records for fermented maize dough

  1. Exploring the Bacterial Microbiota of Colombian Fermented Maize Dough "Masa Agria" (Maiz Añejo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-Lopez, Clemencia; Serio, Annalisa; Delgado-Ospina, Johannes; Rossi, Chiara; Grande-Tovar, Carlos D; Paparella, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Masa Agria is a naturally fermented maize dough produced in Colombia, very common in the traditional gastronomy. In this study we used culture-dependent and RNA-based pyrosequencing to investigate the bacterial community structure of Masa Agria samples produced in the south west of Colombia. The mean value of cell density was 7.6 log CFU/g of presumptive lactic acid bacteria, 5.4 log cfu/g for presumptive acetic bacteria and 5.6 og CFU/g for yeasts. The abundance of these microorganisms is also responsible for the low pH (3.1-3.7) registered. Although the 16S rRNA pyrosequencing revealed that the analyzed samples were different in bacteria richness and diversity, the genera Lactobacillus, Weissella, and Acetobacter were predominant. In particular, the most common species were Lactobacillus plantarum and Acetobacter fabarum, followed by L. fermentum, L. vaccinostercus, and Pediococcus argentinicus. Several microorganisms of environmental origin, such as Dechloromonas and most of all Sphingobium spp., revealed in each sample, were detected, and also bacteria related to maize, such as Phytoplasma. In conclusion, our results elucidated for the first time the structures of the bacterial communities of Masa Agria samples obtained from different producers, identifying the specific dominant species and revealing a complete picture of the bacterial consortium in this specific niche. The selective pressure of tropical environments may favor microbial biodiversity characterized by a useful technological potential.

  2. Exploring the bacterial microbiota of Colombian fermented maize dough “Masa Agria” (Maiz Añejo

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    Clemencia Chaves

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Masa Agria is a naturally fermented maize dough produced in Colombia, very common in the traditional gastronomy. In this study we used culture-dependent and RNA-based pyrosequencing to investigate the bacterial community structure of Masa Agria samples produced in the south west of Colombia. The mean value of cell density was 7.6 Log CFU/g of presumptive lactic acid bacteria (LAB, 5.4 Log cfu/g for presumptive acetic bacteria and 5.6 Log CFU/g for yeasts. The abundance of these microorganisms is also responsible for the low pH (3.1-3.7 registered. Although the 16S rRNA pyrosequencing revealed that the analyzed samples were different in bacteria richness and diversity, the genera Lactobacillus, Weissella and Acetobacter were predominant. In particular, the most common species were Lactobacillus plantarum and Acetobacter fabarum, followed by Lb. fermentum, Lb. vaccinostercus and Pediococcus argentinicus. Several microorganisms of environmental origin, such as Dechloromonas and most of all Sphingobium spp., revealed in each sample, were detected, and also bacteria related to maize, such as Phytoplasma. In conclusion, our results elucidated for the first time the structures of the bacterial communities of Masa Agria samples obtained from different producers, identifying the specific dominant species and revealing a complete picture of the bacterial consortium in this specific niche. The selective pressure of tropical environments may favour microbial biodiversity characterized by a useful technological potential.

  3. Exploring the Bacterial Microbiota of Colombian Fermented Maize Dough “Masa Agria” (Maiz Añejo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-Lopez, Clemencia; Serio, Annalisa; Delgado-Ospina, Johannes; Rossi, Chiara; Grande-Tovar, Carlos D.; Paparella, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Masa Agria is a naturally fermented maize dough produced in Colombia, very common in the traditional gastronomy. In this study we used culture-dependent and RNA-based pyrosequencing to investigate the bacterial community structure of Masa Agria samples produced in the south west of Colombia. The mean value of cell density was 7.6 log CFU/g of presumptive lactic acid bacteria, 5.4 log cfu/g for presumptive acetic bacteria and 5.6 og CFU/g for yeasts. The abundance of these microorganisms is also responsible for the low pH (3.1–3.7) registered. Although the 16S rRNA pyrosequencing revealed that the analyzed samples were different in bacteria richness and diversity, the genera Lactobacillus, Weissella, and Acetobacter were predominant. In particular, the most common species were Lactobacillus plantarum and Acetobacter fabarum, followed by L. fermentum, L. vaccinostercus, and Pediococcus argentinicus. Several microorganisms of environmental origin, such as Dechloromonas and most of all Sphingobium spp., revealed in each sample, were detected, and also bacteria related to maize, such as Phytoplasma. In conclusion, our results elucidated for the first time the structures of the bacterial communities of Masa Agria samples obtained from different producers, identifying the specific dominant species and revealing a complete picture of the bacterial consortium in this specific niche. The selective pressure of tropical environments may favor microbial biodiversity characterized by a useful technological potential. PMID:27524979

  4. The impact of yeast fermentation on dough matrix properties.

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    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Jayaram, Vinay B; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-08-01

    Most studies on dough properties are performed on yeastless dough to exclude the complicating, time-dependent effect of yeast. Baker's yeast, however, impacts dough matrix properties during fermentation, probably through the production of primary (CO2 and ethanol) and secondary (glycerol, acetic acid and succinic acid) metabolites. The aim of this study is to obtain a better understanding of the changes in yeasted dough behavior introduced by fermentation, by investigating the impact of yeast fermentation on Farinograph dough consistency, dough spread, Kieffer rig dough extensibility and gluten agglomeration behavior in a fermented dough-batter gluten starch separation system. Results show that fermentation leads to a dough with less flow and lower extensibility that breaks more easily under stress and strain. The dough showed less elastic and more plastic deformation behavior. Gluten agglomerates were smaller for yeasted dough than for the unyeasted control. These changes probably have to be attributed to metabolites generated during fermentation. Indeed, organic acids and also ethanol in concentrations produced by yeast were previously shown to have similar effects in yeastless dough. These findings imply the high importance of yeast fermentation metabolites on dough matrix properties in industrial bread production. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Production of pizza dough with reduced fermentation time

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    Simone Limongi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reduce the fermentation time of pizza dough by evaluating the development of the dough during fermentation using a Chopin® rheofermentometer and verifying the influence of time and temperature using a 2² factorial design. The focus was to produce characteristic soft pizza dough with bubbles and crispy edges and soft in the center. These attributes were verified by the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. The dough was prepared with the usual ingredients, fermented at a temperature range from 27 to 33 ºC for 30 to 42 minutes, enlarged, added with tomato sauce, baked, and frozen. The influence of the variables time and temperature on the release of carbon dioxide (H'm was confirmed with positive and significant effect, using a rheofermentometer, which was not observed for the development or maximum height of the dough (Hm. The same fermentation conditions of the experimental design were used for the production of the pizza dough in the industrial process; it was submitted to Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA, in which the samples were described by nine attributes. The results showed that some samples had the desired characteristics of pizza dough, demonstrated by the principal component analysis (PCA, indicating a 30 % fermentation time reduction when compared to the conventional process.

  6. Glycerol production by fermenting yeast cells is essential for optimal bread dough fermentation.

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    Elham Aslankoohi

    Full Text Available Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts.

  7. Glycerol production by fermenting yeast cells is essential for optimal bread dough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts.

  8. Dynamics of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Transcriptome during Bread Dough Fermentation

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    Aslankoohi, Elham; Zhu, Bo; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Voordeckers, Karin; De Maeyer, Dries; Marchal, Kathleen; Dornez, Emmie

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of yeast cells during industrial processes such as the production of beer, wine, and bioethanol has been extensively studied. In contrast, our knowledge about yeast physiology during solid-state processes, such as bread dough, cheese, or cocoa fermentation, remains limited. We investigated changes in the transcriptomes of three genetically distinct Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during bread dough fermentation. Our results show that regardless of the genetic background, all three strains exhibit similar changes in expression patterns. At the onset of fermentation, expression of glucose-regulated genes changes dramatically, and the osmotic stress response is activated. The middle fermentation phase is characterized by the induction of genes involved in amino acid metabolism. Finally, at the latest time point, cells suffer from nutrient depletion and activate pathways associated with starvation and stress responses. Further analysis shows that genes regulated by the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, the major pathway involved in the response to osmotic stress and glycerol homeostasis, are among the most differentially expressed genes at the onset of fermentation. More importantly, deletion of HOG1 and other genes of this pathway significantly reduces the fermentation capacity. Together, our results demonstrate that cells embedded in a solid matrix such as bread dough suffer severe osmotic stress and that a proper induction of the HOG pathway is critical for optimal fermentation. PMID:24056467

  9. Dynamics of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptome during bread dough fermentation.

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    Aslankoohi, Elham; Zhu, Bo; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Voordeckers, Karin; De Maeyer, Dries; Marchal, Kathleen; Dornez, Emmie; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2013-12-01

    The behavior of yeast cells during industrial processes such as the production of beer, wine, and bioethanol has been extensively studied. In contrast, our knowledge about yeast physiology during solid-state processes, such as bread dough, cheese, or cocoa fermentation, remains limited. We investigated changes in the transcriptomes of three genetically distinct Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during bread dough fermentation. Our results show that regardless of the genetic background, all three strains exhibit similar changes in expression patterns. At the onset of fermentation, expression of glucose-regulated genes changes dramatically, and the osmotic stress response is activated. The middle fermentation phase is characterized by the induction of genes involved in amino acid metabolism. Finally, at the latest time point, cells suffer from nutrient depletion and activate pathways associated with starvation and stress responses. Further analysis shows that genes regulated by the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, the major pathway involved in the response to osmotic stress and glycerol homeostasis, are among the most differentially expressed genes at the onset of fermentation. More importantly, deletion of HOG1 and other genes of this pathway significantly reduces the fermentation capacity. Together, our results demonstrate that cells embedded in a solid matrix such as bread dough suffer severe osmotic stress and that a proper induction of the HOG pathway is critical for optimal fermentation.

  10. Ethanol at levels produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wheat dough fermentation has a strong impact on dough properties.

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    Jayaram, Vinay B; Rezaei, Mohammad N; Cuyvers, Sven; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-09-24

    Yeast's role in bread making is primarily the fermentative production of carbon dioxide to leaven the dough. Fermentation also impacts dough matrix rheology, thereby affecting the quality of the end product. Surprisingly, the role of ethanol, the other yeast primary metabolite, has been ill studied in this context. Therefore, this study aims to assess the potential impact of ethanol on yeastless dough extensibility and spread and gluten agglomeration at concentrations at which it is produced in fermenting dough, i.e., up to 60 mmol per 100 g of flour. Reduced dough extensibility and dough spread were observed upon incorporation of ethanol in the dough formula, and were more pronounced for a weak than for a strong flour. Uniaxial and biaxial extension tests showed up to 50% decrease in dough extensibility and a dough strength increase of up to 18% for 60 mmol of ethanol/100 g of flour. Ethanol enhanced gluten agglomeration of a weak flour. Sequential extraction of flour in increasing ethanol concentrations showed that better gluten-solvent interaction is a possible explanation for the changed dough behavior.

  11. Lactic acid fermentation of cassava dough into agbelima.

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    Amoa-Awua, W K; Appoh, F E; Jakobsen, M

    1996-08-01

    The souring of cassava dough during fermentation into the fermented cassava meal, agbelima, was investigated. Four different types of traditional inocula were used to ferment the dough and increases in titrable acidity expressed as lactic acid from 0.31-0.38 to 0.78-0.91% (w/w) confirmed the fermentation to be a process of acidification. The microflora of all inocula and fermenting dough contained high counts of lactic acid bacteria, 10(8)-10(9) cfu/g in all inocula and 10(7)-10(8), 10(8)-10(9) and 10(9) cfu/g at 0, 24 and 48 h in all fermentations. Lactobacillus plantarum was the dominant species of lactic acid bacteria during all types of fermentation accounting for 51% of 171 representative isolates taken from various stages of fermentation. Other major lactic acid bacteria found were Lactobacillus brevis, 16%, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 15% and some cocci including Streptococcus spp. whose numbers decreased with fermentation time. The lactic acid bacteria were responsible for the souring of agbelima through the production of lactic acid. All L. plantarum, L. brevis and L. mesenteroides isolates examined demonstrated linamarase as well as other enzymatic activities but did not possess tissue degrading enzymes like cellulase, pectin esterase and polygalacturonase. The aroma profile of agbelima did not vary with the type of inoculum used and in all samples the build-up of aroma compounds were dominated by a non-identified low molecular weight alcohol, 1-propanol, isoamyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol and acetoin. Substantial reductions occurred in the levels of cyanogenic compounds present in cassava during fermentation into agbelima and detoxification was enhanced by the use of inoculum.

  12. Transcriptome data - Initial stage of dough fermentation - DGBY | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us DGBY Transcriptome data - Initial stage of dough fermentation Data detail Data name Transcri...ptome data - Initial stage of dough fermentation DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00953-002 Description of data conten...ts Gene expression profiles of baker's yeast during initial dough-fermentation were investigated using liquid fermentation...aptation mechanisms of baker's yeast. Results showed the onset of fermentation caused drastic changes in gen...f baker's yeast during dough-fermentation, and will thus help clarify genomic res

  13. Harvesting yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at different physiological phases significantly affects its functionality in bread dough fermentation.

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    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Dornez, Emmie; Jacobs, Pieter; Parsi, Anali; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-05-01

    Fermentation of sugars into CO2, ethanol and secondary metabolites by baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during bread making leads to leavening of dough and changes in dough rheology. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the impact of yeast on dough related aspects by investigating the effect of harvesting yeast at seven different points of the growth profile on its fermentation performance, metabolite production, and the effect on critical dough fermentation parameters, such as gas retention potential. The yeast cells harvested during the diauxic shift and post-diauxic growth phase showed a higher fermentation rate and, consequently, higher maximum dough height than yeast cells harvested in the exponential or stationary growth phase. The results further demonstrate that the onset of CO2 loss from fermenting dough is correlated with the fermentation rate of yeast, but not with the amount of CO2 that accumulated up to the onset point. Analysis of the yeast metabolites produced in dough yielded a possible explanation for this observation, as they are produced in different levels depending on physiological phase and in concentrations that can influence dough matrix properties. Together, our results demonstrate a strong effect of yeast physiology at the time of harvest on subsequent dough fermentation performance, and hint at an important role of yeast metabolites on the subsequent gas holding capacity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Continuous monitoring of dough fermentation and bread baking by magnetic resonance microscopy.

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    Bajd, Franci; Serša, Igor

    2011-04-01

    The consumer quality of baked products is closely related with dough structure properties. These are developed during dough fermentation and finalized during its baking. In this study, magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) was employed in a study of dough fermentation and baking. A small hot air oven was installed inside a 2.35-T horizontal bore superconducting magnet. Four different samples of commercial bread mixes for home baking were used to prepare small samples of dough that were inserted in the oven and allowed to rise at 33 °C for 112 min; this was followed by baking at 180 °C for 49 min. The entire process was followed by dynamic T(1)-weighted 3D magnetic resonance imaging with 7 min of temporal resolution and 0.23×0.23×1.5 mm(3) of spatial resolution. Acquired images were analyzed to determine time courses of dough pore distribution, dough volume and bread crust thickness. Image analysis showed that both the number of dough pores and the normalized dough volume increased in a sigmoid-like fashion during fermentation and decreased during baking due to the bread crust formation. The presented magnetic resonance method was found to be efficient in analysis of dough structure properties and in discrimination between different dough types. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fermentation of maize (Zea mays L.) meal or mawe production in Benin : physical, chemical and microbiological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Mawè is a sour dough made from partially dehulled maize meal, which has undergone natural fermentation for 1 to 3 days.

    In this thesis, the processing methods, the characteristics of the products and the physical, chemical and microbiological changes during natural fermentation of

  16. Mapping of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolites in fermenting wheat straight-dough reveals succinic acid as pH-determining factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Vinay B; Cuyvers, Sven; Lagrain, Bert; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2013-01-15

    Fermenting yeast does not merely cause dough leavening, but also contributes to the bread aroma and might alter dough rheology. Here, the yeast carbon metabolism was mapped during bread straight-dough fermentation. The concentration of most metabolites changed quasi linearly as a function of fermentation time. Ethanol and carbon dioxide concentrations reached up to 60 mmol/100g flour. Interestingly, high levels of glycerol (up to 10 mmol/100g flour) and succinic acid (up to 1.6 mmol/100g flour) were produced during dough fermentation. Further tests showed that, contrary to current belief, the pH decrease in fermenting dough is primarily caused by the production of succinic acid by the yeast instead of carbon dioxide dissolution or bacterial organic acids. Together, our results provide a comprehensive overview of metabolite production during dough fermentation and yield insight into the importance of some of these metabolites for dough properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Critical assessment of the formation of hydrogen peroxide in dough by fermenting yeast cells.

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    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Dornez, Emmie; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2015-02-01

    Fermentation of bread dough leads to strengthening of the dough matrix. This effect has previously been ascribed to the action of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by yeast in dough. In this study, we re-evaluate the production of H2O2 by yeast in dough and aqueous fermentation broth. Results show that the previously reported high levels of H2O2 in fermenting dough were most probably due to the lack of specificity of the potassium dichromate/acetic acid-based method used. Using the chemiluminescent HyPerBlu assay, no yeast H2O2 production could be detected in fermented dough or broth. Even though the formation of low levels of H2O2 cannot be ruled out due to the presence of catalase in flour and the fast reaction of H2O2 with gluten proteins, our results suggest that the changes in dough matrix rheological properties upon fermentation are not due to production of H2O2 by yeast. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Image analysis and mathematical modelling for the supervision of the dough fermentation process

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    Zettel, Viktoria; Paquet-Durand, Olivier; Hecker, Florian; Hitzmann, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    The fermentation (proof) process of dough is one of the quality-determining steps in the production of baking goods. Beside the fluffiness, whose fundaments are built during fermentation, the flavour of the final product is influenced very much during this production stage. However, until now no on-line measurement system is available, which can supervise this important process step. In this investigation the potential of an image analysis system is evaluated, that enables the determination of the volume of fermented dough pieces. The camera is moving around the fermenting pieces and collects images from the objects by means of different angles (360° range). Using image analysis algorithms the volume increase of individual dough pieces is determined. Based on a detailed mathematical description of the volume increase, which based on the Bernoulli equation, carbon dioxide production rate of yeast cells and the diffusion processes of carbon dioxide, the fermentation process is supervised. Important process parameters, like the carbon dioxide production rate of the yeast cells and the dough viscosity can be estimated just after 300 s of proofing. The mean percentage error for forecasting the further evolution of the relative volume of the dough pieces is just 2.3 %. Therefore, a forecast of the further evolution can be performed and used for fault detection.

  19. Prevention of GABA reduction during dough fermentation using a baker's yeast dal81 mutant.

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    Ando, Akira; Nakamura, Toshihide

    2016-10-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is consumed by yeasts during fermentation. To prevent GABA reduction in bread dough, a baker's yeast mutant AY77 deficient in GABA assimilation was characterized and utilized for wheat dough fermentation. An amber mutation in the DAL81 gene, which codes for a positive regulator of multiple nitrogen degradation pathways, was found in the AY77 strain. The qPCR analyses of genes involved in nitrogen utilization showed that transcriptional levels of the UGA1 and DUR3 genes encoding GABA transaminase and urea transporter, respectively, are severely decreased in the AY77 cells. The AY77 strain cultivated by fed-batch culture using cane molasses exhibited inferior gas production during dough fermentation compared to that of wild-type strain AY13. However, when fed with molasses containing 0.5% ammonium sulfate, the mutant strain exhibited gas production comparable to that of the AY13 strain. In contrast to the AY13 strain, which completely consumed GABA in dough within 5 h, the AY77 strain consumed no GABA under either culture condition. Dough fermentation with the dal81 mutant strain should be useful for suppression of GABA reduction in breads. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Monitoring of wheat lactic acid bacteria from the field until the first step of dough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Antonio; Miceli, Claudia; Nasca, Anna; Franciosi, Elena; Ventimiglia, Giusi; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Tuohy, Kieran; Francesca, Nicola; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The present work was carried out to retrieve the origin of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in sourdough. To this purpose, wheat LAB were monitored from ear harvest until the first step of fermentation for sourdough development. The influence of the geographical area and variety on LAB species/strain composition was also determined. The ears of four Triticum durum varieties (Duilio, Iride, Saragolla and Simeto) were collected from several fields located within the Palermo province (Sicily, Italy) and microbiologically investigated. In order to trace the transfer of LAB during the consecutive steps of manipulation, ears were transformed aseptically and, after threshing, milling and fermentation, samples of kernels, semolinas and doughs, respectively, were analysed. LAB were not found to dominate the microbial communities of the raw materials. In general, kernels harboured lower levels of microorganisms than ears and ears than semolinas. Several samples showing no development of LAB colonies acidified the enrichment broth suggesting the presence of LAB below the detection limit. After fermentation, LAB loads increased consistently for all doughs, reaching levels of 7.0-7.5 Log CFU/g on M17. The values of pH (5.0) and TTA (5.6 mL NaOH/10 g of dough) indicated the occurrence of the acidification process for several doughs. LAB were phenotypically and genotypically differentiated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR into eight groups including 51 strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus coryniformis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus garvieae, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus faecium, Leuconostoc citreum, and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Lactobacilli constituted a minority the LAB community, while lactococci represented more than 50% of strains. Lower LAB complexity was found on kernels, while a richer biodiversity was observed in semolinas and fermented doughs. For broader microbiota characterisation in

  1. Succinic acid in levels produced by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during fermentation strongly impacts wheat bread dough properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Vinay B; Cuyvers, Sven; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-05-15

    Succinic acid (SA) was recently shown to be the major pH determining metabolite produced by yeast during straight-dough fermentation (Jayaram et al., 2013), reaching levels as high as 1.6 mmol/100 g of flour. Here, the impact of such levels of SA (0.8, 1.6 and 2.4 mmol/100 g flour) on yeastless dough properties was investigated. SA decreased the development time and stability of dough significantly. Uniaxial extension tests showed a consistent decrease in dough extensibility upon increasing SA addition. Upon biaxial extension in the presence of 2.4 mmol SA/100 g flour, a dough extensibility decrease of 47-65% and a dough strength increase of 25-40% were seen. While the SA solvent retention capacity of flour increased with increasing SA concentration in the solvent, gluten agglomeration decreased with gluten yield reductions of over 50%. The results suggest that SA leads to swelling and unfolding of gluten proteins, thereby increasing their interaction potential and dough strength, but simultaneously increasing intermolecular electrostatic repulsive forces. These phenomena lead to the reported changes in dough properties. Together, our results establish SA as an important yeast metabolite for dough rheology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Grape Peels Addition on Mixing, Pasting and Fermentation Characteristics of Dough from 480 Wheat Flour Type

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    Silvia MIRONEASA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, white grape peels were incorporated in wheat flour at levels of 3, 5, 7 and 9% (w/w, with different particle sizes (large, L > 500 mm, medium, 200 mm > M < 500 mm and small fractions, S < 200 mm. The effects of the addition of grape peels flour (GPF to wheat flour on the viscoelastic properties of dough and both mixing and proofing behaviour is presented. By GPF addition an increase of water absorption and a decrease of dough stability were recorded, whereas dough development time is remarkable influenced by the particle sizes. Alpha-amylase activity and gelatinization temperature increases by the increased of GPF addition level. The presence of GPF at different levels and particle sizes in dough affected fermentation behaviour of dough with GPF. The whole study shown that grape peels can be used as ingredients in breadmaking in order to improve bread quality.

  3. Growth of Salmonella enterica and Staphylococcus aureus in no-knead bread dough during prolonged yeast fermentation.

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    Pao, Steven; Kim, Chyer; Jordan, Larry; Long, Wilbert; Inserra, Paula; Sayre, Brian

    2011-02-01

    A convenient bread making method involving prolonged fermentation of no-knead (nonkneaded) dough has become popular in recent years. In the present study, the microbial safety of no-knead dough made with a 375:325:5:1 weight ratio of flour, water, salt, and bread yeast was investigated. Three brands of dehydrated yeast were used for this study. The growth of inoculated Salmonella enterica and Staphylococcus aureus in no-knead dough during fermentation was significant (Pyeast brand. The multiplication rates of S. enterica in the initial 12 h and S. aureus over the entire 24 h of fermentation were positively correlated with fermentation temperatures of 21 to 38°C (Pbread may compromise consumer kitchen sanitation and food safety. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection

  4. Studies on biochemical changes in maize wastes fermented with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to transform the agricultural waste products of maize cobs and shafts into useful products such as animal feeds and reduce the pollution effects of these wastes during maize seasons, they were fermented using Aspergillus niger for 72 hours. The fermented residues were analyzed with regard to proximate ...

  5. Evaluation of Vitamin D3 and D2 Stability in Fortified Flat Bread Samples During Dough Fermentation, Baking and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabibian, Mehrnaz; Torbati, Mohammadali; Afshar Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza; Mirlohi, Maryam; Sadeghi, Malihe; Mohtadinia, Javad

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: Vitamin D, a fat-soluble secosteroid, has a significant role in bone metabolism and helps calcium absorption in the body. Since vitamin D concentration is altered in fortified foods and dietary supplements, the actual amount of vitamin D may differ from the label value. Methods: In this study, the concentrations of vitamin D 2 and D 3 of fortified bread sample were analytically determined. For this purpose, dough or homogenized bread sample was saponified using potassium hydroxide solution (30%, w/v) at 80°C, and the saponified analytes were extracted into n -heptane followed by liquid-liquid extraction. Then n -heptane fraction was evaporated to dryness and the sample was reconstituted in methanol. The effect of different parameters was evaluated by one variable at one-time strategy. Results: The analytes concentrations were evaluated in dough fermentation, baking and storage steps. The effect of temperature in dough fermentation and baking was evaluated at the range of 5-30 and 200-250°C, respectively. Also, the fermentation time was studied in the range of 0-120 min. The analytes concentrations were followed for 1 to 5 days after baking. The results indicated that dough fermentation temperature has no significant effect on the concentration of the analytes. On the other hand, when the dough fermentation time and baking temperature are increased, the analytes concentrations are decreased. Also, the storage duration of the spiked bread samples decreased the analytes concentrations after one day. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, baking the dough at high temperatures lead to decrease in vitamin levels.

  6. New inoculants on maize silage fermentation

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    Fábia Giovana do Val de Assis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bacterial inoculants at two inoculation rates on chemical and biological characteristics of maize silage. The treatments consisted of two inoculating rates (5 and 6 log cfu g-1 of forage for each strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB identified as Lactobacillus buchneri, L. hilgardii, or L. plantarum. The maize was ensiled in experimental PVC silos. Samples were taken for the determination of the contents of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC, organic acids and alcohols, for the evaluation of the populations of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi, and for the determination of pH values during ensilage and after 30 or 90 days of fermentation. The doses of inoculants did not promote significant differences on the evaluated characteristics. There was effect of inoculants on acetic acid, 1.2-propanediol, LAB population, filamentous fungi, and pH value. No significant influence of the treatments with inoculants was observed in the variables DM, WSC, CP, lactic acid concentrations, or ethanol. The maximum temperature, i.e., the time to achieve the maximum temperature (TMT and aerobic stability (AS, was not influencied by treatments. However, a decrease in maximum temperature, an increase in TMT, and improvement in the AS were observed after 90 days of fermentation. These results proved the advantage of microbial inoculation. The treatments influenced LAB populations and filamentous fungi, but no effect was observed on the yeast population. The best inoculation dose is 6 cfu g-1 of forage because it provides higher reduction of filamentous fungi in maize silage, thereby decreasing the aerobic deterioration by these microorganisms.

  7. Establishing the relative importance of damaged starch and fructan as sources of fermentable sugars in wheat flour and whole meal bread dough fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Nore; Laurent, Jitka; Lefevere, Bianca; Verspreet, Joran; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2017-03-01

    It is generally believed that maltose drives yeast-mediated bread dough fermentation. The relative importance of fructose and glucose, released from wheat fructan and sucrose by invertase, compared to maltose is, however, not documented. This is surprising given the preference of yeast for glucose and fructose over maltose. This study revealed that, after 2h fermentation of wheat flour dough, about 44% of the sugars consumed were generated by invertase-mediated degradation of fructan, raffinose and sucrose. The other 56% were generated by amylases. In whole meal dough, 70% of the sugars consumed were released by invertase activity. Invertase-mediated sugar release seems to be crucial during the first hour of fermentation, while amylase-mediated sugar release was predominant in the later stages of fermentation, which explains why higher amylolytic activity prolonged the productive fermentation time only. These results illustrate the importance of wheat fructan and sucrose content and their degradation for dough fermentations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Studies on biochemical changes in maize wastes fermented with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    In an attempt to transform the agricultural waste products of maize cobs and shafts into useful products such as ... with transforming organic matter in the nature .... cerevisae Solid Media Fermentation. Food. Chemistry 82 (4) 599-602. 6.AOAC ...

  9. Characteristics of remixed fermentation dough and its influence on the quality of steamed bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijian; Deng, Cui; Li, Haifeng; Liu, Changhong; Bian, Ke

    2015-07-15

    In this study, the effects of the amount of remixed flour on the properties of remixed fermentation dough and the quality of Chinese steamed breads were investigated. The hardness, chewiness and whiteness of steamed bread increased when the amount of remixed flour was higher than 10 g/100 g, whereas the specific volume of steamed bread significantly decreased. SEM analysis demonstrated that the gas cells of the steamed bread remained as a discrete spherical or oval-like entity only at 10 g/100 g level of remixed flour. Time-domain NMR showed that water migrated from T22 population to T21 population with increasing the amount of remixed flour. The XRD results indicated that starch in the steamed bread with remixed flour was gelatinized. A significant decrease of both the rate and extent of starch hydrolysis of the steamed bread was observed when flour was remixed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Bacillus spp. as dough starters for Adhirasam - A traditional rice based fermented food of Southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisha, Anvar Hussain Noorul; Anandham, Rangasamy; Kwon, Soon Woo; Gandhi, Pandiyan Indira; Gopal, Nellaiappan Olaganathan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adhirasam is a cereal based, doughnut shaped, deep fried dessert consumed in the southern regions of India. The dough used to prepare adhirasam is fermented and contains rice flour and jaggery. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cultivable bacteria associated with this fermented dough and to identify a suitable starter culture for the production of quality adhirasam. In total, one hundred and seventy bacterial isolates were recovered from de Man Rogosa Sharp (MRS) agar, nutrient agar, lysogeny agar and tryptic soy agar media. Out of the 170 bacterial isolates, sixteen isolates were selected based on their ability to tolerate glucose and sucrose. All the bacterial isolates tolerated 15% glucose and 30% sucrose. Analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequences of the bacterial isolates showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria were members of the genus Bacillus. These strains were further used as starters and tested for their ability to ferment rice flour with jaggery to produce adhirasam dough. Organoleptic evaluation was carried out to choose the best starter strain. Adhirasam prepared from Bacillus subtilis isolates S4-P11, S2-G2-A1 and S1-G15, Bacillus tequilensis isolates S2-H16, S3-P9, S3-G10 and Bacillus siamensis isolate S2-G13 were highly acceptable to consumers. Adhirasam prepared using these starter cultures had superior product characteristics such as softness in texture, flavor and enhanced aroma and sweet taste. PMID:26691480

  11. Effects of baking conditions, dough fermentation, and bran particle size on antioxidant properties of whole-wheat pizza crusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey; Luther, Marla; Cheng, Zhihong; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2009-02-11

    This study investigated the effects of processing conditions including bran particle size, dough fermentation time, and baking time and temperature on the extractable antioxidant properties of whole-wheat pizza crust. Experiments were carried out using two different varieties of hard white winter wheat, Trego and Lakin. Antioxidant properties examined included oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC), hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity (HOSC), relative 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity (RDSC), cation 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity, total phenolic contents (TPC), and ferulic acid contents. Results indicated that bran particle size had no effect on the antioxidant properties evaluated. Increasing dough fermentation time from 0 to 48 h had no significant influence on antioxidant properties except HOSC, which increased as much as 28%, possibly as a result of increase in soluble free ferulic acid, which increased as much as 130%. Increasing baking temperature from 204 to 288 degrees C with a 7 min bake time increased all evaluated antioxidant properties by as much as 82%. Increasing baking time from 7 to 14 min with 204 degrees C baking temperature might increase some antioxidant properties as much as 60%. The results from this study suggest that longer dough fermentation times and increased baking time or temperature may be potential approaches to increase the antioxidant availability in whole-wheat pizza crust.

  12. Contribution of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the glyoxylate shunt in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to succinic acid production during dough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Aslankoohi, Elham; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2015-07-02

    Succinic acid produced by yeast during bread dough fermentation can significantly affect the rheological properties of the dough. By introducing mutations in the model S288C yeast strain, we show that the oxidative pathway of the TCA cycle and the glyoxylate shunt contribute significantly to succinic acid production during dough fermentation. More specifically, deletion of ACO1 and double deletion of ACO1 and ICL1 resulted in a 36 and 77% decrease in succinic acid levels in fermented dough, respectively. Similarly, double deletion of IDH1 and IDP1 decreased succinic acid production by 85%, while also affecting the fermentation rate. By contrast, double deletion of SDH1 and SDH2 resulted in a two-fold higher succinic acid accumulation compared to the wild-type. Deletion of fumarate reductase activity (FRD1 and OSM1) in the reductive pathway of the TCA cycle did not affect the fermentation rate and succinic acid production. The changes in the levels of succinic acid produced by mutants Δidh1Δidp1 (low level) and Δsdh1Δsdh2 (high level) in fermented dough only resulted in small pH differences, reflecting the buffering capacity of dough at a pH of around 5.1. Moreover, Rheofermentometer analysis using these mutants revealed no difference in maximum dough height and gas retention capacity with the dough prepared with S288C. The impact of the changed succinic acid profile on the organoleptic or antimicrobial properties of bread remains to be demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of fermentation and cowpea steaming on some quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentation and cowpea steaming can be used to improve the protein quality and quantity of fermented maize dough. In the production of maize-cowpea blends, it is important that the quality characteristics are evaluated to determine their functionality in the products. A 5x4x2x2 factorial experiment with cowpea level, ...

  14. Fermented Dough Characteristics of Wheat-barley-hemp Composites. Comparison of Two Dosages of Barley and Hemp Wholemeal/Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hrušková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat flour substitution by barley one led to shortening of fermentation and leavening times (about 14–57% and 35–83%, respectively as well as to lessening of dough volumes (about 25–75%, based on lowered protein quality (Zeleny value. Addition of barley flour affected specific bread volume; diminishing for wheat-barley blends 70:30 and 50:50 reached 30% and 43%, respectively. Volume of bread prepared from wheat-barley blend 70:30 enhanced by dehulled hemp wholemeal was the highest within the tested tri-composites set, achieving 130% of wheat-barley control; other hemp products caused the parameter decrease (from 8 to 33%. Within a group of bakery products containing 50% of barley flour, hulled hemp wholemeal partially supressed negative effect of barley flour – specific bread volumes increased about ca 15%. Commercial fine hemp flour samples demonstrated a reversal influence – its addition resulted into lower buns size than wheat-barley control (about 3–34%. Between wheat flour and both groups of flour tri-composites, PCA confirmed differences in dough and bread technological quality. Specific bread volume could be predicted according to maturograph dough elasticity, dough or bread OTG volumes.

  15. Flavoring Production in Kamut®, Quinoa and Wheat Doughs Fermented by Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis: A SPME-GC/MS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, Tiziana; Reale, Anna; Boscaino, Floriana; Messia, Maria C

    2018-01-01

    This study identified the odor-active compounds and the qualitative characteristics of doughs from "ancient" grains flours fermented by lactic acid bacteria. For this purpose doughs made with quinoa and Kamut® flours have been produced and inoculated with strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis and compared with fermented doughs made from 100% wheat flour. The quality of the doughs was determined by assessment of pH, total titratable acidity, lactic acid bacteria growth and flavor compounds. The results showed that lactic acid bacteria used were able to grow in the different substrates reaching more than 9.0 log CFU/g after 24 h fermentation, although the best microbial growth was recorded in the doughs made with quinoa flour fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei I1. Good acidification and heterogeneous aromatic profile were recognized in all the doughs even if the volatile composition mainly derived from microbial specie. Among all the used strains, mostly Lactobacillus paracasei I1 positively contributed to the aromatic profile of the doughs, independently from flour type, producing the highest amount of different ketones such as, diacetyl, acetoin, 2,6-dimethyl-4-heptanone, 5-methyl-3-hexanone, 4-methyl-3-penten-2-one, volatile compounds highly appreciated in the bakery products for their buttery, fatty and fruity notes. So, the positive characteristic of Lactobacillus paracasei I1 to enhance the production of desired volatile compounds could make it suitable as adjunct culture starter in the bakery industry. Many differences in volatile organic compounds derived also by the type of flour used. Quinoa fermented doughs were characterized for specific nutty, roasted, acid and buttery tones derived from pyrazines, ketones and acid compounds whereas Kamut® fermented doughs were characterized for fruity, rose, green and sweet tones derived from aldehydes and ketones production. So, the use of

  16. Flavoring Production in Kamut®, Quinoa and Wheat Doughs Fermented by Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis: A SPME-GC/MS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Di Renzo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study identified the odor-active compounds and the qualitative characteristics of doughs from “ancient” grains flours fermented by lactic acid bacteria. For this purpose doughs made with quinoa and Kamut® flours have been produced and inoculated with strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis and compared with fermented doughs made from 100% wheat flour. The quality of the doughs was determined by assessment of pH, total titratable acidity, lactic acid bacteria growth and flavor compounds. The results showed that lactic acid bacteria used were able to grow in the different substrates reaching more than 9.0 log CFU/g after 24 h fermentation, although the best microbial growth was recorded in the doughs made with quinoa flour fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei I1. Good acidification and heterogeneous aromatic profile were recognized in all the doughs even if the volatile composition mainly derived from microbial specie. Among all the used strains, mostly Lactobacillus paracasei I1 positively contributed to the aromatic profile of the doughs, independently from flour type, producing the highest amount of different ketones such as, diacetyl, acetoin, 2,6-dimethyl-4-heptanone, 5-methyl-3-hexanone, 4-methyl-3-penten-2-one, volatile compounds highly appreciated in the bakery products for their buttery, fatty and fruity notes. So, the positive characteristic of Lactobacillus paracasei I1 to enhance the production of desired volatile compounds could make it suitable as adjunct culture starter in the bakery industry. Many differences in volatile organic compounds derived also by the type of flour used. Quinoa fermented doughs were characterized for specific nutty, roasted, acid and buttery tones derived from pyrazines, ketones and acid compounds whereas Kamut® fermented doughs were characterized for fruity, rose, green and sweet tones derived from aldehydes and ketones

  17. Flavoring Production in Kamut®, Quinoa and Wheat Doughs Fermented by Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis: A SPME-GC/MS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, Tiziana; Reale, Anna; Boscaino, Floriana; Messia, Maria C.

    2018-01-01

    This study identified the odor-active compounds and the qualitative characteristics of doughs from “ancient” grains flours fermented by lactic acid bacteria. For this purpose doughs made with quinoa and Kamut® flours have been produced and inoculated with strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis and compared with fermented doughs made from 100% wheat flour. The quality of the doughs was determined by assessment of pH, total titratable acidity, lactic acid bacteria growth and flavor compounds. The results showed that lactic acid bacteria used were able to grow in the different substrates reaching more than 9.0 log CFU/g after 24 h fermentation, although the best microbial growth was recorded in the doughs made with quinoa flour fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei I1. Good acidification and heterogeneous aromatic profile were recognized in all the doughs even if the volatile composition mainly derived from microbial specie. Among all the used strains, mostly Lactobacillus paracasei I1 positively contributed to the aromatic profile of the doughs, independently from flour type, producing the highest amount of different ketones such as, diacetyl, acetoin, 2,6-dimethyl-4-heptanone, 5-methyl-3-hexanone, 4-methyl-3-penten-2-one, volatile compounds highly appreciated in the bakery products for their buttery, fatty and fruity notes. So, the positive characteristic of Lactobacillus paracasei I1 to enhance the production of desired volatile compounds could make it suitable as adjunct culture starter in the bakery industry. Many differences in volatile organic compounds derived also by the type of flour used. Quinoa fermented doughs were characterized for specific nutty, roasted, acid and buttery tones derived from pyrazines, ketones and acid compounds whereas Kamut® fermented doughs were characterized for fruity, rose, green and sweet tones derived from aldehydes and ketones production. So, the use of

  18. FERMENTATION PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT MAIZE SILAGE HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bíro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the fermentation process differences in different hybrid maize silage. We conserved in laboratory conditions hybrids of whole maize plants with different length of the vegetative period (FAO number. Maize hybrids for silage were harvested in the vegetation stage of the milk-wax maturity of corn and the content of dry matter was from 377.7 to 422.8 g.kg-1. The highest content of dry matter was typical for silages made from the hybrids with FAO number 310 (400.0 g.kg-1 and FAO 300a (400.4 g.kg-1. The content of desirable lactic acid ranged from 23.7 g.kg-1 of dry matter (FAO 350 to 58.9 g.kg-1 of dry matter (FAO 420. We detected the occurrence of undesirable butyric acid in silages from hybrids FAO 250, 300b, 310 and 380. The highest content of total alcohols we found in silages made from hybrid with FAO number 240 (25.2 g.kg-1 of dry matter. Ammonia contents were in tested silages from 0.153 (FAO 270 to 0.223 g.kg-1 of dry matter (FAO 240. The lowest value of silage titration acidity we analyzed in silage made from hybrid FAO 420 (3.66. We observed in maize silages with different length of plant maturity tested in the experiment differences in content of lactic acid, total alcohols, titration acidity, pH and content of fermentation products.

  19. Fermentation Kinetic of Maize Straw-Gliricidia Feed Mixture Supplemented by Fermentable Carbohydrate Measured by In Vitro Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulistiani, D.; Nurhayati

    2018-02-01

    Utilization of crop by-products such as maize straw mixed with legume is expected to be able to overcome the limitation of forage availability during dry season and have similar nutritional value with grass. Addition of fermentable carbohydrate in this diet can be improved fermentability and reduced methane production. The objective of this study was to evaluate supplementation of ground corn grain or rice bran as fermentable carbohydrate in maize straw-gliricidiamixture. Treatment diets evaluated were: Maize straw + gliricidialeaf meal (Control/RO); Control + 10% ground maize grain (ROC); Control + 10% rice bran (RORB). Maize straw was chopped and ground then mixed with gliricidia leaf meal at ratio 60:40% DM. Maize straw-gliricidia mixture then supplemented either with ground corn grain or rice bran at 10% of DM basal diet (control). Sample was incubated for 48 hours, gas production was recorded at 4, 8,12, 16, 24, 36 and 48 hours. Study was conducted in randomized complete design. Results of the study showed that supplementation of fermentable carbohydrate from corn grain or rice bran was able to increased (Pfermentation and reduced methane production.

  20. Microbiological characterization of traditional dough fermentation starter (Jiaozi) for steamed bread making by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijian; Li, Haifeng; Bian, Ke

    2016-10-03

    In this study, the microbial composition of two types of Jiaozi (a dough fermentation starter in making steamed bread) was investigated using both culture-dependent and culture-independent (PCR-DGGE) methods. The numbers of the cultivable bacteria on MRS at 30°C and yeast on YPD at 28°C in the maize flour Jiaozi (MFJ) were 9.21±0.16 Log CFU/g and 9.18±0.05 Log CFU/g, respectively, which were higher than that in the rice flour Jiaozi (RFJ) (Pyeasts were isolated and identified on the basis of the sequences of their 16S rRNA gene and ITS region. The culture-dependent method showed that Acetobacter tropicalis and Enterococcus durans were the predominant bacteria strains in MFJ, and accounted for 45.7% and 25.7% of the bacteria, and Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus represented 12.8% and 8.6%. In the RFJ sample, the most prominent isolate was P. pentosaceus (38.6%), followed by L. plantarum (24.3%), A. tropicalis (22.8%), and E. durans (5.7%). P. pentosaceus and L. plantarum were also detected in both starters by PCR-DGGE, while some bacteria species such as A. tropicalis and E. durans, recovered as pure cultures, were not detected by direct PCR-DGGE. On the other hand, Lactobacillus brevis, Weissella sp. and Lactobacillus alimentarius detected by PCR-DGGE were not recovered in any of the media and conditions used. In the MFJ sample, the isolated main yeast species were identified as Wickerhamomyces anomalus (67.2%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (27.9%) and Torulaspora delbrueckii (4.9%). In addition to S. cerevisiae (42.9%), W. anomalus (27.0%) and T. delbrueckii (7.9%), Saccharomycopsis fibuligera was also identified as the predominant isolate in RFJ samples and accounted for 22.2%. PCR-DGGE also indicated the presence of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae in both MFJ and RFJ starters and S. fibuligera was also detected in RFJ, but T. delbrueckii was not detected in both samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Production of pizza dough with reduced fermentation time Obtenção de massa de pizza em tempo reduzido de fermentação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Limongi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reduce the fermentation time of pizza dough by evaluating the development of the dough during fermentation using a Chopin® rheofermentometer and verifying the influence of time and temperature using a 2² factorial design. The focus was to produce characteristic soft pizza dough with bubbles and crispy edges and soft in the center. These attributes were verified by the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. The dough was prepared with the usual ingredients, fermented at a temperature range from 27 to 33 ºC for 30 to 42 minutes, enlarged, added with tomato sauce, baked, and frozen. The influence of the variables time and temperature on the release of carbon dioxide (H'm was confirmed with positive and significant effect, using a rheofermentometer, which was not observed for the development or maximum height of the dough (Hm. The same fermentation conditions of the experimental design were used for the production of the pizza dough in the industrial process; it was submitted to Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA, in which the samples were described by nine attributes. The results showed that some samples had the desired characteristics of pizza dough, demonstrated by the principal component analysis (PCA, indicating a 30 % fermentation time reduction when compared to the conventional process.Este trabalho teve como objetivo a redução do tempo de fermentação de massa de pizza avaliando-se o desenvolvimento da massa durante a fermentação com emprego de reofermentômetro Chopin® e a influência das variáveis tempo e temperatura em um planejamento fatorial 2². A intenção foi produzir massa característica de pizza, com formação de bolhas, crocância nas bordas e maciez no centro da massa verificando-se estes atributos pela metodologia de Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ. A massa foi preparada com os ingredientes usuais, fermentada a temperaturas variando de 27 a 33 ºC por períodos de 30 a 42

  2. In vitro digestibility of processed and fermented soya bean, cowpea and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Tropical legumes, ie soya bean and cowpea, were pre-treated and subsequently fermented using pure cultures of Rhizopus spp. Impact of soaking, cooking and fermentation of the legumes on their digestibility was determined using an in vitro digestion method. Processing of white maize included, amongst

  3. Fermentation and antimicrobial characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum and Candida tropicalis from Nigerian fermented maize (akamu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patience Chisa Obinna-Echem

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the ability of Lactobacillus plantarum strains (NGL5 and NGL7 and Candida tropicalis (NGY1 previously identified from akamu-a Nigerian fermented maize food with probiotic L. plantarum LpTx and Saccharomyces boulardii SB20 to ferment ground maize slurries based on pH, acidity, microbial biomass, levels of sugars and organic acids, and their antimicrobial activity against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis NCTC 5188, Escherichia coli NCTC 11560, Bacillus cereus NCIMB 11925, Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 3750 and Listeria monocytogenes NCTC 7973 using an agar spot assay. L. plantarum strains either as single or mixed starter cultures with the yeasts had growth rates ≥0.15 h-1,with pH significantly (p≤0.05 decreased to ≤3.93 after 12 h and then to ≤3.52 after 72 h and lactic acid >84 mmol L-1. The yeasts had growth rates ≥0.18 h-1 but pH was ≥4.57 with lactic acid levels ≤20.23 mmol L-1 after 72 h in the single culture fermentation. There was no inhibition in modified MRS agar: 0.2% glucose and 0.2% glucose without Tween 80. Inhibition halos in MRS agar varied from 10.6 to 23.9 mm. S. bourladii was more inhibitory towards L. monocytogenes (8.6 mm and B. cereus (5.4 mm than was C. tropicalis (1.1 and 3.3 mm for L. monocytogenes NCTC 7973 and B. cereus NCIMB 11925 respectively (0.9 mm in malt extract agar. This study showed that C. tropicalis was less inhibitory to the pathogens while antimicrobial activities of the L. plantarum strains were mainly due to acidity and the L. plantarum strains either as single or mixed cultures with the yeasts demonstrated strong fermentation ability, with significant decrease in pH which is vital in the choice of starter for product safety.

  4. Growth and setting of gas bubbles in a viscoelastic matrix imaged by X-ray microtomography: the evolution of cellular structures in fermenting wheat flour dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbin-Orger, A; Babin, P; Boller, E; Chaunier, L; Chiron, H; Della Valle, G; Dendievel, R; Réguerre, A L; Salvo, L

    2015-05-07

    X-ray tomography is a relevant technique for the dynamic follow-up of gas bubbles in an opaque viscoelastic matrix, especially using image analysis. It has been applied here to pieces of fermenting wheat flour dough of various compositions, at two different voxel sizes (15 and 5 μm). The resulting evolution of the main cellular features shows that the creation of cellular structures follows two regimes that are defined by a characteristic time of connectivity, tc [30 and 80 min]: first (t ≤ tc), bubbles grow freely and then (t ≥ tc) they become connected since the percolation of the gas phase is limited by liquid films. During the first regime, bubbles can be tracked and the local strain rate can be measured. Its values (10(-4)-5 × 10(-4) s(-1)) are in agreement with those computed from dough viscosity and internal gas pressure, both of which depend on the composition. For higher porosity, P = 0.64 in our case, and thus occurring in the second regime, different cellular structures are obtained and XRT images show deformed gas cells that display complex shapes. The comparison of these images with confocal laser scanning microscopy images suggests the presence of liquid films that separate these cells. The dough can therefore be seen as a three-phase medium: viscoelastic matrix/gas cell/liquid phase. The contributions of the different levels of matter organization can be integrated by defining a capillary number (C = 0.1-1) that makes it possible to predict the macroscopic dough behavior.

  5. Antioxidant N-acetyltransferase Mpr1/2 of industrial baker's yeast enhances fermentation ability after air-drying stress in bread dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yu; Takahashi, Shunsuke; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2010-03-31

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to multiple stresses. Air-drying stress is one of the most harmful stresses by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previously, we discovered that the novel N-acetyltransferase Mpr1/2 confers oxidative stress tolerance by reducing intracellular ROS level in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sigma1278b strain. In this study, we revealed that Japanese industrial baker's yeast possesses one MPR gene. The nucleotide sequence of the MPR gene in industrial baker's yeast was identical to the MPR2 gene in Sigma1278b strain. Gene disruption analysis showed that the MPR2 gene in industrial baker's yeast is involved in air-drying stress tolerance by reducing the intracellular oxidation levels. We also found that expression of the Lys63Arg and Phe65Leu variants with enhanced enzymatic activity and stability, respectively, increased the fermentation ability of bread dough after exposure to air-drying stress compared with the wild-type Mpr1. In addition, our recent study showed that industrial baker's yeast cells accumulating proline exhibited enhanced freeze tolerance in bread dough. Proline accumulation also enhanced the fermentation ability after air-drying stress treatment in industrial baker's yeast. Hence, the antioxidant enzyme Mpr1/2 could be promising for breeding novel yeast strains that are tolerant to air-drying stress. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Mathematical Modeling Effective Viscosity of Whole Minced Wheat Grain Dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Study on the change of rheological properties of whole minced wheat grain dough during fermentation with additives. Retrieving dependencies to predict and manage effective viscosity of dough fermentation.

  7. Soya beans and maize : the effect of chemical and physical structure of cell wall polysaccharides on fermentation kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van H.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of the relationship between cell wall composition and fermentation of endosperm cell walls of soya beans and maize was approached from three different angles. Firstly, the fermentation (rate and extent of fermentation, the sugar degradation pattern, and volatile fatty acid

  8. Effects of forage maize type and maturity stage on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Schooten, van H.A.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment with forage maize plants representing early and late-ripening types of Dry Down and Stay Green cultivar types was conducted to study the effects of cultivar and maturity stage on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and to investigate the validity of the generally supposed

  9. Syneresis and chemical characteristics of fermented rice extract with probiotic bacteria and waxy maize starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassia Kiss Firmino Dourado COSTA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to elaborate fermented extracts using rice bran and broken rice grains (proportion 8:92 with probiotic bacteria and different concentrations of waxy maize starch (WMS in order to obtain products with low level of syneresis and desirable physical-chemical characteristics, and to evaluate the content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and chemical composition of the extract selected and flavored with strawberry aroma and strawberry syrup. A randomized design was used with five treatments (0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 g 100 g–1 of WMS and four replications. The fermented rice extract had increased soluble solids (from 12.97 to 14.23 °Brix and total acidity (from 0.29 to 0.30 g 100 g–1, whereas total soluble sugars (from 9.24 to 8.73 g 100 g–1 and syneresis (from 10.16 to 0.99 g 100 g–1 decreased with gradual increments of waxy maize starch. The fermented rice extract containing 12 g 100 g–1 WMS reduced the syneresis by 89% compared to the control without waxy maize starch. The fermented rice extract with 12 g 100 g-1 of waxy maize starch flavored with strawberry aroma and strawberry syrup shows high nutritional value, antioxidant capacity, content of total phenolic compounds, and marketing potential, particularly for consumers with special needs, such as those allergic to lactose or soybean proteins, as an alternative food ready for consumption.

  10. Protein extraction method for the proteomic study of a Mexican traditional fermented starchy food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, C; Barkla, B J; Wacher, C; Delgado-Olivares, L; Rodríguez-Sanoja, R

    2014-12-05

    Pozol is a traditional fermented maize dough prepared in southeastern Mexico. Wide varieties of microorganisms have already been isolated from this spontaneously fermented product; and include fungi, yeasts, and lactic- and non-lactic acid bacteria. Pozol presents physicochemical features different from that of other food fermentation products, such as a high starch content, in addition to a low protein content. It is these qualities that make it intractable for protein recovery and characterization. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology to optimize the recovery of proteins from the pozol dough following fermentation, by reducing the complexity of the mixture prior to 2D-PAGE analysis and sequencing, to allow the characterization of the metaproteome of the dough. The proteome of 15day fermented maize dough was characterized; proteins were separated and analyzed by mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Subsequent sequence homology database searching, identified numerous bacterial and fungi proteins; with a predominance of lactic acid bacterial proteins, mainly from the Lactobacillus genus. Fungi are mainly represented by Aspergillus. For dominant genera, the most prevalent proteins belong to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, which suggest that at 15days of fermentation not only fungi but also bacteria are metabolically active. Several methodologies have been employed to study pozol, with a specific focus toward the identification of the microbiota of this fermented maize dough, using both traditional cultivation techniques and culture independent molecular techniques. However to date, the dynamics of this complex fermentation is not well understood. With the purpose to gain further insight into the nature of the fermentation, we used proteomic technologies to identify the origin of proteins and enzymes that facilitate substrate utilization and ultimately the development of the microbiota and fermentation. In this paper we overcome the first general

  11. Influence of maize flour particle size on gluten-free breadmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hera, Esther; Talegón, María; Caballero, Pedro; Gómez, Manuel

    2013-03-15

    Maize, one of the suitable grains for coeliac consumption, is, together with rice, the most cultivated cereal in the world. However, the inclusion of maize flour in gluten-free bread is a minority and studies are scarce. This paper analyses the influence of different maize flour types and their particle sizes on the quality of two types of bread without gluten (80% and 110% water in the formulation) obtained from them. We also analysed the microstructure of the dough and its behaviour during the fermentation. Finer flours had a lower dough development during fermentation in all cases. Among the different types of flour, those whose microstructure revealed compact particles were those which had higher specific bread volume, especially when the particle size was greater. Among the formulations, the dough with more water gave breads with higher specific volume, an effect that was more important in more compact flours. The higher volume breads had lower values of hardness and resilience. The type of corn flour and mainly its particle size influence significantly the dough development of gluten-free bread during fermentation and therefore the final volume and texture of the breads obtained. The flours having coarser particle size are the most suitable for making gluten-free maize bread. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Iron and zinc bioaccessibility of fermented maize, sorghum and millets from five locations in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaza, Molly; Shumoy, Habtu; Muchuweti, Maud; Vandamme, Peter; Raes, Katleen

    2018-01-01

    The present study is an evaluation of iron and zinc bioaccessibility of fermented maize, sorghum, pearl millet and finger millet from five different locations in Zimbabwe. Iron and zinc contents ranged between 3.22 and 49.7 and 1.25-4.39mg/100gdm, respectively. Fermentation caused a reduction of between 20 and 88% of phytic acid (PA) while a general increase in soluble phenolic compounds (PC) and a decrease of the bound (PC) was observed. Bioaccessibility of iron and zinc ranged between 2.77 and 26.1% and 0.45-12.8%, respectively. The contribution of the fermented cereals towards iron and zinc absolute requirements ranged between 25 and 411% and 0.5-23% with higher contribution of iron coming from cereals that were contaminated with extrinsic iron. Populations subsisting on cereals could be more at risk of zinc rather than iron deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMS DURING SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION OF MAIZE [Isolasi dan Identifikasi Mikroorganisme pada Fermentasi Spontan Jagung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati1,2

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize was traditionally the second most common staple food in Indonesia. Conversion to maize flour has been accomplished to improve its convenience. Traditionally, maize flour is produced by soaking the kernels in water followed by grinding. It was reported that final physicochemical characteristics of the maize flour were influenced by spontaneous fermentation which occurred during soaking. This research aimed to isolate and identify important microorganisms that grew during fermentation thus a standardized starter culture can be developed for a more controlled fermentation process. Soaking of maize grits was conducted in sterile water (grits:water=1:2, w/v in a closed container at room temperature (±28ºC for 72 hours. After 0, 4, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 hours, water and maize grits were sampled and tested for the presence of mold, yeast, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Isolates obtained from the spontaneous fermentation were reinoculated into the appropriate media containing starch to observe their amylolytic activity. Individual isolate was then identified; mold by slide culture method, while yeast and LAB by biochemical rapid kits, i.e. API 20C AUX and API CH50, respectively. The number of each microorganism was plotted against time to obtain the growth curve of the microorganisms during spontaneous fermentation. The microorganisms were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, P. citrinum, A. flavus, A. niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, R.oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Acremonium strictum, Candida famata, Kodamaea ohmeri, Candida krusei/incospicua, Lactobacillus plantarum 1a, Pediococcus pentosaceus, L. brevis 1, L. plantarum 1b, and L. paracasei ssp paracasei 3. Four molds and one yeast were amylolytic while none of the LAB was capable of starch hydrolysis. The growth curve suggested that the amylolitic mold and yeast grew to hydrolyze starch during the course of fermentation, while the LABs benefited from the hydrolyzed products and dominated the later

  14. Effect of harvest time on fermentation profiles of maize ensiled in laboratory silos and determination of drying losses at 60°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2007-01-01

    The objectives were to investigate the effect of premature ensiling of maize on alcohol fermentation in laboratory silos and the loss of fermentation products and glucose in silage following drying at 60°C for 48 h. During four consecutive weeks maize was harvested and ensiled for 60 days in vacuum-sealed...

  15. IN VITRO FERMENTATION EFFICIENCY OF MIXTURES OF Cynodon nlemfuensis, Leucaena leucocephala AND TWO ENERGY SOURCES (MAIZE OR SUGAR CANE MOLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Martin Estrada-Liévano

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro fermentation efficiency of Cynodon nlemfuensis forage (star grass and Leucaena leucocephala foliage (leucaena and two energy sources (i.e. maize and sugar cane molasses mixture was evaluated. Mixture samples (1 g DM were incubated for 24 h. All the mixtures were added with 500 mg of polyetilenglycol (PEG. Adding molasses to star grass increased dry matter true digestibility and carbohydrate fermentation (P

  16. Sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance of naturally and lactic acid bacteria-fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'ong'ola-Manani, Tinna A; Mwangwela, Agnes M; Schüller, Reidar B; Østlie, Hilde M; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-01-01

    Fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends were evaluated to determine sensory properties driving consumer liking. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and lactic acid bacteria fermented (LFP). Lactic acid bacteria fermentation was achieved through backslopping using a fermented cereal gruel, thobwa. Ten trained panelists evaluated intensities of 34 descriptors, of which 27 were significantly different (P consumer (n = 150) heterogeneity in preference, external preference mapping showed that most consumers preferred NFP. Drivers of liking of NFP samples were softness, pH, fermented aroma, sweetness, fried egg aroma, fried egg-like appearance, raw soybean, and rancid odors. Optimization of the desirable properties of the pastes would increase utilization and acceptance of fermented soybeans. PMID:24804070

  17. Kinetics of methane fermentation yield in biogas reactors: Genetic variation and association with chemical composition in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieder, Christoph; Mittweg, Greta; Dhillon, Baldev S.; Montes, Juan M.; Orsini, Elena; Melchinger, Albrecht E.

    2012-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most competitive crop for methane production in Germany. Methane fermentation yield per unit of dry matter (MFY) is a determinant of methane yield, but little information is available on this trait. Our objectives were to investigate the kinetics of MFY during fermentation of maize, estimate quantitative-genetic parameters for different traits related to MFY and examine the relationship of MFY with chemical composition and silage quality. Whole-plant material of 16 inbreds and their 32 testcrosses was analyzed for MFY over 35 days of fermentation using a discontinuous laboratory assay. Data were also generated on chemical composition and in vitro digestible organic matter (IVDOM). Significant genotypic variances and high heritabilities were observed for MFY at early fermentation stages (up to 5 days) probably due to different concentrations of easily degradable chemical components. However, genotypic variances and heritability of MFY reduced as fermentation progressed, because of complete or partial degradation of all chemical components. Further, there were strong correlations of MFY with chemical components at early fermentation stages but not at later stages. Therefore, MFY at later stages, which is closer to potential MFY, does not seem to be amenable to selection. High heritability of IVDOM and its strong correlation with MFY in testcrosses indicated its possible use for preliminary or indirect selection. Keeping in view the magnitude of genetic variance that was low for MFY and high for dry matter yield (DMY), the other component of methane yield, more emphasis on breeding for DMY seems appropriate. -- Highlights: ► We investigated methane fermentation yield (MFY) of diverse germplasm of maize. ► The kinetics of MFY and its correlations with chemical composition were examined. ► Genetic variance and heritability for MFY decreased with fermentation time. ► Complete fermentation (35 d) reduced correlations of MFY with chemical

  18. Metabolite changes during natural and lactic acid bacteria fermentations in pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'ong'ola-Manani, Tinna Austen; Østlie, Hilde Marit; Mwangwela, Agnes Mbachi; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-01-01

    The effect of natural and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation processes on metabolite changes in pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends was studied. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and were fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LFP). LAB fermentation processes were facilitated through back-slopping using a traditional fermented gruel, thobwa as an inoculum. Naturally fermented pastes were designated 100S, 90S, and 75S, while LFP were designated 100SBS, 90SBS, and 75SBS. All samples, except 75SBS, showed highest increase in soluble protein content at 48 h and this was highest in 100S (49%) followed by 90SBS (15%), while increases in 100SBS, 90S, and 75S were about 12%. Significant (P acids throughout fermentation were attributed to cysteine in 100S and 90S; and methionine in 100S and 90SBS. A 3.2% increase in sum of total amino acids was observed in 75SBS at 72 h, while decreases up to 7.4% in 100SBS at 48 and 72 h, 6.8% in 100S at 48 h and 4.7% in 75S at 72 h were observed. Increases in free amino acids throughout fermentation were observed in glutamate (NFP and 75SBS), GABA and alanine (LFP). Lactic acid was 2.5- to 3.5-fold higher in LFP than in NFP, and other organic acids detected were acetate and succinate. Maltose levels were the highest among the reducing sugars and were two to four times higher in LFP than in NFP at the beginning of the fermentation, but at 72 h, only fructose levels were significantly (P acid solubility and degradation of phytic acid (85% in NFP and 49% in LFP by 72 h). PMID:25493196

  19. Influence of Wheat and Maize Starch on Fermentation in the Rumen, Duodenal Nutrient Flow and Nutrient Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Šimko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of feeding diets with different starch sources on fermentation in the rumen, duodenal nutrient flow and nutrient digestibility. The basis of the diets was maize silage and alfalfa hay supplemented with wheat meal in diet W, or maize meal in diet M. The experiment was performed on four Black-Spotted bulls with mean live weight of 525 kg, which were fed twice daily at 06.30 and 18.30 h. Experimental animals were fitted with ruminal fistulae and duodenal T-shaped cannulae. Cr2O3 was used as a marker of nutrient flow to the duodenum. Rations were formulated so that the ratio of starch to crude fibre (CF was 2.1:1 and the percentage of CF was maintained at 17% (DM. Duodenal chymus was collected at 2-h time intervals. Starch origin significantly affected ruminal fermentation. Concentration of propionic, butyric and lactic acid was higher with wheat than with maize meal. When the maize meal was the source of starch there was a significantly higher flow of fat, CF, nitrogen-free extract, and starch into duodenum. Differences in duodenal flow of crude protein were not significant across the starch sources. Intake of wheat meal or maize meal increased duodenal flow relative to intake by 33% or 42 % respectively. The apparent digestibility of dry matter (76 ± 2%, crude protein (67 ± 0.9%, CF (64 ± 1.9%, nitrogen-free extract (82 ± 1.5% and organic matter (76 ± 1.3% was significantly higher by offering wheat meal.

  20. Effective conversion of maize straw wastes into bio-hydrogen by two-stage process integrating H2 fermentation and MECs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Hong; Bai, Yan-Xia; Pan, Chun-Mei; Li, Wei-Wei; Zheng, Hui-Qin; Zhang, Jing-Nan; Fan, Yao-Ting; Hou, Hong-Wei

    2015-12-01

    The enhanced H2 production from maize straw had been achieved through the two-stage process of integrating H2 fermentation and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) in the present work. Several key parameters affecting hydrolysis of maize straw through subcritical H2O were optimized by orthogonal design for saccharification of maize straw followed by H2 production through H2 fermentation. The maximum reducing sugar (RS) content of maize straw reached 469.7 mg/g-TS under the optimal hydrolysis condition with subcritical H2O combining with dilute HCl of 0.3% at 230 °C. The maximum H2 yield, H2 production rate, and H2 content was 115.1 mL/g-TVS, 2.6 mL/g-TVS/h, and 48.9% by H2 fermentation, respectively. In addition, the effluent from H2 fermentation was used as feedstock of MECs for additional H2 production. The maximum H2 yield of 1060 mL/g-COD appeared at an applied voltage of 0.8 V, and total COD removal reached about 35%. The overall H2 yield from maize straw reached 318.5 mL/g-TVS through two-stage processes. The structural characterization of maize straw was also carefully investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra.

  1. NUTRITIVE VALUE, In Vitro FERMENTATION AND SECONDARY METABOLITES OF WEEDS AND MAIZE STRAW USED FOR FEEDING DAIRY CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Martínez-Loperena

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the highlands of Central Mexico a surplus of different forages is observed during the rainy season particularly weeds, which grow in maize fields. Weeds are widely used by farmers to feed dairy cattle. The objective of the present work was to determine the nutritive value of weeds, their content of secondary metabolites, and their effect on in vitro fermentation kinetics when included (at different levels of inclusion in a diet based on maize straw. The present study was carried out in two regions of the Toluca valley from August to October 2007. A split plot design was used to evaluate the variables associated with the nutritive value and a randomized design was employed to evaluate the content of secondary metabolites in the different weed species. Significant differences (P

  2. Graded replacement of maize grain with molassed sugar beet pulp modulated ruminal microbial community and fermentation profile in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münnich, Matthias; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Klevenhusen, Fenja; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2018-02-01

    Molassed sugar beet pulp (Bp) is a viable alternative to grains in cattle nutrition for reducing human edible energy input. Yet little is known about the effects of high inclusion rates of Bp on rumen microbiota. This study used an in vitro approach and the quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique to establish the effects of a graded replacement of maize grain (MG) by Bp on the ruminal microbial community, fermentation profile and nutrient degradation. Six different amounts of Bp (0-400 g kg -1 ), which replaced MG in the diet, were tested using the in vitro semi-continuous rumen simulation technique. The increased inclusion of Bp resulted in greater dietary content and degradation of neutral detergent fibre (P fermentation. However, high replacement rates of Bp resulted in lowered utilization of ammonia and higher ruminal methane production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Rumen fermentation profile and intestinal digestibility of maize and grass silages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M.

    2013-01-01

    Maize and grass silages are commonly used as major feed materials for dairy cows in Europe and are becoming common parts of dairy cow rations in other parts of the world. Thenutritive value of maize and grass silages varies greatly due to variation in chemical composition. A combination of

  4. Effect of phytase application during high gravity (HG) maize mashes preparation on the availability of starch and yield of the ethanol fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulski, D; Kłosowski, G; Rolbiecka, A

    2014-10-01

    Phytic acid present in raw materials used in distilling industry can form complexes with starch and divalent cations and thus limit their biological availability. The influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis of phytate complexes on starch availability during the alcoholic fermentation process using high gravity (HG) maize mashes was analyzed. Indicators of the alcoholic fermentation as well as the fermentation activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae D-2 strain were statistically evaluated. Phytate hydrolysis improved the course of the alcoholic fermentation of HG maize mashes. The final ethanol concentration in the media supplemented with phytase applied either before or after the starch hydrolysis increased by 1.0 and 0.6 % v/v, respectively, as compared to the control experiments. This increase was correlated with an elevated fermentation yield that was higher by 5.5 and 2.0 L EtOH/100 kg of starch, respectively. Phytate hydrolysis resulted also in a statistically significant increase in the initial concentration of fermenting sugars by 14.9 mg/mL of mash, on average, which was a consequence of a better availability of starch for enzymatic hydrolysis. The application of phytase increased the attenuation of HG media fermentation thus improving the economical aspect of the ethanol fermentation process.

  5. Effects of enzymes to improve sensory quality of frozen dough bread and analysis on its mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Pei, Dudu; Teng, Yuefei; Liang, Jianfen

    2018-01-01

    Baking quality of frozen dough is negatively affected by dough weakening and by a reduction in both yeast viability and activity during freezing and frozen storage. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of different enzymes, such as α-amylase, xylanase, celluase, glucose oxidase, and lipase on the texture and sensory quality of bread after frozen storage, as well as on dough properties, in terms of fermentation characteristics, freezable water contents and microstructure. Except for α-amylase, other enzymes improved the bread sensory quality and got higher overall acceptability, especially xylanase. Dough fermentative behavior showed that the maximum heights of frozen dough were increased by 33.2, 19.7 and 7.4%, respectively with xylanase, cellulase and lipase. Cellulase lowered gas holding ability of dough. Thermodynamic properties indicated that addition of enzyme decreased the freezable water contents in frozen dough. Scanning electronic microscopy revealed that freezing and frozen storage disrupted dough gluten network causing separation of starch granules from the gluten matrix. Inclusion of cellulase, xylanase and lipase made the frozen dough having a more continuous gluten network and smoother surface, and glucose oxidase increased the stability of the gluten work.

  6. Efeito de ingredientes na qualidade da massa de pão de forma congelada não fermentada durante o armazenamento Effect of ingredients on the quality of non-fermented frozen form bread dough during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. Gutkoski

    2005-09-01

    effect of instant yeast, soy lecithin and soy extract in the production of non-fermented frozen form bread during sixty days of dough storage. The procedures were carried out in the bakery of the Center of Research in Feeding of the University of Passo Fundo, using three levels of instant yeast (0,8%, 1,3% e 1,8%, three levels of soy lecithin (0,5%, 1,5% e 2,5% and three levels of soy extract (1%, 3% e 5%, completing 15 treatments, in incomplete factorial. The dough was divided in 150g pieces, shaped and frozen in the ultra freezer, mark Klimaquip, in the speed of 1,23°C min-1 and 5ms-1 air circulation. The samples were thawed after 30 days and 60 days of storage, the fermentation was in a fermentation cabinet at 32 ±1°C and in relative humidity of 80% and cooking was done in a laboratory rotative oven, at 190°C for 18 minutes. Functional and physics variables were monitored and answer surface methodology was used to optimize the formulation study of the form bread. Among the ingredients studied in the form bread formulation, only instant yeast and soy extract concentrations had significant interferences in answer variables. The volume and the gas production increased with the dough fermentation in the same proportion as yeast concentration used in the formulation. The form bread specific volume, crust color and points score increased with the instant yeast concentration raising and the decrease of soy extract. With the storage time increasing from 30 days to 60 days, there was a quality loss in the bread characteristics, except for the specific volume that remained stable.

  7. Fermentation characteristics of polysaccharide fractions extracted from the cell walls of maize endosperm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van H.; Tamminga, S.; Williams, B.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Schols, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Cell walls were extracted from maize endosperm and separated into different polysaccharide fractions by sequential extraction with solutions of saturated Ba(OH)2, demineralised water and 1 and 4 M KOH. Solubilised polysaccharides were collected after each extraction. Residues were collected

  8. Study of process frozen dough of steamed bread added black rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuang; Wang Chonglin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to extent the storage period of wheat steamed bread added black rice. Based on index of sensory evaluation steamed bread. Effects of the use of film, Effects of electron beam irradiation on processing characteristics of wheat flour, yeast content, fermentation time before frozen, second fermentation time before steaming, combination of differerent additives on bread properties of frozen dough were investigate. The result showed that: the best frozen dough recipe were film processing, l% yeast, 1 h fermentation time before frozen , 45 min second fermentation time before steaming, 0.075% CMC, O.21 % Vc, 0.35% GMS. (authors)

  9. Fumonisins in conventional and transgenic, insect-resistant maize intended for fuel ethanol production: implications for fermentation efficiency and DDGS co-product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Erin L; Munkvold, Gary P

    2014-09-22

    Mycotoxins in maize grain intended for ethanol production are enriched in co-product dried distiller's grains and solubles (DDGS) and may be detrimental to yeast in fermentation. This study was conducted to examine the magnitude of fumonisin enrichment in DDGS and to analyze the impacts of insect injury, Fusarium ear rot severity, and fumonisin contamination on final ethanol yield. Samples of naturally-contaminated grain (0 to 35 mg/kg fumonisins) from field trials conducted in 2008-2011 were fermented and DDGS collected and analyzed for fumonisin content. Ethanol yield (determined gravimetrically) was unaffected by fumonisins in the range occurring in this study, and was not correlated with insect injury or Fusarium ear rot severity. Ethanol production was unaffected in fumonisin B1-spiked grain with concentrations from 0 to 37 mg/kg. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize often has reduced fumonisins due to its protection from insect injury and subsequent fungal infection. DDGS derived from Bt and non-Bt maize averaged 2.04 mg/kg and 8.25 mg/kg fumonisins, respectively. Fumonisins were enriched by 3.0× for 50 out of 57 hybrid × insect infestation treatment combinations; those seven that differed were fumonisin enrichment in DDGS, with measurements traceable to individual samples. Under significant insect pest pressures, DDGS derived from Bt maize hybrids were consistently lower in fumonisins than DDGS derived from non-Bt hybrids.

  10. Evaluation of the microbial community, acidity and proximate composition of akamu, a fermented maize food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obinna-Echem, Patience C; Kuri, Victor; Beal, Jane

    2014-01-30

    Akamu is a lactic acid-fermented cereal-based food that constitutes a major infant complementary food in most West African countries. The identities of LAB populations from DGGE analysis and conventionally isolated LAB and yeasts from traditionally fermented akamu were confirmed by PCR sequencing analysis. The relationships between pH, acidity and lactic acid levels and proximate composition of the akamu samples were investigated. The LAB communities in the akamu samples comprised mainly Lactobacillus species, including Lb. fermentum, Lb. plantarum, Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Lb. helveticus, as well as Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris. Identified yeasts were Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Clavispora lusitaniae and Saccharomyces paradoxus. Low pH (3.22-3.95) was accompanied by high lactic acid concentrations (43.10-84.29 mmol kg⁻¹). Protein (31.88-74.32 g kg⁻¹) and lipid (17.74-36.83 g kg⁻¹ contents were negatively correlated with carbohydrate content (897.48-926.20 g kg⁻¹, of which ≤1 g kg⁻¹ was sugars). Ash was either not detected or present only in trace amounts (≤4 g kg⁻¹). Energy levels ranged from 17.29 to 18.37 kJ g⁻¹. The akamu samples were predominantly starchy foods and had pH < 4.0 owing to the activities of fermentative LAB. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Functionally redundant but dissimilar microbial communities within biogas reactors treating maize silage in co-fermentation with sugar beet silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Susanne G; Ahmed, Sharif; Einfalt, Daniel; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Kazda, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Numerous observations indicate a high flexibility of microbial communities in different biogas reactors during anaerobic digestion. Here, we describe the functional redundancy and structural changes of involved microbial communities in four lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs, 39°C, 12 L volume) supplied with different mixtures of maize silage (MS) and sugar beet silage (SBS) over 80 days. Continuously stirred tank reactors were fed with mixtures of MS and SBS in volatile solid ratios of 1:0 (Continuous Fermenter (CF) 1), 6:1 (CF2), 3:1 (CF3), 1:3 (CF4) with equal organic loading rates (OLR 1.25 kgVS m−3 d−1) and showed similar biogas production rates in all reactors. The compositions of bacterial and archaeal communities were analysed by 454 amplicon sequencing approach based on 16S rRNA genes. Both bacterial and archaeal communities shifted with increasing amounts of SBS. Especially pronounced were changes in the archaeal composition towards Methanosarcina with increasing proportion of SBS, while Methanosaeta declined simultaneously. Compositional shifts within the microbial communities did not influence the respective biogas production rates indicating that these communities adapted to environmental conditions induced by different feedstock mixtures. The diverse microbial communities optimized their metabolism in a way that ensured efficient biogas production. PMID:26200922

  12. Effects of replacing maize meal with rumen filtrate-fermented cassava meal on growth and egg production performance in Japanese quails (Cortunix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Kanyinji

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing maize in quail diets with graded levels of rumen filtrate-fermented cassava meal (FCM on growth and egg production performances. Cassava meal (CM was mixed with dried manure of layer at 75 g/kg CM, which was mixed with freshly collected rumen filtrate (at 1 L/5 kg CM, and finally fermented in sealed bags for 14 days. It was then sun-dried and added in grower or finisher diets at 0, 50, 75 and 100%. Then, 84 three weeks-old Japanese quails (Cortunix japonica were divided into four equal groups; the birds were randomly assigned to 0, 50, 75 and 100% FCM grower/layers diets, and were reared until 56 days of age. Daily feed consumption, weekly body weights, weight gains, feed conversion ratios (FCR, hen-day, and egg weights were monitored. The quails fed with 75% FCM were found to be superior (p0.05 effect on feed intake, body weight, and weight gain, as compared to those of fed control diets. Thus, replacing maize with FCM had no deleterious effects on growth performance, but depressed hen-day. However, better growth performance was obtained when maize was replaced at 75% FCM.

  13. fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... genes in glycolysis pathway, trehalose and steroid biosynthesis and heat shock proteins (HSP) in .... com) and prepared for microarray construction and analysis. .... a single time point of the late stage of VHG fermentation.

  14. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum steep liquor as a leavening agent: Effect on dough rheology and sensory properties of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Ahmed M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dough fermentation is one of the oldest process in food technologies. It has been recently intensively studied for its impact on the sensory, structural, nutritional and shelf life properties of leavened baked products. The goals of this work were to investigate chickpea steep liquor (CSL as a dough-leavening agent and to study the effect of CSL on the dough rheology and sensory properties of leavened bread. CSL was prepared by submerging chickpea seeds in boiled distilled water (1:2, w/v for 24 h at 37оC, and then obtained liquor was filtered and freeze-dried to obtain CSL. The addition of CSL to wheat flour (WF brought changes in the dough mixing behavior as measured by the farinograph. An increase in the farinograph water absorption of WF dough was observed when 4.5% CSL and 1.5% yeast was added, while arrival time was not affected. Addition of CSL to the dough at a content of 4.5, 9.0 and 13.5 g CSL/300 g WF caused an increase in dough stability. The CSL addition also increased mechanical tolerance index, dough weakening and mixing time. Dough development time for all blends was higher than the control (1.2-1.5 min, while between the CSL samples no significant difference was observed. The loaf weight slightly increased from 146.2 g for control to 152.2 g for CSL fermented bread, whereas the loaf volume and specific volume of CSL-fermented bread were lower than the control. The combination of yeast and CSL increased the acceptability of bread with the increasing level of both leavening agents’. The results show that CSL could be used as an alternative to yeast for syngas fermentation. On the other hand, CLS is rich in nutrients and lower in cost compared to yeast.

  15. Growth indices and cost implications of hybro broiler chicks fed with graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corm meal as a replacement for maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajide, R

    2014-05-01

    Corms such as wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta] have potential to replace maize as a cheaper energy source in poultry rations. A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm (FWCC), as substitutes for maize in the diets of broilers at the starter phase. One hundred and twenty unsexed day-old Hybro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). There were 3 replicates per dietary treatment with 10 birds per replicate. Diet 1 without FWCC served as the control. Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained 10, 20 and 30% FWCC. Each of the diets represented a treatment. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum for 4 weeks (28 days) representing the starter phase of the broiler production. Result of the performance revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The economic analysis also showed that cost (Naira58.52) of a kilogram feed was highest (p<0.05) for the control and least (Naira53.10) for 30% FWCC. The least cost (Naira101.24) of feed per kilogram weight gain (p<0.05) was obtained for birds fed 30% FWCC compared to (Naira105.53) for the control. It was concluded that maize can economically be substituted with 30% FWCC in broiler starter diets.

  16. Stem characteristics of two forage maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars varying in whole plant digestibility. II. Relation between in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and anatomical and chemical features within a single internode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, E.J.M.C.; Engels, F.M.; Struik, P.C.; Cone, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Internode 7 of the stem of two forage maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars was studied anatomically and chemically at anthesis and subjected to fermentation tests in rumen fluid, using an automated gas production system. For anatomical studies internode 7 was sectioned at the top, middle and base. For

  17. Performance and meat quality characteristics of broilers fed fermented mixture of grated cassava roots and palm kernel cake as replacement for maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwukaelo, A K; Aladi, N O; Okeudo, N J; Obikaonu, H O; Ogbuewu, I P; Okoli, I C

    2018-03-01

    Performance and meat quality characteristics of broilers fed fermented mixture of grated cassava roots and palm kernel cake (FCP-mix) as a replacement for maize were studied. One hundred and eighty (180), 7-day-old broiler chickens were divided into six groups of 30 birds, and each group replicated thrice. Six experimental diets were formulated for both starter and finisher stages with diets 1 and 6 as controls. Diet 1 contained maize whereas diet 6 contained a 1:1 mixture of cassava root meal (CRM) and palm kernel cake (PKC). In diets 2, 3, 4, and 5, the FCP-mix replaced maize at the rate of 25, 50, 75, and 100%, respectively. Each group was assigned to one experimental diet in a completely randomized design. The proximate compositions of the diets were evaluated. Live weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass weight, and sensory attributes of the meats were obtained from each replicate and data obtained was analyzed statistically. The results showed that live weight, average daily weight gain (ADWG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and FCR of birds on treatment diets were better than those on the control diets (Diets 1 and 6). The feed cost per kilogram weight gained decreased with inclusion levels of FCP-mix. Birds on diet 1 recorded significantly (p  0.05) affected by the inclusion of FCP-mix in the diets. FCP-mix is a suitable substitute for maize in broiler diet at a replacement level of up to 100% for best live weight, carcass weight yield, and meat quality.

  18. Bactéries lactiques de la pâte fermentée de maïs au Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louembé, D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic Acid Bacteria Involved in the Processing of Poto-Poto, a Fermented Maize Dough Congolese. Lactic acid bacteria and yeast involved in natural fermentation of "poto-poto" were investigated during fermentation period. The dominant micro-organisms involved in poto-poto are a mixed population of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. The association of these two category of organisms responsible for the development of sensory qualities has been noticed in spontaneous fermentation. From a total of 131 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from product, four main lactic acid bacteria genus were identified: Lactobacillus (mainly Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactococcus (with Lactococcus lactis sp. lactis, Leuconostoc (mainly Leuconostoc mesenteroïdes, Leuconostoc citreum and Pediococcus (with Pediococcus acidilactici. Lactobacillus constitued the predominant genus. Leuconostoc were only isolated at the early stage of fermentation, confirming the fact that they are initiating flora as generally repoted. This presumably a result of the low pH. The micro-organisms composition compared with ogi, uji are similar. Howewer, some differences exist particulary with mawe, beninese traditional product. Quantitatively, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts are more numerous in natural fermentation of germinated grains maize than non germinated grains.

  19. Hybrid yeast strains capable of raising an extraordinarily broad range of dough types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, S.; Zander, I.; Windisch, S.

    1981-01-01

    Over 200 hybrid yeast strains were screened and 11 of these found to have versatile fermentation characteristics. This paper reports the results obtained with these 11 strains compared with a commercially available strain of baker's yeast used for bread making and marketed as 'instant active dry yeast'. In contrast to bakers yeast, the hybrid strains fermented very well in yeast, hard biscuit, shortcake and heavy cake dough without prior sponge formation. The fermentation kinetics were investigated and the technical potential of such hybrid strains discussed on the basis of the fermentation kinetics.

  20. Mitigation of the processing contaminant acrylamide in bread by reducing asparagine in the bread dough

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsaiti, Tatiana; Granby, Kit

    2016-01-01

    . Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for AAM and its main precursor, ASN, determination. The resulting ASN depletion in the dough (68–89%) is significantly affected by fermentation time and yeast type, while AAM mitigation levels in the baked buns are significantly...... influenced by yeast amount, fermentation time and yeast type. The mean concentrations for each combination range between 5 and 15 µg kg– 1....

  1. Effect of the particle size of maize, rice, and sorghum in extruded diets for dogs on starch gelatinization, digestibility, and the fecal concentration of fermentation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazolli, R S; Vasconcellos, R S; de-Oliveira, L D; Sá, F C; Pereira, G T; Carciofi, A C

    2015-06-01

    The influence of rice, maize, and sorghum raw material particle size in extruded dry dog food on the digestibility of nutrients and energy and the fecal concentration of fermentation products was investigated. Three diets with similar nutrient compositions were formulated, each with 1 starch source. Before incorporation into diets, the cereals were ground into 3 different particle sizes (approximately 300, 450, and 600 µm); therefore, a total of 9 diets were in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement (3 cereals and 3 particle sizes). Fifty-four beagle dogs (12.0 ± 0.1 kg BW) were randomly assigned to the diets, with 6 dogs per diet. The digestibility was measured with the chromium oxide method. The data were evaluated with ANOVA considering the carbohydrate source, grinding effect, and interactions. The means were compared with the Tukey test and polynomial contrasts (P 0.05); only GE digestibility was reduced at the largest MGD (P production of feces with less lactate (P dogs fed maize and sorghum foods, an increase in propionate and butyrate concentrations were observed as MGD increased (P dogs fed different particle sizes of the cereal starches in the extruded diets, the digestibility and fecal characteristics were affected, and this effect was ingredient dependent.

  2. Use of an ultrasonic reflectance technique to examine bubble size changes in dough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strybulevych, A.; Leroy, V.; Shum, A. L.; Koksel, H. F.; Scanlon, M. G.; Page, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    Bread quality largely depends on the manner in which bubbles are created and manipulated in the dough during processing. We have developed an ultrasonic reflectance technique to monitor bubbles in dough, even at high volume fractions, where near the bubble resonances it is difficult to make measurements using transmission techniques. A broadband transducer centred at 3.5 MHz in a normal incidence wave reflection set-up is used to measure longitudinal velocity and attenuation from acoustic impedance measurements. The technique is illustrated by examining changes in bubbles in dough due to two very different physical effects. In dough made without yeast, a peak in attenuation due to bubble resonance is observed at approximately 2 MHz. This peak diminishes rapidly and shifts to lower frequencies, indicative of Ostwald ripening of bubbles within the dough. The second effect involves the growth of bubble sizes due to gas generated by yeast during fermentation. This process is experimentally challenging to investigate with ultrasound because of very high attenuation. The reflectance technique allows the changes of the velocity and attenuation during fermentation to be measured as a function of frequency and time, indicating bubble growth effects that can be monitored even at high volume fractions of bubbles.

  3. Use of an ultrasonic reflectance technique to examine bubble size changes in dough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strybulevych, A; Leroy, V; Page, J H; Shum, A L; Koksel, H F; Scanlon, M G

    2012-01-01

    Bread quality largely depends on the manner in which bubbles are created and manipulated in the dough during processing. We have developed an ultrasonic reflectance technique to monitor bubbles in dough, even at high volume fractions, where near the bubble resonances it is difficult to make measurements using transmission techniques. A broadband transducer centred at 3.5 MHz in a normal incidence wave reflection set-up is used to measure longitudinal velocity and attenuation from acoustic impedance measurements. The technique is illustrated by examining changes in bubbles in dough due to two very different physical effects. In dough made without yeast, a peak in attenuation due to bubble resonance is observed at approximately 2 MHz. This peak diminishes rapidly and shifts to lower frequencies, indicative of Ostwald ripening of bubbles within the dough. The second effect involves the growth of bubble sizes due to gas generated by yeast during fermentation. This process is experimentally challenging to investigate with ultrasound because of very high attenuation. The reflectance technique allows the changes of the velocity and attenuation during fermentation to be measured as a function of frequency and time, indicating bubble growth effects that can be monitored even at high volume fractions of bubbles.

  4. Fermented high moisture maize grain as supplement to alfalfa haylage is superior over unfermented dry maize grain in diet dry matter digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the experiment were to examine whether high moisture maize grain (HMM is superior to low moisture maize grain (LMM as supplement to alfalfa haylage (Medicago sativa L. (AH. The effects of HMM and LMM supplementation to AH were studied on feed intake, water intake and dry matter (DM digestibility in wether sheep. Alfalfa was harvested at the beginning of flowering and ensiled into round bales wrapped with plastic. The average DM and crude protein (CP concentration of AH was 534.7 g kg-1 fresh sample and 141 g kg-1 DM, respectively. The average DM content (g kg-1 fresh sample of HMM and LMM were 795.9 and 915.1 g kg-1 fresh sample, respectively, while the average CP concentration (g kg-1 DM were 116.8 and 106.0, respectively. The study consisted of five feeding treatments incorporating AH only and AH supplemented with 5 or 10 g HMM or LMM d-1 kg-1 wether body weight. The inclusion of HMM (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1 into AH based ration resulted in higher diet DM digestibility (P<0.05 in comparison with LMM inclusion (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1. Higher daily fresh matter intake (FMI (P<0.05, dry matter intake (DMI (P<0.05 and water intake (P<0.05 was achieved with LMM inclusion in comparison with HMM inclusion. The conclusion was that HMM is superior over LMM as supplement to AH in terms of DM digestibility, while LMM has advantages over HMM in the intake characteristics measured.

  5. Elevated CO(2) and drought stress effects on the chemical composition of maize plants, their ruminal fermentation and microbial diversity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meibaum, Birgit; Riede, Susanne; Schröder, Bernd; Manderscheid, Remy; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Breves, Gerhard

    2012-12-01

    Climate changes are supposed to influence productivity and chemical composition of plants. In the present experiments, it was hypothesised that the incubation of plants exposed to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO₂]) and drought stress will result in different ruminal fermentation pattern and microbial diversity compared to unaffected plants. Maize plants were grown, well-watered under ambient (380 ppm CO₂, Variant A) and elevated [CO₂] (550 ppm CO₂, Variant B). Furthermore, each CO₂ treatment was also exposed to drought stress (380 ppm and 550 ppm CO₂,Variants C and D, respectively), which received only half as much water as the well-watered plants. Plant material from these treatments was incubated in a semi-continuous in vitro fermentation experiment using the rumen simulation technique. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was conducted for Bacteria and Archaea specific profiles. The analysis of crude nutrients showed higher contents of fibre fraction in drought stress Variants C and D. Crude protein content was increased by drought stress under ambient but not under elevated [CO₂]. Fermentation of drought stress variants resulted in significantly increased pH values, decreased digestibilities of organic matter and increased ammonia-N (NH₃-N) concentrations compared with well-watered variants. Additionally, the 550 ppm CO₂ Variants B and D showed significantly lower NH₃-N concentrations than Variants A and C. The Bacteria- and Archaea-specific SSCP profiles as well as the production rates of short-chain fatty acids and their molar percentages were not affected by treatments. During the first four days of equilibration period, a decrease of molar percentage of acetate and increased molar percentages of propionate were observed for all treatments. These alterations might have been induced by adaptation of the in vitro system to the new substrate. The rumen microflora appeared to be highly adaptive and

  6. Rheological Properties of Gluten Free Dough Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tandazo, Stephany Aurea

    2013-01-01

    Bread is the one of the oldest processed foods and a major wheat based product. The basic process involves mixing of ingredients until the flour is converted into dough, followed by baking the dough into a loaf. A very important step in breadmaking is to know how to make good quality dough. However, the increasing knowledge of people being diagnosed with celiac disease (gluten intolerance) has encouraged scientists to develop healthier and better quality gluten-free products that would greatl...

  7. Ingredient Functionality in Multilayered Dough-margarine Systems and the Resultant Pastry Products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Nand; Pareyt, Bram; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2016-10-02

    Pastry products are produced from heterogeneous multilayered dough systems. The main ingredients are flour, water, fat and sugar for puff pastry, and the same plus yeast for fermented pastry. Key aspects in pastry production are (i) building laminated dough containing alternating layers of dough and bakery fat and (ii) maintaining this multilayered structure during processing to allow for steam entrapment for proper dough lift during baking. Although most authors agree on the importance of gluten and fat for maintaining the integrity of the different layers, detailed studies on their specific function are lacking. The exact mechanism of steam entrapment during dough lift and the relative contribution of water set free from the fat phase during baking also remain unclear. This review brings together current knowledge on pastry products and the factors determining (intermediate) product quality. Its focus is on flour constituents, fat, water, and (where applicable) yeast during the different production stages of pastry products. Future research needs are addressed as the knowledge on biochemical and physical changes occurring in flour constituents and other ingredients during pastry production and their effect on product quality is currently inadequate.

  8. The effect of pineapple core fiber on dough rheology and the quality of mantou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy-Yu Shiau

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of dietary fiber offers the health benefit of lowering the risk of many chronic diseases. Pineapple core fiber (PCF in this study was extracted and incorporated into dough and mantou (i.e., steamed bread. The effects of PCF substitution and fiber size on textural and rheological properties of dough and mantou were evaluated by a texture analyzer. The substitution of wheat flour by PCF resulted in a stiffer and less extensible dough with or without fermentation. The hardness and gumminess of mantou significantly increased as the PCF substitution increased from 0% to 15%, but the cohesiveness, specific volume, and elasticity significantly decreased with the fiber substitution. Ten percent PCF-enriched dough and mantou with various fiber sizes had similar rheological and textural properties, except for the k1 and k2 values. By sensory evaluation, 5% PCF-enriched mantou and the control bread had better acceptability in texture, color, odor, and overall acceptability, compared to mantous enriched with 10% or 15% PCF. Significant correlations existed between the rheological properties of dough and textural parameters of mantou and between the sensory quality and textural parameters of mantou. Therefore, we suggest that fiber-enriched mantou can be prepared with 5% PCF substitution to increase the intake of dietary fiber and maintain the quality of mantou.

  9. Quality of fermented cassava flour processed into placali | Koko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermented cassava flour was obtained from Yace variety. Cassava roots were washed, peeled and ground. After adding cassava inoculums at 8% (m/m), the pulp was allowed to ferment for 72 hours at ambient temperature. The fermented dough was removed, squeezed and oven-dried for 48 hours at 55 °C. The dried ...

  10. A micromechanics model for bread dough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, M. A. P.; Tarleton, E.; Charalambides, M. N.; Williams, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of dough and gluten was studied in an effort to investigate whether bread dough can be treated as a two phase (starch and gluten) composite material. The dough and gluten show rate dependent behaviour under tension, compression and shear tests, and non-linear unloading-reloading curves under cyclic compression tests. There is evidence from cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that damage in the form of debonding between starch and gluten occurs when the sample is stretched. A composite finite element model was developed using starch as filler and gluten as matrix. The interaction between the starch and gluten was modelled as cohesive contact. The finite element analysis predictions agree with trends seen in experimental test data on dough and gluten, further evidence that debonding of starch and gluten is a possible damage mechanism in dough.

  11. A micromechanics model for bread dough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M. A. P; Tarleton, E.; Charalambides, M. N.; Williams, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of dough and gluten was studied in an effort to investigate whether bread dough can be treated as a two phase (starch and gluten) composite material. The dough and gluten show rate dependent behaviour under tension, compression and shear tests, and non-linear unloading-reloading curves under cyclic compression tests. There is evidence from cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that damage in the form of debonding between starch and gluten occurs when the sample is stretched. A composite finite element model was developed using starch as filler and gluten as matrix. The interaction between the starch and gluten was modelled as cohesive contact. The finite element analysis predictions agree with trends seen in experimental test data on dough and gluten, further evidence that debonding of starch and gluten is a possible damage mechanism in dough

  12. A micromechanics model for bread dough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, M. A. P; Tarleton, E.; Charalambides, M. N.; Williams, J. G. [Imperial College London, Mechanical Engineering Department, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-22

    The mechanical behaviour of dough and gluten was studied in an effort to investigate whether bread dough can be treated as a two phase (starch and gluten) composite material. The dough and gluten show rate dependent behaviour under tension, compression and shear tests, and non-linear unloading-reloading curves under cyclic compression tests. There is evidence from cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that damage in the form of debonding between starch and gluten occurs when the sample is stretched. A composite finite element model was developed using starch as filler and gluten as matrix. The interaction between the starch and gluten was modelled as cohesive contact. The finite element analysis predictions agree with trends seen in experimental test data on dough and gluten, further evidence that debonding of starch and gluten is a possible damage mechanism in dough.

  13. Stress Tolerance in Doughs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Trehalase Mutants Derived from Commercial Baker’s Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Jun; Hino, Akihiro; Yamada-Iyo, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuo; Nakajima, Ryouichi; Watanabe, Hajime; Mori, Katsumi; Takano, Hiroyuki

    1999-01-01

    Accumulation of trehalose is widely believed to be a critical determinant in improving the stress tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is commonly used in commercial bread dough. To retain the accumulation of trehalose in yeast cells, we constructed, for the first time, diploid homozygous neutral trehalase mutants (Δnth1), acid trehalase mutants (Δath1), and double mutants (Δnth1 ath1) by using commercial baker’s yeast strains as the parent strains and the gene disruption method. During fermentation in a liquid fermentation medium, degradation of intracellular trehalose was inhibited with all of the trehalase mutants. The gassing power of frozen doughs made with these mutants was greater than the gassing power of doughs made with the parent strains. The Δnth1 and Δath1 strains also exhibited higher levels of tolerance of dry conditions than the parent strains exhibited; however, the Δnth1 ath1 strain exhibited lower tolerance of dry conditions than the parent strain exhibited. The improved freeze tolerance exhibited by all of the trehalase mutants may make these strains useful in frozen dough. PMID:10388673

  14. Use of glucose oxidase to improve refrigerated dough quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refrigerated dough encompasses a wide range of products including bread, rolls, pastries and pizza crust and is a very popular choice for consumers. Two of the largest problems that occur during refrigerated dough storage are dough syruping and loss of dough strength. The goal of this study was to e...

  15. Effects of yeast stress and pH on 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD)-producing reactions in model dough systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, C G; Sadd, P A

    2005-07-01

    A major precursor of 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD) in leavened cereal products is glycerol, which is formed as a natural by-product of yeast fermentation. However, yeast metabolism is affected by stresses such as low osmotic pressure from, for example, the incorporation of sugar or salt in the dough recipe. Tests with model doughs have shown that glycerol production was proportional to yeast mass and limited by available sugars, but that high levels of yeast inhibited 3-MCPD formation. The yeast fraction responsible for the inhibition of 3-MCPD in model dough was shown to be the soluble cytosol proteins, and the inhibition mechanism could be explained by the known reactions of 3-MCPD and/or its precursors with ammonia/amino acids (from yeast proteins). Added glucose did not increase the production of glycerol by yeast but it did promote the generation of 3-MCPD in cooked doughs. The latter effect was attributed to the removal of 3-MCPD inhibitors such as ammonia and amino acids by their reactions with added glucose (e.g. Maillard). The thermal generation of organic acids from added glucose also reduced the pH of cooked doughs, so the effect of pH and short-chain organic acids on 3-MCPD generation in dough was measured. There was a good correlation between initial dough pH and the level of 3-MCPD generated. The effect was weaker than that predicted by simple kinetic modelling, suggesting that the involvement of H+ and/or the organic acid was catalytic. The results showed that modifications to dough recipes involving the addition of reducing sugars and/or organic acids can have a significant impact on 3-MPCD generation in bakery products.

  16. Mixture design of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch for optimization of gluten free bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, Camino M; Merino, Cristina; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Gluten-free bread production requires gluten-free flours or starches. Rice flour and maize starch are two of the most commonly used raw materials. Over recent years, gluten-free wheat starch is available on the market. The aim of this research was to optimize mixtures of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch using an experimental mixture design. For this purpose, dough rheology and its fermentation behaviour were studied. Quality bread parameters such as specific volume, texture, cell structure, colour and acceptability were also analysed. Generally, starch incorporation reduced G* and increased the bread specific volume and cell density, but the breads obtained were paler than the rice flour breads. Comparing the starches, wheat starch breads had better overall acceptability and had a greater volume than maize-starch bread. The highest value for sensorial acceptability corresponded to the bread produced with a mixture of rice flour (59 g/100 g) and wheat starch (41 g/100 g).

  17. Replacement Value of fermented millet ( Pennisetum americanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The replacement value of fermented millet for maize in the diets of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings reared in a recirculation system was determined. Five isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain graded levels of fermented millet meal replacing 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of maize and fed to triplicate groups of fingerlings ...

  18. 7171 EFFECT OF CO-FERMENTATION ON NUTRITIVE QUALITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... PASTING PROPERTIES OF MAIZE/COWPEA/SWEET POTATO AS .... samples were stored at -4oC before proximate, carotenoid and pasting properties ..... starch component and hot paste viscosity of the fermented maize.

  19. Effects of maize maturity at harvest and dietary proportion of maize silage on intake and performance of growing/finishing bulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaralis, K.; Nørgaard, P.; Helander, C.

    2014-01-01

    Whole-crop maize silage as forage in diets of finishing cattle can promote high intakes and thus, enhances animal performance. In the present study we evaluated the effect of whole-crop maize maturity at harvest and the proportion of maize-silage in diets of finishing bulls, on feed intake...... of treatments, involving two maturity stages of maize at harvest (i.e. dough stage or dent stage) and two maize silage proportions (i.e. 100% maize silage or 50% maize and 50% grass silage). The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations (TMRs) with inclusion of concentrates (i.e. rolled barley; dried...... distillers’ grain plus soluble; cold-pressed rapeseed cake) in a 40% proportion on DM basis. All animals were slaughtered at a target body weight of 630 kg. Bulls fed on diets containing maize silage as sole forage achieved higher live-weight gain (P

  20. Mitigation of the processing contaminant acrylamide in bread by reducing asparagine in the bread dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaiti, Tatiana; Granby, Kit

    2016-09-01

    Over the past few years there has been an increasing awareness regarding acrylamide (AAM) content of various foods. Although there are several relevant articles on AAM mitigation in industrially prepared products, the literature regarding homemade preparations is rather scarce. The objective of this study is to mitigate the AAM formation in baked buns made with 1:1 sifted wheat/wholegrain flour through the depletion of asparagine (ASN) in the bread dough. Using a full-factorial design, the effect of four factors (yeast amount, fermentation time, fermentation temperature and yeast types) was tested. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for AAM and its main precursor, ASN, determination. The resulting ASN depletion in the dough (68-89%) is significantly affected by fermentation time and yeast type, while AAM mitigation levels in the baked buns are significantly influenced by yeast amount, fermentation time and yeast type. The mean concentrations for each combination range between 5 and 15 µg kg(-)(1).

  1. Properties of short-dough biscuits in relation to structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltsavias, A.; Jurgens, A.; Vliet, T. van

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical properties of short-dough biscuits of various composition were determined in three-point bending tests. The temperature during dough preparation and the dough water content affected the air volume fraction and the mechanical properties to an extent which depended on the fat content.

  2. Distributed simulation of mixing flow of dough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a study concerned with the numerical simulation of incompressible complex mixing flows of viscoelastic fluids is of industrial importance, particularly relevance in the food processing industry, such as occurs in dough mixing. The flows considered are in a complex domain setting. The present problem is one of this form, expressed as the flow between an outer rotating cylindrical vessel all and a stationary cylindrical/stirrers. The context is one of mixing with in a cylindrical vessel, where stirrers are located on the mixing vessel lid, and placed in a concentric/eccentric position with respect to the central cylindrical axis of the vessel. Here, the motion is considered as driven by the rotation of the outer vessel wall, with various stirrer locations. Two dough mixers at various rotation speeds are studied; one with one stirrer and the other with two stirrers. With a singular circular stirrer, an eccentric configuration is adopted. A further eccentric case with two circular stirrers is also contrasted against the above, where a symmetrical arrangement is assumed. Numerical simulations are based on two dimensions in the cylindrical polar co-ordinates system. The results reflected close agreement with the equivalent experimental results. The motivation for this work is to develop and advance technology to model the mixing of dough. The ultimate target is to predict and adjust the design of dough mixers, so that optimal dough processing may be achieved notably, with reference to work input on the dough. The hardware platform is a network combination of homogeneous Intel Linux clusters of workstations. A semi-implicit time-stepping Taylor-Galerkin scheme is employed with PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) message passing libraries as the message passing protocol. Parallel results are compared against single processor (sequentially) solutions, using the parallelism paradigm of domain decomposition. Linear speed-up with the number of processors is

  3. Substrate-Limited Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Strains Allow Control of Fermentation during Bread Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Nore; Laurent, Jitka; Verspreet, Joran; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2017-04-26

    Identification and use of yeast strains that are unable to consume one or more otherwise fermentable substrate types could allow a more controlled fermentation process with more flexibility regarding fermentation times. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with different capacities to consume substrates present in wheat were selected to investigate the impact of substrate limitation on dough fermentation and final bread volume. Results show that fermentation of dough with maltose-negative strains relies on the presence of fructan and sucrose as fermentable substrates and can be used for regular bread making. Levels of fructan and sucrose, endogenously present or added, hence determine the extent of fermentation and timing at the proofing stage. Whole meal is inherently more suitable for substrate-limited fermentation than white flour due to the presence of higher native levels of these substrates. Bread making protocols with long fermentation times are accommodated by addition of substrates such as sucrose.

  4. Identification and safety evaluation of Bacillus species occurring in high numbers during spontaneous fermentations to produce Gergoush, a traditional Sudanese bread snack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Abdelgadir, Warda S.; Rønsbo, Mie Hvillum

    2011-01-01

    Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200°C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed at a trad......Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200°C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed...

  5. The impact of disulfide bond dynamics in wheat gluten protein on the development of fermented pastry crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Nand; Jansens, Koen J A; Pareyt, Bram; Reyniers, Stijn; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2018-03-01

    Gluten proteins functionality during pastry production was examined by including redox agents in the ingredient bill. Addition of reducing and oxidizing agents respectively increased and decreased dough height during fermentation. The presence of large gas bubbles in the samples with oxidizing agents may have caused a 'stacking'-effect and a more effective dough lift. During baking, the level of extractable proteins decreased to comparable values for all samples, except when potassium iodate (KIO 3 ) was used in the recipe. As a result of its use, a lower level of gliadin was incorporated into the gluten polymer and dough layers tended to 'slide' apart during baking, thereby causing collapse. Most likely, KIO 3 caused glutenin oxidation within each individual dough layer to such extent during the dough stage that insufficient thiol groups were available for forming dough layer interconnections during baking, after margarine melting. Furthermore, addition of redox agents impacted the product's crumb structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GLUTEN-FREE DOUGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Burešová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic oscillation rheometry was used to determine the viscoelastic properties of gluten-free dough prepared from amaranth, chickpea, millet, corn, quinoa, buckwheat and rice flours. The viscoelastic properties was described by storage modulus G´, loss modulus G´´ and phase angle tg(δ. The relationship between viscoelastic properties of gluten-free dough and bread-making quality was evaluated. The results of this study indicated that dynamic oscillation rheometry may be used to differentiate the bread-making quality of gluten-free flour. Bread-making quality of gluten-free flour is the best characterised by curve slope of storage modulus G´and phase angle tg(δ while bread made from the flour with storage modulus and phase angle with non-linear slope in low deformation frequencies 0.01–0.10 Hz achieved the largest volume.

  7. Understanding the link between GMP and dough: from glutenin particles in flour towards developed dough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Don, C.; Lichtendonk, W.J.; Plijter, J.J.; Hamer, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Clear correlations exist for glutenin macropolymer (GMP) quantity and rheological properties vs. wheat quality and dough rheological properties, but real insight in understanding these links is still missing. The observation that GMP consists of glutenin particles opens up new possibilities to

  8. Understanding the link between GMP and dough: From glutenin particles in flour towards developed dough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Don, C.; Lichtendonk, W.J.; Plijter, J.J.; Hamer, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Clear correlations exist for glutenin macropolymer (GMP) quantity and rheological properties vs. wheat quality and dough rheological properties, but real insight in understanding these links is still missing. The observation that GMP consists of glutenin particles opens up new possibilities to

  9. 1 INFLUENCE OF SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION ON SOME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RopSvr

    ... of Ghana,. P. O. Box LG 134, Legon-Accra, Ghana ... and sensory qualities of maize based foods thereby improving the qualities as well as .... Fig. 1. Effect of fermentation on the pH of maize-based cowpea-fortified ..... 1991; 7: 203-210. 4. ... International Workshop on Food-based Approaches for Healthy Nutrition in.

  10. Influence of enzymes and ascorbic acid on dough rheology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of enzymes and ascorbic acid on dough rheology and wheat bread quality. ... Journal Home > Vol 15, No 3 (2016) >. Log in or ... Seven bread formulations containing different concentrations of these ... The rheological properties of each dough formulation were determined by moisture, gluten and farinograph tests.

  11. The effects of commercial fibres on frozen bread dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA FILIPOVIĆ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The daily intake of dietary fibres in highly industrialized countries is at a low level and, therefore, adversely affecting human health. The objective of this research was to analyze the influence of different commercial fibres (originating from sugar beet pulp fibrex, and Jerusalem artichoke inulin HPX and GR in yeast dough at a level of 5 %, on the rheological properties of dough and the quality of bread during frozen storage. Frozen dough characteristics were determined using a Brabender maturograph and test baking was followed according the AACC procedure. The dough was frozen at –18 °C and stored over a period of 60 days. The results concerning the dough (proving time and stability and bread quality (volume and crumb quality were statistically analyzed by multivariance Manova and discriminative analysis, which indicated that there was a significant difference between dough without fibres and dough with different fibres (fibrex, inulin HPX and GR. The discrimination coefficient points that the greatest influence of fibres on the final proof and proving stability is after 30 days (6.250 and after 0 days (6.158, respectively, but the greatest influence of fibres on bread volume and bread crumb quality (15.488 and 3.638, respectively can be expected on non frozen dough, due to above mention their adverse the effect on gluten network.

  12. Effects of partial replacement of maize in the diet with crude glycerin and/or soyabean oil on ruminal fermentation and microbial population in Nellore steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja-Salcedo, Yury Tatiana; Duarte Messana, Juliana; Carneiro de Souza, Vinícius; Lino Dias, Ana Veronica; Takeshi Kishi, Luciano; Rocha Rebelo, Lucas; Teresinha Berchielli, Telma

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a combination of crude glycerin (CG) and soyabean oil (SO) could be used to partially replace maize in the diet of Nellore steers while maintaining optimum feed utilisation. Eight castrated Nellore steers fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a double 4×4 Latin square design balanced for residual effects, in a factorial arrangement (A×B), when factor A corresponded to the provision of SO, and factor B to the provision of CG. Steers feed SO and CG showed similar DM intake, DM, organic matter and neutral-detergent fibre digestibility to that of steers fed diets without oil and without glycerine (P>0·05). Both diets with CG additions reduced the acetate:propionate ratio and increased the proportion of iso-butyrate, butyrate, iso-valerate and valerate (Pdiets containing SO had less total N excretion (Pdiet generated a greater ruminal abundance of Prevotella, Succinivibrio, Ruminococcus, Syntrophococcus and Succiniclasticum. Archaea abundance (P=0·002) and total ciliate protozoa were less in steers fed diets containing SO (P=0·011). CG associated with lipids could be an energy source, which is a useful strategy for the partial replacement of maize in cattle diets, could result in reduced total N excretion and ruminal methanogens without affecting intake and digestibility.

  13. Addition of glucose oxidase for the improvement of refrigerated dough quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refrigerated dough encompasses a wide range of products and is a very popular choice for consumers. Two of the largest problems that occur during refrigerated dough storage are dough syruping and loss of dough strength. The goal of this study was to evaluate glucose oxidase as an additive to refri...

  14. Influence of spontaneous fermentation on some quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensory evaluation indicated that the techniques of nixtamalization, fermentation and cowpea fortification used for the processing of the products did not influence their acceptability by the panel. Nixtamalized maize can therefore be subjected to spontaneous fermentation with cowpea fortification to enhance the functional, ...

  15. (ajst) influence of fermentation and cowpea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opiyo

    Statgraphics (Graphics Software System, STCC, Inc. U.S.A). Comparisons .... 7 2. 0.473. 0.597. 1.056. 0.14. Co-fermentation. Fermented maize and cowpea blends showed varied effects ...... Oligosaccharides in eleven Legumes and their air-.

  16. Substituting oat hay or maize silage for portion of alfalfa hay affects growth performance, ruminal fermentation, and nutrient digestibility of weaned calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The impact of forage feeding strategy on growth performance, ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestibility in post-weaning calves was investigated. Methods Forty-five female Holstein calves (body weight [BW] = 79.79±0.38 kg were enrolled in the 35-d study at one week after weaning and randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments. All diets were fed as total mixed ration containing 60% (dry matter [DM] basis of basal starter feed and 40% (DM basis of forage, but varied in composition of forage source including i alfalfa (40% DM, AH; ii alfalfa hay (26.7% DM+oat hay (13.3% DM; OH; iii alfalfa hay (26.7% DM+corn silage (13.3% DM; WS. Results Dry matter intake was not different among treatment groups (p>0.05. However, BW (p<0.05 and average daily gain (p<0.05 of calves fed AH and OH were greater than WS-fed calves, whereas heart girth was greater in OH-fed calves than those fed AH and WS (p<0.05. Ruminal fermentation parameters including proportion of butyric acid, acetated-to-propionate ratio, concentration of total volatile fatty acid, protozoal protein, bacterial protein, and microbial protein in rumen were the highest in OH (p<0.05 and the lowest in WS. Compared with the AH and WS, feeding oat hay to postweaning calves increased crude protein digestibility (p<0.05, and decreased duration of diarrhea (p<0.05 and fecal index (p<0.05. Conclusion Our results suggested that partially replacing alfalfa hay with oat hay improved ruminal fermentation, nitrogen utilization, and reduced incidence of diarrhea in post-weaning dairy calves.

  17. THE BEHAVIOR OF DIFFERENT FIBERS AT BREAD DOUGH FREEZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Filipović

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Three different types of commercial fibers (inulin originated from artichoke with long and short molecule chains and Fibrex - originated from sugar beet were incorporated into the dough formula as flour supplements at the level of 5 %. The influence of fiber characteristics on yeast dough (proving time and stability and bread quality (volume and crumb quality during 60 days freezing is presented. Data show that the addition of fibers in frozen yeast dough is positively contributing to preserving the quality of the final product and their influence depends on the characteristics of fibers.

  18. Mechanical properties of short doughs and their corresponding biscuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltsavias, A.

    1996-01-01


    The mechanical properties of short doughs of various composition were determined in small amplitude oscillatory experiments and in uniaxial compression. Regardless of composition, the linear region was very limited; beyond that, pronounced yielding and flow occurred. Conductimetry was

  19. Rising dough and baking bread at the Australian synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, S. C.; McCann, T.; Day, L.; Favaro, J.; Tuhumury, H.; Thompson, D.; Maksimenko, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat protein quality and the amount of common salt added in dough formulation can have a significant effect on the microstructure and loaf volume of bread. High-speed synchrotron micro-CT provides an ideal tool for observing the three dimensional structure of bread dough in situ during proving (rising) and baking. In this work, the synchrotron micro-CT technique was used to observe the structure and time evolution of doughs made from high and low protein flour and three different salt additives. These experiments showed that, as expected, high protein flour produces a higher volume loaf compared to low protein flour regardless of salt additives. Furthermore the results show that KCl in particular has a very negative effect on dough properties resulting in much reduced porosity. The hundreds of datasets produced and analysed during this experiment also provided a valuable test case for handling large quantities of data using tools on the Australian Synchrotron's MASSIVE cluster.

  20. Effect of different fibers on dough properties and biscuit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Canalis, María S; Steffolani, María E; León, Alberto E; Ribotta, Pablo D

    2017-03-01

    This study forms part of a broader project aimed at understanding the role of fibers from different sources in high-fat, high-sugar biscuits and at selecting the best fibers for biscuit quality. The main purpose of this work was to understand the rheological and structural properties involved in fiber-enriched biscuit dough. High-amylose corn starch (RSII), chemically modified starch (RSIV), oat fiber (OF) and inulin (IN) were used at two different levels of incorporation (6 and 12 g) in dough formulation. The influence of fiber on the properties of biscuit dough was studied via dynamic rheological tests, confocal microscopy and spreading behavior. Biscuit quality was assessed by width/thickness factor, texture and surface characteristics, total dietary fiber and sensory evaluation. Main results indicated that IN incorporation increased the capacity of dough spreading during baking and thus improved biscuit quality. OF reduced dough spreading during baking and strongly increased its resistance to deformation. RSII and RSIV slightly affected the quality of the biscuits. Sensory evaluation revealed that the panel liked IN-incorporated biscuits as much as control biscuits. The increase in total dietary fiber modified dough behavior and biscuit properties, and the extent of these effects depended on the type of fiber incorporated. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Aerobic deterioration influences the fermentative, microbiological and nutritional quality of maize and sorghum silages on farm in high quality milk and cheese production chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Borreani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Maize and sorghum silages are good sources of energy for lactating dairy cows that produce milk destined for fresh and matured cheeses. Silages are usually stored in horizontal silos with or without side walls on commercial farms throughout the world. The main microbiological and nutritional quality problems are related to harvesting time, ensiling technology, and management practices during filling and feed-out. Aerobic deterioration is a key point that must avoided on farms in order to improve the hygienic, chemical and sensorial quality of milk and cheeses. Aerobic deterioration causes large losses of dry matter (DM and quality, and it can cause health problems for animals and humans through the transfer of pathogens and mycotoxins from feed and livestock to food products. The objectives of the present work were to overview management practices connected to the storage of maize and sorghum in horizontal silos on farms producing milk for make Protected Designation of Origin (PDO hard ripened cheese, to define good management practices that should be applied as the basis for safe silage production and to reduce the extent of aerobic deterioration.As silagens de milho e de sorgo são importantes fontes de energia em rações utilizadas na bovinocultura leiteira, sendo que a estocagem desses volumosos é realizada em silos horizontais com ou sem a presença de paredes laterais (trincheira ou superfície, respectivamente, os quais são atrativos em razão do baixo custo de armazenamento, porém suas conformações determinam grande superfície de exposição, o que torna as silagens mais susceptíveis a deterioração aeróbia. Os maiores problemas envolvendo a qualidade microbiológica e nutricional em silagens, estão relacionados às práticas de manejo na colheita, no abastecimento e compactação da massa, na vedação e, principalmente, durante o desabastecimento do silo. O controle da deterioração aeróbia em silagens pode ser o principal

  2. Gluten-free dough-making of specialty breads: Significance of blended starches, flours and additives on dough behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, Concha; Conte, Paola; Fadda, Costantino; Piga, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The capability of different gluten-free (GF) basic formulations made of flour (rice, amaranth and chickpea) and starch (corn and cassava) blends, to make machinable and viscoelastic GF-doughs in absence/presence of single hydrocolloids (guar gum, locust bean and psyllium fibre), proteins (milk and egg white) and surfactants (neutral, anionic and vegetable oil) have been investigated. Macroscopic (high deformation) and macromolecular (small deformation) mechanical, viscometric (gelatinization, pasting, gelling) and thermal (gelatinization, melting, retrogradation) approaches were performed on the different matrices in order to (a) identify similarities and differences in GF-doughs in terms of a small number of rheological and thermal analytical parameters according to the formulations and (b) to assess single and interactive effects of basic ingredients and additives on GF-dough performance to achieve GF-flat breads. Larger values for the static and dynamic mechanical characteristics and higher viscometric profiles during both cooking and cooling corresponded to doughs formulated with guar gum and Psyllium fibre added to rice flour/starch and rice flour/corn starch/chickpea flour, while surfactant- and protein-formulated GF-doughs added to rice flour/starch/amaranth flour based GF-doughs exhibited intermediate and lower values for the mechanical parameters and poorer viscometric profiles. In addition, additive-free formulations exhibited higher values for the temperature of both gelatinization and retrogradation and lower enthalpies for the thermal transitions. Single addition of 10% of either chickpea flour or amaranth flour to rice flour/starch blends provided a large GF-dough hardening effect in presence of corn starch and an intermediate effect in presence of cassava starch (chickpea), and an intermediate reinforcement of GF-dough regardless the source of starch (amaranth). At macromolecular level, both chickpea and amaranth flours, singly added, determined

  3. Propanol in maize silage at Danish dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence maize silage containing propanol, the seasonal variation in propanol content of maize silage, and correlations between propanol and other fermentation products in maize silage collected from 20 randomly selected Danish dairy farms...... farms, the maize silage had ≥5 g propanol/kg DM. The present study indicates that dairy cows in Denmark are commonly exposed to propanol and that approximately 20% of the dairy cows will have an intake in the range of 75-100 g propanol/d under common feeding conditions....

  4. Substituting oat hay or maize silage for portion of alfalfa hay affects growth performance, ruminal fermentation, and nutrient digestibility of weaned calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yang; Zou, XinPing; Li, XiZhi; Guo, Gang; Ji, Peng; Wang, Yan; Li, ShengLi; Wang, YaJing; Cao, ZhiJun

    2018-01-01

    Objective The impact of forage feeding strategy on growth performance, ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestibility in post-weaning calves was investigated. Methods Forty-five female Holstein calves (body weight [BW] = 79.79±0.38 kg) were enrolled in the 35-d study at one week after weaning and randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments. All diets were fed as total mixed ration containing 60% (dry matter [DM] basis) of basal starter feed and 40% (DM basis) of forage, but varied in composition of forage source including i) alfalfa (40% DM, AH); ii) alfalfa hay (26.7% DM)+oat hay (13.3% DM; OH); iii) alfalfa hay (26.7% DM)+corn silage (13.3% DM; WS). Results Dry matter intake was not different among treatment groups (p>0.05). However, BW (pcalves fed AH and OH were greater than WS-fed calves, whereas heart girth was greater in OH-fed calves than those fed AH and WS (pfeeding oat hay to postweaning calves increased crude protein digestibility (pcalves. PMID:28728373

  5. Stem characteristics of two forage maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars varying in whole plant digestibility. I. Relevant morphological parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, E.J.M.C.; Engels, F.M.; Struik, P.C.; Cone, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    The morphology and rumen fermentation kinetics of the maize cultivars (Zea mays L.) Vitaro and Volens were investigated in detail throughout their growing period as a first step towards understanding the relation between plant characteristics and cell wall fermentability of forage maize. Vitaro is

  6. The influence of additional fluors on the retention ability of dough and the technological quality of bakery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bojňanská

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work monitored rheofermentation properties of dough prepared from composite flours formed by 70% of wheat flour T650 and the addition of 30%. Three kinds of additions were used, namely spelt flour, amaranth flour and buckwheat flour. To determine rheofermentation properties Rheofermentometer Rhea F4 was used, by means of which the dough development, the production of fermentation gases, retention ability of dough and the activity of used baking yeast were analysed. The best ability to retain formed fermentation gas had wheat flour (control and composite flour with the addition of spelt flour. The composite flour with addition of amaranth flour showed a retention coefficient compared to the control lower by 13%, and the composite flour with addition of buckwheat flour showed a retention coefficient compared to the control reduced by 20%. Control flour and composite flours were then processed in the baking experiment. Based on its results it was possible to evaluate the effect of the addition and retention capacity of dough on the quality of the final products (experimental loaves. The biggest loaf volume (200 cm3 and the optimal vaulting (0.65 were found in the control and a loaf made of composite flour with addition of spelt. Loaf volume, produced from composite flours with the addition of amaranth, and buckwheat was compared to control lower by 18.7%, and 16.3% respectively. The value of vaulting of these products (0.40 can be evaluated as unsatisfactory. Based on the evaluation of results observed by measuring on the rheofermentometer and baking experiment results it can be concluded that a better ability to retain the formed fermentation gas, thus ensuring high volume, had loaves made from wheat flour T650 and composite flour with addition of spelt flour. Based on the findings, it is possible to state that the results of rheofermentometric measurements predict the volume and vaulting of bakery products. By means of Rheofermentometer

  7. Variabilité et amélioration de la technologie traditionnelle de production de la pâte fermentée de maïs au Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louembé, D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability and Improvement of Maize Fermented Dough Traditional Technology Production in Congo. The poto-poto production proceeding is characterized by the large variability during some production stages, particulary in washing and conservation operations. The washing operation before and after steeping seems to be very important because it influences considerably the sensorial (colour, odour and hygienic qualities of final product. For improving nutritional qualities, germinated seeds utilization has been studied. With respect to biochemistry characteristics, poto-poto made with germinated seeds offers a diminution of lactic acid concentration and an increase of acetic concentration. By contrary, for poto-poto produced from ungerminated seeds, lactic acid concentration increases and that of acetic acid decreases. The two products are acid (pH 3,8 and pH 3,53 because of lactic and acetic presence. The sensorial test makes evident the sensorial differences existing in two types of products. The are two different products with respect to colour, taste, odour and texture. Poto-poto produced with maize germinated seeds is preferred (100% among tasters. It is slightly more sweet (100% among tasters and more sour (40% among tasters than poto-poto produced from ungerminated seeds. The poto-poto solar drying proceeding used allows a better conservation of poto-poto.

  8. The impact of lactic acid bacteria on sourdough fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Dragiša S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The baking of sourdough breads represents one of the oldest biotechnological processes. Despite traditionality, sourdough bread has great potential because of its benefits. Sourdough is a mixture of flour and water that is dominated by a complex microflora composed of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria that are crucial in the preparation of bread dough. Lactic acid bacteria cause acidification by producing lactic acid that increases the shelf life of bread by preventing the growth of undesirable microorganisms and affects the nutritional value of bread by increasing the availability of minerals. In addition to these advantages, the use of sourdough fermentation also improves dough machinability, breadcrumb structure and the characteristic flavour of bread. Lactic acid bacteria in sourdough fermentation are well known representing both homofermentative and heterofermentative bacteria. They may originate from selected natural contaminants in the flour or from a starter culture containing one or more known species of lactic acid bacteria. Sourdough can be cultivated in bakeries or obtained from commercial suppliers. However, many bakeries in Europe still use spontaneously fermented sourdoughs, which have been kept metabolically active for decades by the addition of flour and water at regular intervals. The impact of lactic acid bacteria on sourdough fermentation and their influence on dough and bread quality was discussed on the basis of research and literature data.

  9. Structural, textural and sensory impact of sodium reduction on long fermented pizza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernklau, Isabelle; Neußer, Christian; Moroni, Alice V; Gysler, Christof; Spagnolello, Alessandro; Chung, Wookyung; Jekle, Mario; Becker, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the microstructural, textural, and sensory impact of sodium reduction and its partial replacement by potassium chloride in pizza dough and crusts prepared by a traditional long fermentation process. For the first time, macrostructural changes in texture were elucidated and quantified by a novel protein network analysis. The fermentation process exerted a strengthening effect in the doughs, allowing to reduce sodium up to 25% without any negative impact on texture. Sodium reduction by 15% did not cause any significant textural changes in pizza crusts and partial replacement by KCl resulted in a strengthened dough and firmer pizza crust. The use of toppings masked the effect of lowering the sodium content, allowing to increase the reduction level from 15% to 35%. A reduction of NaCl by 25% with an addition of KCl achieved high acceptance in the sensory evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fundamental and empirical rheological behaviour of wheat flour doughs and comparison with bread making performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A. M.; vanVliet, T; Vereijken, JM

    The rheological characteristics of wheat flour doughs from the cultivars Obelisk and Katepwa and of biscuit flour doughs, and also of biscuit flour doughs containing glutens isolated from cv. Obelisk and cv. Katepwa flour, were compared and discussed in relation to bread making performance. Four

  11. Romanian maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Johannes; Balint, Borbala

    This research aims at shedding empirical light on the relative efficiency of small-scale maize producers in Romania. Farmers in transition countries still face heavily distorted price systems resulting from imperfect market conditions and socioeconomic and institutional constraints. To capture...

  12. Alveoconsistograph evaluation of rheological properties of rye doughs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callejo, M. J.; Bujeda, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Chaya, C.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study the effect of rye flour on the rheological properties of doughs. Rye meals of two different extraction rate (65% and 85%) were blended in different proportions with wheat flours. The viscoelastic behaviour of the sample blends was determined by a Chopin alveograph. The effect of rye flour on dough rheology during mixing was determined by a Chopin consistograph. It was found that Chopin Consistograph methodology was not suitable for determining water absorption capacity in blends with rye. It has been confirmed that adjustment of dough hydration in baked products incorporating rye flour must be taken into account, depending not only on the wheat-to-rye ratio but also on the rye meals extraction rate. (Author) 35 refs.

  13. Safe storage of premature maize ears through gamma radiation and irradiation effect on chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, H.O.; Singh, N.N.; Roy, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    Marked differences were observed between unirradiated and irradiated premature ears (early dough stage) of maize during storage. Some molds were developed on the grains and deterioration set in at the peduncle and stone of maize in the unirradiated ears, whereas no such symptoms were observed in the 3 kGy irradiated ears even after 45 days of storage. Changes in chemical constituents viz. starch, protein, total sugars were observed in the ears without adversely affecting the quality traits through radiation although 100 grains weight reduced slightly. (author)

  14. Polyol accumulation by Aspergillus oryzae at low water activity in solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, G.J.G.; Visser, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2004-01-01

    Polyol accumulation and metabolism were examined in Aspergillus oryzae cultured on whole wheat grains or on wheat dough as a model for solid-state culture. In solid-state fermentation (SSF), water activity (a(w)) is typically low resulting in osmotic stress. In addition to a high level of mannitol,

  15. Structural analysis of gluten-free doughs by fractional rheological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orczykowska, Magdalena; Dziubiński, Marek; Owczarz, Piotr

    2015-02-01

    This study examines the effects of various components of tested gluten-free doughs, such as corn starch, amaranth flour, pea protein isolate, and cellulose in the form of plantain fibers on rheological properties of such doughs. The rheological properties of gluten-free doughs were assessed by using the rheological fractional standard linear solid model (FSLSM). Parameter analysis of the Maxwell-Wiechert fractional derivative rheological model allows to state that gluten-free doughs present a typical behavior of viscoelastic quasi-solid bodies. We obtained the contribution dependence of each component used in preparations of gluten-free doughs (either hard-gel or soft-gel structure). The complicate analysis of the mechanical structure of gluten-free dough was done by applying the FSLSM to explain quite precisely the effects of individual ingredients of the dough on its rheological properties.

  16. Influence of enzymes and ascorbic acid on dough rheology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The combined action of ascorbic acid and two commercial enzymatic complexes containing amylase and xylanase/amylase was analyzed to determine their effects on dough rheology and bread quality. Seven bread formulations containing different concentrations of these improvers were used in the analysis.

  17. Wheat flour dough Alveograph characteristics predicted by Mixolab regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codină, Georgiana Gabriela; Mironeasa, Silvia; Mironeasa, Costel; Popa, Ciprian N; Tamba-Berehoiu, Radiana

    2012-02-01

    In Romania, the Alveograph is the most used device to evaluate the rheological properties of wheat flour dough, but lately the Mixolab device has begun to play an important role in the breadmaking industry. These two instruments are based on different principles but there are some correlations that can be found between the parameters determined by the Mixolab and the rheological properties of wheat dough measured with the Alveograph. Statistical analysis on 80 wheat flour samples using the backward stepwise multiple regression method showed that Mixolab values using the ‘Chopin S’ protocol (40 samples) and ‘Chopin + ’ protocol (40 samples) can be used to elaborate predictive models for estimating the value of the rheological properties of wheat dough: baking strength (W), dough tenacity (P) and extensibility (L). The correlation analysis confirmed significant findings (P 0.70 for P, R²(adjusted) > 0.70 for W and R²(adjusted) > 0.38 for L, at a 95% confidence interval. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. FPGA Controller Design and Simulation of a Portable Dough Mixing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the advent of Microcontrollers, Application Specic Integrated Circuits, Digital Signal Processors (DSP) and Programmable Logic Devices, complex industrial systems and controls can now be integrated into portable embedded household electronic systems. In this paper, the design and simulation of a Dough Mixer ...

  19. Pilot Study: Comparison of Sourdough Wheat Bread and Yeast-Fermented Wheat Bread in Individuals with Wheat Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Laatikainen, Reijo; Koskenpato, Jari; Hongisto, Sanna-Maria; Loponen, Jussi; Poussa, Tuija; Huang, Xin; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula; Salmenkari, Hanne; Korpela, Riitta

    2017-01-01

    Many patients suspect wheat as being a major trigger of their irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. Our aim was to evaluate whether sourdough wheat bread baked without baking improvers and using a long dough fermentation time (>12 h), would result in lower quantities of alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) and Fermentable, Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides and Polyols (FODMAPs), and would be better tolerated than yeast-fermented wheat bread for subjects with IBS who have a poor subjectiv...

  20. Effects of bacterial silage inoculants on whole-crop maize silage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects of ensiling whole-crop maize with bacterial inoculants, Lactococcus lactis (LL) and Lactobacillus buchneri (LB), on the fermentation and nutrient digestibility in rams. Whole-crop maize (265 DM g/kg) was ensiled for 90 days in 210 L drums with no additive, or with LL or LB. After three months ...

  1. Fermentation characteristics and nutrient composition of browses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Browses are important sources of feed and are widely used for animal nutrition to enhance productivity. They are commonly ensiled with other forages such as maize (Zea mays). However, the fermentation pattern and chemical composition of browses, that are commonly used are largely unknown. Thus, a study was carried ...

  2. A functional food: a traditional Tarhana fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merih KIVANÇ

    Full Text Available Abstract White wheat flour, concentrated full fat yoghurt, tomato paste, onion, red and green paprika, and mint and salt are used in the preparation of Tarhana. During the 7-day Tarhana fermentation period, the acidity increased from 1.10% to 3.25%, the pH decreased from 5.22 to 4.13, and the moisture decreased from 70.12% to 26.15%. The chemical composition of the Tarhana at the end of fermentation was determined as: moisture 9.55%, protein 12.05%, total ash 5.65%, salt 5.65%, and fat 4.88%. During the fermentation, the lactic acid bacteria count of increased from 1.32 X 102 to 4.20 X 104 CFU/g, the total mesophilic aerobe bacteria count increased from 1.75 X 101 to 2.28 X 102 CFU/g, the yeast count increased from 3.45 X 10 1 to 2.40 X 105 CFU/g, the mould count from 1.55 X 10 1 to 2.45 X 104 CFU/g, in the content of Tarhana dough. It was observed that Lactococcus lactis spp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus durans, Pediococcus spp., Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis and Lactobacillus paracasei bacteria played a role during the fermentation of Tarhana dough. Kluyveromyces marxianus, Yarrowia lipolytica, Pichia membranaefaciens, Pichia mexicana, Pichia angusta, Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida sorboxylosa, Candida fluviatilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified during the Tarhana fermentation.

  3. Towards a Simple Constitutive Model for Bread Dough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Roger I.

    2008-07-01

    Wheat flour dough is an example of a soft solid material consisting of a gluten (rubbery) network with starch particles as a filler. The volume fraction of the starch filler is high-typically 60%. A computer-friendly constitutive model has been lacking for this type of material and here we report on progress towards finding such a model. The model must describe the response to small strains, simple shearing starting from rest, simple elongation, biaxial straining, recoil and various other transient flows. A viscoelastic Lodge-type model involving a damage function. which depends on strain from an initial reference state fits the given data well, and it is also able to predict the thickness at exit from dough sheeting, which has been a long-standing unsolved puzzle. The model also shows an apparent rate-dependent yield stress, although no explicit yield stress is built into the model. This behaviour agrees with the early (1934) observations of Schofield and Scott Blair on dough recoil after unloading.

  4. Relationship of dough thermomechanical properties with oil uptake, cooking and textural properties of instant fried noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulia, Neelam; Khatkar, B S

    2014-04-01

    Instant noodles were prepared from fifteen diverse wheat cultivars varying widely in their flour quality and dough rheology. Dough thermomechanical parameters obtained by Mixolab and flour analytical properties were correlated with the quality of instant noodles including oil uptake, cooking quality and textural attributes. The Mixolab parameters dough development time and dough stability showed significant positive correlation with cooking time, cooked weight, overall acceptability, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness of noodles, while negatively correlated with oil uptake and cooking loss, therefore, exhibiting a marked positive effect on quality of instant noodles. Lower protein breakdown represented by C2 torque was also positively related with overall acceptability, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness of noodles. Stickiness/adhesiveness of noodles was revealed to be mainly conferred by falling number values (R (2 )= 0.671) and damaged starch (R (2 )= 0.523) content of wheat flour samples. Flour samples with lesser values of protein content, sodium dodecyl sulphate sedimentation volume, thermal stability of proteins, dough stability and dough development time were found to be linked with poor noodle quality. Medium strong flours performed better in noodle making, while weaker flours demonstrated poor noodle quality. Dough rheology of good noodle making flours was characterized with higher dough development time, dough stability, C2, C3, C4 as well as C5 values. Noodles with higher overall acceptability showed a more continuous and uniform protein starch matrix in comparison to the poor counterparts.

  5. Mathematical modelling of pasta dough dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Ionuţ SIMION

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the mathematical variation of three main thermodynamic properties (dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of pasta dough obtained by mixing wheat semolina and water with dough humidity and deformation speed (for dynamic viscosity, respectively with dough humidity and temperature (for thermal diffusivity and conductivity. The realized regression analysis of existing graphical data led to the development of mathematical models with a high degree of accuracy. The employed statistical tests (least squares, relative error and analysis of variance revealed that the obtained equations are able to describe and predict the tendency of the dough thermodynamic properties.

  6. Stem characteristics of two forage maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars varying in whole plant digestibility. IV. Changes during the growing season in anatomy and chemical composition in relation to fermentation characteristics of a lower internode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, E.J.M.C.; Struik, P.C.; Engels, F.M.; Cone, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Improving digestibility of forage maize (Zea mays L.) through breeding is important to optimize the efficiency of ruminant's rations. It can partly be achieved by improving the digestibility of stem tissue, a genetically complex and diverse trait changing drastically during the growing season. We

  7. Stem characteristics of two forage maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars varying in whole plant digestibility. III. Intra-stem variability in anatomy, chemical composition and in vitro rumen fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, E.J.M.C.; Struik, P.C.; Tamminga, S.; Engels, F.M.; Cone, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The internodes of forage maize (Zea mays L.) stems were studied at anthesis for variation in anatomy and chemical composition in relation to digestibility. The study was carried out with a short (Vitaro) and a tall (Volens) cultivar differing in whole-plant digestibility, both of which were grown in

  8. Effect of formulation on the quality of frozen bread dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam M. Salas-Mellado

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to determine the influence of formulation on the stability of bread dough during frozen storage. Bread doughs containing gluten and trehalose were submitted to mechanical freezing at -30° C and stored frozen for 45 days. Two types of instant yeast were tested: (A for sweet doughs and (B for savoury doughs. Specific volume was significantly affected by the yeast type, type A showing better effect than type B. Frozen storage of the doughs negatively affected the specific volume, crumb hardness and technological score of the bread. The addition of 10% trehalose had a beneficial effect on the cell survival rate for both the yeasts.O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a influência da formulação na estabilidade da massa de pão durante a estocagem congelada. As massas para pão contendo glúten Vital e trealose foram submetidas a congelamento mecânico de -30° C e estocadas na forma congelada por 45 dias. Foram testados dois tipos de leveduras instantâneas: (A para massas doces, e (B para massas salgadas. Foram avaliados na massa, os efeitos da formulação, tipo de levedura e a estocagem congelada, pelas características de extensibilidade e a contagem de leveduras viáveis, e no pão, pelo volume específico, a dureza do miolo e as características tecnológicas. Somente o volume específico foi influenciado pelo tipo de levedura, mostrando o tipo A um melhor efeito do que o tipo B. A estocagem congelada influenciou negativamente o volume específico, a dureza do miolo e a pontuação tecnológica do pão. A adição de 10% de trealose mostrou um efeito benéfico na taxa de sobrevivência celular para ambos tipos de leveduras.

  9. BUCKWHEAT AS A GLUTEN-FREE CEREAL IN COMBINATION WITH MAIZE FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine that occurs in genetically predisposed people of all ages. Symptoms include chronic diarrhoea, and fatigue. The only treatment is long life diet with absence of gluten. Many researches concerning gluten-free nutrition have been done but it is still a big challenge. The main aim of this work was to observe changes in gluten-free breads quality made from maize-buckwheat mixtures depending on ratio of maize and buckwheat flour. To obtain samples, bread baking test was applied and these were provided to analyses (dough and pastry yield, baking loss, specific volume and texture analysis. The results showed that rising amount of maize flour in mixtures improved texture characteristics such as chewiness and gumminess, concerning specific volume of breads no significant differences were found and it was proved, that all texture parameters deteriorate with staling time.

  10. EVALUATION OF SURVIVABILITY AND BIOACTIVITY OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE IN BREAD DOUGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kasaie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant current discussions in dough fermentation is survivability and bioactivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, four samples of instant dry yeast (all the yeast strains are active dry type were evaluated by epifluorescence light microscopy using 0.2 % fluorescein diacetate. Microbial tests were carried out in order to count the number of viable cells yeast. Gasograph used to measuring CO2 produced during fermentation. Bread volume and height were assessed. Yeast (A had the highest number of green cells (178 ± 7 due to its more bioactivity as compared to types B, C and D (P<0.05 and yeast (D had the lowest number of green yeast cells (48 ± 8. In microbial tests, the number of viable yeast in yeast (A was highest (15×1010 cfu‧mg-1 and in yeast (D was the lowest (9×1010 cfu‧mg-1. In gasography yeast (A produced the highest amount of CO2 (163 ± 2 mL CO2/3h and in yeast (D produced the lowest amount of CO2 (140 ± 2 mL CO2/3h. Bread (A (that made by yeast A had the highest volume (132 ± 1.0 cm3 and height (4.8 ± 0.3 cm and bread (D (that made by yeast D had the lowest volume (102 ± 6cm3 and height (3.7 ± 0.2 cm. High survivability and bioactivity of baker’s yeast leads to more CO2 production that leads to high volume and height in bread.

  11. Rich nutrition from the poorest - Cereal fermentations in Africa and Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Cereal fermentations in Africa and Asia involve mainly the processing of maize, rice, sorghum and the millets. Lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Pediococcus), Enterobacter spp., yeasts (Candida, Debaryomyces, Endomycopsis, Hansenula, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Trichosporon spp.) and filamentous

  12. Harnessing maize biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize is a remarkably diverse species, adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions and farming practices. The latitudinal range of maize is immense, ranging from 54°N in Alberta, Canada, to 45°S in the province of Chubut, Argentina. In terms of altitude, maize is cultivated from sea level to 4000...

  13. Effects of a dual-purpose bacterial inoculant on the fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of a dual-purpose bacterial inoculant on the fermentation characteristics of high-moisture maize silage and dairy cattle performance. ... Inoculation did not affect the nutritive value or the aerobic stability of the maize silage, but increased the neutral detergent and acid detergent fibre fractions of the silage. However ...

  14. Effect of micro-organism and particle size on fermentation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aziwo Niba

    2013-06-26

    Jun 26, 2013 ... Full Length Research Paper. Effect of micro-organism and particle size on ... fermentation for pH, sugar and organic acids analysis. Significant reductions in the pH of maize and sorghum .... Raw sorghum was milled in a hammer mill to pass through a 3 mm screen while equal quantities of raw maize were ...

  15. Effect of oxidative enzymes on bulk rheological properties of wheat flour doughs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunnewind, B.; Vliet, T. van; Orsel, R.

    2002-01-01

    The use of enzymes such as peroxidases or glucose oxidase instead of chemical oxidants is a very interesting option for improving breadmaking performance of doughs. In this study the effect of such enzymes on bulk rheological properties of dough was quantified and their influence on the polymer

  16. Effect of Oxidative Enzymes on Bulk Rheological Properties of Wheat Flour Doughs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunnewind, B.; Vliet, van T.; Orsel, R.

    2002-01-01

    The use of enzymes such as peroxidases or glucose oxidase instead of chemical oxidants is a very interesting option for improving breadmaking performance of doughs. In this study the effect of such enzymes on bulk rheological properties of dough was quantified and their influence on the polymer

  17. On the relationship between large-deformation properties of wheat flour dough and baking quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliwinski, E.L.; Kolster, P.; Vliet, van T.

    2004-01-01

    Baking performance for bread and puff pastry was tested for Six European and two Canadian wheat cultivars and related to the rheological and fracture properties in uniaxial extension of optimally mixed flour-water doughs and doughs to which a mix of bakery additives was added. Extensive baking tests

  18. Dough and hearth bread characteristics influenced by protein composition, protein content, DATEM, and their interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aamodt, A.; Magnus, E.M.; Hollung, K.; Uhlen, A.K.; Færgestad, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of protein composition, protein content, diacetyl tartaric acid ester of monoglycerides (DATEM), and their interaction on dough and bread characteristics were studied by small- and pilot-scale hearth bread baking, dough rheological testing using the Kieffer extensibility rig, and size

  19. Rheology, microstructure and baking characteristics of frozen dough containing Rhizopus chinensis lipase and transglutaminase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beneficial effects of a new recombinant lipase (Rhizopus chinensis lipase, RCL) and transglutaminase (TG) were investigated on frozen dough systems and their breadmaking quality. Rheological properties and microstructure of doughs were measured using a dynamic rheometer, rheofermentometer F3, an...

  20. Influence of sodium chloride on shear flow induced starch-gluten separation from Soissons wheat dough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalm, van der E.E.J.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Wheat dough can be separated into a starch-rich and a gluten-rich fraction by subjecting the dough to curvilinear shear flow. This paper presents the effect of salt (NaCl) addition on the shear-induced separation process. The separation (defined as the changes in protein concentration in the various

  1. Ultrasonic analysis to discriminate bread dough of different types of flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Álvarez, J.; Rosell, C. M.; García-Hernández, M. J.; Chávez, J. A.; Turó, A.; Salazar, J.

    2012-12-01

    Many varieties of bread are prepared using flour coming from wheat. However, there are other types of flours milled from rice, legumes and some fruits and vegetables that are also suitable for baking purposes, used alone or in combination with wheat flour. The type of flour employed strongly influences the dough consistency, which is a relevant property for determining the dough potential for breadmaking purposes. Traditional methods for dough testing are relatively expensive, time-consuming, off-line and often require skilled operators. In this work, ultrasonic analysis are performed in order to obtain acoustic properties of bread dough samples prepared using two different types of flour, wheat flour and rice flour. The dough acoustic properties can be related to its viscoelastic characteristics, which in turn determine the dough feasibility for baking. The main advantages of the ultrasonic dough testing can be, among others, its low cost, fast, hygienic and on-line performance. The obtained results point out the potential of the ultrasonic analysis to discriminate doughs of different types of flour.

  2. Effects of Bamboo Shoot Dietary Fiber on Mechanical Properties, Moisture Distribution, and Microstructure of Frozen Dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of Bamboo shoot dietary fiber (BSDF on the mechanical properties, moisture distribution, and microstructure of frozen dough were investigated. The state and distribution of water in frozen dough was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LNMR spectroscopy. The microstructure of frozen dough was studied. The structure of the gluten protein network found in wheat flour dough was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The result showed that the BSDF could significantly improve the viscoelasticity and extensibility of frozen dough after thawing in a dose-dependent manner. It was significantly improved with the increase in the addition amount of BSDF (P<0.05. DSC analysis showed that the freezable water content and thermal stability of frozen dough were increased after the addition of BSDF. LNMR analysis showed that the appropriate (<0.1% addition amount of BSDF could significantly (P<0.05 decline the contents of bound water. Meanwhile, the loose bound water and free water were raised significantly (P<0.05 after the addition of BSDF. Moreover, the addition of BSDF induces arrangement of starch granule and gluten network in frozen dough. BSDF can be used as a novel quality improver of frozen dough.

  3. Ultrasonic analysis to discriminate bread dough of different types of flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Álvarez, J; García-Hernández, M J; Chávez, J A; Turó, A; Salazar, J; Rosell, C M

    2012-01-01

    Many varieties of bread are prepared using flour coming from wheat. However, there are other types of flours milled from rice, legumes and some fruits and vegetables that are also suitable for baking purposes, used alone or in combination with wheat flour. The type of flour employed strongly influences the dough consistency, which is a relevant property for determining the dough potential for breadmaking purposes. Traditional methods for dough testing are relatively expensive, time-consuming, off-line and often require skilled operators. In this work, ultrasonic analysis are performed in order to obtain acoustic properties of bread dough samples prepared using two different types of flour, wheat flour and rice flour. The dough acoustic properties can be related to its viscoelastic characteristics, which in turn determine the dough feasibility for baking. The main advantages of the ultrasonic dough testing can be, among others, its low cost, fast, hygienic and on-line performance. The obtained results point out the potential of the ultrasonic analysis to discriminate doughs of different types of flour.

  4. Effect of mixing time and speed on experimental baking and dough testing with a 200g pin-mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under mixing or over mixing the dough results in varied experimental loaf volumes. Bread preparation requires a trained baker to evaluate dough development and determine stop points of mixer. Instrumentation and electronic control of the dough mixer would allow for automatic mixing. This study us...

  5. Application of cell-surface engineering for visualization of yeast in bread dough: development of a fluorescent bio-imaging technique in the mixing process of dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tatsuro; Shiraga, Seizaburo; Araki, Tetsuya; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Yamada, Masaharu; Takeya, Koji; Sagara, Yasuyuki

    2009-07-01

    Cell-surface engineering (Ueda et al., 2000) has been applied to develop a novel technique to visualize yeast in bread dough. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was bonded to the surface of yeast cells, and 0.5% EGFP yeasts were mixed into the dough samples at four different mixing stages. The samples were placed on a cryostat at -30 degrees C and sliced at 10 microm. The sliced samples were observed at an excitation wavelength of 480 nm and a fluorescent wavelength of 520 nm. The results indicated that the combination of the EGFP-displayed yeasts, rapid freezing, and cryo-sectioning made it possible to visualize 2-D distribution of yeast in bread dough to the extent that the EGFP yeasts could be clearly distinguished from the auto-fluorescent background of bread dough.

  6. Tillage methods and mulch on water saving and yield of spring maize in Chitwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishwari Prasad Upadhyay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tillage methods and mulch influences the productivity and water requirement of spring maize hence a field experiment was conducted at the National Maize Research Program, Rampur in spring seasons of 2011 and 2012 with the objectives to evaluate different tillage methods with and without mulch on water requirement and grain yield of spring maize. The experiment was laid out in two factors factorial randomized complete design with three replications. The treatments consisted of tillage methods (Permanent bed, Zero tillage and Conventional tillage and mulch (with and without. Irrigation timing was fixed as knee high stage, tasseling stage and milking/dough stage. Data on number of plants, number of ears, thousand grain weight and grain yield were recorded and analysed using GenStat. Two years combined result showed that the effect of tillage methods and mulch significant influenced grain yield and water requirement of spring maize. The maize grain yield was the highest in permanent beds with mulch (4626 kg ha-1 followed by zero tillage with mulch (3838 kg ha-1. Whereas total water applied calculated during the crop period were the highest in conventional tillage without mulch followed by conventional tillage with mulch. The permanent bed with mulch increased the yield and reduced the water requirement of spring maize in Chitwan.

  7. Improvement of fermentation ability under baking-associated stress conditions by altering the POG1 gene expression in baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Oshiro, Satoshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    During the bread-making process, yeast cells are exposed to many types of baking-associated stress. There is thus a demand within the baking industry for yeast strains with high fermentation abilities under these stress conditions. The POG1 gene, encoding a putative transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation, is a multicopy suppressor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 mutant. The pog1 mutant is sensitive to various stresses. Our results suggested that the POG1 gene is involved in stress tolerance in yeast cells. In this study, we showed that overexpression of the POG1 gene in baker's yeast conferred increased fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough, which is used for sweet dough baking. Furthermore, deletion of the POG1 gene drastically increased the fermentation ability in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress, which would be a useful characteristic for frozen dough baking. Thus, the engineering of yeast strains to control the POG1 gene expression level would be a novel method for molecular breeding of baker's yeast. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes in protein solubility, fermentative capacity, viscoelasticity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frozen dough should be stored for fewer than 21 days; time in which the loaf volume of bread made from frozen dough was approximately 40.84% smaller than that of fresh bread dough formulation. Keywords: French type bread, frozen dough, protein solubility, baking quality, viscoelasticity. African Journal of Biotechnology ...

  9. Aflatoxins and fumonisin contamination of marketed maize, maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxins and fumonisin contamination of marketed maize, maize bran and maize used as animal feed in northern ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development.

  10. Experimental and numerical investigation of ram extrusion of bread dough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, M. A. P.; Wanigasooriya, L.; Charalambides, M. N.

    2016-10-01

    An experimental and numerical study on ram extrusion of bread dough was conducted. A laboratory ram extrusion rig was designed and manufactured, where dies with different angles and exit radii were employed. Rate dependent behaviour was observed from tests conducted at different extrusion speeds, and higher extrusion pressure was reported for dies with decreasing exit radius. A finite element simulation of extrusion was performed using the adaptive meshing technique in Abaqus. Simulations using a frictionless contact between the billet and die wall showed that the model underestimates the response at high entry angles. On the other hand, when the coefficient of friction value was set to 0.09 as measured from friction experiments, the dough response was overestimated, i.e. the model extrusion pressure was much higher than the experimentally measured values. When a critical shear stress limit, τmax, was used, the accuracy of the model predictions improved. The results showed that higher die angles require higher τmax values for the model and the experiments to agree.

  11. Modeling and optimization of dough recipe for breadsticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivosheev, A. Yu; Ponomareva, E. I.; Zhuravlev, A. A.; Lukina, S. I.; Alekhina, N. N.

    2018-05-01

    During the work, the authors studied the combined effect of non-traditional raw materials on indicators of quality breadsticks, mathematical methods of experiment planning were applied. The main factors chosen were the dosages of flaxseed flour and grape seed oil. The output parameters were the swelling factor of the products and their strength. Optimization of the formulation composition of the dough for bread sticks was carried out by experimental- statistical methods. As a result of the experiment, mathematical models were constructed in the form of regression equations, adequately describing the process of studies. The statistical processing of the experimental data was carried out by the criteria of Student, Cochran and Fisher (with a confidence probability of 0.95). A mathematical interpretation of the regression equations was given. Optimization of the formulation of the dough for bread sticks was carried out by the method of uncertain Lagrange multipliers. The rational values of the factors were determined: the dosage of flaxseed flour - 14.22% and grape seed oil - 7.8%, ensuring the production of products with the best combination of swelling ratio and strength. On the basis of the data obtained, a recipe and a method for the production of breadsticks "Idea" were proposed (TU (Russian Technical Specifications) 9117-443-02068106-2017).

  12. Learning Particle Physics with DIY Play Dough Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunyaniti, T.; Toedtanya, K.; Wuttiprom, S.

    2017-09-01

    The scientists once believed an atom was the smallest particle, nothing was smaller than this tiny particle. Later, they discovered an atom which consists of protons, neutrons and electrons, and they believed that these particles cannot be broken into the smaller particles. According to advanced technology, the scientists have discovered these particles are consisted of a smaller particles. The new particles are called quarks leptons and bosons which we called fundamental particle. Atomic structure cannot be observed directly, so it is complicated for studying these particles. To help the students get more understanding of its properties, so the researcher develops the learning pattern of fundamental particles from Play Dough Model for high school to graduate students. Four step of learning are 1) to introduces the concept of the fundamental particles discovery 2) to play the Happy Families game by using fundamental particles cards 3) to design and make their particle in a way that reflects its properties 4) to represents their particles from Play Dough Model. After doing activities, the students had more conceptual understanding and better memorability on fundamental particles. In addition, the students gained collaborative working experience among their friends also.

  13. Texturized pinto bean protein fortification in straight dough bread formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Courtney W; Hunt-Schmidt, Emily; Simsek, Senay; Hall, Clifford; Biswas, Atanu

    2014-09-01

    Pinto beans were milled and then air-classified to obtain a raw high protein fraction (RHPF) followed by extrusion to texturize the protein fraction. The texturized high protein fraction (THPF) was then milled to obtain flour, and combined with wheat flour at 5, 10, and 15% levels to make bread. The air-classification process produced flour with high concentration of lipids and phytic acid in the protein-rich fraction. However, extrusion significantly reduced hexane extractable lipid and phytic acid. However, the reduction observed may simply indicate a reduction in recovery due to bind with other components. Total protein and lysine contents in composite flours increased significantly as THPF levels increased in composite flour. Bread made with 5% THPF had 48% more lysine than the 100 % wheat flour (control). The THPF helped to maintain dough strength by reducing mixing tolerance index (MTI), maintaining dough stability and increasing departure time on Farinograph. Bread loaf volume was significantly reduced above 5% THPF addition. THPF increased water absorption causing an increase in bread weights by up to 6%. Overall, loaf quality deteriorated at 10 and 15% THPF levels while bread with 5% THPF was not significantly different from the control. These results support the addition of 5% THPF as a means to enhance lysine content of white pan bread.

  14. Dough Rising Ability of Tamarindus Indica, Citrus Limon and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MASANAWA

    yeasts correlate positively with the standard yeast (Saccharomyces ... and most plant cells fermentation produces ... Saccaromyces boulardii to maintain and restore the natural flora in the gastrointestinal tract. S. .... Fruits, vegetable, drinks and other ... The. Alcoholic Fermentation of Yeast-. Juice". Proceedings of the Royal.

  15. Effect of Aspergillus niger xylanase on dough characteristics and bread quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Ahmed, Anwaar; Riaz, Muhammad; Sabir, Syed Mubashar; Farooq, Umar; Rehman, Fazal Ur

    2014-10-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of various treatments of xylanase produced by Aspergillus niger applied in bread making processes like during tempering of wheat kernels and dough mixing on the dough quality characteristics i.e. dryness, stiffness, elasticity, extensibility, coherency and bread quality parameters i.e. volume, specific volume, density, moisture retention and sensory attributes. Different doses (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1,000 IU) of purified enzyme were applied to 1 kg of wheat grains during tempering and 1 kg of flour (straight grade flour) during mixing of dough in parallel. The samples of wheat kernels were agitated at different intervals for uniformity in tempering. After milling and dough making of both types of flour (having enzyme treatment during tempering and flour mixing) showed improved dough characteristics but the improvement was more prominent in the samples receiving enzyme treatment during tempering. Moreover, xylanase decreased dryness and stiffness of the dough whereas, resulted in increased elasticity, extensibility and coherency and increase in volume & decrease in bread density. Xylanase treatments also resulted in higher moisture retention and improvement of sensory attributes of bread. From the results, it is concluded that dough characteristics and bread quality improved significantly in response to enzyme treatments during tempering as compared to application during mixing.

  16. Assessment of breadmaking performance of wheat flour dough by means of frequency dependent ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, D; Peressini, D; Page, J H; Strybulevych, A; Scanlon, M G

    2012-01-01

    Technological performance of wheat flour varies among different wheat varieties. Gluten plays a key role within the solid phase of dough in the formation and the retention of gas bubbles during breadmaking. Rheological tests are usually performed to predict breadmaking potential. The aim here was to investigate the ability of ultrasound to discriminate wheat doughs based on breadmaking qualities. The ultimate goal is the development of an online quality control system currently unavailable in the baked goods industry, rendering this work innovative. Samples were prepared from a strong wheat flour, with one control sample and one added with inulin and distilled monoglycerides, producing doughs of distinct breadmaking quality. Doughs were subjected to density determination, elongation tests, and ultrasound analysis. The ultrasound tests were performed in the frequency range of 300 kHz – 6 MHz. Ultrasonic phase velocity increased with increasing frequency to about 2 MHz, becoming constant and then decreasing from 3 MHz for the control sample. Distinct differences in attenuation coefficient between the fibre-enriched and control doughs were observed. Ultrasound can potentially add to a better understanding of dough quality and can discriminate between doughs of contrasting properties.

  17. Assessment of breadmaking performance of wheat flour dough by means of frequency dependent ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, D.; Page, J. H.; Strybulevych, A.; Peressini, D.; Scanlon, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Technological performance of wheat flour varies among different wheat varieties. Gluten plays a key role within the solid phase of dough in the formation and the retention of gas bubbles during breadmaking. Rheological tests are usually performed to predict breadmaking potential. The aim here was to investigate the ability of ultrasound to discriminate wheat doughs based on breadmaking qualities. The ultimate goal is the development of an online quality control system currently unavailable in the baked goods industry, rendering this work innovative. Samples were prepared from a strong wheat flour, with one control sample and one added with inulin and distilled monoglycerides, producing doughs of distinct breadmaking quality. Doughs were subjected to density determination, elongation tests, and ultrasound analysis. The ultrasound tests were performed in the frequency range of 300 kHz - 6 MHz. Ultrasonic phase velocity increased with increasing frequency to about 2 MHz, becoming constant and then decreasing from 3 MHz for the control sample. Distinct differences in attenuation coefficient between the fibre-enriched and control doughs were observed. Ultrasound can potentially add to a better understanding of dough quality and can discriminate between doughs of contrasting properties.

  18. Genetic control of wheat quality: interactions between chromosomal regions determining protein content and composition, dough rheology, and sponge and dough baking properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Gulay; Diffey, Simon; Cullis, Brian; Azanza, Fermin; Martin, David; Kelly, Alison; McIntyre, Lynne; Schmidt, Adele; Ma, Wujun; Nath, Zena; Kutty, Ibrahim; Leyne, P Emmett; Rampling, Lynette; Quail, Ken J; Morell, Matthew K

    2009-05-01

    While the genetic control of wheat processing characteristics such as dough rheology is well understood, limited information is available concerning the genetic control of baking parameters, particularly sponge and dough (S&D) baking. In this study, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed using a population of doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between Australian cultivars Kukri x Janz grown at sites across different Australian wheat production zones (Queensland in 2001 and 2002 and Southern and Northern New South Wales in 2003) in order to examine the genetic control of protein content, protein expression, dough rheology and sponge and dough baking performance. The study highlighted the inconsistent genetic control of protein content across the test sites, with only two loci (3A and 7A) showing QTL at three of the five sites. Dough rheology QTL were highly consistent across the 5 sites, with major effects associated with the Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 loci. The Glu-D1 5 + 10 allele had consistent effects on S&D properties across sites; however, there was no evidence for a positive effect of the high dough strength Glu-B1-al allele at Glu-B1. A second locus on 5D had positive effects on S&D baking at three of five sites. This study demonstrated that dough rheology measurements were poor predictors of S&D quality. In the absence of robust predictive tests, high heritability values for S&D demonstrate that direct selection is the current best option for achieving genetic gain in this product category.

  19. Bambara-wheat composite flour: rheological behavior of dough and functionality in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erukainure, Ochuko L; Okafor, Jane N C; Ogunji, Akinyele; Ukazu, Happiness; Okafor, Ebele N; Eboagwu, Ijeoma L

    2016-11-01

    The rheological behavior and functional properties of doughs from bambara-wheat composite flour was investigated. Bambara-wheat composite flour was prepared by substituting wheat with 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of bambara flour. The rheological behavior of their dough was analyzed with Mixolab. Breads produced from the flour were analyzed for physical characteristics. Organoleptic analysis was carried out by 20 panelists. Mixolab analysis revealed, except for stability time, depreciating values for dough consistency (C1), protein weakening (C2), starch gelatinization (C3), amylase activity (C4), and retrogradation (C5) as the inclusion of bambara flour increased. Physical characteristics of the loaves revealed significant ( P  baking characteristics.

  20. Fermentation performance optimization in an ectopic fermentation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaotong; Geng, Bing; Zhu, Changxiong; Li, Hongna; He, Buwei; Guo, Hui

    2018-07-01

    Ectopic fermentation systems (EFSs) were developed for wastewater treatment. Previous studies have investigated the ability of thermophilic bacteria to improve fermentation performance in EFS. Continuing this research, we evaluated EFS performance using principle component analysis and investigated the addition of different proportions of cow dung. Viable bacteria communities were clustered and identified using BOX-AIR-based repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR and 16S rDNA analysis. The results revealed optimal conditions for the padding were maize straw inoculated with thermophilic bacteria. Adding 20% cow dung yielded the best pH values (6.94-8.56), higher temperatures, increased wastewater absorption, improved litter quality, and greater microbial quantities. The viable bacteria groups were enriched by the addition of thermophilic consortium, and exogenous strains G21, G14, G4-1, and CR-15 were detected in fermentation process. The proportion of Bacillus species in treatment groups reached 70.37% after fermentation, demonstrating that thermophilic bacteria, especially Bacillus, have an important role in EFS, supporting previous predictions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bread dough rheology: Computing with a damage function model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Roger I.; Qi, Fuzhong; Dai, Shaocong

    2015-01-01

    We describe an improved damage function model for bread dough rheology. The model has relatively few parameters, all of which can easily be found from simple experiments. Small deformations in the linear region are described by a gel-like power-law memory function. A set of large non-reversing deformations - stress relaxation after a step of shear, steady shearing and elongation beginning from rest, and biaxial stretching, is used to test the model. With the introduction of a revised strain measure which includes a Mooney-Rivlin term, all of these motions can be well described by the damage function described in previous papers. For reversing step strains, larger amplitude oscillatory shearing and recoil reasonable predictions have been found. The numerical methods used are discussed and we give some examples.

  2. Influence of Kernel Age on Fumonisin B1 Production in Maize by Fusarium moniliforme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, Colleen Y.; Gilchrist, David G.

    1999-01-01

    Production of fumonisins by Fusarium moniliforme on naturally infected maize ears is an important food safety concern due to the toxic nature of this class of mycotoxins. Assessing the potential risk of fumonisin production in developing maize ears prior to harvest requires an understanding of the regulation of toxin biosynthesis during kernel maturation. We investigated the developmental-stage-dependent relationship between maize kernels and fumonisin B1 production by using kernels collected at the blister (R2), milk (R3), dough (R4), and dent (R5) stages following inoculation in culture at their respective field moisture contents with F. moniliforme. Highly significant differences (P ≤ 0.001) in fumonisin B1 production were found among kernels at the different developmental stages. The highest levels of fumonisin B1 were produced on the dent stage kernels, and the lowest levels were produced on the blister stage kernels. The differences in fumonisin B1 production among kernels at the different developmental stages remained significant (P ≤ 0.001) when the moisture contents of the kernels were adjusted to the same level prior to inoculation. We concluded that toxin production is affected by substrate composition as well as by moisture content. Our study also demonstrated that fumonisin B1 biosynthesis on maize kernels is influenced by factors which vary with the developmental age of the tissue. The risk of fumonisin contamination may begin early in maize ear development and increases as the kernels reach physiological maturity. PMID:10388675

  3. Addition of different tuna meal levels to pizza dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Abreu Vasconcelos Campelo

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to develop pizza dough with different levels of tuna meal (Tunnus spp.. In order to produce tuna meal, tuna torsos without fins were used, cooked for 1 hour, pressed, milled and dehydrated for 24 hours at 60 °C. Pizza dough was produced without (0% or with the addition of 5, 10, 15 and 20% of tuna meal, calculated based on the quantity of wheat flour. The tuna meal and different pizza pastries were analyzed for moisture content, crude protein, total lipids, ash, carbohydrates, caloric value and fatty acid profiles. Microbiological and sensory analyses were also carried out on the pizza pastries. The increasing addition of tuna meal resulted in gains in the crude protein (10.89 to 18.94%, total lipid (4.63 to 5.89% and ash (2.54 to 3.54% contents of the pizza pastries, not influencing the moisture content or caloric value. The inclusion of tuna meal linearly increased the quantity of n-3 series fatty acids in the pizza pastry, from 1.56 to 5.93 g/kg with the addition of 20% tuna meal. The ratio between the polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids in the tuna meal and pizza pastries varied from 1.21 to 1.85. The microbiological analyses showed that the pizza pastries were produced under proper hygiene conditions. It was also observed that the addition of 5 to 20% of tuna meal to the pizza pastry did not significantly (p>0.05 alter the parameters of aroma, flavor, overall impression and purchase intention. It was therefore concluded that the addition of 5 to 20% tuna meal is effective in improving the nutritional value and fatty acid profile of pizza pastry.

  4. Effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum on pasting, thermo-mechanical and rheological properties of wheat dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B S

    2016-12-01

    Partially hydrolyzed guar gum was prepared using enzymatic hydrolysis of native guar gum that can be utilized as soluble fiber source. The effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) on pasting, thermo-mechanical and rheological properties of wheat flour was investigated using rapid visco-analyzer, Mixolab and Microdoughlab. Wheat flour was replaced with 1-5g PHGG per 100g of wheat flour on weight basis. PHGG addition decreased the peak, trough, breakdown, setback and final viscosity of wheat flour. Water absorption and amylase activity of wheat dough were increased whereas starch gelatinization and protein weakening of wheat dough were reduced as a result of PHGG addition to wheat flour. PHGG addition also increased the peak dough height, arrival time, dough development time, dough stability and peak energy of wheat dough system. However, dough softening was decreased after PHGG addition to wheat flour dough. Overall, it can be assumed that PHGG has influenced the properties of wheat flour dough system by decreasing the RVA viscosities and increasing the water absorption and starch gelatinization of wheat dough system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical and nutritional values of maize and maize products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize and maize products in selected grain markets within Kaduna, Nigeria, were obtained and investigated for proximate and mineral composition analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and flame photometer. Proximate composition of maize and maize products were in the range of 11.6- 20 .0% ...

  6. Resistance of maize varieties to the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at evaluating commonly used maize varieties, collected from Melkasa and Bako Agricultural Research Centers and Haramaya University, Ethiopia, against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motsch., one of the most important cosmopolitan stored product pests in maize. A total of 13 improved maize ...

  7. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on in vitro ruminal fermentation of rations high in alfalfa hay or ryegrass hay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Y H; Yang, H J; Lund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A 2 × 4 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) at dose rates of 0, 320, 640, 960 ng/ml on ruminal fermentation of substrates high in alfalfa hay (HA, alfalfa hay: maize meal = 4:1) and ryegrass hay (HR, ryegrass hay: maize meal = 4:1). In vitro dry matter...

  8. Sensory assessment of stiffness and rheological measurements on doughs of identical farinograph consistencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloksma, A.H.; Meppelink, E.K.

    1973-01-01

    Significant differences were found in the sensory assessment of stiffness of doughs made from various wheat varieties with such water additions that their Brabender farinograph consistencies would have been identical. Sensory ratings correlated significantly with extensigraph and creep measurements.

  9. Effect of Oven Types on the Characteristics of Biscuits Made from Refrigerated and Frozen Doughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Sait Dogan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of sugar snap and chocolate chip cookies, and hazelnut biscuits made from refrigerated and frozen dough were studied. Doughs were stored at 4 °C for 6 weeks and at –18 °C for 6 months, respectively. Physical characteristics of the biscuit samples such as spread, baking loss, surface colour and density were determined. Dough colour was not affected by storage time and temperatures. Biscuit characteristics did not change significantly during storage. Spread ratio was significantly lower for the biscuits baked in the gas oven than for the biscuits baked in the electric oven. Biscuit dough can be refrigerated for 6 weeks, and frozen for 6 months. Results also suggest that unique quality differences exist between the two ovens. For sugar snap cookies and hazelnut biscuits the electric oven without air circulation was better, while for chocolate chip cookies gas oven with air circulation was more suitable.

  10. An overview on the additives used in improvement of dough flow behaving characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Ghobadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bread in all its diversity has cited as an ancient foodstuff for over 6000 years; bread dough, due to its viscoelastic behavior may consider as the most complicated rheological system, which highly effects on final products’ sensorial and textural properties. Since the research dough rheology is of being challenging issues, therefore this explains why dough rheology has been an attractive title for several decades. Recently, demand to use new formula and sources such as cassava which result in enhancement of digestibility and along with it, the incorporation of previously mentioned sources in cereal products, has been converted to a growingly investigation of rheological properties of dough. Substitution level of any novel sources directly effects on texture properties, even adverse affections, which evaluates by panelists therefore in this review we focus on different concepts of bread rheology and the affection of all added ingredients on physiochemical properties.

  11. Modelling of Wheat-Flour Dough Mixing as an Open-Loop Hysteretic Process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderssen, R.; Kružík, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2013), s. 283-293 ISSN 1531-3492 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Keywords : Dissipation * Dough mixing * Rate-independent systems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.628, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/MTR/kruzik-modelling of wheat-flour dough mixing as an open-loop hysteretic process.pdf

  12. Effect of sorbitol on dough rheology and quality of sugar replaced cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Shariati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A high amount of sugar is used in bakery products, which may cause diabetes, high blood glucose levels and obesity. Due to these reasons, sugar is being replaced with substitutes. There is different carbohydrate-based sugar substitutes (polyols that can efficiently replace sugar. Among polyols, sorbitol is an efficient replacer that can mimic sugar with minimal effects on cookie quality. Effects of different sorbitol levels (0 to 12.5% were seen on the dough rheology. Mixographic studies showed that peak height and mixing time reduced with the addition of sorbitol. Farinographic studies showed that water absorption and the mixing tolerance index of dough reduced with the supplementation of sorbitol, whereas dough development time, arrival time, dough stability time and softening of dough increased. Extensographic studies revealed that sorbitol substitution produced hard, cohesive, adhesive and elastic dough. Sugar in cookies formulations was reduced from 100 to 50% by replacing with sorbitol 0 to 50%. Physical analysis of sorbitol containing cookies showed that the diameter and spread factor of cookies decreased with higher levels of sorbitol, whereas thickness, color, hardness and water activity of cookies increased. The calorific value of cookies decreased with the increasing levels of sorbitol. At upto 20% replacement of sugar, other parameters of cookies were not affected. Sensory evaluation of the cookies showed that hedonic points for sensory evaluation parameters reduced with the increasing levels of sorbitol, T2 (20% replacement showed maximum overall acceptability. Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE AR-SA

  13. Relation between ultrasonic properties, rheology and baking quality for bread doughs of widely differing formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peressini, Donatella; Braunstein, Dobrila; Page, John H; Strybulevych, Anatoliy; Lagazio, Corrado; Scanlon, Martin G

    2017-06-01

    The objective was to evaluate whether an ultrasonic reflectance technique has predictive capacity for breadmaking performance of doughs made under a wide range of formulation conditions. Two flours of contrasting dough strength augmented with different levels of ingredients (inulin, oil, emulsifier or salt) were used to produce different bread doughs with a wide range of properties. Breadmaking performance was evaluated by conventional large-strain rheological tests on the dough and by assessment of loaf quality. The ultrasound tests were performed with a broadband reflectance technique in the frequency range of 0.3-6 MHz. Principal component analysis showed that ultrasonic attenuation and phase velocity at frequencies between 0.3 and 3 MHz are good predictors for rheological and bread scoring characteristics. Ultrasonic parameters had predictive capacity for breadmaking performance for a wide range of dough formulations. Lower frequency attenuation coefficients correlated well with conventional quality indices of both the dough and the bread. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Fermentation of the endosperm cell walls of monocotyledon and dicotyledon plant species: The relationship between cell wall characteristics and fermentability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van H.; Tamminga, S.; Williams, B.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Cell walls from the endosperm of four monocotyledons (maize, wheat, rye, and rice) and four dicotyledons (soya bean, lupin, faba bean, and pea) seeds were studied to relate cell wall composition and structure with fermentation characteristics. Cell wall material was isolated from the endosperm of

  15. Production of fermentables and biomass by six temperate fuelcrops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, D.J.; Gammon, T.C.; Graves, B.

    1985-12-01

    Several potential fuelcrops have been studied individually, but relatively little work has been done to compare the various temperate species in side-by-side trials. The production has been examined of readily fermentable carbohydrates and biomass by six fuelcrop candidates: grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), Jerusalem articoke (Helianthus tuberosus), maize (Zea Mays), sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). A randomized complete block design with four replicates was employed at each of three locations that were somewhat diverse in soil type, elevation, growing season length, and 1980 rainfall distribution. Fermentables in the harvestable dry matter were determined colorimetrically following dilute acid plus enzymatic hydrolysis. Overall, sugarbeet was the most prolific producer of fermentables (7.4 Mg/ha); Jerusalem artichoke (5.8 Mg/ha), maize (4.8 Mg/ha) and sweet sorghum stems (5.8 Mg/ha) were statistically equivalent, while sweet potato (4.0 Mg/ha) and grain sorghum (3.8 Mg/ha) were less productive than the other candidates. The crops performed somewhat differently at each location, but the most striking site-specific differences were seen at the site with the coarsest textured soil and driest season. At that location, maize produced the least fermentables (0.6 Mg/ha). Biomass production generally reflected either the amount of time each species was actively growing or limiations to growth associated with drought. No general recommendations are made concerning a preferred temperature fuelcrop. Based on the studies, however, maize may not always be the fuelcrop of choice; others, especially sugarbeet and sweet sorghum (when harvested for grain also), may be superior to maize in productivity of fermentable substrates. 6 tabs., 13 refs.

  16. Summary Statistics for Homemade ?Play Dough? -- Data Acquired at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallman, J S; Morales, K E; Whipple, R E; Huber, R D; Martz, A; Brown, W D; Smith, J A; Schneberk, D J; Martz, Jr., H E; White, III, W T

    2010-03-11

    Using x-ray computerized tomography (CT), we have characterized the x-ray linear attenuation coefficients (LAC) of a homemade Play Dough{trademark}-like material, designated as PDA. Table 1 gives the first-order statistics for each of four CT measurements, estimated with a Gaussian kernel density estimator (KDE) analysis. The mean values of the LAC range from a high of about 2700 LMHU{sub D} 100kVp to a low of about 1200 LMHUD at 300kVp. The standard deviation of each measurement is around 10% to 15% of the mean. The entropy covers the range from 6.0 to 7.4. Ordinarily, we would model the LAC of the material and compare the modeled values to the measured values. In this case, however, we did not have the detailed chemical composition of the material and therefore did not model the LAC. Using a method recently proposed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we estimate the value of the effective atomic number, Z{sub eff}, to be near 10. LLNL prepared about 50mL of the homemade 'Play Dough' in a polypropylene vial and firmly compressed it immediately prior to the x-ray measurements. We used the computer program IMGREC to reconstruct the CT images. The values of the key parameters used in the data capture and image reconstruction are given in this report. Additional details may be found in the experimental SOP and a separate document. To characterize the statistical distribution of LAC values in each CT image, we first isolated an 80% central-core segment of volume elements ('voxels') lying completely within the specimen, away from the walls of the polypropylene vial. All of the voxels within this central core, including those comprised of voids and inclusions, are included in the statistics. We then calculated the mean value, standard deviation and entropy for (a) the four image segments and for (b) their digital gradient images. (A digital gradient image of a given image was obtained by taking the absolute value of the difference

  17. Fermentation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  18. Radiation preservation of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasito.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation preservation of maize was carried out. Radiation doses and sources, shielding materials, packaging materials, chemical radiation effects, biological radiation effects, were discussed. Experimental methods, samples and accessories were also presented. (SMN)

  19. Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Bronwyn; Warnberg, Katey; Main, Marcy; Wang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is an effective method for introducing genes into maize. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol for genetic transformation of the maize genotype Hi II. Our starting plant material is immature embryos cocultivated with an Agrobacterium strain carrying a standard binary vector. In addition to step-by-step laboratory transformation procedures, we include extensive details in growing donor plants and caring for transgenic plants in the greenhouse.

  20. Impact of water extractable arabinoxylan from rye bran on the frozen steamed bread dough quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Tao, Han; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-06-01

    Impact of water extractable arabinoxylan from rye bran on frozen steamed bread dough quality was investigated in terms of the bread characteristics, ice crystallization, yeast activity as well as the gluten molecular weight distribution and glutenin macropolymer content in the present study. Results showed that water extractable arabinoxylan significantly improved bread characteristics during the 60-day frozen storage. Less water was crystallized in the water extractable arabinoxylan dough during storage, which could explain the alleviated yeast activity loss. For all the frozen dough samples, more soluble high molecular weight (Mw ≈ 91,000-688,000) and low molecular weight (Mw ≈ 91,000-16,000) proteins were derived from glutenin macropolymer depolymerization. Nevertheless, water extractable arabinoxylan dough developed higher glutenin macropolymer content with lowered level of soluble low molecular weight proteins throughout the storage. This study suggested water extractable arabinoxylan from rye bran had great potential to be served as an effective frozen steamed bread dough improver. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Addition of Vital Wheat Gluten to Enhance the Quality Characteristics of Frozen Dough Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Giannou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to enhance the quality and sensory characteristics of bread made from frozen dough. Both white and whole-wheat flour were used. In order to improve dough strength and stability during frozen storage, samples were supplemented with vital wheat gluten at the levels of 2%, 4%, 5%, and 6% of flour weight. The characteristics of baked samples were determined through weight loss, specific volume, crust, and crumb color, texture, and sensory evaluation. Dough behavior at sub-zero temperatures was further examined for control samples and samples with 6% gluten using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, while their low molecular sugar content (fructose, glucose, sucrose was measured using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, as it can be associated with yeast viability and dough freezing point depression. The most stable samples were those with 4% and 6% gluten (for white flour and those with 4% and 5% gluten (for whole-wheat flour. Gluten addition raised the freezing point of dough samples and preserved low molecular sugar generation after prolonged storage.

  2. EFFECT OF PLANT PROTEIN ISOLATES ON THE STRUCTURAL – MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WHEAT DOUGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy MAKHYNKO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of using isolates of soya, pea and rice flour as well as of dry wheat gluten in the making of bread dough have been presented. Taking into account the high water absorption capacity of these products, effect of the protein isolates on the structural-mechanical properties of the dough has been investigated. On the basis of farinogram curves the additional quantity of water needed to obtain proper structure of dough made from all types of raw materials has been determined. A formula of calculation the additional quantity of water has been proposed. It proves that most quantity of water is needed for dough with isolate of soya protein – 2.3 g per 1 g of added isolate. Isolate of pea protein needs additionally 1.5 g of water, dry wheat gluten – 1.3 g, and isolate of rice protein – 0.9 g of water. The proposed calculation has been checked for mixes with different proportion of raw materials and its effectiveness has been proven. The calculation method was used to determine the additional quantity of water required to obtain wheat dough with necessary structural and mechanical properties.

  3. Effect of fructo-oligosaccharide and isomalto-oligosaccharide addition on baking quality of frozen dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Young; Jang, Sung-Bum; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2016-12-15

    The baking quality of frozen doughs containing different levels of fructo-oligosaccharides (FO) or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) (3-9%, w/w flour), and stored for 0-8weeks at -18°C, was examined. The addition of FO or IMO increased the proof volume of the dough and the loaf volume of bread prepared from frozen dough. A 6% addition of FO or IMO was optimum, giving the highest proof volume and bread loaf volume, but a higher concentration than 6% induced low baking quality including lower proof volume and bread loaf volume. The bread crumb was moister and softer after the addition of FO or IMO before, and even after, frozen storage. Darker crumb colour was observed in the bread after the addition of FO or IMO. The oligosaccharides added to the frozen dough were effective in improving the quality of bread made from frozen dough, except for resulting in a darker bread crumb. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Effect of L-asparaginase on acrylamide mitigation in a fried-dough pastry model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukurová, Kristína; Morales, Francisco J; Bednáriková, Alena; Ciesarová, Zuzana

    2009-12-01

    A dough resembling traditional Spanish rosquillas was used as a model to represent classical fried-dough pastry to investigate the effects of asparaginase and heat treatment on amino acid levels and acrylamide mitigation. Wheat-based dough was deep fried at 180 and 200 degrees C for 4, 6, and 8 min. Two recipes were formulated by addition of different asparaginase levels (100 and 500 U/kg flour) to the dough. The temperature/time profile of the frying process, moisture, sugars, amino acids, acrylamide, and some indicators of the Maillard reaction (hydroxymethylfurfural, color, free fluorescence compounds, and browning) were determined to investigate the extent of the reaction and the effect on reactants. At the both levels of asparaginase used, 96-97% of the asparagine present was converted to aspartic acid, and consequently the acrylamide level was very efficiently reduced (up to 90%). The asparaginase also affected the content of glutamine and glutamic acid in dough, resulting in a 37% increase in glutamic acid compared with the untreated sample. Concerning color, browning and Maillard reaction parameters, no significant changes between untreated and enzymatically treated samples were observed, pointing out the potential industrial and domestic enzyme application.

  5. Textural and sensory properties of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) flour and stiff dough 'amala'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, O A; Akinoso, R

    2015-05-01

    The use of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) flour for stiff dough 'amala' production is one of the ways to curb under-utilization of the tuber. The study evaluates the textural and sensory properties of trifoliate yam flour and stiff dough. Freshly harvested trifoliate yam tubers were peeled, washed, sliced and blanched (60 (°)C for 10 min). The sliced yam were soaked in water for 12 h, dried and milled into flour. Pasting viscosities, functional properties, brown index and sensory attributes of the flour and stiff dough were analyzed. Peak, holding strength and final viscosities ranged from 84.09 to 213.33 RVU, 81.25 to 157.00 RVU and 127.58 to 236.17 RVU respectively. White raw flour had higher viscosity than the yellow flours. The swelling index, water absorption capacity and bulk density ranged from 1.46 to 2.28, 2.11 to 2.92 ml H2O/g and 0.71 to 0.88 g/cm(3) respectively. Blanching method employed improved the swelling index and water absorption capacity of flour. The brown index values of flour and stiff dough ranged from 6.73 to 18.36 and 14.63-46.72 respectively. Sensory evaluation revealed significant differences in the colour, odour and general acceptability of the product when compared with the stiff dough from white yam.

  6. A Method of Visualizing Three-Dimensional Distribution of Yeast in Bread Dough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tatsurou; Do, Gab-Soo; Sugiyama, Junichi; Oguchi, Kosei; Shiraga, Seizaburou; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Takeya, Koji; Endo, Shigeru

    A novel technique was developed to monitor the change in three-dimensional (3D) distribution of yeast in frozen bread dough samples in accordance with the progress of mixing process. Application of a surface engineering technology allowed the identification of yeast in bread dough by bonding EGFP (Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein) to the surface of yeast cells. The fluorescent yeast (a biomarker) was recognized as bright spots at the wavelength of 520 nm. A Micro-Slicer Image Processing System (MSIPS) with a fluorescence microscope was utilized to acquire cross-sectional images of frozen dough samples sliced at intervals of 1 μm. A set of successive two-dimensional images was reconstructed to analyze 3D distribution of yeast. Samples were taken from each of four normal mixing stages (i.e., pick up, clean up, development, and final stages) and also from over mixing stage. In the pick up stage yeast distribution was uneven with local areas of dense yeast. As the mixing progressed from clean up to final stages, the yeast became more evenly distributed throughout the dough sample. However, the uniformity in yeast distribution was lost in the over mixing stage possibly due to the breakdown of gluten structure within the dough sample.

  7. Reduction of acrylamide in whole-wheat bread by combining lactobacilli and yeast fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri Esfahani, Behnaz; Kadivar, Mahdi; Shahedi, Mohammad; Soleimanian-Zad, Sabihe

    2017-11-01

    This study mainly focuses on a strategy for reducing acrylamide content in whole-wheat bread by combining lactobacilli and yeast in sourdough breadmaking. Combinations of sourdough (fermented dough using different Lactobacillus strains including Lactobacillus plantarum PTCC 1896 [probiotic], L. sakei DSM 20,017, L. rhamnosus DSM 20,021, and L. delbrueckii DSM 20,081) and yeast, in comparison with yeast alone, were used for breadmaking. The results showed that acrylamide levels in breads fermented using sourdough+yeast were in all cases much lower (6.9-20 μg/kg on a dry weight basis [d.b.]) than those in the yeast-only fermented bread (47.6 μg/kg d.b.). Significant (p bread (r = 0.925, p breads and either the reducing sugar or free amino acid contents in dough samples. According to the different effects of Lactobacillus strains, it could be concluded that the acrylamide reducing potential of lactobacilli was strain-specific, with L. rhamnosus being the most effective. This suggests that sourdough fermentation with appropriate Lactobacillus strains can be used as an advantageous technology to reduce the acrylamide content of whole-wheat breads.

  8. Improving the antioxidant properties of quinoa flour through fermentation with selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lorusso, Anna; Russo, Vito; Pinto, Daniela; Marzani, Barbara; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-01-16

    Lactic acid bacteria strains, previously isolated from the same matrix, were used to ferment quinoa flour aiming at exploiting the antioxidant potential. As in vitro determined on DPPH and ABTS radicals, the scavenging activity of water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from fermented doughs was significantly (Pquinoa dough fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum T0A10. The corresponding WSE was subjected to Reverse Phase Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography, and 32 fractions were collected and subjected to in vitro assays. The most active fraction was resistant to further hydrolysis by digestive enzymes. Five peptides, having sizes from 5 to 9 amino acid residues, were identified by nano-Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionisation-Mass Spectra/Mass Spectra. The sequences shared compositional features which are typical of antioxidant peptides. As shown by determining cell viability and radical scavenging activity (MTT and DCFH-DA assays, respectively), the purified fraction showed antioxidant activity on human keratinocytes NCTC 2544 artificially subjected to oxidative stress. This study demonstrated the capacity of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria to release peptides with antioxidant activity through proteolysis of native quinoa proteins. Fermentation of the quinoa flour with a selected starter might be considered suitable for novel applications as functional food ingredient, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on the physicochemical properties of soft wheat flour doughs and gluten polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gengjun; Ehmke, Laura; Miller, Rebecca; Faa, Pierre; Smith, Gordon; Li, Yonghui

    2018-06-07

    Soft wheat flour doughs were prepared with different levels of salt (NaCl) and/or baking soda (NaHCO3). Oscillation rheology, elongational viscosity, and extensibility of doughs were tested to evaluate the effect of salt and/or baking soda on the physical properties of doughs. Furthermore, a series of physical-biochemical analytical techniques were used to investigate gluten polymerization in doughs, including Zeta potential analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), spectrophotometer, and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Addition of high levels of NaHCO3 (1.0 % fwb), either by itself or in combination with NaCl, increased dough strength, elongational viscosity, and viscoelasticity. RP-HPLC results demonstrated macromolecular aggregation of gluten proteins in the presence of NaCl and/or NaHCO3. Addition of NaHCO3 or NaCl also decreased both free sulfhydryl content and random coil structure of gluten isolated from the doughs. Overall, NaCl and/or NaHCO3 induced the changes of molecular conformation of gluten, which impacted the physicochemical qualities of soft wheat flour dough. Our study provides a better understanding of salt and baking soda functionality in the formation of soft flour dough, which will support the searching of feasible sodium reduction strategies in soft flour bakery products.

  10. Puff pastry with low saturated fat contents: The role of fat and dough physical interactions in the development of a layered structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renzetti, S.; Harder, R. de; Jurgens, A.

    2015-01-01

    In puff pastry, fat and dough rheological behavior during sheeting control pastry dough development by formation of the layered structure which is essential for product quality. The aim of this work was to unravel the influence of fat and dough physical interactions during sheeting, as affected by

  11. Fermentation of cassava and other vegetable substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanton, W R; Wallbridge, A J

    1972-06-07

    The fermentation consists of a process in which a mucoraceous fungus of the genera Rhizopus, Mucor, or Acrinomucor or a fungus of the genus Monilia is fermented on a solid or paste like substrate which is a mixture of an edible protein-deficient vegetable material known as cassava, of which the carbohydrate is mainly starch and a compound containing N in nonproteinaceous form and assimilable by the fungus to synthesize protein. Thus, tubers obtained from M. esculenta (M. utilissima are peeled, dried, and ground to give a tapioca flour. The N source is prepared by dissolving 45.8g NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ and 8 g KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/ in 200 to 300 ml distilled H/sub 2/O and to this is added inculum, 15 ml of a spore suspension of R stolonifer. The mixture is stirred into 1 kg of milled cassava flour and 300 ml of H/sub 2/O is added, so that the final moisture level is 45 +- 3%. The pH is 5.4 to 6.7 and the mixture is mixed with a machine for 10 to 12 minutes to give a stiff paste. The dough is extruded as a spaghetti 3 to 5 mm diam and strands are cut into 10 cm lengths. The strands are packed into shallow fermentation trays, which are covered with a loose fitting Al lid and placed in fermentor. Temperature is kept at 30/sup 0/ and relative humidity is kept at 95 to 97% for 72 hours. Fermentation is stopped by cooking or by deep freezing. The protein content is raised by the process from 0.2 to 4%. The initial toxicity of the cassava is also reduced.

  12. Potential of Using Maize Cobs in Pig Diets — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Kanengoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quest to broaden the narrow range of feed ingredients available to pig producers has prompted research on the use of low cost, unconventional feedstuffs, which are typically fibrous and abundant. Maize cobs, a by-product of a major cereal grown worldwide, have potential to be used as a pig feed ingredient. Presently, maize cobs are either dumped or burnt for fuel. The major challenge in using maize cobs in pig diets is their lignocellulosic nature (45% to 55% cellulose, 25% to 35% hemicellulose, and 20% to 30% lignin which is resistant to pigs’ digestive enzymes. The high fiber in maize cobs (930 g neutral detergent fiber/kg dry matter [DM]; 573 g acid detergent fiber/kg DM increases rate of passage and sequestration of nutrients in the fiber reducing their digestion. However, grinding, heating and fermentation can modify the structure of the fibrous components in the maize cobs and improve their utilization. Pigs can also extract up to 25% of energy maintenance requirements from fermentation products. In addition, dietary fiber improves pig intestinal health by promoting the growth of lactic acid bacteria, which suppress proliferation of pathogenic bacteria in the intestines. This paper reviews maize cob composition and the effect on digestibility of nutrients, intestinal microflora and growth performance and proposes the use of ensiling using exogenous enzymes to enhance utilization in diets of pigs.

  13. Breeding of speciality maize for industrial purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Pajić Zorica; Radosavljević Milica; Filipović Milomir; Todorović Goran; Srdić Jelena; Pavlov Milovan

    2010-01-01

    The breeding programme on speciality maize with specific traits was established at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, several decades ago. The initial material was collected, new methods applying to breeding of speciality maize, i.e. popping maize, sweet maize and white-seeded maize, were introduced. The aim was to enhance and improve variability of the initial material for breeding these three types of maize. Then, inbred lines of good combining abilities were developed and used as c...

  14. Breeding of maize types with specific traits at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje

    OpenAIRE

    Pajić Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Maize is primarily grown as an energy crop, but the use of different specific versions, such as high-oil maize, high-lysine maize, waxy maize, white-seeded maize, popping maize and sweet maize, is quite extensive. Speciality maize, due to its traits and genetic control of these traits, requires a particular attention in handling breeding material during the processes of breeding. It is especially related to prevention of uncontrolled pollination. In order to provide successful selection for a...

  15. Alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, P

    1961-01-04

    The addition of C/sub 6-10/ alcohols to the fermenting sugar solutions, increased the yield of alcohol by 1.5 to 5%. The best additives were (additive, % additive in sugar solution, % increased in yield of alcohol): hexanol, 0.03, 2.5; heptanol, 0.05, 3; nonanol, 0.01, 3; 2-ethylbutanol, 0.05, 4; 2-ethylhexanol, 0.05, 5; a mixture of C/sub 7-9/ alcohols from the Oxo synthesis, 0.05, 4.5, and a mixture of C/sub 10/ alcohols 0.05, 3.

  16. Metabolic profiling of sourdough fermented wheat and rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koistinen, Ville M; Mattila, Outi; Katina, Kati; Poutanen, Kaisa; Aura, Anna-Marja; Hanhineva, Kati

    2018-04-09

    Sourdough fermentation by lactic acid bacteria is commonly used in bread baking, affecting several attributes of the final product. We analyzed whole-grain wheat and rye breads and doughs prepared with baker's yeast or a sourdough starter including Candida milleri, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum using non-targeted metabolic profiling utilizing LC-QTOF-MS. The aim was to determine the fermentation-induced changes in metabolites potentially contributing to the health-promoting properties of whole-grain wheat and rye. Overall, we identified 118 compounds with significantly increased levels in sourdough, including branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and their metabolites, small peptides with high proportion of BCAAs, microbial metabolites of phenolic acids and several other potentially bioactive compounds. We also identified 69 compounds with significantly decreased levels, including phenolic acid precursors, nucleosides, and nucleobases. Intensive sourdough fermentation had a higher impact on the metabolite profile of whole-grain rye compared to milder whole-grain wheat sourdough fermentation. We hypothesize that the increased amount of BCAAs and potentially bioactive small peptides may contribute to the insulin response of rye bread, and in more general, the overall protective effect against T2DM and CVD.

  17. Directly dated starch residues document early formative maize (Zea mays L.) in tropical Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrillo, Sonia; Pearsall, Deborah M; Raymond, J Scott; Tisdale, Mary Ann; Quon, Dugane J

    2008-04-01

    The study of maize (Zea mays L.) domestication has advanced from questions of its origins to the study-and debate-of its dietary role and the timing of its dispersal from Mexico. Because the investigation of maize's spread is hampered by poor preservation of macrobotanical remains in the Neotropics, research has focused on microbotanical remains whose contexts are often dated by association, leading some to question the dates assigned. Furthermore, some scholars have argued that maize was not introduced to southwestern Ecuador until approximately 4150-3850 calendar years before the present (cal B.P.), that it was used first and foremost as a fermented beverage in ceremonial contexts, and that it was not important in everyday subsistence, challenging previous studies based on maize starch and phytoliths. To further investigate these questions, we analyzed every-day cooking vessels, food-processing implements, and sediments for starch and phytoliths from an archaeological site in southwestern Ecuador constituting a small Early Formative village. Employing a new technique to recover starch granules from charred cooking-pot residues we show that maize was present, cultivated, and consumed here in domestic contexts by at least 5300-4950 cal B.P. Directly dating the residues by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon measurement, our results represent the earliest direct dates for maize in Early Formative Ecuadorian sites and provide further support that, once domesticated approximately 9000 calendar years ago, maize spread rapidly from southwestern Mexico to northwestern South America.

  18. Qualitative effect of added gluten on dough properties and quality of Chinese steamed bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glutens isolated from fifteen soft red winter (SRW) wheat flours were added into a SRW wheat flour to obtain protein levels of 9.6% and 11.3% for determination of the qualitative effect of gluten protein on the dough properties and quality of northern-style Chinese steamed bread (CSB). Sodium dodecy...

  19. Effects of Wheat Gluten Hydrolysate and Its Ultrafiltration Fractions on Dough Properties and Bread Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouming Zhao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two fractions (50-K and permeate from a proteolytic hydrolysate (degree of hydrolysis, DH=3.8 % of wheat gluten were separated using ultrafiltration (UF membrane with molecular mass cut-off of 50 kDa. The effects of the wheat gluten hydrolysate (WGH and its UF fractions on the mixing behaviour and viscoelastic properties of wheat dough were presented. The WGH and its UF fractions modified the mixing properties of dough. The addition of these fractions improved the viscoelastic characteristics of wheat dough. A significant (p<0.05 effect of 50-K fraction on these characteristics of wheat dough was observed. After adding these fractions, the bread was considered acceptable by the sensory panel. Also, 50-K fraction resulted in significant (p<0.05 increase in the crumb firmness, while the bread made with wheat flour with WGH and permeate (P fraction showed softer crumbs compared to that of wheat flour. Moreover, these fractions had anti-staling properties for bread during storage. Hence, the wheat gluten hydrolysate and its UF fractions are the products with promising potential in the baking products.

  20. Estimation of semolina dough rheological parameters by inversion of a finite elements model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Fabbri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The description of the rheological properties of food material plays an important role in food engineering. Particularly for the optimisation of pasta manufacturing process (extrusion is needful to know the rheological properties of semolina dough. Unfortunately characterisation of non-Newtonian fluids, such as food doughs, requires a notable time effort, especially in terms of number of tests to be carried out. The present work proposes an alternative method, based on the combination of laboratory measurement, made with a simplified tool, with the inversion of a finite elements numerical model. To determine the rheological parameters, an objective function, defined as the distance between simulation and experimental data, was considered and the well-known Levenberg-Marqard optimisation algorithm was used. In order to verify the feasibility of the method, the rheological characterisation of the dough was carried also by a traditional procedure. Results shown that the difference between measurements of rheological parameters of the semolina dough made with traditional procedure and inverse methods are very small (maximum percentage error equal to 3.6%. This agreement supports the coherence of the inverse method that, in general, may be used to characterise many non-Newtonian materials.

  1. Wheat dough rheology at low water contents and the influence of xylanases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardt, N.A.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of low water contents and xylanases on wheat dough rheology is reported. Farinograph, dynamic oscillation, and creep-recovery measurements were performed using water concentrations from 34 to 44.8% (total basis). A water reduction from 43.5–44.8% to 34% increased resistance upon mixing as

  2. Understanding the Effect of Sugar and Sugar Replacement in Short Dough Biscuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, L.; Vallons, K.J.R.; Jurgens, A.; Sanz, T.

    2013-01-01

    Sucrose is the main sugar used in short dough biscuit formula, and it plays an important role in the biscuit manufacturing as well as in the biscuits final quality. However, for health reasons, high levels of sucrose are undesirable, making sucrose replacement an important issue to study. The

  3. Interaction of water extractable pentosans with gluten protein : effect on dough properties and gluten quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.; Oudgenoeg, G.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of modified water extractable pentosans (WEP) on gluten yield, dough properties, gluten quality and composition were studied. The results show that WEP interfere with gluten formation in both a direct and an indirect way. WEP interfere indirectly by competing for water and thus changing

  4. The Effects of Ovine Whey Powders on Durum Wheat-Based Doughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Secchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of ovine whey powder, with different protein content, were added at increasing substitution rates to two types of semolina, one with strong and tenacious gluten and the other with weak and sticky gluten. For each dough the optimum mixing time and hydration level were calculated using the consistograph. The whey powder negatively affected the leavening volume of all doughs, at all percentages except the lowest one (5%, mainly because of its effects on the elastic component of gluten as measured with a stress relaxation test. Differences of the secondary structure of gluten proteins among samples were investigated by analyzing the amide I band in the Fourier transform infrared spectra of the dough. Weak and strong semolina showed a different relative percentage of α-helix, random coil, and β-sheet structures. The longer mixing times for dough formation when using semolina with strong gluten led to an increase in α-helices and random coils, which caused a worse leavening performance than the weak-gluten semolina.

  5. Effect of soy addition on microwavable pocket-type flat doughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serventi, Luca; Sachleben, Joseph; Vodovotz, Yael

    2011-01-01

    Microwavable frozen baked goods are widely used by the food industry. However, the altered heat and mass transfer patterns associated with microwave radiation result in tough and rubbery baked products due to reduced plasticization of the polymers. Ingredients with high water-holding capacity and high content of polar lipids have been shown to enhance gluten plasticization and to improve water retention. Therefore, this study explored the physicochemical changes imparted by microwave baking of pocket-type flat doughs with and without soy added at 10%, 20%, and 26% and compared these to their conventionally baked counterparts. Microwave baking resulted in a soft, rubbery, and tough wheat product with increased "freezable" water. Soy was added to the formulation as a means to improve polymer plasticization. Conventional baking of soy doughs resulted in rubbery and tough products due to changes in water state and mobility (freezable water approximately 15 compared with 7.09 of the control). However, soy reduced the cohesiveness of the microwave baked products reaching the lowest value at 20% soy addition (cohesiveness 0.33 ± 1, comparable to that of the conventionally baked control). These data suggest that reduction of water mobility induced by soy proteins and polar lipids (confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis [TGA] and ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance [¹H NMR]) possibly plasticized the starch-gluten network of microwave baked soy doughs. Thus, soy was shown to improve the texture of microwave baked pocket-type flat doughs although further formula optimization is warranted. Microwavable pocket-type flat doughs are used frequently by the food industry to enrobe meat, vegetable, and sweet items for convenient meal delivery. Microwave heating of such doughs induces the development of crustless products compared to conventionally baked products, resulting in a tough and rubbery texture. Partial substitution of wheat flour with soy, in the form of soy flour and soy

  6. Features of the rheological properties of dough with sunflower and cedar flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gaysina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Promising directions of development of assortment of flour confectionery products are currently creating new combinations, more extraordinary and interesting, the reduction in calories, increase the nutritional value, development of formulations of functional products. As enriching additives in the manufacture of pastry products can be used flour sunflower flour and cedar. Sunflower meal – one of the possible sources of increase of food value. The only raw material component of this product are sunflower seeds that have passed the purification from impurities and shell of the particles, with the subsequent removal of oil from them and grinding. In this torment, to the maximum extent maintained all the valuable biological active substances and vitamins. Sunflower flour is a complex product: it is good recommendation system of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, including fiber, vitamins, phospholipids and mineral substances. Cedar flour is characterized by high protein content (up to 48 % is well balanced in amino acids resultant composition contains b vitamins, food fibers, micro - and macroelements, necessary for life of the human body. Cedar flour has a good functional and technological properties In this paper we study the effect of cedar flour and sunflower meal on the rheological characteristics of dough. Effect of formulation components on the rheological properties of the test is evaluated in terms of water absorption of the flour, the duration of doughing, degree of its dilution and stability when mixing. It was found that the addition of 17% sunflower meal increases the viscosity of the dough and has a strengthening effect on the structure of the dough. Adding cedar flour in the amount of 20% caused the decrease in viscosity and getting more flexible dough.

  7. Dynamics of gas cell coalescence during baking expansion of leavened dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miś, Antoni; Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Lamorski, Krzysztof; Dziki, Dariusz

    2018-01-01

    The investigation of the dynamics of gas cell coalescence, i.e. a phenomenon that deteriorates the homogeneity of the cellular structure of bread crumb, was carried out performing simultaneously measurements of the dough volume, pressure, and viscosity. It was demonstrated that, during the baking expansion of chemically leavened wheat flour dough, the maximum growth rate of the gas cell radius determined from the ratio of pressure exerted by the expanded dough to its viscosity was on average four-fold lower than that calculated from volume changes in the gas phase of the dough. Such a high discrepancy was interpreted as a result of the course of coalescence, and a formula for determination of its rate was developed. The coalescence rate in the initial baking expansion phase had negative values, indicating nucleation of newly formed gas cells, which increased the number of gas cells even by 8%. In the next baking expansion phase, the coalescence rate started to exhibit positive values, reflecting dominance of the coalescence phenomenon over nucleation. The maximum coalescence rates indicate that, during the period of the most intensive dough expansion, the number of gas cells decreased by 2-3% within one second. At the end of the formation of bread crumb, the number of the gas cells declined by 55-67% in comparison with the initial value. The correctness of the results was positively verified using X-ray micro-computed tomography. The developed method can be a useful tool for more profound exploration of the coalescence phenomenon at various stages of evolution of the cellular structure and its determinants, which may contribute to future development of more effective methods for improving the texture and sensory quality of bread crumb. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of inulin on dough and biscuit quality produced from different flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Blanco Canalis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods of improving the nutritional profile of baked-goods is the incorporation of dietary fibre (DF to the formulation. However, DF retains more water than wheat flour, which affects dough rheological properties and thus the final product quality. Flour is the main ingredient in biscuits and contributes to the baked texture and shape of biscuits. There are large differences in quality among the flours from wheat cultivars and among non-wheat flours used for biscuit production. In previous works, different dietary fibres were tested and inulin was found to have a positive quality  effect on biscuits made from an all-purpose wheat flour without the need of introducing significant changes in dough properties. To know whether these results are extended to different types of flours that can be used for biscuit production, this paper aimed to analyse the effects of different levels of inulin incorporation on dough and biscuits quality made from three different wheat flours and one triticale flour. Chemical and physic-chemical characterization of the flour samples was performed and compared (moisture, ashes, gluten, solvent retention capacity (SRC and protein content. Inulin was incorporated to biscuits formulation in two levels: 6 and 12% (wheat replacement. Dough and biscuits quality was measured by spread rate during baking and biscuit factor, texture and surface colour. Inulin incorporation increased dough spreading and biscuit factor and decreased biscuit hardness. The enhancing effect of inulin was observed in all flour. The results confirmed the effect of inulin on biscuits obtained with all flour assayed, despite the differences in flour quality that was tested.

  9. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  10. Intercropping Maize With Legumes for Sustainable Highland Maize Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adirek Punyalue

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Residue burning to prepare soil for maize growing deprives the soil of both protective cover and organic matter, and it exacerbates environmental issues such as Southeast Asia's haze problem. This paper reports on a study that evaluated the effectiveness of maize/legume intercropping as an alternative to maize cultivation with residue burning. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, mung bean (V. radiata, rice bean (V. umbellata, and lablab (Lablab purpureus were sown into a standing maize crop 30 days before harvest, and the results were compared with a maize crop grown using residue burning as the method for land preparation at Pang Da Agricultural Station in Chiang Mai, Thailand, in a replicated trial conducted over 3 growing seasons from 2012 to 2014. Intercropping increased maize grain yield by 31–53% and left 70–170% more residue containing 113–230% more nitrogen than the maize sown after residue burning, depending on the legume, and decreased weed dry weight by two-thirds after 2 seasons. Soil biodiversity was enriched by the intercrops, with a doubling in the spore density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the root-zone soil and increased abundance, diversity (Shannon index, and richness of the soil macrofauna. The abundance of soil animals increased with crop residue dry weight (r = 0.90, P < 0.05 and nitrogen content (r = 0.98, P < 0.01. The effect of intercropping on maize grain yield and accumulation of residue and nitrogen were then confirmed in a participatory experiment involving farmers in 2 highland villages in the Phrao and Chiang Dao districts of Chiang Mai Province with maize and rice bean in 2015. The effects of maize/legume intercropping—increased nitrogen accumulation and crop residue, enhanced soil biodiversity, suppression of weeds, and protection of the soil surface, which enabled the maize to be sown without land clearing with fire—should all contribute to sustainable highland maize production.

  11. A model-based approach to preplanting risk assessment for gray leaf spot of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P A; Munkvold, G P

    2004-12-01

    ABSTRACT Risk assessment models for gray leaf spot of maize, caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis, were developed using preplanting site and maize genotype data as predictors. Disease severity at the dough/dent plant growth stage was categorized into classes and used as the response variable. Logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) modeling approaches were used to predict severity classes as a function of planting date (PD), amount of maize soil surface residue (SR), cropping sequence, genotype maturity and gray leaf spot resistance (GLSR) ratings, and longitude (LON). Models were development using 332 cases collected between 1998 and 2001. Thirty cases collected in 2002 were used to validate the models. Preplanting data showed a strong relationship with late-season gray leaf spot severity classes. The most important predictors were SR, PD, GLSR, and LON. Logistic regression models correctly classified 60 to 70% of the validation cases, whereas the CART models correctly classified 57 to 77% of these cases. Cases misclassified by the CART models were mostly due to overestimation, whereas the logistic regression models tended to misclassify cases by underestimation. Both the CART and logistic regression models have potential as management decision-making tools. Early quantitative assessment of gray leaf spot risk would allow for more sound management decisions being made when warranted.

  12. Methods of preparation of Swazi traditional fermented foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protus Simatende

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Umcombotsi, emahewu, buganu, and emasi were the fermented foods commonly prepared at a household level in the Hhohho region, Swaziland. The main ingredient used for preparing umcombotsi and emahewu was maize meal. Unmilled sorghum malt was also added during preparation of umcombotsi. However, typically no malt was added during the preparation of emahewu. Buganu and emasi also play an important role in the diet and socioeconomic activities of the population in Swaziland.

  13. Volume 9 No. 9 December 2009 1945 LOCALLY PROCESSED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-09

    Dec 9, 2009 ... ABSTRACT. Tom Brown (roasted-maize porridge) is one of the traditional weaning foods in Ghana. ... weanimix was among the food items used in their supplementary feeding program for improving ..... mothers, the research on and the promotion of cowpea/soybean-fortified fermented maize dough [3, 24,.

  14. Hypolipidemic effects of lactic acid bacteria fermented cereal in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banjoko Immaculata

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of the present study were to investigate the efficacy of the mixed culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus (DSM 20242, Bifidobacterium bifidum (DSM 20082 and Lactobacillus helveticus (CK60 in the fermentation of maize and the evaluation of the effect of the fermented meal on the lipid profile of rats. Methods Rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups and each group placed on a Diet A (high fat diet into which a maize meal fermented with a mixed culture of Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242, B bifidum (DSM 20082 and Lb helveticus (CK 60 was incorporated, B (unfermented high fat diet or C (commercial rat chow respectively after the first group of 7 rats randomly selected were sacrificed to obtain the baseline data. Thereafter 7 rats each from the experimental and control groups were sacrificed weekly for 4 weeks and the plasma, erythrocytes, lipoproteins and organs of the rats were assessed for cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipids. Results Our results revealed that the mixed culture of Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242, B bifidum (DSM 20082 and Lb helveticus (CK 60 were able to grow and ferment maize meal into ‘ogi’ of acceptable flavour. In addition to plasma and hepatic hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, phospholipidosis in plasma, as well as cholesterogenesis, triglyceride constipation and phospholipidosis in extra-hepatic tissues characterized the consumption of unfermented hyperlipidemic diets. However, feeding the animals with the fermented maize diet reversed the dyslipidemia. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that consumption of mixed culture lactic acid bacteria (Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242, Bifidobacterium bifidum (DSM 20082 and Lb helveticus (CK 60 fermented food results in the inhibition of fat absorption. It also inhibits the activity of HMG CoA reductase. This inhibition may be by feedback inhibition or repression of the transcription of the gene encoding the enzyme via activation of the

  15. Effects of different extrusion conditions on the chemical and toxicological fate of fumonisin B1 in maize: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of experiments to investigate the chemical and toxicological fate of fumonisin B1 (FB1) under different extrusion conditions using both single- and twin-screw extruders is described. Maize grits were contaminated with FB1 at different concentrations by fermentation with Fusarium verticilli...

  16. Effect of yeast storage temperature and flour composition on fermentative activities of baker's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Dušanka J.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Baker's yeast is a set of living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It contains around 70-72% of water, 42-45% of proteins, around 40% of carbohydrates, around 7.5% of lipids (based on dry matter, and vitamin B-complex. On the basis of yeast cell analysis it can be concluded that yeast is a complex biological system which changes in time. The intensity of the changes depends on temperature. Yeast sample was stored at 4°C i 24°C for 12 days. During storage at 4°C, the content of total carbohydrates decreased from 48.81% to 37.50% (dry matter, whereas carbohydrate loss ranged from 40.81% to 29.28% at 24°C. The content of trehalose was 12.33% in the yeast sample stored at 4°C and 0.24% at 24°C. Loss of fermentative activity was 81.76% in the sample stored at 24°C for 12 days. The composition of five samples of 1st category flour was investigated. It was found that flours containing more reducing sugars and maltose enable higher fermentation activities. The flours with higher ash content (in the range 0.5-0.94% had higher contents of phytic acid. Higher ash and phytic contents in flour increased the yeast fermentative efficiency. In bakery industry, a range of ingredients has been applied to improve the product's quality such as surface active substances (emulsifiers, enzymes, sugars and fats. In the paper, the effect of some ingredients added to dough (margarine, saccharose, sodium chloride and malted barley on the yeast fermentative activity was studied. The mentioned ingredients were added to dough at different doses: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0%, flour basis. It was found that the investigated ingredients affected the fermentative activity of yeast and improved the bread quality.

  17. Effects of Germination and Fermentation on the Functionality of Whole Soy Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Patrascu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional quality and technological performances of grains can be modulated through germination and controlled fermentation. The aim of the work was to estimate the effect of germination (72 h at 23oC and fermentation on the fundamental rheological properties of the soy flour based suspensions and sourdoughs, and to assess the bread making potential of the whole soy flours by considering the thermo-mechanical functionality of soy in admixture with white wheat flour. Soy flour based sourdough were prepared using three different starter cultures, consisting of mixtures of lactic acid bacteria like Lactobacillus plantarum, Lb. brevis, Lb. rhamnosus, Lb. casei, Lb. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium BB12®, and Streptococcus thermophilus and/or yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus subsp. Marxianus. The rheological behaviour of the suspensions and sourdoughs was influenced by the soy germination and fermentation processes. The stress sweep tests indicated significant narrowing of the linear viscoelastic regions, as well as the decrease of the stress values required for the beginning of flow. The temperature ramp test showed more intense swelling in case of the germinated and fermented samples. Both native and germinated soy flours were used to replace 15% of the wheat flour, and the Mixolab test indicated that the germination process caused the decrease of protein weakening and dough stability. The sourdoughs addition to the wheat flour resulted in significant changes of the thermo-mechanical properties of the dough. Properties related to stability of starch gel during heating, starch gelatinization and retrogradation depended on the type of starter culture used for fermentation.

  18. Maize kernel evolution:From teosinte to maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize is the most productive and highest value commodity in the US and around the world: over 1 billion tons were produced each year in 2013 and 2014. Together, maize, rice and wheat comprise over 60% of the world’s caloric intake, with wide regional variability in the importance of each crop. The i...

  19. milled degermed maize products for tropical countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... satisfaction scores were registered for the different products after increasing ... tion, particularly as a thick dough prepared by boiling ... particular to residual lipids originating from the germ, .... dispersed in 300 ml of cold water.

  20. Rheological properties of biscuit dough from different cultivars, and relationship to baking characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.; Kaack, K.; Bergsøe, M.N.

    2004-01-01

    differences in structural properties with genetic control. Multivariate regression of flour physiochemical, dough theological, and biscuit baking characteristics showed that a decrease in biscuit length was correlated under several theological parameters, including phase angle delta, Farinograph and creep......Rheological properties of semi-sweet biscuit doughs from eight wheat cultivars were studied, and related to the dimensional changes of biscuits after cutting and baking. The tested cultivars were selected in order to represent a wide diversity in biscuit baking performance, and were grown with low...... recovery parameters. Sedimentation value was the only physiochernical flour characteristic with considerable influence on the model. Validation of the partial least squares-model including all samples from the 3 years gave only a weak correlation (r = 0.58), whereas when each single year was evaluated...

  1. Quality evaluation of tortilla chips made with corn meal dough and cooked bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Araceli Ochoa-Martínez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of cornmeal dough and cooked bean flour (BF was prepared at different ratios (50/50, 60/40, and 70/30 w/w, and processed to chips. Viscosity profile, temperature of gelatinization and enthalpy, texture, protein content, and in vitro digestibility were measured. Pasting temperature tended to be lower when the flour bean concentration was lower. Maximum viscosity increased significantly in both samples (dough mixture and chips when the BF concentration was lower. In general, gelatinization temperature remains constant, while the heating enthalpy was higher with lower BF concentration. The addition of BF was correlated with greater crispiness, suggesting improved chip texture at higher BF concentrations. The final protein content in the corn-bean chips was very similar, despite the concentration of BF used. Protein digestibility in the chips was affected by the proportion of BF added, being higher when the amount of the BF was lower.

  2. Effect of the addition of wheat bran stream on dough rheology and bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Banu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The milling by-products have high nutritional value and can be incorporated into white flour. This study was aimed at comparatively examining the rheological behaviour of the doughs made from wheat white flour with different levels (3-30% of bran streams incorporated and from wholewheat. The results indicated significant correlations between the ash content of the wheat bran streams incorporated into flour and Alveograph, Rheofermentograph and Mixolab parameters. The white flour sample with 25% wheat bran streams had the ash content similar to wholewheat, but the dough rheology was improved. The quality of the white flour bread with 25% wheat bran streams was improved compared to the wholemeal bread.

  3. Rheological parameters of dough with inulin addition and its effect on bread quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojnanska, T.; Tokar, M.; Vollmannova, A.

    2015-04-01

    The rheological properties of enriched flour prepared with an addition of inulin were studied. The addition of inulin caused changes of the rheological parameters of the recorder curve. 10% and more addition significantly extended development time and on the farinogram were two peaks of consistency, what is a non-standard shape. With increasing addition of inulin resistance to deformation grows and dough is difficult to process, over 15% addition make dough short and unsuitable for making bread. Bread volume, the most important parameter, significantly decreased with inulin addition. Our results suggest a level of 5% inulin to produce a functional bread of high sensory acceptance and a level of 10% inulin produce a bread of satisfactory sensory acceptance. Bread with a level over 10% of inulin was unsatisfactory.

  4. Study of irradiation effect of wheat flour on microbiological properties and on rheology of obtained dough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, Senda

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the effect of the irradiation by gamma rays in 1, 2, and 3 kGy on the microbiological and physico-chemical properties of the wheat flour, and on dough rheology. The rheological properties, studied by a compression-relaxation test in greased conditions are estimated by an analysis of variance approach and repeatability studies. Results show that irradiation has no effect on relaxation properties of dough. On the other hand we registered an increase of the falling number. Bread making essay shows that a dose lower than 2 kGy increased the bread volume. Reduction of the microbial load according to the dose of irradiation is also observed. (Author)

  5. Quality characteristics of wheat flour dough and bread containing grape pomace flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šporin, Monika; Avbelj, Martina; Kovač, Boris; Možina, Sonja Smole

    2018-04-01

    Wheat bread was enriched with 6%, 10% and 15% dried and milled grape pomace flour from two grape cultivars: 'Merlot' and 'Zelen'. Rheological, textural, sensory and antioxidant properties of the enriched dough and bread were evaluated, and compared to control samples. Grape cultivar had significant impact on the rheological characteristics of the dough, and on the sensory and antioxidant properties of the final bread. Development time and dough stability were longer when 'Merlot' grape pomace flour was added compared to 'Zelen' grape pomace flour and the control. Grape pomace flour addition affected bread volume, firmness, crumb and crust colour, and odour and taste intensity. Moreover, grape pomace flour addition resulted in a stickier and less springy crumb texture, and some negative sensorial properties, such as increased intensity of aftertaste and sand feeling in the mouth. The phenolic content and antioxidant activity of bread were positively correlated with grape pomace flour addition ( r = 0.987, p = 0.01 and r = 0.941, p = 0.01 between phenolic content and ferric reducing antioxidant power and phenolic content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, respectively). The highest total phenolic contents were 5.92 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dw for 'Merlot' and 3.65 mg gallic acid equivalents /g dw for 'Zelen', which were seen for the bread prepared with the highest grape pomace flour addition (15%). The highest antioxidant activity determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays were seen for the bread prepared with the highest 'Merlot' grape pomace flour addition (15%). Dough characteristic and sensory profile are strongly influenced by cultivar of grape pomace flour. Based on results of sensory profiling, the variety 'Zelen' is suggested for use.

  6. Synergistic effect of Aspergillus tubingensis CTM 507 glucose oxidase in presence of ascorbic acid and alpha amylase on dough properties, baking quality and shelf life of bread

    OpenAIRE

    Kriaa, Mouna; Ouhibi, Rabeb; Graba, Héla; Besbes, Souhail; Jardak, Mohamed; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2015-01-01

    The impact of Aspergillus tubingensis glucose oxidase (GOD) in combination with α-amylase and ascorbic acid on dough properties, qualities and shelf life of bread was investigated. Regression models of alveograph and texture parameters of dough and bread were adjusted. Indeed, the mixture of GOD (44 %) and ascorbic acid (56 %) on flour containing basal improver showed its potential as a corrective action to get better functional and rheological properties of dough and bread texture. Furthermo...

  7. Visualization and quantification of three-dimensional distribution of yeast in bread dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tatsuro; DO, Gab-Soo; Sugiyama, Junichi; Araki, Tetsuya; Tsuta, Mizuki; Shiraga, Seizaburo; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Yamada, Masaharu; Takeya, Koji; Sagara, Yasuyuki

    2009-07-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) bio-imaging technique was developed for visualizing and quantifying the 3-D distribution of yeast in frozen bread dough samples in accordance with the progress of the mixing process of the samples, applying cell-surface engineering to the surfaces of the yeast cells. The fluorescent yeast was recognized as bright spots at the wavelength of 520 nm. Frozen dough samples were sliced at intervals of 1 microm by an micro-slicer image processing system (MSIPS) equipped with a fluorescence microscope for acquiring cross-sectional images of the samples. A set of successive two-dimensional images was reconstructed to analyze the 3-D distribution of the yeast. The average shortest distance between centroids of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) yeasts was 10.7 microm at the pick-up stage, 9.7 microm at the clean-up stage, 9.0 microm at the final stage, and 10.2 microm at the over-mixing stage. The results indicated that the distribution of the yeast cells was the most uniform in the dough of white bread at the final stage, while the heterogeneous distribution at the over-mixing stage was possibly due to the destruction of the gluten network structure within the samples.

  8. Addition of Phenols Compounds to Meat Dough Intended for Salami Manufacture and its Antioxidant Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Enrico; Fasolato, Luca; Cardazzo, Barbara; Carraro, Lisa; Taticchi, Agnese; Balzan, Stefania

    2014-08-28

    A purified extract of phenols compounds (65% of phenolic content of which decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone represented 45% of the wet mass) obtained from vegetation water (a by-product of oil mill) was added to a ground meat dough intended for salami manufacture in two concentration levels: 75 and 150 mg/100 g of dough (F1 and F2, respectively). The control batch was composed of lean and fat cuts of pork in 70:30 ratio, 2.7% salt and a mixed starter culture of staphylococci and pediococci. After stuffing into natural casings, salamis were aged until they reached a total weight loss of 30%. The product was then sliced and packaged in a protective atmosphere (nitrogen:carbon dioxide 80:20) and placed in a refrigerator thermostat (2-4°C) with alternating 12 h of artificial light and darkness. The samples were analysed for the measurement of pH, water activity, organic acidity, peroxide number and secondary products of lipid peroxidation at the time of slicing and after 10, 20 and 30 days of storage into the refrigerated thermostat. The pH and water activity were not substantially different between the control and the two enriched batches. The peroxide number and secondary products of lipid peroxidation values in the two batches with phenols were at least substantially lower than the control sample. In conclusion, the phenol compounds obtained from vegetation water have shown no interference with the ripening process while protecting the dough from oxidation.

  9. Substituting Normal and Waxy-Type Whole Wheat Flour on Dough and Baking Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture. PMID:24471084

  10. [Psychosocial Factors and Burnout Syndrome Found in Workers in the Dough Processing Industry, Tepic, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Carolina Aranda; Gónzalez, José Luis López; Barraza Salas, José Horacio

    2013-06-01

    The workers in the dough processing industry are a population exposed to psychosocial risk factors due to the conditions in the workplace; therefore, they are likely to suffer from one of the consequences of chronic stress to which a worker is exposed daily: burnout syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between psychosocial factors and the burnout syndrome in workers in the dough processing industry in the city of Tepic, Mexico. A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in five companies from the dough processing industry. The total population consisted of 122 workers who were administered the scale of Psychosocial Factors Identification of the Mexican Social Security Institute and the Maslach Burnout Inventory scale, in order to gather information. The presence of adverse psychosocial factors was reported in 18.3%, and 79.8% with the syndrome. There were several variables that behaved as risk factors, specifically, the system of working with the emotional exhaustion. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Maize variety and method of production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Markus; Hake, Sarah; Kraemer, Florian J

    2014-05-27

    The disclosure relates to a maize plant, seed, variety, and hybrid. More specifically, the disclosure relates to a maize plant containing a Cal-1 allele, whose expression results in increased cell wall-derived glucan content in the maize plant. The disclosure also relates to crossing inbreds, varieties, and hybrids containing the Cal-1 allele to produce novel types and varieties of maize plants.

  12. Effects of Aspartame on alcohol fermentation in Aspartame-added bread processing

    OpenAIRE

    岡村, 徳光; 浜岡, 瑠美; 竹野, 智美; 奥田, 展子; 大杉, 匡弘; Tokumitsu, Okamura; Rumi, Hamaoka; Tomomi, Takeno; Nobuko, Okuda; Masahiro, Ohsugi

    2001-01-01

    The addition of aspartame to white bread dough affected the gas production due to baker's yeast. After 3 hours of incubation, the total gas production of 3% aspartame-added dough decreased about 0.4 times that of standard dough. Gas production decreased with increasing concentrations of aspartame. On the other hand, the expansion of aspartame-added dough increased with increasing concentration of aspartame. The dough containing 3% aspartame expanded the same as standard dough. The ratio of in...

  13. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božanić; Irena Rogelj

    2003-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  14. GUT FERMENTATION SYNDROME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    individuals who became intoxicated after consuming carbohydrates, which became fermented in the gastrointestinal tract. These claims of intoxication without drinking alcohol, and the findings on endogenous alcohol fermentation are now called Gut. Fermentation Syndrome. This review will concentrate on understanding ...

  15. Alcoholic fermentation of whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, A S; Holland, J W

    1958-09-10

    The lactose of whey and other milk products is rapidly fermented to ethanol by means of Candida pseudotropicalis strain XI. The fermentation is complete in about 12 hours and yields about 45% ethanol based on the weight of lactose. Conditions favoring the fermentation and inhibiting lactic acid production include pH 4.5, 30/sup 0/, and continuous aeration.

  16. Ethanol production from maize silage as lignocellulosic biomass in anaerobically digested and wet-oxidized manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Lisiecki, P.; Holm-Nielsen, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    was investigated using 2 1 bioreactors. Wet oxidation performed for 20 min at 121 degrees C was found as the most suitable pretreatment conditions for AD manure. High ammonia concentration and significant amount of macro- and micro-nutrients in the AD manure had a positive influence on the ethanol fermentation....... No extra nitrogen source was needed in the fermentation broth. It was shown that the AD manure could successfully substitute process water in SSF of pretreated lignocellulosic fibres. Theoretical ethanol yields of 82% were achieved, giving 30.8 kg ethanol per 100 kg dry mass of maize silage. (C) 2007...

  17. Advances in Maize Transformation Technologies and Development of Transgenic Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadava, Pranjal; Abhishek, Alok; Singh, Reeva; Singh, Ishwar; Kaul, Tanushri; Pattanayak, Arunava; Agrawal, Pawan K

    2016-01-01

    Maize is the principal grain crop of the world. It is also the crop where genetic engineering has been employed to a great extent to improve its various traits. The ability to transform maize is a crucial step for application of gene technology in maize improvement. There have been constant improvements in the maize transformation technologies over past several years. The choice of genotype and the explant material to initiate transformation and the different types of media to be used in various stages of tissue culture can have significant impact on the outcomes of the transformation efforts. Various methods of gene transfer, like the particle bombardment, protoplast transformation, Agrobacterium -mediated, in planta transformation, etc., have been tried and improved over years. Similarly, various selection systems for retrieval of the transformants have been attempted. The commercial success of maize transformation and transgenic development is unmatched by any other crop so far. Maize transformation with newer gene editing technologies is opening up a fresh dimension in transformation protocols and work-flows. This review captures the various past and recent facets in improvement in maize transformation technologies and attempts to present a comprehensive updated picture of the current state of the art in this area.

  18. Understanding the influence of buckwheat bran on wheat dough baking performance: Mechanistic insights from molecular and material science approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoletti, Miriam; Marti, Alessandra; Marengo, Mauro; Iametti, Stefania; Pagani, M Ambrogina; Renzetti, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    A molecular and material science approach is used to describe the influence of coarse and fine buckwheat bran on wheat dough properties and bread textural quality. Focus is given on (i) gluten solvation and structural arrangements in presence of bran as studied by front-face fluorescence; (ii) thermo-mechanical behavior of dough during heating studied by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and (iii) texture of bread crumb analyzed in terms of a cellular solid. The thermo-mechanical behavior of dough was found to be largely related to starch phase transitions during heating. The use of thermodynamic approaches to biopolymer melting revealed that key transitions such as the onset of starch gelatinization were function of the interplay of water and bran volume fractions in the dough. Front-face fluorescence studies in wheat dough revealed that gluten solvation and structural arrangements were delayed by increasing bran addition level and reduction in particle size, as indicated by the drastic decrease in the protein surface hydrophobicity index. Variations in gluten structure could be strongly related to dough baking performance, i.e. specific volume. With regards to texture, the approach revealed that crumb texture was controlled by variations in density, moisture and bran volume fractions. Overall, this study elucidates a number of physical mechanisms describing the influence of buckwheat bran addition to dough and bread quality. These mechanisms strongly pointed at the influence of bran on water partitioning among the main polymeric components. In the future, these mechanisms should be investigated with bran material of varying source, composition and structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rheology of Rice Flour Dough with Gum Arabic: Small and Large-Deformation Studies, Sensory Assessment and Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthilal, J; Bhattacharya, Suvendu

    2015-08-01

    The absence of gluten protein makes the rice flour doughs difficult to handle when flattened/sheeted products are to be prepared. The rheological, sensory and microstructural changes in rice flour doughs having gum Arabic (0% to 5%, w/w) and moisture contents (44% to 50%) were studied for improving the dough handling characteristics. Rheological parameters like storage modulus (G') and complex viscosity (η*) decreased with an increase in moisture content while loss angle (δ) increased. A power-law type equation was suitable to relate angular frequency (ω) with G', G", and η* (0.814 ≤ r ≤ 0.999, P ≤ 0.01). An increase in gum and moisture contents increased δ from 6.9° to 15.5° but decreased the energy required for compression/flattening. The 6-element spring-dashpot model was suitable (r ≥ 0.991, P ≤ 0.01) for creep curves. The sensory panel had the opinion that dough with a low to moderate hardness between 3 and 4, and stickiness of ≤ 3.5 was suitable for the purpose of flattening in relation to the preparation of sheeted/flattened products; the appropriate condition for dough formulation was with the moisture and gum contents of 47.0% to 47.9% and 1.55% to 2.25%, respectively to offer the desirability index between 0.50 and 0.52. The microstructure of the rice flour dough in the absence of gum Arabic appeared to possess loosely bound flour particles. The presence of gum provided a coating on flour particles to yield dough having good cohesive microstructure. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. MaizeGDB: The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Lisa; Gardiner, Jack; Andorf, Carson; Lawrence, Carolyn J

    2016-01-01

    MaizeGDB is the community database for biological information about the crop plant Zea mays. Genomic, genetic, sequence, gene product, functional characterization, literature reference, and person/organization contact information are among the datatypes stored at MaizeGDB. At the project's website ( http://www.maizegdb.org ) are custom interfaces enabling researchers to browse data and to seek out specific information matching explicit search criteria. In addition, pre-compiled reports are made available for particular types of data and bulletin boards are provided to facilitate communication and coordination among members of the community of maize geneticists.

  1. Genetic resources in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Violeta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize, wheat and rice are the most important cereals grown in the world. It is predicted that by 2025 maize is likely to become the crop with the greatest production globally. Conservation of maize germplasm provides the main resources for increased food and feed production. Conservation in gene banks (ex-situ is dominant strategy for maize conservation. More than 130 000 maize accessions, e.g. about 40% of total number, are stored in ten largest gene banks worldwide and Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje (MRIZP gene bank, with about 6000 accessions, is among them. Organized collecting missions started in 1961. in the former Yugoslavian territory, and up today, more than 2000 local maize landraces were stored. Pre-breeding activities that refer to identification of desirable traits from unadapted germplasm within genebank, result in materials expected to be included in breeding programs. Successful examples are LAMP, GEM and GENRES projects. At the end of XX century, at MRIZP genebank two pre-breeding activities were undertaken: eco-core and elite-core collections were created and landraces fulfilled particular criteria were chosen. In the last decade, MRIZP genebank collection was used for identification of sources for drought tolerance and improved grain quality. According to agronomic traits and general combining ability, two mini-core collections were created and included in commercial breeding programs.

  2. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo, Maria; Svanberg, Ulf; Oliveira, Jorge; Ahrn?, Lilia

    2013-01-01

    Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented) on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w) was evaluated in combination with...

  3. Technological properties and probiotic potential of Lactobacillus fermentum strains isolated from West African fermented millet dough

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owusu-Kwarteng, James; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Akabanda, Fortune

    2015-01-01

    resistance to bile salts, bile salt hydrolysis, antimicrobial property, haemolysis and antibiotics resistance. L. fermentum strains clustered into 3 groups represented by 36 %, 47 % and 17 % as fast, medium and slow acidifiers respectively. About 8 %, 78 % and 14 % of the strains showed strong, weak...... activity was observed towards Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus but not E. coli and Salmonella enteritidis. Lactobacillus fermentum strains were generally susceptible to antibiotics except 6 strains which showed resistance towards streptomycin, gentamicin and kanamycin. CONCLUSION: In vitro...... good candidates for further studies to elucidate their full potential and possible application as novel probiotic starter cultures....

  4. Coexpression of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit 1Ax1 and puroindoline improves dough mixing properties in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin; Wang, Qiong; Li, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xin; Sun, Fusheng; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Wei; Feng, Zhijuan; Chang, Junli; Chen, Mingjie; Wang, Yuesheng; Li, Kexiu; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2012-01-01

    Wheat end-use quality mainly derives from two interrelated characteristics: the compositions of gluten proteins and grain hardness. The composition of gluten proteins determines dough rheological properties and thus confers the unique viscoelastic property on dough. One group of gluten proteins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), plays an important role in dough functional properties. On the other hand, grain hardness, which influences the milling process of flour, is controlled by Puroindoline a (Pina) and Puroindoline b (Pinb) genes. However, little is known about the combined effects of HMW-GS and PINs on dough functional properties. In this study, we crossed a Pina-expressing transgenic line with a 1Ax1-expressing line of durum wheat and screened out lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina or lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. Dough mixing analysis of these lines demonstrated that expression of 1Ax1 improved both dough strength and over-mixing tolerance, while expression of PINA detrimentally affected the dough resistance to extension. In lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina, faster hydration of flour during mixing was observed possibly due to the lower water absorption and damaged starch caused by PINA expression. In addition, expression of 1Ax1 appeared to compensate the detrimental effect of PINA on dough resistance to extension. Consequently, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat had combined effects on dough mixing behaviors with a better dough strength and resistance to extension than those from lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. The results in our study suggest that simultaneous modulation of dough strength and grain hardness in durum wheat could significantly improve its breadmaking quality and may not even impair its pastamaking potential. Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread) and may improve the economic values of durum

  5. Coexpression of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit 1Ax1 and puroindoline improves dough mixing properties in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Li

    Full Text Available Wheat end-use quality mainly derives from two interrelated characteristics: the compositions of gluten proteins and grain hardness. The composition of gluten proteins determines dough rheological properties and thus confers the unique viscoelastic property on dough. One group of gluten proteins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS, plays an important role in dough functional properties. On the other hand, grain hardness, which influences the milling process of flour, is controlled by Puroindoline a (Pina and Puroindoline b (Pinb genes. However, little is known about the combined effects of HMW-GS and PINs on dough functional properties. In this study, we crossed a Pina-expressing transgenic line with a 1Ax1-expressing line of durum wheat and screened out lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina or lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. Dough mixing analysis of these lines demonstrated that expression of 1Ax1 improved both dough strength and over-mixing tolerance, while expression of PINA detrimentally affected the dough resistance to extension. In lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina, faster hydration of flour during mixing was observed possibly due to the lower water absorption and damaged starch caused by PINA expression. In addition, expression of 1Ax1 appeared to compensate the detrimental effect of PINA on dough resistance to extension. Consequently, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat had combined effects on dough mixing behaviors with a better dough strength and resistance to extension than those from lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. The results in our study suggest that simultaneous modulation of dough strength and grain hardness in durum wheat could significantly improve its breadmaking quality and may not even impair its pastamaking potential. Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread and may improve the economic

  6. Potential of Lactobacillus plantarum ccm 3627 and Lactobacillus brevis ccm 1815 for fermentation of cereal substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvetoslava Romanová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus is the most representative strain in a group of lactic acid bacteria, which perform an essential role in the preservation and production of wholesome foods. Lactic acid fermentation is the oldest traditional method for preparation of fermented vegetables, meat products, dairy products and cereal foods. Cereal grains are considered to be one of the most important sources of dietary proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and fibre for people. The main exploitation of cereals is to prepare sourdough, which is a mixture of wheat, rye or other cereal flour with water and contains yeasts and lactobacilli. The basic biochemical changes that occur in sourdough bread fermentation are acidification of the dough with organic acids produced by the lactobacilli and leavening with carbon dioxide produced by the yeast and the lactobacilli. Acidification perhaps initiate enzymatic processes of proteins and phytates degradation. Lactobacilli produce various enzymes which make flavour precursors, improve of mineral bioavailability or degrade celiac active peptides, because some species of lactobacilli produce specific peptidases during growth, which are capable to hydrolyze hardly cleavable, celiac-active proline-rich peptides. Microbial fermentation with selected strains of lactobacilli may be new alternative approach for modification of gluten by hydrolysis. In this paper are described growth characteristics and intracellular aminopeptidases activities of Lactobacillus plantarum CCM 3627 and Lactobacillus brevis CCM 1815. Work was focused on characterization of the lactobacilli for potential usage as a starter culture in further fermentation experiments.

  7. Comparative study of deterioration procedure in chemical-leavened steamed bread dough under frozen storage and freeze/thaw condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Yang, Runqiang; Gu, Zhenxin; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-08-15

    Successive freeze/thaw (FT) cycle was a widely used empirical approach to shorten the experimental period since it could accelerate frozen dough deterioration compared with frozen storage (FS). In order to compare the effect of FS and FT cycle on deterioration procedure of chemical-leavened steamed bread dough, kinetic studies of bread quality indices were performed and the relationships between bread quality and dough components were further established. Results showed that degradation of steamed bread loaf volume and firmness followed first-order kinetics during FS and zero-order kinetics during FT, respectively. Glutenin macropolymers (GMP) depolymerization and dough weight loss occurred steadily throughout FS and FT. Significant enhancement of damaged starch and crystallinity were observed at the later FS period and FT cycle. Multiple regression study led to the conclusion that dough weight loss contributed the most to the reduced bread loaf volume under FS whereas GMP depolymerization dominated under FT condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of mechanically damaged starch from wheat flour on the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sen; Li, Li; Wang, Xiao-Xi; Zheng, Xue-Ling; Bian, Ke; Bao, Qing-Dan

    2016-07-01

    The influence of damaged starch (DS) on the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread were investigated. Characterization of the farinographical properties showed that DS levels affected water absorption, development, weakness, falling number and gluten index. Flour viscosity profiles indicated that pasting temperatures increased, but peak viscosity, low viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback increased and then decreased with increasing amounts of DS. Compared to leavened dough, unleavened dough had significantly higher peak times, of T21 and T22, and was also affected by DS concentration. Steamed bread had a higher specific volume, relatively lower hardness, exhibited more whiteness, and a higher degree of gumminess and chewiness with higher DS levels. We compared two methods of making steamed bread and assessed the quality of the product. We found that an appropriate DS content improved the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread. This study provides the basis for future development and improvements to methods for making frozen dough products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of nutritional quality, glycaemic index, antidiabetic and sensory properties of plantain (Musa paradisiaca)-based functional dough meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famakin, Opeyemi; Fatoyinbo, Akindele; Ijarotimi, Oluwole Steve; Badejo, Adebanjo Ayobamidele; Fagbemi, Tayo Nathaniel

    2016-11-01

    Nutrition transition to high energy-dense foods has been implicated as the major causes of diet related diseases. Plantain-based dough meals supplemented with soybean cake and cassava fibre were developed by combining them in different proportions using response surface methodology. The flour blends were analyzed for the nutritional composition while the glycaemic index, antidiabetic potentials and protein digestibility of the dough meals were determined in wistar rats. The nutritional and essential amino acid contents of the flour blends were comparable to that of cerolina (a commercially available food product commonly recommended for diabetic patients). The rats fed with the formulated dough meals had lower glycaemic index and glycaemic load, and the blood glucose was significantly reduced compared to cerolina and metformin (a synthetic antidiabetic drug). All the plantain-based dough meals were comparable to cerolina and metformin in terms of nutritional quality and blood glycaemic control activities, respectively. Hence, the formulated plantain-based dough meals have potential to be used for the prevention and management of diabetes mellitus.

  10. Rheological and secondary structural characterization of rice flour-zein composites for noodles slit from gluten-free sheeted dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sungmin; Kim, Hee Won; Lee, Suyong

    2017-04-15

    Rice flour-zein composites in a hydrated viscoelastic state were utilized to compensate for the role of wheat gluten in gluten-free sheeted dough. The use of zein above its glass transition temperature was able to form a viscoelastic protein network of non-wheat dough with rice flour. The mixing stability and development time of the rice dough were positively increased with increasing levels of zein. The protein secondary structural analysis by FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated that the rice doughs with high levels of zein showed significant increases in β-sheet structures whose intensity was almost doubled by the use of 10% zein. The use of zein at more than 5% (w/w) successfully produced gluten-free dough sheets that could be slit into thin and long noodle strands. In addition, the composites were effective in improving the rheological characteristics of gluten-free noodle strands by increasing their maximum force to extension, compared to wheat-based noodles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for the Production of Bacteriocin Fermentate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-30

    FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ” by Anthony Sikes Wayne Muller and Claire Lee March 2015...From - To) October 2010 – November 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPTIMIZATION OF FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ...nisin and pediocin. Whey + yeast extract was the best performing whey fermentation media. The nisin producer strain Lactococcus. lactis ssp. lactis was

  12. Metabolic and microbial community dynamics during the hydrolytic and acidogenic fermentation in a leach-bed process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straeuber, Heike; Kleinsteuber, Sabine [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Bioenergy; UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Microbiology; Schroeder, Martina [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Bioenergy

    2012-12-15

    Biogas production from lignocellulosic feedstock not competing with food production can contribute to a sustainable bioenergy system. The hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step in the anaerobic digestion of solid substrates such as straw. Hence, a detailed understanding of the metabolic processes during the steps of hydrolysis and acidogenesis is required to improve process control strategies. The fermentation products formed during the acidogenic fermentation of maize silage as a model substrate in a leach-bed process were determined by gas and liquid chromatography. The bacterial community dynamics was monitored by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The community profiles were correlated with the process data using multivariate statistics. The batch process comprised three metabolic phases characterized by different fermentation products. The bacterial community dynamics correlated with the production of the respective metabolites. In phase 1, lactic and acetic acid fermentations dominated. Accordingly, bacteria of the genera Lactobacillus and Acetobacter were detected. In phase 2, the metabolic pathways shifted to butyric acid fermentation, accompanied by the production of hydrogen and carbon dioxide and a dominance of the genus Clostridium. In phase 3, phylotypes affiliated with Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae prevailed, accompanied by the formation of caproic and acetic acids, and a high gas production rate. A clostridial butyric type of fermentation was predominant in the acidogenic fermentation of maize silage, whereas propionic-type fermentation was marginal. As the metabolite composition resulting from acidogenesis affects the subsequent methanogenic performance, process control should focus on hydrolysis/acidogenesis when solid substrates are digested. (orig.)

  13. Controlling alchohol fermentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leedham, P A; Tubb, R S

    1983-09-21

    In the initial stages of a fermentation of carbohydrate to EtOH, the growth of the yeast is controlled by monitoring the pH of a fermenting liquid or wort and controlling the supply of O/sub 2/ in accordance with the pH. The temperature of the fermenting liquid is also controlled in dependence upon the pH. The control of the fermentation process is carried out automatically by an apparatus including a fermentation vessel, a pH sensor arranged to provide an output signal representative of the pH of the liquid in the vessel, memory means to store information on the required pH with regard to the fermentation time, means to inject O/sub 2/ into the fermenting liquid and control means to compare the output signal of the pH sensor at a particular time with that of the required pH at that time, and in the event of the pH of the fermenting liquid lagging behind that required, actuate the means to inject O/sub 2/ into the fermenting liquid to increase the O/sub 2/ content of the fermenting liquid.

  14. Breeding of maize types with specific traits at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is primarily grown as an energy crop, but the use of different specific versions, such as high-oil maize, high-lysine maize, waxy maize, white-seeded maize, popping maize and sweet maize, is quite extensive. Speciality maize, due to its traits and genetic control of these traits, requires a particular attention in handling breeding material during the processes of breeding. It is especially related to prevention of uncontrolled pollination. In order to provide successful selection for a certain trait, the following specific procedures in evaluation of the trait are necessary: the estimation of a popping volume and flake quality in popping maize; the determination of sugars and harvest maturity in sweet maize; the determination of oil in selected samples of high-oil maize types, and so forth. Breeding programmes for speciality maize, except high-amylose maize, have been implemented at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, Belgrade, for the last 45 years. A great number of high-yielding sweet maize hybrids, popping maize, high-oil and high-lysine, flint and white-seeded maize hybrids were developed during this 45-year period. Auspicious selection and breeding for these traits is facilitated by the abundant genetic variability and technical and technological possibilities necessary for successful selection.

  15. Characterization of Maize Grains with Different Pigmentation Investigated by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico Molina, R.; Hernández Aguilar, C.; Dominguez Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; López Bonilla, J. L.

    2014-10-01

    A knowledge of grains' optical parameters is of great relevance in the maize grain technology practice. Such parameters provide information about its absorption and reflectance, which in turn is related to its color. In the dough and tortilla industries, it is important to characterize this attribute of the corn kernel, as it is one of the attributes that directly affects the quality of the food product. Thus, it is important to have techniques that contribute to the characterization of this raw material. It is traditionally characterized by conventional methods, which usually destroy the grain and involve a laborious preparation of material plus they are expensive. The objective of this study was to determine the optical absorption coefficient for maize grains ( Zea mays L.) with different pigmentations by means of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). The genotype A had bluish coloration and genotype B had yellowish coloration. In addition, the photoacoustic signal obtained by two methods was analyzed mathematically: the standard deviation and the first derivative; both results were compared (Fig. 1). In combination with mathematical analysis, PAS may be considered as a potential diagnostic tool for the characterization of the grains. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Effect of Hydrocolloids and Emulsifiers on Baking Quality of Composite Cassava-Maize-Wheat Breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is widely available worldwide but bread quality is impaired when cassava is used in the bread formulation. To overcome this problem, different improvers were tested in the preparation of composite cassava-maize-wheat (CMW breads. Emulsifiers, diacetyl tartic acid ester of monoglycerides (DATEM, sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL, and lecithin (LC; and hydrocolloids, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC and high-methylated pectin (HM pectin were added during dough preparation of the composite flours (cassava-maize-wheat, 40 : 10 : 50. Each emulsifier was tested in combination with the hydrocolloids at levels of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% while hydrocolloids were used at a level of 3%. Bread quality attributes such as specific loaf volume, crust colour, crumb moisture, and firmness were measured. The specific volume of the fresh breads significantly improved with the addition of hydrocolloids (7.5 and 13% and in combination with emulsifiers (from 7.9 to 27% compared with bread produced without improvers. A significant improvement of brownness index and firmness of the composite flours breads was achieved with the addition of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers. The results show that emulsifiers and hydrocolloids can significantly improve the baking quality of CMW breads and thereby enhance the potential for using locally produced flours in bread baking.

  17. Deregulation of Lesotho's maize market

    OpenAIRE

    van Schalkwyk, Herman D.; van Zyl, Johan; Botha, P.W.; Bayley, B.

    1997-01-01

    During the past year, there have been major policy reforms in Lesotho and South Africa with respect to maize pricing and marketing. In Lesotho the impact of deregulation on producers, consumers and government revenues was substantially lower than it should have been, and as a result Lesotho was not able to reap the full benefits of these changes. This is partly because information on the changes to the maize marketing system did not reach the potential beneficiaries of the new system. Free an...

  18. Microbial Ecology and Process Technology of Sourdough Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, Luc; Van Kerrebroeck, Simon; Leroy, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    From a microbiological perspective, sourdough is to be considered as a specific and stressful ecosystem, harboring yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), that is used for the production of baked goods. With respect to the metabolic impact of the sourdough microbiota, acidification (LAB), flavor formation (LAB and yeasts), and leavening (yeasts and heterofermentative LAB species) are most noticeable. Three distinct types of sourdough fermentation processes can be discerned based on the inocula applied, namely backslopped ones (type 1), those initiated with starter cultures (type 2), and those initiated with a starter culture followed by backslopping (type 3). A sourdough-characteristic LAB species is Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. A sourdough-characteristic yeast species is Candida humilis. Although it has been suggested that the microbiota of a specific sourdough may be influenced by its geographical origin, region specificity often seems to be an artefact resulting from interpretation of the research data, as those are dependent on sampling, isolation, and identification procedures. It is however clear that sourdough-adapted microorganisms are able to withstand stress conditions encountered during their growth. Based on the technological setup, type 0 (predoughs), type I (artisan bakery firm sourdoughs), type II (industrial liquid sourdoughs), and type III sourdoughs (industrial dried sourdoughs) can be distinguished. The production of all sourdoughs, independent of their classification, depends on several intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Both the flour (type, quality status, etc.) and the process parameters (fermentation temperature, pH and pH evolution, dough yield, water activity, oxygen tension, backslopping procedure and fermentation duration, etc.) determine the dynamics and outcome of (backslopped) sourdough fermentation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of fat types on the structural and textural properties of dough and semi-sweet biscuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Hasmadi; Hill, Sandra E

    2014-09-01

    Fat is an important ingredient in baking products and it plays many roles in providing desirable textural properties of baking products, particularly biscuit. In this study, the effect of fat types on dough rheological properties and quality of semi-sweet biscuit (rich tea type) were investigated using various techniques. Texture profile and extensibility analysis were used to study the dough rheology, while three-point bend test and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyse the textural characteristics of final product. TPA results showed that the type of fat significantly influenced dough textural properties. Biscuit produced with higher solid fat oil showed higher breaking force but this was not significantly different when evaluated by sensory panel. Scanning electron microscopy showed that biscuit produced with palm mid-fraction had an open internal microstructure and heterogeneous air cells as compared to other samples.

  20. Addition of phenols compounds to meat dough intended for salami manufacture and its antioxidant effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Novelli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A purified extract of phenols compounds (65% of phenolic content of which decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone represented 45% of the wet mass obtained from vegetation water (a by-product of oil mill was added to a ground meat dough intended for salami manufacture in two concentration levels: 75 and 150 mg/100 g of dough (F1 and F2, respectively. The control batch was composed of lean and fat cuts of pork in 70:30 ratio, 2.7% salt and a mixed starter culture of staphylococci and pediococci. After stuffing into natural casings, salamis were aged until they reached a total weight loss of 30%. The product was then sliced and packaged in a protective atmosphere (nitrogen:carbon dioxide 80:20 and placed in a refrigerator thermostat (2-4°C with alternating 12 h of artificial light and darkness. The samples were analysed for the measurement of pH, water activity, organic acidity, peroxide number and secondary products of lipid peroxidation at the time of slicing and after 10, 20 and 30 days of storage into the refrigerated thermostat. The pH and water activity were not substantially different between the control and the two enriched batches. The peroxide number and secondary products of lipid peroxidation values in the two batches with phenols were at least substantially lower than the control sample. In conclusion, the phenol compounds obtained from vegetation water have shown no interference with the ripening process while protecting the dough from oxidation.

  1. Effect of cellulase, xylanase and α-amylase combinations on the rheological properties of Chinese steamed bread dough enriched in wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjun; Brennan, Margaret Anne; Serventi, Luca; Brennan, Charles Stephen

    2017-11-01

    The present study investigates the effects of α-amylase (6 and 10ppm), xylanase (70 and 120ppm) and cellulase (35 and 60ppm) on the rheological properties of bread dough. The mixing property of dough was measured by using a DoughLAB. The extension and stickiness of dough were analysed using the Texture Analyzer. The results illustrate that the addition of single enzyme and enzyme combinations can increase the extensibility, softening, mixing tolerance index (MTI) and stickiness, whereas decrease the resistance to extension. For water absorption, the addition of single enzyme had no significant effect, while the combination enzyme significantly (pcellulase had a synergetic effect on the dough rheology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of hydrated apple powder on dough rheology and cookies quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Lauková

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fiber is a group of food components, which are resistant to human enzymatic digestion. The incorporation of dietary fiber obtained from various sources of fruit and vegetable by-products into the cereal based products such as bread, rolls, cookies, muffins, crackers, cakes and pasta is of growing interest for the food industry. The replacement of wheat flour by dietary fiber from various sources can change physicochemical, textural and organoleptic characteristic of bakery products. Apple pomace is the main by-product produced in the apple fruit processing industry. It is a rich source of carbohydrate, pectin, crude fiber, and minerals. The dietary fiber content in apple pomace ranges between 33 - 35%. The influence of hydrated commercial dietary fiber on wheat dough rheology (5, 10 and 15% flour replacement and physical and sensory properties of cookies was examined. It was found that addition of HAP significantly increased the rheological properties of dough such as water absorption (from 58.0% to 75.3%, dough stability (from 6.7 min to 11.6 min and prolonged dough development time (from 3.5 min to 11.0 min and reduced the mixing tolerance index (from 34.7 BU to 11.9 BU. It was also concluded that hydrated apple powder addition reduced physical properties of cookies such as volume (from 10.4 cm3 to 8.0 cm3, diameter (from 4.7 cm to 4.2 cm, volume index (from 1.35 cm to 1.10 cm and porosity (from 0.32 to 0.24. Sensory properties (taste, odour, stickiness, firmness and density of cookies were also analysed. Cookies with addition of hydrated apple powder had fruity taste and odour and showed high overall acceptance. From this study resulted that hydrated apple powder can be used as potentially source of dietary fiber in cookie formulation. Moreover, addition of apple pomace inhibits the use of any other flavouring ingredients because has a pleasant fruity flavour.

  3. Significance of Wheat Flour Dough Rheology to Gas Cell Structure Development in Bread and Other Baked Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Jan

    2008-07-01

    We discuss which rheological material functions of wheat flour dough are most relevant for structure development in baked products under common processing conditions. We consider the growth of gas cells during dough proofing (driven by yeast) and during baking, where the growth is driven by a combination of CO2 desorption, water and ethanol evaporation, and thermal expansion of gas. Attention is given to upper limits on biaxial extension rate and stress and the consequences for the required rheological material functions. The applicability of the "Considère criterion" to predict the probability of coalescence between gas cells and its effect on loaf aeration is briefly discussed.

  4. Microbial ecology of sourdough fermentations: diverse or uniform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, L; Van Kerrebroeck, S; Harth, H; Huys, G; Daniel, H-M; Weckx, S

    2014-02-01

    Sourdough is a specific and stressful ecosystem inhabited by yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly heterofermentative lactobacilli. On the basis of their inocula, three types of sourdough fermentation processes can be distinguished, namely backslopped ones, those initiated with starter cultures, and those initiated with a starter culture followed by backslopping. Typical sourdough LAB species are Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. Typical sourdough yeast species are Candida humilis, Kazachstania exigua, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Whereas region specificity is claimed in the case of artisan backslopped sourdoughs, no clear-cut relationship between a typical sourdough and its associated microbiota can be found, as this is dependent on the sampling, isolation, and identification procedures. Both simple and very complex consortia may occur. Moreover, a series of intrinsic and extrinsic factors may influence the composition of the sourdough microbiota. For instance, an influence of the flour (type, quality status, etc.) and the process parameters (temperature, pH, dough yield, backslopping practices, etc.) occurs. In this way, the presence of Lb. sanfranciscensis during sourdough fermentation depends on specific environmental and technological factors. Also, Triticum durum seems to select for obligately heterofermentative LAB species. Finally, there are indications that the sourdough LAB are of intestinal origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. IMAZAPYR-RESISTANT MAIZE TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    decisions by protecting maize (Zea mays L.) crop in western Kenya from Striga. Key Words: Adopters, Zea ... Africa, efficient and profitable production of maize is severely constrained by ..... gap by understanding its source. African. Journal of ...

  6. Impact of reducing and oxidising agents on the wheat flour dough dynamic rheological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlína Pečivová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic measurements with an oscillatory rheometer were made to study the rheological properties of wheat flour doughs and to examine how they are related to the composition of dough (the addition of oxidising and reducing agents.It was found that L-cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate (0.6 × 10−2 − 4.0 × 10−2 wt.%, L-cysteine p. a. (0.6 × 10−2 − 1.4 × 10−2 wt.% and glutathione-inactivated dry yeast (1.8 × 10−2 − 14.0 × 10−2 wt.% show softening effects. An interesting phenomenon was observed from the concentration of 2.4 × 10−2 wt.% of L-cysteine p. a., where proces of weakening was decelerated. L-cysteine start making cystine by reaction of two cysteine molecules and proces of weakening was decelerated. L-threonine, L-tryptophan within the concentration range of 2.0 × 10−2 − 14.0 × 10−2 wt.% and L-tyrosine, especially at concentrations 10.0 × 10−2 − 14.0 × 10−2 wt.%, have strengthening effects. L-cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate exhibited the strongest softening effect while L-tryptophan had the strongest stiffening effect on the gluten network.

  7. Particle size distribution of wheat starch granules in relation to baking properties of frozen dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Han; Wang, Pei; Wu, Fengfeng; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-02-10

    The impact of freezing on the wheat starches with different particle size was studied using a range of characterization methods including X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, the Rapid Visco Analyser and a reconstitution dough system. Wheat starches were fractionated into A- and B-type granules, and then subjected to freezing/thawing treatment for 3 cycles. The freezing treatment did not cause apparent damage on A-type granular surface but induced cracked structure on B-type granules. It facilitated materials such as amylose, proteins, and lipids leaching from starch granule and an increase in gelatinization temperatures, melting enthalpy, and pasting viscosities. A smaller bread specific volume was obtained from freezing-treated B-granules while the crumb firmness significantly increased (p>0.05). No marked differences were observed in the counterparts of A-granules after freezing treatment. It seemed that the B-type granules were more sensitive to the freezing/thawing treatment, thus facilitating structural transformations from dough to bread. Results indicated that the deterioration in frozen bread quality derived from starch could be minimized by increasing the A-granules content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. FARINOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF WHEAT DOUGH ENRICHED WITH INULIN, NAKED BARLEY, MALT AND POTEX ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tokár

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important biological substances consumed in insufficient quantity is fibre that is often deficient in the diet. In general, dietary fibre is edible part of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Nowadays, there are many sources of fibre available for bakery industry, whether through addition of non-traditional bread cereals or through isolated form as additives. Except to supposed increase the nutritional value of bakery products with added fiber and raw materials containing fiber is necessary to think about their technological quality and rheological properties of dough. The aim of this experimental work was to investigate the effect of the addition of selected polysaccharides (inulin, Potex - potato fiber and non-bakery crops (naked barley, malt containing significant polysaccharides used in the mixture with wheat flour type T-650 in different ratios on the basis of farinographic evaluations. Based on the results of rheological measurements we found out that quality of dough was deteriorating proportionally to the amount of used additives. On the other hand, positively could be considered the increase of water absorption with addition of Potex and naked barley.

  9. Protein-transitions in and out of the dough matrix in wheat flour mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Appels, Rudi; Zhang, Xiaoke; Bekes, Ferenc; Torok, Kitti; Tomoskozi, Sandor; Diepeveen, Dean; Ma, Wujun; Islam, Shahidul

    2017-02-15

    Sequential protein behavior in the wheat dough matrix under continuous mixing and heating treatment has been studied using Mixolab-dough samples from two Australian wheat cultivars, Westonia and Wyalkatchem. Size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) analysis indicated that 32min (80°C) was a critical time point in forming large protein complexes and loosing extractability of several protein groups like y-type high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs), gamma-gliadins, beta-amylases, serpins, and metabolic proteins with higher mass. Up to 32min (80°C) Westonia showed higher protein extractability compared to Wyalkatchem although it was in the opposite direction thereafter. Twenty differentially expressed proteins could be assigned to chromosomes 1D, 3A, 4A, 4B, 4D, 6A, 6B, 7A and 7B. The results expanded the range of proteins associated with changes in the gluten-complex during processing and provided targets for selecting new genetic variants associated with altered quality attributes of the flour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of watermelon seed protein concentrates on dough handling, textural and sensory properties of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Ali Abas; Sogi, D S; Singh, Preeti; Khatkar, B S

    2015-04-01

    Fruit processing wastes contain numerous by products of potential use in food & allied industry. Watermelon seeds represent a major by-product of the processing waste and contain high amount of nutritional proteins. Protein rich cereal based products are in demand due to their health promoting benefits. With this aim, wheat flour was fortified with watermelon seed protein concentrates (2.5 %, 5 %, 7.5 % and 10 % levels) to prepare cookies with desirable physical, nutritional, and textural and sensory properties. Substitution levels of 5 % and 10 % significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased the dough stability and mixing tolerance index, however pasting properties and dough extensibility decreased considerably above 5 % substitution levels. Cookie fracture force (kg) increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) above 5 % fortification levels. Cookie spread factor (W/T) increased from 2.5 % to 7.5 % fortification levels, further increase showed negative impact. Sensory scores of the cookies showed that protein concentrate may be added up to 7.5 % fortification levels. This study revealed that watermelon protein concentrates can be fortified with protein concentrates upto 5-7.5 % levels in cookies to improve their protein quality.

  11. EVALUATION OF ELASTICITY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BREAD DOUGH MADE WITH REPLACED FLOUR POTATO (IPOMOEA BATATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Fernando Sacón Vera

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the incorporation of sweet potato flour, with 30% replacement in 1kg of wheat flour was evaluated to determine the behavior of elastic and mechanical properties during the kneading and baking stage of bread. For the evaluation the following varieties were studied: Morado Brazil, Morado Ecuador, Guayaco Morado, Ina and Toquecita, and the evaluated properties were: texture (hardness, elasticity, firmness, chewiness measured by a texture meter Bloomfield and volume was measured by INEN standard (NTE INEN 0530: 80. The design employed was completely at random, using analysis of variance at 5% significance level. The results obtained showed that elasticity attribute in texture variable presented significant differences (P <0.05. Analysis concluded that including Toquecita flour in the mixture to form the dough, had the highest elasticity of 13.32mm. However, Morado Ecuador variety flour presented a 6.24 mm elasticity value, ideal for both the malleability of the dough and the freshness of the bread, and concerning volume, the inclusion of Ecuador Morado flour and Ina in the formulation of bread, showed an increase in volume at 93.30 and 93.67cm3 respectively, close to the normed value for wheat flour bread.

  12. Rotating bouncing disks, tossing pizza dough, and the behavior of ultrasonic motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuang-Chen; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie

    2009-10-01

    Pizza tossing and certain forms of standing-wave ultrasonic motors (SWUMs) share a similar process for converting reciprocating input into continuous rotary motion. We show that the key features of this motion conversion process such as collision, separation and friction coupling are captured by the dynamics of a disk bouncing on a vibrating platform. The model shows that the linear or helical hand motions commonly used by pizza chefs and dough-toss performers for single tosses maximize energy efficiency and the dough’s airborne rotational speed; on the other hand, the semielliptical hand motions used for multiple tosses make it easier to maintain dough rotation at the maximum speed. The system’s bifurcation diagram and basins of attraction also provide a physical basis for understanding the peculiar behavior of SWUMs and provide a means to design them. The model is able to explain the apparently chaotic oscillations that occur in SWUMs and predict the observed trends in steady-state speed and stall torque as preload is increased.

  13. Studies on continuous fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, K

    1958-01-01

    Continuous fermentation of molasses with a combined system of agitated vessel and flow pipe is studied. A new apparatus was designed. The rate of the fermentation was faster with this apparatus than with the former apparatus which was composed of two vessels.

  14. Food Technologies: Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation refers to the use of microorganisms to achieve desirable food properties in the fermented food or beverage. Although the word ‘fermentation’ indicates ‘anaerobic metabolism,’ it is also used in a broader sense to indicate all anaerobic and aerobic microbiological and biochemical

  15. Research in fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A K

    1966-01-01

    The following aspects of the biochemistry of fermentation were discussed: carbohydrate, amino acid, S, and phosphate metabolisms in the yeast cell; pantothenic acid and biotin as the essential growth factors in yeast metabolisms; effects of different aeration conditions on yeast growth, mitochondria development, and lipid contents. Gas chromatographic studies of fermentation products are also discussed.

  16. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds,

  18. Fermented milk for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle...

  19. Changes in energy metabolism in relation to physical activity due to fermentable carbohydrates in group-housed growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrama, J W; Bakker, G C

    1999-12-01

    Fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber) affect energy retention in group-housed growing pigs by reducing physical activity. This study assessed the effects of fermentation and bulkiness of dietary carbohydrates on physical activity in relation to energy metabolism. Eight clusters of 14 pigs were fed one of four diets in a 2x2 factorial arrangement. Factors included 1) gastrointestinal fermentation and 2) dietary bulkiness. Contrasts in fermentation were created by exchanging gelatinized maize starch with raw potato starch on a volume basis. Bulkiness was altered by adding 15% milled wheat straw to the diets. Apart from these differences, amounts of other dietary ingredients fed to the pigs were similar. Pigs were housed in groups. Nitrogen and energy balances were measured per cluster during a 14-d period. Dietary bulkiness did not affect ME intake, heat production, or energy retention. Metabolizability decreased when maize starch was replaced with raw potato starch (P< .01), resulting in a lower energy retention on the potato starch diets (P<.01). However, the lower ME intake on the potato diets was partially compensated by a reduced energy expenditure on physical activity (P< .01), which was 17.6% lower than that of pigs fed the maize starch diets. Dietary bulkiness did not affect physical activity. The effect of fiber-rich diets (nonstarch polysaccharides) on activity in growing group-housed pigs seems to be related to fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract, and not to bulkiness (volume).

  20. Using stable isotopes to determine seasonal variations in water uptake of summer maize under different fertilization treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ying, E-mail: maying@igsnrr.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101 Beijing (China); State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 210008 Nanjing (China); Song, Xianfang [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101 Beijing (China)

    2016-04-15

    Fertilization and water both affect root water uptake in the nutrient and water cycle of the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere-Continuum (SPAC). In this study, dual stable isotopes (D and {sup 18}O) were used to determine seasonal variations in water uptake patterns of summer maize under different fertilization treatments in Beijing, China during 2013–2014. The contributions of soil water at different depths to water uptake were quantified by the MixSIAR Bayesian mixing model. Water uptake was mainly sourced from soil water in the 0–20 cm depth at the seeding (67.7%), jointing (60.5%), tasseling (47.5%), dough (41.4%), and harvest (43.9%) stages, and the 20–50 cm depth at the milk stage (32.8%). Different levels of fertilization application led to considerable differences in the proportional contribution of soil water at 0–20 cm (6.0–58.5%) and 20–50 cm (6.1–26.3%). There was little difference of contributions in the deep layers (50–200 cm) among treatments in 2013, whereas differences were observed in 50–90 cm at the milk stage and 50–200 cm at the dough stage during 2014. The main water uptake depth was concentrated in the upper soil layers (0–50 cm) during the wet season (2013), whereas a seasonal drought in 2014 promoted the contribution of soil water in deep layers. The contribution of soil water was significantly and positively correlated with the proportions of root length (r = 0.753, p < 0.01). The changes of soil water distribution were consistent with the seasonal variation in water uptake patterns. The present study identified water sources for summer maize under varying fertilization treatments and provided scientific implications for fertilization and irrigation management. - Highlights: • Dual stable isotopes and MixSIAR were coupled to quantify water uptake of maize. • Maize mainly used soil water in 20–50 cm at milk stage and 0–20 cm at other stages. • Fertilization treatments led to distinct water uptake pattern at 0–50 cm

  1. Using stable isotopes to determine seasonal variations in water uptake of summer maize under different fertilization treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ying; Song, Xianfang

    2016-01-01

    Fertilization and water both affect root water uptake in the nutrient and water cycle of the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere-Continuum (SPAC). In this study, dual stable isotopes (D and "1"8O) were used to determine seasonal variations in water uptake patterns of summer maize under different fertilization treatments in Beijing, China during 2013–2014. The contributions of soil water at different depths to water uptake were quantified by the MixSIAR Bayesian mixing model. Water uptake was mainly sourced from soil water in the 0–20 cm depth at the seeding (67.7%), jointing (60.5%), tasseling (47.5%), dough (41.4%), and harvest (43.9%) stages, and the 20–50 cm depth at the milk stage (32.8%). Different levels of fertilization application led to considerable differences in the proportional contribution of soil water at 0–20 cm (6.0–58.5%) and 20–50 cm (6.1–26.3%). There was little difference of contributions in the deep layers (50–200 cm) among treatments in 2013, whereas differences were observed in 50–90 cm at the milk stage and 50–200 cm at the dough stage during 2014. The main water uptake depth was concentrated in the upper soil layers (0–50 cm) during the wet season (2013), whereas a seasonal drought in 2014 promoted the contribution of soil water in deep layers. The contribution of soil water was significantly and positively correlated with the proportions of root length (r = 0.753, p < 0.01). The changes of soil water distribution were consistent with the seasonal variation in water uptake patterns. The present study identified water sources for summer maize under varying fertilization treatments and provided scientific implications for fertilization and irrigation management. - Highlights: • Dual stable isotopes and MixSIAR were coupled to quantify water uptake of maize. • Maize mainly used soil water in 20–50 cm at milk stage and 0–20 cm at other stages. • Fertilization treatments led to distinct water uptake pattern at 0–50 cm depth

  2. Maize, tropical (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assem, Shireen K

    2015-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most important food crop globally after wheat and rice. In sub-Saharan Africa, tropical maize has traditionally been the main staple of the diet; 95 % of the maize grown is consumed directly as human food and as an important source of income for the resource-poor rural population. The biotechnological approach to engineer biotic and abiotic traits implies the availability of an efficient plant transformation method. The production of genetically transformed plants depends both on the ability to integrate foreign genes into target cells and the efficiency with which plants are regenerated. Maize transformation and regeneration through immature embryo culture is the most efficient system to regenerate normal transgenic plants. However, this system is highly genotype dependent. Genotypes adapted to tropic areas are difficult to regenerate. Therefore, transformation methods used with model genotypes adapted to temperate areas are not necessarily efficient with tropical lines. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the method of choice since it has been first achieved in 1996. In this report, we describe a transformation method used successfully with several tropical maize lines. All the steps of transformation and regeneration are described in details. This protocol can be used with a wide variety of tropical lines. However, some modifications may be needed with recalcitrant lines.

  3. ATP Production by Respiration and Fermentation, and Energy Charge during Aerobiosis and Anaerobiosis in Twelve Fatty and Starchy Germinating Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, P; Al-Ani, A; Pradet, A

    1985-11-01

    The respiration and fermentation rates were compared in germinating seeds of 12 different cultivated species from five families. In air, fermentation contributes significantly to the energy metabolism only in some species (pea, maize), but is generally negligible when compared to respiration. The fermentation rate under anoxia was related either to the metabolic activity under air or to the adenine nucleotide content of the seeds: it was generally higher in seeds which contain starchy reserves (rice, maize, sorghum, pea), than in seeds which do not contain starch (lettuce, sunflower, radish, turnip, cabbage, flax); however, it was similar in wheat, sorghum (starchy seeds), and soya (nonstarchy seeds). The value of the energy charge of all the seeds was lower under anoxia than in air: after 24 hours under anoxia, it was higher than 0.5 in the starchy seeds and in soya and it was around 0.25 in the other fatty seeds.

  4. A Comparative Study of Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour with Whey and Soy Protein on Rheological Properties of Dough and Cookie Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhi Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of wheat-based foods that are enriched with proteins is increasingly popular. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of partial replacement of wheat flour with whey and soy proteins (0–30% on the rheological properties of dough and cookie-making quality. The incorporation of whey protein (WP diluted the concentration of gluten, leading to an increase in dough development time (MDT and breakdown torque and a decrease in stability time (MST and minimum torque (MMT. The gelation of WP during the heat treatment increased dough peak torque (MPT, G′, and G′′. As a contrast, the addition of soy protein (SP increased dough MST, MDT, and MMT. The aggregation of SP helped increase G′ and decrease tan δ of the dough in oscillatory shear tests. The weak gelling effects and higher water absorption of SP decreased MPT, G′, and G′′ of the dough during heat treatment. With SP, the spread ratio of cookies first decreased from 6.39 to 5.66 and then increased to 6.86, and the overall acceptability scores ranged from 6.62 to 7.02, indicating that the formed soy protein network helped maintain the dough structure for obtaining an improvement in the quality of bakery products.

  5. Phytate negatively influences wheat dough and bread characteristics by interfering with cross-linking of glutenin molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of added phytate on dough properties and bread baking quality was studied to determine the role of phytate in the impaired functional properties of whole grain wheat flour for baking bread. Phytate addition to refined flour at a 1% level substantially increased mixograph mixing time, g...

  6. Quantitative assessment of gas cell development during the proofing of dough by magnetic resonance imaging and image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Kempen, van G.M.P.; Sluis, van R.; Rieger, B.; Weegels, P.; Vliet, van L.J.; Nicolaij, K.

    2003-01-01

    The structure of bread crumb is an important factor in consumer acceptance of bakery products. The noninvasive monitoring of the gas cell formation during the proofing of dough can aid in understanding the mechanisms governing the crumb appearance in the baked product. The development of gas cells

  7. Yeast-Leavened Laminated Salty Baked Goods: Flour and Dough Properties and Their Relationship with Product Technological Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Horra, Ana E; Steffolani, María Eugenia; Barrera, Gabriela N; Ribotta, Pablo D; León, Alberto E

    2015-12-01

    The effect of protein composition and content on the characteristics and properties of laminated baked products has been studied for a long time. However, there are no flour quality parameters related to its suitability to produce yeast-leavened laminated salty baked products. The relationships among flour characteristics, laminated dough pieces and baked products were studied in order to establish flour quality parameters and help predict the quality of the products. Yeast-leavened salty laminated products made with hard wheat flour had better quality properties than the products made with soft wheat flour. Hydrophilic components and a high gluten network quality are responsible for the generation of a rigid structure and viscous dough. Consequently, during baking, the dough rises rather than extends laterally and does not experience any change in the expected shape. Among the analysed flour characteristics, glutenin macropolymer content, lactic acid and sodium carbonate solvent retention capacities together with dough viscosity and resistance to deformation were the variables which influenced the most the quality of yeast-leavened salty laminated products.

  8. Yeast-Leavened Laminated Salty Baked Goods: Flour and Dough Properties and Their Relationship with Product Technological Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto E. León

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of protein composition and content on the characteristics and properties of laminated baked products has been studied for a long time. However, there are no flour quality parameters related to its suitability to produce yeast-leavened laminated salty baked products. The relationships among flour characteristics, laminated dough pieces and baked products were studied in order to establish flour quality parameters and help predict the quality of the products. Yeast-leavened salty laminated products made with hard wheat flour had better quality properties than the products made with soft wheat flour. Hydrophilic components and a high gluten network quality are responsible for the generation of a rigid structure and viscous dough. Consequently, during baking, the dough rises rather than extends laterally and does not experience any change in the expected shape. Among the analysed flour characteristics, glutenin macropolymer content, lactic acid and sodium carbonate solvent retention capacities together with dough viscosity and resistance to deformation were the variables which influenced the most the quality of yeast-leavened salty laminated products.

  9. Effects of cellulose fiber with different fiber length on rheological properties of wheat dough and quality of baked rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauková, Michaela; Kohajdová, Zlatica; Karovičová, Jolana; Kuchtová, Veronika; Minarovičová, Lucia; Tomášiková, Lenka

    2017-09-01

    Powdered cellulose is often used in cereal processing industry. The effects of partial replacement (0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5%) of wheat flour by cellulose fiber with different fiber length (80, 120 and 220 µm) on rheological properties of wheat dough and qualitative parameters of baked rolls were studied. Sensory evaluation of baked products was also performed. Mixing and pasting properties of dough were determined by Mixolab. Generally, cellulose-enriched dough was characterized with higher water absorption, dough stability and parameters C2 and C3. Moreover, it was found that parameters C4 and C5 increased with increasing cellulose fiber length. From the results, it was also concluded that the physical parameters of baked rolls containing cellulose were reduced. It was also observed that the incorporation of cellulose fiber with shorter fiber length concluded in lower rolls volume compared to cellulose fiber with long fiber length. Texture analyses showed that the firmness of rolls containing cellulose at the substitution level 5% was significantly higher than those of the control, whereas the springiness of wheat rolls was not significantly affected. It was also recorded that the firmness and cohesiveness of baked rolls were higher after the addition of cellulose fiber with shorter fiber length. Sensory evaluation indicated that baked rolls with cellulose addition up to 1% were comparable with control rolls. Results also showed that higher levels of cellulose significantly decreased crust, taste, color and porosity of rolls.

  10. Upgrading the antioxidant potential of cereals by their fungal fermentation under solid-state cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanja Dey, T; Kuhad, R C

    2014-11-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) at 30°C for 72 h with four generally recognized as safe (GRAS) filamentous fungi (Aspergillus oryzae NCIM 1212, Aspergillus awamori MTCC No. 548, Rhizopus oligosporus NCIM 1215 and Rhizopus oryzae RCK2012) showed high efficiency for the improvement of water-soluble total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant properties including ABTS(●+) [2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] and DPPH(●) (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging capacities of four whole grain cereals, namely wheat, brown rice, maize and oat. A maximum 14-fold improvement in TPC (11·61 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) grain) was observed in A. oryzae fermented wheat, while extract of R. oryzae fermented wheat (ROFW) showed maximum of 6·6-fold and fivefold enhancement of DPPH(●) scavenging property (8·54 μmol Trolox equivalent g(-1) grain) and ABTS(●+) scavenging activity (19·5 μmol Trolox equivalent g(-1) grain), respectively. The study demonstrates that SSF is an efficient method for the improvement of antioxidant potentials of cereals and R. oryzae RCK2012 fermented wheat can be a powerful source of natural antioxidants. Antioxidant-rich food products are getting popularity day by day. In this study, potential of solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been studied for the improvement of antioxidant potential of different cereals by GRAS micro-organisms. The comparative evaluation of the antioxidant potential of various fungal fermented products derived from whole grain cereals, such as wheat, brown rice, oat and maize, has been carried out. Among these, Rhizopus oryzae RCK2012-fermented wheat was observed as a potent source of natural antioxidants. A diet containing fermented cereals would be useful for the prevention of free radical-mediated diseases. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Maize Bioactive Peptides against Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gómez, Jorge L.; Castorena-Torres, Fabiola; Preciado-Ortiz, Ricardo E.; García-Lara, Silverio

    2017-06-01

    Cancer is one of the main chronic degenerative diseases worldwide. In recent years, consumption of whole-grain cereals and their derived food products has been associated with reduction risks of various types of cancer. Cereals main biomolecules includes proteins, peptides, and amino acids present in different quantities within the grain. The nutraceutical properties associated with peptides exerts biological functions that promote health and prevent this disease. In this review, we report the current status and advances on maize peptides regarding bioactive properties that have been reported such as antioxidant, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, and anti-tumour activities. We also highlighted its biological potential through which maize bioactive peptides exert anti-cancer activity. Finally, we analyse and emphasize the possible areas of application for maize peptides.

  12. Pasta made from durum wheat semolina fermented with selected lactobacilli as a tool for a potential decrease of the gluten intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Cagno, Raffaella; de Angelis, Maria; Alfonsi, Giuditta; de Vincenzi, Massimo; Silano, Marco; Vincentini, Olimpia; Gobbetti, Marco

    2005-06-01

    A pool of selected lactic acid bacteria was used to ferment durum wheat semolina under liquid conditions. After fermentation, the dough was freeze-dried, mixed with buckwheat flour at a ratio of 3:7, and used to produce the "fusilli" type Italian pasta. Pasta without prefermentation was used as the control. Ingredients and pastas were characterized for compositional analysis. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis, 92 of the 130 durum wheat gliadin spots were hydrolyzed almost totally during fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Mass spectrometry matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the hydrolysis of gliadins. As shown by immunological analysis by R5-Western blot, the concentration of gluten decreased from 6280 ppm in the control pasta to 1045 ppm in the pasta fermented with lactic acid bacteria. Gliadins were extracted from fermented and nonfermented durum wheat dough semolina and used to produce a peptic-tryptic (PT) digest for in vitro agglutination tests on cells of human origin. The whole PT digests did not cause agglutination. Affinity chromatography on Sepharose-6-B mannan column separated the PT digests in three fractions. Fraction C showed agglutination activity. The minimal agglutinating activity of fraction C from the PT digest of fermented durum wheat semolina was ca. 80 times higher than that of durum wheat semolina. Pasta was subjected to sensory analysis: The scores for stickiness and firmness were slightly lower than those found for the pasta control. Odor and flavor did not differ between the two types of pasta. These results showed that a pasta biotechnology that uses a prefermentation of durum wheat semolina by selected lactic acid bacteria and tolerated buckwheat flour could be considered as a novel tool to potentially decrease gluten intolerance and the risk of gluten contamination in gluten-free products.

  13. Putting the Function in Maize Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Moose

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The 51st Maize Genetics Conference was held March 12–15, 2009 at Pheasant Run Resort in St. Charles, Illinois. Nearly 500 attendees participated in a scientific program (available at covering a wide range of topics which integrate the rich biology of maize with recent discoveries in our understanding of the highly dynamic maize genome. Among the many research themes highlighted at the conference, the historical emphasis on studying the tremendous phenotypic diversity of maize now serves as the foundation for maize as a leading experimental system to characterize the mechanisms that generate variation in complex plant genomes and associate evolutionary change with phenotypes of interest.

  14. Development of methods and systems for preparing hydrolyzates for acetone-butanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakhmanovich, B M

    1967-01-01

    Optimal conditions for hydrolysis of vegetable waste material, e.g., maize stalks, sunflower parings, and hemp wastes, with concentrated or dilute H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ were established. Hydrolyzates were neutralized with Ca(OH)/sub 2/ to pH 5.5 to 6.0 and the supernatant was sterilized at 110 to 115/sup 0/ for 15 to 20 minutes and used for fermentation in mixtures with molasses or mash. The maximum amount of fermentation inhibitors which can be present in hydrolyzate is: 0.1% furfural, 0.03% HCO/sub 2/H and 0.001% As.

  15. Effect of potato (Solanum tuberosum addition on dough properties, sensory qualities and resistant starch content of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lidia IANCU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the effects of adding different varieties of boiled potatoes-pasta (PP, Impala (I and Orchestra (O, to wheat flour in bread making. These potato varieties were used to replace wholemeal 1250 type flour (F1 and hard wheat semolina flour (F2 in different concentrations: 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%. The rheological properties of dough with added potato were assessed by means of the flour-graphic technique. The study also determined the amount of resistant starch (RS, non-resistant starch (n-RS, total starch (TS and moisture content of the potato bread. The results showed that the water absorption (WA in the potato dough containing salt and yeast decreased by 28.8% (F2-I-PP, and by 41.2% (F1-I-PP respectively. The same happened with the dough development time, dough stability and quality number. We found out that the degree of dough softening was increased, as was the moisture content of the bread, which went from 47.7% (O-PP-F2 to 50.3% (I-PP-F1. The level of the ten analyzed sensory properties led to the conclusion that, by adding up to 20% PP, we enhance the bread quality. The RS content increased by 5.1 g/100 g d.m. for F1 bread for the 30% (O-PP-F2 potato content batch. In F2 bread, the RS content increased by up to 5.11g/100 g d.m. for the 30% (O-PP-F2 potato content batch. Given the method of analysis, RS may be a mixture of RS2 (natural granule starch and RS3 (retrograde or non crystalline retrograde. Therefore, potato bread is very healthy and recommended for its nutritional benefits.

  16. Effects of fatty acids composition and microstructure properties of fats and oils on textural properties of dough and cookie quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Amita; Khatkar, B S

    2018-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of fatty acid composition and microstructure properties of fats and oils on the textural properties of cookie dough and quality attributes of cookies. Fatty acid composition and microstructure properties of six fats and oils (butter, hydrogenated fat, palm oil, coconut oil, groundnut oil, and sunflower oil) were analyzed. Sunflower oil was found to be the most unsaturated oil with 88.39% unsaturated fatty acid content. Coconut oil and palm oil differed from other fats and oils by having an appreciable amount of lauric acid (59.36%) and palmitic acid (42.14%), respectively. Microstructure size of all fats and oils ranged from 1 to 20 μm being the largest for coconut oil and the smallest for palm oil. In palm oil, small rod-shaped and randomly arranged microstructures were observed, whereas sunflower oil and groundnut oil possessed large, scattered ovule shaped microstructures. It was reported that sunflower oil produced the softest dough, the largest cookie spread and the hardest cookie texture, whereas hydrogenated fat produced the stiffest dough, the lowest spread and most tender cookies. Statistical analysis depicted that palmitic acid and oleic acid demonstrated a positive correlation with dough hardness. Linoleic acid exhibited positive link with cookie spread ratio (r = 0.836**) and breaking strength (r = 0.792**). Microstructure size showed a significant positive relationship with dough density (r = 0.792**), cookie density (r = 0.386*), spread ratio (r = 0.312*), and breaking strength (r = 0.303*).

  17. The effects of certain enzymes on the rheology of dough and the quality characteristics of bread prepared from wheat meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınel, Burak; Ünal, S Sezgin

    2017-05-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of amyloglucosidase, glucose oxidase, hemicellulase (mainly consist of endo-1,4-β-xylanase), cellulase, lipase, and the combination of phospholipase and hemicellulase (phospholipase + hemicellulase) on the extensographic properties of dough and the quality characteristics of bread prepared from wheat meal. The enzymes were added separately in two different amounts. The addition of glucose oxidase (at 0.0003-0.001%) caused a significant decrease in the resistance to extension, ratio of resistance to extensibility and energy values of the wheat meal dough compared with the control dough. The addition of hemicellulase (at 0.001-0.005%) and phospholipase + hemicellulase (at 0.0006-0.0009%) also improved the wheat meal dough rheology by reducing the resistance to extension and the ratio of resistance to extensibility. Glucose oxidase (at 0.0003-0.001%), hemicellulase (at 0.001-0.005%) and phospholipase + hemicellulase (at 0.0006-0.0009%) addition improved the specific volume of wheat meal bread compared with the control bread. Increasing the dosage of glucose oxidase from 0.0003 to 0.001% caused a further increase in the specific volume of wheat meal bread. The addition of hemicellulase (at 0.001-0.005%) caused a significant decrease in the baking loss and an increase in the moisture content of wheat meal bread compared with the control bread. The addition of amyloglucosidase (at 0.000875-0.001%), lipase (at 0.0002-0.001%) and cellulase (at 0.0003-0.0005%) did not considerably affected the dough rheological and the quality characteristics of wheat meal bread.

  18. Global maize production, utilization, and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranum, Peter; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-04-01

    Maize (Zea mays), also called corn, is believed to have originated in central Mexico 7000 years ago from a wild grass, and Native Americans transformed maize into a better source of food. Maize contains approximately 72% starch, 10% protein, and 4% fat, supplying an energy density of 365 Kcal/100 g and is grown throughout the world, with the United States, China, and Brazil being the top three maize-producing countries in the world, producing approximately 563 of the 717 million metric tons/year. Maize can be processed into a variety of food and industrial products, including starch, sweeteners, oil, beverages, glue, industrial alcohol, and fuel ethanol. In the last 10 years, the use of maize for fuel production significantly increased, accounting for approximately 40% of the maize production in the United States. As the ethanol industry absorbs a larger share of the maize crop, higher prices for maize will intensify demand competition and could affect maize prices for animal and human consumption. Low production costs, along with the high consumption of maize flour and cornmeal, especially where micronutrient deficiencies are common public health problems, make this food staple an ideal food vehicle for fortification. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  19. In vitro utilization of amylopectin and high-amylose maize (Amylomaize) starch granules by human colonic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Conway, P L; Brown, I L; Evans, A J

    1999-11-01

    It has been well established that a certain amount of ingested starch can escape digestion in the human small intestine and consequently enters the large intestine, where it may serve as a carbon source for bacterial fermentation. Thirty-eight types of human colonic bacteria were screened for their capacity to utilize soluble starch, gelatinized amylopectin maize starch, and high-amylose maize starch granules by measuring the clear zones on starch agar plates. The six cultures which produced clear zones on amylopectin maize starch- containing plates were selected for further studies for utilization of amylopectin maize starch and high-amylose maize starch granules A (amylose; Sigma) and B (Culture Pro 958N). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to detect bacterial starch-degrading enzymes. It was demonstrated that Bifidobacterium spp., Bacteroides spp., Fusobacterium spp., and strains of Eubacterium, Clostridium, Streptococcus, and Propionibacterium could hydrolyze the gelatinized amylopectin maize starch, while only Bifidobacterium spp. and Clostridium butyricum could efficiently utilize high-amylose maize starch granules. In fact, C. butyricum and Bifidobacterium spp. had higher specific growth rates in the autoclaved medium containing high-amylose maize starch granules and hydrolyzed 80 and 40% of the amylose, respectively. Starch-degrading enzymes were cell bound on Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides cells and were extracellular for C. butyricum. Active staining for starch-degrading enzymes on SDS-PAGE gels showed that the Bifidobacterium cells produced several starch-degrading enzymes with high relative molecular (M(r)) weights (>160,000), medium-sized relative molecular weights (>66,000), and low relative molecular weights (spp. and C. butyricum degraded and utilized granules of amylomaize starch.

  20. Protein modification by fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkholt, Helle Vibeke; Jørgensen, P.B.; Sørensen, Anne Dorthe

    1998-01-01

    The effect of fermentation on components of potential significance for the allergenicity of pea was analyzed. Pea flour was fermented with three lactic acid bacteria, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus raffinolactis, and Lactobacillus plantarum, and two fungi, Rhizopus microsporus, var....... oligosporus and Geotrichum candidum. Residual antigenicity against antipea antibodies was reduced to 10% by the three lactic acid bacteria and R. microsporus. Reactions to anti-pea profilin and anti-Bet v I were still detectable after fermentation. The contents of lectin and pea protease inhibitor were...

  1. Fermentative alcohol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  2. Effect of starch fermentation in the rumen on voluntary intake of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of starch fermentation in the rumen on the kinetics of roughage digestion, was studied using 12 sheep fed three roughages, viz. lucerne hay, maize cob leaves and wheat straw. The amount of starch infused per day was increased from o to 600 g/d in steps of 20 g/d over 30 days. The amount of starch infused was ...

  3. Use of monoglyceride hydrogel for the production of low fat short dough pastry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzocco, Lara; Anese, Monica; Calligaris, Sonia; Quarta, Barbara; Nicoli, Maria Cristina

    2012-05-01

    The influence of palm oil replacement with a monoglyceride-palm oil-water gel (hydrogel) on physical properties and acrylamide content of a low fat short dough pastry was studied. The effect of the incorporation of the hydrogel was monitored during storage by assessing moisture, firmness, proton density/mobility using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and acrylamide content. The use of hydrogel allowed the lipid content of pastries to be reduced with minor effects on their quality characteristics. However, the hydrogel-containing pastries showed a crunchier crust, higher acrylamide content and a higher tendency to staling. As assessed by MRI, these results were ascribable to the development of a peculiar system morphology promoted by hydrogel incorporation in the food matrix. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Compositional Changes and Baking Performance of Rye Dough As Affected by Microbial Transglutaminase and Xylanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Isabel; Döring, Clemens; Jekle, Mario; Becker, Thomas; Koehler, Peter

    2016-07-20

    Doughs supplemented with endoxylanase (XYL) and varying amounts of microbial transglutaminase (TG) were analyzed by sequential protein extraction, quantitation of protein fractions and protein types, and determination of water-extractable arabinoxylans. With increasing TG activity, the concentration of prolamins and glutelins decreased and increased, respectively, and the prolamin-to-glutelin ratio strongly declined. The overall amount of extractable protein decreased with increasing TG level showing that cross-linking by TG provided high-molecular-weight protein aggregates. The decrease of the high-molecular-weight arabinoxylan fraction and the concurrent increase of the medium-molecular-weight fraction confirmed the degradation of arabinoxylans by XYL. However, XYL addition did not lead to significant improved cross-linking of rye proteins by TG. Volume and crumb hardness measurements of bread showed increased protein connectivity induced by XYL and TG. Significant positive effects on the final bread quality were especially obtained by XYL addition.

  5. The Influence of Xylanase Supplementation on Dough Rheology Concerning its Consistograph Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Chereji

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we determined the influence of xylanase supplementation on dough rheology concerning its consistograph parameters: maximum pressure (Pr max, (mb and water absorption (Wa, %. The consistograph analyses were conducted at constant hydration and consistency of 500UF. Determinations were made on 4 types of flour and optimal enzyme dosages were determined. Then we added the optimal enzyme dose for each type of flour as follows: F1, F2, F3, F4: P1-8100U.FXU/100kg flour, P2-16200U.FXU/100kg flour, P3-24300U.FXU/100kg flour. Fungal xylanase used in these concentrations led to the improvement of bread quality properties: finer texture of the crumb, extending freshness of bread, improving the colour and flavour, improving the slicing ability.

  6. Maize starch biphasic pasting curves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nelles, EM

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available (150–500 rev/min). The second pasting peak is attributed to the formation of complexes between amylose and low levels of lipid present in maize starch. When lipid was partially removed by extraction with methanol-chloroform (1: 3 v/v), the second...

  7. Occurrence of mycotoxins in refrigerated pizza dough and risk assessment of exposure for the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles, Juan Manuel; Saladino, Federica; Mañes, Jordi; Fernández-Franzón, Mónica; Meca, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by filamentous fungi, as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. The first objective of this research was to study the presence of mycotoxins in 60 samples of refrigerated pizza dough, by extraction with methanol and determination by liquid chromatography associated with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Then, the estimated dietary intakes (EDIs) of these mycotoxins, among the Spanish population, was calculated and the health risk assessment was performed, comparing the EDIs data with the tolerable daily intake values (TDIs). The mycotoxins detected in the analyzed samples were aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), zearalenone (ZEA), enniatin A (ENA), enniatin A1 (ENA1), enniatin (ENB), enniatin B1 (ENB1) and BEA (beauvericin) with average concentration of the positive samples of 4.09 μg/kg, 0.50 μg/kg, 0.79 μg/kg, 77.78 μg/kg, 14.96 μg/kg, 4.54 μg/kg, 3.37 μg/kg, 1.69 μg/kg and 22.39 μg/kg, respectively. The presence of ZEA, ENA1, ENB and ENB1 was detected in 100% of the samples, AFB2 in 32%, AFB1 in 23%, ENA in 8% and BEA in 3%. Twelve percent of the samples contaminated with AFB1 and 12% of the doughs contaminated with ZEA exceeded the EU legislated maximum limits. The dietary intakes were estimated considering three different age groups of population, and the EDIs calculated for the mycotoxins detected in the samples were all below the established TDI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Amaranth addition to enzymatically modified wheat flour improves dough functionality, bread immunoreactivity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Sandoval, N G; Calderón de la Barca, A M; Carvajal-Millán, E; Islas-Rubio, A R

    2018-01-24

    Consumers with gluten-related disorders require gluten-free (GF) foods to avoid an immune response. Alternative to the use of non-gluten containing grains to prepare GF bread, the gluten reactivity has been greatly reduced using a proline specific cleavage enzyme, however, the gluten functionality was lost. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding an amaranth flour blend (AFB) to enzymatically modified wheat-flour proteins on dough functionality and to evaluate the immunoreactivity and acceptability of the prepared bread. First, wheat flour (20% w/v, substrate) was hydrolyzed using 8.4 U mg -1 protein Aspergillus niger prolyl-endopeptidase (AnPEP) for 8 h at 40 °C under constant agitation. Four types of breads were prepared with the same formulation except for the type of flour (14% w.b.): wheat flour (WF), WF-AFB unmodified not incubated, WF-AFB unmodified incubated and WF-AFB modified. The protein composition and free thiols were analyzed before and after amaranth addition, and the flour and bread proteins were run using SDS-PAGE and immune-detected in blots with IgA from celiac disease patients. The immunoreactive gluten content, specific volume and bread acceptability were evaluated. The polymeric proteins and free thiol groups of WF decreased after AnPEP treatment. The electrophoretic patterns of the modified flour and bread proteins were different and the IgA-immunodetection in blots was highly reduced, particularly for the higher molecular weight subunits. The addition of AFB to the modified wheat flour prepared using AnPEP improved the dough functionality by increasing the thiol groups and allowed the preparation of a sensorially acceptable bread with only 60 mg kg -1 immunoreactive gluten.

  9. Ferment first, then compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dany, Christian

    2012-11-01

    If communal organic waste is simply dumped, it is harmful to the environment. But if it is used to produce biogas, it can become a significant source of energy. Currently, there are two dry fermentation processes available. (orig.)

  10. Methanic fermentation of manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donadeo, M

    1954-06-01

    A comparison between the chemical composition of manure ripened in conventional ditches and that of manure anaerobically fermented in tanks led to the conclusion that the latter was not satisfactory; the resulting manure was less valuable.

  11. thermo-stable alpha-amylase(S) from irradiated microbial origin utilizing agricultural and environmental wastes under solid state fermentation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, O.E.A.

    2002-01-01

    an investigation concerning the production of thermo-stable α-amylases by thermophilic bacterial and fungal isolates has been undertaken. nine thermophilic bacteria and five teen fungi were isolated from different localities viz. phyllosphere of water hyacinth, different desert plants leaves, fermented dough, oven dust, garbage , and soil. their amylolytic activities were tested by dinitrosalicylic acid color reagent (Dns) method when grown on some environmental pollutants (garbage and water hyacinth) as well as industrial wastes (Bagasse, biscuit, corn flex and dough residues ) as the sole carbon source at 65 o C for bacterial and at 50 o C for fungal isolates . isolates No. B 1 ,B 2 ,B 5 ,B 6 ,B 7 ,B 8 ,B 9 , and F 4 ,F 6 ,F 8 ,F 1 2,F 1 3 and F 1 5, exhibited the highest α -amylase production when grown on water hyacinth, while B 4 ,F 3 ,F 1 1 and F 1 3, on dough ; (B 3 ,F 9 and F 1 0 ) on bagasse and ( F 1 ,F 2 ,F 5 ,F 7 ,F 1 1 and F 1 4) on garbage. Out of the nine identified bacterial isolated, only two isolates viz; actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, B1 and strepto bacillus moniliformis, B 7 , exhibited the ability to produce high percentages of α amylases at 55 o C (while still able to produce the enzyme within 45-70 o C)

  12. Rich nutrition from the poorest - cereal fermentations in Africa and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nout, M J Rob

    2009-10-01

    Cereal fermentations in Africa and Asia involve mainly the processing of maize, rice, sorghum and the millets. Lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Pediococcus), Enterobacter spp., yeasts (Candida, Debaryomyces, Endomycopsis, Hansenula, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Trichosporon spp.) and filamentous fungi (Amylomyces, Aspergillus, Mucor, and Rhizopus spp.) contribute to desirable modifications of taste, flavour, acidity, digestibility, and texture in non-alcoholic beverages (e.g., uji, and ben-saalga), porridges (e.g., mawè) and cooked gels (e.g., kenkey, idli, and mifen). In addition, alcoholic beverages (beers such as tchoukoutou and jnard; and spirits e.g. jiu) are obtained using malt, or using amylolytic mixed microbial starter cultures as generators of fermentable substrates. Wet processing, marketing of multi-purpose intermediate products, co-fermentation for texture and nutrition, and mixed culture fermentations as practiced in indigenous fermentation processes are of interest for industrial innovation and for better control of natural mixed culture fermentation systems. On the other hand, the nutritional properties of traditional cereal fermented products can be enhanced by increasing their nutrient and energy density, as well as by increasing their mineral status by combining mineral fortification and dephytinization.

  13. Solid substrate fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengerdy, R P

    1985-04-01

    Solid Substrate Fermentation (SSF) describes the microbiological tranformation of biological materials in their natural state, in contrast with liquid or submerged fermentations which are carried out in dilute solutions or slurries. The most important industrial microorganisms used in SSF are filamentous fungi and the critical factors in their growth are the control of the moisture level and the temperature. Traditionally, most SSFs are conducted in shallow trays (so that heat build up is avoided) and stacked in a moist chamber, however, the modern SSF should be able to mix large amounts of substrate for a uniform fermentation, maximum automization scale-up of the process, continuous operation and fermentation control and a promising new design is the Helical screw fermenter. At the present time SSF is used in the production of foods (e.g. mushrooms and oriental foods) in municipal, agricultural and industrial solid waste disposal and in the production of enzymes and speciality chemicals but it does not seem likely that it will replace prevalent liquid fermentation technologies. 29 references.

  14. Extraction and characterization of natural cellulose fibers from maize tassel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maepa, CE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the extraction and characterization of novel natural cellulose fibers obtained from the maize (tassel) plant. Cellulose was extracted from the agricultural residue (waste biomaterial) of maize tassel. The maize tassel fibers...

  15. The Utilization of Premix Flour with Sorghum Mutant Lines Zh-30 Based as Material For Dough Making And Dry Noodle Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwi Djoko Slamet Santosa

    2009-01-01

    Sorghum mutant line Zh-30 is a breeding line developed at the Center for the Application of Isotope and Radiation Technology, BATAN by using mutation techniques. Gamma irradiation with the dose of 300 Gy was used to induced plant genetic variability. Through selection processes on several generations, the mutant line Zh-30 was identified to have better agronomic characteristics, better grain quality and higher yield than the original variety. Research on flour quality of this mutant line was done to identify its potential use in dry noodle. Subsequent experiments, i.e. the effect of kansui (alkaline salt Na 2 CO 3 and K 2 CO 3 ) on rheological properties of dough, the effect of egg addition on rheological properties of dough and cooked noodles. Observations were done on dough which were premix flour I, II and III with 10.2 %, 14.5 % and 17.4 % protein content respectively. The influence of each alkaline salt and their mixture on dough rheology i.e., dough consistency and resistant to extension and extensibility. The kansui Concentration applied were 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 %. Obviously premix flour I + 0.5 % kansui gave optimal consistency, resistance and extensibility of the dough. The addition of five ml egg to premix I dough + 0.5 % kansui gave optimal results. The increase of egg mellowed the dough, and increase noodle texture and reduce stickiness. Addition of five ml egg already gave significant increase of elasticity, with the highest elasticity was reached by addition of 35 ml egg, although no difference was found for 5 - 35 ml.. (author)

  16. Aflatoxin levels in maize and maize products during the 2004 food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxin levels in maize and maize products during the 2004 food poisoning ... district were received at the National Public Health Laboratory Services (NPHLS). On analysis, they were found to be highly contaminated with aflatoxin B1.

  17. Effects of defaunation on fermentation characteristics and biotin balance in an artificial rumen-simulation system (RUSITEC) receiving diets with different amounts and types of cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, H; Schröder, B; Lebzien, P; Flachowsky, G

    2006-01-01

    Biotin is required by rumen microbes for efficient fermentation. To evaluate the role of protozoa in ruminal biotin metabolism, five diets composed of grass hay or of grass hay/cereal grain mixtures were supplied to faunated or defaunated RUSITEC fermenters. In the mixed diets, hay was replaced to 33:67 or 67:33 w/w on an air-dried basis by either wheat or maize grain in order to simulate different cellulolytic and amylolytic fermentation conditions. Defaunation increased SCFA production, whereas NH4 concentration and the release of CH4 were reduced. Biotin input declined when cereal grain was used to replace the hay. With the exception of the high-wheat treatment, defaunated fermenters yielded higher biotin outputs than faunated fermenters. The biotin balance, calculated as the difference between the total biotin output (biotin in the solid residue contained in the nylon bags after fermentation plus the biotin in the effluent) and the biotin input with the feed, was negative for all the dietary treatments apart from fermenters supplied with the high-maize diet. It was less negative or, in the case of the high-maize diets, more positive for defaunated compared with faunated fermenters. It was concluded that, under normal faunated conditions, protozoa directly utilise or indirectly affect the bacterial synthesis and/or utilisation of biotin. With diets of a high fermentation potential, as realised with the high-wheat diet, protozoa prevent the development of a bacterial population that would utilise high or synthesise low amounts of biotin.

  18. Assessment of maize stem borer damage on hybrid maize varieties in Chitwan, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Buddhi Bahadur Achhami; Santa Bahadur BK; Ghana Shyam Bhandari

    2015-01-01

    Maize is the second most important cereal crop in Nepal. However, national figure of grain production still remains below than the world's average grain production per unit area. Thus, this experiment was designed to determine the suitable time of maize planting, and to assess the peak period of one of the major insects, maize stem borer, in Chitwan condition. The results showed that plant damage percentage as per the maize planting month varies significantly, and the average plant damage per...

  19. Effect of salt reduction on wheat-dough properties and quality characteristics of puff pastry with full and reduced fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silow, Christoph; Zannini, Emanuele; Axel, Claudia; Lynch, Kieran M; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-11-01

    Puff pastry is a major contributor of fat and sodium intake in many countries. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of salt (0-8.4g/100g flour) on the structure and quality characteristics of puff pastry with full and reduced (-40%) fat content as well as the rheological properties of the resulting dough. Therefore, empirical rheological tests were carried out including dough extensibility, dough stickiness and GlutoPeak test. The quality of the puff pastry was characterized with the VolScan, Texture Analyzer and C-Cell. NaCl reduction significantly changed rheological properties of the basic dough as well as a number of major quality characteristics of the puff pastry. Significant differences due to NaCl addition were found in particular for dough resistance, dough stickiness, Peak Maximum Time and Maximum Torque (ppastry containing full fat. Likewise, maximal lift, specific volume, number of cells and slice brightness increased with increasing NaCl at both fat levels. Although a sensorial comparison of puff pastries revealed that salt reduction (30%) was perceptible, no significant differences were found for all other investigated attributes. Nevertheless, a reduction of 30% salt and 40% fat in puff pastry is achievable as neither the perception and visual impression nor attributes such as volume, firmness and flavour of the final products were significantly affected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. "Achieving Mexico’s Maize Potential"

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Turrent Fernández; Timothy A. Wise; Elise Garvey

    2012-01-01

    Rising agricultural prices, combined with growing import dependence, have driven Mexico’s food import bill over $20 billion per year and increased its agricultural trade deficit. Mexico imports one-third of its maize, overwhelmingly from the United States, but three million producers grow most of the country’s white maize, which is used primarily for tortillas and many other pluricultural products for human consumption. Yield gaps are large among the country’s small to medium-scale maize farm...

  1. Defatted wheat germ application: Influence on cookies' properties with regard to its particle size and dough moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Jovana; Rakić, Dušan; Fišteš, Aleksandar; Pajin, Biljana; Lončarević, Ivana; Tomović, Vladimir; Zarić, Danica

    2017-10-01

    The introduction of agro-food industry by-products rich in bioactive compounds represents major challenge in food industry sector. The influence of wheat germ particle size (Box-Behnken experimental design. The substitution of wheat flour with wheat germ increased the protein, fat, mineral, and fiber content of the cookies. The particle size of wheat germ affected the textural properties of cookies. As the particle size of wheat germ increased, the hardness of cookies decreased. The color of the cookie was most influenced by the interaction of dough moisture content and wheat germ particle size. Wheat germ level up to 15% had no significant effect on the sensory characteristics of cookies. A suitable combination of defatted wheat germ level, its particle size, and dough moisture content can improve the nutritional value of cookies, without causing a negative effect on the cookies' sensory characteristics.

  2. Disseminating genetically modified (GM) maize technology to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disseminating genetically modified (GM) maize technology to smallholder farmers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa: extension personnel's awareness of stewardship requirements and dissemination practices.

  3. Commercial Biomass Syngas Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Daniell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of gas fermentation for the production of low carbon biofuels such as ethanol or butanol from lignocellulosic biomass is an area currently undergoing intensive research and development, with the first commercial units expected to commence operation in the near future. In this process, biomass is first converted into carbon monoxide (CO and hydrogen (H2-rich synthesis gas (syngas via gasification, and subsequently fermented to hydrocarbons by acetogenic bacteria. Several studies have been performed over the last few years to optimise both biomass gasification and syngas fermentation with significant progress being reported in both areas. While challenges associated with the scale-up and operation of this novel process remain, this strategy offers numerous advantages compared with established fermentation and purely thermochemical approaches to biofuel production in terms of feedstock flexibility and production cost. In recent times, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology techniques have been applied to gas fermenting organisms, paving the way for gases to be used as the feedstock for the commercial production of increasingly energy dense fuels and more valuable chemicals.

  4. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION AND SELECTION OF CEREALS FOR PREPARATION AND UTILIZATION OF FERMENTED FIBER-BETAGLUCAN PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Duchoňová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Whole grains flours of diverse colored wheat species (Triticum sp. and various varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare and oat (Avena sativa were analysed for their nutritional composition. The highest protein values were observed in wheat yellow variety BONA DEA (14% and also in blue variety UC 66049 (13%. Lower content of starch was determined in barley and oat varieties in compared to wheat varieties. The lowest levels of betaglucans were observed in wheat (0.3 – 0.6% and the highest content was assessed in barley and oat (2.5 – 3.8%. Variation in dietary fiber was considerable in barley and oat varieties. Barley varieties possessed significantly the highest content of total dietary fiber among all monitored cereals (≈17%, while oat grains showed significantly the lowest values (≤7%. Knowledge of the composition of healthy substances was used to select the best variety for the development of fermented product which was developed using specially prepared oat flour and potentially probiotic lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum. The series of fermentation experiments resulted in a final gelatinous product with vital bacterial cell count about 1010 CFU.g-1, significantly reduced level of starch (1.7% and following nutritional characteristics: dry matter of 12.91%, water activity of 0.977, pH value 4.6 and lactic acid content of 2.95 g/l. Final product was added into the dough in different quantities and served also as a starter culture. Rheological properties of dough were evaluated for the purpose of finding a suitable recipe.

  6. Investigations on the effect of forage source, grinding, and urea supplementation on ruminal fermentation and microbial protein flow in a semi-continuous rumen simulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Bastian; Boguhn, Jeannette; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of maize silage and grass silage on microbial fermentation and protein flow in a semi-continuous rumen simulation system (Rusitec) when milling screen size (MSS) during grinding was varied. Oven-dried silages were milled through screens of 1, 4 or 9 mm pore size and incubated for 48 h in a Rusitec system. Furthermore, the effect of N supplementation to maize silage (MSS: 4 mm) was investigated and single dose vs. continuous infusion of urea-N were compared. Degradation of organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), fibre fractions and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) as well as short-chain fatty acid production differed significantly between forage sources. Urea-N supplementation improved the degradation of NSC, but not that of fibre fractions in maize silage. The way of urea supply had only marginal effects on fermentation characteristics. An increase in MSS, and consequently in mean feed particle size, led to an improvement in the degradation of OM, CP and NSC, but efficiency of microbial net protein synthesis (EMPS; mg microbial N flow/g degraded OM) and the microbial amino acid profile were less affected. EMPS was higher in grass silage than in maize silage and was improved by urea-N supplementation in maize silage. This study indicates that fermentation of NSC as well as EMPS during incubation of maize silage was limited by availability of NH3-N. Furthermore, an increase in MSS above 1 mm seems to improve fermentation of silages in the Rusitec system.

  7. Characterization of textural, rheological, thermal, microstructural, and water mobility in wheat flour dough and bread affected by trehalose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Li, Youqian; Ding, Shiyong; Yang, Jun

    2017-10-15

    The study aims to elucidate the effects of trehalose on the mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties of wheat flour dough and water distribution in bread. Texture profile analysis, DSC, farinograph, extensograph, and frequency sweep were applied in dough. The results from SEM revealed that the gluten film became less notable with the presence of trehalose. The kinetics of staling process, low-field 1 H NMR, and water-binding capacity were employed to characterize physicochemical properties of bread. Trehalose decreased the staling rate constant k, indicating an inhibitory effect on firming process in bread. Trehalose had the ability to retain water by hindering the interaction among water molecules, gluten and starch, thus relatively increasing the immobility of the part of water represented by T 22 in low-field 1 H NMR tests. Trehalose restricted water mobilization during storage, resulting in a better water-holding capacity. Our findings reveal that trehalose could be an improver in dough and bread-making performance, as well as an antistaling agent in bread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tańska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 % of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough.

  9. Utilization of a maltotetraose-producing amylase as a whole wheat bread improver: dough rheology and baking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Woosung; Lee, Sung Ho; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Lee, Suyong

    2014-08-01

    A maltotetraose-producing enzyme (G4-amylase) was utilized to improve the baking performance of whole-grain wheat flour. Whole-grain bread dough prepared with G4-amylase showed reduced water absorption and increased development time, while the dough stability was not affected. Also, the G4-amylase-treated samples exhibited lower Mixolab torque values than the control upon heating and cooling. Rheological measurements showed the decreased ratio of Rmax /E and increased tan δ, clearly demonstrating that the viscous characteristics of whole-grain bread dough became dominant with increasing levels of G4-amylase. The use of G4-amylase produced whole-grain wheat breads with a variety of maltooligosaccharides, primarily maltotetraose that positively contributed to the bread volume (1.2-fold higher than the control). Moreover, G4-amylase delayed the crumb firming of whole-grain wheat bread during a 7-d storage period, showing that it can function as an antiretrogradation agent to enhance the quality attributes of whole-grain wheat bread. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Influence of doum (Hyphaene thebaica L.) flour addition on dough mixing properties, bread quality and antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboshora, Waleed; Lianfu, Zhang; Dahir, Mohammed; Qingran, Meng; Musa, Abubakr; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Omar, Khamis Ali

    2016-01-01

    In this covenant of functional foods, the world seeks for new healthier food products with appropriate proportions of bioactive constituents such as fiber, mineral elements, phenols and flavonoids. The doum fruit has good nutritional and pharmaceutical properties; therefore, its incorporation in breads could be beneficial in improving human health. In the current study, partial substitution of wheat flour (WF) with doum fruit flour (DFF) at levels of 5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % were carried out to investigate the dough viscoelastic properties, baking performance, proximate compositions and antioxidant properties of the breads. Partial substitution of WF with DFF increased the water absorption and developing time of dough (P ≤ 0.05), while, the dough extensibility, resistance to extension and the deformation energy were reduced. Bread supplemented with DFF resulted in a reduction in quality in terms of specific loaf volume, conferred softness, hardness, cohesiveness and gumminess to the bread crumbs. DFF up to 15 % could partially replace WF in bread; increase its nutritional value in terms of fiber content and minerals, with only a small depreciation in the bread quality. Sensory evaluation showed that breads supplemented up to 15 % DFF were acceptable to the panelists and there was no significant difference in terms of taste, texture and overall acceptability compared to the control. The incorporation of DFF increased the total phenolic contents, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant properties compared to the control (for both flour and bread).

  11. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Rotkiewicz, Daniela; Piętak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Summary This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough. PMID:27904407

  12. Study of the role of bran water binding and the steric hindrance by bran in straight dough bread making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemdane, S; Langenaeken, N A; Jacobs, P J; Verspreet, J; Delcour, J A; Courtin, C M

    2018-07-01

    This study investigates the effect of the physical presence and water binding of wheat bran during bread making, and the possible mechanisms behind this effect. Regular bran, pericarp-enriched bran and synthetic bran-like particles with different water binding capacities and particle sizes were used. Incorporation of regular and pericarp-enriched bran in dough (15% dm) led to a lower oven rise than the control dough. Bread volumes decreased with 11% and 30%, respectively. Dough with synthetic bran, having a low water binding capacity, displayed a near to normal leavening and oven rise and resulted in a bread volume decrease of only 5% compared to the control. Particle size reduction of regular bran and synthetic bran to an average size of 200 µm did not affect final bread quality. Results indicate that water binding by bran affects bread quality the most, whereas steric hindrance by physical presence of bran particles is less determinative. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The influence of plant protein on the properties of dough and the quality of wholemeal spelt bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Filipčev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the effect of a soy protein concentrate (protein content 65% as a substituent (substituting 20% wholegrain spelt flour and a pea protein isolate (protein concentration 90% as a substituent (substituting 5% and 10% wholegrain spelt flour on the rheological characteristics of spelt dough and on the physical and sensory characteristics of spelt bread enriched with proteins. The stability of dough supplemented with a soy protein concentrate has turned out to be higher than the stability of dough supplemented with pea protein isolates. It is probably the result of different protein behaviour in soybeans and peas. The applied ingredients have manifested different effects on the specific bread volume. In comparison to the control bread, the specific volume of bread samples have been reduced significantly with addition of a 20% soy protein concentrate and a 10% pea protein isolate (from 1.83 ml/g to 1.39 and 1.38 respectively. On the other hand, addition of a 5% pea protein isolate has not brought to a significant decline in the specific bread volume. Addition of a 10% pea protein isolate has increased the chewiness while this parameter has not changed significantly in relation to the control bread with addition of 5% pea protein and 20% soy protein. Spelt bread with 5% pea isolated protein is the most acceptable according to the overall sensory acceptance among all the analysed samples.

  14. The iojap gene in maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martienssen, Robert

    2001-12-01

    The classical maize mutant iojap (Iodent japonica) has variegated green and white leaves. Green sectors have cells with normal chloroplasts whereas white sectors have cells where plastids fail to differentiate. These mutant plastids, when transmitted through the female gametophyte, do not recover in the presence of wild type Iojap. We cloned the Ij locus, and we have investigated the mechanism of epigenetic inheritance and phenotypic expression. More recently, a modifier of this type of variegation, ''Inhibitor of striate'', has also been cloned. Both the iojap and inhibitor of striate proteins have homologs in bacteria and are members of ancient conserved families found in multiple species. These tools can be used to address fundamental questions of inheritance and variegation associated with this classical conundrum of maize genetics. Since the work of Rhoades there has been considerable speculation concerning the nature of the Iojap gene product, the origin of leaf variegation and the mechanism behind the material inheritance of defective plastids. This has made Iojap a textbook paradigm for cytoplasmic inheritance and nuclear-organellar interaction for almost 50 years. Cloning of the Iojap gene in maize, and homologs in other plants and bacteria, provides a new means to address the origin of heteroplastidity, variegation and cytoplasmic inheritance in higher plants.

  15. Proteomics of Maize Root Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochholdinger, Frank; Marcon, Caroline; Baldauf, Jutta A; Yu, Peng; Frey, Felix P

    2018-01-01

    Maize forms a complex root system with structurally and functionally diverse root types that are formed at different developmental stages to extract water and mineral nutrients from soil. In recent years proteomics has been intensively applied to identify proteins involved in shaping the three-dimensional architecture and regulating the function of the maize root system. With the help of developmental mutants, proteomic changes during the initiation and emergence of shoot-borne, lateral and seminal roots have been examined. Furthermore, root hairs were surveyed to understand the proteomic changes during the elongation of these single cell type structures. In addition, primary roots have been used to study developmental changes of the proteome but also to investigate the proteomes of distinct tissues such as the meristematic zone, the elongation zone as well as stele and cortex of the differentiation zone. Moreover, subcellular fractions of the primary root including cell walls, plasma membranes and secreted mucilage have been analyzed. Finally, the superior vigor of hybrid seedling roots compared to their parental inbred lines was studied on the proteome level. In summary, these studies provide novel insights into the complex proteomic interactions of the elaborate maize root system during development.

  16. Proteomics of Maize Root Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Hochholdinger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Maize forms a complex root system with structurally and functionally diverse root types that are formed at different developmental stages to extract water and mineral nutrients from soil. In recent years proteomics has been intensively applied to identify proteins involved in shaping the three-dimensional architecture and regulating the function of the maize root system. With the help of developmental mutants, proteomic changes during the initiation and emergence of shoot-borne, lateral and seminal roots have been examined. Furthermore, root hairs were surveyed to understand the proteomic changes during the elongation of these single cell type structures. In addition, primary roots have been used to study developmental changes of the proteome but also to investigate the proteomes of distinct tissues such as the meristematic zone, the elongation zone as well as stele and cortex of the differentiation zone. Moreover, subcellular fractions of the primary root including cell walls, plasma membranes and secreted mucilage have been analyzed. Finally, the superior vigor of hybrid seedling roots compared to their parental inbred lines was studied on the proteome level. In summary, these studies provide novel insights into the complex proteomic interactions of the elaborate maize root system during development.

  17. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous...... morphology, together with non-Newtonian rheological properties (shear thinning), result in poor oxygen transfer unless sufficient energy is provided to the fermentation. While genomic research may improve the organisms, there is no doubt that to enable further application in future it will be necessary...... to match such research with studies of oxygen transfer and energy supply to high viscosity fluids. Hence, the implementation of innovative solutions (some of which in principle are already possible) will be essential to ensure the further development of such fermentations....

  18. Regression and artificial neural network modeling for the prediction of gray leaf spot of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P A; Munkvold, G P

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT Regression and artificial neural network (ANN) modeling approaches were combined to develop models to predict the severity of gray leaf spot of maize, caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis. In all, 329 cases consisting of environmental, cultural, and location-specific variables were collected for field plots in Iowa between 1998 and 2002. Disease severity on the ear leaf at the dough to dent plant growth stage was used as the response variable. Correlation and regression analyses were performed to select potentially useful predictor variables. Predictors from the best 9 of 80 regression models were used to develop ANN models. A random sample of 60% of the cases was used to train the networks, and 20% each for testing and validation. Model performance was evaluated based on coefficient of determination (R(2)) and mean square error (MSE) for the validation data set. The best models had R(2) ranging from 0.70 to 0.75 and MSE ranging from 174.7 to 202.8. The most useful predictor variables were hours of daily temperatures between 22 and 30 degrees C (85.50 to 230.50 h) and hours of nightly relative humidity >/=90% (122 to 330 h) for the period between growth stages V4 and V12, mean nightly temperature (65.26 to 76.56 degrees C) for the period between growth stages V12 and R2, longitude (90.08 to 95.14 degrees W), maize residue on the soil surface (0 to 100%), planting date (in day of the year; 112 to 182), and gray leaf spot resistance rating (2 to 7; based on a 1-to-9 scale, where 1 = most susceptible to 9 = most resistant).

  19. Yeast diversity in rice-cassava fermentations produced by the indigenous Tapirapé people of Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwan, Rosane F.; Almeida, Euziclei G.; Souza-Dias, Maria Aparecida G.

    2007-01-01

    and peanuts. A fermentation using rice and cassava was conducted, and samples were collected at 4-h intervals for microbial analysis. The yeast population was low at the beginning of the fermentation and reached 6.9 x 10(7) CFU mL(-1) after 48 h. During the fermentation process common yeast species were......The Tapirapé people of the Tapi'itãwa tribe of Brazil produce several fermented foods and beverages, one of which is called 'cauim'. This beverage usually makes up the main staple food for adults and children. Several substrates are used in its production, including cassava, rice, corn, maize...... identified by sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit (26S) rRNA gene. The predominant yeast species found was Candida tropicalis. Candida intermedia, Candida parapsilosis, Pichia guilliermondii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Trichosporon asahii were also found in high numbers during...

  20. Koji for alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, T; Ogihara, H

    1956-06-25

    The pressed cake of fermented alcohol mash was used for preparing koji. The cake included considerable amounts of sugar, N-containing materials, enzymes, and vitamins, and gave a high-quality koji for alcohol fermentation. For example, the cake can be mixed with wheat bran and rice husks in the proportion 6:5:0 or 6:2:3 to make koji in the usual way. The saccharification power of the new koji was about 1.1 to 1.2 times as strong as that of usual koji prepared from wheat bran and rice husks.

  1. EFFECT OF INOCULANT PIONEER 1188 IN MAIZE SILAGE ON COW MILKING CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zimmer

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available First investigation part, started on 1 September 2001 by feeding 473 cows (401 dairy and 72 dry and finished on 13 November by feeding 474 cows (409 dairy and 65 dry, was characterized by the main ration consisting of maize silage without inoculant. This period was known for a maximum number of housed cows being 490 (423 dairy and 67 dry and minimum 469 (395 dairy and 74 dry. Daily average of stable milk production was 17.06 l with 3.48% of lactic fat on the average. Second part of the investigation, started on 14 November 2001 by feeding 474 cows (411 dairy and 63 dry and finished on 31 March 2002 by feeding 464 cows (395 dairy and 69 dry, was known for the basic ration contained maize silage enriched by inoculant Pioneer 1188.This period was characterized by a maximum number of housed cows being 482 (404 dairy and 57 dry. Daily average of stable milk production was 18.67 l and 3.58% of lactic fat. The main ration was composed of silage maize, highly wet maize, pearl barley, stock meal, sunflower cake, hay, salt and VAM. Inoculant Pioneer contained 6 strains of lactic-sour fermentation selected bacteria whose viability is basis of a successful product. In fact, it is a micro-granulated product added, by Gandy doser, to amount of 0.5 kg per green mass/t. Inoculant Pioneer 1188 was in this research added in a dose of 0.436 kg t-1 silage maize. Daily average of stable milk production increased by 1.61l i.e. 9.4% and lactic fat from 3.48% to 3.58% i.e. 2.9%.

  2. Use of enzymes to minimize the rheological dough problems caused by high levels of damaged starch in starch-gluten systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Gabriela N; León, Alberto E; Ribotta, Pablo D

    2016-05-01

    During wheat milling, starch granules can experience mechanical damage, producing damaged starch. High levels of damaged starch modify the physicochemical properties of wheat flour, negatively affecting the dough behavior as well as the flour quality and cookie and bread making quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of α-amylase, maltogenic amylase and amyloglucosidase on dough rheology in order to propose alternatives to reduce the issues related to high levels of damaged starch. The dough with a high level of damaged starch became more viscous and resistant to deformations as well as less elastic and extensible. The soluble fraction of the doughs influenced the rheological behavior of the systems. The α-amylase and amyloglucosidase reduced the negative effects of high damaged starch contents, improving the dough rheological properties modified by damaged starch. The rheological behavior of dough with the higher damaged-starch content was related to a more open gluten network arrangement as a result of the large size of the swollen damaged starch granules. We can conclude that the dough rheological properties of systems with high damaged starch content changed positively as a result of enzyme action, particularly α-amylase and amyloglucosidase additions, allowing the use of these amylases and mixtures of them as corrective additives. Little information was reported about amyloglucosidase activity alone or combined with α-amylase. The combinations of these two enzymes are promising to minimize the negative effects caused by high levels of damaged starch on product quality. More research needs to be done on bread quality combining these two enzymes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Decomposition and fertilizing effects of maize stover and chromolaena odorata on maize yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetteh, F.M.; Safo, E.Y.; Quansah, C.

    2008-01-01

    The quality, rates of decomposition and the fertilizing effect of chromolaena odorata, and maize stover were determined in field experiments as surface application or buried in litter bags. Studies on the effect of plant materials of contrasting qualities (maize stover and C. odorata) applied sole (10 Mg ha -1 ) and mixed, on maize grain and biomass yield were also conducted on the Asuansi (Ferric Acrisol) soil series. Total nitrogen content of the residues ranged from 0.85% in maize stover to 3.50% in C. odorata. Organic carbon ranged from 34.90% in C. odorata to 48.50% in maize stover. Phosphorus ranged from 0.10% in maize stover to 0.76% in C. odorata. In the wet season, the decomposition rate constants (k) were 0.0319 day -1 for C. odorata, and 0.0081 for maize stover. In the dry season, the k values were 0.0083 for C. odorata, and 0.0072 day -1 for maize stover. Burying of the plant materials reduced the half-life (t 50 ) periods from 18 to 10 days for C. odorata, and 45 to 20 days for maize stover. Maize grain yield of 2556 kg ha -1 was obtained in sole C. odorata (10 Mg ha -1 ) compared with 2167 kg ha -1 for maize stover. Mixing of maize stover and C. odorata residues improved the nutrient content as well as nutrient release by the mixtures resulting in greater maize grain yields in the mixtures than the sole maize stover treatment. It is recommended that C. odorata be used as green manure, mulching or composting material to improve fertility. (au)

  4. PERFORMANCE OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS) CULTIVARS AS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    reported to have low remobilisation efficiency and reduced plasticity of seed weight to assimilate availability ... have indicated that the use of organo-mineral fertiliser in maize and melon gave high relative .... The soil physical and chemical characteristics of ..... yield in maize by examining genetic improvement and heterosis.

  5. (SSR) markers for drought tolerance in maize

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize is moderately sensitive to drought. Drought affects virtually all aspects of maize growth in varying degrees at all stages, from germination to maturity. Tolerance to drought is genetically and physiologically complicated and inherited quantitatively. Application of molecular-marker aided selection technique for ...

  6. Comparative study on the freeze stability of yeast and chemical leavened steamed bread dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Yang, Runqiang; Gu, Zhenxin; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-04-15

    The present study comparatively evaluated the evolution of yeast and chemical leavened steamed bread dough (YLD/CLD) quality during freeze/thaw (FT) cycles. The steamed bread quality of CLD was more freeze-stable than that of the YLD after 3 FT cycles. Decreased yeast viability contributed to the loss of gassing power in YLD while no significant differences were observed for CLD during FT cycles. However, faster gas release rate in frozen CLD indicated gas retention loss due to the distortion of gluten network. Glutenin macropolymers (GMP) depolymerization via breakage of inter-chain disulfide (SS) bonds and conversions of α-helix and β-turn to β-sheet structures were the main indicators of gluten deterioration. Gluten network was more vulnerable in frozen YLD, resulting in detectable loss of viscoelasticity. The results suggested that supplement of chemical leavener contributed to a more freeze-tolerant gluten network besides its stable gassing power. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of inulin on the structure and emulsifying properties of protein components in dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Luo, Denglin; Li, Xuan; Xu, Baocheng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Jianxue

    2016-11-01

    High-purity gliadin, glutenin and gluten fractions were extracted from wheat gluten flour. To investigate the effects of three types of inulin with different degrees of polymerization (DP) on the emulsifying properties, disulfide contents, secondary structures and microstructures of these fractions, Turbidimetry, spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used in this study. The results showed that the emulsifying activity of gliadin was higher than that of glutenin and gluten, but its emulsion stability was lower than that of glutenin. Adding inulin increased the emulsifying activity of the three protein fractions and emulsion stability of gliadin and gluten, but decreased the emulsion stability of glutenin and disulfide bond contents of glutenin and gluten. In the presence of inulin, the α-helical structure of the three proteins had no significant change, whereas the β-turn structure decreased and β-sheet structure increased. The SEM images showed that inulin had the most significant effect on the glutenin microstructure. In general, inulin with a higher DP had greater effects on the structure and emulsifying properties of protein components in dough. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of dough ingredients on 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) formation in toast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitling-Utzmann, C M; Hrenn, H; Haase, N U; Unbehend, G M

    2005-02-01

    The influence of different dough ingredients such as fat, salt, sourdough, emulsifiers, and sugar on the formation of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) during toast preparation under domestic conditions was investigated. In comparison with a fat-free recipe, addition of 1% peanut fat considerably increased 3-MCPD formation, but varying the fat (2-5%) or salt (1.6-2.4%) contents within technological acceptable limits did not show any significant differences. A baking agent, which is usually commercially applied by many toast bakers or industrial toast manufacturers, increased 3-MCPD formation in toasted bread slices. Considerable evidence was found that the baking agent's main component sucrose had the major part in increasing 3-MCPD levels. Emulsifiers containing monoacylglycerols moderately increased 3-MCPD levels, but the addition of lecithin did not have any significant influence. 3-MCPD levels showed a good correlation with the lightness (L* value) of the bread slices; their 3-MCPD content increased exponentially towards dark coloured toasts. The relation between 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD was an average of 3:1 in all samples. Dichloropropanols such as, for example, 1,3-dichloropropanol could not be detected.

  9. A double stage dry-wet-fermentation process for a fast and safe digestion of different kinds of organic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, G.; Sieber, M.; Buschmann, J.; Burkhardat, M.

    2009-01-01

    The fermentation of organic material is a four-step-process. It is admissible to merge the first two steps (hydrolysis and acidification) to hydrolysis in general and the last two steps (aceto genesis and methano genesis) to methano genesis. The Brandenburg University of Technology in Cottbus has devised a double stage dry-wet-fermentation process for fast and safe anaerobic degradation. Using these processes, it is possible to decompose different kinds of organic material like renewable material (e. g. maize silage), waste (e. g. household-waste) and industrial material (e. g. glycerine). (Author)

  10. Ethyl alcohol by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-02-13

    Ethanol is made from solutions poor in sugar and free of yeast carriers, e.g. from whey, by fermentation under sterile conditions. The CO/sub 2/ formed in the decomposition of sugar is used as an agitating medium to ensure good contact between the yeast and the sugar.

  11. Fermentative Alcohol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martín, Mariano; Sánchez, Antonio; Woodley, John M.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter we present some of key principles of bioreactor design for the production of alcohols by fermentation of sugar and syngas . Due to the different feedstocks, a detailed analysis of the hydrodynamics inside the units , bubble columns or stirred tank reactors , the gas-liquid mass...

  12. Fermentative production of isobutene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Bianca N M; van der Wulp, Albertus M; Duijnstee, Isabelle; van Maris, Antonius J A; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2012-02-01

    Isobutene (2-methylpropene) is one of those chemicals for which bio-based production might replace the petrochemical production in the future. Currently, more than 10 million metric tons of isobutene are produced on a yearly basis. Even though bio-based production might also be achieved through chemocatalytic or thermochemical methods, this review focuses on fermentative routes from sugars. Although biological isobutene formation is known since the 1970s, extensive metabolic engineering is required to achieve economically viable yields and productivities. Two recent metabolic engineering developments may enable anaerobic production close to the theoretical stoichiometry of 1isobutene + 2CO(2) + 2H(2)O per mol of glucose. One relies on the conversion of 3-hydroxyisovalerate to isobutene as a side activity of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase and the other on isobutanol dehydration as a side activity of engineered oleate hydratase. The latter resembles the fermentative production of isobutanol followed by isobutanol recovery and chemocatalytic dehydration. The advantage of a completely biological route is that not isobutanol, but instead gaseous isobutene is recovered from the fermenter together with CO(2). The low aqueous solubility of isobutene might also minimize product toxicity to the microorganisms. Although developments are at their infancy, the potential of a large scale fermentative isobutene production process is assessed. The production costs estimate is 0.9 Euro kg(-1), which is reasonably competitive. About 70% of the production costs will be due to the costs of lignocellulose hydrolysate, which seems to be a preferred feedstock.

  13. Characterization of Indian and exotic quality protein maize (QPM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polymorphism analysis and genetic diversity of normal maize and quality protein maize (QPM) inbreds among locally well adapted germplasm is a prerequisite for hybrid maize breeding program. The diversity analyses of 48 maize accessions including Indian and exotic germplasm using 75 simple sequence repeat (SSR) ...

  14. Exploring maize-legume intercropping systems in Southwest Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores-Sanchez, D.; Pastor, A.V.; Lantinga, E.A.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Kropff, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Maize yields in continuous maize production systems of smallholders in the Costa Chica, a region in Southwest Mexico, are low despite consistent inputs of fertilizers and herbicides. This study was aimed at investigating the prospects of intercropping maize (Zea mays L.) and maize-roselle (Hibiscus

  15. Selection for drought tolerance in two tropical maize populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drought is a major factor limiting maize (Zea mays L.) yield in much of the world. The need to breed maize cultivars with improved drought tolerance is apparent. This study compared two maize populations, ZM601 and ZM607 for drought tolerance during flowering, the most drought-vulnerable period for the maize plant.

  16. Consumer preferences for maize products in urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Hugo; Kimenju, Simon Chege

    2012-06-01

    New maize varieties have been biofortified with provitamin A, mainly a-carotene, which renders the grain yellow or orange. Unfortunately, many African consumers prefer white maize. The maize consumption patterns in Africa are, however, not known. To determine which maize products African consumers prefer to purchase and which maize preparations they prefer to eat. A survey of 600 consumers was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya, at three types of maize outlets: posho mills (small hammer mills), kiosks, and supermarkets. Clients of posho mills had lower incomes and less education than those of kiosks and supermarkets. The preferred maize product of the posho-mill clients was artisanal maize meal; the preferred product of the others was industrial maize meal. Maize is the preferred staple for lunch and dinner, eaten as a stiff porridge (ugali), followed by boiled maize and beans (githeri), regardless of socioeconomic background. For breakfast, only half the consumers prefer maize, mostly as a soft porridge (uji). This proportion is higher in low-income groups. Consumers show a strong preference for white maize over yellow, mostly for its organoleptic characteristics, and show less interest in biofortified maize. Maize is the major food staple in Nairobi, mostly eaten in a few distinct preparations. For biofortified yellow maize to be accepted, a strong public awareness campaign to inform consumers is needed, based on a sensory evaluation and the mass media, in particular on radio in the local language.

  17. Comparison of the effect of benzoic acid addition on the fermentation process quality with untreated silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Doležal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of benzoic acid and formic acid (positive control of ensilaged maize and pressed sugar beet pulp on quality fermentation processes was studied in a laboratory experiment. The effect of additive on the quality of fermentation process during maize ensiling was studied in a first model experiment. Preservatives such as formic acid and benzoic acid were added to ensiled maize at the concentration of 1L/t and 1 kg/t, respectively. When benzoic acid was used as a preservative, the pH and the N-NH3/ N total ratio decreased statistically (PSugar beet pulp silages with benzoic acid or formic acid after 32 days of storage had a better sensuous evaluation than the control silage. The most intensive decrease of pH value was observed after formic acid addition as compared with control silage. The statistically significantly (P<0.05 highest lactic acid content (49.64 ± 0.28 as well as the highest ratio of LA/VFA were found in the sugar beet pulp silage with benzoic acid. Lactic acid constituted the highest percentage (P<0.05 of all fermentation acids in the silage with benzoic acid additive (65.12 ± 0.80. Undesirable butyric acid (BA was not found in any variant of silages. The positive correlation between the titration acidity and acids sum in dry matter of silage conserved with formic acid was found. The additive of organic acids reduced significantly TA and fermentation acids content. Between the pH value and lactic acid content, no correlation was found.

  18. Glucconeogenesis in Dairy Cows: The Secret of Making Sweet Milk from Sour Dough

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschenbach, Jörg R; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Donkin, Shawn S

    2010-01-01

    Gluconeogenesis is a crucial process to support glucose homeostasis when nutritional supply with glucose is insufficient. Because ingested carbohydrates are efficiently fermented to short-chain fatty acids in the rumen, ruminants are required to meet the largest part of their glucose demand by de...

  19. Risk Adjusted Production Efficiency of Maize Farmers in Ethiopia: Implication for Improved Maize Varieties Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisay Diriba Lemessa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the technical efficiency and production risk of 862 maize farmers in major maize producing regions of Ethiopia. It employs the stochastic frontier approach (SFA to estimate the level of technical efficiencies of stallholder farmers. The stochastic frontier approach (SFA uses flexible risk properties to account for production risk. Thus, maize production variability is assessed from two perspectives, the production risk and the technical efficiency. The study also attempts to determine the socio-economic and farm characteristics that influence technical efficiency of maize production in the study area. The findings of the study showed the existence of both production risk and technical inefficiency in maize production process. Input variables (amounts per hectare such as fertilizer and labor positively influence maize output. The findings also show that farms in the study area exhibit decreasing returns to scale. Fertilizer and ox plough days reduce output risk while labor and improved seed increase output risk. The mean technical efficiency for maize farms is 48 percent. This study concludes that production risk and technical inefficiency prevents the maize farmers from realizing their frontier output. The best factors that improve the efficiency of the maize farmers in the study area include: frequency of extension contact, access to credit and use of intercropping. It was also realized that altitude and terracing in maize farms had influence on farmer efficiency.

  20. The influence of Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci on dough rheology and bread-making properties in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) doubled haploid lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Monika; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Salmanowicz, Bolesław P; Adamski, Tadeusz; Krajewski, Paweł; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Surma, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The major determinants of wheat quality are Glu-1 and Glu-3 glutenin loci and environmental factors. Additive effects of alleles at the Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci, as well as their interactions, were evaluated for dough rheology and baking properties in four groups of wheat doubled haploid lines differing in high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin composition. Flour quality, Reomixer (Reologica Instruments, Lund, Sweden), dough extension, Farinograph (Brabender GmbH, Duisburg, Germany) and baking parameters were determined. Groups of lines with the alleles Glu-A3b and Glu-B3d were characterized by higher values of dough and baking parameters compared to those with the Glu-A3e and Glu-B3a alleles. Effects of interactions between allelic variants at the Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci on Reomixer parameters, dough extension tests and baking parameters were significant, although additive effects of individual alleles were not always significant. The allelic variants at Glu-B3 had a much greater effect on dough rheological parameters than the variants at Glu-A3 or Glu-D3 loci. The effect of allelic variations at the Glu-D3 loci on rheological parameters and bread-making quality was non-significant, whereas their interactions with a majority of alleles at the other Glu-1 × Glu-3 loci were significant. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. INTEGRATED WEED CONTROL IN MAIZE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latré, J; Dewitte, K; Derycke, V; De Roo, B; Haesaert, G

    2015-01-01

    Integrated pest management has been implemented as a general practice by EU legislation. As weed control actually is the most important crop protection measure in maize for Western Europe, the new legislation will have its impact. The question is of course which systems can be successfully implemented in practice with respect to labour efficiency and economical parameters. During 3 successive growing seasons (2007, 2008, 2009) weed control in maize was evaluated, the main focus was put on different techniques of integrated weed control and was compared with chemical weed control. Additionally, during 4 successive growing seasons (2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014) two objects based on integrated weed control and two objects based on mechanical weed control were compared to about twenty different objects of conventional chemical weed control. One of the objects based on mechanical weed control consisted of treatment with the flex-tine harrow before and after emergence in combination with chemical weed control at a reduced rate in 3-4 leave stage. The second one consisted of broadcast mechanical treatments before and after emergence followed by a final in-row application of herbicides and an inter-row cultivation at 6-7(8) leave stage. All trials were conducted on the Experimental farm of Bottelare HoGent-UGent on a sandy loam soil. Maize was growing in 1/3 crop rotation. The effect on weed growth as well as the economic impact of the different applications was evaluated. Combining chemical and mechanical weed control is a possible option in conventional farming but the disadvantages must be taken into account. A better planned weed control based on the real present weed-population in combination with a carefully thought-out choice of herbicides should also be considered as an IPM--approach.

  2. Propriedades químicas e de pasta dos amidos de trigo e milho fosforilados Chemical and past properties of wheat and maize starches phosphorilads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Pereira Batista

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os amidos de trigo e milho foram fosforilados com tripolifosfato de sódio (TPS em 4 diferentes níveis de adição. As viscosidades máximas da pasta de trigo aumentaram e as temperaturas de pasta diminuíram à medida que cresceram os graus de substituição de grupos fosfato, enquanto que, para o amido de milho, as viscosidades máximas aumentaram e as temperaturas de pasta mantiveram-se constantes. Os amidos fosforilados (amido/água 1:10 foram submetidos à cocção (100,0 ºC/1,0 minuto, secagem (40,0 ºC/~4,0% de umidade e moagem (diâmetro de partícula, Φ = 0,149 mm para determinar o teor de amido resistente (AR. Para o menor grau de substituição de grupos fosfato no amido de trigo (0,0029, foi encontrado um teor de amido resistente de 30,46% e no amido de milho de 24,36%. Para o maior grau de substituição no amido de trigo (0,0127, foi encontrado um teor de AR de 46,69%, enquanto para o amido de milho, 28,40%. O aumento do grau de substituição, em ambos os casos, parece induzir um aumento no teor de amido resistente, e a fosforilação com TPS mostrou ser um excelente método para produzir quantidades significativas de amido resistente tanto no amido de trigo como no amido de milho.Wheat and maize starches were phosphorylated with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPS at 4 different levels of addition. The maximum viscosities of the wheat doughs formed were increased and the dough temperatures decreased as the degrees of substitution of phosphate groups were increased; while for the maize starch the viscosities were increased and the dough temperatures remained constant. The phosphorylated starches (starch/water, 1:10 were subjected to cooking (100 ºC/1 minute, followed by drying (40 ºC/~ 4.0 per cent moisture and milling (particle diameter, Φ = 0.149 mm to determine the resistant starch (RS content. For the lowest degree of substitution of phosphate groups in wheat starch (0.0029, resistant starch content of 30.46 per cent was found

  3. Carbaryl residues in maize products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mansour, S.A.; Mostafa, I.Y.; Hassan, A.

    1976-01-01

    The 14 C-labelled insecticide carbaryl was synthesized from [1- 14 C]-1-naphthol at a specific activity of 3.18mCig -1 . Maize plants were treated with the labelled insecticide under simulated conditions of agricultural practice. Mature plants were harvested and studied for distribution of total residues in untreated grains as popularly roasted and consumed, and in the corn oil and corn germ products. Total residues found under these conditions in the respective products were 0.2, 0.1, 0.45 and 0.16ppm. (author)

  4. Effects of maize planting patterns on the performance of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sola

    The design was a split-plot arrangement, laid out in a randomized ... significant differences (P<0.05) between the treatments in the growth and yield parameters of maize. The mean effects of companion crops on maize leaf area were 0.61, 0.60, 0.60 and 0.52 m2/plant for sole maize, maize / melon, maize / cassava and.

  5. Electro-Fermentation - Merging Electrochemistry with Fermentation in Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; Pepé Sciarria, Tommy; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; De Wever, Heleen; Puig, Sebastià; Andersen, Stephen J; Rabaey, Korneel; Pant, Deepak

    2016-11-01

    Electro-fermentation (EF) merges traditional industrial fermentation with electrochemistry. An imposed electrical field influences the fermentation environment and microbial metabolism in either a reductive or oxidative manner. The benefit of this approach is to produce target biochemicals with improved selectivity, increase carbon efficiency, limit the use of additives for redox balance or pH control, enhance microbial growth, or in some cases enhance product recovery. We discuss the principles of electrically driven fermentations and how EF can be used to steer both pure culture and microbiota-based fermentations. An overview is given on which advantages EF may bring to both existing and innovative industrial fermentation processes, and which doors might be opened in waste biomass utilization towards added-value biorefineries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Continuous alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidrkal, M; Nejedly, A

    1956-01-01

    Results are given of investigations on the continuous production of ethanol on a laboratory and on a semi-commercial scale. The suggested devices are particularly described. Under constant conditions the production cycle required 12 to 17 days, the acidity being 4.0 to 415 ml. 0.1 N NaOH/100 ml and the concentration of fermented wort 10.5 to 11%. The maximum production from 1 h of fermentation space during 24 h was 8.67 l of absolute alcohol when the efflux was divided into several basins; when the efflux of sweet wort was collected into one basin only, the maximum production was 7.20 l of absolute alcohol. The amount of alcohol produced was 62.20 l/100 kg sugar.

  7. Butanol by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongo, M

    1960-07-19

    BuOH is produced by inoculating a carbohydrate mash with Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum (ATCC 13564), fermenting the inoculated mash, and recovering the BuOH by fractional distillation. Thus, a medium containing sugar 4, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ 0.2, Ca superphosphate 0.1, and CoCO/sub 3/ 0.3% is inoculated with a C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum culture and cultivated at 30/sup 0/ until the acidity begins to decrease. Then the culture is transferred to a second medium of similar composition. This transfer is repeated a third time, and then the culture is transferred to the main mash (same composition) and fermented for 60 hours at 30/sup 0/. The yield of BuOH is 11.5 g/1 or 25.5% of the sugar supplied.

  8. On the assessments of arabinoxylan localization and enzymatic modifications for enhanced protein networking and its structural impact on rye dough and bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Clemens; Hussein, Mohamed A; Jekle, Mario; Becker, Thomas

    2017-08-15

    For rye dough structure, it is hypothesised that the presence of arabinoxylan hinders the proteins from forming a coherent network. This hypothesis was investigated using fluorescent-stained antibodies that bind to the arabinoxylan chains. Image analysis proves that the arabinoxylan surrounds the proteins, negatively affecting protein networking. Further, it is hypothesised that the dosing of xylanase and transglutaminase has a positive impact on rye dough and bread characteristics; the findings in this study evidenced that this increases the protein network by up to 38% accompanied by a higher volume rise of 10.67%, compared to standard rye dough. These outcomes combine a product-oriented and physiochemical design of a recipe, targeting structural and functional relationships, and demonstrate a successful methodology for enhancing rye bread quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of the concentration of alum additive in deep-fried dough sticks using dielectric spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyu Kang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of alum additive in deep-fried dough sticks (DFDSs was investigated using a coaxial probe method based on dielectric properties in the 0.3–10-GHz frequency range. The dielectric spectra of aqueous solutions with different concentrations of alum, sodium bicarbonate, and mixtures thereof were used. The correspondence between dielectric loss and alum concentration was thereby revealed. A steady, uniform correspondence was successfully established by introducing ω·ε″(ω, the sum of dielectric loss and conductor loss (i.e., total loss, according to the electrical conductivity of the alum-containing aqueous solutions. Specific, resonant-type dielectric dispersion arising from alum due to atomic polarization was identified around 1 GHz. This was used to discriminate the alum additive in the DFDS from other ingredients. A quantitative relationship between alum and sodium bicarbonate concentrations in the aqueous solutions and the differential dielectric loss Δε″(ω at 0.425 GHz was also established with a regression coefficient over 0.99. With the intention of eliminating the effects of the chemical reactions with sodium bicarbonate and the physical processes involved in leavening and frying during preparation, the developed technique was successfully applied to detect the alum dosage in a commercial DFDS (0.9942 g/L. The detected value agreed well with that determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (0.9722 g/L. The relative error was 2.2%. The results show that the proposed dielectric differential dispersion and loss technique is a suitable and effective method for determining the alum content in DFDSs.

  10. Emissions of laughing gas in the cultivation of energy maize by means of fermentation substrates in the year 2012 are significantly lower than in the year 2011; Lachgasemissionen im Energiemaisanbau unter Einsatz von Gaerrestsubstrat im Jahr 2012 wesentlich niedriger als 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, Sebastian R.; Wilken, Janine; Glatzel, Stephan [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Landschaftsoekologie und Standortkunde

    2013-10-01

    Emissions of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) from agricultural soils are a significant source of this powerful greenhouse gas. In this context, the use of biogas slurry in its effect on N{sub 2}O emissions has to be examined, as the fermentation increases the proportion of ammonium. The fertilization with biogas slurry shown here includes eight levels of location-based fertilization (50%, 75%, 100%, 125%, 200% biogas slurry as well as 100% added with Piadin), further an untreated and an 100% mineral control. The highest emissions were detected between the second and the fifth week after fertilizer application. In the 200%-variation, rates of up to 1.3 mg N{sub 2}O m-2 h-1 were measured. For the considered period from January to December 2012, an average emission factor for N{sub 2}O-N of 0.7% ({+-}0.3) was calculated in the biogas-slurry treatments. This is far below the factor of 3.5% ({+-}0.7), which was shown in 2011. The cause is probably, in contrast to 2011, the partially very dry weather conditions in 2012. The Piadin treated plot showed considerably lower emissions. (orig.)

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF RECIPE COMPONENTS ON QUALITY PARAMETERS OF AERATED DOUGH AND WHOLEGRAIN BREAD FROM CHICKPEA SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the effect of using table salt, apple juice and citric acid on quality parameters of aerated dough and bread prepared by mechanical leavening. The wholegrain flour from chickpea seeds has been used to prepare dough. The amount of salt is in the range from 1 to 3 %, apple juice from 5 to 25%, citric acid 0.05 to 0.2 % over the weight of the flour. The working mechanism of recipe components on the process of foaming while kneading of the semi-finished products of chickpea flour has been identified. The increase of their amount leads to increase of active acidity of the test and brings the protein pH to isoelectric point. Thus increasing the foaming capacity of the albuminous substances while kneading the semis. It has been founded that the maximum foaming capacity of the semis is achieved at pH 5.5. At the same time a decrease in the bulk density of the dough and the increase in specific volume of the baked product. In this case, the samples are characterized by lower bulk density (0.32 g / cm3 , and maximum specific volume of finished product (365 cm3 / 100 g. The reasonable amount of components in the bread recipe: table salt 1.5 %, apple juice 5.0 %, citric acid 0.1 % over weight of flour has been recommended. The data obtained form the basis for the development of technology of aerated bread "Atreus" with higher nutritional and biological value. The degree of satisfaction of adult daily need of 100 g of the product is, %: protein 17, dietary fiber 39, magnesium 21, phosphorus 28, iron 30, potassium, thiamine and riboflavin 18. The product is recommended for mass consumption in order to enrich dietary intake with protein, dietary fiber. minerals and vitamins.

  12. Screening of promising maize genotypes against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulky) in storage condition

    OpenAIRE

    Ram B Paneru; Resham B Thapa

    2017-01-01

    The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) is a serious pest of economic importance in stored grains. It causes major damage to stored maize grain thereby reducing its weight, quality and germination. An experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 3 replications to screen 32 maize genotypes against maize weevil in no-choice and free-choice conditions at Entomology Division, Khumaltar, Lalitpur (Room temperature: Maximum 24-32°C and Minimum 18-27°C). The fin...

  13. Optimum composite flour, water and mixing time of dough for crispy snack containing fish-head protein hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitbunjerdkul, S.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The properties of dough are responsible to the final quality of crispy snack. The effect of flour, water and mixing time on dough quality were evaluated. The simplex-centroid design for mixture of three flours (A, B and C in a composite flour of 30-70, 25-65 and 5-45%, respectively was used in this study. Contour plot of hedonic scores and the predictive regression models were calculated, using Design-Expert version 7.0.3 (Stat-Ease, Inc. MN, USA. The result revealed that the predictive regression model and goodness-of-fit for the correlation between different composite flours and sensory properties showed adj. R2 0.87-0.96 and lack of fit, p>0.05 in the attribute of color, odor, taste and overall liking. The optimum amount of flour A, B and C that would yield the crispy snack with 9-point hedonic score of the all terms in the range of 6.0-9.0 was 45, 25 and 30% respectively. The optimum mixing conditions of dough using the optimum composite flour were studied. Factorial design of 56, 58, 60 and 62% water and mixing time 5, 10 and 15 min was used. When the physical properties were evaluated, this results showed elasticity, cohesion and adhesion of dough increased with increasing water at mixing time ranging from 5 to 10 min. The crispy snack containing 5% fish-head protein hydrolysate, using the composite flour with flours A, B and C in the ratio of 45 : 25 :30, 62% water and mixing time 10 min obtained bulk density 16.17 g/100 ml, water absorption index 5.15 g/g dried sample, maximum force (hardness 141.74 g and numbers of major peak (crispness 8.2 peaks. The acceptance scores of color, odor, taste, crispness and overall liking of the final product evaluated by 9-point hedonic scales, were 6.84, 6.50 , 6.38, 7.68 and 6.64, respectively.

  14. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-bake cookie dough by gamma and electron beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seul-Gi; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of gamma and electron beam irradiation to inactivate foodborne pathogens in ready-to-bake cookie dough and to determine the effect on quality by measuring color and texture changes. Cookie dough inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, or Listeria monocytogenes was subjected to gamma and electron beam irradiation, with doses ranging from 0 to 3 kGy. As the radiation dose increased, the inactivation effect increased among all tested pathogens. After 3.0 kGy of gamma and electron beam irradiation, numbers of inoculated pathogens were reduced to below the detection limit (1 log CFU/g). The D 10 -values of E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes in cookie dough treated with gamma rays were 0.53, 0.51, and 0.71 kGy, respectively, which were similar to those treated by electron beam with the same dose. Based on the D 10 -value of pathogens in cookie dough, L. monocytogenes showed more resistance to both treatments than did E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium. Color values and textural characteristics of irradiated cookie dough were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the control. These results suggest that irradiation can be applied to control pathogens in ready-to-bake cookie dough products without affecting quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The introgression of RNAi silencing of γ-gliadins into commercial lines of bread wheat changes the mixing and technological properties of the dough.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gil-Humanes

    Full Text Available In the present work the effects on dough quality by the down-regulation of γ-gliadins in different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat were investigated. RNAi-mediated silencing of γ-gliadins was introgressed by conventional crossing into three commercial bread wheat lines (namely 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain', and along with the transgenic line A1152 (cv. Bobwhite compared with their respective wild types. The protein fractions were quantified by RP-HPLC, whereas the technological and mixing properties were assessed by SDSS test and by the Mixograph instrument. Principal component analysis (PCA was carried out for both the wild types and the transgenic lines, showing differences in the factors affecting the technological and mixing properties of the dough as a consequence of the reduction of the γ-gliadins. In transgenic lines, the α- and ω-gliadins, and total gliadins negatively affected the dough strength and tolerance to over-mixing, whereas the L/H ratio showed the opposite effect, positively influencing the dough quality. The increase of the SDSS volume in the transgenic lines of 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain' indicates increased gluten strength and quality respect to the wild types. SDSS volume was found to be positively influenced by the amount of glutenins, which were also increased in the transgenic lines. In addition, a positive effect was observed in the MT, PR1 and RBD in some of the transgenic lines of 'Podenco' and 'Arpain'. In conclusion, the down-regulation of γ-gliadins resulted in stronger doughs and a better tolerance to over-mixing in some transgenic lines. Although the reduction of γ-gliadins seems not to have a direct effect on the mixing and bread-making properties, the compensatory effect on the synthesis of the other prolamins may result in stronger doughs with improved over-mixing resistance.

  16. The introgression of RNAi silencing of γ-gliadins into commercial lines of bread wheat changes the mixing and technological properties of the dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Giménez, María J; Martín, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the effects on dough quality by the down-regulation of γ-gliadins in different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat were investigated. RNAi-mediated silencing of γ-gliadins was introgressed by conventional crossing into three commercial bread wheat lines (namely 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain'), and along with the transgenic line A1152 (cv. Bobwhite) compared with their respective wild types. The protein fractions were quantified by RP-HPLC, whereas the technological and mixing properties were assessed by SDSS test and by the Mixograph instrument. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out for both the wild types and the transgenic lines, showing differences in the factors affecting the technological and mixing properties of the dough as a consequence of the reduction of the γ-gliadins. In transgenic lines, the α- and ω-gliadins, and total gliadins negatively affected the dough strength and tolerance to over-mixing, whereas the L/H ratio showed the opposite effect, positively influencing the dough quality. The increase of the SDSS volume in the transgenic lines of 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain' indicates increased gluten strength and quality respect to the wild types. SDSS volume was found to be positively influenced by the amount of glutenins, which were also increased in the transgenic lines. In addition, a positive effect was observed in the MT, PR1 and RBD in some of the transgenic lines of 'Podenco' and 'Arpain'. In conclusion, the down-regulation of γ-gliadins resulted in stronger doughs and a better tolerance to over-mixing in some transgenic lines. Although the reduction of γ-gliadins seems not to have a direct effect on the mixing and bread-making properties, the compensatory effect on the synthesis of the other prolamins may result in stronger doughs with improved over-mixing resistance.

  17. The effects of fermentation and enzymatic treatment of pea on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Senz, M; Kozłowski, K; Boros, D; Wisniewska, M; Rose, D; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2017-10-01

    The present study examined the impacts of native, fermented or enzymatically treated peas (Pisum sativum L.) inclusion in broiler diets, on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. For the fermentation process, Madonna pea was mixed with water (1/1) containing 2.57×108 Bacillus subtilis (GalliPro®) spores/kg pea and then, incubated for 48 h at 30 °C. For the enzymatic treatment process, the used water for dough production contained three enzymes, AlphaGalTM (α-galactosidase), RONOZYME® ProAct and VP (protease and pectinases respectively - DSM, Switzerland) and the pea dough incubated for 24 h at 30°C. Nine corn-wheat-soybean diets were formulated by supplying 10%, 20% and 30% of the required CP with either native, fermented or enzymatically treated peas. Performance was recorded weekly and at the end of the experiment (day 35), apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP, amino acids (AA), crude fat, starch, Ca, P and K were determined. Data were subjected to ANOVA using GLM procedure with a 3×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Both processes reduced α-galactosides, phytate, trypsin inhibitor activity and resistant starch in peas. Increasing levels of pea products up to 300 g/kg diet, reduced BW gain and feed intake (P⩽0.05). Broilers fed diets containing enzymatically treated pea had the best feed conversion ratio at day 35. Different types of pea product and their inclusion levels had no effect on AID of all nutrients. The interaction between type of the pea products and inclusion levels was significant for AID of starch. For native pea diets, 10% group showed similar AID of starch to 20% native pea but it had higher AID than 30% native pea. For fermented and enzymatically treated groups, all three levels displayed similar AID of starch. In conclusion, enzymatic treatment and fermentation could improve the nutritional quality of pea. Inclusion of enzymatically treated pea in broiler diets could improve broiler performance compared with other pea

  18. Continuous alcoholic fermentation of molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazimierz, J

    1962-01-01

    The first Polish plant for ontinuous alcohol fermentation of molasses is described. Continuous fermentation permits a better use of the installation, automatic control, and shorter fermentation time. It yields more CO/sub 2/ for dry ice manufacture and decreases corrosion of apparatus. From 22 to 24% mash is used, giving a yield of 61.1 of 100-proof alc./kg. sucrose and an average of 37 kg. of dry yeast/1000 l. alcohol

  19. Fermentation of sugar-beet molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchenko, A L; Krishtul, F B

    1956-08-25

    Sugar-beet molasses is fermented with yeast separated from the mash, sterilized, and reactivated. To reduce sugar losses and hasten fermentation, the yeast is removed from the mash as the cells fall to the bottom during the fermentation process.

  20. Detoxification of Aflatoxin B₁ by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with Solid State Fermentation in Peanut Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guanghui; Chen, Yujie; Kong, Qing; Ma, Yunxiao; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-20

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste-one kind of traditional Chinese food-to detoxify aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%. As for liquid fermentation, we tested the binding ability of Z. rouxii , and the highest binding rate reached was 74.3% (nonviable cells of Z. rouxii ) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Moreover, the biotransformation of AFB₁ through fermentation of Z. rouxii in peanut meal was further verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). According to TIC scan, after fermentation by Z. rouxii, the AFB₁ in peanut meal was prominently degraded to the lowering peaks of AFB₁. Additionally, m / s statistics demonstrated that AFB₁ may be degraded to some new products whose structural properties may be different from AFB₁, or the degradation products may be dissolved in the aqueous phase rather than the organic phase. As far as we know, this is the first report indicating that the safe strain of Z. rouxii has the ability to detoxify AFB₁.

  1. Detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with Solid State Fermentation in Peanut Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guanghui; Chen, Yujie; Kong, Qing; Ma, Yunxiao; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste—one kind of traditional Chinese food—to detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%. As for liquid fermentation, we tested the binding ability of Z. rouxii, and the highest binding rate reached was 74.3% (nonviable cells of Z. rouxii) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Moreover, the biotransformation of AFB1 through fermentation of Z. rouxii in peanut meal was further verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). According to TIC scan, after fermentation by Z. rouxii, the AFB1 in peanut meal was prominently degraded to the lowering peaks of AFB1. Additionally, m/s statistics demonstrated that AFB1 may be degraded to some new products whose structural properties may be different from AFB1, or the degradation products may be dissolved in the aqueous phase rather than the organic phase. As far as we know, this is the first report indicating that the safe strain of Z. rouxii has the ability to detoxify AFB1. PMID:28117705

  2. Detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with Solid State Fermentation in Peanut Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste—one kind of traditional Chinese food—to detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%. As for liquid fermentation, we tested the binding ability of Z. rouxii, and the highest binding rate reached was 74.3% (nonviable cells of Z. rouxii in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS. Moreover, the biotransformation of AFB1 through fermentation of Z. rouxii in peanut meal was further verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS. According to TIC scan, after fermentation by Z. rouxii, the AFB1 in peanut meal was prominently degraded to the lowering peaks of AFB1. Additionally, m/s statistics demonstrated that AFB1 may be degraded to some new products whose structural properties may be different from AFB1, or the degradation products may be dissolved in the aqueous phase rather than the organic phase. As far as we know, this is the first report indicating that the safe strain of Z. rouxii has the ability to detoxify AFB1.

  3. Optimizing bio-physical conditions and pre-treatment options for breaking lignin barrier of maize stover feed using white rot fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Atuhaire

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The greatest limitation to utilization of maize stover by ruminants as a feed is the high concentration of lignin, which limits fibre digestibility. However, ruminants can effectively utilize maize stover if its nutritive value is improved using white rot fungal species. This study was designed to determine optimal bio-physical conditions for mycelial growth and select the most ideal fungal species and pre-treatment options for improving nutritive value of maize stover. Four popular edible Pleurotus fungal species (viz. Pleurotus florida, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus sajor caju and Pleurotus pulmonarius were subjected to varying temperatures, pH levels, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 concentration and illumination to establish the extent of mycelial growth rate. Inclusion of H2O2 was used to determine optimal levels for preservation and prevention of contamination from other indigenous microbiota. Effects of pre-treatment options on chemical composition and nutritive value of maize stover were also examined. Mycelial growth rate of Pleurotus species on potato dextrose agar (PDA varied (P < 0.05 with temperature, pH level and H2O2 concentration following a quadratic trend. Optimal temperature, pH and H2O2 concentration for mycelial growth on PDA were 25 °C, 5 and 0.01 mL/L, respectively. Under the different bio-physical conditions, P. sajor caju had the highest mycelia density and growth rate. Chemical composition of solid-state fermented maize stover differed (P < 0.05 among the Pleurotus species. Maize stover fermented with P. sajor caju had the highest crude protein (CP of 86.6 g/kg DM, in-vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of 731 g/kg DM, in-vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD of 670.4 g/kg DM and metabolizable energy (ME of 10.0 MJ/kg DM but with the lowest lignin (sa of 50 g/kg DM. At 25 °C, P. sajor caju had the highest mycelial growth rate on PDA and highest lignin (sa breakdown in the maize stover substrate. It was

  4. Development of starter culture for fermentation of millet into fura and preservation of fura by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amankona, Cosmos

    2016-06-01

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are the most widespread of organisms responsible for food fermentation and have been applied as commercial starter cultures in many food industries. A study was conducted to develop a starter culture for the fermentation of millet into Fura and to extend the shelf life of Fura by gamma radiation. The isolation, characterization and identification of the LAB and yeasts responsible for Fura fermentation was carried out using physiological methods. A brief survey was carried out in Dome and Nima in Accra to observe and confirm the processing operations documented in literature and also obtain samples for laboratory analysis.The enumeration of aerobic mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts populations were carried out on Plate Count Agar, de Man Rogosa Sharpe Agar and Oxytetracycline Glucose Yeast Extract Agar respectively. The LAB species were characterized using Gram Reaction, Catalase Reaction, Oxidase Test, Salt Tolerance Test, Growth at Different Temperatures and Grow at Different pH. The LAB and yeasts Isolates were tentatively identified by determining their pattern of carbohydrate fermentation using the API 50 CH and ID 32 C galleries respectively. The LAB were also screened for their technological properties on rate of acidification, production of exopolysaccharides (EPS), amylase and protease activity including their antimicrobial activity against some common enteric pathogens using the Agar Well Diffusion Assay. Starter culture trials were carried out using dominant strains of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in singles and in combinations. Challenge testing with Escherichia coli (RM EC. 0157; 11Q-1411), Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus (RM SA 1L-1304), and Salmonella typhimurium (RM ST 20B-1410), in a sterile millet dough was also carried out. The lactic acid bacteria identified were Lactobacillus fermentum (33.33%), Weissella confusa (20%),Lactobacillus brevis (16.67), Pediococcus acidilactici (13

  5. Effect of diazotrophic bacteria as phosphate solubilizing and indolic compound producers on maize plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Del Pilar López Ortega

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is limiting for growth of maize plants, and because of that use of fertilizers like Rock Phosphate has been proposed. However, direct use of Rock Phosphate is not recommended because of its low availability, so it is necessary to improve it. In this study, a group of diazotrophic bacteria were evaluated as phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, for their production of indolic compounds and for their effects on growth of maize plants. Strains of the genera Azosporillum, Azotobacter, Rhizobium and Klebsiella, were quantitatively evaluated for solubilization of Ca3(PO42 and rock phosphate as a single source of phosphorous in SRS culture media. Additionally, the phosphatase enzyme activity was quantified at pH 5.0, 7.0 and 8.0 using p-nitrophenyl phosphate, and production of indolic compound was determined by colorimetric quantification. The effect of inoculation of bacteria on maize was determined in a completely randomized greenhouse experiment where root and shoot dry weights and phosphorus content were assessed. Results showed that strain C50 produced 107.2 mg .L-1 of available-P after 12 days of fermentation, and AC10 strain had the highest phosphatase activity at pH 8 with 12.7 mg of p-nitrophenol mL .h-1. All strains synthetized indolic compounds, and strain AV5 strain produced the most at 63.03 µg .mL-1. These diazotrophic bacteria increased plant biomass up to 39 % and accumulation of phosphorus by 10%. Hence, use of diazotrphic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria may represent an alternative technology for fertilization systems in maize plants.

  6. WATER BOND FORMS IN THE DOUGH AND SORBTION PROPERTIES OF GLUTEN-FREE MACARONI PRODUCTS MADE FROM CORN FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olexandr ROZHNO

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Authors have developed macaroni products made from fine meal corn flour by structure forming additives of different nature and without them. The correlation between water of different bond forms in macaroni dough with different structural forming additives and without them has been investigated. Results show that water of macro and microcapillaries is prevalent in the corn dough – 39.40 - 54.69 % of overall amount of water. Osmotically bound water amounts 18.75 – 28.04 %, adsorbically bound water -18.49 – 23.13 % of overall amount of water. The absorbtion capability of the macaroni products and amount of adsorbed water has been determined. The micropore structure of these samples was characterized. The correlation between structures of macaroni products, both amount of adsorbed moisture and energy of sorption were proven. The amount of monomolecular layer’s moisture for gluten-free corn macaroni products is significantly higher – in 1.2 – 1.5 times – when compared to the wheat macaroni products. Due to this fact, corn samples obtained higher energy of moisture sorption. The correlation between structural characteristics of the macaroni samples and their quality was shown.

  7. Extraordinarily soft, medium-hard and hard Indian wheat varieties: Composition, protein profile, dough and baking properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Mehak; Singh, Narpinder; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Kaur, Amritpal; Chopra, Nidhi; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2017-10-01

    Hard wheat (HW), medium-hard wheat (MHW) and extraordinarily soft wheat (Ex-SW) varieties with grain hardness index (GHI) of 83 to 95, 72 to 80, 17 to 29 were evaluated for pasting, protein molecular weight (MW) distribution, dough rheology and baking properties. Flours from varieties with higher GHI had more protein content, ash content and paste viscosities. Ex-SW had more glutenins proportion as compared to HW and MHW. Flours from Ex-SW varieties showed lower NaSRC, WA and mixographic parameters as compared to HW and MHW. Dough from flours milled from Ex-SW had higher Intermolecular-β-sheets (IM-β-sheets) than those from MHW and HW. Muffins volume increased with decrease in GHI, Ex-SW varieties had more muffin volume and less air space. The accumulation of polypeptides (PPs) varied significantly in different varieties. Ex-SW variety (QBP12-10) showed accumulation of 98, 90, 81 and 79kDa PPs, which was unique and was different from other varieties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of Wheat-Milled Products and Their Additive Blends on Pasta Dough Rheological, Microstructure, and Product Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dhiraj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to assess the suitability of T. aestivum wheat milled products and its combinations with T. durum semolina with additives such as ascorbic acid, vital gluten and HPMC (Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose for pasta processing quality characteristics such as pasta dough rheology, microstructure, cooking quality, and sensory evaluation. Rheological studies showed maximum dough stability in Comb1 (T. aestivum wheat flour and semolina. Colour and cooking quality of Comb2 (T. durum semolina and T. aestivum wheat flour and Comb3 (T. aestivum wheat semolina and T. durum semolina were comparable with control. Pasting results indicated that T. aestivum semolina gave the lowest onset gelatinization temperature (66.9°C but the highest peak viscosity (1.053 BU. Starch release was maximum in Comb1 (53.45% when compared with control (44.9% as also proved by microstructure studies. Firmness was seen to be slightly high in Comb3 (2.430 N when compared with control (2.304 N, and sensory evaluations were also in the acceptable range for the same. The present study concludes that Comb3 comprising 50% T. durum semolina and 50% T. aestivum refined wheat flour with additives would be optimal alternate for 100% T. durum semolina for production of financially viable pasta.

  9. Evaluation of antioxidant, rheological, physical and sensorial properties of wheat flour dough and cake containing turmeric powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S H; Lim, H S; Hwang, S Y

    2012-10-01

    The effects of addition of turmeric powder (0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%) were examined in order to obtain an antioxidant-enriched cake with good physico-chemical and sensorial properties. The rheological properties of doughs were evaluated using dynamic rheological measurements. Physical properties, curcumin content, radical scavenging activity (RSA-DPPH assay) and sensory analysis (hedonic test) of the supplemented cake were determined. Addition of turmeric powder up to 8% caused significant changes on dough characteristics and on cake rheological properties. The highest curcumin (203 mg/kg) and RSA-DPPH activity (45%) were achieved in the cake having the highest percentage of turmeric powder (8%); however, this sample showed the worst results regarding the rheological properties. Moreover, by sensory evaluation this cake sample was not acceptable. A 6% substitution of wheat flour with turmeric powder showed acceptable sensory scores which were comparable to those of 0-4% turmeric cakes. This indicated that up to 6% level of turmeric powder might be included in cake formulation.

  10. Maize cob losses and their effects on the poverty status of maize

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analysed fresh maize cob losses and its effect on the poverty status of maize farmers in Edo State,. Nigeria. The specific .... is the poverty gap for ... Total cost. 162,367.48. 100.00. Returns. Total expected yield (N). 327,966.63. _.

  11. Identification of resistance to Maize rayado fino virus in maize inbred lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) is one of the most important virus diseases of maize in America. Severe yield losses, ranging from 10 to 50% in landraces to nearly 100% in contemporary cultivars, have been reported. Resistance has been reported in populations, but few inbred lines have been identifie...

  12. Hydrogen Production by Thermophilic Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niel, van E.W.J.; Willquist, K.; Zeidan, A.A.; Vrije, de T.; Mars, A.E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the many ways hydrogen can be produced, this chapter focuses on biological hydrogen production by thermophilic bacteria and archaea in dark fermentations. The thermophiles are held as promising candidates for a cost-effective fermentation process, because of their relatively high yields and broad

  13. TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS OF LESOTHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendekayi H. Gadaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the traditional methods of preparing fermented foods and beverages of Lesotho. Information on the preparation methods was obtained through a combination of literature review and face to face interviews with respondents from Roma in Lesotho. An unstructured questionnaire was used to capture information on the processes, raw materials and utensils used. Four products; motoho (a fermented porridge, Sesotho (a sorghum based alcoholic beverage, hopose (sorghum fermented beer with added hops and mafi (spontaneously fermented milk, were found to be the main fermented foods prepared and consumed at household level in Lesotho. Motoho is a thin gruel, popular as refreshing beverage as well as a weaning food. Sesotho is sorghum based alcoholic beverage prepared for household consumption as well as for sale. It is consumed in the actively fermenting state. Mafi is the name given to spontaneously fermented milk with a thick consistency. Little research has been done on the technological aspects, including the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of fermented foods in Lesotho. Some of the traditional aspects of the preparation methods, such as use of earthenware pots, are being replaced, and modern equipment including plastic utensils are being used. There is need for further systematic studies on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of these these products.

  14. Changes in protein solubility, fermentative capacity, viscoelasticity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-14

    May 14, 2014 ... in crystal size within the gas cells results in water redis- tribution that ... behavior prevails in comparison to that of fresh dough. (Ribotta et al., 2004) .... The flow rate was 0.5 ml/min, the temperature of the column was 40°C and, ...

  15. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Ai Leng; Heard, Gillian; Cox, Julian

    2004-09-01

    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and physiological tests. During the fermentation of each of the four products, yeasts were enumerated from both the cellulosic pellicle and liquor of the Kombucha. The number and diversity of species varied between products, but included Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. While these yeast species are known to occur in Kombucha, the enumeration of each species present throughout fermentation of each of the four Kombucha cultures demonstrated for the first time the dynamic nature of the yeast ecology. Kombucha fermentation is, in general, initiated by osmotolerant species, succeeded and ultimately dominated by acid-tolerant species.

  16. Pilot Study: Comparison of Sourdough Wheat Bread and Yeast-Fermented Wheat Bread in Individuals with Wheat Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijo Laatikainen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many patients suspect wheat as being a major trigger of their irritable bowel syndrome (IBS symptoms. Our aim was to evaluate whether sourdough wheat bread baked without baking improvers and using a long dough fermentation time (>12 h, would result in lower quantities of alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs and Fermentable, Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides and Polyols (FODMAPs, and would be better tolerated than yeast-fermented wheat bread for subjects with IBS who have a poor subjective tolerance to wheat. The study was conducted as a randomised double-blind controlled 7-day study (n = 26. Tetrameric ATI structures were unravelled in both breads vs. baking flour, but the overall reduction in ATIs to their monomeric form was higher in the sourdough bread group. Sourdough bread was also lower in FODMAPs. However, no significant differences in gastrointestinal symptoms and markers of low-grade inflammation were found between the study breads. There were significantly more feelings of tiredness, joint symptoms, and decreased alertness when the participants ate the sourdough bread (p ≤ 0.03, but these results should be interpreted with caution. Our novel finding was that sourdough baking reduces the quantities of both ATIs and FODMAPs found in wheat. Nonetheless, the sourdough bread was not tolerated better than the yeast-fermented bread.

  17. Pro-technological and functional characterization of lactic acid bacteria to be used as starters for hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) sourdough fermentation and wheat bread fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nionelli, Luana; Montemurro, Marco; Pontonio, Erica; Verni, Michela; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2018-08-20

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) flour, spontaneously fermented dough, and type I sourdough. Isolates were identified and further selected based on pro-technological, nutritional and functional properties. Lactobacillus plantarum/s5, Pediococcus acidilactici/s5, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides/s1 were used as mixed starter to produce hemp sourdough. Significant decreases of the concentration of phytic acid, condensed tannins, and total saponins were observed during fermentation. The in vitro protein digestibility increased up to 90%. Experimental wheat breads were made adding 5% to 15% (w/w) hemp sourdough to the formula, characterized, and compared to baker's yeast wheat bread manufactured without hemp sourdough. The use of hemp sourdough improved the textural features of wheat bread, without adversely affect the sensory profile. Proportionally to the fortification with hemp sourdough, protein digestibility of the breads increased, while the predicted glycemic index significantly decreased (87 vs 100%). This work demonstrated that the fermentation with selected starters improved nutritional functionality of hemp flour, allowing its large-scale use in different food applications, meeting the consumers and producers request for novel fermented baked goods with a well-balanced nutritional profile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploring karyotype diversity of Argentinian Guaraní maize landraces: Relationship among South American maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Realini

    Full Text Available In Argentina there are two different centers of maize diversity, the Northeastern (NEA and the Northwestern (NWA regions of the country. In NEA, morphological studies identified 15 landraces cultivated by the Guaraní communities in Misiones Province. In the present study we analyzed the karyotype diversity of 20 populations of Guaraní maize landraces through classical and molecular cytogenetic analyses. Our results demonstrate significant intra and inter-populational variation in the percentage, number, size, chromosome position and frequencies of the heterochromatic blocks, which are called knobs. Knob sequence analysis (180-bp and TR-1 did not show significant differences among Guaraní populations. B chromosomes were not detected, and abnormal 10 (AB10 chromosomes were found with low frequency (0.1≥f ≤0.40 in six populations. Our results allowed karyotypic characterization of each analyzed population, defining for the first time the chromosomal constitution of maize germplasm from NEA. The multivariate analysis (PCoA and UPGMA of karyotype parameters allowed the distinction between two populations groups: the Popcorn and the Floury maize populations. These results are in agreement with previously published microsatellite and morphological/phenological studies. Finally, we compared our karyotype results with those previously reported for NWA and Central Region of South America maize. Our data suggest that there are important differences between maize from NEA and NWA at the karyotype level, supporting the hypothesis that there are two pathways of input of South America maize. Our results also confirm the existence of two centers of diversification of Argentinian native maize, NWA and NEA. This work contributes new knowledge about maize diversity, which is relevant for future plans to improve commercial maize, and for conservation of agrobiodiversity.

  19. Enrichment of Bread with Nutraceutical-Rich Mushrooms: Impact of Auricularia auricula (Mushroom) Flour Upon Quality Attributes of Wheat Dough and Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Biao; Zhao, Liyan; Yang, Wenjian; McClements, David Julian; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-09-01

    Edible mushrooms contain a variety of bioactive molecules that may enhance human health and wellbeing. Consequently, there is increasing interest in fortifying functional foods with these nutraceutical-rich substances. However, incorporation of mushroom-based ingredients into foods should not adversely affect the quality attributes of the final product. In this study, the impact of incorporating powdered Auricularia auricula, a widely consumed edible mushroom, into bread products was examined. The rheological and structural properties of wheat dough and bread supplemented with 0% to 10% (w/w) A. auricula flour were measured. Supplementation of wheat doughs with A. auricula flour increased the peak viscosity and enhanced their water holding capacity. Rapid viscosity analysis showed that peak and final viscosities of the blended flour (wheat flour with A. auricula flour) were higher than wheat flour alone. However, dough stability and elastic modulus were reduced by blending wheat flour with A. auricula flour. SEM observation showed that doughs with up to 5% (w/w) A. auricula flour had acceptable gluten network microstructure. Characterization of the quality attributes of bread indicated that incorporation of A. auricula flour at levels >5% negatively impacted bread volume, height, texture, and appearance. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Osmotolerance and leavening ability in sweet and frozen sweet dough. Comparative analysis between Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lopez, M J; Prieto, J A; Randez-Gil, F

    2003-01-01

    The response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and freeze-tolerant Torulaspora delbrueckii strains to osmotic stress and their CO2 production capacity in sweet and frozen-sweet dough has been examined. T. delbrueckii strains, IGC5321 and IGC5323 showed higher leavening ability than Saccharomyces, specially after exposure to hyperosmotic stress of bread dough containing 20% sucrose and 2% salt added. In addition, Torulaspora and especially T. delbrueckii IGC5321 exhibited no loss of CO2 production capacity during freeze-thaw stress. Overall, these results appeared to indicate that Torulaspora cells are more tolerant than Saccharomyces to osmotic stress of bread dough. This trait correlated with a low invertase activity, a slow rate of trehalose mobilisation and the ability to respond rapidly to osmotic stress. Growth behaviour on high osmotic synthetic media was also examined. Cells of the IGC5321 strain showed intrinsic osmotolerance and ion toxicity resistance. However, T. delbrueckii IGC5323 exhibited a clear phenotype of osmosensitivity. Hence, this characteristic may not be essential or the only determinant for leavening ability in salted high-sugar dough.

  1. Synergistic effect of Aspergillus tubingensis CTM 507 glucose oxidase in presence of ascorbic acid and alpha amylase on dough properties, baking quality and shelf life of bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriaa, Mouna; Ouhibi, Rabeb; Graba, Héla; Besbes, Souhail; Jardak, Mohamed; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-02-01

    The impact of Aspergillus tubingensis glucose oxidase (GOD) in combination with α-amylase and ascorbic acid on dough properties, qualities and shelf life of bread was investigated. Regression models of alveograph and texture parameters of dough and bread were adjusted. Indeed, the mixture of GOD (44 %) and ascorbic acid (56 %) on flour containing basal improver showed its potential as a corrective action to get better functional and rheological properties of dough and bread texture. Furthermore, wheat flour containing basal additives and enriched with GOD (63.8 %), ascorbic acid (32 %) and α- amylase (4.2 %) led to high technological bread making parameters, to decrease the crumb firmness and chewiness and to improve elasticity, adhesion, cohesion and specific volume of bread. In addition to that, the optimized formulation addition significantly reduced water activity and therefore decreased bread susceptibility to microbial spoilage. These findings demonstrated that GOD could partially substitute not only ascorbic acid but also α-amylase. The generated models allowed to predict the behavior of wheat flour containing additives in the range of values tested and to define the additives formula that led to desired rheological and baking qualities of dough. This fact provides new perspectives to compensate flour quality deficiencies at the moment of selecting raw materials and technological parameters reducing the production costs and facilitating gluten free products development. Graphical abstractᅟ.

  2. Effects of transglutaminase on the rheological and noodle-making characteristics of oat dough containing vital wheat gluten or egg albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorporating exogenous proteins into food production is a common practice for improving processing characteristics. In the present study, oat dough containing 15% (w/w, blends of protein-oat flour basis [POB]) vital wheat gluten (VWG) or 15% (w/w, POB) egg albumin (EA) were used to produce noodles ...

  3. Carbon source for fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-25

    Molasses is hydrolyzed and treated with Ca/sup 2 +/ to produce fructose and a good C-source for glutamic acid and lysine fermentation. Thus, sugarcane molasses was diluted with H/sub 2/O, adjusted to pH 1.5, and kept at 60/sup 0/ for 4 hr. Three liters of this solution was cooled to 0/sup 0/ and 262 g Ca(OH)/sub 2/ in a 30% solution was added, along with seed crystals of Ca-fructose additional product. Crystal addition product was recovered and dissolved; the solution contained 6.4g glucose and 168 g fructose, a 50% yield of fructose. The mother liquor was neutralized with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to precipitate the Ca. The supernatant contained 284 g glucose and 159 g fructose and was used as the C source in a fermentation medium in which Coryne-bacterium lilum produced glutamic acid. Yield was 49.0 g/L compared to 48.3 g/L when molasses was used as the C source.

  4. Lactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of fermenting cellobiose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Oh, Eun Joong; Pathanibul, Panchalee; Turner, Timothy L; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-09-20

    Lactose is an inevitable byproduct of the dairy industry. In addition to cheese manufacturing, the growing Greek yogurt industry generates excess acid whey, which contains lactose. Therefore, rapid and efficient conversion of lactose to fuels and chemicals would be useful for recycling the otherwise harmful acid whey. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a popular metabolic engineering host, cannot natively utilize lactose. However, we discovered that an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (EJ2) capable of fermenting cellobiose can also ferment lactose. This finding suggests that a cellobiose transporter (CDT-1) can transport lactose and a β-glucosidase (GH1-1) can hydrolyze lactose by acting as a β-galactosidase. While the lactose fermentation by the EJ2 strain was much slower than the cellobiose fermentation, a faster lactose-fermenting strain (EJ2e8) was obtained through serial subcultures on lactose. The EJ2e8 strain fermented lactose with a consumption rate of 2.16g/Lh. The improved lactose fermentation by the EJ2e8 strain was due to the increased copy number of cdt-1 and gh1-1 genes. Looking ahead, the EJ2e8 strain could be exploited for the production of other non-ethanol fuels and chemicals from lactose through further metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Locally processed roasted-maize-based weaning foods fortified with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Locally processed roasted-maize-based weaning foods fortified with legumes: factors ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Tom Brown (roasted-maize porridge) is one of the traditional weaning foods in Ghana.

  6. Aflatoxin variations in maize flour and grains collected from various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Kenya, maize remains an important staple food in every household. ... upper limit is 10ppb, indicating good manufacturing practices (GMP) by the millers. ... In summary, the study found aflatoxin contamination in maize grains especially in ...

  7. the influence of farmers' adoption behaviour on maize production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    The main cash crops grown in the country include coffee, sisal, cashew, cotton, tobacco ... Among these food crops, maize is the most important cereal food crop, and ... promoting recommended maize production practices in a package form.

  8. Diversity in global maize germplasm: Characterization and utilization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-15

    Oct 15, 2012 ... maize farmers as well as to the scientific community are depicted in figure 1, and ..... best practices for maintaining the original genetic diversity of the gene bank ..... maize; in Studies in the neolithic and urban revolution: V.

  9. Importance of husk covering on field infestation of maize by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... An experiment was conducted to determine the importance of husk covering on field infestation of maize by the maize ... high yielding plants with no consideration for resistance ..... provided financial support for the study.

  10. Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Maize Marketing in Vandeikya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Maize Marketing in Vandeikya Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. ... Two hundred maize marketers were selected from Vandeikya Local Area (LGA) of ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  11. participatory evaluation of drought tolerant maize varieties in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ). Maize production provides livelihoods for millions of subsistence farmers in WCA, thus, increasing the productivity of maize-based cropping sys- tems could increase and stabilize rural incomes, alleviate poverty and reduce food insecurity in.

  12. Leaf transpiration efficiency of some drought-resistant maize lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field measurements of leaf gas exchange in maize often indicate stomatal conductances higher than required to provide substomatal carbon dioxide concentrations saturating to photosynthesis. Thus maize leaves often operate at lower transpiration efficiency (TE) than potentially achievable for specie...

  13. Strategic Marketing Problems in the Uganda Maize Seed Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Donald W.; Mbowa, Swaibu

    2004-01-01

    Strategic marketing issues and challenges face maize seed marketing firms as farmers increasingly adopt hybrid varieties in a modernizing third world country such as Uganda. The maize seed industry of Uganda has changed dramatically from a government owned, controlled, and operated industry to a competitive market oriented industry with substantial private firm investment and participation. The new maize seed industry is young, dynamic, growing and very competitive. The small maize seed marke...

  14. Digestate as nutrient source for biomass production of sida, lucerne and maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno Piaz Barbosa, Daniela; Nabel, Moritz; Horsch, David; Tsay, Gabriela; Jablonowski, Nicolai

    2014-05-01

    Biogas as a renewable energy source is supported in many countries driven by climate and energy policies. Nowadays, Germany is the largest biogas producer in the European Union. A sustainable resource management has to be considered within this growing scenario of biogas production systems and its environmental impacts. In this respect, studies aiming to enhance the management of biogas residues, which represents a valuable source of nutrients and organic fertilization, are needed. Our objective was to evaluate the digestate (biogas residue after fermentation process) application as nutrient source for biomass production of three different plants: sida (Sida hermaphrodita - Malvaceae), lucerne (Medicago sativa - Fabaceae) and maize (Zea mays - Poaceae). The digestate was collected from an operating biogas facility (fermenter volume 2500m³, ADRW Natur Power GmbH & Co.KG Titz/Ameln, Germany) composed of maize silage as the major feedstock, and minor amounts of chicken manure, with a composition of 3,29% N; 1,07% P; 3,42% K; and 41,2% C. An arable field soil (Endogleyic Stagnosol) was collected from 0-30 cm depth and 5 mm sieved. The fertilizer treatments of the plants were established in five replicates including digestate (application amount equivalent to 40 t ha-1) and NPK fertilizer (application amount equivalent to 200:100:300 kg ha-1) applications, according to the recommended agricultural doses, and a control (no fertilizer application). The digestate and the NPK fertilizer were thoroughly mixed with the soil in a rotatory shaker for 30 min. The 1L pots were filled with the fertilized soil and the seedlings were transplanted and grown for 30 days under greenhouse conditions (16 h day/8 h night: 24ºC/18ºC; 60% air humidity). After harvesting, the leaf area was immediately measured, and the roots were washed to allow above and below-ground biomass determination. Subsequently, shoots and roots were dried at 60ºC for 48 hours. The biomass and leaf area of sida

  15. Nitrogen effects on maize yield following groundnut in rotation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotating maize (Zea mays L.) with groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has been proposed as a way to maintain soil fertility and prevent maize productivity declines in the smallholder cropping systems of sub-humid Zimbabwe. Field experiments with fertilizer-N on maize in rotation with groundnut were conducted at three ...

  16. Intercropping maize with cassava or cowpea in Ghana | Ennin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize/cassava and maize/cowpea intercrops were evaluated in southern Ghana, over a 5-year period to determine the optimum combination of component crop varieties and component plant population densities to optimize productivity of maize-based intercropping systems. Results indicated that some cowpea varieties ...

  17. The economic implication of substituting cocoa pod husk for maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This saving was found to bridge the deficit between demand and supply as given by supplementation done by importing maize. The study concluded that by utilizing CPH in compounding various livestock feed rations, the high price of maize arising from excessive demand can be reduced. The limiting role of maize in ...

  18. Developing a database for maize variety in Nigeria | Daniel | Moor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance data of maize varieties at different locations needs to be accurate and accessible to stimulate the improvement of the Nigerian maize seed system. This paper describes a database model to implement a simple computerized information system for maize varieties and their performance at various locations in ...

  19. Review: Maize research and production in Nigeria | Iken | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize (Zea mays) is a major important cereal being cultivated in the rainforest and the derived Savannah zones of Nigeria. Land races, improved high yielding and pest and diseases resistant varieties of maize have been developed. Key words: Maize, Zea mays, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.3(6) 2004: 302- ...

  20. quixotic coupling between irrigation system and maize-cowpea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    number row-1 and maize grain yield, respectively. The ridge ... Key Words: Furrow irrigation, water use efficiency, Zea mays. RÉSUMÉ ... important in arid and semi-arid regions, with ... as maize) canopy is not able to intercept all the solar radiation during the growth period. ... Intercropping maize and legumes considerably ...

  1. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to Maize rayado fino virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) causes one of the most important virus diseases of maize in regions of Mexico, Central and South America, where it causes moderate to severe yield losses. The virus is found from the southern United States. to northern Argentina where its vector, the maize leafhopper D...

  2. Oven-drying reduces ruminal starch degradation in maize kernels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M.; Cone, J.W.; Hendriks, W.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of starch largely determines the feeding value of maize (Zea mays L.) for dairy cows. Normally, maize kernels are dried and ground before chemical analysis and determining degradation characteristics, whereas cows eat and digest fresh material. Drying the moist maize kernels

  3. Mixed cropping of groundnuts and maize in East Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van W.C.H.

    1987-01-01

    Mixed cropping of groundnuts and maize in East Java was studied by means of a survey of farming practice and by field experiments. The influence of different sowing times and plant density of maize on the development and yield of groundnuts and maize were the main topics in this thesis. Plant

  4. Maize and the Malnutrition Conundrum in South Africa | BOOYENS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the author gives an overview of the factors leading to maize becoming a staple food among black people in South Africa. The purported relationship between maize consumption and malnutrition, proposals as well as experimental and practical efforts to correct the dietary deficiencies of maize are briefly ...

  5. Energy consumption in fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, P

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the present publication is to limit energy used to aerate the anaerobic fermentation processes. In yeast production the aeration process consumes the greatest part of the total energy required. A mathematical model, based on literature data, is presented for a yeast fermenter. the effect of various aeration and raw product strategies can be calculated. Simulation of yeast fermentation proves it to be independent of oxygen transport. However interaction between flow conditions and biological kinetics (glucose effect) is a limiting factor. With many feeding point the use of enegy for aeration (mixing) can be reduced to 1/3 of the present one.

  6. Maize production in mid hills of Nepal: from food to feed security

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Prasad Timsina; Yuga Nath Ghimire; Jeevan Lamichhane

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken in 2016 to analyze the production and utilization of maize in Nepal. Sixty maize growers from Kavre and Lamjung districts were selected using purposive, cluster and simple random sampling techniques. Similarly, six feed industries and five maize experts from Chitwan district were also interviewed. Study shows 56% of the total areas were used for maize production and 50% of the maize areas were covered by hybrid maize. There was no practice of contract maize productio...

  7. Fermented Broth in Tyrosinase- and Melanogenesis Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Feng Chan; Ching-Cheng Huang; Ming-Yuan Lee; Yung-Sheng Lin

    2014-01-01

    Fermented broth has a long history of applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Recently, the use of fermented broth in skin care products is in ascendance. This review investigates the efficacy of fermented broth in inhibiting tyrosinase and melanogenesis. Possible active ingredients and hypopigmentation mechanisms of fermented broth are discussed, and potential applications of fermented broth in the cosmetic industry are also addressed.

  8. Fermented Broth in Tyrosinase- and Melanogenesis Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Feng Chan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fermented broth has a long history of applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Recently, the use of fermented broth in skin care products is in ascendance. This review investigates the efficacy of fermented broth in inhibiting tyrosinase and melanogenesis. Possible active ingredients and hypopigmentation mechanisms of fermented broth are discussed, and potential applications of fermented broth in the cosmetic industry are also addressed.

  9. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN), an emerging threat to maize-based food security in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    In sub-Saharan Africa, maize is a staple food and key determinant of food security for smallholder farming communities. Pest and disease outbreaks are key constraints to maize productivity. In September 2011, a serious disease outbreak, later diagnosed as maize lethal necrosis (MLN), was reported on...

  10. MaizeGDB: The Maize Model Organism Database for Basic, Translational, and Applied Research

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Carolyn J.; Harper, Lisa C.; Schaeffer, Mary L.; Sen, Taner Z.; Seigfried, Trent E.; Campbell, Darwin A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2001 maize became the number one production crop in the world with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reporting over 614 million tonnes produced. Its success is due to the high productivity per acre in tandem with a wide variety of commercial uses. Not only is maize an excellent source of food, feed, and fuel, but also its by-products are used in the production of various commercial products. Maize's unparalleled success in agriculture stems from basic research, th...

  11. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical properties, thiamine and riboflavin contents,dough properties and baking quality of the flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozkaya, B.; Koksel, H.; Ozkaya, H.; Tutluer, H.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation at the doses of 0.25,0.50,0.75,1.00 and 1.25 kGy on two flour samples with distinct technological properties was investigated in this study.The sedimentation values of the irradiated samples showed a steady decrease but falling number and wet gluten content did not change to an important extend as the radiation level increased. Thiamine and riboflavin contents also decreased with irradiation. Dough development time and stability values decreased but no apparent changes were observed in other farinogram and extensogram parameters as radiation levels increased.The baking quality of the samples irradiated at higher doses(over 1.00 kGy) deteriorated in both flours as radiation levels increased

  12. Modelling ethanol production from cellulose: separate hydrolysis and fermentation versus simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drissen, R.E.T.; Maas, R.H.W.; Tramper, J.; Beeftink, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    In ethanol production from cellulose, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentative conversion may be performed sequentially (separate hydrolysis and fermentation, SHF) or in a single reaction vessel (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, SSF). Opting for either is essentially a trade-off between

  13. OXYGEN MANAGEMENT DURING ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    MOENNE VARGAS, MARÍA ISABE

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen additions are a common practice in winemaking, as oxygen has a positive effect in fermentative kinetics, biomass synthesis and improvement of color, structure and :flavor in treated wines. However, most oxygen additions are carried out heuristically through pump-over operations solely on a know-how basis, which is difficult to manage in terms of the exact quantity of oxygen transferred to the fermenting must. It is important to estímate the amount of oxygen added because...

  14. Mystery behind Chinese liquor fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Guangyuan; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Background Chinese liquor, a very popular fermented alcoholic beverage with thousands of years’ history in China, though its flavour formation and microbial process have only been partly explored, is facing the industrial challenge of modernisation and standardisation for food quality and safety as well as sustainability. Meanwhile, the hidden knowledge behind the complicated and somehow empirical solid-state fermentation process of Chinese liquor can enrich the food sector to improve our qua...

  15. Carbaryl residues in maize and processed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.J.; Sattar, A. Jr.; Naqvi, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    Carbaryl residues in two local maize varieties were determined using a colorimetric method. No significant differences were observed for residues of the two varieties which ranged between 12.0 to 13.75 mg/kg in the crude oil, and averaged 1.04 and 0.67 mg/kg in the flour and cake respectively. In whole maize plants, carbaryl residues declined to approximately 2 mg/kg 35 days after treatment. Cooking in aqueous, oil or aqueous-oil media led to 63-83% loss of carbaryl residues, after 30 minutes. (author)

  16. Sequencing, assembly, and annotation of Maize B104 : A maize transformation resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize transformation is complicated. Most lines are not readily cultured and transformed, making the germplasm available for genome engineering extremely limited. Developing a better understanding of the genomic regions responsible for differences in culturability and transformability would be a goo...

  17. Mechanical and microstructural characteristics of meat doughs, either heated by a continuous process in a radio-frequency field or conventionally in a waterbath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roon, P S; Houben, J H; Koolmees, P A; van Vliet, T; Krol, B

    1994-01-01

    Meat doughs, all having the same chemical composition, were pasteurised to a comparable heat intensity (calculated as Cook values: target level of 5 min at 100°C): (i) while flowing through a glass tube (inner diameter 50 mm) mounted in a special radio-frequency (27 MHz) heating section; (ii) after flowing unheated through the glass tube at the same rate and heated in a waterbath; and (iii) after sampling immediately after the pump and heated in a waterbath. The cooked products were sampled in the core and at the rim of the product for rheological (oscillation and uniaxial compression tests at small strain), fracture measurements (uniaxial compression tests at high strain) and microstructural evaluation (light microscopy and video image analysis). Additional core samples were used for a sensory evaluation (triangle tests) of the texture of the differently processed doughs. The fast heating rate (25-30 K/min) at a mass flow of the dough of 100 kg/h (mean velocity 0.014 m/s) during dielectrical pasteurisation affected the mechanical character, the microstructure and the triangle test results of core samples from the sausages, compared to heating in a waterbath. Flow of the unheated dough through the tube of the continuous processing equipment, followed by heating in a waterbath, had little effect on the results of the mechanical tests, the microscopical evaluation and the triangle tests. The radio-frequency heated products had both higher storage and loss moduli (were more firm), fractured at higher stress values and were considered more firm in the sensory evaluation. The microstructure of dielectrically heated versus other samples displayed a more open structure of the protein matrix with larger irregularly shaped fat particles that were surrounded by relatively thin and compact protein bridges. The effects of flow and heating method on the behaviour of rim samples were very similar to their effects on the core of the products. A comparison of the mechanical

  18. Developing Inset Resistant Maize Varieties for Food Security in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugo, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Insect Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA) project aims at increasing maize production and food security through development and deployment of stem borer resistant maize germplasm developed using conventional and through biotechnology methods such as Bt maize. Bt maize offers farmers an effective and practical option for controlling stem borers. It was recognized that the development and routine use of Bt maize will require addressing relevant bio-safety, environmental, and community concerns and research and information gathering activities are in place to address these concerns and research and information gathering activities are in place to address these concerns. Suitable Bt gene have been acquired or synthesized and back-crossed into elite maize germplasm at CIMMYT-Mexico, and the effective Cry-proteins against the major maize stem borers in Kenya were identified to better target pests. Stem borer resistant maize germplasm is being developed through conventional breeding, using locally adapted and exotic germplasm. for safe and effective deployment of Bt maize,studies on its impacts on target and non-target arthropods as well as studies on the effects of Bt maize on key non-target arthropods as well as studies on gene flow are underway. Insect resistance management strategies are being developed through quantifying the effectiveness, ???. Socioeconomic impact studies are revealing factors in the society that may influence the adoption of Bt maize in Kenya. Also, baseline data, essential for the monitoring and evaluation of the Bt maize technology in Kenya, has been established. Technology transfer and capacity building, creating awareness and communications have received attention in the project. This paper describes the major research activities as they relate to development of the stem bore resistant maize germplasm

  19. Influence of galactooligosaccharides and modified waxy maize starch on some attributes of yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Laxmi N; Sherkat, Frank; Shah, Nagendra P

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and modified waxy maize starch (MWMS) addition on the growth of starter cultures, and syneresis and firmness of low-fat yogurt during storage for 28 d at 4 °C. The control yogurt (CY) was prepared without any prebiotics. Incorporation of 2.0% (w/v) GOS improved the growth of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 resulting in a shorter fermentation time. There was a significant (P yogurt made with GOS (GOSY) as measured by absorbance value (0.728). Addition of GOS resulted in higher (P 0.05) difference in the firmness among the 3 types of yogurt. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Bacterial endophytes from wild maize suppress Fusarium graminearum in modern maize and inhibit mycotoxin accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Kamel Mousa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild maize (teosinte has been reported to be less susceptible to pests than their modern maize (corn relatives. Endophytes, defined as microbes that inhabit plants without causing disease, are known for their ability to antagonize plant pests and pathogens. We hypothesized that the wild relatives of modern maize may host endophytes that combat pathogens. Fusarium graminearum is the fungus that causes Gibberella Ear Rot (GER in modern maize and produces the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON. In this study, 215 bacterial endophytes, previously isolated from diverse maize genotypes including wild teosintes, traditional landraces and modern varieties, were tested for their ability to antagonize F. graminearum in vitro. Candidate endophytes were then tested for their ability to suppress GER in modern maize in independent greenhouse trials. The results revealed that three candidate endophytes derived from wild teosintes were most potent in suppressing F. graminearum in vitro and GER in a modern maize hybrid. These wild teosinte endophytes could suppress a broad spectrum of fungal pathogens of modern crops in vitro. The teosinte endophytes also suppressed DON mycotoxin during storage to below acceptable safety threshold levels. A fourth, less robust anti-fungal strain was isolated from a modern maize hybrid. Three of the anti-fungal endophytes were predicted to be Paenibacillus polymyxa, along with one strain of Citrobacter. Microscopy studies suggested a fungicidal mode of action by all four strains. Molecular and biochemical studies showed that the P. polymyxa strains produced the previously characterized anti-Fusarium compound, fusaricidin. Our results suggest that the wild relatives of modern crops may serve as a valuable reservoir for endophytes in the ongoing fight against serious threats to modern agriculture. We discuss the possible impact of crop evolution and domestication on endophytes in the context of plant defense.

  1. Occurrence of toxigenic fungi in maize and maize-gluten meal from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif SALEEMI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to isolate and identify toxigenic mycoflora of maize and maize-gluten meal. A total of 82 samples of maize and 8 samples of maize-gluten meal were collected from Faisalabad district of Pakistan over a period of two years. These samples were inoculated on different culture media. Fungal contamination of maize and maize-gluten was 56% and 75% of samples, respectively. Isolation frequencies of different genera isolated from maize were Aspergillus 33%; Penicillium 28%; Fusarium 10%; and Alternaria 1%. Isolation frequency among species was maximum for P. verrucosum, followed by A. niger aggregates, A. ochraceous, A. flavus, P. chrysogenum, A. parasiticus, A. carbonarius, Fusarium spp. and Alternaria spp. Relative density of Aspergillus isolates was maximum for A. niger aggregates and A. ochraceous (30% each followed by A. flavus (26%, A. parasiticus (11% and A. carbonarius (3%. Percentage of toxigenic fungi among Aspergillus isolates was 52%. Aflatoxigenic isolates of A. flavus and A. parasiticus were 43 and 67% and ochratoxigenic isolates of A. carbonarius, A. ochraceous and A. niger aggregates were 100, 63 and 38%, respectively. Aspergillus parasiticus produced higher concentrations of AFB1 (maximum 1374.23 ng g-1 than A. flavus (maximum 635.50 ng g-1. Ochratoxin A production potential of A. ochraceous ranged from 1.81 to 9523.1 ng g-1, while in A. niger aggregates it was 1.30 to 1758.6 ng g-1. Isolation frequencies of fungal genera from maize-gluten meal were Aspergillus (63% and Penicillium (50%. A. flavus was the most frequently isolated species. Percentage of toxigenic fungi among Aspergillus isolates was 40%. Aflatoxigenic isolates of A. flavus were 33% and ochratoxigenic isolates of A. ochraceous were 100%.

  2. Enhancement of the proline and nitric oxide synthetic pathway improves fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions in industrial baker's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasano Yu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast, mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is exposed to baking-associated stresses, such as air-drying and freeze-thaw stress. These baking-associated stresses exert severe injury to yeast cells, mainly due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to cell death and reduced fermentation ability. Thus, there is a great need for a baker's yeast strain with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Recently, we revealed a novel antioxidative mechanism in a laboratory yeast strain that is involved in stress-induced nitric oxide (NO synthesis from proline via proline oxidase Put1 and N-acetyltransferase Mpr1. We also found that expression of the proline-feedback inhibition-less sensitive mutant γ-glutamyl kinase (Pro1-I150T and the thermostable mutant Mpr1-F65L resulted in an enhanced fermentation ability of baker's yeast in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress and air-drying stress, respectively. However, baker's yeast strains with high fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stresses have not yet been developed. Results We constructed a self-cloned diploid baker's yeast strain with enhanced proline and NO synthesis by expressing Pro1-I150T and Mpr1-F65L in the presence of functional Put1. The engineered strain increased the intracellular NO level in response to air-drying stress, and the strain was tolerant not only to oxidative stress but also to both air-drying and freeze-thaw stresses probably due to the reduced intracellular ROS level. We also showed that the resultant strain retained higher leavening activity in bread dough after air-drying and freeze-thaw stress than that of the wild-type strain. On the other hand, enhanced stress tolerance and fermentation ability did not occur in the put1-deficient strain. This result suggests that NO is synthesized in baker's yeast from proline in response to oxidative stresses that induce ROS

  3. Enhancement of the proline and nitric oxide synthetic pathway improves fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions in industrial baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Ohtsu, Iwao; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-04-01

    During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast, mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is exposed to baking-associated stresses, such as air-drying and freeze-thaw stress. These baking-associated stresses exert severe injury to yeast cells, mainly due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to cell death and reduced fermentation ability. Thus, there is a great need for a baker's yeast strain with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Recently, we revealed a novel antioxidative mechanism in a laboratory yeast strain that is involved in stress-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from proline via proline oxidase Put1 and N-acetyltransferase Mpr1. We also found that expression of the proline-feedback inhibition-less sensitive mutant γ-glutamyl kinase (Pro1-I150T) and the thermostable mutant Mpr1-F65L resulted in an enhanced fermentation ability of baker's yeast in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress and air-drying stress, respectively. However, baker's yeast strains with high fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stresses have not yet been developed. We constructed a self-cloned diploid baker's yeast strain with enhanced proline and NO synthesis by expressing Pro1-I150T and Mpr1-F65L in the presence of functional Put1. The engineered strain increased the intracellular NO level in response to air-drying stress, and the strain was tolerant not only to oxidative stress but also to both air-drying and freeze-thaw stresses probably due to the reduced intracellular ROS level. We also showed that the resultant strain retained higher leavening activity in bread dough after air-drying and freeze-thaw stress than that of the wild-type strain. On the other hand, enhanced stress tolerance and fermentation ability did not occur in the put1-deficient strain. This result suggests that NO is synthesized in baker's yeast from proline in response to oxidative stresses that induce ROS generation and that increased NO plays an important

  4. Enhancement of the proline and nitric oxide synthetic pathway improves fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions in industrial baker's yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast, mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is exposed to baking-associated stresses, such as air-drying and freeze-thaw stress. These baking-associated stresses exert severe injury to yeast cells, mainly due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to cell death and reduced fermentation ability. Thus, there is a great need for a baker's yeast strain with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Recently, we revealed a novel antioxidative mechanism in a laboratory yeast strain that is involved in stress-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from proline via proline oxidase Put1 and N-acetyltransferase Mpr1. We also found that expression of the proline-feedback inhibition-less sensitive mutant γ-glutamyl kinase (Pro1-I150T) and the thermostable mutant Mpr1-F65L resulted in an enhanced fermentation ability of baker's yeast in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress and air-drying stress, respectively. However, baker's yeast strains with high fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stresses have not yet been developed. Results We constructed a self-cloned diploid baker's yeast strain with enhanced proline and NO synthesis by expressing Pro1-I150T and Mpr1-F65L in the presence of functional Put1. The engineered strain increased the intracellular NO level in response to air-drying stress, and the strain was tolerant not only to oxidative stress but also to both air-drying and freeze-thaw stresses probably due to the reduced intracellular ROS level. We also showed that the resultant strain retained higher leavening activity in bread dough after air-drying and freeze-thaw stress than that of the wild-type strain. On the other hand, enhanced stress tolerance and fermentation ability did not occur in the put1-deficient strain. This result suggests that NO is synthesized in baker's yeast from proline in response to oxidative stresses that induce ROS generation and that increased NO

  5. Screening of promising maize genotypes against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulky in storage condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram B Paneru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is a serious pest of economic importance in stored grains. It causes major damage to stored maize grain thereby reducing its weight, quality and germination. An experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD with 3 replications to screen 32 maize genotypes against maize weevil in no-choice and free-choice conditions at Entomology Division, Khumaltar, Lalitpur (Room temperature: Maximum 24-32°C and Minimum 18-27°C. The findings showed that the maize genotypes had different response to maize weevil damage ranging from susceptible to tolerance. The genotypes Manakamana-3, Lumle White POP Corn and Ganesh-2 showed their tolerance to S. zeamais as evidenced by lower number of weevil emerged/attracted, lower amount of grain debris release and lower proportion of bored grains, while the genotype ZM-627 was the most susceptible to weevil damage in both tests. The other remaining genotypes were intermediate types. This information is useful to improve grain protection in storage and varietal improvement/release program.

  6. Historical genomics of North American maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerwaarden, van J.; Hufford, M.B.; Ross-Ibarra, J.

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of modern plant breeding in the 1930s, North American maize has undergone a dramatic adaptation to high-input agriculture. Despite the importance of genetic contributions to historical yield increases, little is known about the underlying genomic changes. Here we use high-density

  7. Hormonal responses during early embryogenesis in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junyi; Lausser, Andreas; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Plant hormones have been shown to regulate key processes during embryogenesis in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, but the mechanisms that determine the peculiar embryo pattern formation of monocots are largely unknown. Using the auxin and cytokinin response markers DR5 and TCSv2 (two-component system, cytokinin-responsive promoter version #2), as well as the auxin efflux carrier protein PIN1a (PINFORMED1a), we have studied the hormonal response during early embryogenesis (zygote towards transition stage) in the model and crop plant maize. Compared with the hormonal response in Arabidopsis, we found that detectable hormone activities inside the developing maize embryo appeared much later. Our observations indicate further an important role of auxin, PIN1a and cytokinin in endosperm formation shortly after fertilization. Apparent auxin signals within adaxial endosperm cells and cytokinin responses in the basal endosperm transfer layer as well as chalazal endosperm are characteristic for early seed development in maize. Moreover, auxin signalling in endosperm cells is likely to be involved in exogenous embryo patterning as auxin responses in the endosperm located around the embryo proper correlate with adaxial embryo differentiation and outgrowth. Overall, the comparison between Arabidopsis and maize hormone response and flux suggests intriguing mechanisms in monocots that are used to direct their embryo patterning, which is significantly different from that of eudicots.

  8. INSECT AND MYCOFLORA INTERACTIONS IN MAIZE FLOUR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusarium moniliforme had the highest occurrence of 36.7%, 28.1% and 33.3% while Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus had a frequency of 3.2%, 3.1% and 3% on primary isolation media of czapek dox agar (CDA), potato dextrose agar (PDA) and sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) respectively, in maize flour without T. castaneum.

  9. The transcriptome landscape of early maize meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiosis, particularly meiotic recombination, is a major factor affecting yield and breeding of plants. To gain insight into the transcriptome landscape during early initiation steps of meiotic recombination, we profiled early prophase I meiocytes from maize using RNA-seq. Our analyses of genes prefe...

  10. Zealactones. Novel natural strigolactones from maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charnikhova, Tatsiana V.; Gaus, Katharina; Lumbroso, Alexandre; Sanders, Mark; Vincken, Jean Paul; Mesmaeker, de Alain; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien P.; Screpanti, Claudio; Bouwmeester, Harro J.

    2017-01-01

    In the root exudate and root extracts of maize hybrid cv NK Falkone seven putative strigolactones were detected using UPLC-TQ-MS-MS. All seven compounds displayed MS-MS-fragmentation common for strigolactones and particularly the presence of a fragment of m/z 97 Da, which may indicate the

  11. RESOURCE UTILISATION IN SOYBEAN/MAIZE INTERCROPS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean and maize may be planted as intercrops in alternating single rows in forage production systems to take advantage of available solar radiation and greater dry matter yields. Key Words: Nitrogen, row arrangement, photosynthetic active radiation, productivity. Résumé Des études des champs étaient conduites en ...

  12. Estimation of leaf area in tropical maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elings, A.

    2000-01-01

    Leaf area development of six tropical maize cultivars grown in 1995 and 1996 in several tropical environments in Mexico (both favourable and moisture-and N-limited) was observed and analysed. First, the validity of a bell-shaped curve describing the area of individual leaves as a function of leaf

  13. Quality characterization of wheat, maize and sorghum steamed breads from Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhabutlane, Pulane; du Rand, Gerrie E; de Kock, Henriëtte L

    2014-08-01

    In Lesotho, traditional bread covers different types of dumplings prepared with cereal flour, water, salt and sourdough. This study characterized eight steamed breads prepared from wheat, maize and sorghum. Breads were prepared from both commercial and self-milled flours according to the procedures followed in rural and urban areas of Lesotho. Descriptive sensory evaluation was conducted to profile sensory properties of the breads. Flour particle sizes, sourdough properties and bread colour, volume and texture were also characterized. The type of cereal and milling properties of the flour used had substantial effects on the physical and sensory properties of the bread. Steamed wheat breads had greater volume, softer crumb and more bland flavour compared with sorghum and maize breads. Both sorghum and maize steamed breads prepared according to traditional Basotho procedures were characterized by low loaf volume, denser crumb, more complex and strong flavours and aroma, notably sour, musty, malty, dairy sour and fermented aroma. The texture of the non-wheat bread types was heavy, chewy, dry, fibrous and more brittle and needed a higher compression force to deform. This study provided insight on the sensory properties of steamed bread as prepared in Lesotho. Further research is needed to optimize sensory properties of the non-wheat steamed breads by controlling the flour particle size, compositing non-wheat flours with different levels of wheat flour, addition of protein sources and gums, altering the amount of water, improving the pre-gelatinization process and optimizing the steaming method of cooking bread. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Enteric methane production, digestibility and rumen fermentation in dairy cows fed different forages with and without rapeseed fat supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Maike; Lund, Peter; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of forage species (grass or maize) and the maturity stage of grass on enteric methane (CH4) production, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation, and to study possible interactions with cracked rapeseed as fat source. Six lactating......, ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulated Holstein dairy cows (206 days in milk, milk yield 25.1 kg) were submitted to an incomplete Latin square design (6 × 4) with six diets and four periods. Two grass silages (early first cut, 361 g aNDFom/kg DM and late first cut, 515 g aNDFom/kg DM) and one maize silage...... grass silage had a higher total tract OM and aNDFom digestibility than late cut grass silage. The present study demonstrates that choice of forage species and harvest time affects CH4 emission from dairy cows, while the CH4 reducing ability of fat does not interact with forage characteristics...

  15. The 50th Annual Maize Genetics Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, Karen

    2014-03-26

    The 50th Annual Maize Genetics Conference was held February 27 - March 2, 2008 at the Marriott Wardman Park Hotel in Washington, D.C. As the golden anniversary of the Conference and coinciding with the release of a draft of the maize genome sequence, this was a special meeting. To publicize this unique occasion, meeting organizers hosted a press conference, which was attended by members of the press representing science and non-science publications, and an evening reception at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, where the draft sequence was announced and awards were presented to Dr. Mary Clutter and Senator Kit Bond to thank them for their outstanding contributions to maize genetics and genomics research. As usual, the Conference provided an invigorating forum for exchange of recent research results in many areas of maize genetics, e.g., cytogenetics, development, molecular genetics, transposable element biology, biochemical genetics, and genomics. Results were shared via both oral and poster presentations. Invited talks were given by four distinguished geneticists: Vicki Chandler, University of Arizona; John Doebley, University of Wisconsin; Susan Wessler, University of Georgia; and Richard Wilson, Washington University. There were 46 short talks and 241 poster presentations. The Conference was attended by over 500 participants. This included a large number of first-time participants in the meeting and an increasingly visible presence by individuals from underrepresented groups. Although we do not have concrete counts, there seem to be more African American, African and Hispanic/Latino attendees coming to the meeting than in years past. In addition, this meeting attracted many participants from outside the U.S. Student participation continues to be hallmark of the spirit of free exchange and cooperation characteristic of the maize genetics community. With the generous support provided by DOE, USDA NSF, and corporate/private donors, organizers were

  16. Effect of organic fertilizers on maize production in Eastern Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolokhava, Tamar; Kenchiashvili, Naira; Tarkhnishvili, Maia; Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2016-04-01

    Maize remains to be the most important cereal crop in Georgia. Total area of arable land under cereal crops production equals to 184 thousands hectares (FAO statistical yearbook, 2014), from which maize takes the biggest share. Leading position of maize among other cereal crops is caused by its dual purpose as food and feed product. In Spite of a relatively high production of maize to other cereals there is still a high demand on it, especially as feed for animal husbandry. The same tendency is seen in organic production, where producers of livestock and poultry products require organically grown maize, the average yield of which is much less than those produced conventionally. Therefore, it is important to increase productivity of maize in organic farms. Current study aimed to improve maize yield using locally produced organic fertilizers and to compare them to the effect of mineral fertilizers. The study was carried out in Eastern Georgia under dry subtropical climate conditions on local hybrid of maize. This is the first attempt to use hybrid maize (developed with organic plant breeding method) in organic field trials in Georgia. The results shown, that grain yield from two different types of organic fertilizers reached 70% of the yields achieved with industrial mineral fertilizers. As on farm level differences between organic and conventional maize production are much severe, the results from the field trials seems to be promising for future improvement of organic cereal crop production.

  17. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces marxianus Cocultures Allow Reduction of Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, and Monosaccharides and Polyols Levels in Whole Wheat Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Nore; Laurent, Jitka; Verspreet, Joran; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2017-10-04

    Fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) are small molecules that are poorly absorbed in the small intestine and rapidly fermented in the large intestine. There is evidence that a diet low in FODMAPs reduces abdominal symptoms in approximately 70% of the patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. Wheat contains relatively high fructan levels and is therefore a major source of FODMAPs in our diet. In this study, a yeast-based strategy was developed to reduce FODMAP levels in (whole wheat) bread. Fermentation of dough with an inulinase-secreting Kluyveromyces marxianus strain allowed to reduce fructan levels in the final product by more than 90%, while only 56%  reduction was achieved when a control Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was used. To ensure sufficient CO 2 production, cocultures of S. cerevisiae and K. marxianus were prepared. Bread prepared with a coculture of K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae had fructan levels ≤0.2% dm, and a loaf volume comparable with that of control bread. Therefore, this approach is suitable to effectively reduce FODMAP levels in bread.

  18. Effect of heat treatment and dough formulation on the formation of Maillard reaction products in fine bakery products - benefits and weak points

    OpenAIRE

    Ciesarová, Z.; Kukurová, K.; Bednáriková, A.; Morales, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Possibly harmful compounds (acrylamide, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural - HMF), markers of the Maillard reaction extent (furosine, fluorescence, browning, colour), as well as beneficial radical-scavenging capacity were determined in fried fine bakery products, rosquillas, at different heat treatment and dough formulation. In different simplified recipes, saccharose was substituted by glucose and fructose, and a raising agent was added while different temperature and time regimes were applied. Du...

  19. Identification of predominant lactic acid bacteria and yeasts of Turkish sourdoughs and selection of starter cultures for liquid sourdough production using different flours and dough yields

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca, N.; Settanni, L.; Moschetti, G.

    2016-01-01

    Eight samples of mature sourdough were collected from five provinces of Turkey. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were isolated and identified and used in different combinations to produce liquid sourdoughs. Microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of the experimental sourdoughs made with different flour types and dough yields were studied. The main lactic acid bacteria species identified were Lactobacillus (L.) sanfranciscensis, Pediococcus pentosaceus, L. plantarum, L. namurencis, ...

  20. Baker’s yeasts for use in frozen-dough technology : sugar utilization in freeze tolerant Torulaspora delbrueckii strains and elucidation of cryo-resistance mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Andreia

    2009-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Ciências (ramo de conhecimento em Biologia) Bread is a central dietary item in most countries of the world. Currently, frozen dough technology is extensively used in the baking industry to supply oven-fresh bakery products to consumers and to improve labor conditions for bakers. Since freeze–thaw stress affects the viability and activity of yeast cells, one serious disadvantage of this technology is a significant reduction in leavening activity during fr...

  1. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcarde, Andre Ricardo; Horii, Jorge; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and my influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the general Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated: yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%. (author)

  2. Fermentation reactions of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WHITE, T G; SHUMAN, R D

    1961-10-01

    White, Thomas G. (U. S. Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa), and Richard D. Shuman. Fermentation reactions of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. J. Bacteriol. 82:595-599. 1961.-A study was made to determine the effect of four different basal media, to which fermentable carbon compounds had been added, upon 22 selected strains of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (insidiosa). Acid production was measured by (i) chemical indicator, (ii) change in pH, and (iii) production of titrable acidity. At least two determinations, usually four, were made for each test on each strain. The fermentation pattern varied according to the medium, the indicator, and the method of measuring acid production. Andrade's base plus serum was the most dependable medium because it permitted the least variation in the total number of different patterns. Of the three methods used to measure acid production, the chemical indicator gave the most valid and reproducible results. The within-strain variation was not extreme and most strains persisted in a given fermentation pattern under like conditions of growth and acid production. Results of the study indicated that, regardless of the medium and indicator routinely used, one should be familiar with the fermentation pattern of known strains of the erysipelas organism.

  3. Studies on the traditional methods of production of maize tuwo (a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... on the quality characteristics of maize tuwo (a Nigerian nonfermented maize dumpling) ... The sequential mixing of flour and water during maize tuwo preparation should also ...

  4. Overexpression of avenin-like b proteins in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) improves dough mixing properties by their incorporation into glutenin polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fengyun; Li, Miao; Li, Tingting; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yunyi; Li, Yin; Hu, Wei; Zheng, Qian; Wang, Yaqiong; Li, Kexiu; Chang, Junli; Chen, Mingjie; Yang, Guangxiao; Wang, Yuesheng; He, Guangyuan

    2013-01-01

    Avenin-like b proteins are a small family of wheat storage proteins, each containing 18 or 19 cysteine residues. The role of these proteins, with high numbers of cysteine residues, in determining the functional properties of wheat flour is unclear. In the present study, two transgenic lines of the bread wheat overexpressing avenin-like b gene were generated to investigate the effects of Avenin-like b proteins on dough mixing properties. Sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation (SDSS) test and Mixograph analysis of these lines demonstrated that overexpression of Avenin-like b proteins in both transgenic wheat lines significantly increased SDSS volume and improved dough elasticity, mixing tolerance and resistance to extension. These changes were associated with the increased proportion of polymeric proteins due to the incorporation of overexpressed Avenin-like b proteins into the glutenin polymers. The results of this study were critical to confirm the hypothesis that Avenin-like b proteins could be integrated into glutenin polymers by inter-chain disulphide bonds, which could help understand the mechanism behind strengthening wheat dough strength.

  5. Overexpression of avenin-like b proteins in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. improves dough mixing properties by their incorporation into glutenin polymers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyun Ma

    Full Text Available Avenin-like b proteins are a small family of wheat storage proteins, each containing 18 or 19 cysteine residues. The role of these proteins, with high numbers of cysteine residues, in determining the functional properties of wheat flour is unclear. In the present study, two transgenic lines of the bread wheat overexpressing avenin-like b gene were generated to investigate the effects of Avenin-like b proteins on dough mixing properties. Sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation (SDSS test and Mixograph analysis of these lines demonstrated that overexpression of Avenin-like b proteins in both transgenic wheat lines significantly increased SDSS volume and improved dough elasticity, mixing tolerance and resistance to extension. These changes were associated with the increased proportion of polymeric proteins due to the incorporation of overexpressed Avenin-like b proteins into the glutenin polymers. The results of this study were critical to confirm the hypothesis that Avenin-like b proteins could be integrated into glutenin polymers by inter-chain disulphide bonds, which could help understand the mechanism behind strengthening wheat dough strength.

  6. Experiments with Fungi Part 2: Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Michele; Hetherington, Shane

    1996-01-01

    Gives details of three experiments with alcoholic fermentation by yeasts which yield carbon dioxide and ethanol. Lists procedures for making cider, vinegar, and fermentation gases. Provides some historical background and detailed equipment requirements. (DDR)

  7. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin [Lakewood, CO; Elander, Richard [Evergreen, CO; Hennessey, Susan M [Avondale, PA

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  8. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  9. Alcoholic fermentation of starchy and sugary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyaev, S P

    1958-06-25

    To promote complete fermentation of the sugar and to reduce the formation of glycerol and other by-products, the ester-aldehyde fraction is introduced to the fermentation mixture at the beginning of the process.

  10. Diversity of the lactic acid bacterium and yeast microbiota in the switch from firm- to liquid-sourdough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pontonio, Erica; Buchin, Solange; De Angelis, Maria; Lattanzi, Anna; Valerio, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco; Calasso, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Four traditional type I sourdoughs were comparatively propagated (28 days) under firm (dough yield, 160) and liquid (dough yield, 280) conditions to mimic the alternative technology options frequently used for making baked goods. After 28 days of propagation, liquid sourdoughs had the lowest pH and total titratable acidity (TTA), the lowest concentrations of lactic and acetic acids and free amino acids, and the most stable density of presumptive lactic acid bacteria. The cell density of yeasts was the highest in liquid sourdoughs. Liquid sourdoughs showed simplified microbial diversity and harbored a low number of strains, which were persistent. Lactobacillus plantarum dominated firm sourdoughs over time. Leuconostoc lactis and Lactobacillus brevis dominated only some firm sourdoughs, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis persisted for some time only in some firm sourdoughs. Leuconostoc citreum persisted in all firm and liquid sourdoughs, and it was the only species detected in liquid sourdoughs at all times; it was flanked by Leuconostoc mesenteroides in some sourdoughs. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida humilis, Saccharomyces servazzii, Saccharomyces bayanus-Kazachstania sp., and Torulaspora delbrueckii were variously identified in firm and liquid sourdoughs. A total of 197 volatile components were identified through purge and trap-/solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PT-/SPME-GC-MS). Aldehydes, several alcohols, and some esters were at the highest levels in liquid sourdoughs. Firm sourdoughs mainly contained ethyl acetate, acetic acid, some sulfur compounds, and terpenes. The use of liquid fermentation would change the main microbial and biochemical features of traditional baked goods, which have been manufactured under firm conditions for a long time.

  11. Diversity of the Lactic Acid Bacterium and Yeast Microbiota in the Switch from Firm- to Liquid-Sourdough Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pontonio, Erica; Buchin, Solange; De Angelis, Maria; Lattanzi, Anna; Valerio, Francesca; Calasso, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Four traditional type I sourdoughs were comparatively propagated (28 days) under firm (dough yield, 160) and liquid (dough yield, 280) conditions to mimic the alternative technology options frequently used for making baked goods. After 28 days of propagation, liquid sourdoughs had the lowest pH and total titratable acidity (TTA), the lowest concentrations of lactic and acetic acids and free amino acids, and the most stable density of presumptive lactic acid bacteria. The cell density of yeasts was the highest in liquid sourdoughs. Liquid sourdoughs showed simplified microbial diversity and harbored a low number of strains, which were persistent. Lactobacillus plantarum dominated firm sourdoughs over time. Leuconostoc lactis and Lactobacillus brevis dominated only some firm sourdoughs, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis persisted for some time only in some firm sourdoughs. Leuconostoc citreum persisted in all firm and liquid sourdoughs, and it was the only species detected in liquid sourdoughs at all times; it was flanked by Leuconostoc mesenteroides in some sourdoughs. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida humilis, Saccharomyces servazzii, Saccharomyces bayanus-Kazachstania sp., and Torulaspora delbrueckii were variously identified in firm and liquid sourdoughs. A total of 197 volatile components were identified through purge and trap–/solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PT–/SPME–GC-MS). Aldehydes, several alcohols, and some esters were at the highest levels in liquid sourdoughs. Firm sourdoughs mainly contained ethyl acetate, acetic acid, some sulfur compounds, and terpenes. The use of liquid fermentation would change the main microbial and biochemical features of traditional baked goods, which have been manufactured under firm conditions for a long time. PMID:24632249

  12. Molecular identification and technological characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented kidney beans flours (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and P. coccineus) in northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Gabriel D; Hébert, Elvira M; Saavedra, Lucila; Zárate, Gabriela

    2017-12-01

    Legumes are an important protein source in developing countries and their flours represent an attractive alternative for the manufacture of gluten free products. In the present study, 4 kidney bean varieties (Alubia, Pallar, Black and Red beans) commonly cultivated in northwestern Argentina, were milled and spontaneously fermented in order to isolate and select autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with relevant technological and functional properties for usage as starter cultures. Twelve doughs were fermented with daily back-slopping at 37°C for 6days and evolution of total mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts and molds populations were followed by plate counting. A combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods including (GTG) 5 -based PCR fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used to differentiate and identify the isolated LAB to species level. LAB counts ranged from around 0.89±0.81 to 8.74±0.03logcfu/g with a pH decline from 6.4 to 3.9 throughout fermentation. Four genera and nine species of LAB: Enterococcus durans, E. faecium, E. mundtii, E. casseliflavus; Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus garvieae, Weissella cibaria and W. paramesenteroides were found on kidney beans. Twenty five LAB strains were assessed for their abilities to grow on kidney bean extracts, acidifying capacities (pH and acidification rates), amylolytic, proteolytic, tannase and gallate decarboxylase activities as well as pathogens inhibition by antimicrobials. Based on these properties E. durans CRL 2178 and W. paramesenteroides CRL 2182 were inoculated singly and combined in Alubia kidney bean flour and fermented for 24h at 37°C. LAB strains were beneficial for removing trypsin inhibitors and tannins from sourdoughs and for improving amino acids and phenolics contents, increasing the antioxidant activities of kidney bean matrices. Selected strains have potential as starter cultures for obtaining fermented bean products with high nutritional and functional

  13. Enhanced substrate conversion effiency of fermentation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, J.P.M.; Weusthuis, R.A.; Mooibroek, H.

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of fermentation technology. In particular the invention relates to fermentation processes for the production of a first and a second fermentation product by a single production organism wherein the first product is in a more reduced state than the substrate and the second fermentation product is in a more oxidised state than the substrate yet in a less oxidised state than the final oxidation product CO2, such that the concurrent synthesis of the firs...

  14. Alcoholic fermentation of stored sweet potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yutaka, Y; One, H

    1958-01-01

    Sweet potatoes were ground and stored in a ground hold. The stored sweet potatoes gave about 90% fermentation efficiency by the koji process. A lower fermentation efficiency by the amylo process was improved by adding 20 to 30 mg/100 ml of organic N. Inorganic N has no effect in improving the fermentation efficiency of the stored sweet potatoes by the amylo process.

  15. Drying characteristics and engineering properties of fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... fermented ground cassava. J. T. Nwabanne ... The drying characteristics of fermented ground local variety of ... effect of variety on the drying and engineering properties of fermented .... Figure 2 shows that the bulk density of each cultivar ... very close thermal conductivities as depicted in the shape of Figure ...

  16. Enhanced substrate conversion efficiency of fermentation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.P.M.; Weusthuis, R.A.; Mooibroek, H.

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of fermentation technology. In particular the invention relates to fermentation processes for the production of a first and a second fermentation product by a single production organism wherein the first product is in a more reduced state than the substrate

  17. Enhanced substrate conversion effiency of fermentation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.P.M.; Weusthuis, R.A.; Mooibroek, H.

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of fermentation technology. In particular the invention relates to fermentation processes for the production of a first and a second fermentation product by a single production organism wherein the first product is in a more reduced state than the substrate

  18. Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually

  19. Traditional fermented foods and beverages of Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Misihairabgwi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Fermented foods and beverages play a major role in the diet, socioeconomic, and cultural activities of the Namibian population. Most are spontaneously fermented. Research is scarce and should be conducted on the microbiology, biochemistry, nutritional value, and safety of the fermented foods and beverages to ensure the health of the population.

  20. PAT tools for fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist

    The publication of the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) guidance has been one of the most important milestones for pharmaceutical production during the past ten years. The ideas outlined in the PAT guidance are also applied in other industries, for example the fermentation industry. Process...... knowledge is central in PAT projects. This presentation therefore gives a brief overview of a number of PAT tools for collecting process knowledge on fermentation processes: - On-line sensors, where for example spectroscopic measurements are increasingly applied - Mechanistic models, which can be used...