WorldWideScience

Sample records for fermentation-derived organic acids

  1. A novel process for recovery of fermentation-derived succinic acid: process design and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjuela, Alvaro; Orjuela, Andrea; Lira, Carl T; Miller, Dennis J

    2013-07-01

    Recovery and purification of organic acids produced in fermentation constitutes a significant fraction of total production cost. In this paper, the design and economic analysis of a process to recover succinic acid (SA) via dissolution and acidification of succinate salts in ethanol, followed by reactive distillation to form succinate esters, is presented. Process simulation was performed for a range of plant capacities (13-55 million kg/yr SA) and SA fermentation titers (50-100 kg/m(3)). Economics were evaluated for a recovery system installed within an existing fermentation facility producing succinate salts at a cost of $0.66/kg SA. For a SA processing capacity of 54.9 million kg/yr and a titer of 100 kg/m(3) SA, the model predicts a capital investment of $75 million and a net processing cost of $1.85 per kg SA. Required selling price of diethyl succinate for a 30% annual return on investment is $1.57 per kg. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 77 FR 14022 - Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information-Fermentation-Derived...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ...] Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information--Fermentation-Derived... (CMC) Information-- Fermentation-Derived Intermediates, Drug Substances, and Related Drug Products for... to submit to support the CMC information for fermentation-derived intermediates, drug substances, and...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section 184.1685 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1) Rennet and bovine rennet are... clear solution containing the active enzyme chymosin (E.C. 3.4.23.4). It is derived, via fermentation...

  4. Influence of choice of yeasts on volatile fermentation-derived compounds, colour and phenolics composition in Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazquez Rojas, Inmaculada; Smith, Paul A; Bartowsky, Eveline J

    2012-12-01

    Wine colour, phenolics and volatile fermentation-derived composition are the quintessential elements of a red wine. Many viticultural and winemaking factors contribute to wine aroma and colour with choice of yeast strain being a crucial factor. Besides the traditional Saccharomyces species S. cerevisiae, S. bayanus and several Saccharomyces interspecific hybrids are able to ferment grape juice to completion. This study examined the diversity in chemical composition, including phenolics and fermentation-derived volatile compounds, of an Australian Cabernet Sauvignon due to the use of different Saccharomyces strains. Eleven commercially available Saccharomyces strains were used in this study; S. cerevisiae (7), S. bayanus (2) and interspecific Saccharomyces hybrids (2). The eleven Cabernet Sauvignon wines varied greatly in their chemical composition. Nine yeast strains completed alcoholic fermentation in 19 days; S. bayanus AWRI 1375 in 26 days, and S. cerevisiae AWRI 1554 required 32 days. Ethanol concentrations varied in the final wines (12.7-14.2 %). The two S. bayanus strains produced the most distinct wines, with the ability to metabolise malic acid, generate high glycerol concentrations and distinctive phenolic composition. Saccharomyces hybrid AWRI 1501 and S. cerevisiae AWRI 1554 and AWRI 1493 also generated distinctive wines. This work demonstrates that the style of a Cabernet Sauvignon can be clearly modulated by choice of commercially available wine yeast.

  5. Acid digestion of organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capp, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    To overcome the high temperatures involved in straight incineration of organic waste and the difficulty of extracting actinides from the ash various research establishments throughout the world, including Winfrith and Harwell in the UK, have carried out studies on an alternative chemical combustion method known as acid digestion. The basis of the technique is to digest the waste in concentrated sulphuric acid containing a few percent of nitric acid at a temperature of about 250 0 C. Acid digestion residues consist mainly of non-refractory inorganic sulphates and oxides from which any actinide materials can easily be extracted. (author)

  6. Acid digestion of organic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.A.; Bosuego, G.P.

    1980-10-01

    Laboratory studies on the destruction of liquid organic wastes by acid digestion are discussed. A variety of liquid waste types was tested, including those encountered in the nuclear industry as well as some organic liquids representative of non-nuclear industrial wastes. The liquids tested were vacuum pump oil, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), normal paraffin hydrocarbon solvent (NPH), a mixture of 30 vol% TBP in NPH, carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), trichloroethane, toluene, hexone (methyl isobutyl ketone), a mixture of hexone and NPH, polychlorobiphenyl (PCB), isopropanol, normal-decane, and two waste organic solutions from Hanford radioactive waste tanks. The tests demonstrated that several types of organic liquids can be destroyed by the acid digestion process. 8 figures, 19 tables

  7. Organic acids in naturally colored surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar, William L.; Goerlitz, D.F.

    1966-01-01

    Most of the organic matter in naturally colored surface waters consists of a mixture of carboxylic acids or salts of these acids. Many of the acids color the water yellow to brown; however, not all of the acids are colored. These acids range from simple to complex, but predominantly they are nonvolatile polymeric carboxylic acids. The organic acids were recovered from the water by two techniques: continuous liquid-liquid extraction with n-butanol and vacuum evaporation at 50?C (centigrade). The isolated acids were studied by techniques of gas, paper, and column chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. About 10 percent of the acids recovered were volatile or could be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Approximately 30 of these carboxylic acids were isolated, and 13 of them were individually identified. The predominant part of the total acids could not be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Infrared examination of many column chromatographic fractions indicated that these nonvolatile substances are primarily polymeric hydroxy carboxylic acids having aromatic and olefinic unsaturation. The evidence suggests that some of these acids result from polymerization in aqueous solution. Elemental analysis of the sodium fusion products disclosed the absence of nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens.

  8. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ronald Lee (Inventor); Luebben, Silvia DeVito (Inventor); Myers, Andrew William (Inventor); Smith, Bryan Matthew (Inventor); Elliott, Brian John (Inventor); Kreutzer, Cory (Inventor); Wilson, Carolina (Inventor); Meiser, Manfred (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  9. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ronald Lee; Luebben, Silvia DeVito; Myers, Andrew William; Smith, Bryan Matthew; Elliott, Brian John; Kreutzer, Cory; Wilson, Carolina; Meiser, Manfred

    2007-07-17

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  10. Acidity controls on dissolved organic carbon mobility in organic soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Evans, Ch. D.; Jones, T.; Burden, A.; Ostle, N.; Zielinski, P.; Cooper, M.; Peacock, M.; Clark, J.; Oulehle, Filip; Cooper, D.; Freeman, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 11 (2012), s. 3317-3331 ISSN 1354-1013 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : acidity * dissolved organic carbon * organic soil * peat * podzol * soil carbon * sulphur Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.910, year: 2012

  11. STUDY OF ORGANIC ACIDS IN ALMOND LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenchyk L.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Almond (Amygdalus communis is a stone fruit, from the Rosaceae family, closest to the peach. It is spread throughout the entire Mediterranean region and afterwards to the Southwestern USA, Northern Africa, Turkey, Iran, Australia and South Africa. It is sensitive to wet conditions, and therefore is not grown in wet climates. Iran is located in the semi-arid region of the world. Because of its special tolerance to water stress, almond is one of the main agricultural products in rainfed condition in Iran. Almond leaves have been investigated for their phenolic content and antioxidant activity. It was found that total antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds exhibited variations according to season, plant organ (leaf and stem and variety. Analysis of previous research on almonds focused on investigating compounds mostly in seeds and phenolic compounds in leaves, but organic acids in leaves have not been studied. Aim of this study was investigation of organic acids in leaves of almond variety which is distributed in Razavi Khorasan province of Iran. Materials and Methods. In August 2012 almond leaves were collected in Iran, dried and grinded. The study of qualitative composition and quantitative determination of carboxylic acids in almond leaves was carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. For determination organic acids content, to 50 mg of dried plant material in 2 ml vial internal standard (50 μg of tridecane in hexane was added and filled up with 1.0 ml of methylating agent (14 % BCl3 in methanol, Supelco 3-3033. The mixture was kept in a sealed vial during 8 hours at 65 °C. At this time fatty oil was fully extracted, and hydrolyzed into its constituent fatty acids and their methylation was done. At the same time free organic and phenolcarbonic acids were methylated too. The reaction mixture was poured from the plant material sediment and was diluted with 1 ml of distilled water. To extract methyl

  12. Weak organic acid stress in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Beek, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Weak organic acids are commonly used food preservatives that protect food products from bacterial contamination. A variety of spore-forming bacterial species pose a serious problem to the food industry by causing extensive food spoilage or even food poisoning. Understanding the mechanisms of

  13. Comparing the Effect of Diets Treated with Different Organic Acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to compare the growth and economics of adding organic acids to diets of broiler chickens. The organic acids were sorbic benzoic lactic and propionic acids. 150 day old Hubbard chicks were used. There were five treatments. Diet 1 which served as control contained no organic acid. Diets 2, 3 ...

  14. Energy densification of biomass-derived organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, M. Clayton; van Walsum, G. Peter; Schwartz, Thomas J.; van Heiningen, Adriaan

    2013-01-29

    A process for upgrading an organic acid includes neutralizing the organic acid to form a salt and thermally decomposing the resulting salt to form an energy densified product. In certain embodiments, the organic acid is levulinic acid. The process may further include upgrading the energy densified product by conversion to alcohol and subsequent dehydration.

  15. Simultaneous analysis of small organic acids and humic acids using high performance size exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, X.P.; Liu, F.; Wang, G.C.; Weng, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    An accurate and fast method for simultaneous determination of small organic acids and much larger humic acids was developed using high performance size exclusion chromatography. Two small organic acids, i.e. salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and one purified humic acid material were used

  16. Economics of feeding drinking water containing organic acids to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was conducted to determine the economic effect of acidifying drinking water of broiler chickens with organic acids. The organic acids were acetic, butyric, citric and formic acids, each offered at 0.25%. The control did not contain any of the acids. One hundred and fifty (150) day old AborAcre - plus chicks were ...

  17. Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, Saori; Boopathy, Raj

    2011-07-01

    Shrimp farming accounts for more than 40% of the world shrimp production. Luminous vibriosis is a shrimp disease that causes major economic losses in the shrimp industry as a result of massive shrimp kills due to infection. Some farms in the South Asia use antibiotics to control Vibrio harveyi, a responsible pathogen for luminous vibriosis. However, the antibiotic-resistant strain was found recently in many shrimp farms, which makes it necessary to develop alternative pathogen control methods. Short-chain fatty acids are metabolic products of organisms, and they have been used as food preservatives for a long time. Organic acids are also commonly added in feeds in animal husbandry, but not in aquaculture. In this study, growth inhibitory effects of short-chain fatty acids, namely formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, on V. harveyi were investigated. Among four acids, formic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effect followed by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.035% formic acid suppressed growth of V. harveyi. The major inhibitory mechanism seems to be the pH effect of organic acids. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) values at 96 h inoculation for all organic acids were determined to be 0.023, 0.041, 0.03, and 0.066% for formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, respectively. The laboratory study results are encouraging to formulate shrimp feeds with organic acids to control vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture farms.

  18. Acidic organic compounds in beverage, food, and feed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmann, Hendrich; Fan, Rong; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Organic acids and their derivatives are frequently used in beverage, food, and feed production. Acidic additives may act as buffers to regulate acidity, antioxidants, preservatives, flavor enhancers, and sequestrants. Beneficial effects on animal health and growth performance have been observed when using acidic substances as feed additives. Organic acids could be classified in groups according to their chemical structure. Each group of organic acids has its own specific properties and is used for different applications. Organic acids with low molecular weight (e.g. acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid), which are part of the primary metabolism, are often produced by fermentation. Others are produced more economically by chemical synthesis based on petrochemical raw materials on an industrial scale (e.g. formic acid, propionic and benzoic acid). Biotechnology-based production is of interest due to legislation, consumer demand for natural ingredients, and increasing environmental awareness. In the United States, for example, biocatalytically produced esters for food applications can be labeled as "natural," whereas identical conventional acid catalyst-based molecules cannot. Natural esters command a price several times that of non-natural esters. Biotechnological routes need to be optimized regarding raw materials and yield, microorganisms, and recovery methods. New bioprocesses are being developed for organic acids, which are at this time commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Moreover, new organic acids that could be produced with biotechnological methods are under investigation for food applications.

  19. Separation and recovery of organic acids from fermented kitchen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organic acids produced from anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste were recovered using a new integrated method which consisted of freezing and thawing, centrifugation, filtration and evaporation. The main organic acid produced was lactic acid (98%). After the freezing and thawing process, 73% of the total suspended ...

  20. Physico-Chemical Properties of Kaolin-Organic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeo S.W.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil with more than 20% of organic content is classified as organic soil in Malaysia. Contents of organic soil consist of different types of organic and inorganic matter. Each type of organic matter has its own characteristic and its effect on the properties of the soil is different. Hence, a good understanding on the effect of specific organic and inorganic matter on the physico-chemical characteristic of organic soils can serve as a guide for predicting the properties of organic soils. The main objective is to unveil the effect of organic acid on the physico-chemical properties of soil. Artificial organic soil (kaolin mixed with organic acid was utilized in order to minimize the geochemical variability of studied soil. The organic acid which consists of humic acid and fulvic acid was extracted from highly humificated plant–based compost. The effect of organic acid on the physico-chemical properties of soil was determined by varying the concentration of organic acid. The specific gravity, Atterberg limits, pH, bulk chemical composition and the functional group of kaolin-organic acid were determined. It was found that the plasticity index, specific gravity and pH value were decreased with lowered concentration of organic acid. However, the liquid limits and plastic limits were found to be increased with the concentration decrement of organic acid. The analysis of XRF on the bulk chemical composition and analysis of FTIR spectra on the functional group of artificial organic soils with different concentration have confirmed little geochemical variability between samples.

  1. Biobased organic acids production by metabolically engineered microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Bio-based production of organic acids via microbial fermentation has been traditionally used in food industry. With the recent desire to develop more sustainable bioprocesses for production of fuels, chemicals and materials, the market for microbial production of organic acids has been further...... expanded as organic acids constitute a key group among top building block chemicals that can be produced from renewable resources. Here we review the current status for production of citric acid and lactic acid, and we highlight the use of modern metabolic engineering technologies to develop high...... performance microbes for production of succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid. Also, the key limitations and challenges in microbial organic acids production are discussed...

  2. Uranium leaching using mixed organic acids produced by Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-dong Wang; Guang-yue Li; De-xin Ding; Zhi-xiang Zhou; Qin-wen Deng; Nan Hu; Yan Tan

    2013-01-01

    Both of culture temperature and pH value had impacts on the degree of uranium extraction through changing types and concentrations of mixed organic acids produced by Aspergillus niger, and significant interactions existed between them though pH value played a leading role. And with the change of pH value of mixed organic acids, the types and contents of mixed organic acids changed and impacted on the degree of uranium extraction, especially oxalic acid, citric acid and malic acid. The mean degree of uranium extraction rose to peak when the culture temperature was 25 deg C (76.14 %) and pH value of mixed organic acids was 2.3 (82.40 %) respectively. And the highest one was 83.09 %. The optimal culture temperature (25 deg C) of A. niger for uranium leaching was different from the most appropriate growing temperature (37 deg C). (author)

  3. An Organic Puzzle Using Meldrum's Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, R. David; Holden, Michael S.

    2002-04-01

    Meldrum's acid or 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione undergoes a Knoevenagel condensation with formaldehyde to form an active Michael acceptor for a second molecule of Meldrum's acid. The structure of the resulting product is determined by correlation of the products of possible reactions of Meldrum's acid and formaldehyde with the NMR spectrum of the product.

  4. Preparation of fulvic acid and low-molecular organic acids by oxidation of weathered coal humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinozuka, T.; Ito, A.; Sasaki, O.; Yazawa, Y.; Yamaguchi, T. [Chiba Institute of Technolgy, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry

    2002-07-01

    Weathered coal contains much humic acid and a little fulvic acid. Therefore, the production of fulvic acid, the most valuable humic substance because of its water-solubility, was examined by ozone and hydrogen peroxide oxidation of humic acid extracted form Xinjiang (China) weathered coal. The resulting products of the oxidation were water soluble fulvic acid and organic acids, mainly formic acid and oxalic acid. The product yield of fulvic acid was 20 (C%) and that of organic acids were 39 (C%) for formic and acid 13 (C%) for oxalic acid. The formed fulvic acid showed a higher content of oxygen and carboxyl groups, than those of the extracted one from the original weathered coal.

  5. Dietary preferences of weaned piglets offered diets containing organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A preference test and a performance trial were carried out to examine weaned piglets’ feed intake response to diets containing either lactic acid,formic acid,calcium formate,or sodium benzoate (8 g kg-1 feed.In Experiment 1, throughout a 21-d post-weaning period,30 entire litters (306 piglets weaned at the age of 30 d were allowed to choose between two organic-acid-supplemented diets. All of the four different organic-acid-supplemented diets were tested in pairs against each other,and the six possible combinations were lactic acid +formic acid,lactic acid +calcium formate,lactic acid + sodium benzoate,formic acid +calcium formate,formic acid +sodium benzoate,and calcium for-mate +sodium benzoate.Piglets preferred diets supplemented with sodium benzoate to ones supplemented with formic acid or calcium formate.The acceptability of diets supplemented with lactic acid,formic acid,or calcium formate was similar.In Experiment 2,until the age of 58 d,60 piglets from 10 litters weaned at the age of 28 or 38 d were fed non-acidified diets or ones supplemented with lactic acid,formic acid,calcium formate,or sodium benzoate.Feed consumption did not differ between piglets fed non-acidified and those fed organic-acid-supplemented diets. Growth performance was reduced by dietary calcium formate supplementation, while the performance of piglets fed other organic-acid-supplemented diets did not differ significantly from those fed the non-acidified control diet.The frequency of post-weaning diarrhoea was highest in piglets fed diets supplemented with calcium formate and lowest in piglets fed diets supplemented with formic acid.;

  6. Herbal additives and organic acids as antibiotic alternatives in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herbal additives and organic acids as antibiotic alternatives in broiler chickens diet for organic production. ... Significant increase in lactic acid bacteria counts in ileum and cecum of broiler chicken was shown by all treatments as compared to the control at day 21. In comparison to the control, all treatments significantly ...

  7. Production of organic acids in an immobilized cell reactor using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immobilized cell reactor (ICR) was developed as a novel bioreactor to convert hydrolyzed sugars to organic acids. Sugar fermentation by Propionibacterium acid-propionici entraped by calcium alginate was carried out in continuous mode to produce propionic and acetic acids. In continuous fermentation, more than 90 ...

  8. Modeling the influence of organic acids on soil weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Corey R.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Maher, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Biological inputs and organic matter cycling have long been regarded as important factors in the physical and chemical development of soils. In particular, the extent to which low molecular weight organic acids, such as oxalate, influence geochemical reactions has been widely studied. Although the effects of organic acids are diverse, there is strong evidence that organic acids accelerate the dissolution of some minerals. However, the influence of organic acids at the field-scale and over the timescales of soil development has not been evaluated in detail. In this study, a reactive-transport model of soil chemical weathering and pedogenic development was used to quantify the extent to which organic acid cycling controls mineral dissolution rates and long-term patterns of chemical weathering. Specifically, oxalic acid was added to simulations of soil development to investigate a well-studied chronosequence of soils near Santa Cruz, CA. The model formulation includes organic acid input, transport, decomposition, organic-metal aqueous complexation and mineral surface complexation in various combinations. Results suggest that although organic acid reactions accelerate mineral dissolution rates near the soil surface, the net response is an overall decrease in chemical weathering. Model results demonstrate the importance of organic acid input concentrations, fluid flow, decomposition and secondary mineral precipitation rates on the evolution of mineral weathering fronts. In particular, model soil profile evolution is sensitive to kaolinite precipitation and oxalate decomposition rates. The soil profile-scale modeling presented here provides insights into the influence of organic carbon cycling on soil weathering and pedogenesis and supports the need for further field-scale measurements of the flux and speciation of reactive organic compounds.

  9. Production of Valuables Organic Acids from Organic Wastes with Hydrothermal Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports production of valuables organic acids from the hydrothermal treatment of representative organic wastes and compounds (i. e. domestic sludge, proteinaceous, cellulosic and plastic wastes with or without oxidant (H2O2. Organic acids such as acetic, formic, propionic, succinic and lactic acids were obtained in significant amounts. At 623 K (16.5 MPa, acetic acid of about 26 mg/g-dry waste fish entrails was obtained. This increased to 42 mg/g dry waste fish entrails in the presence of H2O2. Experiments on glucose to represent cellulosic wastes were also carried out, getting acetic acid of about 29 mg/g-glucose. The study was extended to terephthalic acid and glyceraldehyde, reaction intermediates of hydrothermal treatment of PET plastic wastes and glucose, respectively. Studies on temperature dependence of formation of organic acids showed thermal stability of acetic acid, whereas, formic acid decomposed readily under hydrothermal conditions. In general, results demonstrated that the presence of oxidants favored formation of organic acids with acetic acid being the major product. Keywords: hydrothermal treatment, organic acids, organic wastes, oxidant, supercritical water oxidation

  10. Effect of acidic seed on biogenic secondary organic aerosol growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czoschke, Nadine M.; Jang, Myoseon; Kamens, Richard M.

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) growth in the presence of acid aerosols was studied in twin 500 l Teflon bags and in a 4 m flow reactor. In Teflon bags, isoprene, acrolein and α-pinene were all made to react individually with ozone and exposed to either acid or non-acid inorganic seed aerosols to determine the effect of acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reactions on SOA growth. α-Pinene and ozone were made to react in a flow reactor to assess the immediate effect of mixing an acid aerosol with SOA at high and low relative humidity levels. In all cases, exposure to acid seed aerosol increased the amount of SOA mass produced. Fourier transform infrared spectra of the SOA in acid systems confirmed the transformation of carbonyl functional groups through acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reactions when SOAs formed in acidic environments or were exposed to acidic aerosols. Organic products initially produced from ozonation in the gas phase partition onto the inorganic seed aerosol and react heterogeneously with an acid catalyst forming low vapor pressure products. These acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reactions are implicated in generating the increased SOA mass observed in acidic aerosol systems as they transform predominantly gas phase compounds of high volatility into low vapor pressure predominantly particle phase products.

  11. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential

  12. Use of organic acids in acne and skin discolorations therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Kapuścińska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acne is one of the most frequent skin disorders that occurs in puberty, but often adults also have acne. The most important factors responsible for acne are elevated production of sebum by hyperactive sebaceous glands and blockage of the follicle because of hyperkeratosis [14]. The third etiopathogenic factor of acne is excessive microflora reproduction [8]. The most significant bacterium that is responsible for formation of skin lesions is Propionibacterium acnes, a rod-shaped Gram-positive and aerotolerant anaerobic bacterium. It is estimated that P. acnes is responsible for acne in approximately 80% of people aged 11 to 30 [27,40]. Even healed skin lesions can often cause skin discolorations and scar formation [51]. Exfoliating chemical substances that are commonly used in dermatology and cosmetology are organic acids. Exfoliating treatment using organic acids is called “chemical peeling” and consists of controlled application of those substances on the skin [38]. The depth of exfoliation depends on organic acid concentration, type of substance and contact time with the skin [41]. Using exfoliating agents seems to be helpful in excessive keratinization – one of several factors responsible for acne. Moreover, epidermis exfoliation is a popular method of removing skin discoloration [22]. Considering chemical structure, exfoliating substances that are most often used in cosmetology contain alpha-hydroxyacids (glycolic acid, lactic acid, mandelic acid and citric acid, beta-hydroxyacids (salicylic acid and other organic acids, such as trichloroacetic acid and pyruvic acid [47]. In this article, a literature review of use of organic acids in acne and skin discoloration therapy is presented.

  13. Acoustic properties of organic acid mixtures in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macavei, I.; Petrisor, V.; Auslaender, D.

    1974-01-01

    The variation of the rate of propagation of ultrasounds in organic acid mixtures in water points to structural changes caused by interactions that take place under conditions of thermal agitation, at different acid concentrations. At the same time, a difference is found in the changes in velocity as a function of the length of the carbon chain of the acids in the mixture as a result of their effect on the groups of water molecules associated by hydrogen bonds.

  14. Association mapping of main tomato fruit sugars and organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiantao Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of S. lycopersicum (123 accessions and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS over two years using the mixed linear model (MLM. We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P<0.001 for the 17 sugars and organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding.

  15. Separation and recovery of organic acids from fermented kitchen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Figure 1 shows the recovery process of organic acids from fermen- ted kitchen waste. ... freezing process was carried out using a deep freezer at -30°C for overnight. .... few factors which affect the production of lactic acid in the.

  16. ORGANIC ACIDS CONCENTRATION IN WINE STOCKS AFTER Saccharomyces cerevisiae FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bayraktar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The biochemical constituents in wine stocks that influence the flavor and quality of wine are investigated in the paper. The tested parameters consist of volume fraction of ethanol, residual sugar, phenolic compounds, tartaric, malic, citric, lactic, acetic acids, titratable acidity and volatile acids. The wine stocks that were received from white and red grape varieties Tairov`s selection were tested. There was a correlation between titratable acidity and volatile acids in the wine stocks from white and red grape varieties. High correlation was also found between lactic and acetic acids, between volatile acids, acetic acid and sugar. It was determined that wine stocks with a high concentration of ethanol originated from those yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in a fermented grape must of high speed of enzyme activity. The taste of wine stocks correlated with the ratio of tartaric to malic acid. Analysis showed significant differences between the varieties of white and red wine stocks in concentrations of organic acids, phenolic compounds, residual sugar, and volume fraction of ethanol. Positive correlation was indicated for both studied groups for volatile acids and acetic acid, tartaric, malic, lactic acids and total sugar. Prospective yeast cultures with high productivity of alcohol (ethanol were selected for winemaking biotechnology.

  17. Metabolic evolution of Escherichia coli strains that produce organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabar, Tammy; Gong, Wei; Yocum, R Rogers

    2014-10-28

    This invention relates to the metabolic evolution of a microbial organism previously optimized for producing an organic acid in commercially significant quantities under fermentative conditions using a hexose sugar as sole source of carbon in a minimal mineral medium. As a result of this metabolic evolution, the microbial organism acquires the ability to use pentose sugars derived from cellulosic materials for its growth while retaining the original growth kinetics, the rate of organic acid production and the ability to use hexose sugars as a source of carbon. This invention also discloses the genetic change in the microorganism that confers the ability to use both the hexose and pentose sugars simultaneously in the production of commercially significant quantities of organic acids.

  18. On the solubility of nicotinic acid and isonicotinic acid in water and organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, Michael H.; Acree, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solubilities of nicotinic acid and isonicotinic acids in organicsolvents have been determined. ► Solubilities are used to calculate Abraham descriptors for the two acids. ► These descriptors then yield water-solvent and gas-solvent partitions into numerous solvents. ► The solubility of the neutral acids in water is obtained. ► The method is straightforward and can be applied to any set of compound solubilities. -- Abstract: We have determined the solubility of nicotinic acid in four solvents and the solubility of isonicotinic acid in another four solvents. These results, together with literature data on the solubility of nicotinic acid in five other organic solvents and isonicotinic acid in four other organic solvents, have been analyzed through two linear Gibbs energy relationships in order to extract compound properties, or descriptors, that encode various solute–solvent interactions. The descriptors for nicotinic acid and isonicotinic acid can then be used in known equations for partition of solutes between water and organic solvents to predict partition coefficients and then further solubility in a host of organic solvents, as well as to predict a number of other physicochemical properties

  19. Alleviating soil acidity through plant organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson R. Meda

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of water soluble plant extracts on soil acidity. The plant materials were: black oat, oil seed radish, white and blue lupin, gray and dwarf mucuna, Crotalaria spectabilis and C. breviflora, millet, pigeon pea, star grass, mato grosso grass, coffee leaves, sugar cane leaves, rice straw, and wheat straw. Plant extracts were added on soil surface in a PVC soil column at a rate of 1.0 ml min-1. Both soil and drainage water were analyzed for pH, Ca, Al, and K. Plant extracts applied on the soil surface increased soil pH, exchangeable Ca ex and Kex and decreased Al ex. Oil seed radish, black oat, and blue lupin were the best and millet the worst materials to alleviate soil acidity. Oil seed radish markedly increased Al in the drainage water. Chemical changes were associated with the concentrations of basic cations in the plant extract: the higher the concentration the greater the effects in alleviating soil acidity.Foram conduzidos experimentos de laboratórios para avaliar os efeitos de extratos de plantas solúveis em água na acidez do solo. Os materiais de plantas foram: aveia preta, nabo, tremoço branco e azul, mucuna cinza e anã, Crotalaria spectabilis e C. breviflora, milheto, guandu, grama estrela, grama mato grosso, folhas de café, folhas de cana-de-açúcar, palhada de arroz e palhada de trigo. Foi utilizado o seguinte procedimento para o extrato da planta solúvel em água: pesar 3g de material de planta, adicionar 150 ml de água, agitar por 8h e filtrar. Os extratos de plantas foram adicionados na superfície do solo em uma coluna de PVC (1 ml min-1. Após, adicionou-se água deionizada em quantidade equivalente a três volumes de poros. Os extratos de plantas aumentaram o pH, Ca e K trocável e diminuíram Al. Nabo, aveia preta e tremoço azul foram os melhores e milheto o pior material para amenizar a acidez do solo. Nabo aumentou Al na água de drenagem. As altera

  20. Processing of Unsaturated Organic Acid Aerosols by Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisio, S.; Donaldson, D. J.; Eliason, T. L.; Cziczo, D.; Vaida, V.

    2002-05-01

    We present results of in-situ studies of the oxidative "processing" of organic aerosols composed of unsaturated organic compounds. Aerosol samples of 2-octenoic acid and undecylenic acid were exposed to approx. 10 mbar ozone in a room temperature, atmospheric pressure flow tube reactor. In-situ spectroscopic probing of the reaction mixture, as well as GC-MS analysis of the flow tube effluent, shows evidence of efficient oxidation of double bonds in the organic species, with production of gas-phase and aerosol phase ozonolysis products.

  1. Flavor Compounds in Pixian Broad-Bean Paste: Non-Volatile Organic Acids and Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Lin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-volatile organic acids and amino acids are important flavor compounds in Pixian broad-bean paste, which is a traditional Chinese seasoning product. In this study, non-volatile organic acids, formed in the broad-bean paste due to the metabolism of large molecular compounds, are qualitatively and quantitatively determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Amino acids, mainly produced by hydrolysis of soybean proteins, were determined by the amino acid automatic analyzer. Results indicated that seven common organic acids and eighteen common amino acids were found in six Pixian broad-bean paste samples. The content of citric acid was found to be the highest in each sample, between 4.1 mg/g to 6.3 mg/g, and malic acid were between 2.1 mg/g to 3.6 mg/g ranked as the second. Moreover, fumaric acid was first detected in fermented bean pastes albeit with a low content. For amino acids, savory with lower sour taste including glutamine (Gln, glutamic acid (Glu, aspartic acid (Asp and asparagines (Asn were the most abundant, noted to be 6.5 mg/g, 4.0 mg/g, 6.4 mg/g, 4.9 mg/g, 6.2 mg/g and 10.2 mg/g, and bitter taste amino acids followed. More importantly, as important flavor materials in Pixian broad-bean paste, these two groups of substances are expected to be used to evaluate and represent the flavor quality of Pixian broad-bean paste. Moreover, the results revealed that citric acid, glutamic acid, methionine and proline were the most important flavor compounds. These findings are agreat contribution for evaluating the quality and further assessment of Pixian broad-bean paste.

  2. Flavor Compounds in Pixian Broad-Bean Paste: Non-Volatile Organic Acids and Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongbin; Yu, Xiaoyu; Fang, Jiaxing; Lu, Yunhao; Liu, Ping; Xing, Yage; Wang, Qin; Che, Zhenming; He, Qiang

    2018-05-29

    Non-volatile organic acids and amino acids are important flavor compounds in Pixian broad-bean paste, which is a traditional Chinese seasoning product. In this study, non-volatile organic acids, formed in the broad-bean paste due to the metabolism of large molecular compounds, are qualitatively and quantitatively determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Amino acids, mainly produced by hydrolysis of soybean proteins, were determined by the amino acid automatic analyzer. Results indicated that seven common organic acids and eighteen common amino acids were found in six Pixian broad-bean paste samples. The content of citric acid was found to be the highest in each sample, between 4.1 mg/g to 6.3 mg/g, and malic acid were between 2.1 mg/g to 3.6 mg/g ranked as the second. Moreover, fumaric acid was first detected in fermented bean pastes albeit with a low content. For amino acids, savory with lower sour taste including glutamine (Gln), glutamic acid (Glu), aspartic acid (Asp) and asparagines (Asn) were the most abundant, noted to be 6.5 mg/g, 4.0 mg/g, 6.4 mg/g, 4.9 mg/g, 6.2 mg/g and 10.2 mg/g, and bitter taste amino acids followed. More importantly, as important flavor materials in Pixian broad-bean paste, these two groups of substances are expected to be used to evaluate and represent the flavor quality of Pixian broad-bean paste. Moreover, the results revealed that citric acid, glutamic acid, methionine and proline were the most important flavor compounds. These findings are agreat contribution for evaluating the quality and further assessment of Pixian broad-bean paste.

  3. Organic acid profile of commercial sour cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEMIATE I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids are present in sour cassava starch ("polvilho azedo" and contribute with organoleptic and physical characteristics like aroma, flavor and the exclusive baking property, that differentiate this product from the native cassava starch. Samples of commercial sour cassava starch collected in South and Southeast Brazil were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. The HPLC equipment had a Biorad Aminex HPX-87H column for organic acid analysis and a refractometric detector. Analysis was carried out with 0.005M sulfuric acid as mobile phase, 0.6ml/min flow rate and column temperature of 60° C. The acids quantified were lactic (0.036 to 0.813 g/100g, acetic (0 to 0.068 g/100g, propionic (0 to 0.013 g/100g and butyric (0 to 0.057 g/100g, that are produced during the natural fermentation of cassava starch. Results showed large variation among samples, even within the same region. Some samples exhibited high acid levels, mainly lactic acid, but in these neither propionic nor butyric acids were detected. Absence of butyric acid was not expected because this is an important component of the sour cassava starch aroma, and the lack of this acid may suggest that such samples were produced without the natural fermentation step.

  4. Corrosion of alloy C-22 in organic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carranza, Ricardo M.; Rodriguez, Martin A.; Giordano, Celia M.

    2007-01-01

    Electrochemical studies such as cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were performed to determine the corrosion behavior of Alloy 22 (N06022) in 1M NaCl solutions at various pH values from acidic to neutral at 90 C degrees. All the tested material was wrought Mill Annealed (MA). Tests were also performed in NaCl solutions containing weak organic acids such as oxalic, acetic, citric and picric acids. Results show that the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 was significantly higher in solutions containing oxalic acid than in solutions of pure NaCl at the same pH. Citric and Picric acids showed a slightly higher corrosion rate, and Acetic acid maintained the corrosion rate of pure chloride solutions at the same pH. Organic acids revealed to be weak inhibitors for crevice corrosion. Higher concentration ratios, compared to nitrate ions, were needed to completely inhibit crevice corrosion in chloride solutions. Results are discussed considering acid dissociation constants, buffer capacity and complex formation constants of the different weak acids. (author) [es

  5. Sugars, organic acids, minerals and lipids in jabuticaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annete de Jesus Boari Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the sugar, organic acid and mineral compositions of the whole fruit and fractions (skin, pulp and seed of the Paulista (Plinia cauliflora and Sabará (Plinia jaboticaba jabuticaba tree genotypes, as well as the oil compositions of their skin and seeds. High levels of sugar, especially fructose, followed by glucose and sucrose, were encountered in the fruit. In the Paulista genotype, higher levels of total and reducing sugars were found in the pulp and skin, which was not observed when comparing the whole fruit of both genotypes. Five organic acids were found in the whole fruit and in the fractions of the two jabuticaba genotypes in quantitative order: citric acid > succinic acid > malic acid > oxalic acid > acetic acid. Potassium was the most abundant mineral found. This fruit was also shown to be rich in magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and copper. The seed oil had nearly the same constitution as the oil extracted from the skin in both genotypes and the major compounds were an unidentified phytosterol, palmitic, linoleic and oleic acids, and squalene.

  6. Chloroacetic acids - Degradation intermediates of organic matter in forest soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matucha, Miroslav; Gryndler, Milan; Schröder, P.; Forczek, Sándor; Uhlířová, H.; Fuksová, Květoslava; Rohlenová, Jana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2007), s. 382-385 ISSN 0038-0717 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/0874; GA ČR GA526/05/0636 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : trichloroacetic acid * dichloroacetic acid * chlorination * soil organic matter Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.580, year: 2007

  7. Fermentation process for the production of organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Theron; Reinhardt, James; Yu, Xiaohui; Udani, Russell; Staples, Lauren

    2018-05-01

    This invention relates to improvements in the fermentation process used in the production of organic acids from biological feedstock using bacterial catalysts. The improvements in the fermentation process involve providing a fermentation medium comprising an appropriate form of inorganic carbon, an appropriate amount of aeration and a biocatalyst with an enhanced ability to uptake and assimilate the inorganic carbon into the organic acids. This invention also provides, as a part of an integrated fermentation facility, a novel process for producing a solid source of inorganic carbon by sequestering carbon released from the fermentation in an alkali solution.

  8. Biochar: a green sorbent to sequester acidic organic contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Gabriel; Kah, Melanie; Sun, Huichao; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is a carbon rich product of biomass pyrolysis that exhibits a high sorption potential towards a wide variety of inorganic and organic contaminants. Because it is a valuable soil additive and a potential carbon sink that can be produced from renewable resources, biochar has gained growing attention for the development of more sustainable remediation strategies. A lot of research efforts have been dedicated to the sorption of hydrophobic contaminants and metals to biochar. Conversely, the understanding of the sorption of acidic organic contaminants remains limited, and questions remain on the influence of biochar characteristics (e.g. ash content) on the sorption behaviour of acidic organic contaminants. To address this knowledge gap, sorption batch experiments were conducted with a series of structurally similar acidic organic contaminants covering a range of dissociation constant (2,4-D, MCPA, 2,4-DB and triclosan). The sorbents selected for experimentation included a series of 10 biochars covering a range of characteristics, multiwalled carbon nanotubes as model for pure carbonaceous phases, and an activated carbon as benchmark. Overall, sorption coefficient [L/kg] covered six orders of magnitude and generally followed the order 2,4-D pH dependent lipophilicity ratio (i.e. D instead of Kow), ash content and ionic strength are key factors influencing the sorption of acidic organic contaminants to biochars. Overall, the identified factors, as well as the environmental matrix, should be carefully considered when selecting the type of biochar for sequestration purposes.

  9. Effect of inorganic salts on the volatility of organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, Silja A K; McNeill, V Faye; Riipinen, Ilona

    2014-12-02

    Particulate phase reactions between organic and inorganic compounds may significantly alter aerosol chemical properties, for example, by suppressing particle volatility. Here, chemical processing upon drying of aerosols comprised of organic (acetic, oxalic, succinic, or citric) acid/monovalent inorganic salt mixtures was assessed by measuring the evaporation of the organic acid molecules from the mixture using a novel approach combining a chemical ionization mass spectrometer coupled with a heated flow tube inlet (TPD-CIMS) with kinetic model calculations. For reference, the volatility, i.e. saturation vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy, of the pure succinic and oxalic acids was also determined and found to be in agreement with previous literature. Comparison between the kinetic model and experimental data suggests significant particle phase processing forming low-volatility material such as organic salts. The results were similar for both ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride mixtures, and relatively more processing was observed with low initial aerosol organic molar fractions. The magnitude of low-volatility organic material formation at an atmospherically relevant pH range indicates that the observed phenomenon is not only significant in laboratory conditions but is also of direct atmospheric relevance.

  10. Molecular physiology of weak organic acid stress in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, J.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism by which weak organic acid (WOA) preservatives inhibit growth of microorganisms may differ between different WOAs and these differences are not well understood. The aim of this thesis has been to obtain a better understanding of the mode of action of these preservatives by which they

  11. Effects of organic acid supplementation on antioxidant capacity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four commercial organic acids and a reference antibiotic, Neoxyval, were administered to commercial broilers to evaluate the efficacy of these products during pre- and post-challenge with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) on selected indicators of their antioxidant status and immune ...

  12. Organic acid production in Aspergillus niger and other filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odoni, Dorett I.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to increase the understanding of organic acid production in Aspergillus niger and other filamentous fungi, with the ultimate purpose to improve A. niger as biotechnological production host.

    In Chapter 1, the use of microbial

  13. Relationship between plant growth and organic acid exudates from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant–mycorrhizal interaction is an important association in the ecosystem with significant impacts on the physical, biological and chemical properties of the soil. In the present study, potential relationships that exist between organic acid production by ectomycorrhizal pine seedlings and plant parameters in the absence of ...

  14. Effects of organic acid and probiotic on performance and gut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... The effects of organic acid, probiotic and a combination of the two on performance and gut .... −3 dilution level. One mL of the dilution was pipetted and inoculated on .... animal by stimulating synthesis of vitamins of the B-group, improving .... Cowan and Steel's Manual for Identification of Medical Bacteria.

  15. Acid-base properties of Baltic Sea dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Karoline; Schneider, Bernd; Kuliński, Karol; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E.

    2017-09-01

    Calculations related to the marine CO2 system that are based on alkalinity data may be strongly biased if the contributions of organic compounds are ignored. In coastal seas, concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are frequently high and alkalinity from inorganic compounds is low. In this study, based on measurements of total alkalinity, total CO2, and pH, we determined the organic alkalinity, Aorg, in water from the central Baltic Sea. The maximum Aorg measured in the surface mixed layer during the spring bloom was > 50 μmol/kg-SW but the Aorg decreased with depth and approached zero below the permanent halocline. This behavior could be attributed to the decreased pH of deeper water layers. The data were used to calculate the bulk dissociation constant, KDOM, for marine DOM and the fraction f of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that acts as a carrier for acid-base functional groups. The p KDOM (7.27) agreed well with the value (7.34) previously estimated in a preliminary study of organic alkalinity in the Baltic Sea. The fraction of carbon atoms carrying acid-base groups was 17% and was somewhat higher than previously reported (12%). Spike experiments performed using artificial seawater and three different humic/fulvic substances tested whether the acid-base properties of these substances explain the results of our field study. Specifically, Aorg was determined at different concentrations (DOC) of the added humic/fulvic substances. The relationship between Aorg and the DOC concentrations indicated that humic/fulvic substances are more acidic (p KDOM < 6.5) than the bulk DOC natural occurring in the Baltic Sea.

  16. The Acid-Base Balance Between Organic Acids and Circumneutral Ground Waters in Large Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, D. I.; Glaser, P. H.; So, J.

    2006-05-01

    Organic acids supply most of the acidity in the surface waters of bogs in peatlands. Yet, the fundamental geochemical properties of peatland organic acids are still poorly known. To assess the geochemical properties of typical organic acid assemblages in peatlands, we used a triprotic analog model for peat pore waters and surface waters in the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands, optimizing on charge balance and calibrated to estimates of mole site density in DOC and triprotic acid dissociation constants. Before the calibration process, all bog waters and 76% of fen waters had more than +20% charge imbalance. After calibration, most electrochemically balanced within 20%. In the best calibration, the mole site denisty of bog DOC was estimated as ~0.05 mmol/mmol C., approximately 6 times smaller than that for fen DOC or the DOC in the fen deeper fen peats that underlie bogs. The three modeled de-protonation constants were; pKa1 = ~3.0, pKa2 = ~4.5 and pKa3 = ~7.0 for the bog DOC, and; pKa1 = ~5.2, pKa2 =~ 6.5 and pKa3 = ~7.0 for the fen DOC. Bog DOC, behaves as a strong acid despite its small mole site density. The DOC in bog runoff can therefore theoretically acidify the surface waters in adjacent fens wherever these waters do not receive sufficient buffering alkalinity from active groundwater seepage.

  17. Formation of organic acids from trace carbon in acidic oxidizing media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrassier, C.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon 14 does not fully desorb as CO 2 during the hot concentrated nitric acid dissolution step of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing: a fraction is entrained in solution into the subsequent process steps as organic species. The work described in this dissertation was undertaken to identify the compounds arising from the dissolution in 3 N nitric acid of uranium carbides (selected as models of the chemical form of carbon 14 in spent fuel) and to understand their formation and dissolution mechanism. The compounds were present at traces in solution, and liquid-solid extraction on a specific stationary phase (porous graphite carbon) was selected to concentrate the monoaromatic poly-carboxylic acids including mellitic acid, which is mentioned in the literature but has not been formally identified. The retention of these species and of oxalic acid - also cited in the literature - was studied on this stationary phase as a function of the mobile phase pH, revealing an ion exchange retention mechanism similar to the one observed for benzyltrimethylammonium polystyrene resins. The desorption step was then optimized by varying the eluent pH and ionic strength. Mass spectrometry analysis of the extracts identified acetic acid, confirmed the presence of mellitic acid, and revealed compounds of high molecular weight (about 200 g/mol); the presence of oxalic acid was confirmed by combining gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Investigating the dissolution of uranium and zirconium carbides in nitric acid provided considerable data on the reaction and suggested a reaction mechanism. The reaction is self-catalyzing via nitrous acid, and the reaction rate de pends on the acidity and nitrate ion concentration in solution. Two uranium carbide dissolution mechanisms are proposed: one involves uranium at oxidation state +IV in solution, coloring the dissolution solution dark green, and the other assumes that uranium monocarbide is converted to uranium oxide. The carboxylic acid

  18. Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation of organic waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.A.; Smith, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    A wet chemical oxidation technology has been developed to address issues facing defense-related facilities, private industry, and small-volume generators such as university and medical laboratories. Initially tested to destroy and decontaminate a heterogenous mixture of radioactive-contaminated solid waste, the technology can also remediate other hazardous waste forms. The process, unique to Savannah River, offers a valuable alternative to incineration and other high-temperature or high-pressure oxidation processes. The process uses nitric acid in phosphoric acid; phosphoric acid allows nitric acid to be retained in solution well above its normal boiling point. The reaction converts organics to carbon dioxide and water, and generates NO x vapors which can be recycled using air and water. Oxidation is complete in one to three hours. In previous studies, many organic compounds were completely oxidized, within experimental error, at atmospheric pressure below 180 degrees C; more stable compounds were decomposed at 200 degrees C and 170 kPa. Recent studies have evaluated processing parameters and potential throughputs for three primary compounds: EDTA, polyethylene, and cellulose. The study of polyvinylchloride oxidation is incomplete at this time

  19. Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Organic Amines and Amino Acids in Saline and Acidic Samples Using the Mars Organic Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Amanda M.; Chiesl, Thomas N.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Amashukeli, Xenia; Grunthaner, Frank; Mathies, Richard A.

    2009-11-01

    The Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA) has enabled the sensitive detection of amino acid and amine biomarkers in laboratory standards and in a variety of field sample tests. However, the MOA is challenged when samples are extremely acidic and saline or contain polyvalent cations. Here, we have optimized the MOA analysis, sample labeling, and sample dilution buffers to handle such challenging samples more robustly. Higher ionic strength buffer systems with pKa values near pH 9 were developed to provide better buffering capacity and salt tolerance. The addition of ethylaminediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) ameliorates the negative effects of multivalent cations. The optimized protocol utilizes a 75 mM borate buffer (pH 9.5) for Pacific Blue labeling of amines and amino acids. After labeling, 50 mM (final concentration) EDTA is added to samples containing divalent cations to ameliorate their effects. This optimized protocol was used to successfully analyze amino acids in a saturated brine sample from Saline Valley, California, and a subcritical water extract of a highly acidic sample from the Río Tinto, Spain. This work expands the analytical capabilities of the MOA and increases its sensitivity and robustness for samples from extraterrestrial environments that may exhibit pH and salt extremes as well as metal ions.

  20. Profiling of the Contents of Amino Acids, Water-Soluble Vitamins, Minerals, Sugars and Organic Acids in Turkish Hazelnut Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taş Neslihan Göncüoğlu

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available Proximate composition, profiles of amino acids, sugars, organic acids, vitamins and minerals of fourteen Turkish hazelnut varieties harvested in 2013 and 2014 were investigated. Glutamic acid, arginine and aspartic acid were the most predominant amino acids, representing of about 50% of hazelnut protein. Individual amino acid profiles showed significant differences depending upon the harvest year (p<0.05. Concentration of sucrose was the highest followed by fructose, glucose, stachyose, raffinose and myo-inositol, respectively. Phytic acid was predominant organic acid in all varieties, followed by malic acid. Independent of the variety, hazelnuts were rich in pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, pyridoxal, biotin, thiamine, nicotinamide. Pantothenic and nicotinic acid were significantly higher in most of the varieties in harvest year 2014. Potassium was the most predominant mineral, followed by magnesium, calcium, sodium, manganese, zinc, iron and copper, respectively.

  1. Progress on Zeolite-membrane-aided Organic Acid Esterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertiharta, I. G. B. N.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-07-01

    Esterification is a common route to produce carboxylic acid esters as important intermediates in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. However, the reaction is equilibrium limited and needs to be driven forward by selective removal one of the products. There have been some efforts to selectively remove water from reaction mixture via several separation processes (such as pervaporation and reactive distillation). Integrated pervaporation and esterification has gained increasing attention towards. Inorganic zeolite is the most popular material for pervaporation due to its high chemical resistant and separation performance towards water. Zeolite also has proven to be an effective material in removing water from organic compound. Zeolite can act not only as selective layer but also simultaneously act as a catalyst on promoting the reaction. Hence, there are many configurations in integrating zeolite membrane for esterification reaction. As a selective layer to remove water from reaction mixture, high Si/Al zeolite is preferred to enhance its hydrophilicity. However, low Si/Al zeolite is unstable in acid condition due to dealumination thus eliminate its advantages. As a catalyst, acid zeolites (e.g. H-ZSM-5) provide protons for autoprotolysis of the carboxylic acid similar to other catalyst for esterification (e.g. inorganic acid, and ion exchange resins). There are many studies related to zeolite membrane aided esterification. This paper will give brief information related to zeolite membrane role in esterification and also research trend towards it.

  2. Emulsion Liquid Membrane Technology in Organic Acid Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norela Jusoh; Norasikin Othman; Nur Alina Nasruddin

    2016-01-01

    Emulsion Liquid Membrane (ELM) process have shown a great potential in wide application of industrial separations such as in removal of many chemicals, organic compounds, metal ions, pollutants and biomolecules. This system promote many advantages including simple operation, high selectivity, low energy requirement, and single stage extraction and stripping process. One potential application of ELM is in the purification of succinic acid from fermentation broth. This study outline steps for developing emulsion liquid membrane process in purification of succinic acid. The steps include liquid membrane formulation, ELM stability and ELM extraction of succinic acid. Several carrier, diluent and stripping agent was screened to find appropriate membrane formulation. After that, ELM stability was investigated to enhance the recovery of succinic acid. Finally, the performance of ELM was evaluated in the extraction process. Results show that formulated liquid membrane using Amberlite LA2 as carrier, palm oil as diluent and sodium carbonate, Na_2CO_3 as stripping agent provide good performance in purification. On the other hand, the prepared emulsion was observed to be stable up to 1 hour and sufficient for extraction process. In conclusion, ELM has high potential to purify succinic acid from fermentation broth. (author)

  3. Phthalic acid esters found in municipal organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Contamination of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with xenobiotic compounds and their fate during anaerobic digestion was investigated. The phthalic acid ester di-(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was identified as the main contaminant in OFMSW in concentrations more than half.......41-0.79 d(-1), which is much higher than in previous investigations. It can be concluded that the higher removal rates are due to the higher temperature and higher initial concentrations per kg dry matter. These results suggest that the limiting factor for DEHP degradation is the bioavailability, which...... is enhanced at higher temperature and higher degradation of solid organic matter, to which the highly hydrophobic DEHP is adsorbed. The investigated reactor configuration with a thermophilic and a hyper-thermophilic treatment is, therefore, a good option for CD combining high rate degradation of organic...

  4. Nickel deficiency disrupts metabolism of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids of young pecan foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cheng; Reilly, Charles C; Wood, Bruce W

    2006-02-01

    The existence of nickel (Ni) deficiency is becoming increasingly apparent in crops, especially for ureide-transporting woody perennials, but its physiological role is poorly understood. We evaluated the concentrations of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids in photosynthetic foliar tissue from Ni-sufficient (Ni-S) versus Ni-deficient (Ni-D) pecan (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch). Foliage of Ni-D pecan seedlings exhibited metabolic disruption of nitrogen metabolism via ureide catabolism, amino acid metabolism, and ornithine cycle intermediates. Disruption of ureide catabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of xanthine, allantoic acid, ureidoglycolate, and citrulline, but total ureides, urea concentration, and urease activity were reduced. Disruption of amino acid metabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of glycine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, tryptophan, arginine, and total free amino acids, and lower concentrations of histidine and glutamic acid. Ni deficiency also disrupted the citric acid cycle, the second stage of respiration, where Ni-D foliage contained very low levels of citrate compared to Ni-S foliage. Disruption of carbon metabolism was also via accumulation of lactic and oxalic acids. The results indicate that mouse-ear, a key morphological symptom, is likely linked to the toxic accumulation of oxalic and lactic acids in the rapidly growing tips and margins of leaflets. Our results support the role of Ni as an essential plant nutrient element. The magnitude of metabolic disruption exhibited in Ni-D pecan is evidence of the existence of unidentified physiological roles for Ni in pecan.

  5. Crystal and molecular structure of eight organic acid-base adducts from 2-methylquinoline and different acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Jin, Shouwen; Tao, Lin; Liu, Bin; Wang, Daqi

    2014-08-01

    Eight supramolecular complexes with 2-methylquinoline and acidic components as 4-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, salicylic acid, 5-chlorosalicylic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, malic acid, sebacic acid, and 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid were synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. All of the complexes are organic salts except compound 2. All supramolecular architectures of 1-8 involve extensive classical hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the classical hydrogen bonds (ionic or neutral) between acidic components and 2-methylquinoline are sufficient to bring about the formation of binary organic acid-base adducts. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. These weak interactions combined, the complexes 1-8 displayed 2D-3D framework structure.

  6. Simultaneous analysis of amino acid and organic acid by NMR spectrometry, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koda, Naoya; Yamaguchi, Shuichi; Mori, Takeshi.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of urine from patients with inborn error of metabolism were studied by 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. Diseases studied were as follows; phenylketonuria, biotin responsive multiple carboxylase deficiency, non-ketotic hyperglycinemia, 3-ketothiolase deficiency, alkaptonuria, methylmalonic acidemia, isovaleric acidemia, glutaric aciduria, argininosuccinic aciduria and hyperornithinemia. In each disease, specific metabolites in urine were recognized by NMR spectrometry. This method is accomplished within 10 minutes with non-treated small volume of urine and will be successfully available for the screening and/or diagnosis of inherited metabolic diseases of amino acid and organic acid. (author)

  7. Organic Acids as Hetrotrophic Energy Sources in Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windman, T. O.; Zolotova, N.; Shock, E.

    2004-12-01

    Many thermophilic microbes are heterotrophs, but little is known about the organic compounds present in hydrothermal ecosystems. More is known about what these organisms will metabolize in lab experiments than what they do metabolize in nature. In an effort to bridge this gap, we have begun to incorporate organic analyses into ongoing research on Yellowstone hydrothermal ecosystems. After filtering at least a liter of hot spring water to minimize contamination, samples were collected into sixty-milliliter serum vials containing ultra-pure phosphoric acid, sodium hydroxide, or benzalkonium chloride. Approximately 80 sites were sampled spanning temperatures from 60 to 90°C and pH values from 2 to 9. Analytical data for organic acid anions (including formate, acetate, lactate, and succinate) were obtained by ion chromatography. Preliminary results indicate that concentrations of organic acids anions range from 5 to 300 ppb. These results can be used with other field and lab data (sulfate, sulfide, nitrate, ammonia, bicarbonate, pH, hydrogen) in thermodynamic calculations to evaluate the amounts of energy available in heterotrophic reactions. Preliminary results of such calculations show that sulfate reduction to sulfide coupled to succinate oxidation to bicarbonate yields about 6 kcal per mole of electrons transferred. When formate oxidation to bicarbonate or hydrogen oxidation to water is coupled to sulfate reduction there is less energy available by approximately a factor of two. A comparison with nitrate reduction to ammonia involving succinate and/or formate oxidation reveals several similarities. Using formate to reduce nitrate can yield about as much energy as nitrate reduction with hydrogen (typically 12 to 14 kcal per mole of electrons transferred), but using succinate can yield more than twice as much energy. In fact, reduction of nitrate with succinate can provide more energy than any of the inorganic nitrate reduction reactions involving sulfur, iron

  8. Diffusion cell investigations into the acidic degradation of organic coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Victor Buhl; Wang, Ting; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2018-01-01

    Protective organic coatings work by preventing contact between an aggressive environment and a vulnerable substrate. However, the long required lifetime of a barrier coating provides a challenge when attempting to evaluate coating performance. Diffusion cells can be used as a tool to estimate...... coating barrier properties and lifetime. In this work, a diffusion cell array was designed, constructed, and compared to previous designs, with simplicity being the most important design parameter. Sulfuric acid diffusion through five different coatings was monitored using a battery of cells...

  9. Organic acids in cloud water and rainwater at a mountain site in acid rain areas of South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Wang, Yan; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Xueqiao; Sun, Lei; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the chemical characteristics of organic acids and to identify their source, cloud water and rainwater samples were collected at Mount Lu, a mountain site located in the acid rain-affected area of south China, from August to September of 2011 and March to May of 2012. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of organic acids in cloud water was 38.42 μeq/L, ranging from 7.45 to 111.46 μeq/L, contributing to 2.50 % of acidity. In rainwater samples, organic acid concentrations varied from 12.39 to 68.97 μeq/L (VWM of 33.39 μeq/L). Organic acids contributed significant acidity to rainwater, with a value of 17.66 %. Formic acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid were the most common organic acids in both cloud water and rainwater. Organic acids had an obviously higher concentration in summer than in spring in cloud water, whereas there was much less discrimination in rainwater between the two seasons. The contribution of organic acids to acidity was lower during summer than during spring in both cloud water (2.20 % in summer vs 2.83 % in spring) and rainwater (12.24 % in summer vs 19.89 % in spring). The formic-to-acetic acid ratio (F/A) showed that organic acids were dominated by primary emissions in 71.31 % of the cloud water samples and whole rainwater samples. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis determined four factors as the sources of organic acids in cloud water, including biogenic emissions (61.8 %), anthropogenic emissions (15.28 %), marine emissions (15.07 %) and soil emissions (7.85 %). The findings from this study imply an indispensable role of organic acids in wet deposition, but organic acids may have a limited capacity to increase ecological risks in local environments.

  10. Metal mobilization from metallurgical wastes by soil organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potysz, Anna; Grybos, Malgorzata; Kierczak, Jakub; Guibaud, Gilles; Fondaneche, Patrice; Lens, Piet N L; van Hullebusch, Eric D

    2017-07-01

    Three types of Cu-slags differing in chemical and mineralogical composition (historical, shaft furnace, and granulated slags) and a matte from a lead recovery process were studied with respect to their susceptibility to release Cu, Zn and Pb upon exposure to organic acids commonly encountered in soil environments. Leaching experiments (24-960 h) were conducted with: i) humic acid (20 mg/L) at pH t 0  = 4.4, ii) fulvic acid (20 mg/L) at pH t 0  = 4.4, iii) an artificial root exudates (ARE) (17.4 g/L) solution at pH t 0  = 4.4, iv) ARE solution at pH t 0  = 2.9 and v) ultrapure water (pH t 0  = 5.6). The results demonstrated that the ARE contribute the most to the mobilization of metals from all the wastes analyzed, regardless of the initial pH of the solution. For example, up to 14%, 30%, 24% and 5% of Cu is released within 960 h from historical, shaft furnace, granulated slags and lead matte, respectively, when exposed to the artificial root exudates solution (pH 2.9). Humic and fulvic acids were found to have a higher impact on granulated and shaft furnace slags as compared to the ultrapure water control and increased the release of metals by a factor up to 37.5 (Pb) and 20.5 (Cu) for granulated and shaft furnace slags, respectively. Humic and fulvic acids amplified the mobilization of metals by a maximal factor of 13.6 (Pb) and 12.1 (Pb) for historical slag and lead matte, respectively. The studied organic compounds contributed to different release rates of metallic contaminants from individual metallurgical wastes under the conditions tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of organic acids exuded from roots in phosphorus nutrition and aluminium tolerance in acidic soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hocking, P J; Randall, P J; Delhaize, E [CSIRO Plant Industry, Canberra (Australia); Keerthisinghe, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2000-06-01

    Soil acidity is a major problem of large areas of arable land on a global scale. Many acid soils are low in plant-available phosphorus (P) or are highly P-fixing, resulting in poor plant growth. In addition, aluminium (Al) is soluble in acid soils in the toxic Al{sup 3+} form, which also reduces plant growth. There is considerable evidence that both P deficiency and exposure to Al{sup 3+} stimulate the efflux of organic acids from roots of a range of species. Organic acids such as citrate, malate and oxalate are able to desorb or solubilise fixed soil P, making it available for plant uptake. Organic acids also chelate Al{sup 3+} to render it non-toxic, and are, therefore, involved in Al tolerance mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the literature on the role of organic acids exuded from roots in improving plant P uptake and Al-tolerance in acid soils. Research is now attempting to understand how P deficiency or exposure to Al{sup 3+} activates or induces organic acid efflux at the molecular level, with the aim of improving P acquisition and Al tolerance by conventional plant breeding and by genetic engineering. At the agronomic level, it is desirable that existing crop and pasture plants with enhanced soil-P uptake and tolerance to Al due to organic acid exudation are integrated into farming systems. (author)

  12. The role of organic acids exuded from roots in phosphorus nutrition and aluminium tolerance in acidic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, P.J.; Randall, P.J.; Delhaize, E.; Keerthisinghe, G.

    2000-01-01

    Soil acidity is a major problem of large areas of arable land on a global scale. Many acid soils are low in plant-available phosphorus (P) or are highly P-fixing, resulting in poor plant growth. In addition, aluminium (Al) is soluble in acid soils in the toxic Al 3+ form, which also reduces plant growth. There is considerable evidence that both P deficiency and exposure to Al 3+ stimulate the efflux of organic acids from roots of a range of species. Organic acids such as citrate, malate and oxalate are able to desorb or solubilise fixed soil P, making it available for plant uptake. Organic acids also chelate Al 3+ to render it non-toxic, and are, therefore, involved in Al tolerance mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the literature on the role of organic acids exuded from roots in improving plant P uptake and Al-tolerance in acid soils. Research is now attempting to understand how P deficiency or exposure to Al 3+ activates or induces organic acid efflux at the molecular level, with the aim of improving P acquisition and Al tolerance by conventional plant breeding and by genetic engineering. At the agronomic level, it is desirable that existing crop and pasture plants with enhanced soil-P uptake and tolerance to Al due to organic acid exudation are integrated into farming systems. (author)

  13. The influence of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and stream waters on a seasonal basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Pippa J.; Clark, Joanna M.; Reynolds, Brian; Adamson, John K.

    2008-01-01

    Much uncertainty still exists regarding the relative importance of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and surface waters. This paper contributes to this debate by presenting analysis of seasonal variations in atmospheric deposition, soil solution and stream water chemistry for two UK headwater catchments with contrasting soils. Acid neutralising capacity (ANC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and the Na:Cl ratio of soil and stream waters displayed strong seasonal patterns with little seasonal variation observed in soil water pH. These patterns, plus the strong relationships between ANC, Cl and DOC, suggest that cation exchange and seasonal changes in the production of DOC and seasalt deposition are driving a shift in the proportion of acidity attributable to strong acid anions, from atmospheric deposition, during winter to predominantly organic acids in summer. - Seasonal variations in soil solution ANC is controlled by seasonal variations in seasalt deposition and production of dissolved organic acids

  14. Pretreatment of various feedstocks for lactic acid production: detection of sugars, organic acids and furanics in liquid fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, P.F.H.; Lips, S.J.J.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Barley straw, sugarcane bagasse and empty fruit bunches were pretreated under acid- and alkaline conditions. Solid phase was separated from the liquid phase and the concentration of dissolved monomeric sugars, organic acids and furanics was determined. Acid hydrolysis yielded monomeric xylose

  15. Sensitive determination of nucleic acids using organic nanoparticle fluorescence probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yunyou; Bian, Guirong; Wang, Leyu; Dong, Ling; Wang, Lun; Kan, Jian

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes the preparation of organic nanoparticles by reprecipitation method under sonication and vigorous stirring. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize the size and size distribution of the luminescent nanoparticles. Their average diameter was about 25 nm with a size variation of ±18%. The fluorescence decay lifetime of the nanoparticles also was determined on a self-equipped fluorospectrometer with laser light source. The lifetime (˜0.09 μs) of nanoparticles is about three times long as that of the monomer. The nanoparticles were in abundant of hydrophilic groups, which increased their miscibility in aqueous solution. These organic nanoparticles have high photochemical stability, excellent resistance to chemical degradation and photodegradation, and a good fluorescence quantum yield (25%). The fluorescence can be efficiently quenched by nucleic acids. Based on the fluorescence quenching of nanoparticles, a fluorescence quenching method was developed for determination of microamounts of nucleic acids by using the nanoparticles as a new fluorescent probe. Under optimal conditions, maximum fluorescence quenching is produced, with maximum excitation and emission wavelengths of 345 and 402 nm, respectively. Under optimal conditions, the calibration graphs are linear over the range 0.4-19.0 μg ml -1 for calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) and 0.3-19.0 μg ml -1 for fish sperm DNA (fs-DNA). The corresponding detection limits are 0.25 μg ml -1 for ct-DNA and 0.17 μg ml -1 for fs-DNA. The relative standard deviation of six replicate measurements is 1.3-2.1%. The method is simple, rapid and sensitive with wide linear range. The recovery and relative standard deviation are very satisfactory.

  16. Mannan-oligosaccharide and organic acids for weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Souza Vieira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of acetic, propionic, and formic (50% organic acids and mannan-oligosaccharide (50% on growth performance, digestibility, and faecal score in challenged weaned piglets. Twenty male piglets (5.57 ± 0.32 kg of BW; 21-24 days of age were housed individually in metabolic cages for 28 days in an acclimatised room. The treatments were composed of the inclusion (0.1%; n = 10 or not (n = 10 of additive in the diet. The experimental design was completely randomised with two treatments, 10 replicates, and one piglet per replicate. The nutritional matrix was supplemented with 10% of barley and 35.9 to 34.0% of soybean meal in the pre-starter diet (3-14 days post-weaning and the starter diet (15-28 days post-weaning, respectively, to cause an intestinal challenge. Diets did not include any antimicrobial or growth promoters. Weekly, the animal and the leftover diet were weighed to evaluate growth performance. Digestibility was evaluated through total faeces and urine collection. Piglets fed diets with additive had 8.7% greater weight gain (P < 0.05 compared to those piglets in the control treatment in the starter phase. For other growth performance responses there was no treatment effect. Similarly, the inclusion of additive in the piglet diets did not affect the faecal score or the energy and nutrient digestibility. In the starter phase and throughout the experimental period, piglets fed diets with additive had 18.37% and 15.07% greater nitrogen (N intake and 19.53% and 16.05% greater N retention, respectively, compared to piglets in the control treatment (P < 0.05. In conclusion, the addition of additive composed by organic acids and mannan-oligosaccharide does not improve energy and nutrient digestibility but increases the N retention and weight gain in weaned piglets in the starting phase.

  17. Effects of organic acid pickling on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Blawert, C.; Scharnagl, N.

    2010-01-01

    mu m of the contaminated surface was required to reach corrosion rates less than 1 mm/year in salt spray condition. Among the three organic acids examined, acetic acid is the best choice. Oxalic acid can be an alternative while citric acid is not suitable for cleaning AZ31 sheet, because......Organic acids were used to clean AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet and the effect of the cleaning processes on the surface condition and corrosion performance of the alloy was investigated. Organic acid cleanings reduced the surface impurities and enhanced the corrosion resistance. Removal of at least 4...

  18. Highly thermal-stable and functional cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibrils produced using fully recyclable organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liheng Chen; Junyong Zhu; Carlos Baez; Peter Kitin; Thomas Elder

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the production of highly thermal stable and functional cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and nanofibrils (CNF) by hydrolysis using concentrated organic acids. Due to their low water solubility, these solid organic acids can be easily recovered after hydrolysis reactions through crystallization at a lower or ambient temperature. When dicarboxylic acids were...

  19. Recovery of Organic and Amino Acids from Sludge and Fish Waste in Sub Critical Water Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of organic and amino acid production from the treatment of sludge and fish waste using water at sub critical conditions was investigated. The results indicated that at sub-critical conditions, where the ion product of water went through a maximum, the formation of organic acids was favorable. The presence of oxidant favored formation of acetic and formic acid. Other organic acids of significant amount were propionic, succinic and lactic acids. Depending on the type of wastes, formation of other organic acids was also possible. Knowing the organic acids obtained by hydrolysis and oxidation in sub-critical water of various wastes are useful in designing of applicable waste treatment process, complete degradation of organic wastes into volatile carbon and water, and also on the viewpoint of resource recovery. The production of lactic acid was discussed as well. The results indicated that temperature of 573 K, with the absence of oxidant, yield of lactic acid from fish waste was higher than sewage sludge. The maximum yield of total amino acids (137 mg/g-dry fish from waste fish entrails was obtained at subcritical condition (T = 523 K, P = 4 MPa at reaction time of 60 min by using the batch reactor. The amino acids obtained in this study were mainly alanine and glycine. Keywords:  organic acids, amino acids, sub-critical water, hydrothermal, resources recovery

  20. Dynamics of three organic acids (malic, acetic and succinic acid) in sunflower exposed to cadmium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhixin; Li, Xiaodong; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng

    2013-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been considered as a good candidate for bioaccumulation of heavy metals. In the present study, sunflower was used to enrich the cadmium and lead in sand culture during 90 days. Biomass, Cd and Pb uptake, three organic acids and pH in cultures were investigated. Results showed that the existence of Cd and Pb showed different interactions on the organic acids exudation. In single Cd treatments, malic and acetic acids in Cd10 showed an incremental tendency with time. In the mixed treatments of Cd and Pb, malic acids increased when 10 and 40 mg x L(-1) Cd were added into Pb50, but acetic acids in Pb50 were inhibited by Cd addition. The Cd10 supplied in Pb10 stimulated the secretion of malic and succinic acids. Moreover, the Cd or Pb uptake in sunflower showed various correlations with pH and some organic acids, which might be due to the fact that the Cd and Pb interfere with the organic acids secretion in rhizosphere of sunflower, and the changes of organic acids altered the form and bioavailability of Cd and Pb in cultures conversely.

  1. Amino acids and hexosamines as indicators of organic matter degradation state in North Sea sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dauwe, B.; Middelburg, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Sediment cores from six stations in the eastern North Sea were analyzed for protein amino acids, the nonprotein amino acids beta-alanine and gamma-aminobutyric acid and the hexosamines galactosamine and glucosamine, and bulk parameters (organic carbon, nitrogen, total hydrolyzable amino acids and

  2. Determination of organic acids evolution during apple cider fermentation using an improved HPLC analysis method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.; Zhou, F.; Ji, B.; Nout, M.J.R.; Fang, Q.; Zhang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    An efficient method for analyzing ten organic acids in food, namely citric, pyruvic, malic, lactic, succinic, formic, acetic, adipic, propionic and butyric acids, using HPLC was developed. Boric acid was added into the mobile phase to separate lactic and succinic acids, and a post-column buffer

  3. Leaching of organic acids from macromolecular organic matter by non-supercritical CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, P.; Glombitza, C.; Kallmeyer, J.

    2012-04-01

    The storage of CO2 in underground reservoirs is discussed controversly in the scientific literature. The worldwide search for suitable storage formations also considers coal-bearing strata. CO2 is already injected into seams for enhanced recovery of coal bed methane. However, the effects of increased CO2 concentration, especially on organic matter rich formations, are rarely investigated. The injected CO2 will dissolve in the pore water, causing a decrease in pH and resulting in acidic formation waters. Huge amounts of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) are chemically bound to the macromolecular matrix of sedimentary organic matter and may be liberated by hydrolysis, which is enhanced by the acidic porewater. Recent investigations outlined the importance of LMWOAs as a feedstock for microbial life in the subsurface [1]. Therefore, injection of CO2 into coal formations may result in enhanced nutrient supply for subsurface microbes. To investigate the effect of high concentrations of dissolved CO2 on the release of LMWOAs from coal we developed an inexpensive high-pressure high temperature system that allows manipulating the partial pressure of dissolved gases at pressures and temperatures up to 60 MPa and 120° C, respectively. In a reservoir vessel, gases are added to saturate the extraction medium to the desired level. Inside the extraction vessel hangs a flexible and inert PVDF sleeve (polyvinylidene fluoride, almost impermeable for gases), holding the sample and separating it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the sleeve allows for subsampling without loss of pressure. Coal samples from the DEBITS-1 well, Waikato Basin, NZ (R0 = 0.29, TOC = 30%). were extracted at 90° C and 5 MPa, either with pure or CO2-saturated water. Subsamples were taken at different time points during the extraction. The extracted LMWOAs such as formate, acetate and oxalate were analysed by ion chromatography. Yields of LMWOAs were higher with pure water than with CO2

  4. Effects of organic acids, amino acids and ethanol on the radio-degradation of patulin in an aqueous model system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hyejeong; Lim, Sangyong; Jo, Cheorun; Chung, Jinwoo; Kim, Soohyun; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Dongho

    2008-01-01

    The effects of organic acids, amino acids, and ethanol on the radio-degradation of patulin by gamma irradiation in an aqueous model system were investigated. The patulin, dissolved in distilled water at a concentration of 50 ppm, was practically degraded by the gamma irradiation at the dose of 1.0 kGy, while 33% of the patulin remained in apple juice. In the aqueous model system, the radio-degradation of patulin was partially inhibited by the addition of organic acids, amino acids, and ethanol. The proportions of remaining patulin after irradiation with the dose of 1.0 kGy in the 1% solution of malic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, ascorbic acid, and ethanol were 31.4%, 2.3%, 31.2%, 6.1%, 50.8%, and 12.5%, respectively. During 30 days of storage, the remaining patulin was reduced gradually in the solution of ascorbic acid and malic acid compared to being stable in other samples. The amino acids, serine, threonine, and histidine, inhibited the radio-degradation of patulin. In conclusion, it was suggested that 1 kGy of gamma irradiation (recommended radiation doses for radicidation and/or quarantine in fruits) is effective for the reduction of patulin, but the nutritional elements should be considered because the radio-degradation effects are environment dependent

  5. PCI-GC-MS-MS approach for identification of non-amino organic acid and amino acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Hemi; Yang, Lin; Ji, Fenfen; Cai, Zongwei

    2017-03-15

    Alkyl chloroformate have been wildly used for the fast derivatization of metabolites with amino and/or carboxyl groups, coupling of powerful separation and detection systems, such as GC-MS, which allows the comprehensive analysis of non-amino organic acids and amino acids. The reagents involving n-alkyl chloroformate and n-alcohol are generally employed for providing symmetric labeling terminal alkyl chain with the same length. Here, we developed an asymmetric labeling strategy and positive chemical ionization gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (PCI-GC-MS-MS) approach for determination of non-amino organic acids and amino acids, as well as the short chain fatty acids. Carboxylic and amino groups could be selectively labelled by propyl and ethyl groups, respectively. The specific neutral loss of C 3 H 8 O (60Da), C 3 H 5 O 2 (74Da) and C 4 H 8 O 2 (88Da) were useful in the selective identification for qualitative analysis of organic acids and amino acid derivatives. PCI-GC-MS-MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was applied for semi-quantification of typical non-amino organic acids and amino acids. This method exhibited a wide range of linear range, good regression coefficient (R 2 ) and repeatability. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of targeted metabolites showed excellent intra- and inter-day precision (chloroformate derivatization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Low-Vacuum Deposition of Glutamic Acid and Pyroglutamic Acid: A Facile Methodology for Depositing Organic Materials beyond Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Iwao; Maeda, Shunsaku; Suda, Yoriko; Makihara, Kenji; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Thin layers of pyroglutamic acid (Pygl) have been deposited by thermal evaporation of the molten L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) through intramolecular lactamization. This deposition was carried out with the versatile handmade low-vacuum coater, which was simply composed of a soldering iron placed in a vacuum degassing resin chamber evacuated by an oil-free diaphragm pump. Molecular structural analyses have revealed that thin solid film evaporated from the molten L-Glu is mainly composed of L-Pygl due to intramolecular lactamization. The major component of the L-Pygl was in β-phase and the minor component was in γ-phase, which would have been generated from partial racemization to DL-Pygl. Electron microscopy revealed that the L-Glu-evaporated film generally consisted of the 20 nm particulates of Pygl, which contained a periodic pattern spacing of 0.2 nm intervals indicating the formation of the single-molecular interval of the crystallized molecular networks. The DL-Pygl-evaporated film was composed of the original DL-Pygl preserving its crystal structures. This methodology is promising for depositing a wide range of the evaporable organic materials beyond amino acids. The quartz crystal resonator coated with the L-Glu-evaporated film exhibited the pressure-sensing capability based on the adsorption-desorption of the surrounding gas at the film surface.

  7. Pilot-scale recovery of low molecular weight organic acids from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... 2Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 2-4 Hibiniko, Wakamatsu- ... 2000) as well as for the recovery of organic acids from ..... Fellowship from Third World Organization for.

  8. Toxicity of Select Organic Acids to the Slightly Thermophilic Acidophile Acidithiobaccillus Caldus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John E Aston; William A Apel; Brady D Lee; Brent M Peyton

    2009-02-01

    Acidithiobacillus caldus is a thermophilic acidophile found in commercial biomining, acid mine drainage systems, and natural environments. Previous work has characterized A. caldus as a chemolithotrophic autotroph capable of utilizing reduced sulfur compounds under aerobic conditions. Organic acids are especially toxic to chemolithotrophs in low-pH environments, where they diffuse more readily into the cell and deprotonate within the cytoplasm. In the present study, the toxic effects of oxaloacetate, pyruvate, 2-ketoglutarate, acetate, malate, succinate, and fumarate on A. caldus strain BC13 were examined under batch conditions. All tested organic acids exhibited some inhibitory effect. Oxaloacetate was observed to inhibit growth completely at a concentration of 250 µM, whereas other organic acids were completely inhibitory at concentrations of between 1,000 and 5,000 µM. In these experiments, the measured concentrations of organic acids decreased with time, indicating uptake or assimilation by the cells. Phospholipid fatty acid analyses indicated an effect of organic acids on the cellular envelope. Notable differences included an increase in cyclic fatty acids in the presence of organic acids, indicating possible instability of the cellular envelope. This was supported by field emission scanning-electron micrographs showing blebbing and sluffing in cells grown in the presence of organic acids.

  9. Characteristics of organic acids in the fruit of different pumpkin species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Biesiada, Anita; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the composition of organic acids in fruit of different cultivars of three pumpkin species. The amount of acids immediately after fruit harvest and after 3 months of storage was compared. The content of organic acids in the examined pumpkin cultivars was assayed using the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Three organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, and fumaric acid) were identified in the cultivars, whose content considerably varied depending on a cultivar. Three-month storage resulted in decreased content of the acids in the case of cultivars belonging to Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita pepo species, while a slight increase was recorded for Cucurbita moschata species. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of organic acids on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipids have drawn increasing attention in recent years as promising raw materials for biodiesel production, and the use of lignocellulosic hydrolysates as carbon sources seems to be a feasible strategy for cost-effective lipid fermentation with oleaginous microorganisms on a large scale. During the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials with dilute acid, however, various kinds of inhibitors, especially large amounts of organic acids, will be produced, which substantially decrease the fermentability of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. To overcome the inhibitory effects of organic acids, it is critical to understand their impact on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous microorganisms. Results In our present work, we investigated for the first time the effect of ten representative organic acids in lignocellulosic hydrolysates on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans cells. In contrast to previous reports, we found that the toxicity of the organic acids to the cells was not directly related to their hydrophobicity. It is worth noting that most organic acids tested were less toxic than aldehydes to the cells, and some could even stimulate the growth and lipid accumulation at a low concentration. Unlike aldehydes, most binary combinations of organic acids exerted no synergistic inhibitory effects on lipid production. The presence of organic acids decelerated the consumption of glucose, whereas it influenced the utilization of xylose in a different and complicated way. In addition, all the organic acids tested, except furoic acid, inhibited the malic activity of T. fermentans. Furthermore, the inhibition of organic acids on cell growth was dependent more on inoculum size, temperature and initial pH than on lipid content. Conclusions This work provides some meaningful information about the effect of organic acid in lignocellulosic hydrolysates on the lipid production of

  11. Organic acid excretion in Penicillium ochrochloron increases with ambient pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eVrabl

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite being of high biotechnological relevance, many aspects of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi like the influence of ambient pH are still insufficiently understood. While the excretion of an individual organic acid may peak at a certain pH value, the few available studies investigating a broader range of organic acids indicate that total organic acid excretion rises with increasing external pH.We hypothesized that this phenomenon might be a general response of filamentous fungi to increased ambient pH. If this is the case, the observation should be widely independent of the organism, growth conditions or experimental design and might therefore be a crucial key point in understanding the function and mechanisms of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi.In this study we explored this hypothesis using ammonium limited chemostat cultivations (pH 2-7, and ammonium or phosphate limited bioreactor batch cultivations (pH 5 and 7. Two strains of Penicillium ochrochloron were investigated differing in the spectrum of excreted organic acids.Confirming our hypothesis, the main result demonstrated that organic acid excretion in P. ochrochloron was enhanced at high external pH levels compared to low pH levels independent of the tested strain, nutrient limitation and cultivation method. We discuss these findings against the background of three hypotheses explaining organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi, i.e. overflow metabolism, charge balance and aggressive acidification hypothesis.

  12. Ice nucleation in sulfuric acid/organic aerosols: implications for cirrus cloud formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Beaver

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Using an aerosol flow tube apparatus, we have studied the effects of aliphatic aldehydes (C3 to C10 and ketones (C3 and C9 on ice nucleation in sulfuric acid aerosols. Mixed aerosols were prepared by combining an organic vapor flow with a flow of sulfuric acid aerosols over a small mixing time (~60 s at room temperature. No acid-catalyzed reactions were observed under these conditions, and physical uptake was responsible for the organic content of the sulfuric acid aerosols. In these experiments, aerosol organic content, determined by a Mie scattering analysis, was found to vary with the partial pressure of organic, the flow tube temperature, and the identity of the organic compound. The physical properties of the organic compounds (primarily the solubility and melting point were found to play a dominant role in determining the inferred mode of nucleation (homogenous or heterogeneous and the specific freezing temperatures observed. Overall, very soluble, low-melting organics, such as acetone and propanal, caused a decrease in aerosol ice nucleation temperatures when compared with aqueous sulfuric acid aerosol. In contrast, sulfuric acid particles exposed to organic compounds of eight carbons and greater, of much lower solubility and higher melting temperatures, nucleate ice at temperatures above aqueous sulfuric acid aerosols. Organic compounds of intermediate carbon chain length, C4-C7, (of intermediate solubility and melting temperatures nucleated ice at the same temperature as aqueous sulfuric acid aerosols. Interpretations and implications of these results for cirrus cloud formation are discussed.

  13. Synthesis of N,N-Bis(nonaflyl) Squaric Acid Diamide and its Application to Organic Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Cheol Hong; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a new strong Brφnsted acid bearing two nonaflyl groups based on the squaric acid scaffold. The Brφnsted acid 2 showed the almost same reactivity as bistriflyl squaramide 1 in Mukaiyama aldol and Michael reactions of benzaldehyde with silyl enol ether. Moreover, the utility of Brφnsted acid 2 could be expanded to carbonyl ene reaction of rac-citronellal. Further application of this new Brφnsted acid to organic reactions and to flow system reactors is currently underway in our laboratory. Brφnsted acid catalysis is one of the growing fields in modern organic synthesis.1 Although several Brφnsted acids, such as urea/thiourea, TADDOL, and phosphoric acid, have been applied to a variety of organic reactions, other Brφnsted acid scaffolds have been much less explored. Recently, Rawal et al have developed a Brφnsted acid catalyst based on squaric acid moiety and successfully applied it as a catalyst for conjugate addition of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds to nitroolefins. More recently, we have developed a strong Brφnsted acid derived from squaric acid by introducing a strong electron withdrawing trifluoromethanesulfonyl (Tf) group and applied it to Mukaiyama aldol and Michael reaction of a variety of aldehydes, ketones, and α,β-unsaturated ketones. As a continuing effort to develop strong Brφnsted acids based on the squaric acid scaffold, it was expected that replacement of Tf group with a longer perfluoro-alkanesulfonyl group would be able to tune the physical properties, such as solubilities in organic solvents and fluoro-philicity, without loss of reactivity. Herein, we report the development of a new Brφnsted acid based on the squaric acid scaffold carrying two nonafluorobutanesulfonyl (Nf) groups and the preliminary results of its reactivity to various organic reactions

  14. Formic and Acetic Acid Observations over Colorado by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Organic Acids' Role in Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadaway, V.; O'Sullivan, D. W.; Heikes, B.; Silwal, I.; McNeill, A.

    2015-12-01

    Formic acid (HFo) and acetic acid (HAc) have both natural and anthropogenic sources and a role in the atmospheric processing of carbon. These organic acids also have an increasing importance in setting the acidity of rain and snow as precipitation nitrate and sulfate concentrations have decreased. Primary emissions for both organic acids include biomass burning, agriculture, and motor vehicle emissions. Secondary production is also a substantial source for both acids especially from biogenic precursors, secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), and photochemical production from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs). Chemical transport models underestimate organic acid concentrations and recent research has sought to develop additional production mechanisms. Here we report HFo and HAc measurements during two campaigns over Colorado using the peroxide chemical ionization mass spectrometer (PCIMS). Iodide clusters of both HFo and HAc were recorded at mass-to-charge ratios of 173 and 187, respectively. The PCIMS was flown aboard the NCAR Gulfstream-V platform during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment (DC3) and aboard the NCAR C-130 during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE). The DC3 observations were made in May and June 2012 extending from the surface to 13 km over the central and eastern United States. FRAPPE observations were made in July and August 2014 from the surface to 7 km over Colorado. DC3 measurements reported here are focused over the Colorado Front Range and complement the FRAPPE observations. DC3 HFo altitude profiles are characterized by a decrease up to 6 km followed by an increase either back to boundary layer mixing ratio values or higher (a "C" shape). Organic acid measurements from both campaigns are interpreted with an emphasis on emission sources (both natural and anthropogenic) over Colorado and in situ photochemical production especially ozone precursors.

  15. Effect of fermentation period on the organic acid and amino acid contents of Ogiri from castor oil bean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojinnaka, M-T. C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To monitor the changes in the concentration of organic acid and amino acid contents during the fermentation of castor oil bean seed into ogiri.Methodology and results: In this study, ogiri, a Nigerian fermented food condiment was prepared from castor oil bean using Bacillus subtilis as a monoculture starter for the production of three different fermented castor oil bean condiment samples: B1 (0% NaCl/lime, B2 (2% NaCl, B3 (3% lime. Variations in the composition of the castor oil bean with fermentation over 96 h periods were evaluated for organic acid and amino acid contents using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Organic acids were detected in the fermented castor oil bean samples as fermentation period increased to 96 h. Organic acids identified were oxalic, citric, tartaric, malic, succinic, lactic, formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids. The lactic acid contents in sample B1 (0% NaCl/lime decreased initially and then increased as the fermentation period progressed. The value at 96 h fermentation was 1.336 µg/mL as against 0.775 µg/mL at 0 h fermentation. Sample B3 (3% lime had lactic acid content that increased as fermentation period increased with lactic acid content of 1.298 µg/mL at 96 h fermentation. The acetic acid content of sample B1 increased as fermentation progressed and at 96 h fermentation, its value was 1.204 µg/mL while those of B2 and B3 were 0.677 µg/mL and 1.401 µg/mL respectively. The three fermented castor oil bean samples also contained sufficient amount of amino acids. Sample B1 had the highest values in isoleucine glycine and histidine with values 1.382 µg/mL, 0.814 µg/mL and 1.022 µg/mL respectively while sample B2 had the highest value in leucine content with 0.915 µg/mL at 96 h fermentation, closely followed by sample B3 and B1 with 0.798 µg/mL and 0.205 µg/mL respectively. The results of amino acid analysis indicated a high concentration of all amino acids at 96 h of fermentation

  16. Effects of Organic Acids on Adsorption of Cadmium onto Kaolinite, Goethite, and Bayerite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Effects of organic acids (oxalic, acetic, and citric) on adsorption characteristics of Cadmium (Cd) on soil clay minerals(kaolinite, goethite, and bayerite) were studied under different concentrations and different pH values. Although the types of organic acids and minerals were different, the effects of the organic acids on the adsorption of Cd on the minerals were similar, i.e., the amount of adsorbed Cd with an initial solution pH of 5.0 and initial Cd concentration of 35 mg L-1increased with increasing concentration of the organic acid in solution at lower concentrations, and decreased at higher concentrations. The percentage of Cd adsorbed on the minerals in the presence of the organic acids increased considerably with increasing pH of the solution. Meanwhile, different Cd adsorption in the presence of the organic acids, due to different properties on both organic acids and clay minerals, on kaolinite, goethite, or bayerite for different pHs or organic acid concentrations was found.

  17. Thermophysical properties of starch and whey protein composite prepared in presence of organic acid and esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we prepared starch and protein composite by reactive mixing in presence of various organic acids and found that use of these acid esters resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, concentration (% w/w) of acid citrates in the starch-protein composites were var...

  18. Acyl Meldrum's acid derivatives: application in organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janikowska, K.; Rachoń, J.; Makowiec, S.

    2014-07-01

    This review is focused on an important class of Meldrum's acid derivatives commonly known as acyl Meldrum's acids. The preparation methods of these compounds are considered including the recently proposed and rather rarely used ones. The chemical properties of acyl Meldrum's acids are described in detail, including thermal stability and reactions with various nucleophiles. The possible mechanisms of these transformations are analyzed. The bibliography includes 134 references.

  19. Phosphorus release from phosphate rock and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ren-kou; Zhu, Yong-guan; Chittleborough, David

    2004-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight(LMW) organic acids widely exist in soils, particularly in the rhizosphere. A series of batch experiments were carried out to investigate the phosphorus release from rock phosphate and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids. Results showed that citric acid had the highest capacity to solubilize P from both rock and iron phosphate. P solubilization from rock phosphate and iron phosphate resulted in net proton consumption. P release from rock phosphate was positively correlated with the pKa values. P release from iron phosphate was positively correlated with Fe-organic acid stability constants except for aromatic acids, but was notcorrelated with pKa. Increase in the concentrations of organic acids enhanced P solubilization from both rock and iron phosphate almost linearly. Addition of phenolic compounds further increased the P release from iron phosphate. Initial solution pH had much more substantial effect on P release from rock phosphate than from iron phosphate.

  20. Preparation of High-purity Indium Oxalate Salt from Indium Scrap by Organic Acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Su-Jin; Ju, Chang-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Effect of organic acid on the preparation of indium-oxalate salt from indium scraps generated from ITO glass manufacturing process was studied. Effects of parameters, such as type and concentration of organic acids, pH of reactant, temperature, reaction time on indium-oxalate salt preparation were examined. The impurity removal efficiency was similar for both oxalic acid and citric acid, but citric acid did not make organic acid salt with indium. The optimum conditions were 1.5 M oxalic acid, pH 7, 80 .deg. C, and 6 hours. On the other hand, the recoveries increased with pH, but the purity decreased. The indium-oxalate salt purity prepared by two cycles was 99.995% (4N5). The indium-oxalate salt could be converted to indium oxide and indium metal by substitution reaction and calcination

  1. [Roles of organic acid metabolism in plant adaptation to nutrient deficiency and aluminum toxicity stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfei; Shen, Qirong

    2006-11-01

    Organic acids not only act as the intermediates in carbon metabolism, but also exert key roles in the plant adaptation to nutrient deficiency and metal stress and in the plant-microbe interactions at root-soil interface. From the viewpoint of plant nutrition, this paper reviewed the research progress on the formation and physiology of organic acids in plant, and their functions in nitrogen metabolism, phosphorus and iron uptake, aluminum tolerance, and soil ecology. New findings in the membrane transport of organic acids and the biotechnological manipulation of organic acids in transgenic model were also discussed. This novel perspectives of organic acid metabolism and its potential manipulation might present a possibility to understand the fundamental aspects of plant physiology, and lead to the new strategies to obtain crop varieties better adapted to environmental and metal stress.

  2. Profile of preoperative fecal organic acids closely predicts the incidence of postoperative infectious complications after major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection: Importance of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Mizuno, Takashi; Sugawara, Gen; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Ebata, Tomoki; Nagino, Masato

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between preoperative fecal organic acid concentrations and the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The fecal samples of 44 patients were collected before undergoing hepatectomy with bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The concentrations of fecal organic acids, including acetic acid, butyric acid, and lactic acid, and representative fecal bacteria were measured. The perioperative clinical characteristics and the concentrations of fecal organic acids were compared between patients with and without postoperative infectious complications. Among 44 patients, 13 (30%) developed postoperative infectious complications. Patient age and intraoperative bleeding were significantly greater in patients with postoperative infectious complications compared with those without postoperative infectious complications. The concentrations of fecal acetic acid and butyric acid were significantly less, whereas the concentration of fecal lactic acid tended to be greater in the patients with postoperative infectious complications. The calculated gap between the concentrations of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap was less in the patients with postoperative infectious complications (median 43.5 vs 76.1 μmol/g of feces, P = .011). Multivariate analysis revealed that an acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap acid profile (especially low acetic acid, low butyric acid, and high lactic acid) had a clinically important impact on the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Complex forming properties of natural organic acids. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ephraim, J.H.; Mathuthu, A.S.; Marinsky, J.A.

    1990-07-01

    An ultrafiltration technique combined with ion-selective-electrode and atomic absorption methods have been employed to obtain information on the complex forming properties of fulvic acid with iron and calcium. A model for interpreting complexation of metal ions to fulvic acid at any pH, medium ionic strength and metal to fulvic acid ratio developed earlier has been used in an attempt to predict the nature of iron and calcium interaction to Armadale Horizon Bh fulvic acid. Binding of calcium to fulvic acid which is enhanced at pHs greater than 6.0 has reasonably been predicted by the model taking into consideration complications due to the polyelectrolyte nature and the heterogeneity of the fulvic acid. The lack of agreement observed between the model predicted binding behavior and the experimentally observed results for the fulvic acid-iron system has been attributed to the formation of metal-induced aggregation. Reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) by the fulvic acid as reported by other workers is corroborated. (orig.)

  4. Chemical constituents of the essential oil and organic acids from longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim Hamad

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The pulp of longkong fruits (Aglaia dookkoo Griff., collected from Narathiwat province, was dried and extracted by steam distillation to obtain the essential oil in 0.48% yield. The GC-MS data showed oleic acid (14.80%, α-copaene (11.15%, germacrene-D (9.16%, δ- cadinene (6.74%, τ -muurolol (6.34%, (+ spathulenol (5.72% and palmitic acid (5.49% as the major constituents. Organic acids were also extracted from dried pulp with methanol using a Soxhlet apparatus to give the crude extract in 36.26% yield. Four organic acids: glycolic, maleic, malic and citric acids were determined by HPLC. Maleic acid (1.23% was the major acid and the others were citric (0.22%, malic (0.15% and glycolic acids (0.14%.

  5. Concentration and fractionation of hydrophobic organic acid constituents from natural waters by liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, E.M.; Malcolm, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    A scheme is presented which used adsorption chromatography with pH gradient elution and size-exclusion chromatography to concentrate and separate hydrophobic organic acids from water. A review of chromatographic processes involved in the flow scheme is also presented. Organic analytes which appear in each aqueous fraction are quantified by dissolved organic carbon analysis. Hydrophobic organic acids in a water sample are concentrated on a porous acrylic resin. These acids usually constitute approximately 30-50 percent of the dissolved organic carbon in an unpolluted water sample and are eluted with an aqueous eluent (dilute base). The concentrate is then passed through a column of polyacryloylmorpholine gel, which separates the acids into high- and low-molecular-weight fractions. The high- and low-molecular-weight eluates are reconcentrated by adsorption chromatography, then are eluted with a pH gradient into strong acids (predominately carboxylic acids) and weak acids (predominately phenolic compounds). For standard compounds and samples of unpolluted waters, the scheme fractionates humic substances into strong and weak acid fractions that are separated from the low molecular weight acids. A new method utilizing conductivity is also presented to estimate the acidic components in the methanol fraction.

  6. Complex Formation of Selected Radionuclides with Ligands Commonly Found in Ground Water: Low Molecular Organic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bror Skytte; Jensen, H.

    1985-01-01

    A general approach to the analysis of potentiometric data on complex formation between cations and polybasic amphoteric acids is described. The method is used for the characterisation of complex formation between Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, La 3+, and Eu3+ with a α-hydroxy acids, tartaric acid and citric ac......, and with the α-amino acids, aspartic acid and L-cysteine. The cations have been chosen as typical components of reactor waste, and the acids because they are often found as products of microbial activity in pits or wherever organic material decays...

  7. Organic acid production from starchy waste by rumen derived microbial communities

    OpenAIRE

    Ayudthaya, S. P. N.; Van De Weijer, Antonius H. P.; Van Gelder, Antonie H.; Stams, Alfons Johannes Maria; De Vos, Willem M.; Plugge, Caroline M.

    2017-01-01

    Microbiology Centennial Symposium 2017 - Exploring Microbes for the Quality of Life (Book of Abstracts) Converting organic waste to energy carriers and valuable products such as organic acids (OA) using microbial fermentation is one of the sustainable options of renewable energy. Substrate and inoculum are important factors in optimizing the fermentation. In this study, we investigated organic acid production and microbial composition shift during the fermentation of starchy (p...

  8. Fate of trivalent chromium in presence of organic acids - a hydroponic study on soyabean plant using radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Sonal; Prakash, Satya; Srivastava, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Hydroponic experiments have been conducted to examine the uptake and translocation of root absorbed trivalent chromium in the presence of organic acid supplementation. Statistically significant increase in chromium accumulation in various plant tissues with increasing concentration of organic acids has been observed. Potentiality of organic acids to form labile organically bound Cr III is explored. (author)

  9. Heterogeneous uptake of the C1 to C4 organic acids on a swelling clay mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Tolbert

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Mineral aerosol is of interest due to its physiochemical impacts on the Earth's atmosphere. However, adsorbed organics could influence the chemical and physical properties of atmospheric mineral particles and alter their impact on the biosphere and climate. In this work, the heterogeneous uptake of a series of small organic acids on the swelling clay, Na-montmorillonite, was studied at 212 K as a function of relative humidity (RH, organic acid pressure and clay mass. A high vacuum chamber equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer and a transmission Fourier transform infrared spectrometer was used to detect the gas and condensed phases, respectively. Our results show that while the initial uptake efficiency was found to be independent of organic acid pressure, it increased linearly with increasing clay mass. Thus, the small masses studied allow access to the entire surface area of the clay sample with minimal effects due to surface saturation. Additionally, results from this study show that the initial uptake efficiency for butanoic (butyric acid on the clay increases by an order of magnitude as the RH is raised from 0% to 45% RH at 212 K while the initial uptake efficiency of formic, acetic and propanoic (propionic acids increases only slightly at higher humidities. However, the initial uptake efficiency decreases significantly in a short amount of time due to surface saturation effects. Thus, although the initial uptake efficiencies are appropriate for initial times, the fact that the uptake efficiency will decrease over time as the surface saturates should be considered in atmospheric models. Surface saturation results in sub-monolayer coverage of organic acid on montmorillonite under dry conditions and relevant organic acid pressures that increases with increasing humidity for all organic acids studied. Additionally, the presence of large organic acids may slightly enhance the water content of the clay above 45% RH. Our results indicate

  10. Anaerobic organic acid metabolism of Candida zemplinina in comparison with Saccharomyces wine yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyar, Ildikó; Nyitrai-Sárdy, Diána; Leskó, Annamária; Pomázi, Andrea; Kállay, Miklós

    2014-05-16

    Organic acid production under oxygen-limited conditions has been thoroughly studied in the Saccharomyces species, but practically never investigated in Candida zemplinina, which seems to be an acidogenic species under oxidative laboratory conditions. In this study, several strains of C. zemplinina were tested for organic acid metabolism, in comparison with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces uvarum and Candida stellata, under fermentative conditions. Only C. stellata produced significantly higher acidity in simple minimal media (SM) with low sugar content and two different nitrogen sources (ammonia or glutamic acid) at low level. However, the acid profile differed largely between the Saccharomyces and Candida species and showed inverse types of N-dependence in some cases. Succinic acid production was strongly enhanced on glutamic acid in Saccharomyces species, but not in Candida species. 2-oxoglutarate production was strongly supported on ammonium nitrogen in Candida species, but remained low in Saccharomyces. Candida species, C. stellata in particular, produced more pyruvic acid regardless of N-sources. From the results, we concluded that the anaerobic organic acid metabolisms of C. zemplinina and C. stellata are different from each other and also from that of the Saccharomyces species. In the formation of succinic acid, the oxidative pathway from glutamic acid seems to play little or no role in C. zemplinina. The reductive branch of the TCA cycle, however, produces acidic intermediates (malic, fumaric, and succinic acid) in a level comparable with the production of the Saccharomyces species. An unidentified organic acid, which was produced on glutamic acid only by the Candida species, needs further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Organic acids for control of Salmonella in different feed materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyuncu, Sevinc; Andersson, Mats Gunnar; Löfström, Charlotta

    2013-01-01

    of FA, propionic acid (PA) and sodium formate (SF) was investigated. Four Salmonella strains isolated from feed were assayed for their acid tolerance. Also, the effect of lower temperatures (5°C and 15°C) compared to room temperature was investigated in rape seed and soybean meal. Results The efficacy...... of acid treatments varied significantly between different feed materials. The strongest reduction was seen in pelleted and compound mash feed (2.5 log10 reduction) followed by rapeseed meal (1 log10 reduction) after 5 days exposure. However, in soybean meal the acid effects were limited (less than 0.5 log......10 reduction) even after several weeks’ exposure. In all experiments the survival curves showed a concave shape, with a fast initial death phase followed by reduction at a slower rate during the remaining time of the experiment. No difference in Salmonella reduction was observed between FA...

  12. Review article Herbal extracts and organic acids as natural feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-16

    Jul 16, 2013 ... time and improved activity of proteolytic enzymes. ... Modern laboratory techniques enable the isolation and characterization of ..... microbial metabolites such as ammonia and biogenic amines. ..... acid determine their efficacy.

  13. Improvement of gas chromatographic analysis for organic acids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-08-27

    Aug 27, 2010 ... and ethanol fermentation by using the anaerobic bacterium. Clostridium ... GC analysis. Standard solution for GC analysis consisted of acetic acid (Sigma-. Aldrich ... Microorganism and inoculum preparation. C. beijerinckii ...

  14. Synthesis of Amino Acid Precursors with Organic Solids in Planetesimals with Liquid Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Y; Misawa, S.; Matsukuma, J.; Chan, Q. H. S.; Kobayashi, J.; Tachibana, S.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2017-01-01

    Amino acids are important ingredients of life that would have been delivered to Earth by extraterrestrial sources, e.g., comets and meteorites. Amino acids are found in aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites in good part in the form of precursors that release amino acids after acid hydrolysis. Meanwhile, most of the organic carbon (greater than 70 weight %) in carbonaceous chondrites exists in the form of solvent insoluble organic matter (IOM) with complex macromolecular structures. Complex macromolecular organic matter can be produced by either photolysis of interstellar ices or aqueous chemistry in planetesimals. We focused on the synthesis of amino acids during aqueous alteration, and demonstrated one-pot synthesis of a complex suite of amino acids simultaneously with IOM via hydrothermal experiments simulating the aqueous processing

  15. The non-participation of organic sulphur in acid mine drainage generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, D J; Finkelman, R B; Caruccio, F T

    1989-12-01

    Acid mine drainage is commonly associated with land disturbances that encounter and expose iron sulphides to oxidising atmospheric conditions. The attendant acidic conditions solubilise a host of trace metals. Within this flow regime the potential exists to contaminate surface drinking water supplies with a variety of trace materials. Accordingly, in evaluating the applications for mines located in the headwaters of water sheds, the pre-mining prediction of the occurrence of acid mine drainage is of paramount importance.There is general agreement among investigators that coal organic sulphur is a nonparticipant in acid mine drainage generation; however, there is no scientific documentation to support this concensus. Using simulated weathering, kinetic, mass balance, petrographic analysis and a peroxide oxidation procedure, coal organic sulphur is shown to be a nonparticipant in acid mine drainage generation. Calculations for assessing the acid-generating potential of a sedimentary rock should not include organic sulphur content.

  16. Biochemical studies on the effect of fluoride on higher plants. I. Metabolism of carbohydrates, organic acids and amino acids. [Glycine max var. Hawkeye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S F; Miller, G W

    1963-01-01

    Metabolic processes associated with free sugars, organic acids and amino acids in higher plants subjected to fluoride fumigation were studied quantitatively. Fluoride-fumigated leaves contained more reducing sugars and less sucrose than the normal leaves. This result suggested inhibition of sucrose synthesis by fluoride. Necrotic leaves contained increased total concentrations of organic acids, which were mostly attributable to malic acid, malonic acid and citric acid. The greater increase in malic acid relative to that of citric acid was the reverse of results observed in chlorotic tissue. Necrotic leaves contained enhanced amounts of free amino acids. The greatest increase occurred in the concentration of asparagine and might be related to the increased respiratory rate of necrotic leaves. Pipecolic acid accumulated in large quantities in nicrotic tissue and was not detected in normal leaves. The accumulation of organic acids and amino acids in leaves during fluoride fumigation was evidenced by a lowered respiratory quotient.

  17. Biotechnological Production of Organic Acids from Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleissner, Daniel; Dietz, Donna; van Duuren, Jozef Bernhard Johann Henri; Wittmann, Christoph; Yang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Carol Sze Ki; Venus, Joachim

    2017-03-07

    Biotechnological processes are promising alternatives to petrochemical routes for overcoming the challenges of resource depletion in the future in a sustainable way. The strategies of white biotechnology allow the utilization of inexpensive and renewable resources for the production of a broad range of bio-based compounds. Renewable resources, such as agricultural residues or residues from food production, are produced in large amounts have been shown to be promising carbon and/or nitrogen sources. This chapter focuses on the biotechnological production of lactic acid, acrylic acid, succinic acid, muconic acid, and lactobionic acid from renewable residues, these products being used as monomers for bio-based material and/or as food supplements. These five acids have high economic values and the potential to overcome the "valley of death" between laboratory/pilot scale and commercial/industrial scale. This chapter also provides an overview of the production strategies, including microbial strain development, used to convert renewable resources into value-added products.

  18. Organic Acids Regulation of Chemical-Microbial Phosphorus Transformations in Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Paredes, Cecilia; Zhang, Hao; Giles, Courtney D; Darch, Tegan; Stutter, Marc; George, Timothy S; Shand, Charles; Lumsdon, David; Cooper, Patricia; Wendler, Renate; Brown, Lawrie; Blackwell, Martin; Wearing, Catherine; Haygarth, Philip M

    2016-11-01

    We have used an integrated approach to study the mobility of inorganic phosphorus (P) from soil solid phase as well as the microbial biomass P and respiration at increasing doses of citric and oxalic acid in two different soils with contrasting agronomic P status. Citric or oxalic acids significantly increased soil solution P concentrations for doses over 2 mmol kg -1 . However, low organic acid doses (<2 mmol kg -1 ) were associated with a steep increase in microbial biomass P, which was not seen for higher doses. In both soils, treatment with the tribasic citric acid led to a greater increase in soil solution P than the dibasic oxalic acid, likely due to the rapid degrading of oxalic acids in soils. After equilibration of soils with citric or oxalic acids, the adsorbed-to-solution distribution coefficient (K d ) and desorption rate constants (k -1 ) decreased whereas an increase in the response time of solution P equilibration (T c ) was observed. The extent of this effect was shown to be both soil and organic acid specific. Our results illustrate the critical thresholds of organic acid concentration necessary to mobilize sorbed and precipitated P, bringing new insight on how the exudation of organic acids regulate chemical-microbial soil phosphorus transformations.

  19. [Effects of low molecular weight organic acids on redox reactions of mercury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shi-Bo; Sun, Rong-Guo; Wang, Ding-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Cheng

    2014-06-01

    To study the effects of the main component of vegetation root exudates-low molecular weight organic acids on the redox reactions of mercury, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the roles of tartaric, citric, and succinic acid in the redox reactions of mercury, and to analyze their interaction mechanism. The results indicated that tartaric acid significantly stimulated the mercury reduction reaction, while citric acid had inhibitory effect. Succinic acid improved the reduction rate at low concentration, and inhibited the reaction at high concentration. The mercury reduction rate by tartaric acid treatment was second-order with respect to Hg2+ concentration, ranging from 0.0014 L x (ng x min)(-1) to 0.005 6 L x (ng x min)(-1). All three organic acids showed a capacity for oxidating Hg(0) in the early stage, but the oxidized Hg(0) was subsequently reduced. The oxidation capacity of the three organic acids was in the order of citric acid > tartaric acid > succinic acid.

  20. Chiral metal-organic frameworks bearing free carboxylic acids for organocatalyst encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Xi, Xiaobing; Ye, Chengcheng; Gong, Tengfei; Yang, Zhiwei; Cui, Yong

    2014-12-08

    Two chiral carboxylic acid functionalized micro- and mesoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are constructed by the stepwise assembly of triple-stranded heptametallic helicates with six carboxylic acid groups. The mesoporous MOF with permanent porosity functions as a host for encapsulation of an enantiopure organic amine catalyst by combining carboxylic acids and chiral amines in situ through acid-base interactions. The organocatalyst-loaded framework is shown to be an efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for the asymmetric direct aldol reactions with significantly enhanced stereoselectivity in relative to the homogeneous organocatalyst. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Cranberry juice and combinations of its organic acids are effective against experimental urinary tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Heidi Dorthe; Struve, Carsten; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2017-01-01

    The antibacterial effect of cranberry juice and the organic acids therein on infection by uro28 pathogenic Escherichia coli was studied in an experimental mouse model of urinary tract infection (UTI). Reduced bacterial counts were found in the bladder (P ... administered singly, did not have any effect in the UTI model. Apparently, the antibacterial effect of the organic acids from cranberry juice on UTI can be obtained by administering a combination of malic acid and either citric or quinic acid. This study show for the first time that cranberry juice reduce E...

  2. Evaluation of different approaches to quantify strong organic acidity and acid-base buffering of organic-rich surface waters in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Stephan; Hruska, Jakub; Jönsson, Jörgen; Lövgren, Lars; Lofts, Stephen

    2002-11-01

    The role of organic acids in buffering pH in surface waters has been studied using a small brownwater stream (26mg L(-1) TOC) draining a forested catchment in Northern Sweden. Under the conditions of elevated pressure of CO2 stream field pH was changed between 3.5 and 6.1 during the acidification and alkalinization experiment. Acid-base characteristics of the natural organic matter were also determined using a high precision potentiometric method for a concentrated sample from the same stream. We compared the predictions from the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model (WHAM Model V), a model derived from the potentiometric titration (diprotic/monoprotic acid model) and a previously derived triprotic acid model which only uses alkalinity and TOC as input variables. The predicted buffering characteristics of all three models are very similar in the pH range 4.5-7 which suggests that during routine analysis alkalinity and TOC are sufficient to give a good estimate of organic acid anion charge contribution in a large range of surface waters. A slightly adjusted version of WHAM V successfully describes the organic charge contribution in a large number of sampled surface water lakes, which were previously used to calibrate the triprotic model.

  3. Top value platform chemicals: bio-based production of organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Judith; Lange, Anna; Fabarius, Jonathan; Wittmann, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Driven by the quest for sustainability, recent years have seen a tremendous progress in bio-based production routes from renewable raw materials to commercial goods. Particularly, the production of organic acids has crystallized as a competitive and fast-evolving field, related to the broad applicability of organic acids for direct use, as polymer building blocks, and as commodity chemicals. Here, we review recent advances in metabolic engineering and industrial market scenarios with focus on organic acids as top value products from biomass, accessible through fermentation and biotransformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prediction of acid dissociation constants of organic compounds using group contribution methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Teng; Jhamb, Spardha; Liang, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    data-points with average absolute error of 0.23; (b) a non-linear GC model for organic compounds using 1622 data-points with average absolute error of 1.18; (c) an artificial neural network (ANN) based GC model for the organic compounds with average absolute error of 0.17. For each of the developed......In this paper, group contribution (GC) property models for the estimation of acid dissociation constants (Ka) of organic compounds are presented. Three GC models are developed to predict the negative logarithm of the acid dissociation constant pKa: (a) a linear GC model for amino acids using 180...

  5. River inputs and organic matter fluxes in the northern Bay of Bengal: Fatty acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reemtsma, T.; Ittekkot, V.; Bartsch, M.; Nair, R.R

    ) 55-71 55 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam \\[RA\\] River inputs and organic matter fluxes in the northern Bay of Bengal: fatty acids T. Reemtsma a, V. Ittekkot a, M. Bartsch a and R.R. Nair b alnstitut fiir Biogeochemie und Meereschemie..., R.R., 1993. River inputs and organic matter fluxes in the northern Bay of Bengal: fatty acids. Chem. Geol., 103: 55-71. Total particulate matter flux and organic carbon and fatty acid fluxes associated with settling particles collected during...

  6. Liver function and bacteriology of organs in broiler inoculated with nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium and treated with organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane M. Rocha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AbAns etxrpaecritment was carried out with 630 one-day-old chicks to evaluate the effects of organic acids when birds were experimentally inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium. Liver damage and the persistence of the bacterium in the organs were evaluated as well. Broilers were distributed in a completely randomised experimental design in a 3×2 factorial arrangement of six treatments with seven replicates of 15 birds each. Birds were inoculated with saline solution or the bacterium via gavage at 1 day of age, or were offered a feed containing or not the organic acid blend for the period of 7 to 14 days of age. A dose of 5.0x102 colony-forming units (CFU/0.5 mL of Salmonella Typhimurium was used for inoculation both via gavage and feed. The parameters evaluated are weight, liver histopathology, liver and serum biochemistry, and bacteriological analyses of the caeca, crop, spleen, and liver and heart pool. At 21 and 28 days of age, the liver of the non-inoculated groups was significantly lighter as compared to the other treatments. Birds fed organic acids presented lower bacterial isolation rates in all organs tested. Birds inoculated in the crop and treated with organic acids presented lower E. coli CFU counts (P<0.05. Birds inoculated with Salmonella presented significant changes (P<0.05 in liver enzymes, as detected by serum biochemistry, and in liver histopathology. It was concluded that organic acids effectively controlled Salmonella Typhimurium and did not cause any liver damage.

  7. The Use of Supported Acidic Ionic Liquids in Organic Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Skoda-Földes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalysts obtained by the immobilisation of acidic ionic liquids (ILs on solid supports offer several advantages compared to the use of catalytically active ILs themselves. Immobilisation may result in an increase in the number of accessible active sites of the catalyst and a reduction of the amount of the IL required. The ionic liquid films on the carrier surfaces provide a homogeneous environment for catalytic reactions but the catalyst appears macroscopically as a dry solid, so it can simply be separated from the reaction mixture. As another advantage, it can easily be applied in a continuous fixed bed reactor. In the present review the main synthetic strategies towards the preparation of supported Lewis acidic and Brønsted acidic ILs are summarised. The most important characterisation methods and structural features of the supported ionic liquids are presented. Their efficiency in catalytic reactions is discussed with special emphasis on their recyclability.

  8. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel

    2013-11-10

    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research.

  9. Aliphatic, Cyclic, and Aromatic Organic Acids, Vitamins, and Carbohydrates in Soil: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Vranova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research.

  10. Aliphatic, Cyclic, and Aromatic Organic Acids, Vitamins, and Carbohydrates in Soil: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research. PMID:24319374

  11. Application of the CPA equation of state to organic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derawi, Samer; Zeuthen, Frederik Jacob; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2004-01-01

    a strong tendency to dimerise in the vapor phase at normal condition resulting in strong non-ideal behavior, even at low pressures. Pure compound parameters have been determined from vapor pressure and liquid density data for the three acids. Among the three tested association schemes (one-site, two......-site, and four-site), only the one-site association scheme describes satisfactorily the association in both the gas and the liquid phase. Second virial coefficients axe predicted well with the proposed one-site model. Excellent binary VLE and acceptable LLE correlations have been obtained for acid + aliphatic...

  12. A new corresponding state-based correlation for the surface tension of organic fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuihua; Tian, Jianxiang; Zheng, Mengmeng; Yi, Huili; Zhang, Laibin; Liu, Shuzhen

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed a new corresponding state-based correlation for organic fatty (aliphatic, carboxylic and polyfunctional) acids. By using the recently published surface tension data of the 99 acids [A. Mulero and I. Cachadiña, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 45 (2016) 033105] and comparing with the recently published other corresponding state correlations, we found that this correlation reproduces the lowest absolute average deviation (AAD) values for 82 acids out of the 99 acids. It can reproduce the surface tension data with AAD less than 10% for 89 out of the 99 acids.

  13. Students' Understanding of Acids/Bases in Organic Chemistry Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartrette, David P.; Mayo, Provi M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding key foundational principles is vital to learning chemistry across different contexts. One such foundational principle is the acid/base behavior of molecules. In the general chemistry sequence, the Bronsted-Lowry theory is stressed, because it lends itself well to studying equilibrium and kinetics. However, the Lewis theory of…

  14. Susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni to Organic Acids and Monoacylglycerols

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Molatová, Z.; Skřivanová, E.; Macias, B.; McEwan, N. R.; Březina, P.; Marounek, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2010), s. 215-220 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD525/08/H060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : CHAIN FATTY-ACIDS * POULTRY * COLONIZATION Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.977, year: 2010

  15. Improvement of gas chromatographic analysis for organic acids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-08-27

    Aug 27, 2010 ... short retention time and fair recognition peak of the compounds were obtained under the ... GC for acid and solvent analysis from ABE fermentation ... FID was kept at 230°C. Nitrogen gas was used as a carrier gas at a.

  16. Organ- and species-specific biological activity of rosmarinic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iswandana, R.; Pham, B.T.; van Haaften, W.T.; Luangmonkong, T.; Oosterhuis, D.; Mutsaers, H.A.M.; Olinga, P.

    2016-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), a compound found in several plant species, has beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. We investigated the toxicity, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic effects of RA using precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) and precision-cut intestinal

  17. Recombinant cells and organisms having persistent nonstandard amino acid dependence and methods of making them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, George M.; Mandell, Daniel J.; Lajoie, Marc J.

    2017-12-05

    Recombinant cells and recombinant organisms persistently expressing nonstandard amino acids (NSAAs) are provided. Methods of making recombinant cells and recombinant organisms dependent on persistently expressing NSAAs for survival are also provided. These methods may be used to make safe recombinant cells and recombinant organisms and/or to provide a selective pressure to maintain one or more reassigned codon functions in recombinant cells and recombinant organisms.

  18. Modeling the acid-base chemistry of organic solutes in Adirondack, New York, lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Charles T.; Lehtinen, Michael D.; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    1994-02-01

    Data from the large and diverse Adirondack Lake Survey were used to calibrate four simple organic acid analog models in an effort to quantify the influence of naturally occurring organic acids on lake water pH and acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC). The organic acid analog models were calibrated to observations of pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and organic anion (An-) concentrations from a reduced data set representing 1128 individual lake samples, expressed as 41 observations of mean pH, in intervals of 0.1 pH units from pH 3.9 to 7.0. Of the four organic analog approaches examined, including the Oliver et al. (1983) model, as well as monoprotic, diprotic, and triprotic representations, the triprotic analog model yielded the best fit (r2 = 0.92) to the observed data. Moreover, the triprotic model was qualitatively consistent with observed patterns of change in organic solute charge density as a function of pH. A low calibrated value for the first H+ dissociation constant (pKal = 2.62) and the observation that organic anion concentrations were significant even at very low pH (acidic functional groups. Inclusion of organic acidity in model calculations resulted in good agreement between measured and predicted values of lake water pH and ANC. Assessments to project the response of surface waters to future changes in atmospheric deposition, through the use of acidification models, will need to include representations of organic acids in model structure to make accurate predictions of pH and ANC.

  19. Organic carbon and humic acids in sediments of the Arabian Sea and factors governing their distribution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    acids are enriched on the slope compared to the inner and outer shelf. While upwelling, primary productivity and redox conditions at the bottom are known to influence organic matter accumulation in sediments, bacterial population and sediment texture...

  20. Enzymatic regulation of organic acid metabolism in an alkali-tolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-10-05

    Oct 5, 2016 ... seedlings of C. virgata were treated with varying salt and alkali stress. First, the composition and .... mechanisms of organic acid accumulation in C. virgata ..... dehydrogenase and ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase in.

  1. Effect of organic acids traces on the carbon steel corrosion behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, D.; Radulescu; Mogosan, S.

    2009-01-01

    There are many different ways in which organic matter may get in water-steam cycles. One important pathway is constituted by organic matter admitted into the system by chemical make-up water under standard operation conditions (without inverse osmosis). The high molecular weight organic matter, in particularly polysaccharides are broken in organic acids, in particular acetic and formic acid. This paper presents an overview of the investigations undertaken referring to the behavior SA106 gr. B mild steel in secondary circuit aqueous environment contaminated with formic and acetic acid traces. The samples were filmed in static autoclaves in operation conditions of secondary circuit, in contaminated environment and after that they were investigated using metallographic microscopy and SEM. In addition, an electrochemical technique videlicet impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate the corrosion behavior of SA106 gr. B carbon steel in secondary circuit medium contaminated with formic and acetic acid traces. (authors)

  2. Production of starch with antioxidative activity by baking starch with organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Shoji; Nakamura, Megumi; Okuno, Michiko; Miyazaki, Hisako; Watanabe, Jun; Ishikawa-Takano, Yuko; Miura, Makoto; Takase, Nao; Hayakawa, Sachio; Kobayashi, Shoichi

    2011-01-01

    A starch ingredient with antioxidative activity, as measured by the DPPH method, was produced by baking corn starch with an organic acid; it has been named ANOX sugar (antioxidative sugar). The baking temperature and time were fixed at 170 °C and 60 min, and the organic acid used was selected from preliminary trials of various kinds of acid. The phytic acid ANOX sugar preparation showed the highest antioxidative activity, but the color of the preparation was almost black; we therefore selected L-tartaric acid which had the second highest antioxidative activity. The antioxidative activity of the L-tartaric acid ANOX sugar preparation was stable against temperature, light, and enzyme treatments (α-amylase and glucoamylase). However, the activity was not stable against variations in water content and pH value. The antioxidative activity of ANOX sugar was stabilized by treating with boiled water or nitrogen gas, or by pH adjustment.

  3. Crystal structures of seven molecular salts derived from benzylamine and organic acidic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xianhong; Jin, Xiunan; Lv, Chengcai; Jin, Shouwen; Zheng, Xiuqing; Liu, Bin; Wang, Daqi; Guo, Ming; Xu, Weiqiang

    2017-07-01

    Cocrystallization of the commonly available organic amine, benzylamine, with a series of organic acids gave a total of seven molecular salts with the compositions: (benzylamine): (p-toluenesulfonic acid) (1) [(HL)+ · (tsa-)], (benzylamine): (o-nitrobenzoic acid) (2) [(HL+) · (onba)-], (benzylamine): (3,4-methylenedioxybenzoic acid) (3) [(HL+) · (mdba-)], (benzylamine): (mandelic acid) (4) [(HL+) · (mda-)], (benzylamine): (5-bromosalicylic acid)2(5) [(HL+) · (bsac-) · (Hbsac)], (benzylamine): (m-phthalic acid) (6) [(HL+) · (Hmpta-)], and (benzylamine)2: (trimesic acid) (7) [(HL+)2 · (Htma2-)]. The seven salts have been characterised by X-ray diffraction technique, IR, and elemental analysis, and the melting points of all the salts were also reported. And their structural and supramolecular aspects are fully analyzed. The result reveals that among the seven investigated crystals the NH2 groups in the benzylamine moieties are protonated when the organic acids are deprotonated, and the crystal packing is interpreted in terms of the strong charge-assisted Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond formation between the ammonium and the deprotonated acidic groups. Except the Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond, the Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds (charge assisted or neutral) were also found at the salts 4-7. Further analysis of the crystal packing of the salts indicated that a different family of additional CHsbnd O/CH2sbnd O, CHsbnd π/CH2sbnd π, Osbnd O, and Osbnd Cπ associations contribute to the stabilization and expansion of the total high-dimensional (2D-3D) framework structures. For the coexistence of the various weak nonbonding interactions these structures adopted homo or hetero supramolecular synthons or both. Some classical supramolecular synthons, such as R42(8), R43(10) and R44(12), usually observed in organic solids of organic acids with amine, were again shown to be involved in constructing most of these hydrogen bonding networks.

  4. Organic acid production from potato starch waste fermentation by rumen microbial communities from Dutch and Thai dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; De Weijer, Van Antonius H.P.; Gelder, Van Antonie H.; Stams, Alfons J.M.; Vos, De Willem M.; Plugge, Caroline M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Exploring different microbial sources for biotechnological production of organic acids is important. Dutch and Thai cow rumen samples were used as inocula to produce organic acid from starch waste in anaerobic reactors. Organic acid production profiles were determined and microbial

  5. Influence of electron beam irradiation in the organic acids profile of Portuguese chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C.M.; Bento, Albino; Rafalski, Andrzej; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids are primary metabolites that play important roles in plant metabolism and confer distinct flavors in fruits. Their consumption is beneficial for humans, namely against certain illnesses. The food industry uses them as preservatives and flavor enhancers. In fruits conservation and transport, organic acids should be preserved at all costs in order to maintain physical quality and pleasant flavors until they reach the consumer. In 2010, due to European legislation, meth...

  6. Comparison of cultivable acetic acid bacterial microbiota in organic and conventional apple cider vinegar

    OpenAIRE

    Mori Štornik, Aleksandra; Skok, Barbara; Trček, Janja

    2017-01-01

    Organic apple cider vinegar is produced from apples that go through very restricted treatment in orchard. During the first stage of the process, the sugars from apples are fermented by yeasts to cider. The produced ethanol is used as a substrate by acetic acid bacteria in a second separated bioprocess. In both, the organic and conventional apple cider vinegars the ethanol oxidation to acetic acid is initiated by native microbiota that survived alcohol fermentation. We compared the cultivable ...

  7. Effectiveness of Hand Sanitizers with and without Organic Acids for Removal of Rhinovirus from Hands ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ronald B.; Fuls, Janice L.; Rodgers, Nancy D.

    2010-01-01

    These studies evaluated the effectiveness of ethanol hand sanitizers with or without organic acids to remove detectable rhinovirus from the hands and prevent experimental rhinovirus infection. Ethanol hand sanitizers were significantly more effective than hand washing with soap and water. The addition of organic acids to the ethanol provided residual virucidal activity that persisted for at least 4 h. Whether these treatments will reduce rhinovirus infection in the natural setting remains to be determined. PMID:20047916

  8. The use of Syrian bentonite to remove organics and other ions from commercial Syrian phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorfan, S.; Abdulbaki, M.; Zein, A.

    2006-01-01

    Using of activated carbon to remove organic matter from phosphoric acid in uranium and P 2 O 5 extraction units has high cost. A new study was conducted to establish a new material instead of activated carbon. Experiments were carried out on removing organic matter by adsorption on Syrian bentonite. The experiments of the removal of humic acid by Syrian bentonite gave good results and showed that the chemical and thermal activation of bentonite increased the adsorption efficiency. (Authors)

  9. The use of Syrian bentonite to remove organics and other ions from commercial Syrian phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorfan, S.; Abdulbaki, M.; Zein, A.

    2005-03-01

    Using of activated carbon to remove organic matter from phosphoric acid in uranium and P 2 O 5 extraction units has high cost. A new study was conducted to establish a new material instead of activated carbon. Experiments were carried out on removing organic matter by adsorption on Syrian bentonite. The experiments of the removal of humic acid by Syrian bentonite gave good results and showed that the chemical and thermal activation of bentonite increased the adsorption efficiency. (Authors)

  10. An estimation of influence of humic acid and organic matter originated from bentonite on samarium solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaji, Mariko; Sato, Haruo; Sasahira, Akira

    1999-10-01

    Organic acids in groundwater are considered to form complexes and increase the solubility of radionuclides released from vitrified waste in a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository. To investigate whether the solubility of samarium (Sm) is influenced by organic substances, we measured Sm solubility in the presence of different organic substances and compared those values with results from thermodynamic predictions. Humic acid (Aldrich) is commercially available and soluble organic matter originated from bentonite were used as organic substances in this study. Consequently, the solubility of Sm showed a tendency to apparently increase with increasing the concentration of humic acid, but in the presence of carbonate, thermodynamic predictions suggested that the dominant species are carbonate complexes and that the effect of organic substances are less than that of carbonate. Based on total organic carbon (TOC), the increase of Sm solubility measured with humic acid (Aldrich) was more significant than that in the case with soluble organic matter originated from bentonite. Since bentonite is presumed to include also simple organic matters of which stability constant for forming complexes is low, the effect of soluble organic matter originated from bentonite on the solubility of Sm is considered to be less effective than that of humic acid (Aldrich). Experimental values were compared with model prediction, proposed by Kim, based on data measured in a low pH region. Tentatively we calculated the increase in Sm solubility assuming complexation with humic acid. Trial calculations were carried out on the premise that the complexation reaction of metal ion with humic acid is based on neutralization process by 1-1 complexation. In this process, it was assumed that one metal ion coordinates with one unit of complexation sites which number of proton exchange sites is equal to ionic charge. Consequently, Kim's model indicated that carbonate complexes should be dominant

  11. Quantitative analysis of the modes of growth inhibition by weak organic acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullah, A.; Orij, R.; Brul, S.; Smits, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Weak organic acids are naturally occurring compounds that are commercially used as preservatives in the food and beverage industries. They extend the shelf life of food products by inhibiting microbial growth. There are a number of theories that explain the antifungal properties of these weak acids,

  12. Renal response to acute acid loading--an organ physiological approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Engel, K; Kildeberg, P

    2004-01-01

    , as the extracellular acid-base status would be expected to be the key physiological trigger for renal NAE. The object of this study was to investigate the renal response to acute non-carbonic acid loading using a quantitative organ physiological approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five-h NH4Cl loading studies were...

  13. Hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric aerosols containing nitrate salts and water-soluble organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Bo; Wang, Zhen; Tan, Fang; Guo, Yucong; Tong, Shengrui; Wang, Weigang; Zhang, Yunhong; Ge, Maofa

    2018-04-01

    While nitrate salts have critical impacts on environmental effects of atmospheric aerosols, the effects of coexisting species on hygroscopicity of nitrate salts remain uncertain. The hygroscopic behaviors of nitrate salt aerosols (NH4NO3, NaNO3, Ca(NO3)2) and their internal mixtures with water-soluble organic acids were determined using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The nitrate salt / organic acid mixed aerosols exhibit varying phase behavior and hygroscopic growth depending upon the type of components in the particles. Whereas pure nitrate salt particles show continuous water uptake with increasing relative humidity (RH), the deliquescence transition is still observed for ammonium nitrate particles internally mixed with organic acids such as oxalic acid and succinic acid with a high deliquescence point. The hygroscopicity of submicron aerosols containing sodium nitrate and an organic acid is also characterized by continuous growth, indicating that sodium nitrate tends to exist in a liquid-like state under dry conditions. It is observed that in contrast to the pure components, the water uptake is hindered at low and moderate RH for calcium nitrate particles containing malonic acid or phthalic acid, suggesting the potential effects of mass transfer limitation in highly viscous mixed systems. Our findings improve fundamental understanding of the phase behavior and water uptake of nitrate-salt-containing aerosols in the atmospheric environment.

  14. Light-enhanced acid catalysis over a metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Caiyun; Sun, Keju; Zhou, Yu-Xiao; Ma, Xiao; Jiang, Hai-Long

    2018-03-06

    A Brønsted acid-functionalized metal-organic framework (MOF), MIL-101-SO 3 H, was prepared for acid-engaged esterification reactions. Strikingly, for the first time, the MOF exhibits significantly light-enhanced activity and possesses excellent activity and recyclability, with even higher activity than H 2 SO 4 under light irradiation.

  15. Hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric aerosols containing nitrate salts and water-soluble organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jing

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available While nitrate salts have critical impacts on environmental effects of atmospheric aerosols, the effects of coexisting species on hygroscopicity of nitrate salts remain uncertain. The hygroscopic behaviors of nitrate salt aerosols (NH4NO3, NaNO3, Ca(NO32 and their internal mixtures with water-soluble organic acids were determined using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA. The nitrate salt ∕ organic acid mixed aerosols exhibit varying phase behavior and hygroscopic growth depending upon the type of components in the particles. Whereas pure nitrate salt particles show continuous water uptake with increasing relative humidity (RH, the deliquescence transition is still observed for ammonium nitrate particles internally mixed with organic acids such as oxalic acid and succinic acid with a high deliquescence point. The hygroscopicity of submicron aerosols containing sodium nitrate and an organic acid is also characterized by continuous growth, indicating that sodium nitrate tends to exist in a liquid-like state under dry conditions. It is observed that in contrast to the pure components, the water uptake is hindered at low and moderate RH for calcium nitrate particles containing malonic acid or phthalic acid, suggesting the potential effects of mass transfer limitation in highly viscous mixed systems. Our findings improve fundamental understanding of the phase behavior and water uptake of nitrate-salt-containing aerosols in the atmospheric environment.

  16. Organic acids as analytical reagent: Part 1. Estimation of zirconium by gallic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, C.S.; Singh, A.K.; Kumar, Ashok

    1975-01-01

    Gallic acid has been found to be a selective reagent for the estimation of zirconium. The acid gives crystalline precipitate at pH of 4.8. The precipitate is ignited and weighed as ZrO 2 . Cations like Ca +2 , Ba +2 , Sr +2 , Mn +2 , Co +2 , Ni +2 , Fe +3 do not interfere in the estimation. (author)

  17. The development of quantitative determination method of organic acids in complex poly herbal extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Dyachok

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The development of sensible, economical and expressive method of quantitative determination of organic acids in complex poly herbal extraction counted on izovaleric acid with the use of digital technologies. Materials and methods. Model complex poly herbal extraction of sedative action was chosen as a research object. Extraction is composed of these medical plants: Valeriana officinalis L., Crataégus, Melissa officinalis L., Hypericum, Mentha piperita L., Húmulus lúpulus, Viburnum. Based on chemical composition of plant components, we consider that main pharmacologically active compounds, which can be found in complex poly herbal extraction are: polyphenolic substances (flavonoids, which are contained in Crataégus, Viburnum, Hypericum, Mentha piperita L., Húmulus lúpulus; also organic acids, including izovaleric acid, which are contained in Valeriana officinalis L., Mentha piperita L., Melissa officinalis L., Viburnum; the aminoacid are contained in Valeriana officinalis L. For the determination of organic acids content in low concentration we applied instrumental method of analysis, namely conductometry titration which consisted in the dependences of water solution conductivity of complex poly herbal extraction on composition of organic acids. Result. The got analytical dependences, which describes tangent lines to the conductometry curve before and after the point of equivalence, allow to determine the volume of solution expended on titration and carry out procedure of quantitative determination of organic acids in the digital mode. Conclusion. The proposed method enables to determine the point of equivalence and carry out quantitative determination of organic acids counted on izovaleric acid with the use of digital technologies, that allows to computerize the method on the whole.

  18. Nickel Deficiency Disrupts Metabolism of Ureides, Amino Acids, and Organic Acids of Young Pecan Foliage[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cheng; Reilly, Charles C.; Wood, Bruce W.

    2006-01-01

    The existence of nickel (Ni) deficiency is becoming increasingly apparent in crops, especially for ureide-transporting woody perennials, but its physiological role is poorly understood. We evaluated the concentrations of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids in photosynthetic foliar tissue from Ni-sufficient (Ni-S) versus Ni-deficient (Ni-D) pecan (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch). Foliage of Ni-D pecan seedlings exhibited metabolic disruption of nitrogen metabolism via ureide catabolism, amino acid metabolism, and ornithine cycle intermediates. Disruption of ureide catabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of xanthine, allantoic acid, ureidoglycolate, and citrulline, but total ureides, urea concentration, and urease activity were reduced. Disruption of amino acid metabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of glycine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, tryptophan, arginine, and total free amino acids, and lower concentrations of histidine and glutamic acid. Ni deficiency also disrupted the citric acid cycle, the second stage of respiration, where Ni-D foliage contained very low levels of citrate compared to Ni-S foliage. Disruption of carbon metabolism was also via accumulation of lactic and oxalic acids. The results indicate that mouse-ear, a key morphological symptom, is likely linked to the toxic accumulation of oxalic and lactic acids in the rapidly growing tips and margins of leaflets. Our results support the role of Ni as an essential plant nutrient element. The magnitude of metabolic disruption exhibited in Ni-D pecan is evidence of the existence of unidentified physiological roles for Ni in pecan. PMID:16415214

  19. Verification of Organic Feed Identity by Fatty Acid Fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tres, A.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The origin and authenticity of feed for laying hens is an important and fraud-susceptible aspect in the production of organic eggs. Chemical fingerprinting in combination with chemometric methods is increasingly used in conjunction with administrative controls to verify and safeguard the

  20. Halogenated methanesulfonic acids: A new class of organic micropollutants in the water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Daniel; Frömel, Tobias; Knepper, Thomas P

    2016-09-15

    Mobile and persistent organic micropollutants may impact raw and drinking waters and are thus of concern for human health. To identify such possible substances of concern nineteen water samples from five European countries (France, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Spain and Germany) and different compartments of the water cycle (urban effluent, surface water, ground water and drinking water) were enriched with mixed-mode solid phase extraction. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry non-target screening of these samples led to the detection and structural elucidation of seven novel organic micropollutants. One structure could already be confirmed by a reference standard (trifluoromethanesulfonic acid) and six were tentatively identified based on experimental evidence (chloromethanesulfonic acid, dichloromethanesulfonic acid, trichloromethanesulfonic acid, bromomethanesulfonic acid, dibromomethanesulfonic acid and bromochloromethanesulfonic acid). Approximated concentrations for these substances show that trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, a chemical registered under the European Union regulation REACH with a production volume of more than 100 t/a, is able to spread along the water cycle and may be present in concentrations up to the μg/L range. Chlorinated and brominated methanesulfonic acids were predominantly detected together which indicates a common source and first experimental evidence points towards water disinfection as a potential origin. Halogenated methanesulfonic acids were detected in drinking waters and thus may be new substances of concern. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Acid-resistant organic coatings for the chemical industry: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Victor Buhl; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Frankær, Sarah Maria Grundahl

    2017-01-01

    Industries that work with acidic chemicals in their processes need to make choices on how to properly contain the substances and avoid rapid corrosion of equipment. Certain organic coatings and linings can be used in such environments, either to protect vulnerable construction materials, or......, in combination with fiber reinforcement, to replace them. However, degradation mechanisms of organic coatings in acid service are not thoroughly understood and relevant quantitative investigations are scarce. This review describes the uses and limitations of acid-resistant coatings in the chemical industry...

  2. Composition and content analysis of sugars and organic acids for 45 grape cultivars from northeast region of china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaozhu, G.N.; Jia, Z.; Zhihu, R.; Zuhui, Z.; Quan, G.; Hongyan, G.; Xiuwu, G.

    2017-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative analysis of sugars and acids of grape cultivars from northeast region of China was carried out for quality evaluation and variety improvement of grape. Analysis of major sugars and organic acids for 45 grape berries was carried out using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The result showed that glucose and fructose were the major sugars, beside that, some grape cultivars also contained sucrose. The quantity of glucose and fructose was almost equal in most of grape berries. A significant positive correlation existed between them, glucose content ranged from 53.24 mg/ml to 124.18mg/ml and fructose content ranged from 48.39 mg/ml to118.84 mg/ml. Tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid and oxalic acid were organic acids and tartaric acid was the main constituent in most grape berries and its concentration was higher than the other organic acids. However, in some grape cultivars, malic acid and citric acid were two highest organic acids while oxalic acid content was the lowest and even in some cultivars it could not be detected. Tartaric acid ranged from 1.28mg/ml to 6.82 mg/ml, malic acid ranged from 0.09mg/ml to 3.95 mg/ml, citric acid ranged from 0.08mg/ml to 4.43 mg/ml, oxalic acid ranged from mg/ml to 0.370 mg/ml. Thirty-four grape cultivars out of 45 cultivars accounted more than 50% tartic acid of the total organic acid contents. However, in cultivars Bixiang Wuhe and Shennong Jinhuanghou citric acid was the main organic acid. Malic acid and citric acid were significantly positively related with total acid. In 43 grape cultivars, the soluble sugars were glucose and fructose. Besides glucose and fructose, sucrose was also observed in cultivars of LN33 and Cayuga white. (author)

  3. Acid-Base Learning Outcomes for Students in an Introductory Organic Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanovich, Carlee; Gandhi, Aneri; Flynn, Alison B.

    2015-01-01

    An outcome-based approach to teaching and learning focuses on what the student demonstrably knows and can do after instruction, rather than on what the instructor teaches. This outcome-focused approach can then guide the alignment of teaching strategies, learning activities, and assessment. In organic chemistry, mastery of organic acid-base…

  4. Design of homo-organic acid producing strains using multi-objective optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Tae Yong; Park, Jong Myoung; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2015-01-01

    Production of homo-organic acids without byproducts is an important challenge in bioprocess engineering to minimize operation cost for separation processes. In this study, we used multi-objective optimization to design Escherichia coli strains with the goals of maximally producing target organic ...

  5. Organic acids as analytical reagent: Part 1. Estimation of zirconium by gallic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pande, C S; Singh, A K; Kumar, Ashok [Lucknow Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1975-07-01

    Gallic acid has been found to be a selective reagent for the estimation of zirconium. The acid gives a crystalline precipitate at pH of 4.8 which is ignited and weighed as ZrO/sub 2/. Cations like Ca/sup +2/, Ba/sup +2/, Sr/sup +2/, Mn/sup +2/, Co/sup +2/, Ni/sup +2/, Fe/sup +3/ do not interfere in the estimation.

  6. Gene deletion of cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase leads to altered organic acid production in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Susan Lisette; Nielsen, Michael Lynge; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    With the availability of the genome sequence of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger, the use of targeted genetic modifications has become feasible. This, together with the fact that A. niger is well established industrially, makes this fungus an attractive micro-organism for creating a cell...... factory platform for production of chemicals. Using molecular biology techniques, this study focused on metabolic engineering of A. niger to manipulate its organic acid production in the direction of succinic acid. The gene target for complete gene deletion was cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase (acl), which...... the acl gene. Additionally, the total amount of organic acids produced in the deletion strain was significantly increased. Genome-scale stoichiometric metabolic model predictions can be used for identifying gene targets. Deletion of the acl led to increased succinic acid production by A. niger....

  7. Optimisation of a wet FGD pilot plant using fine limestone and organic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Jan; Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2001-01-01

    , but the residual limestone content in the gypsum increased to somewhere between 19 and 30 wt%, making this pH range unsuitable for use in a full-scale plant. The investigations have shown that both the addition of organic acids and the use of a limestone with a fine PSD can be used to optimise wet FGD plants. (C......The effects of adding an organic acid or using a limestone with a fine particle size distribution (PSD) have been examined in a wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) pilot plant. Optimisation of the plant with respect to the degree of desulphurisation and the residual limestone content of the gypsum...... has been the aim of the work. In contrast to earlier investigations with organic acids, all essential process parameters (i.e. gas phase concentration profiles of SO(2), slurry pH profiles. and residual limestone in the gypsum) were considered. Slurry concentrations of adipic acid in the range of 0...

  8. Side-by-side comparison of techniques for analyzing organic acids, total organic carbon, and anions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byers, W.A.; Richards, J.; Silva, H.; Miller, M.R.; Palino, G.F.; Wall, P.S.

    1986-09-01

    The objective of this project was to compare the organic acids sampling and analysis methods of Westinghouse and NWT Corporation. Sampling was performed at three sites, chosen to represent units with high, intermediate and low levels of organic contamination. To check the precision of each method, concurrent sampling was employed. To check the accuracy of each method, additions of standard organic solutions were made at one of the sites. Inorganic anions were also analyzed at each site by each contractor. Theoretical values of cation conductivity were calculated from organic and inorganic analytical data and compared to values measured onsite at the time of sampling. Total organic carbon (TOC) analyses were performed to evaluate different instruments and sampling techniques, as well as provide additional information on the relationship between TOC and organic acids concentrations. It was concluded that either of the organic acid sampling/analysis techniques used by the contractors can produce reliable results. TOC samples lose organics content with storage time and should be analyzed no later than one week after they are taken; if at all possible, they should be stored in a refrigerated condition. State-of-the art techniques for TOC sampling and analysis can produce results varying by 20 to 50 ppB for levels in the range of 50 to 120 ppB; any proposed limits for TOC should be reviewed in that light. Results of anion analyses are quite sensitive to sampling and analytical techniques. Reasonable agreement between calculated and measured values of cation conductivity suggests that both contractors had accurately determined all major anionic species

  9. Speleothem records of acid sulphate deposition and organic carbon mobilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Peter; Fairchild, Ian; Bourdin, Clement; Baldini, James; Muller, Wolfgang; Hartland, Adam; Bartlett, Rebecca

    2017-04-01

    Dramatic increases in measured surface water DOC in recent decades have been variously attributed to either temperature rise, or destabilisation of long-term soil carbon pools following sulphur peak emissions status. However, whilst both drivers of DOC dynamics are plausible, they remain difficult to test due to the restricted nature of the available records of riverine DOC flux (1978 to present), and the limited availability of SO2 emissions inventory data at the regional scale. Speleothems offer long term records of both sulphur and carbon. New techniques to extract sulphur concentrations and isotopes from speleothem calcite have enabled archives of pollution history and environmental acidification to be reconstructed. Due to the large dynamic range in sulphur isotopic values from end member sources (marine aerosol +21 ‰ to continental biogenic emissions -30 ‰) and limited environmental fractionation under oxidising conditions, sulphur isotopes form an ideal tracer of industrial pollution and environmental acidification in the palaeo-record. We couple this acidification history to the carbon record, using organic matter fluorescence and trace metals. Trace metal ratios and abundance can be used to infer the type and size of organic ligand and are therefore sensitive to changes in temperature as a driver of organic carbon processing and biodegradation. This allows fluorescent properties and ratios of trace metals in speleothem carbonate to be used to represent both the flux of organic carbon into the cave as well as the degradation pathway. Here we present some of the first results of this work, exploring sulphur acidification as a mechanistic control on carbon solubility and export throughout the twentieth century.

  10. Protein haze formation in wines revisited. The stabilising effect of organic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, L.; Monteiro, L.; Loureiro, V.; Teixeira, A.R.; Ferreira, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    The effect on the wine protein haze potential of five organic acids commonly encountered in wines (L(+)- tartaric, L( )-malic, citric, succinic and gluconic acids) was assessed. All five acids, tested at 20 mM, reduced dramatically the haze potential of proteins, either in wine or dissolved in water, throughout the range of pH values typical of wines (i.e., from 2.8 through 3.8). Subtle differences among the acid effects did not correlate with the number of their carboxyl groups, ...

  11. The drying method affects the organic acid content of alfalfa forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pezzi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Malic acid (the main organic acid contained in alfalfa; Callaway et al., 1997 is an important metabolite for ruminal microbial population since it improves the uptake of lactic acid by Selenomonas ruminantium (Evans and Martin, 1997 and Megasphaera elsdenii (Rossi and Piva, 1999. Several studies have shown the effect of adding malic acid to the diet of steers and dairy cows on ruminal fermentation (Martin et al., 1999; Martin et al., 2000 and animal performances (Krummrey et al., 1979; Stallcup, 1979; Kung et al., 1982. Aim of this study was the evaluation of the influence of drying method.......

  12. Effect of organic acids on biofilm formation and quorum signaling of pathogens from fresh fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrutha, Balagopal; Sundar, Kothandapani; Shetty, Prathapkumar Halady

    2017-10-01

    Organic acids are known to be used as food preservatives due to their antimicrobial potential. This study evaluated the ability of three organic acids, namely, acetic acid, citric acid and lactic acid to manage E. coli and Salmonella sp. from fresh fruits and vegetables. Effect of these organic acids on biofilm forming ability and anti-quorum potential was also investigated. The effect of organic acids on inactivation of E. coli and Salmonella sp. on the surface of a selected vegetable (cucumber) was determined. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the organic acids were found to be 1.5, 2 and 0.2% in E. coli while it was observed to be 1, 1.5 and 1% in Salmonella sp. for acetic, citric and lactic acids respectively. Maximum inhibition of biofilm formation was recorded at 39.13% with lactic acid in E. coli and a minimum of 22.53% with citric acid in Salmonella sp. EPS production was affected in E. coli with lactic acid showing reduction by 13.42% while citric acid and acetic acid exhibited only 6.25% and 10.89% respectively. Swimming and swarming patterns in E. coli was notably affected by both acetic and lactic acids. Lactic and acetic acids showed higher anti-quorum sensing (QS) potential when compared to citric acid. 2% lactic acid showed a maximum inhibition of violacein production by 37.7%. Organic acids can therefore be used as potential quorum quenching agents in food industry. 2% lactic acid treatment on cucumber demonstrated that it was effective in inactivating E. coli and Salmonella sp. There was 1 log reduction in microbial count over a period of 6 days after the lactic acid treatment. Thus, organic acids can act as effective potential sanitizers in reducing the microbial load associated with fresh fruits and vegetables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of organic acids to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes on organic fresh apples and lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hyun; Choi, Mi-Ran; Park, Jeong-Woong; Park, Ki-Hwan; Chung, Myung-Sub; Ryu, Sangryeol; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2011-08-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the antimicrobial effect of organic acids against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes on whole red organic apples and lettuce. Several studies have been conducted to evaluate organic acids as sanitizers. However, no studies have compared antimicrobial effects of various organic acids on organic fresh produce, including evaluation of color changes of produce. Apples and lettuce were inoculated with a cocktail of 3 strains each of 3 foodborne pathogens provided above and treated with 1% and 2% organic acids (propionic, acetic, lactic, malic, and citric acid) for 0, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 min. With increasing treatment time and acid concentration, organic acid treatments showed significant reduction compared to the control treatment (distilled water), and differences in antimicrobial effects between organic acids were observed. After 10 min of treatment with 1% and 2% organic acids in apples, propionic (0.92 to 2.75 log reduction), acetic (0.52 to 2.78 log reduction), lactic (1.69 to >3.42 log reduction), malic (1.48 to >3.42 log reduction), and citric acid (1.52 to >3.42 log reduction) exhibited significant (P acid (1.85 to 2.86 log reduction) showed significant (P acids treatment were not significant during storage. It is suggested that organic acids have a potential as sanitizers for organic fresh produce. These data may help the organic produce industry provide safe fresh produce for consumers. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Uric Acid Spherulites in the Reflector Layer of Firefly Light Organ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, King-Siang; Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn; Hua, Tzu-En; Kang, Mei-Hua; Li, Chia-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background In firefly light organs, reflector layer is a specialized tissue which is believed to play a key role for increasing the bioluminescence intensity through reflection. However, the nature of this unique tissue remains elusive. In this report, we investigated the role, fine structure and nature of the reflector layer in the light organ of adult Luciola cerata. Principal Findings Our results indicated that the reflector layer is capable of reflecting bioluminescence, and contains abundant uric acid. Electron microscopy (EM) demonstrated that the cytosol of the reflector layer's cells is filled with densely packed spherical granules, which should be the uric acid granules. These granules are highly regular in size (∼700 nm in diameter), and exhibit a radial internal structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses revealed that an intense single peak pattern with a d-spacing value of 0.320 nm is specifically detected in the light organ, and is highly similar to the diffraction peak pattern and d-spacing value of needle-formed crystals of monosodium urate monohydrate. However, the molar ratio evaluation of uric acid to various cations (K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) in the light organ deduced that only a few uric acid molecules were in the form of urate salts. Thus, non-salt uric acid should be the source of the diffraction signal detected in the light organ. Conclusions In the light organ, the intense single peak diffraction signal might come from a unique needle-like uric acid form, which is different from other known structures of non-salt uric acid form. The finding of a radial structure in the granules of reflector layer implies that the spherical uric acid granules might be formed by the radial arrangement of needle-formed packing matter. PMID:23441187

  15. Role of Organic Acids in Bioformation of Kaolinite: Results of Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontognali, T. R. R.; Vasconcelos, C.; McKenzie, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Clay minerals and other solid silica phases have a broad distribution in the geological record and greatly affect fundamental physicochemical properties of sedimentary rocks, including porosity. An increasing number of studies suggests that microbial activity and microbially produced organic acids might play an important role in authigenic clay mineral formation, at low temperatures and under neutral pH conditions. In particular, early laboratory experiments (Linares and Huertas, 1971) reported the precipitation of kaolinite in solutions of SiO2 and Al2O3 with different molar ratios SiO2/Al2O3, together with fulvic acid (a non-characterized mixture of many different acids containing carboxyl and phenolate groups) that was extracted from peat soil. Despite many attempts, these experiments could not be reproduced until recently. Fiore et al. (2011) hypothesized that the non-sterile fulvic acid might have contained microbes that participated in the formation of kaolinite. Using solutions saturated with Si and Al and containing oxalate and/or mixed microbial culture extracted from peat-moss soil, they performed incubation experiments, which produced kaolinite exclusively in solutions containing oxalate and microbes. We proposed to test the role of specific organic acids for kaolinite formation, conducting laboratory experiments at 25˚C, with solutions of sodium silicate, aluminum chloride and various organic compounds (i.e. EDTA, citric acid, succinic acid and oxalic acid). Specific organic acids may stabilize aluminum in octahedral coordination positions, which is crucial for the initial nucleation step. In our experiments, a poorly crystalline mineral that is possibly a kaolinite precursor formed exclusively in the presence of succinic acid. In experiments with other organic compounds, no incorporation of Al was observed, and amorphous silica was the only precipitated phase. In natural environments, succinic acid is produced by a large variety of microbes as an

  16. Capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis of organic acids and amino acids in the presence of strongly alternating concentrations of aqueous lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, Hendrik; Boden, Jana; Schneider, Roland

    2017-07-01

    During the production of bio-based bulk chemicals, such as lactic acid (LA), organic impurities have to be removed to produce a ready-to-market product. A capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous detection of LA and organic impurities in less than 10 min was developed. LA and organic impurities were detected using a direct UV detection method with micellar background electrolyte, which consisted of borate and sodium dodecyl sulfate. We investigated the effects of electrolyte composition and temperature on the speed, sensitivity, and robustness of the separation. A few validation parameters, such as linearity, limit of detection, and internal and external standards, were evaluated under optimized conditions. The method was applied for the detection of LA and organic impurities, including tyrosine, phenylalanine, and pyroglutamic acid, in samples from a continuous LA fermentation process from post-extraction tapioca starch and yeast extract.

  17. Simultaneous analysis of amino acid and organic acid by NMR spectrometry, 2. Diagnostic aids for inborn error of metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koda, Naoya; Yamaguchi, Shuichi; Mori, Takeshi.

    1987-09-01

    Analysis of urine from patients with inborn error of metabolism were studied by /sup 1/H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. Diseases studied were as follows; phenylketonuria, biotin responsive multiple carboxylase deficiency, non-ketotic hyperglycinemia, 3-ketothiolase deficiency, alkaptonuria, methylmalonic acidemia, isovaleric acidemia, glutaric aciduria, argininosuccinic aciduria and hyperornithinemia. In each disease, specific metabolites in urine were recognized by NMR spectrometry. This method is accomplished within 10 minutes with non-treated small volume of urine and will be successfully available for the screening andor diagnosis of inherited metabolic diseases of amino acid and organic acid.

  18. Extraction and characterisation of aqueous organic acids from natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.; Moody, P.M.; Higgo, J.J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Humic and fulvic acids were extracted from large volumes of groundwater associated with the Broubster and Needle's Eye natural analogue sites, and the BGS research site at Drigg in Cumbria. Extractions were performed by both batchwise extraction and radial flow chromatography using DEAE-cellulose. Retained humic substances were eluted using NaOH and separated into humic and fulvic components by acidification to pH 1. After separation the humic component was purified by repetitive precipitation and dissolution whilst the fulvic component was purified by absorption chromatography. The resulting humic substances were shown to be of high purity with respect to metallic elements, with less than 1% of available sites being occupied. During elution the association of trace elements with humic substances was monitored and a high degree of association between humic substances, U and the Rare Earth Elements was noted. (author)

  19. Transport and cycling of iron and hydrogen peroxide in a freshwater stream: Influence of organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Durelle T.; Runkel, Robert L.; McKnight, Diane M.; Voelker, Bettina M.; Kimball, Briant A.; Carraway, Elizabeth R.

    2003-01-01

    An in-stream injection of two dissolved organic acids (phthalic and aspartic acids) was performed in an acidic mountain stream to assess the effects of organic acids on Fe photoreduction and H2O2 cycling. Results indicate that the fate of Fe is dependent on a net balance of oxidative and reductive processes, which can vary over a distance of several meters due to changes in incident light and other factors. Solution phase photoreduction rates were high in sunlit reaches and were enhanced by the organic acid addition but were also limited by the amount of ferric iron present in the water column. Fe oxide photoreduction from the streambed and colloids within the water column resulted in an increase in the diurnal load of total filterable Fe within the experimental reach, which also responded to increases in light and organic acids. Our results also suggest that Fe(II) oxidation increased in response to the organic acids, with the result of offsetting the increase in Fe(II) from photoreductive processes. Fe(II) was rapidly oxidized to Fe(III) after sunset and during the day within a well-shaded reach, presumably through microbial oxidation. H2O 2, a product of dissolved organic matter photolysis, increased downstream to maximum concentrations of 0.25 ??M midday. Kinetic calculations show that the buildup of H2O2 is controlled by reaction with Fe(III), but this has only a small effect on Fe(II) because of the small formation rates of H2O2 compared to those of Fe(II). The results demonstrate the importance of incorporating the effects of light and dissolved organic carbon into Fe reactive transport models to further our understanding of the fate of Fe in streams and lakes.

  20. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria on organic flours and application of isolates in sourdough fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Stanzer, Damir; Ivanuša, Ines; Kazazić, Snježana; Hanousek Čiča, Karla; Mrvčić, Jasna

    2017-01-01

    Organic farming preserves biodiversity and organic products can be the source of many microbial species. The species diversity in organically grown wheat, spelt and rye was investigated in order to find strains suitable for sourdough fermentation. Colonies representing various morphological appearances were isolated and catalase-negative colonies were identified by mass spectrometer Microflex LT ™ MALDI-TOF. The fermentation products (lactic, acetic, formic and phenyllactic acid) were determi...

  1. Predicting nitrogen and acidity effects on long-term dynamics of dissolved organic matter

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, E.C.; Tipping, E.; Posch, M.; Oulehle, Filip; Cooper, D.M.; Jones, T.G.; Burden, A.; Hall, J.; Evans, C.D.

    2014-01-01

    Increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes may relate to changes in sulphur and nitrogen pollution. We integrated existing models of vegetation growth and soil organic matter turnover, acid-base dynamics, and organic matter mobility, to form the ‘MADOC’ model. After calibrating parameters governing interactions between pH and DOC dissolution using control treatments on two field experiments, MADOC reproduced responses of pH and DOC to additions of acidifying and alkalising solutions. ...

  2. Enhancing Skin Permeation of Biphenylacetic Acid (BPA) Using Salt Formation with Organic and Alkali Metal Bases

    OpenAIRE

    PAWAR, Vijay; NAIK, Prashant; GIRIDHAR, Rajani; YADAV, Mange Ram

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a series of organic and alkali metal salts of biphenylacetic acid (BPA) have been prepared and evaluated in vitro for percutaneous drug delivery. The physicochemical properties of BPA salts were determined using solubility measurements, DSC, and IR. The DSC thermogram and FTIR spectra confirmed the salt formation with organic and alkali metal bases. Among the series, salts with organic amines (ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanol-amine, and diethylamine) had lowered ...

  3. [Pollution characteristics of organic acids in atmospheric particles during haze periods in autumn in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ji-hua; Zhao, Jing-ping; Duan, Jing-chun; Ma, Yong-liang; He, Ke-bin; Yang, Fu-mo

    2013-05-01

    Total suspended particles (TSP), collected during a typical haze period in Guangzhou, were analyzed for the fatty acids (C12-C30) and low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids (C3-C9) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the concentration of total fatty and carboxylic acids was pretty high during the haze episode. The ratios of fatty acids and carboxylic acids in haze to those in normal days were 1.9 and 2.5, respectively. During the episode of the increasing pollution, the fatty acids and carboxylic acids at night (653 ng x m(-3)) was higher than that (487 ng x m(-3)) in days. After that, the level of fatty acids and carboxylic acids in days (412 ng x m(-3)) was higher than that (336 ng x m(-3)) at night. In general, the time-series of fatty acids and carboxylic acids was similar to that of the air particle and carbonaceous species, however, the trend of the ratio of fatty acids and carboxylic acids to organic carbon was opposite to that of air particle and carbonaceous species. This ratio decreased with the increase of the concentration of air particle and after the night of 27th, the ratio increased with the decrease in the concentration of air particle. The results showed that haze pollution had a significant inhibitory effect on the enrichment of fatty and carboxylic acids. Based on the ratio of malonate to succinate (C3/C4), it could be found that primary sources contribute more to the atmospheric fatty and carboxylic acids during the autumn haze pollution periods in Guangzhou.

  4. Inhibitory Effects of Caffeic Acid, a Coffee-Related Organic Acid, on the Propagation of Hepatitis C Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida, Isei; Shirasago, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Abe, Ryo; Wakita, Takaji; Hanada, Kentaro; Fukasawa, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Multipurpose cohort studies have demonstrated that coffee consumption reduces the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Given that one of the main causes of HCC is hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we examined the effect of caffeic acid, a major organic acid derived from coffee, on the propagation of HCV using an in vitro naïve HCV particle-infection and production system within human hepatoma-derived Huh-7.5.1-8 cells. When cells were treated with 1% coffee extract or 0.1% caffeic acid for 1-h post HCV infection, the amount of HCV particles released into the medium at 3 and 4 days post-infection considerably decreased. In addition, HCV-infected cells cultured with 0.001% caffeic acid for 4 days, also released less HCV particles into the medium. Caffeic acid treatment inhibited the initial stage of HCV infection (i.e., between virion entry and the translation of the RNA genome) in both HCV genotypes 1b and 2a. These results suggest that the treatment of cells with caffeic acid may inhibit HCV propagation.

  5. Role of Organic Solutes in the Chemistry Of Acid-Impacted Bog Waters of the Western Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    HrušKa, Jakub; Johnson, Chris E.; KráM, Pavel

    1996-04-01

    In many regions, naturally occurring organic acid anions can effectively buffer mineral acid inputs from atmospheric deposition, moderating their effect on surface water pH. We studied the effect of chronically high inputs of acid rain on the chemistry of three brown-water streams in the western Czech Republic. The dissolved organic acids in the streams were similar in character to those of other systems in Europe and North America. The site densities (the carboxyl group content per mass of C) were similar to values reported from Fenno-Scandia, and the relationship between the apparent pKa and pH conformed to those from two North American studies. Sulfate and organic acid anions (OA-) were the dominant anions in all three streams, yet despite high dissolved organic carbon and total organic acid concentrations, OA - comprised only 21-32% of total anion charge. This pattern was due to very high sulfate concentrations and, in two of the streams, a low degree of dissociation of the organic acids, probably the results of high long-term inputs of strong acids. Stream water pH was highly correlated to sulfate concentration, but uncorrelated with OA-, suggesting that free acidity is controlled by strong mineral acids rather than organic acids. Thus future reductions in strong acid inputs should result in increased pH and a return to organic control over acid-base chemistry.

  6. Ascorbic acid metabolism in the organism under the lack of oxygen supply to the tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy Petrov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The number and ratios of the metabolites of vitamin C - ascorbic, dehydroascorbic and diketogulonic acids were studied under the action of closed space hypoxia, acute blood loss and during sleep – the conditions associated with various oxygen saturation of the organism. It was found that in case of closed space hypoxia, the level of ascorbic and diketogulonic acid decreased with a simultaneous increase in the content of dehydroascorbic acid in the heart and brain. Acute blood loss resulted in decrease in the level of all metabolites of ascorbic acid. During sleep, the level of ascorbic acid metabolites increased. The ratio of vitamin-active metabolites to vitamin-inactive form of ascorbic acid in case of closed space hypoxia and acute blood loss decreased, and during sleep – it did not change significantly.

  7. The Role of Organic Acids on the Release of Phosphorus and Zinc in a Calcareous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareh Nezami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phosphorus (P and zinc (Zn fixation by soil minerals and their precipitation is one of the major constraints for crop production in calcareous soils. Recent Studies show that root exudates are effective for the extraction of the large amounts of nutrients in calcareous soils. A part of the root exudations are Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids (LMWOAs. LMWOAs are involved in the nutrients availability and uptake by plants, nutrients detoxification, minerals weathering and microbial proliferation in the soil. At nutrients deficiency conditions citric and oxalic acids are released by plants root in large quantities and increase nutrient solubility like P, Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu in the rhizosphere. These components are the large portion of the carbon source in the soil after exudations are mineralized by microorganisms, quickly. In addition, soil surface sorption can affect their half-life and other behaviors in the soil. In order to study the effect of oxalic and citric organic acids on the extraction of phosphorus and zinc from a calcareous soil, an experiment was conducted. Materials and Methods: Studied soil was calcareous and had P and Zn deficiency. Soil sample was collected from A horizon (0-30 cm of Damavand region. 3 g of dried soil sample was extracted with 30 ml of oxalic and citric acids extraction solutions at different concentrations (0.1, 1 and 10 mM and different time periods (10, 60, 180 and 360 minutes on an orbital shaker at 200 rev min-1.The soil extracts then centrifuged for 10 minutes (16000g. After filtering, the pH of the extractions was recorded and then phosphorus, calcium and zinc amounts were determined. Soil extraction with distilled water was used as control. Each treatment was performed in 3 replications. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA test followed by the Bonferroni method significant level adjustments due to multiple comparisons. Results and Discussion: The results of variance analysis showed

  8. Nutritional value of organic acid lime juice (Citrus latifolia T., cv. Tahiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Netto Rangel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid lime can be used as fresh fruit or as juice to increase the flavor of drinks. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze organic acid lime nutritional composition in order to evaluate if there are important differences among those conventionally produced. No significant differences in total titrable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid, sucrose, calcium, and zinc were found between the acid lime juice from organic biodynamic crops and conventional crops. However, the organic biodynamic fruits presented higher peel percentage than the conventional ones leading to lower juice yield. On the other hand, fructose, glucose, total soluble solids contents, potassium, manganese, iron, and copper were higher in the conventional samples. These results indicated few nutritional differences between organic and conventional acid lime juices in some constituents. Nevertheless, fruit juice from biodynamic crops could be a good choice since it is free from pesticides and other agents that cause problems to human health maintaining the levels similar to those of important nutritional compounds.

  9. Fructose decomposition kinetics in organic acids-enriched high temperature liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yinghua; Lu, Xiuyang; Yuan, Lei; Liu, Xin [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zheda Road 38, Hangzhou 310027, Zhejiang (China)

    2009-09-15

    Biomass continues to be an important candidate as a renewable resource for energy, chemicals, and feedstock. Decomposition of biomass in high temperature liquid water is a promising technique for producing industrially important chemicals such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), furfural, levulinic acid with high efficiency. Hexose, which is the hydrolysis product of cellulose, will be one of the most important starting chemicals in the coming society that is highly dependent on biomass. Taking fructose as a model compound, its decomposition kinetics in organic acids-enriched high temperature liquid water was studied in the temperature range from 180 C to 220 C under the pressure of 10 MPa to further improve reaction rate and selectivity of the decomposition reactions. The results showed that the reaction rate is greatly enhanced with the addition of organic acids, especially formic acid. The effects of temperature, residence time, organic acids and their concentrations on the conversion of fructose and yield of 5-HMF were investigated. The evaluated apparent activation energies of fructose decomposition are 126.8 {+-} 3.3 kJ mol{sup -1} without any catalyst, 112.0 {+-} 13.7 kJ mol{sup -1} catalyzed with formic acid, and 125.6 {+-} 3.8 kJ mol{sup -1} catalyzed with acetic acid, respectively, which shows no significant difference. (author)

  10. Study of organic acids in Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus after vinegar processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fangzhou; Dai, Hui; Li, Lin; Lu, Tuling; Li, Weidong; Cai, Baochang; Yin, Wu

    2017-10-01

    The ripened fruit of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus has unique medical properties in Chinese medicine. It is commonly used after vinegar steaming. Vinegar steaming changes the color of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus from red to black and enhances its acidic and astringent properties. Lignans are the well-investigated components in this herb. However, Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus is acidic in the theory of Chinese medicine, and whether vinegar processing changes its organic acid components remains largely unknown. In this study, the organic acids in this herb were derived by the method of methyl esterification, and further analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. A total of 39 organic acid compounds were identified. Interestingly, Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus after vinegar processing showed a significant increase in the content of levulinic acid as compared to the unprocessed ones. Pharmacological experiments demonstrated that levulinic acid inhibited the contractility of isolated intestine and had an inhibitory effect on the excessive hyperfunction of small intestinal propulsion. Moreover, the extracts of vinegar-processed Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus had a stronger inhibitory on the excessive hyperfunction of small intestinal propulsion than that of unprocessed ones. Taken together, this study offers novel insight into the effect of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus after vinegar processing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Intestinal tract is an important organ for lowering serum uric acid in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiyi; Li, Yue; Gao, Tao; Duan, Jinlian; Yang, Rong; Dong, Xianxiang; Zhang, Lumei

    2017-01-01

    The kidney was recognized as a dominant organ for uric acid excretion. The main aim of the study demonstrated intestinal tract was an even more important organ for serum uric acid (SUA) lowering. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated normally or with antibiotics, uric acid, adenine, or inosine of the same molar dose orally or intraperitoneally for 5 days. Rat’s intestinal tract was equally divided into 20 segments except the cecum. Uric acid in serum and intestinal segment juice was assayed. Total RNA in the initial intestinal tract and at the end ileum was extracted and sequenced. Protein expression of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and urate oxidase (UOX) was tested by Western blot analysis. The effect of oral UOX in lowering SUA was investigated in model rats treated with adenine and an inhibitor of uric oxidase for 5 days. SUA in the normal rats was 20.93±6.98 μg/ml, and total uric acid in the intestinal juice was 308.27±16.37 μg, which is two times more than the total SUA. The uric acid was very low in stomach juice, and attained maximum in the juice of the first segment (duodenum) and then declined all the way till the intestinal end. The level of uric acid in the initial intestinal tissue was very high, where XDH and most of the proteins associated with bicarbonate secretion were up-regulated. In addition, SUA was decreased by oral UOX in model rats. The results suggested that intestinal juice was an important pool for uric acid, and intestinal tract was an important organ for SUA lowering. The uric acid distribution was associated with uric acid synthesis and secretion in the upper intestinal tract, and reclamation in the lower. PMID:29267361

  12. Intestinal tract is an important organ for lowering serum uric acid in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yu; Yin, Hua; Gao, Zhiyi; Li, Yue; Gao, Tao; Duan, Jinlian; Yang, Rong; Dong, Xianxiang; Zhang, Lumei; Duan, Weigang

    2017-01-01

    The kidney was recognized as a dominant organ for uric acid excretion. The main aim of the study demonstrated intestinal tract was an even more important organ for serum uric acid (SUA) lowering. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated normally or with antibiotics, uric acid, adenine, or inosine of the same molar dose orally or intraperitoneally for 5 days. Rat's intestinal tract was equally divided into 20 segments except the cecum. Uric acid in serum and intestinal segment juice was assayed. Total RNA in the initial intestinal tract and at the end ileum was extracted and sequenced. Protein expression of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and urate oxidase (UOX) was tested by Western blot analysis. The effect of oral UOX in lowering SUA was investigated in model rats treated with adenine and an inhibitor of uric oxidase for 5 days. SUA in the normal rats was 20.93±6.98 μg/ml, and total uric acid in the intestinal juice was 308.27±16.37 μg, which is two times more than the total SUA. The uric acid was very low in stomach juice, and attained maximum in the juice of the first segment (duodenum) and then declined all the way till the intestinal end. The level of uric acid in the initial intestinal tissue was very high, where XDH and most of the proteins associated with bicarbonate secretion were up-regulated. In addition, SUA was decreased by oral UOX in model rats. The results suggested that intestinal juice was an important pool for uric acid, and intestinal tract was an important organ for SUA lowering. The uric acid distribution was associated with uric acid synthesis and secretion in the upper intestinal tract, and reclamation in the lower.

  13. Changes in sugars, organic acids and amino acids in medlar (Mespilus germanica L.) during fruit development and maturation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Glew, R. H.; Ayaz, F. A.; Sanz, C.; VanderJagt, D. J.; Huang, H. S.; Chuang, L. T.; Strnad, Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 3 (2003), s. 363-369 ISSN 0308-8146 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5038351 Grant - others:Scientific and Research Council of Turkey(TR) TUBITAK-NATO Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Medlar (Mespilus germanica L.) * Sugar * Organic acid Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.204, year: 2003

  14. Contribution of sulfuric acid and oxidized organic compounds to particle formation and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Riccobono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lack of knowledge about the mechanisms underlying new particle formation and their subsequent growth is one of the main causes for the large uncertainty in estimating the radiative forcing of atmospheric aerosols in global models. We performed chamber experiments designed to study the contributions of sulfuric acid and organic vapors to the formation and early growth of nucleated particles. Distinct experiments in the presence of two different organic precursors (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and α-pinene showed the ability of these compounds to reproduce the formation rates observed in the low troposphere. These results were obtained measuring the sulfuric acid concentrations with two chemical ionization mass spectrometers confirming the results of a previous study which modeled the sulfuric acid concentrations in presence of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene.

    New analysis methods were applied to the data collected with a condensation particle counter battery and a scanning mobility particle sizer, allowing the assessment of the size resolved growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The effect of organic vapors on particle growth was investigated by means of the growth rate enhancement factor (Γ, defined as the ratio between the measured growth rate in the presence of α-pinene and the kinetically limited growth rate of the sulfuric acid and water system. The observed Γ values indicate that the growth is already dominated by organic compounds at particle diameters of 2 nm. Both the absolute growth rates and Γ showed a strong dependence on particle size, supporting the nano-Köhler theory. Moreover, the separation of the contributions from sulfuric acid and organic compounds to particle growth reveals that the organic contribution seems to be enhanced by the sulfuric acid concentration. Finally, the size resolved growth analysis indicates that both condensation of oxidized organic compounds and reactive uptake contribute to particle growth.

  15. Molecular understanding of atmospheric particle formation from sulfuric acid and large oxidized organic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Schobesberger, Siegfried; Bianchi, Federico; Lönn, Gustaf; Ehn, Mikael; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Dommen, Josef; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Ortega, Ismael K; Franchin, Alessandro; Nieminen, Tuomo; Riccobono, Francesco; Hutterli, Manuel; Duplissy, Jonathan; Almeida, João; Amorim, Antonio; Breitenlechner, Martin; Downard, Andrew J; Dunne, Eimear M; Flagan, Richard C; Kajos, Maija; Keskinen, Helmi; Kirkby, Jasper; Kupc, Agnieszka; Kürten, Andreas; Kurtén, Theo; Laaksonen, Ari; Mathot, Serge; Onnela, Antti; Praplan, Arnaud P; Rondo, Linda; Santos, Filipe D; Schallhart, Simon; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Sipilä, Mikko; Tomé, António; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Wimmer, Daniela; Baltensperger, Urs; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Curtius, Joachim; Hansel, Armin; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Donahue, Neil M; Worsnop, Douglas R

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols formed by nucleation of vapors affect radiative forcing and therefore climate. However, the underlying mechanisms of nucleation remain unclear, particularly the involvement of organic compounds. Here, we present high-resolution mass spectra of ion clusters observed during new particle formation experiments performed at the Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets chamber at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The experiments involved sulfuric acid vapor and different stabilizing species, including ammonia and dimethylamine, as well as oxidation products of pinanediol, a surrogate for organic vapors formed from monoterpenes. A striking resemblance is revealed between the mass spectra from the chamber experiments with oxidized organics and ambient data obtained during new particle formation events at the Hyytiälä boreal forest research station. We observe that large oxidized organic compounds, arising from the oxidation of monoterpenes, cluster directly with single sulfuric acid molec...

  16. Influence of containing of asphaltenes and naphthenic acids over organic deposition inhibitor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Geiza E.; Mansur, Claudia R.E.; Pires, Renata V.; Passos, Leonardo B.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas; Alvares, Dellyo R.S.; Gonzalez, Gaspar [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    Organic deposition is a serious problem confronted by the petroleum industry in Brazil and worldwide. Among the main petroleum components that may cause deposition problems are waxes and asphaltenes. This work aims at evaluating the influence of petroleum fractions (asphaltenes and naphthenic acids) on the organic deposition phenomenon as well as on organic deposition inhibitors performance. The influence of the organic fractions was evaluated by their ability to change wax crystals, to lower the pour point and to alter the initial wax appearance temperature. The efficiency of the additives was tested by pour point measurements. The results show that asphaltenes seem to act as organic deposition inhibitors, while naphthenic acids do not significantly change the system. Moreover, employing both of them produces no synergic effect. Among polymeric inhibitors, all of the chemically modified EVA copolymer presented better results than the non-modified commercial EVA copolymer. The best result was observed for EVA28C{sub 16}. (author)

  17. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for biotechnological production of high-value organic acids and alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chao; Cao, Yujin; Zou, Huibin; Xian, Mo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels

    2011-02-15

    Confronted with the gradual and inescapable exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources, the bio-based process to produce platform chemicals from renewable carbohydrates is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to its clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. Compared to previous reviews, this review focuses on recent advances in metabolic engineering of the industrial model bacteria E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for the production of high-value organic acids like succinic acid, lactic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like 1,3-propanediol, xylitol, mannitol, and glycerol with the discussion of the future research in this area. Besides, this review also discusses several platform chemicals, including fumaric acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, sorbitol, itaconic acid, and 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, which have not been produced by E. coli until now. (orig.)

  18. /sup 1/H-NMR urinalysis. Simultaneous screening of inborn errors of metabolism of amino acid and organic acid disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Shuichi

    1988-02-01

    In an effort to examine the usefulness of /sup 1/H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) urinalysis in the diagnosis of congenital metabolic disorders, 70 kinds of urinary metabolites were analysed in relation to the diagnosis of inborn errors of amino acid and organic acid disorders. Homogated decoupling (HMG) method failed to analyze six metabolites within the undetectable range. When non-decoupling method (NON), in which the materials are dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, was used, the identification of signals became possible. The combination of HMG and NON methods was, therefore, considered to identify all of the metabolites. When the urine samples, which were obtained from patients with hyperglycerolemia, hyperornithinemia, glutaric acidemia type II, or glycerol kinase deficiency, were analysed by using both HMG and NON methods, abnormally increased urinary metabolites were detected. /sup 1/H-NMR urinalysis, if used in the combination of HMG and NON methods, may allow simultanenous screening of inborn errors of metabolism of amino acid and organic acid disorders. (Namekawa, K.).

  19. Surface complexation modeling of uranium (Vi) retained onto zirconium diphosphate in presence of organic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almazan T, M. G.; Garcia G, N.; Ordonez R, E.

    2010-10-01

    In the field of nuclear waste disposal, predictions regarding radionuclide migration through the geosphere, have to take account the effects of natural organic matter. This work presents an investigation of interaction mechanisms between U (Vi) and zirconium diphosphate (ZrP 2 O 7 ) in presence of organic acids (citric acid and oxalic acid). The retention reactions were previously examined using a batch equilibrium method. Previous results showed that U (Vi) retention was more efficient when citric acid or oxalic acid was present in solid surface at lower ph values. In order to determine the retention equilibria for both systems studied, a phosphorescence spectroscopy study was carried out. The experimental data were then fitted using the Constant Capacitance Model included in the FITEQL4.0 code. Previous results concerning surface characterization of ZrP 2 O 7 (surface sites density and surface acidity constants) were used to constraint the modeling. The best fit for U (Vi)/citric acid/ZrP 2 O 7 and U (Vi)/oxalic acid/ZrP 2 O 7 systems considered the formation of a ternary surface complex. (Author)

  20. Antimony leaching release from brake pads: Effect of pH, temperature and organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingyun; He, Mengchang; Li, Sisi

    2015-03-01

    Metals from automotive brake pads pollute water, soils and the ambient air. The environmental effect on water of antimony (Sb) contained in brake pads has been largely untested. The content of Sb in one abandoned brake pad reached up to 1.62×10(4) mg/kg. Effects of initial pH, temperature and four organic acids (acetic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid and humic acid) on Sb release from brake pads were studied using batch reactors. Approximately 30% (97 mg/L) of the total Sb contained in the brake pads was released in alkaline aqueous solution and at higher temperature after 30 days of leaching. The organic acids tested restrained Sb release, especially acetic acid and oxalic acid. The pH-dependent concentration change of Sb in aqueous solution was best fitted by a logarithmic function. In addition, Sb contained in topsoil from land where brake pads were discarded (average 9×10(3) mg/kg) was 3000 times that in uncontaminated soils (2.7±1 mg/kg) in the same areas. Because potentially high amounts of Sb may be released from brake pads, it is important that producers and environmental authorities take precautions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The response of quartz crystals coated with thin fatty acid film to organic gases

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, C N; Kim, K H; Kwon, Y S

    1999-01-01

    We tried to apply a quartz crystal as a sensor by using the resonant frequency and the resistance properties of quartz crystals. Four kinds of fatty acids that have the same head groups were coated on the surfaces of the quartz crystals, and the shift of the resonant frequency and the resistance were observed based on the lengths of the tail groups. Myristic acid (C sub 1 sub 4), palmitic acid (C sub 1 sub 6), stearic acid (C sub 1 sub 8), and arachidic acid (C sub 2 sub 0) were deposited on the surfaces of quartz crystals by using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method. As a result, the resonant frequency change was more sensitive to high molecular-weight fatty acids than to low molecular-weight ones. We also observed the effect of temperature on stearic acid LB films, and the response properties of quartz crystals coated with stearic-acid LB films to organic gases were investigated. As a result, the sensitivity of quartz crystals to organic gases was higher for higher molecular-weight gas, and we found that quar...

  2. Organic acid formation in steam–water cycles: Influence of temperature, retention time, heating rate and O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moed, D.H.; Verliefde, A.R.D.; Heijman, S.G.J.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    Organic carbon breaks down in boilers by hydrothermolysis, leading to the formation of organic acid anions, which are suspected to cause corrosion of steam–water cycle components. Prediction of the identity and quantity of these anions, based on feedwater organic carbon concentrations, has not been attempted, making it hard to establish a well-founded organic carbon guideline. By using a batch-reactor and flow reactor, the influence of temperature (276–352 °C), retention time (1–25 min), concentration (150–2400 ppb) and an oxygen scavenger (carbohydrazide) on organic acid anion formation from organic carbon was investigated. By comparing this to data gathered at a case-study site, the validity of setups was tested as well. The flow reactor provided results more representative for steam–water cycles than the batch reactor. It was found that lower heating rates give more organic acid anions as degradation products of organic carbon, both in quantity and species variety. The thermal stability of the organic acid anions is key. As boiler temperature increases, acetate becomes the dominant degradation product, due to its thermal stability. Shorter retention times lead to more variety and quantity of organic acid anions, due to a lack of time for the thermally less stable ones to degrade. Reducing conditions (or the absence of oxygen) increase the thermal stability of organic acid anions. As the feedwater organic carbon concentration decreases, there are relatively more organic acid anions formed. - Highlights: •Formation of organic acids from hydrothermolysis of organic carbon has been investigated. •The lower the temperature, the higher the variety of organic acid anions. •At the higher tested temperatures (331–352 °C) acetate is the dominant degradation product. •At longer retention times acetate is the dominant degradation product. •There is no linear relation between the organic carbon concentration and formed organic acids

  3. Distribution equilibria of Eu(III) in the system: bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid organic diluent-NaCl, lactic acid, polyaminocarboxylic acid, water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danesi, P.R.; Cianetti, C.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution equilibria of Eu 3+ between aqueous phases containing lactic acid and N'-(2hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N,N'-triacetic acid (HEDTA) or diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N',N''-penetaacetic acid (DTPA) at constant ionic strength (μ = 1.0), and n-dodecane solutions of HDEHP have been studied. The formation constants of the simple Eu-lactate complexes and Eu-lactate-HEDTA mixed complex were evaluated from the k/sub d/ data. The conclusion is reached that no lactic acid is coextracted into the organic phase at tracer metal concentrations. The separation factors between Eu 3+ , Pm 3+ , and Am 3+ have been evaluated in the presence of HEDTA

  4. Solvent extraction of hafnium(IV) by dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid from mixed aqueous-organic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hala, J.; Piperkovova, H.

    1979-01-01

    The extraction of hafnium(IV) by heptane and toluene solutions of dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (HD) from mixed aqueous-organic solutions has been studied. Alcohols, ketones, carboxylic acids, cyclic ethers, dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylformamide were used as the organic component of the mixed phase. Methanol, ethanol, formic acid and dioxane increased the extractability of Hf(IV) whereas other solvents showed only an antagonistic effect. The results were discussed from the point of view of the changes in micellar structure of HD, and compared with the uptake of Hf(IV) by resinous cation exchangers. The solubilization by HD of alcohols, carboxylic acids and dimethylsulfoxide was demonstrated by using the corresponding 14 C and 35 S labelled compounds. (author)

  5. Organic acids and aldehydes in rainwater in a northwest region of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, R.M.; Garcia, S.; Herrero, C. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo (Spain). Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia

    2002-11-01

    During a 1 year period, measurements of carboxylic acids and aldehydes were carried out in rainwater samples collected at nine different sites in NW Spain surrounding a thermal power plant in order to determine concentration levels and sources. In addition, certain major ions (Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Na{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}) were also determined. Aldehyde and carboxylic acid concentration patterns and their effects on rainwater composition concerning temporal, seasonal and spatial variations were evaluated. Among carboxylic acids, formic and acetic were predominant (VWA 7.0 and 8.3 {mu}M), while formaldehyde and acroleine were the dominant aldehydes (VWA 0.42 and 1.25 {mu}M). Carboxylic acids were estimated to account for 27.5% of the total free acidity (TFA), whereas sulphuric and nitric acid accounted for 46.2% and 26.2%, respectively. Oxalic acid was demonstrated to be an important contributing compound to the acidification in rainwater representing 7.1% of the TFA. The concentration of aldehydes and carboxylic acids, which originated mainly from biogenic emissions in the area studied, was strongly dependent on the season of the year (growing and non-growing). The ratios of formic to acetic acids are considerably different in the two seasons suggesting that there exist distinct sources in both growing and non-growing seasons. Principal component analysis was applied in order to elucidate the sources of aldehydes and organic acids in rainwater. The prevalence of natural vegetative origins for both of these compounds versus anthropogenic emissions was demonstrated and the importance of the oxidation of aldehydes as a relevant source of organic acids was also established. (author)

  6. Sugars and organic acids in plum fruit affected by Plum pox virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenik, Valentina; Marn, Mojca Virscek

    2017-05-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) causes severe economic losses in stone fruit production, but little is known about its effect on plum fruit composition. In this study, the influence of PPV on sugars and organic acids was evaluated in a susceptible plum (Prunus domestica L.) cultivar. PPV infection significantly affected the content and composition of sugars and organic acids. The composition of necrotic tissue was modified the most. A short-time infected tree yielded fruit with similar sugar composition to fruit from a healthy tree, but the decline of organic acids was faster. Prematurely ripened symptomatic fruit had reduced fruit weight and low sugar content. Infected trees of the studied cultivar produce fruit of inferior quality. Fruits are not suitable for processing, especially when most of them exhibit visual symptoms of PPV infection. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Improving Phosphorus Availability in an Acid Soil Using Organic Amendments Produced from Agroindustrial Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Ch’ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab.

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixt...

  8. Investigation of the atmospheric behavior of dicarboxylic acids and other polar organic aerosol constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limbeck, A.

    2001-05-01

    The objective of the present work was to improve the present knowledge about the atmospheric behavior of polar organic aerosol constituents with special respect to dicarboxylic acids. To enable the simultaneous determination of polar organic compounds in atmospheric samples like aerosol or precipitation samples (atmospheric hydrometeors) a new GCMS method was developed. Almost all classes of oxygenated organic compounds like mono- and dicarboxylic acids, aldehydes, alcohols or polar aromatic compounds like phthalates could be determined with only one sample preparation scheme. The separation into two classes of organic compounds with different polarity was performed using solid phase extraction. After a sample pre-treatment of the derived fractions, including esterification of the acids and extraction with cyclohexane, the samples were analyzed with a GCMS system. The new method was applied for the analysis of simultaneously collected interstitial aerosol and cloud water samples from a continental background site in Central Europe (Sonnblick Observatory, located at 3106-m elevation in the Austrian Alps). In all samples a large variety of mono- and dicarboxylic acids were identified and quantified, together with some aldehydes, alcohols and aromatic compounds. Using the obtained data set, for the first time in-cloud scavenging efficiencies for dicarboxylic acids, monocarboxylic acids, and other polar organic compounds were calculated. The results were compared to sulfate, which exhibited an average scavenging efficiency of 0.94. In the last part of the present work the results from laboratory and field investigations conducted with the intention to yield an improved sampling technique for the correction of the positive sampling artifact (adsorption of gas phase organics onto the filter substrate) were presented. (author)

  9. [Effects of simulated acid rain on decomposition of soil organic carbon and crop straw].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xue-Zhu; Huang, Yao; Yang, Xin-Zhong

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of acid rain on the organic carbon decomposition in different acidity soils, a 40-day incubation test was conducted with the paddy soils of pH 5.48, 6.70 and 8.18. The soils were amended with 0 and 15 g x kg(-1) of rice straw, adjusted to the moisture content of 400 g x kg(-1) air-dried soil by using simulated rain of pH 6.0, 4.5, and 3.0, and incubated at 20 degrees C. The results showed that straw, acid rain, and soil co-affected the CO2 emission from soil system. The amendment of straw increased the soil CO2 emission rate significantly. Acid rain had no significant effects on soil organic carbon decomposition, but significantly affected the straw decomposition in soil. When treated with pH 3.0 acid rain, the amount of decomposed straw over 40-day incubation in acid (pH 5.48) and alkaline (pH 8.18) soils was 8% higher, while that in neutral soil (pH 6.70) was 15% lower, compared to the treatment of pH 6.0 rain. In the treatment of pH 3.0 acid rain, the decomposition rate of soil organic C in acid (pH 5.48) soil was 43% and 50% (P pH 6.70) and alkaline (pH 8.18) soils, while the decomposition rate of straw in neutral soil was 17% and 16% (P < 0.05) lower than that in acid and alkaline soils, respectively.

  10. Quantification of organic acids in beer by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, J.E.A. [CICECO-Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Erny, G.L. [CESAM - Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Barros, A.S. [QOPNAA-Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Esteves, V.I. [CESAM - Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Brandao, T.; Ferreira, A.A. [UNICER, Bebidas de Portugal, Leca do Balio, 4466-955 S. Mamede de Infesta (Portugal); Cabrita, E. [Department of Chemistry, New University of Lisbon, 2825-114 Caparica (Portugal); Gil, A.M., E-mail: agil@ua.pt [CICECO-Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2010-08-03

    The organic acids present in beer provide important information on the product's quality and history, determining organoleptic properties and being useful indicators of fermentation performance. NMR spectroscopy may be used for rapid quantification of organic acids in beer and different NMR-based methodologies are hereby compared for the six main acids found in beer (acetic, citric, lactic, malic, pyruvic and succinic). The use of partial least squares (PLS) regression enables faster quantification, compared to traditional integration methods, and the performance of PLS models built using different reference methods (capillary electrophoresis (CE), both with direct and indirect UV detection, and enzymatic essays) was investigated. The best multivariate models were obtained using CE/indirect detection and enzymatic essays as reference and their response was compared with NMR integration, either using an internal reference or an electrical reference signal (Electronic REference To access In vivo Concentrations, ERETIC). NMR integration results generally agree with those obtained by PLS, with some overestimation for malic and pyruvic acids, probably due to peak overlap and subsequent integral errors, and an apparent relative underestimation for citric acid. Overall, these results make the PLS-NMR method an interesting choice for organic acid quantification in beer.

  11. Quantification of organic acids in beer by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, J.E.A.; Erny, G.L.; Barros, A.S.; Esteves, V.I.; Brandao, T.; Ferreira, A.A.; Cabrita, E.; Gil, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The organic acids present in beer provide important information on the product's quality and history, determining organoleptic properties and being useful indicators of fermentation performance. NMR spectroscopy may be used for rapid quantification of organic acids in beer and different NMR-based methodologies are hereby compared for the six main acids found in beer (acetic, citric, lactic, malic, pyruvic and succinic). The use of partial least squares (PLS) regression enables faster quantification, compared to traditional integration methods, and the performance of PLS models built using different reference methods (capillary electrophoresis (CE), both with direct and indirect UV detection, and enzymatic essays) was investigated. The best multivariate models were obtained using CE/indirect detection and enzymatic essays as reference and their response was compared with NMR integration, either using an internal reference or an electrical reference signal (Electronic REference To access In vivo Concentrations, ERETIC). NMR integration results generally agree with those obtained by PLS, with some overestimation for malic and pyruvic acids, probably due to peak overlap and subsequent integral errors, and an apparent relative underestimation for citric acid. Overall, these results make the PLS-NMR method an interesting choice for organic acid quantification in beer.

  12. Volatility of Organic Aerosol: Evaporation of Ammonium Sulfate/Succinic Acid Aqueous Solution Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Condensation and evaporation modify the properties and effects of atmospheric aerosol particles. We studied the evaporation of aqueous succinic acid and succinic acid/ammonium sulfate droplets to obtain insights on the effect of ammonium sulfate on the gas/particle partitioning of atmospheric organic acids. Droplet evaporation in a laminar flow tube was measured in a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer setup. A wide range of droplet compositions was investigated, and for some of the experiments the composition was tracked using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. The measured evaporation was compared to model predictions where the ammonium sulfate was assumed not to directly affect succinic acid evaporation. The model captured the evaporation rates for droplets with large organic content but overestimated the droplet size change when the molar concentration of succinic acid was similar to or lower than that of ammonium sulfate, suggesting that ammonium sulfate enhances the partitioning of dicarboxylic acids to aqueous particles more than currently expected from simple mixture thermodynamics. If extrapolated to the real atmosphere, these results imply enhanced partitioning of secondary organic compounds to particulate phase in environments dominated by inorganic aerosol. PMID:24107221

  13. Changes of organic acid exudation and rhizosphere pH in rice plants under chromium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Fanrong; Chen Song; Miao Ying; Wu Feibo; Zhang Guoping

    2008-01-01

    The effect of chromium (Cr) stress on the changes of rhizosphere pH, organic acid exudation, and Cr accumulation in plants was studied using two rice genotypes differing in grain Cr accumulation. The results showed that rhizosphere pH increased with increasing level of Cr in the culture solution and with an extended time of Cr exposure. Among the six organic acids examined in this experiment, oxalic and malic acid contents were relatively higher, and had a significant positive correlation with the rhizosphere pH, indicating that they play an important role in changing rhizosphere pH. The Cr content in roots was significantly higher than that in stems and leaves. Cr accumulation in plants was significantly and positively correlated with rhizosphere pH, and the exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acids, suggesting that an increase in rhizosphere pH, and exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acid enhances Cr accumulation in rice plants. - Rhizosphere pH and organic acid exudation of rice roots are markedly affected by chromium level in culture solution

  14. Seasonal measurements of organic acid fluxes over a ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgham, S. R.; Brophy, P.; Link, M.; Ortega, J. V.; Farmer, D.

    2016-12-01

    The biosphere acts as both a source and a sink of oxidized organic compounds. Ignoring dry deposition leads to overestimation of secondary organic aerosols by aerosol models, while ignoring emission sources underestimates the budget of organic acids. Developing parameterizations for oxidized organic dry deposition and emission requires observational constraints. Although biosphere parameters are impacted by seasonal variability, most reactive, trace-gas exchange measurements are made for only short periods of time in the main growing season. Here we make fast (5 - 10 Hz) and sensitive (e.g. 0.73 ppt mean limit of detection for formic acid with 10 s averaging) eddy covariance measurements of gas-phase organic acids and other oxidized organic species with a high resolution Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer with acetate and iodide reagent ions. Measurements were made in 4 - 6 week campaigns over five seasons from summer 2015 to fall 2016 as part of the Seasonal Particles in Forests Flux studY (SPIFFY) at the Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory near Woodland Park, Colorado. Permeation tubes were used for online calibration of carboxylic acids including formic (C1), propionic (C3), butyric (C4), methacrylic (CH2C(CH3)COOH), valeric (C5), and heptanoic (C7) acids. Average daytime mixing ratios for formic acid were 100 ± 100 ppt in winter and 1500 ± 1000 ppt in summer 2016. Upward fluxes of formic acid were observed throughout the experiment, daytime averages and standard deviations ranging from 1900 ± 1000 ppt cm s-1 in winter to 170 ± 130 ppt cm s-1 in spring. Propionic (22 ± 22 ppt cm s-1), butyric (17 ± 16 ppt cm s-1), and methacrylic (3.5 ± 6.1 ppt cm s-1) acids exhibit a mix of upward, near-zero, and downward fluxes. Fluxes were exponentially correlated to temperature, suggesting an ecosystem-scale source of these acids. We also measure exchange velocities of a broad suite of other oxidized organic compounds (31.99 m/z to 311.523 m/z in

  15. Selective removal of phosphate for analysis of organic acids in complex samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Sandeep; Frolov, Andrej; Marcillo, Andrea; Birkemeyer, Claudia

    2015-04-03

    Accurate quantitation of compounds in samples of biological origin is often hampered by matrix interferences one of which occurs in GC-MS analysis from the presence of highly abundant phosphate. Consequently, high concentrations of phosphate need to be removed before sample analysis. Within this context, we screened 17 anion exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) materials for selective phosphate removal using different protocols to meet the challenge of simultaneous recovery of six common organic acids in aqueous samples prior to derivatization for GC-MS analysis. Up to 75% recovery was achieved for the most organic acids, only the low pKa tartaric and citric acids were badly recovered. Compared to the traditional approach of phosphate removal by precipitation, SPE had a broader compatibility with common detection methods and performed more selectively among the organic acids under investigation. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that phosphate removal strategies during the analysis of biologically relevant small molecular weight organic acids consider the respective pKa of the anticipated analytes and the detection method of choice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Prolonged acid rain facilitates soil organic carbon accumulation in a mature forest in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianping; Liang, Guohua; Hui, Dafeng; Deng, Qi; Xiong, Xin; Qiu, Qingyan; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-02-15

    With the continuing increase in anthropogenic activities, acid rain remains a serious environmental threat, especially in the fast developing areas such as southern China. To detect how prolonged deposition of acid rain would influence soil organic carbon accumulation in mature subtropical forests, we conducted a field experiment with simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments in a monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest at Dinghushan National Nature Reserve in southern China. Four levels of SAR treatments were set by irrigating plants with water of different pH values: CK (the control, local lake water, pH ≈ 4.5), T1 (water pH=4.0), T2 (water pH=3.5), and T3 (water pH=3.0). Results showed reduced pH measurements in the topsoil exposed to simulated acid rains due to soil acidification. Soil respiration, soil microbial biomass and litter decomposition rates were significantly decreased by the SAR treatments. As a result, T3 treatment significantly increased the total organic carbon by 24.5% in the topsoil compared to the control. Furthermore, surface soil became more stable as more recalcitrant organic matter was generated under the SAR treatments. Our results suggest that prolonged acid rain exposure may have the potential to facilitate soil organic carbon accumulation in the subtropical forest in southern China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of organic solvents on hyaluronic acid nanoparticles obtained by precipitation and chemical crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicudo, Rafaela Costa Souza; Santana, Maria Helena Andrade

    2012-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid is a hydrophilic mucopolysaccharide composed of alternating units of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine. It is used in many medical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic applications, as sponges, films, or particle formulations. Hyaluronic acid nanoparticles can be synthesized free of oil and surfactants by nanoprecipitation in organic solvents, followed by chemical crosslinking. The organic solvent plays an important role in particles size and structure. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the influence of acetone, ethanol, and isopropyl alcohol on the synthesis and physico-chemical properties of hyaluronic acid nanoparticles. Particles were crosslinked with adipic hydrazide and chloride carbodiimide under controlled conditions. The nanoparticles obtained with all three studied solvents were moderately electrostatically stable. Experiments with acetone produced the smallest particle size (120.44 nm) and polydispersity (0.27). The size and polydispersity of hyaluronic acid nanoparticles correlated with the surface tension between water and the organic solvents, not with the thermodynamic affinity of water for the organic solvents.

  18. Biotechnological production of caffeic acid derivatives from cell and organ cultures of Echinacea species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Kim, Yun-Soo; Park, So-Young; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2014-09-01

    Caffeic acid derivatives (CADs) are a group of bioactive compounds which are produced in Echinacea species especially Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifolia, and Echinacea pallida. Echinacea is a popular herbal medicine used in the treatment of common cold and it is also a prominent dietary supplement used throughout the world. Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid), caftaric acid (2-O-caffeoyltartaric acid), cichoric acid (2, 3-O-dicaffeoyltartaric acid), cynarin, and echinacoside are some of the important CADs which have varied pharmacological activities. The concentrations of these bioactive compounds are species specific and also they vary considerably with the cultivated Echinacea species due to geographical location, stage of development, time of harvest, and growth conditions. Due to these reasons, plant cell and organ cultures have become attractive alternative for the production of biomass and caffeic acid derivatives. Adventitious and hairy roots have been induced in E. pupurea and E. angustifolia, and suspension cultures have been established from flask to bioreactor scale for the production of biomass and CADs. Tremendous progress has been made in this area; various bioprocess methods and strategies have been developed for constant high-quality productivity of biomass and secondary products. This review is aimed to discuss biotechnological methods and approaches employed for the sustainable production of CADs.

  19. Selection of organic acid leaching reagent for recovery of zinc and manganese from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Amiliana, R. A.; Wulandari, P. T.; Ramadhan, I. T.; Kusumadewi, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    Zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries are often used in electronic equipment that requires small quantities of power. The waste from these batteries contains valuable metals, such as zinc and manganese, that are needed in many industries and can pollute the environment if not treated properly. This paper concerns the recovery of zinc and manganese metals from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries with leaching method and using organic acid as the environmental friendly leaching reagent. Three different organic acids, namely citric acid, malic acid and aspartic acid, were used as leaching reagents and compared with sulfuric acid as non-organic acid reagents that often used for leaching. The presence of hydrogen peroxide as manganese reducers was investigated for both organic and non-organic leaching reagents. The result showed that citric acid can recover 64.37% Zinc and 51.32% Manganese, while malic acid and aspartic acid could recover less than these. Hydrogen peroxide gave the significant effect for leaching manganese with non-organic acid, but not with organic acid.

  20. On-line analysis of ETA and organic acids in secondary systems of PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurashina, Masahiko; Uzawa, Hideo; Utagawa, Koya; Takaku, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    To reduce the iron concentration in the secondary water of plants with pressurized water reactors (PWRs), ethanolamine (ETA) is used as an alkalizing agent in the secondary cycle. An on-line ion chromatography (IC) monitoring system for monitoring concentrations of ETA and anions of organic acids was developed, its performance was evaluated, and verification tests were conducted at an actual PWR plant. It was demonstrated that the concentration of both ETA and anions of organic acids may be successfully monitored by IC in PWR secondary cycle streams alkalized by ETA. (orig.)

  1. Thermally induced processes in mixtures of aluminum with organic acids after plastic deformations under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhorin, V. A.; Kiselev, M. R.; Roldugin, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    DSC is used to measure the thermal effects of processes in mixtures of solid organic dibasic acids with powdered aluminum, subjected to plastic deformation under pressures in the range of 0.5-4.0 GPa using an anvil-type high-pressure setup. Analysis of thermograms obtained for the samples after plastic deformation suggests a correlation between the exothermal peaks observed around the temperatures of degradation of the acids and the thermally induced chemical reactions between products of acid degradation and freshly formed surfaces of aluminum particles. The release of heat in the mixtures begins at 30-40°C. The thermal effects in the mixtures of different acids change according to the order of acid reactivity in solutions. The extreme baric dependences of enthalpies of thermal effects are associated with the rearrangement of the electron subsystem of aluminum upon plastic deformation at high pressures.

  2. Analytical and preparative separation of organic acids from water by extraction with trioctylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, S.H.; Hoyer, O.; Knobel, K.P.; Hodenberg, S. von

    1977-12-01

    The extraction of pure organic acids and of humic and ligninsulfonic acid from water by a solution of trioctylamine in chloroform was investigated (technical grade amine = ALAMINE). Quantitative separation is achieved by double extraction with 5% ALAMINE at pH 3,5 - 4. The acids may be back-extracted with dilute sodium hydroxide solution. Procedures are described for the analytical extraction of water samples of 200 to 2.000 ml and for the flow-through processing of large water volumes. (orig.) [de

  3. One-pot synthesis of amino acid precursors with insoluble organic matter in planetesimals with aqueous activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Chan, Queenie H. S.; Tachibana, Shogo; Kobayashi, Kensei; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    The exogenous delivery of organic molecules could have played an important role in the emergence of life on the early Earth. Carbonaceous chondrites are known to contain indigenous amino acids as well as various organic compounds and complex macromolecular materials, such as the so-called insoluble organic matter (IOM), but the origins of the organic matter are still subject to debate. We report that the water-soluble amino acid precursors are synthesized from formaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, and ammonia with the presence of liquid water, simultaneously with macromolecular organic solids similar to the chondritic IOM. Amino acid products from hydrothermal experiments after acid hydrolysis include α-, β-, and γ-amino acids up to five carbons, for which relative abundances are similar to those extracted from carbonaceous chondrites. One-pot aqueous processing from simple ubiquitous molecules can thus produce a wide variety of meteoritic organic matter from amino acid precursors to macromolecular IOM in chondrite parent bodies. PMID:28345041

  4. Enhancement in extraction rates by addition of organic acids to aqueous phase in solvent extraction of rare earth metals in presence of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Hideto; Azis, A.; Fujita, Mamoru; Teramoto, Masaaki.

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that the selectivity of rare earth metals by solvent extraction is increased by the addition of a chelating agent such as diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) in the aqueous phase. One of the disadvantages of this method is the decrease in extraction rates due to complexation in the aqueous phase. In this paper, further addition of organic acids to the aqueous phase was examined for the purpose of enhancing the extraction rates in solvent extraction with DTPA. The addition of several kind of organic acids such as formic acid, acetic acid, malonic acid, lactic acid and citric acid was investigated for a Er/Y separation system. A remarkable enhancement in extraction rates was observed with a slight decrease in the selectivity by the addition of citric acid or lactic acid. Extraction rates in the presence of both DTPA and citric acid increased with the increase in citric acid concentration and with the increase in proton concentration. A 150 times enhancement in extraction rates was found in the low proton concentration condition. In order to analyze the extraction rates and selectivities obtained, mass transfer equations were presented by considering both the dissociation reaction of rare earth metal-DTPA complexes and the complex formation between rare earth metal and organic acid in the aqueous phase. The experimental data were analyzed by these equations. (author)

  5. Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation of solid and liquid organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.A.; Smith, J.R.; Poprik, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation has been developed specifically to address issues that face the Savannah River Site, other defense-related facilities, private industry, and small-volume generators such as university and medical laboratories. Initially tested to destroy and decontaminate SRS solid, Pu-contaminated job-control waste, the technology has also exhibited potential for remediating hazardous and mixed-hazardous waste forms. The process is unique to Savannah River and offers a valuable alternative to other oxidation processes that require extreme temperatures and/or elevated pressures. To address the broad categories of waste, many different organic compounds which represent a cross-section of the waste that must be treated have been successfully oxidized. Materials that have been quantitatively oxidized at atmospheric pressure below 180 degrees C include neoprene, cellulose, EDTA, tributylphosphate, and nitromethane. More stable compounds such as benzoic acid, polyethylene, oils, and resins have been completely decomposed below 200 degrees C and 10 psig. The process uses dilute nitric acid in a concentrated phosphoric acid media as the main oxidant for the organic compounds. Phosphoric acid allow nitric acid to be retained in solution well above its normal boiling point. The reaction forms NOx vapors which can be reoxidized and recycled using air and water. The addition of 0.001M Pd(II) reduces CO generation to near 1% of the released carbon gases. The advantages of this process are that it is straightforward, uses relatively inexpensive reagents, operates at relatively low temperature and pressure, and produces final solutions which are compatible with stainless steel equipment. For organic wastes, all carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen are converted to gaseous products. If interfaced with an acid recovery system which converts NOx back to nitric acid, the net oxidizer would be oxygen from air

  6. Features of obtaining malt with use of aqueous solutions of organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pivovarov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the traditional formulations of essential food products are actively including malt – a valuable dietary product rich in extractives and hydrolytic enzymes, obtained by germination in artificially created conditions. Containing a full set of essential amino acids and a high saccharifying ability of malt, obtained from grain cereals, determines its wide use in the production of beer, alcohol, mono- and poly-malt extracts, bakery products, special types of flour, food additives, cereals, non-alcoholic beverages, lactic acid products and, in particular, in the production of natural coffee substitutes. However, the classical germination technology, which includes 2-3 days of soaking and 5-8 days of germination due to the considerable duration and laboriousness of the process, does not meet the requirements of modern technology and the constantly growing rates of industrial production, so this problem requires finding new and improving existing scientific and technical solutions. The features of malt production using organic acids of different concentrations are presented. The malt production technology has been analyzed and investigated. It includes washing, disinfection, air and water soaking of grains, germination and drying. The feature of the technology under investigation is using of aqueous solutions of butadiene, 3-pyridinecarboxylic acid and pteroylglutamic acid. The results of the inquiry of the effect of these organic acids on energy and the ability of germination of the grain are presented. The optimal values of concentrations of active substances in solutions are revealed. The influence of organic acids on the absorption of grain moisture has been investigated. It has been established that in comparison with the classical technology, the use of these acids as a growth stimulator can reduce the overall length of the reproduction process of the material from 1.5 to 2 times and increase the yield of flour grains in the batch of

  7. Effect of organic solvents on dissolution process of mechano-chemically activated molybdenum by inorganic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevtsova, I.Ya.; Chernyak, A.S.; Khal'zov, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The process of chemical dissolution of mechanochemically activated and nonactivated molybdenite by inorganic acid solutions in certain organic solvents of different nature was considered. It is shown that the highest extraction of molybdenum in solution is achieved in the presence of nitric acid. The dissociation constant of the acid used in the given organic solvent does not affect molybdenite solubility. When dissolving molybdenite by solutions of nitric acid in carbonic acids, alcohols and esters, the solubility of the concentrate depends on the length of hydrocarbon chain of the organic solvent and dispersion degree of mineral source material

  8. EFFECT OF THE USE OF MOS AND ORGANIC ACIDS IN PERFORMANCE PIGLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vargas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The production chain of swine has been developed to meet the consumer market , seeking a more lean meat and produced cleanly. Faced with this demand , key areas of swine as genetics, nutrition , health , ambience , animal welfare, management of costs and environmental management are increasingly studied and debated to the organs concerned . Have advances in the field of nutrition has also contributed to a cleaner animal production through the use of enhancers efficiency as prebiotics and organic acids in the diets of pigs as potential substitutes for conventional growth promoters . The mannan oligosaccharides ( MOS along with organic acids , are able to maintain the integrity of the digestive tract , by benefiting the multiplication of beneficial bacteria and also in the specific case of MOS , act as adsorbents of pathogenic bacteria , preventing their adhesion in the intestinal epithelium and causing their elimination . Since these effects improve the absorption of nutrients with gains in production rates . Given the above , the objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of MOS and organic acid in the performance parameters of piglets during 15-30 Kg The experiment will be conducted in the UEP on Swine Campuses Two Neighbors - UTFPR . Crusaders 18 pigs with an initial average weight of 15kg with 50 days of age , distributed in a completely randomized design with two treatments will be used : T1 - basal ration T2 - ration + 0.2% MOS + organic acid , with 3 replications and 3 animals per experimental unit . The parameters evaluated were weight gain , feed intake , feed conversion , stool consistency and feed cost per kg of produced pig . There was no difference ( P > 0.05 on growth performance and fecal consistency between treatments . However , the cost per kg pig was highest in treatment 2 (with additives compared to Treatment 1 (control. In the conditions of the present study was conducted , it can be concluded that the use of MOS and

  9. Lewis Acid-Base Chemistry of 7-Azaisoindigo-Based Organic Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Nicholas M; Fransishyn, Kyle M; Kelly, Timothy L

    2017-07-26

    Low-band-gap organic semiconductors are important in a variety of organic electronics applications, such as organic photovoltaic devices, photodetectors, and field effect transistors. Building on our previous work, which introduced 7-azaisoindigo as an electron-deficient building block for the synthesis of donor-acceptor organic semiconductors, we demonstrate how Lewis acids can be used to further tune the energies of the frontier molecular orbitals. Coordination of a Lewis acid to the pyridinic nitrogen of 7-azaisoindigo greatly diminishes the electron density in the azaisoindigo π-system, resulting in a substantial reduction in the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy. This results in a smaller highest occupied molecular orbital-LUMO gap and shifts the lowest-energy electronic transition well into the near-infrared region. Both H + and BF 3 are shown to coordinate to azaisoindigo and affect the energy of the S 0 → S 1 transition. A combination of time-dependent density functional theory and UV/vis and 1 H NMR spectroscopic titrations reveal that when two azaisoindigo groups are present and high concentrations of acid are used, both pyridinic nitrogens bind Lewis acids. Importantly, we demonstrate that this acid-base chemistry can be carried out at the solid-vapor interface by exposing thin films of aza-substituted organic semiconductors to vapor-phase BF 3 ·Et 2 O. This suggests the possibility of using the BF 3 -bound 7-azaisoindigo-based semiconductors as n-type materials in various organic electronic applications.

  10. Omega-9 Oleic Acid Induces Fatty Acid Oxidation and Decreases Organ Dysfunction and Mortality in Experimental Sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Sepsis is characterized by inflammatory and metabolic alterations, which lead to massive cytokine production, oxidative stress and organ dysfunction. In severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome, plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA are increased. Several NEFA are deleterious to cells, activate Toll-like receptors and inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase, causing lung injury. A Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil is beneficial. The main component of olive oil is omega-9 oleic acid (OA, a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA. We analyzed the effect of OA supplementation on sepsis. OA ameliorated clinical symptoms, increased the survival rate, prevented liver and kidney injury and decreased NEFA plasma levels in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. OA did not alter food intake and weight gain but diminished reactive oxygen species (ROS production and NEFA plasma levels. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA (CPT1A mRNA levels were increased, while uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 liver expression was enhanced in mice treated with OA. OA also inhibited the decrease in 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK expression and increased the enzyme expression in the liver of OA-treated mice compared to septic animals. We showed that OA pretreatment decreased NEFA concentration and increased CPT1A and UCP2 and AMPK levels, decreasing ROS production. We suggest that OA has a beneficial role in sepsis by decreasing metabolic dysfunction, supporting the benefits of diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA.

  11. Sulfation of metal-organic framework: Opportunities for acid catalysis and proton conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goesten, M.G.; Stavitski, E.; Juan-Alcaniz, J.; Ramos-Fernandez, E.V.; Sai Sankar Gupta, K.B.; van Bekkum, H.; Gascon, J. and Kapteijn, F.

    2011-05-24

    A new post-functionalization method for metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been developed to introduce acidity for catalysis. Upon treatment with a mixture of triflic anhydride and sulfuric acid, chemically stable MOF structures MIL-101(Cr) and MIL-53(Al) can be sulfated, resulting in a Broensted sulfoxy acid group attached to up to 50% of the aromatic terephthalate linkers of the structure. The sulfated samples have been extensively characterized by solid-state NMR, XANES, and FTIR spectroscopy. The functionalized acidic frameworks show catalytic activity similar to that of acidic polymers like Nafion{reg_sign} display in the esterification of n-butanol with acetic acid (TOF {approx} 1 min{sup -1} {at} 343 K). Water adsorbs strongly up to 4 molecules per sulfoxy acid group, and an additional 2 molecules are taken up at lower temperatures in the 1-D pore channels of S-MIL-53(Al). The high water content and Broensted acidity provide the structure S-MIL-53(Al) a high proton conductivity up to moderate temperatures.

  12. Influence of rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter on lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxuan; Wang, Xiahui; Xue, Yiyun; Zhang, Tian-Ao; Li, Yuhao; Hu, Jiajun; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Zhang, Hongsheng; Gao, Min-Tian

    2018-01-31

    Rice straw can be used as carbon sources for lactic acid fermentation. However, only a small amount of lactic acid is produced even though Rhizopus oryzae can consume glucose in rice straw-derived hydrolysates. This study correlated the inhibitory effect of rice straw with rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM). Lactic acid fermentations with and without DOM were conducted to investigate the effect of DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. Fermentation using control medium with DOM showed a similar trend to fermentation with rice straw-derived hydrolysates, showing that DOM contained the major inhibitor of rice straw. DOM assay indicated that it mainly consisted of polyphenols and polysaccharides. The addition of polyphenols and polysaccharides derived from rice straw confirmed that lactic acid fermentation was promoted by polysaccharides and significantly inhibited by polyphenols. The removal of polyphenols also improved lactic acid production. However, the loss of polysaccharides during the removal of polyphenols resulted in low glucose consumption. This study is the first to investigate the effects of rice straw-derived DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. The results may provide a theoretical basis for identifying inhibitors and promoters associated with lactic acid fermentation and for establishing suitable pretreatment methods. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Organics Characterization Of DWPF Alternative Reductant Simulants, Glycolic Acid, And Antifoam 747

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, T. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Wiedenman, B. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Crump, S. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Papathanassiu, A. E. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Kot, W. K. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, I. L. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The present study examines the fate of glycolic acid and other organics added in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as part of the glycolic alternate flowsheet. Adoption of this flowsheet is expected to provide certain benefits in terms of a reduction in the processing time, a decrease in hydrogen generation, simplification of chemical storage and handling issues, and an improvement in the processing characteristics of the waste stream including an increase in the amount of nitrate allowed in the CPC process. Understanding the fate of organics in this flowsheet is imperative because tank farm waste processed in the CPC is eventually immobilized by vitrification; thus, the type and amount of organics present in the melter feed may affect optimal melt processing and the quality of the final glass product as well as alter flammability calculations on the DWPF melter off gas. To evaluate the fate of the organic compounds added as the part of the glycolic flowsheet, mainly glycolic acid and antifoam 747, samples of simulated waste that was processed using the DWPF CPC protocol for tank farm sludge feed were generated and analyzed for organic compounds using a variety of analytical techniques at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These techniques included Ion Chromatography (IC), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy. A set of samples were also sent to the Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for analysis by NMR Spectroscopy at the University of Maryland, College Park. Analytical methods developed and executed at SRNL collectively showed that glycolic acid was the most prevalent organic compound in the supernatants of Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) products examined. Furthermore, the studies suggested that commercially available glycolic acid contained minor amounts

  14. Organics Characterization Of DWPF Alternative Reductant Simulants, Glycolic Acid, And Antifoam 747

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T. L.; Wiedenman, B. J.; Lambert, D. P.; Crump, S. L.; Fondeur, F. F.; Papathanassiu, A. E.; Kot, W. K.; Pegg, I. L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the fate of glycolic acid and other organics added in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as part of the glycolic alternate flowsheet. Adoption of this flowsheet is expected to provide certain benefits in terms of a reduction in the processing time, a decrease in hydrogen generation, simplification of chemical storage and handling issues, and an improvement in the processing characteristics of the waste stream including an increase in the amount of nitrate allowed in the CPC process. Understanding the fate of organics in this flowsheet is imperative because tank farm waste processed in the CPC is eventually immobilized by vitrification; thus, the type and amount of organics present in the melter feed may affect optimal melt processing and the quality of the final glass product as well as alter flammability calculations on the DWPF melter off gas. To evaluate the fate of the organic compounds added as the part of the glycolic flowsheet, mainly glycolic acid and antifoam 747, samples of simulated waste that was processed using the DWPF CPC protocol for tank farm sludge feed were generated and analyzed for organic compounds using a variety of analytical techniques at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These techniques included Ion Chromatography (IC), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy. A set of samples were also sent to the Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for analysis by NMR Spectroscopy at the University of Maryland, College Park. Analytical methods developed and executed at SRNL collectively showed that glycolic acid was the most prevalent organic compound in the supernatants of Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) products examined. Furthermore, the studies suggested that commercially available glycolic acid contained minor amounts

  15. Sustainable carbon sources for microbial organic acid production with filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörsam, Stefan; Fesseler, Jana; Gorte, Olga; Hahn, Thomas; Zibek, Susanne; Syldatk, Christoph; Ochsenreither, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    The organic acid producer Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus delemar are able to convert several alternative carbon sources to malic and fumaric acid. Thus, carbohydrate hydrolysates from lignocellulose separation are likely suitable as substrate for organic acid production with these fungi. Before lignocellulose hydrolysate fractions were tested as substrates, experiments with several mono- and disaccharides, possibly present in pretreated biomass, were conducted for their suitability for malic acid production with A. oryzae. This includes levoglucosan, glucose, galactose, mannose, arabinose, xylose, ribose, and cellobiose as well as cheap and easy available sugars, e.g., fructose and maltose. A. oryzae is able to convert every sugar investigated to malate, albeit with different yields. Based on the promising results from the pure sugar conversion experiments, fractions of the organosolv process from beechwood ( Fagus sylvatica ) and Miscanthus giganteus were further analyzed as carbon source for cultivation and fermentation with A. oryzae for malic acid and R. delemar for fumaric acid production. The highest malic acid concentration of 37.9 ± 2.6 g/L could be reached using beechwood cellulose fraction as carbon source in bioreactor fermentation with A. oryzae and 16.2 ± 0.2 g/L fumaric acid with R. delemar . We showed in this study that the range of convertible sugars for A. oryzae is even higher than known before. We approved the suitability of fiber/cellulose hydrolysate obtained from the organosolv process as carbon source for A. oryzae in shake flasks as well as in a small-scale bioreactor. The more challenging hemicellulose fraction of F. sylvatica was also positively evaluated for malic acid production with A. oryzae .

  16. Uptake of Alkylamines on Dicarboxylic Acids Relevant to Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Ortiz, W.; Secrest, J.; Zhang, R.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosols play a critical role in climate directly by scattering and absorbing solar radiation, and indirectly by functioning as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN); both represent the largest uncertainties in climate predictions. New particle formation contributes significantly to CCN production; however, the mechanisms related to particle nucleation and growth processes are not well understood. Organic acids are atmospherically abundant, and their neutralization by low molecular weight amines may result in the formation of stable low volatility aminium salt products contributing to the growth of secondary organic aerosols and even the alteration of the aerosol properties. The acid-base neutralization of particle phase succinic acid and tartaric acid by low molecular weight aliphatic amines, i.e. methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine, has been investigated by employing a low-pressure fast flow reactor at 298K with an ion drift - chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ID-CIMS). The heterogeneous uptake is time dependent and influenced by organic acids functionality, alkylamines basicity, and steric effect. The implications of our results to atmospheric nanoparticle growth will be discussed.

  17. Heat shock and salicylic acid on postharvest preservation of organic strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidiane Coltro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock and salicylic acid have been studied on shelf-life extension of fruits. The benefits of these techniques have been related to their effect on inducing physiological defense responses against the oxidative stress and pathogen development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat shock and salicylic acid on the postharvest preservation and contents of total phenolics, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, fresh weight loss and microbiological quality of organic strawberries cv. Dover. Strawberries produced organically and stored at 5 ºC were subjected to heat shock (45 ºC ± 3 ºC for 3 h, application of salicylic acid (soaking in 2.0 mmol L-1 solution, heat shock in combination with salicylic acid and control. After treatment, the fruits were packed and stored in a climatic chamber at 5 ºC ± 2 ºC. At 1, 7 and 14 days, the experimental units were removed from refrigeration and kept at room temperature of approximately 20 ºC for two days. There was no effect of treatments on fresh weight loss, incidence of pathogens or chemical variations in strawberry fruits during the storage period. In natural conditions, organically grown strawberries remained in good condition for sale up to seven days of storage in all treatments.

  18. Drip irrigation emitter clogging in Dutch greenhouses as affected by methane and organic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreij, de C.; Burg, van der A.M.M.; Runia, W.T.

    2003-01-01

    It is believed that the serious clogging of drip irrigation emitters in the Dutch greenhouse industry is caused by methane-oxidising bacteria and/or organic acids used as anti-clogging agents. In this study greenhouses with moderate to severe emitter clogging have been examined. High methane

  19. Determination of alcohols, ethers and organic acids in irradiated sweet potato wine by capillary gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yingcai; Yuan Bihuai; Xu Peishu; Wang Xiuying

    1986-01-01

    Alcohols, ethers and organic acids in irradiated sweet potato wine have been determined with capillary GC. The results show that the contents of some components have changed after irradiation, but no new species are formed. The G values of the changed components have been calculated

  20. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structures of new organic compounds containing cyanoacrylic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khalaji, A.D.; Mogheiseh, M.; Eigner, Václav; Dušek, Michal; Chow, T.J.; Maddahi, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1098, Oct (2015), s. 318-323 ISSN 0022-2860 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03276S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : organic compounds * cyanoacrylic acid * single-crystal structure analysis * dye-sensitized solar cells * density functional theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.780, year: 2015

  1. Exploring orange peel treatment with deep eutectic solvents and diluted organic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bruinhorst, A.; Kouris, P.; Timmer, J.M.K.; de Croon, M.H.J.M.; Kroon, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    The disintegration of orange peel waste in deep eutectic solvents and diluted organic acids is presented in this work. The albedo and flavedo layers of the peel were studied separately, showing faster disintegration of the latter. Addition of water to the deep eutectic solvents lowered the amount of

  2. Volatile fatty acids production from sewage organic matter by combined bioflocculation and anaerobic fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khiewwijit, R.; Keesman, K.J.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Temmink, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    This work aims at exploring the feasibility of a combined process bioflocculation to concentrate sewage organic matter and anaerobic fermentation to produce volatile fatty acids (VFA). Bioflocculation, using a high-loaded aerobic membrane bioreactor (HL-MBR), was operated at an HRT of 1 h and an SRT

  3. Aggregation behavior of cholic acid derivatives in organic solvents and in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemen, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis various cholic acid derivatives are reported that display aggregation in water or in organic solvents. Spontaneous aggregation of single molecules into larger, ordered structures occurs at the borderline of solubility. Amphiphilic compounds, or surfactants, which possess a

  4. Functional genomics for food microbiology: Molecular mechanisms of weak organic acid preservative adaptation in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brul, S.; Kallemeijn, W.; Smits, G.

    2008-01-01

    The recent era of genomics has offered tremendous possibilities to biology. This concise review describes the possibilities of applying (functional) genomics studies to the field of microbial food stability. In doing so, the studies on weak-organic-acid stress response in yeast are discussed by way

  5. A Green Polymerization of Aspartic Acid for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George D.

    2005-01-01

    The green polymerization of aspartic acid carried out during an organic-inorganic synthesis laboratory course for undergraduate students is described. The procedure is based on work by Donlar Corporation, a Peru, Illinois-based company that won a Green Chemistry Challenge Award in 1996 in the Small Business category for preparing thermal…

  6. Influence of aluminum on growth, mineral nutrition and organic acid exudation of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A randomized complete block design experiment with six aluminum (Al) concentrations was carried out to evaluate the effect of aluminum on nutrient content, plant growth, dry matter production and Al-induced organic acid exudation in rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum). One rambutan cultivar was grown in...

  7. Consensus report on therapeutic drug monitoring of mycophenolic acid in solid organ transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Kuypers (Dirk); Y. le Meur (Yann); M. Cantarovich (Marcelo); M.J. Tredger (Michael); S.E. Tett (Susan); D. Cattaneo (Dario); B. Tönshoff (Burkhard); D.W. Holt (David); J. Chapman (Jeremy); T. van Gelder (Teun)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWith the increasing use of mycophenolic acid (MPA) in solid organ transplantation, the need for more accurate drug dosing has become evident. Personalized immunosuppressive therapy requires better strategies for avoidance of drug-related toxicity while maintaining efficacy. Few studies

  8. Disinfection of vegetable seed by treatment with essential oils, organic acids and plant extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Birnbaum, Y.E.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Various essential oils, organic acids, Biosept, (grapefruit extract), Tillecur and extracts of stinging nettle and golden rod were tested for their antimicrobial properties in order to disinfect vegetable seed. In in vitro assays, thyme oil, oregano oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil and Biosept had the

  9. Enzymatic regulation of organic acid metabolism in an alkali-tolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chloris virgata, an alkali-tolerant halophyte, was chosen as the test material for our research. The seedlings of C. virgata were treated with varying salt and alkali stress. First, the composition and content of organic acids in shoots were analyzed and the results indicated that there was not only a significant increase in total ...

  10. Influence of acid rain and organic matter on the adsorption of trace elements on soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Ambe, S.; Takematsu, N.; Ambe, F.

    1998-01-01

    Acid rain has become one of the most serious environmental problems. Soil loses its buffering capacity by long exposure to acid rain, and the soil pH value decreases significantly. The acidification of the soil disturbs the adsorption equilibrium of many elements in the soil-water system. Soil is a very complex heterogeneous system, primarily consisting of clay minerals, hydrous oxides and polymeric organic substances, which possess their own characteristic element-adsorbing properties. On the other hand, the intrinsic properties of elements are reflected in their adsorption process as a matter of course. Therefore, both the effects of the pH of acid rain and that of the components of the soil on the adsorption of different elements should be studied when the adsorption process in acid soils is to be clarified. Although leaching of major cations in soil, such as Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and Al 3+ , by acid rain, has been extensively studied, relatively little attention has been focused on trace elements which can also seriously affect the ecological system. We studied the acid rain effects on element adsorption by kaolin, forest soil, black soil, and also these soils with Fe- and Mn-oxides or organic matter selectively removed by using the radioactive multitracer technique. (author)

  11. Correlation between organic acid exudation and metal uptake by ectomycorrhizal fungi grown on pond ash in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, P.; Adholeya, A. [Energy & Resources Institute, New Delhi (India). India Habitat Centre

    2009-04-15

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of coal ash on organic acid exudation and subsequent metal uptake by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Four isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi namely, Pisolithus tinctorius (EM-1293 and EM-1299), Scleroderma verucosum (EM-1283) and Scleroderma cepa (EM-1233) were grown on pond ash moistened with Modified Melin-Norkans medium in vitro. Exudation of formic acid, malic acid and succinic acid by these fungi were detected by HPLC. Mycelial accumulation of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb by these fungi was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Relationship between organic acid exudation and metal uptake was determined using classical multivariate linear regression model. Correlation between organic acid exudation and metal uptake could be substantiated when several metals are considered collectively. The finding supports the widespread role of low molecular weight organic acid as a function of tolerance, when exposed to metals in vitro.

  12. Evaluate the role of organic acids in the protection of ligands from radiolytic degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Anneka [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mezyk, Stehpen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Peterman, Dean [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In the Advanced TALSPEAK process, the bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) extractant used in the traditional TALSPEAK process is replaced by the extractant 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]). In addition, the aqueous phase complexant and buffer used in traditional TALSPEAK is replaced with the combination of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N’,N’-triacetic acid (HEDTA) and citric acid. In order to evaluate the possible impacts of gamma radiolysis upon the efficacy of the Advanced TALSPEAK flowsheet, aqueous and organic phases corresponding to the extraction section of the proposed flowsheet were irradiated in the INL test loop under an ambient atmosphere. The results of these studies conducted at INL, led INL researchers to conclude that the scarcity of values of rate constants for the reaction of hydroxyl radical with the components of the Advanced TALSPEAK process chemistry was severely limiting the interpretation of the results of radiolysis studies performed at the INL. In this work, the rate of reaction of hydroxyl radical with citric acid at several pH values was measured using a competitive pulse radiolysis technique. This report describes those results and is written in completion of milestone M3FT-16IN030102028, the goal of which was to evaluate the role of organic acids in the protection of ligands from radiolytic degradation. The results reported here demonstrate the importance of obtaining hydroxyl radical reaction rate data for the conditions that closely resemble actual solution conditions expected to be used in an actual solvent extraction process. This report describes those results and is written in completion of milestone M3FT-16IN030102028, the goal of which was to evaluate the role of organic acids in the protection of ligands from radiolytic degradation.

  13. Hydrogen isotope exchange of organic compounds in dilute acid at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werstiuk, N.H.

    1987-01-01

    Introduction of one or more deuterium (or tritium) atoms into organic molecules can be accomplished in many ways depending on the nature of the substrate and the extent and sterochemistry of deuteriation or tritiation required. Some of the common methods include acid- and base-catalyzed exchange of carbonyl compounds, metal hydride reductions, dissolving metal reductions, catalytic reduction of double bonds, chromatographic exchange, homogeneous and heterogeneous metal-catalyzed exchange, base-catalyzed exchange of carbon acids other than carbonyl compounds and acid-catalyzed exchange via electrophilic substitution. Only the latter three methods have been used for perdeuteriation of organic compounds. A very useful compendium of labeling methods with examples has been available to chemists for some time. Although metal-catalyzed exchange has been used extensively, the method suffers from some deficiencies: irreproducibility of catalyst surfaces, catalyst poisoning, side reactions such as coupling and hydrogenolysis of labile groups and low deuterium incorporation. Usually a number of cycles are required with fresh catalyst and fresh deuterium source to achieve substantial isotope incorporation. Acid-catalyzed exchange of aromatics and alkenes, strongly acidic media such as liquid DBr, concentrated DBr, acetic acid/stannic chloride, concentrated D 3 PO 4 , concentrated DC1, D 3 PO 4 /BF 3 SO 2 , 50-80% D 2 SO 4 and DFSO 4 /SbF 5 at moderate temperatures (<100 degrees) have been used to effect exchange. The methods are not particularly suitable for large scale deuteriations because of the cost and the fact that the recovery and upgrading of the diluted deuterium pool is difficult. This paper describes the hydrogen isotope exchange of a variety of organic compounds in dilute aqueous acid (0.1-0.5 M) at elevated temperatures (150-300 degrees)

  14. Impact of low molecular weight organic acids and dissolved organic matter on sorption and mobility of isoproturon in two soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qing; Wu, Hai Lang; Xu, Yun; Guo, Li Juan; Liu, Kai; Gao, Hui Min; Yang, Hong

    2011-06-15

    Isoproturon is a selective herbicide belonging to the phenylurea family and widely used for pre- and post-emergence control of annual weeds. Soil amendments (e.g. organic compounds or dissolved organic matter) may affect environmental behavior and bioavailability of pesticides. However, whether the physiochemical process of isoproturon in soils is affected by organic amendments and how it is affected in different soil types are unknown. To evaluate the impact of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) on sorption/desorption and mobility of isoproturon in soils, comprehensive analyses were performed using two distinct soil types (Eutric gleysols and Hap udic cambisols). Our analysis revealed that adsorption of isoproturon in Eutric gleysols was depressed, and desorption and mobility of isoproturon were promoted in the presence of DOM and LMWOA. However, the opposite result was observed with Hap udic cambisols, suggesting that the soil type affected predominantly the physiochemical process. We also characterized differential components of the soils using three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and show that the two soils displayed different intensity of absorption bands for several functional groups. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. ORGANIC ACIDS PRODUCTION OF RICE STRAW FERMENTED WITH SEVERAL TYPES OF MICROORGANISM AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surahmanto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to examine the organic acids production of rice straw fermented with some types of microorganisms at different temperatures. The experiment was designed as Split Plot-Completely Randomized Design. The main plot was temperatures treatments (25, 35, 45°C and the sub plot were microorganisms (Control, Control+Mollases, Lactobacillus fermentum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulant, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger. The highest lactic acid productions was in B. coagulans treatment at 35°C (53.79 g/kg DM. The highest acetic acid productions was in L. fermentum at 35°C (13.20 g/kg DM, while the highest propionic acid productions were in Control treatment at 35°C (0.37 g/kg DM.

  16. ORGANIC ACIDS PRODUCTION OF RICE STRAW FERMENTED WITH SEVERAL TYPES OF MICROORGANISM AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to examine the organic acids production of rice straw fermentedwith some types of microorganisms at different temperatures. The experiment was designed as SplitPlot-Completely Randomized Design. The main plot was temperatures treatments (25, 35, 45°C and thesub plot were microorganisms (Control, Control+Mollases, Lactobacillus fermentum, Bacillus subtilis,Bacillus coagulant, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger. The highest lactic acid productionswas in B. coagulans treatment at 35°C (53.79 g/kg DM. The highest acetic acid productions was in L.fermentum at 35°C (13.20 g/kg DM, while the highest propionic acid productions were in Controltreatment at 35°C (0.37 g/kg DM.

  17. Effects of salinity and organic matter on the partitioning of perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAs) to clay particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Junho; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Lim, Byung J; An, Kwang Guk; Kim, Sang Don

    2011-06-01

    The influence of salinity and organic matter on the distribution coefficient (K(d)) for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in a brackish water-clay system was studied. The distribution coefficients (K(d)) for PFAs onto inorganic clay surfaces increased with salinity, providing evidence for electrostatic interaction for the sorption of PFAs, whereas the relationship between K(d) and organic carbon content (f(oc)) suggested that hydrophobic interaction is the primary driving force for the sorption of PFAs onto organic matter. The organic carbon normalized adsorption coefficient (K(oc)) of PFAs can be slightly overestimated due to the electrostatic interaction within uncoated inorganic surfaces. In addition, the dissolved organic matter released from coated clay particles seemed to solvate PFA molecules in solution, which contributed to a decrease in K(d). A positive relationship between K(d) and salinity was apparent, but an empirical relationship for the 'salting-out' effect was not evident. The K(d) values of PFAs are relatively small compared with those reported for persistent organic pollutants. Thus, sorption may not be a significant route of mass transfer of PFAs from water columns in estuarine environments. However, enhancement of sorption of PFAs to particulate matter at high salinity values could evoke potential risks to benthic organisms in estuarine areas.

  18. Improving phosphorus availability in an acid soil using organic amendments produced from agroindustrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments.

  19. Improving Phosphorus Availability in an Acid Soil Using Organic Amendments Produced from Agroindustrial Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huck Ywih Ch’ng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp. to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus, and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments.

  20. Cirrus cloud mimic surfaces in the laboratory: organic acids, bases and NOx heterogeneous reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodeau, J.; Oriordan, B.

    2003-04-01

    CIRRUS CLOUD MIMIC SURFACES IN THE LABORATORY:ORGANIC ACIDS, BASES AND NOX HETEROGENEOUS REACTIONS. B. ORiordan, J. Sodeau Department of Chemistry and Environment Research Institute, University College Cork, Ireland j.sodeau@ucc.ie /Fax: +353-21-4902680 There are a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic sources for the simple carboxylic acids to be found in the troposphere giving rise to levels as high as 45 ppb in certain urban areas. In this regard it is of note that ants of genus Formica produce some 10Tg of formic acid each year; some ten times that produced by industry. The expected sinks are those generally associated with tropospheric chemistry: the major routes studied, to date, being wet and dry deposition. No studies have been carried out hitherto on the role of water-ice surfaces in the atmospheric chemistry of carboxylic acids and the purpose of this paper is to indicate their potential function in the heterogeneous release of atmospheric species such as HONO. The deposition of formic acid on a water-ice surface was studied using FT-RAIR spectroscopy over a range of temperatures between 100 and 165K. In all cases ionization to the formate (and oxonium) ions was observed. The results were confirmed by TPD (Temperature Programmed Desorption) measurements, which indicated that two distinct surface species adsorb to the ice. Potential reactions between the formic acid/formate ion surface and nitrogen dioxide were subsequently investigated by FT-RAIRS. Co-deposition experiments showed that N2O3 and the NO+ ion (associated with water) were formed as products. A mechanism is proposed to explain these results, which involves direct reaction between the organic acid and nitrogen dioxide. Similar experiments involving acetic acid also indicate ionization on a water-ice surface. The results are put into the context of atmospheric chemistry potentially occuring on cirrus cloud surfaces.

  1. Predicting sorption of organic acids to a wide range of carbonized sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Gabriel; Kah, Melanie; Sun, Huichao; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    Many contaminants and infochemicals are organic acids that undergo dissociation under environmental conditions. The sorption of dissociated anions to biochar and other carbonized sorbents is typically lower than that of neutral species. It is driven by complex processes that are not yet fully understood. It is known that predictive approaches developed for neutral compounds are unlikely to be suitable for organic acids, due to the effects of dissociation on sorption. Previous studies on the sorption of organic acids to soils have demonstrated that log Dow, which describes the decrease in hydrophobicity of acids upon dissociation, is a useful alternative to log Kow. The aim of the present study was to adapt a log Dow based approach to describe the sorption of organic acids to carbonized sorbents. Batch experiments were performed with a series of 9 sorbents (i.e., carbonized wood shavings, pig manure, and sewage sludge, carbon nanotubes and activated carbon), and four acids commonly used for pesticidal and biocidal purposes (i.e., 2,4-D, MCPA, 2,4-DB, and triclosan). Sorbents were comprehensively characterized, including by N2 and CO2 physisorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The wide range of sorbents considered allows (i) discussing the mechanisms driving the sorption of neutral and anionic species to biochar, and (ii) their dependency on sorbate and sorbent properties. Results showed that the sorption of the four acids was influenced by factors that are usually not considered for neutral compounds (i.e., pH, ionic strength). Dissociation affected the sorption of the four compounds, and sorption of the anions ranged over five orders of magnitude, thus substantially contributing to sorption in some cases. For prediction purposes, most of the variation in sorption to carbonized sorbents (89%) could be well described with a two-parameter regression equation including log Dow and sorbent specific surface area. The proposed model

  2. Influence of aerosol acidity on the chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol from β-caryophyllene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Knipping

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The secondary organic aerosol (SOA yield of β-caryophyllene photooxidation is enhanced by aerosol acidity. In the present study, the influence of aerosol acidity on the chemical composition of β-caryophyllene SOA is investigated using ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-TOFMS. A number of first-, second- and higher-generation gas-phase products having carbonyl and carboxylic acid functional groups are detected in the particle phase. Particle-phase reaction products formed via hydration and organosulfate formation processes are also detected. Increased acidity leads to different effects on the abundance of individual products; significantly, abundances of organosulfates are correlated with aerosol acidity. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of organosulfates and nitrated organosulfates derived from a sesquiterpene. The increase of certain particle-phase reaction products with increased acidity provides chemical evidence to support the acid-enhanced SOA yields. Based on the agreement between the chromatographic retention times and accurate mass measurements of chamber and field samples, three β-caryophyllene products (i.e., β-nocaryophyllon aldehyde, β-hydroxynocaryophyllon aldehyde, and β-dihydroxynocaryophyllon aldehyde are suggested as chemical tracers for β-caryophyllene SOA. These compounds are detected in both day and night ambient samples collected in downtown Atlanta, GA and rural Yorkville, GA during the 2008 August Mini-Intensive Gas and Aerosol Study (AMIGAS.

  3. Adsorption of clofibric acid and ketoprofen onto powdered activated carbon: effect of natural organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yaohuan; Deshusses, Marc A

    2011-12-01

    The adsorption of two acidic pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), clofibric acid and ketoprofen, onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) was investigated with a particular focus on the influence of natural organic matter (NOM) on the adsorption of the PhACs. Suwannee River humic acids (SRHAs) were used as a substitute for NOM. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to obtain adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms with and without SRHAs in the system. The adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics showed that the adsorption ofclofibric acid was not significantly affected by the presence of SRHAs at a concentration of 5 mg (as carbon) L(-1). An adsorption capacity of 70 to 140 mg g(-1) was observed and equilibrium was reached within 48 h. In contrast, the adsorption of ketoprofen was markedly decreased (from about 120 mg g(-1) to 70-100 mg g(-1)) in the presence of SRHAs. Higher initial concentrations of clofibric acid than ketoprofen during testing may explain the different behaviours that were observed. Also, the more hydrophobic ketoprofen molecules may have less affinity for PAC when humic acids (which are hydrophilic) are present. The possible intermolecular forces that could account for the different behaviour of clofibric acid and ketoprofen adsorption onto PAC are discussed. In particular, the relevance of electrostatic forces, electron donor-acceptor interaction, hydrogen bonding and London dispersion forces are discussed

  4. Hydrogen bonded 1D-3D supramolecular structures from Benzylamine and organic acidic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xingjun; Li, XiaoLiang; Jin, Shouwen; Hu, Kaikai; Guo, Jianzhong; Guo, Ming; Xu, Weiqiang; Wang, Daqi

    2018-03-01

    Cocrystallization of the commonly available organic amine, benzylamine, with a series of organic acids afforded a total of seven organic salts with the compositions: (benzylamine)2: (p-nitrophenol)2: (H2O) (1) [(HL)2+⋯(npl-)2⋯(H2O), npl- = p-nitrophenolate], (benzylamine): (4-tert-butylbenzoic acid) (2) [(HL+)⋯(tba-), tba- = 4-tert-butylbenzoate], (benzylamine): (3,4-dichlorobenzoic acid) (3) [(HL+)⋯dcba-), dcba- = 3,4-dichlorobenzoate], (benzylamine): (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid) (4) [(HL+)⋯(dhba-), dhba- = 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate], (benzylamine): (2-bromo-but-2-enedioic acid) (5) [(HL+)⋯(Hbba-), Hbba- = 2-bromo-hydrogenbut-2-enedioate], (benzylamine): (2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid) (6) [(HL+)⋯(Hpdc-), Hpdc- = 2,6-pyridine hydrogendicarboxylate], and (benzylamine)2: (3-nitrophthalic acid): 2(H2O) (7) [(HL+)2⋯(npa2-)⋯(H2O)2, npa2- = 3-nitrophthalate]. The seven salts have been characterised by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, and elemental analysis, and the melting points of all the salts were also reported. And their structural and supramolecular aspects are fully analyzed. The results reveal that among the seven investigated crystals the NH2 in the benzylamine are protonated when the organic acids are deprotonated, and the crystal packing is interpreted in terms of the strong charge-assisted Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond between the NH3+ and deprotonated acidic groups. Except the Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond, the Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds (charge assisted or neutral) were also found at the salts 1, 4, 5, 6, and 7. Further analysis of the crystal packing of the salts indicated that a different family of additional CHsbnd O/CH2sbnd O, CH-π/CH2-π, Cπ-Cπ, Osbnd O, O-Cπ, O-π, and Cl-π associations also contribute to the stabilization and expansion of the total high-dimensional framework structures. For the coexistence of the various weak nonbonding interactions, these structures adopted a variety of

  5. The chromatographic behavior of arsenic compounds on anion exchange columns with binary organic acids as mobile phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, J.; Goessler, W.; Kosmus, W. [Graz Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Analytische Chemie

    1998-03-01

    Identification and quantification of arsenic compounds was performed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) as element-specific detector. Arsenous acid, methylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenic acid, arsenobetaine, and arsenocholine were separated on two anion-exchange columns (Synchropak Q 300 and PRP-X 100) with different binary organic acids as mobile phases. The influence of chromatographic parameters, such as pH and the concentration of the mobile phase were investigated. An unusual chromatographic behavior of arsenous acid was observed when tartaric acid was used as mobile phase. (orig.)

  6. Chirality of meteoritic free and IOM-derived monocarboxylic acids and implications for prebiotic organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, José C.; Tarozo, Rafael; Alexandre, Marcelo R.; Alexander, Conel M. O.'D.; Charnley, Steven B.; Hallmann, Christian; Summons, Roger E.; Huang, Yongsong

    2014-04-01

    The origin of homochirality and its role in the development of life on Earth are among the most intriguing questions in science. It has been suggested that carbonaceous chondrites seeded primitive Earth with the initial organic compounds necessary for the origin of life. One of the strongest pieces of evidence supporting this theory is that certain amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites display a significant L-enantiomeric excess (ee), similar to those use by terrestrial life. Analyses of ee in meteoritic molecules other than amino acids would shed more light on the origins of homochirality. In this study we investigated the stereochemistry of two groups of compounds: (1) free monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) from CM2 meteorites LON 94101 and Murchison; and (2) the aliphatic side chains present in the insoluble organic matter (IOM) and extracted in the form of monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) from EET 87770 (CR2) and Orgueil (CI1). Contrary to the well-known ee observed for amino acids in meteorites, we found that meteoritic branched free and IOM-derived MCAs with 5-8 carbon atoms are essentially racemic. The racemic nature of these compounds is used to discuss the possible influence of ultraviolet circularly polarized light (UVCPL) and aqueous alterations on the parent body on chirality observed in in carbonaceous chondrites.

  7. Wet oxidation of glycerol into fine organic acids: catalyst selection and kinetic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. N. Brainer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The liquid phase oxidation of glycerol was performed producing fine organic acids. Catalysts based on Pt, Pd and Bi supported on activated carbon were employed to perform the conversion of glycerol into organic acids at 313 K, 323 K and 333 K, under atmospheric pressure (1.0 bar, in a mechanically agitated slurry reactor (MASR. The experimental results indicated glycerol conversions of 98% with production of glyceric, tartronic and glycolic acids, and dihydroxyacetone. A yield of glyceric acid of 69.8%, and a selectivity of this compound of 70.6% were reached after 4 h of operation. Surface mechanisms were proposed and rate equations were formulated to represent the kinetic behavior of the process. Selective formation of glyceric acid was observed, and the kinetic parameter values indicated the lowest activation energy (38.5 kJ/mol for its production reaction step, and the highest value of the adsorption equilibrium constant of the reactant glycerol (10-4 dm³/mol.

  8. Direct Capture of Organic Acids From Fermentation Media Using Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, K.T.

    2004-11-03

    Several ionic liquids have been investigated for the extraction of organic acids from fermentation broth. Partitioning of representative organic acids (lactic, acetic, and succinic) between aqueous solution and nine hydrophobic ionic liquids was measured. The extraction efficiencies were strongly dependent on pH of the aqueous phase. Distribution coefficient was very good (approximately 60) at low succinic acid concentrations for one of the ionic liquids (trihexyltetradecylphosphonium methanesulfonate) at neutral pH. However, this ionic liquid had to be diluted with nonanol due to its high viscosity in order to be useful. A diluent (trioctylamine) was also added to this mixture. The results suggest that an extraction system based on ionic liquids may be feasible for succinic acid recovery from fermentation broth and that two ideal extraction stages are needed to reduce the concentration from 33 g/L to 1 g/L of succinic acid. Further studies are needed to evaluate other issues related to practical applications, including ionic liquid loss in the process, toxicity effects of ionic liquids during simultaneous fermentation and extractions.

  9. Influence of pH on organic acid production by Clostridium sporogenes in test tube and fermentor cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montville, T J; Parris, N; Conway, L K

    1985-01-01

    The influence of pH on the growth parameters of and the organic acids produced by Clostridium sporogenes 3121 cultured in test tubes and fermentors at 35 degrees C was examined. Specific growth rates in the fermentor maintained at a constant pH ranged from 0.20 h-1 at pH 5.00 to 0.86 h-1 at pH 6.50. Acetic acid was the primary organic acid in supernatants of 24-h cultures; total organic acid levels were 2.0 to 22.0 mumol/ml. Supernatants from pH 5.00 and 5.50 cultures had total organic acid levels less than one-third of those found at pH 6.00 to 7.00. The specific growth rates of the test tube cultures ranged from 0.51 h-1 at pH 5.00 to 0.95 h-1 at pH 6.50. The pH of the medium did not affect the average total organic acid content (51.5 mumol/ml) but did affect the distribution of the organic acids, which included formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic, and 3-phenylpropionic acids. Butyric acid levels were lower, but formic and propionic acid levels were higher, at pH 5.00 than at other pHs. PMID:4004207

  10. Initial pH of medium affects organic acids production but do not affect phosphate solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Leandro M; de Oliveira-Longatti, Silvia M; Soares, Cláudio R F S; de Lima, José M; Olivares, Fabio L; Moreira, Fatima M S

    2015-06-01

    The pH of the culture medium directly influences the growth of microorganisms and the chemical processes that they perform. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the initial pH of the culture medium on the production of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids and on the solubilization of calcium phosphate by bacteria in growth medium (NBRIP). The following strains isolated from cowpea nodules were studied: UFLA03-08 (Rhizobium tropici), UFLA03-09 (Acinetobacter sp.), UFLA03-10 (Paenibacillus kribbensis), UFLA03-106 (Paenibacillus kribbensis) and UFLA03-116 (Paenibacillus sp.). The strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 solubilized Ca3(PO4)2 in liquid medium regardless of the initial pH, although without a significant difference between the treatments. The production of organic acids by these strains was assessed for all of the initial pH values investigated, and differences between the treatments were observed. Strains UFLA03-09 and UFLA03-10 produced the same acids at different initial pH values in the culture medium. There was no correlation between phosphorus solubilized from Ca3(PO4)2 in NBRIP liquid medium and the concentration of total organic acids at the different initial pH values. Therefore, the initial pH of the culture medium influences the production of organic acids by the strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 but it does not affect calcium phosphate solubilization.

  11. Organic Acid Characteristics and Tolerance of Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria L Nielsen to Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luluk Setyaningsih

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to find out the lead tolerance of sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria seedling based on growth performance, tolerance index, and secretion and accumulation of organic acids content. Seedlings were exposed to lead (Pb with the concentration of 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 5, and 10 mM in liquid nutrient culture for 4 days in order to investigate secretion and accumulation  of  oxalic, malic, and citric content, and for 15 days to examine growth performance and tolerance index. The result showed that tolerance index and growth performance of sengon seedling were insignificant (p > 0.05 to the rising of Pb concentration up to 1.5 mM with tolerance index at least 95%, and even caused an increase of fresh weight.  However, the tolerance index and growth of sengon  decreased significantly due to Pb exposure of 5 and 10 mM.  Among the three organic acids, citrate was most dominant as compared to malate and oxalate.  Secretion of citrate increased significantly (p < 0.05 with the rising concentration of Pb 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM,  reaching to 0.464, 0.540, and 0.587 µg mℓ-1, respectively, or rising according linear line (r = 0.9, p < 0.5.  Citrate accumulation showed inconsistent pattern with the rising Pb exposure.  The result suggested that sengon seedling have a slightly tolerance to lead by secretion of organic acid especially citric acid.Keywords: lead, sengon, tolerance, organic acid, liquid nutrient culture

  12. Humic and fluvic acids and organic colloidal materials in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, J.S.; Marley, N.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Clark, S.B. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Humic substances are ubiquitous in the environment, occurring in all soils, waters, and sediments of the ecosphere. Humic substances arise from the decomposition of plant and animal tissues yet are more stable than their precursors. Their size, molecular weight, elemental composition, structure, and the number and position of functional groups vary, depending on the origin and age of the material. Humic and fulvic substances have been studied extensively for more than 200 years; however, much remains unknown regarding their structure and properties. Humic substances are those organic compounds found in the environment that cannot be classified as any other chemical class of compounds. They are traditionally defined according to their solubilities. Fulvic acids are those organic materials that are soluble in water at all pH values. Humic acids are those materials that are insoluble at acidic pH values (pH < 2) but are soluble at higher pH values. Humin is the fraction of natural organic materials that is insoluble in water at all pH values. These definitions reflect the traditional methods for separating the different fractions from the original mixture. The humic content of soils varies from 0 to almost 10%. In surface waters, the humic content, expressed as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), varies from 0.1 to 50 ppm in dark-water swamps. In ocean waters, the DOC varies from 0.5 to 1.2 ppm at the surface, and the DOC in samples from deep groundwaters varies from 0.1 to 10 ppm. In addition, about 10% of the DOC in surface waters is found in suspended matter, either as organic or organically coated inorganic particulates. Humic materials function as surfactants, with the ability to bind both hydrophobic and hydrophyllic materials, making numic and fluvic materials effective agents in transporting both organic and inorganic contaminants in the environment.

  13. Surfactant-Enhanced Organic Acid Inactivation of Tulane Virus, a Human Norovirus Surrogate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Alison; Niemira, Brendan A; Gurtler, Joshua B; Kingsley, David H; Li, Xinhui; Chen, Haiqiang

    2018-02-01

    Combination treatments of surfactants and phenolic or short-chain organic acids (SCOA) may act synergistically or additively as sanitizers to inactive foodborne viruses and prevent outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of gallic acid (GA), tannic acid, p-coumaric acid, lactic acid (LA), or acetic acid (AA), in combination with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), against Tulane virus (TV), a surrogate for human norovirus. An aqueous stock solution of phenolic acids or SCOA with or without SDS was prepared and diluted in a twofold dilution series to 2× the desired concentration with cell growth media (M119 plus 10% fetal bovine serum). The solution was inoculated with an equal proportion of 6 log PFU/mL TV with a treatment time of 5 min. The survival of TV was quantified using a plaque assay with LLC-MK2 cells. The minimum virucidal concentration was 0.5:0.7% (v/v) for LA-SDS at pH 3.5 (4.5-PFU/mL reduction) and 0.5:0.7% (v/v) AA-SDS at pH 4.0 (2.6-log PFU/mL reduction). GA and SDS demonstrated a minimum virucidal concentration of 12.5 mM GA-SDS at pH 7.0 (0.2:0.3% GA-SDS) with an 0.8-log PFU/mL reduction and 50 mM GA-SDS (0.8:1.4% GA-SDS at pH 7.0) increased log reduction to 1.6 log PFU/mL. The combination treatments of AA or LA with SDS at pH 7.0 did not produce significant log reduction, nor did individual treatments of tannic acid, GA, p-coumaric acid, AA, LA, or SDS. This study demonstrates that a surfactant, such as SDS, aids in the phenolic acid and SCOA toxicities against viruses. However, inactivation of TV by combination treatments is contingent upon the pH of the sanitizing solution being lower than the pK a value of the organic acid being used. This information can be used to develop sanitizing washes to disinfect food contact surfaces, thereby aiding in the prevention of foodborne outbreaks.

  14. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.33b Section 60.33b Protection of Environment... Constructed on or Before September 20, 1994 § 60.33b Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals...

  15. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 62.14103 Section 62.14103 Protection of... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals are specified in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section. (1) The owner or...

  16. The effect of organic acids on base cation leaching from the forest floor under six North American tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Geibe, C.; Holmstrom, S.; Lundstrom, U.S.; Breemen, van N.

    2001-01-01

    Organic acidity and its degree of neutralization in the forest floor can have large consequences for base cation leaching under different tree species. We investigated the effect of organic acids on base cation leaching from the forest floor under six common North American tree species. Forest floor

  17. Ultraviolet-absorbing organic anions in uremic serum separated by capillary zone electrophoresis, and quantification of hippuric acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoots, A.C.; Verheggen, T.P.E.M.; Vries, de P.M.J.M.; Everaerts, F.M.

    1990-01-01

    Organic anions accumulated in blood serum of patients with chronic renal failure were separated by a novel technique: closed-system capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) in a pH6 carrier-electrolyte system. Hippuric acid (HA), p-hydroxyhippuric acid, and uric acid were identified by their co-elution

  18. Interactions between hydrated cement paste and organic acids: Thermodynamic data and speciation modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Windt, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.dewindt@mines-paristech.fr [MINES ParisTech, PSL Research University, Centre de Géosciences, 35 Rue St-Honoré, 77305 Fontainebleau Cedex (France); Bertron, Alexandra; Larreur-Cayol, Steeves; Escadeillas, Gilles [University of Toulouse, UPS/INSA/LMDC, 135 Av. de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse Cedex 04 (France)

    2015-03-15

    Interactions of short-chain organic acids with hydrated cement phases affect structure durability in the agro-food and nuclear waste industries but can also be used to modify cement properties. Most previous studies have been experimental, performed at fixed concentrations and pH, without quantitatively discriminating among polyacidity effects, or complexation and salt precipitation processes. This paper addresses such issues by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations for acetic, citric, oxalic, succinic acids and a simplified hydrated CEM-I. The thermodynamic constants collected from the literature allow the speciation to be modeled over a wide range of pH and concentrations. Citric and oxalic had a stronger chelating effect than acetic acid, while succinic acid was intermediate. Similarly, Ca-citrate and Ca-oxalate salts were more insoluble than Ca-acetate and Ca-succinate salts. Regarding aluminium complexation, hydroxyls, sulfates, and acid competition was highlighted. The exploration of acid mixtures showed the preponderant effect of oxalate and citrate over acetate and succinate.

  19. pH-independent release of propranolol hydrochloride from HPMC-based matrices using organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study: Propranolol HCl, a widely used drug in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and hypertension, is a weak basic drug with pH-dependent solubility that may show release problems from sustained release dosage forms at higher pH of small intestine. This might decrease drug bioavailability and cause variable oral absorption. Preparation of a sustained release matrix system with a pH-independent release profile was the aim of the present study. Methods: Three types of organic acids namely tartaric, citric and fumaric acid in the concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 % were added to the matrices prepared by hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC and dicalcium phosphate. The drug release studies were carried out at pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 separately and mean dissolution time (MDT as well as similarity factor (¦2 were calculated for all formulations. Results and discussion: It was found that incorporation of 5 and 10 % tartaric acid in tablet formulations with 30 % HPMC resulted in a suitable pH-independent release profiles with significant higher ¦2 values (89.9 and 87.6 respectively compared to acid free tablet (58.03. The other two acids did not show the desirable effects. It seems that lower pKa of tartaric acid accompanied by its higher solubility were the main factors in the achievement of pH-independent release profiles.

  20. Usefulness of organic acid produced by Exiguobacterium sp. 12/1 on neutralization of alkaline wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Niha Mohan; Kumar, Anil; Bisht, Gopal; Pasha, Santosh; Kumar, Rita

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of organic acids produced by Exiguobacterium sp. strain 12/1 (DSM 21148) in neutralization of alkaline wastewater emanated from beverage industry. This bacterium is known to be able to grow in medium of pH as high as pH 12.0 and to neutralize alkaline industrial wastewater from pH 12.0 to pH 7.5. The initial investigation on the type of functional groups present in medium, carried out using FT-IR spectroscopy, revealed the presence of peaks corresponding to carbonyl group and hydroxyl group, suggesting the release of carboxylic acid or related metabolic product(s). The identification of specific carboxylic group, carried out using RP-HPLC, revealed the presence of a single peak in the culture supernatant with retention time most similar to formic acid. The concentration of acid produced on different carbon sources was studied as a function of time. Although acid was present in same final concentration, the rate of acid production was highest in case of medium supplemented with sucrose followed by fructose and glucose. The knowledge of metabolic products of the bacterium can be considered as a first step towards realization of its potential for large-scale bioremediation of alkaline wastewater from beverage industry.

  1. The neutralization of acidic coal mine lakes by additions of natural organic matter: a mesocosm test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugam, R.B.; Gastineau, J.; Ratcliff, E.

    1995-01-01

    Cylindrical polyethylene enclosures 3 m in length and 1 m in diameter reaching from the surface to the bottom were constructed in an acid (pH=3.1) lake on a coal surface mine in southern Illinois. Wheat straw was added to the enclosures to test the effects of dissimilatory sulfate reduction on water chemistry. Added straw increased sulfide concentrations, raised pH to 6.5, reduced O 2 and increased acid neutralizing capacity of the enclosed water columns when compared with a control enclosure and with the open lake. Generation of acid neutralizing capacity exceeded the standing stock of sulfide indicating that sulfide was removed either by precipitation of FeS or outgassing of H 2 S. The pH and acid neutralizing capacity within the enclosures eventually returned to the level of the surrounding lake because of water exchange around the enclosure walls. Our results show that additions of organic matter to acid surface mine lakes result in the generation of acid neutralizing capacity

  2. Characterizing Corrosion Effects of Weak Organic Acids Using a Modified Bono Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuqin; Turbini, Laura J.; Ramjattan, Deepchand; Christian, Bev; Pritzker, Mark

    2013-12-01

    To meet environmental requirements and achieve benefits of cost-effective manufacturing, no-clean fluxes (NCFs) or low-solids fluxes have become popular in present electronic manufacturing processes. Weak organic acids (WOAs) as the activation ingredients in NCFs play an important role, especially in the current lead-free and halogen-free soldering technology era. However, no standard or uniform method exists to characterize the corrosion effects of WOAs on actual metallic circuits of printed wiring boards (PWBs). Hence, the development of an effective quantitative test method for evaluating the corrosion effects of WOAs on the PWB's metallic circuits is imperative. In this paper, the modified Bono test, which was developed to quantitatively examine the corrosion properties of flux residues, is used to characterize the corrosion effects of five WOAs (i.e., abietic acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, adipic acid, and malic acid) on PWB metallic circuits. Experiments were performed under three temperature/humidity conditions (85°C/85% RH, 60°C/93% RH, and 40°C/93% RH) using two WOA solution concentrations. The different corrosion effects among the various WOAs were best reflected in the testing results at 40°C and 60°C. Optical microscopy was used to observe the morphology of the corroded copper tracks, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) characterization was performed to determine the dendrite composition.

  3. Inactivation of Pseudomonas fluorescens in skim milk by combinations of pulsed electric fields and organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Molina, Juan J; Altunakar, Bilge; Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela; Swanson, Barry G; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V

    2005-06-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens suspended in skim milk was inactivated by application of pulsed electric fields (PEF) either alone or in combination with acetic or propionic acid. The initial concentration of microorganisms ranged from 10(5) to 10(6) CFU/ml. Addition of acetic acid and propionic acid to skim milk inactivated 0.24 and 0.48 log CFU/ml P. fluorescens, respectively. Sets of 10, 20, and 30 pulses were applied to the skim milk using exponentially decaying pulses with pulse lengths of 2 micros and pulse frequencies of 3 Hz. Treatment temperature was maintained between 16 and 20 degrees C. In the absence of organic acids, PEF treatment of skim milk at field intensities of 31 and 38 kV/cm reduced P. fluorescens populations by 1.0 to 1.8 and by 1.2 to 1.9 log CFU/ml, respectively. Additions of acetic and propionic acid to the skim milk in a pH range of 5.0 to 5.3 and PEF treatment at 31, 33, and 34 kV/cm, and 36, 37, and 38 kV/cm reduced the population of P. fluorescens by 1.4 and 1.8 log CFU/ml, respectively. No synergistic effect resulted from the combination of PEF with acetic or propionic acid.

  4. Roles of Organic Acid Anion Secretion in Aluminium Tolerance of Higher Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the world's total land area and over 50% of the world's potential arable lands are acidic. Furthermore, the acidity of the soils is gradually increasing as a result of the environmental problems including some farming practices and acid rain. At mildly acidic or neutral soils, aluminium(Al) occurs primarily as insoluble deposits and is essentially biologically inactive. However, in many acidic soils throughout the tropics and subtropics, Al toxicity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. The Al-induced secretion of organic acid (OA) anions, mainly citrate, oxalate, and malate, from roots is the best documented mechanism of Al tolerance in higher plants. Increasing evidence shows that the Al-induced secretion of OA anions may be related to the following several factors, including (a) anion channels or transporters, (b) internal concentrations of OA anions in plant tissues, (d) temperature, (e) root plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, (f) magnesium (Mg), and (e) phosphorus (P). Genetically modified plants and cells with higher Al tolerance by overexpressing genes for the secretion and the biosynthesis of OA anions have been obtained. In addition, some aspects needed to be further studied are also discussed. PMID:23509687

  5. Usefulness of Organic Acid Produced by Exiguobacterium sp. 12/1 on Neutralization of Alkaline Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niha Mohan Kulshreshtha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the role of organic acids produced by Exiguobacterium sp. strain 12/1 (DSM 21148 in neutralization of alkaline wastewater emanated from beverage industry. This bacterium is known to be able to grow in medium of pH as high as pH 12.0 and to neutralize alkaline industrial wastewater from pH 12.0 to pH 7.5. The initial investigation on the type of functional groups present in medium, carried out using FT-IR spectroscopy, revealed the presence of peaks corresponding to carbonyl group and hydroxyl group, suggesting the release of carboxylic acid or related metabolic product(s. The identification of specific carboxylic group, carried out using RP-HPLC, revealed the presence of a single peak in the culture supernatant with retention time most similar to formic acid. The concentration of acid produced on different carbon sources was studied as a function of time. Although acid was present in same final concentration, the rate of acid production was highest in case of medium supplemented with sucrose followed by fructose and glucose. The knowledge of metabolic products of the bacterium can be considered as a first step towards realization of its potential for large-scale bioremediation of alkaline wastewater from beverage industry.

  6. Phosphatidic acid is a major phospholipid class in reproductive organs of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Ian Sofian; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Liu, Yu-Chi; Lin, Ying-Chen; Wenk, Markus R; Nakamura, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids are the crucial components of biological membranes and signal transduction. Among different tissues, flower phospholipids are one of the least characterized features of plant lipidome. Here, we report that floral reproductive organs of Arabidopsis thaliana contain high levels of phosphatidic acid (PA), a known lipid second messenger. By using floral homeotic mutants enriched with specific floral organs, lipidomics study showed increased levels of PA species in ap3-3 mutant with enriched pistils. Accompanied gene expression study for 7 diacylglycerol kinases and 11 PA phosphatases revealed distinct floral organ specificity, suggesting an active phosphorylation/dephosphorylation between PA and diacylglycerol in flowers. Our results suggest that PA is a major phospholipid class in floral reproductive organs of A. thaliana.

  7. Organic acids enhance bioavailability of tetracycline in water to Escherichia coli for uptake and expression of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Boyd, Stephen A; Teppen, Brian J; Tiedje, James M; Li, Hui

    2014-11-15

    Tetracyclines are a large class of antimicrobials used most extensively in livestock feeding operations. A large portion of tetracyclines administered to livestock is excreted in manure and urine which is collected in waste lagoons. Subsequent land application of these wastes introduces tetracyclines into the soil environment, where they could exert selective pressure for the development of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria. Tetracyclines form metal-complexes in natural waters, which could reduce their bioavailability for bacterial uptake. We hypothesized that many naturally-occurring organic acids could effectively compete with tetracyclines as ligands for metal cations, hence altering the bioavailability of tetracyclines to bacteria in a manner that could enhance the selective pressure. In this study, we investigated the influence of acetic acid, succinic acid, malonic acid, oxalic acid and citric acid on tetracycline uptake from water by Escherichia coli bioreporter construct containing a tetracycline resistance gene which induces the emission of green fluorescence when activated. The presence of the added organic acid ligands altered tetracycline speciation in a manner that enhanced tetracycline uptake by E. coli. Increased bacterial uptake of tetracycline and concomitant enhanced antibiotic resistance response were quantified, and shown to be positively related to the degree of organic acid ligand complexation of metal cations in the order of citric acid > oxalic acid > malonic acid > succinic acid > acetic acid. The magnitude of the bioresponse increased with increasing aqueous organic acid concentration. Apparent positive relation between intracellular tetracycline concentration and zwitterionic tetracycline species in aqueous solution indicates that (net) neutral tetracycline is the species which most readily enters E. coli cells. Understanding how naturally-occurring organic acid ligands affect tetracycline speciation in solution, and how speciation

  8. Spontaneous arylation of activated carbon from aminobenzene organic acids as source of diazonium ions in mild conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebègue, Estelle; Brousse, Thierry; Gaubicher, Joël; Cougnon, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Activated carbon products modified with benzoic, benzenesulfonic and benzylphosphonic acid groups were prepared by spontaneous reduction of aryldiazonium ions in situ generated in water from the corresponding aminobenzene organic acids without addition of an external acid. Electrochemistry and NMR studies show that the advancement of the diazotization reaction depends both on the acidity and the electronic effect of the organic acid substituent, giving a mixture of diazonium, amine and triazene functionalities. Carbon products prepared by reaction of activated carbon Norit with 4-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid, 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid and (4-aminobenzyl)phosphonic acid were analyzed by chemical elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. Results show that this strategy is well suited for the chemical functionalization, giving a maximized grafting yield due to a chemical cooperation of amine and diazonium functionalities

  9. Application of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and Organic Acids on Phosphate Solubilization from Phosphate Rock in Aerobic Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurban Ali Panhwar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB and organic acids (oxalic & malic on phosphate (P solubilization from phosphate rock (PR and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30 mM, and PSB strain (Bacillus sp. were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20 mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39 mg kg−1, plant P uptake (0.78 P pot−1, and plant biomass (33.26 mg. Addition of organic acids with PSB and PR had no influence on soil pH during the planting period. A higher bacterial population was found in rhizosphere (8.78 log10 cfu g−1 compared to the nonrhizosphere and endosphere regions. The application of organic acids along with PSB enhanced soluble P in the soil solution, improved root growth, and increased plant biomass of aerobic rice seedlings without affecting soil pH.

  10. Acidity and origin of dissolved organic carbon in different vegetation zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruška, Jakub; Oulehle, Filip; Myška, Oldřích; Chuman, Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    The acid/base character of aquatic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been studied intensively during recent decades with regard to the role of DOC in stream water acidity and the balance between natural acidity and anthropogenic acidification. Recently, DOC has been shown to play an important role in preindustrial surface waters. Studies focused on the acid/base properties of DOC have been carried out in mainly in Europe and North America and paint a conflicting picture. Some studies reported large differences in acid base properties, sometimes between quite similar and nearby localities, or between seasons at the same site. Other studies, however, found similar acid/base properties in waters from a variety of sites, sometimes far from each other as well as stable acid/base properties at the same site through different seasons or runoff events. Site density of DOC (amount of carboxylic groups per milligram of DOC) and SUVA was measured for streams (or small tundra ponds respectively) from the tundra in northern Alaska, boreal zone of Sweden, western Czech Republic (temperate region), and tropical Congo rain forest in central Africa. At least 10 samples from each region were taken from surface waters during the growing season. Titration of carboxylic groups after proton saturation on cation-exchange resin was used for site density determination. Despite very different climatic and vegetation properties and internal variation within a region, there was no statistically significant difference among regions for site density (it varied between 10.2-10.5 ueq/mg DOC) as well as for SUVA (tested by ANOVA). Results suggest that different vegetation and climate produced generally the same DOC in respect of acid/base character and SUVA. It also suggests that use of the one analytical technique was more important than differences between climatic zones itself.

  11. The influence of humic acids derived from earthworm-processed organic wastes on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atiyeh, R.M.; Lee, S.; Edwards, C.A.; Arancon, N.Q.; Metzger, J.D. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). Soil Ecology Lab.

    2002-08-01

    Some effects of humic acids, formed during the breakdown of organic wastes by earthworms (vermicomposting), on plant growth were evaluated. In the first experiment, humic acids were extracted from pig manure vermicompost using the classic alkali/acid fractionation procedure and mixed with a soilless container medium (Metro-Mix 360), to provide a range of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg of humate per kg of dry weight of container medium, and tomato seedlings were grown in the mixtures. In the second experiment, humates extracted from pig manure and food wastes vermicomposts were mixed with vermiculite to provide a range of 0, 50, 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 4000 mg of humate per kg of dry weight of the container medium, and cucumber seedlings were grown in the mixtures. Both tomato and cucumber seedlings were watered daily with a solution containing all nutrients required to ensure that any differences in growth responses were not nutrient-mediated. The incorporation of both types of vermicompost-derived humic acids, into either type of soilless plant growth media, increased the growth of tomato and cucumber plants significantly, in terms of plant heights, leaf areas, shoot and root dry weights. Plant growth increased with increasing concentrations of humic acids incorporated into the medium up to a certain proportion, but this differed according to the plant species, the source of the vermicompost, and the nature of the container medium. Plant growth tended to be increased by treatments of the plants with 50-500 mg/kg humic acids, but often decreased significantly when the concentrations of humic acids derived in the container medium exceeded 500-1000 mg/kg. These growth responses were most probably due to hormone-like activity of humic acids from the vermicomposts or could have been due to plant growth hormones adsorbed onto the humates. (author)

  12. Organic acid derivatization techniques applied to petroleum hydrocarbon transformations in subsurface environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelona, M.J.; Lu, J.; Tomczak, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Evidence for the natural microbial remediation of subsurface fuel contamination situations should include identification and analysis of transformation or degradation products. In this way, a mass balance between fuel constituents and end products may be approached to monitor cleanup progress. Application of advanced organic acid metabolite derivatization techniques to several know sites of organic compounds and fuel mixture contamination provide valuable information on the pathways and progress of microbial transformation. Good correlation between observed metabolites and transformation pathways of aromatic fuel constituents were observed at the sites

  13. Carbon isotope effects in carbohydrates and amino acids of photosynthesizing organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivlev, A.A.; Kaloshin, A.G.; Koroleva, M.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    The analysis of the carbon isotope distribution in carbohydrates and amino acids of some photosynthesizing organisms revealed the close relationship between distribution and the pathways of biosynthesis of the molecules. This relationship is explained on the basis of the previously proposed mechanism of carbon isotope fractionation in a cell, in which the chief part is played by kinetic isotope effects in the pyruvate decarboxylation reaction progressively increased in the conjugated processes of gluconeogenesis. Isotope differences of C 2 and C 3 fragments arising in decarboxylation of pyruvate, as well as isotope differences of biogenic acceptor and environmental CO 2 appearing in assimilation are the main reasons of the observed intramolecular isotopic heterogeneity of biomolecules. The heterogeneity is preserved in metabolites owing to an incomplete mixing of carbon atoms in biochemical reactions. The probable existence of two pools of carbohydrates in photosynthesizing organisms different in isotopic composition is predicted. Two types of intramolecular isotope distribution in amino acids are shown. (author)

  14. Organic acid enhanced electrodialytic extraction of lead from contaminated soil fines in suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    for decontamination of the sludge was investigated. The ability of 11 organic acids to extract Pb from the fine fraction of contaminated soil (grains soil fines in suspension......The implementation of soil washing technology for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils is limited by the toxicity and unwieldiness of the remaining heavy metal contaminated sludge. In this work, the feasibility of combining electrodialytic remediation with heterotrophic leaching...... was tested. Five of the acids showed the ability to extract Ph from the soil fines in excess of the effect caused solely by pH changes. Addition of the acids, however, severely impeded EDR, hence promotion of EDR by combination with heterotrophic leaching was rejected. In contrast, enhancement of EDR...

  15. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in turkey deli loaves using organic acids as formulation ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, T; Alvarado, C Z; Brashears, M M; Thompson, L D; McKee, S R; Berrang, M

    2009-10-01

    The growth of Listeria monocytogenes in further-processed meat products has become a major concern and an important food safety issue. The meat and poultry industries have incorporated interventions such as organic acids in marinades to inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes. In this study, organic acids were utilized in the raw product and as a postcook dip to determine their inhibitory effect on the growth of L. monocytogenes in turkey deli loaves. The turkey deli loaves were processed, cooked, cooled, inoculated with streptomycin-resistant L. monocytogenes, and then dipped. Treatments were potassium lactate (PL) in the raw product with sodium lactate (SL), sodium diacetate (SD) dip, PL with SL/PL/SD dip, SL with SL/SD dip, and SL with SL/PL/SD dip. There was also a positive (inoculated) and negative (noninoculated) control, which was dipped in distilled water. Days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 were sampled for L. monocytogenes. There were no differences (P>0.05) among the organic acid treatments in the turkey deli loaves at any time points; therefore, all of the treatments increased the lag phase of L. monocytogenes, extending the shelf-life of the product. However, there was a difference between the treatments and the positive control at d 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56. The growth of L. monocytogenes increased immediately in the positive control, whereas the negative control appeared to have no growth. These organic acids can provide meat processors with a useful method for extending the lag phase of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat and poultry products.

  16. Comparison of Cultivable Acetic Acid Bacterial Microbiota in Organic and Conventional Apple Cider Vinegar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Štornik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic apple cider vinegar is produced from apples that go through very restricted treatment in orchard. During the first stage of the process, the sugars from apples are fermented by yeasts to cider. The produced ethanol is used as a substrate by acetic acid bacteria in a second separated bioprocess. In both, the organic and conventional apple cider vinegars the ethanol oxidation to acetic acid is initiated by native microbiota that survived alcohol fermentation. We compared the cultivable acetic acid bacterial microbiota in the production of organic and conventional apple cider vinegars from a smoothly running oxidation cycle of a submerged industrial process. In this way we isolated and characterized 96 bacteria from organic and 72 bacteria from conventional apple cider vinegar. Using the restriction analysis of the PCR-amplifi ed 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS regions, we identified four different HaeIII and five different HpaII restriction profiles for bacterial isolates from organic apple cider vinegar. Each type of restriction profile was further analyzed by sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS regions, resulting in identification of the following species: Acetobacter pasteurianus (71.90 %, Acetobacter ghanensis (12.50 %, Komagataeibacter oboediens (9.35 % and Komagataeibacter saccharivorans (6.25 %. Using the same analytical approach in conventional apple cider vinegar, we identified only two different HaeIII and two different HpaII restriction profiles of the 16S‒23S rRNA gene ITS regions, which belong to the species Acetobacter pasteurianus (66.70 % and Komagataeibacter oboediens (33.30 %. Yeasts that are able to resist 30 g/L of acetic acid were isolated from the acetic acid production phase and further identified by sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S rDNA‒ITS2 region as Candida ethanolica, Pichia membranifaciens and Saccharomycodes ludwigii. This study has shown for the first time that the bacterial microbiota for the

  17. Comparison of Cultivable Acetic Acid Bacterial Microbiota in Organic and Conventional Apple Cider Vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štornik, Aleksandra; Skok, Barbara; Trček, Janja

    2016-03-01

    Organic apple cider vinegar is produced from apples that go through very restricted treatment in orchard. During the first stage of the process, the sugars from apples are fermented by yeasts to cider. The produced ethanol is used as a substrate by acetic acid bacteria in a second separated bioprocess. In both, the organic and conventional apple cider vinegars the ethanol oxidation to acetic acid is initiated by native microbiota that survived alcohol fermentation. We compared the cultivable acetic acid bacterial microbiota in the production of organic and conventional apple cider vinegars from a smoothly running oxidation cycle of a submerged industrial process. In this way we isolated and characterized 96 bacteria from organic and 72 bacteria from conventional apple cider vinegar. Using the restriction analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS regions, we identified four different Hae III and five different Hpa II restriction profiles for bacterial isolates from organic apple cider vinegar. Each type of restriction profile was further analyzed by sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS regions, resulting in identification of the following species: Acetobacter pasteurianus (71.90%), Acetobacter ghanensis (12.50%), Komagataeibacter oboediens (9.35%) and Komagataeibacter saccharivorans (6.25%). Using the same analytical approach in conventional apple cider vinegar, we identified only two different Hae III and two different Hpa II restriction profiles of the 16S‒23S rRNA gene ITS regions, which belong to the species Acetobacter pasteurianus (66.70%) and Komagataeibacter oboediens (33.30%). Yeasts that are able to resist 30 g/L of acetic acid were isolated from the acetic acid production phase and further identified by sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S rDNA‒ITS2 region as Candida ethanolica , Pichia membranifaciens and Saccharomycodes ludwigii . This study has shown for the first time that the bacterial microbiota for the industrial production of

  18. Efficiency of organic acid preparations for the elimination of naturally occurring Salmonella in feed material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, Sonja; Kolar, Veronika; Adler, Andreas; Strnad, Irmengard

    2017-11-01

    Salmonella can enter animal stocks via feedstuffs, thus posing not only an infection risk for animals, but also threatening to contaminate food of animal origin and finally humans. Salmonella contamination in feedstuffs is still a recurring and serious issue in animal production (especially for the poultry sector), and is regularly detected upon self-monitoring by feed companies (self-checks) and official inspections authorities. Operators within the feed chain in certain cases need to use hygienic condition enhancers, such as organic acids, to improve the quality of feed for animal nutrition, providing additional guarantees for the protection of animal and public health. The present study investigated the efficiencies of five organic acid preparations. The acid products were added to three different feed materials contaminated with Salmonella (contamination occurred by recontamination in the course of the production process) at seven different inclusion rates (1-7%) and analysed after 1, 2, and 7 days' exposure time using culture method (tenfold analysis). A reliable standard was established for defining a successful decontamination under the prevailing test conditions: 10 Salmonella-negative results out of 10 tested samples (0/10: i.e. 0 positive samples and 10 negative samples). The results demonstrated that the tested preparations showed significant differences with regard to the reduction in Salmonella contamination. At an inclusion rate of 7% of the feed materials, two out of five acid preparations showed an insufficient, very small, decontamination effect, whereas two others had a relatively large partial effect. Reliable decontamination was demonstrated only for one acid preparation, however, subject to the use of the highest acid concentration.

  19. Investigating organic molecules responsible of auxin-like activity of humic acid fraction extracted from vermicompost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglia, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.scaglia@unimi.it [Gruppo Ricicla Labs – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2 (Italy); Nunes, Ramom Rachide; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira [Laboratório de Química Ambiental, Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Avenida Trabalhador São Carlense, 400, São Carlos (Brazil); Tambone, Fulvia [Gruppo Ricicla Labs – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2 (Italy); Adani, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.adani@unimi.it [Gruppo Ricicla Labs – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2 (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    This work studied the auxin-like activity of humic acids (HA) obtained from vermicomposts produced using leather wastes plus cattle dung at different maturation stages (fresh, stable and mature). Bioassays were performed by testing HA concentrations in the range of 100–6000 mg carbon L{sup −1}. {sup 13}C CPMAS-NMR and GC–MS instrumental methods were used to assess the effect of biological processes and starting organic mixtures on HA composition. Not all HAs showed IAA-like activity and in general, IAA-like activity increased with the length of the vermicomposting process. The presence of leather wastes was not necessary to produce the auxin-like activity of HA, since HA extracted from a mix of cattle manure and sawdust, where no leather waste was added, showed IAA-like activity as well. CPMAS {sup 13}CNMR revealed that HAs were similar independently of the mix used and that the humification process involved the increasing concentration of pre-existing alkali soluble fractions in the biomass. GC/MS allowed the identification of the molecules involved in IAA-like effects: carboxylic acids and amino acids. The concentration of active molecules, rather than their simple presence in HA, determined the bio-stimulating effect, and a good linear regression between auxin-like activity and active stimulating molecules concentration was found (R{sup 2} = − 0.85; p < 0.01, n = 6). - Highlights: • Vermicomposting converts waste into organic fertilizer. • Vermicomposts can have biostimulating effect for the presence of hormone-like molecules. • Auxine-like activity was associated to the vermicompost humic acid fraction (HA). • HA carboxylic acids and amino acids, were reported to act as auxin-like molecules. • A linear regression was found between molecules and auxin-like activity.

  20. Fermentation of liquid coproducts and liquid compound diets: Part 2. Effects on pH, acid-binding capacity, organic acids and ethanol during a 6-day period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R.H.J.; Rijnen, M.M.J.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Boer, H.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Hartog, den L.A.; Vesseur, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of a 6-day storage period on changes in pH, acid-binding capacity, level of organic acids and ethanol of three liquid coproducts [liquid wheat starch (LWS), mashed potato steam peel (PSP) and cheese whey (CW)] and two liquid compound diets [liquid grower diet (LGD) and liquid finisher

  1. Inhibition of ice crystallisation in highly viscous aqueous organic acid droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Murray

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneous nucleation of ice within aqueous solution droplets and their subsequent crystallisation is thought to play a significant role in upper tropospheric ice cloud formation. It is normally assumed that homogeneous nucleation will take place at a threshold supersaturation, irrespective of the identity of the solute, and that rapid growth of ice particles will follow immediately after nucleation. However, it is shown here through laboratory experiments that droplets may not readily freeze in the very cold tropical tropopause layer (TTL, typical temperatures of 186–200 K. In these experiments ice crystal growth in citric acid solution droplets did not occur when ice nucleated below 197±6 K. Citric acid, 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxyllic acid, is a molecule with similar functionality to oxygenated organic compounds which are ubiquitous in atmospheric aerosol. It is therefore thought to be a sensible proxy for atmospheric organic material. Evidence is presented that suggests citric acid solution droplets become ultra-viscous and form glassy solids under atmospherically relevant conditions. Diffusion of liquid water molecules to ice nuclei is expected to be very slow in ultra-viscous solution droplets and nucleation is negligible in glassy droplets; this most likely provides an explanation for the experimentally observed inhibition of ice crystallisation. The implications of ultra-viscous and glassy solution droplets for ice cloud formation and supersaturations in the TTL are discussed.

  2. Wet Chemical Oxidation of Organic Waste Using Nitric-Phosphoric Acid Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, R.A.

    1998-10-06

    Experimental progress has been made in a wide range of areas which support the continued development of the nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation process for combustible, solid organic wastes. An improved understanding of the overall process operation has been obtained, acid recovery and recycle systems have been studied, safety issues have been addressed, two potential final waste forms have been tested, preliminary mass flow diagrams have been prepared, and process flowsheets have been developed. The flowsheet developed is essentially a closed-loop system which addresses all of the internally generated waste streams. The combined activities aim to provide the basis for building and testing a 250-400 liter pilot-scale unit. Variations of the process now must be evaluated in order to address the needs of the primary customer, SRS Solid Waste Management. The customer is interested in treating job control waste contaminated with Pu-238 for shipment to WIPP. As a result, variations for feed preparation, acid recycle, and final form manufacturing must be considered to provide for simpler processing to accommodate operations in high radiation and contamination environments. The purpose of this program is to demonstrate a nitric-phosphoric acid destruction technology which can treat a heterogeneous waste by oxidizing the solid and liquid organic compounds while decontaminating noncombustible items.

  3. Fat and fatty acid composition of cooked meat from UK retail chickens labelled as from organic and non-organic production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dalziel, C. J.; Kliem, Kirsty E.; Givens, D. Ian

    2015-01-01

    This study compared fat and fatty acids in cooked retail chicken meat from conventional and organic systems. Fat contents were 1.7, 5.2, 7.1 and 12.9 g/100 g cooked weight in skinless breast, breast with skin, skinless leg and leg with skin respectively, with organic meat containing less fat overall (P < 0.01). Meat was rich in cis-monounsaturated fatty acids, although organic meat contained less than did conventional meat (1850 vs. 2538 mg/100 g; P < 0.001). Organic meat was also lower (P < ...

  4. Highly Conductive and Reliable Copper-Filled Isotropically Conductive Adhesives Using Organic Acids for Oxidation Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjun; Deng, Dunying; Cheng, Yuanrong; Xiao, Fei

    2015-07-01

    The easy oxidation of copper is one critical obstacle to high-performance copper-filled isotropically conductive adhesives (ICAs). In this paper, a facile method to prepare highly reliable, highly conductive, and low-cost ICAs is reported. The copper fillers were treated by organic acids for oxidation prevention. Compared with ICA filled with untreated copper flakes, the ICA filled with copper flakes treated by different organic acids exhibited much lower bulk resistivity. The lowest bulk resistivity achieved was 4.5 × 10-5 Ω cm, which is comparable to that of commercially available Ag-filled ICA. After 500 h of 85°C/85% relative humidity (RH) aging, the treated ICAs showed quite stable bulk resistivity and relatively stable contact resistance. Through analyzing the results of x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, we found that, with the assistance of organic acids, the treated copper flakes exhibited resistance to oxidation, thus guaranteeing good performance.

  5. Detection of irradiation history for health foods. Calcium salt of organic acid and its basic ingredient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Nakagawa, Seiko; Yunoki, Shunji; Ohyabu, Yoshimi

    2013-01-01

    Calcium carbonate and calcium salt of organic acid are well-known food additives used for the improvement of the shelf life and eating quality of health food. Calcium carbonate is a precursor in the synthesis of calcium salts of organic acid. Certain calcium carbonates made of natural limestone mined from very old stratum have silicate minerals exposed to a low level of natural radiation over a long period of time and food additives derived from calcium carbonates contained of such silicate minerals are possible to classify as irradiated foods by PSL and TL analysis in spite of non-irradiation. The study of calcium carbonates and calcium salts of organic acid obtained from different producers were allow to provided appropriate decisions by using the information of both the TL response (Glow1 peak temperature and TL ratio) and PSL ratio. ESR measurements of radicals in such food additives caused by gamma- irradiation were effective tool for correctly determining for irradiation history of those because the measurements were not affected by silicate minerals contained in those. (author)

  6. Influence of humified organic matter on copper behavior in acid polluted soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Calvino, D.; Soler-Rovira, P.; Polo, A.; Arias-Estevez, M.; Plaza, C.

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this work was to identify the role of soil humic acids (HAs) in controlling the behavior of Cu(II) in vineyard soils by exploring the relationship between the chemical and binding properties of HA fractions and those of soil as a whole. The study was conducted on soils with a sandy loam texture, pH 4.3-5.0, a carbon content of 12.4-41.0 g kg -1 and Cu concentrations from 11 to 666 mg kg -1 . The metal complexing capacity of HA extracts obtained from the soils ranged from 0.69 to 1.02 mol kg -1 , and the stability constants for the metal ion-HA complexes formed, log K, from 5.07 to 5.36. Organic matter-quality related characteristics had little influence on Cu adsorption in acid soils, especially if compared with pH, the degree of Cu saturation and the amount of soil organic matter. - The effect of organic matter quality on Cu adsorption in acid soils was low compared with other soil characteristics such as pH or degree of Cu saturation.

  7. A study of organic acid production in contrasts between two phosphate solubilizing fungi: Penicillium oxalicum and Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Bai, Tongshuo; Dai, Letian; Wang, Fuwei; Tao, Jinjin; Meng, Shiting; Hu, Yunxiao; Wang, Shimei; Hu, Shuijin

    2016-04-01

    Phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF) have huge potentials in enhancing release of phosphorus from fertilizer. Two PSF (NJDL-03 and NJDL-12) were isolated and identified as Penicillium oxalicum and Aspergillus niger respectively in this study. The quantification and identification of organic acids were performed by HPLC. Total concentrations of organic acids secreted by NJDL-03 and NJDL-12 are ~4000 and ~10,000 mg/L with pH values of 3.6 and 2.4 respectively after five-days culture. Oxalic acid dominates acidity in the medium due to its high concentration and high acidity constant. The two fungi were also cultured for five days with the initial pH values of the medium varied from 6.5 to 1.5. The biomass reached the maximum when the initial pH values are 4.5 for NJDL-03 and 2.5 for NJDL-12. The organic acids for NJDL-12 reach the maximum at the initial pH = 5.5. However, the acids by NJDL-03 continue to decrease and proliferation of the fungus terminates at pH = 2.5. The citric acid production increases significantly for NJDL-12 at acidic environment, whereas formic and oxalic acids decrease sharply for both two fungi. This study shows that NJDL-12 has higher ability in acid production and has stronger adaptability to acidic environment than NJDL-03.

  8. Effect of curd freezing and packaging methods on the organic acid contents of goat cheeses during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Balkir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of freezing and packaging methods on organic acid content of goat cheese during 12 weeks of storage were determined. Goat cheese milk curds were divided into two batches; one of the batches was directly processed in to goat cheese while the other was frozen at -18 °C and stored for six months and processed into cheese after being thawed. Cheese samples were packed in three parts and stored at 4 °C refrigerated control sample and at -18 °C for six months frozen experimental samples. Cheese samples were packed in three different packaging methods: aerobic, vacuum or modified atmosphere. Citric, malic, fumaric, acetic, lactic, pyruvic and propionic acids were analyzed using HPLC method after 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th week of storage period. Lactic acid was the main organic acids while pyruvic acid had the lowest content in all cheese samples. Citric and fumaric acid levels of frozen samples increased during storage whereas malic, acetic, pyruvic and propionic acid amounts were decreased compared to the beginning of storage. Packaging methods and freezing process also effected lactic acid levels statistically (p<0.05. Fumaric, acetic and lactic acid concentration of refrigerated samples were increased but citric, malic and propionic acids decreased during storage. Pyruvic acid level did not change significantly. It was determined that organic acid concentrations were effected by freezing process, storage time and packaging methods significantly (p<0.05.

  9. Differences in sheep and goats milk fatty acid profile between conventional and organic farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiplakou, Eleni; Kotrotsios, Vaios; Hadjigeorgiou, Ioannis; Zervas, George

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in chemical composition and particularly in fatty acid (FA) profile, with emphasis on cis-9, trans-11 CLA, of milk obtained from conventional and organic dairy sheep and goats farms under the farming conditions practiced in Greece. Four dairy sheep and four dairy goat farms, representing common conventional production systems and another four dairy sheep and four dairy goat farms, organically certified, representing organic production and feeding systems were selected from all over Greece. One hundred and sixty two individual milk samples were collected from those farms in January-February 2009, about three months after parturition. The milk samples were analyzed for their main chemical constituents and their FA profile. The results showed that the production system affected milk chemical composition: in particular fat content was lower in the organic sheep and goats milk compared with the corresponding conventional. Milk from organic sheep had higher content in MUFA, PUFA, alpha-LNA, cis-9, trans-11 CLA, and omega-3 FA, whereas in milk from organic goats alpha-LNA and omega-3 FA content was higher than that in conventional one. These differences are, mainly, attributed to different feeding practices used by the two production systems. The results of this study show that the organic milk produced under the farming conditions practiced in Greece has higher nutritional value, due to its FA profile, compared with the respective conventional milk.

  10. The effect of phytobiotics, organic acids and humic acids on the utility and egg quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the assessment of an influence of supplement of dietary herbal additive in combination with organic acids into feed mixture or drinking water of laying hens on performance parameters and egg quality. The Lohmann Brown Lite laying hens (n = 30 were divided into 3 groups (n = 10, and fed for 20 weeks ad libitum with complete feed mixtures (CFM. Hens in the control group received the complete feed mixture (CFM and drank drinking water without any supplements. In the first experimental group hens received CFM without supplements but phytobiotics (bergamot oil (Citrus bergamia, thyme (Thymus vulgaris, clove (Syzygium aromaticum, pepper (Piper nigrum in combination with the fumaric acid and citric acid at 60 mg per 1 liter of water were added to their drinking water. In the second experimental group was CFM enriched with humic acids in the concentration of 0.5%, and phytobiotcs with organic acids at the same dose as in the first experimental group were added to their drinking water. Monitored parameters: body weight (g, egg production (%, the weight of all produced eggs (g, egg albumen weight (g, egg albumen index, Haugh unit (HU, egg yolk weight (g, egg yolk index, egg yolk colour (° HLR, egg shell weight (g and egg shell strength (N.cm-2. The results showed no significant differences between the both experimental groups and the control group in the parameter body weight of hens (P>0.05. The highest average body weight was found in the hens from the second experimental group (values in the order of groups:  1792.22 ± 80.85; 1768.42 ±55.55; 1820.12 ±78.56 g±S.D.. We observed positive trend of increasing of egg production by adding of used supplements, especially in the second experimental group with the addition of humic acids, although with no statistically significant difference compared to the control group (P>0.05. The mean laying intensity in the order of groups: 90.42; 91.16; 91.56%. We observed statistically

  11. Exudation of organic acids by Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius as affected by phosphorus supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Werner; Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    In phytomining and phytoremediation research mixed cultures of bioenergy crops with legumes hold promise to enhance availability of trace metals and metalloids in the soil plant system. This is due to the ability of certain legumes to mobilize trace elements during acquisition of nutrients making these elements available for co-cultured species. The legumes achieve this element mobilization by exudating carboxylates and enzymes as well as by lowering the pH value in the rhizosphere. The aim of our research was to determine characteristics and differences in the exudation of Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius regarding to quantitative as to qualitative aspects. Especially the affection by phosphorus (P) supply was a point of interest. Thus we conducted laboratory batch experiments, wherein the plants were grown over four weeks under controlled light, moisture and nutritional conditions on sand as substrate. Half of the plants were supplied with 12 mg P per kg substrate, the other half were cultivated under a total lack of P. After cultivation the plants were transferred from the cultivation substrate into a 0,05 mmolṡL-1 CaCl2 solution. After two hours the plants were removed, moist and dry mass off shoots and roots were measured together with the root length (Tennants' method). Concentrations of exudated carboxylates in the CaCl2 solution were determined via IC (column: Metrosept OrganicAcids, eluent 0.5 molṡL-1 H2SO4 + 15% acetone, pH=3; 0.5 mLṡmin-1). As a result four different organic acids were identified (citric acid, fumaric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid) in concentration ranges of 0.15 mgṡL-1 (fumaric acid) to 9.21 mgṡL-1 (citric acid). Lupinus angustifolius showed a higher exudation rate (in nmol per cm root length per hour) than Lupinus albus in the presence of phosphorus (e.g. regarding citric acid: 1.99 vs 0.64 nmolṡ(gṡh)-1). However, as the root complexity and length of L. albus were far higher than of L. angustifolius, the total

  12. Copper Metal-Organic Framework Nanoparticles Stabilized with Folic Acid Improve Wound Healing in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jisheng; Zhu, Yunxiao; Huddleston, Samantha; Li, Peng; Xiao, Baixue; Farha, Omar K; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2018-02-27

    The successful treatment of chronic nonhealing wounds requires strategies that promote angiogenesis, collagen deposition, and re-epithelialization of the wound. Copper ions have been reported to stimulate angiogenesis; however, several applications of copper salts or oxides to the wound bed are required, leading to variable outcomes and raising toxicity concerns. We hypothesized that copper-based metal-organic framework nanoparticles (Cu-MOF NPs), referred to as HKUST-1, which are rapidly degraded in protein solutions, can be modified to slowly release Cu 2+ , resulting in reduced toxicity and improved wound healing rates. Folic acid was added during HKUST-1 synthesis to generate folic-acid-modified HKUST-1 (F-HKUST-1). The effect of folic acid incorporation on NP stability, size, hydrophobicity, surface area, and copper ion release profile was measured. In addition, cytotoxicity and in vitro cell migration processes due to F-HKUST-1 and HKUST-1 were evaluated. Wound closure rates were assessed using the splinted excisional dermal wound model in diabetic mice. The incorporation of folic acid into HKUST-1 enabled the slow release of copper ions, which reduced cytotoxicity and enhanced cell migration in vitro. In vivo, F-HKUST-1 induced angiogenesis, promoted collagen deposition and re-epithelialization, and increased wound closure rates. These results demonstrate that folic acid incorporation into HKUST-1 NPs is a simple, safe, and promising approach to control Cu 2+ release, thus enabling the direct application of Cu-MOF NPs to wounds.

  13. Correlations between the 1H NMR chemical shieldings and the pKa values of organic acids and amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Juanfeng; Lu, Tingting; Zhao, Xinyun; Chen, Xi; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2018-06-01

    The acid dissociation constants and 1 H NMR chemical shieldings of organic compounds are important properties that have attracted much research interest. However, few studies have explored the relationship between these two properties. In this work, we theoretically studied the NMR chemical shifts of a series of carboxylic acids and amines in the gas phase and in aqueous solution. It was found that the negative logarithms of the experimental acid dissociation constants (i.e., the pK a values) of the organic acids and amines in aqueous solution correlate almost linearly with the corresponding calculated NMR chemical shieldings. Key factors that affect the theoretically predicted pK a values are discussed in this paper. The present work provides a new way to predict the pK a values of organic/biochemical compounds. Graphical abstract The chemical shielding values of organic acids and amines correlate near linearly with their corresponding pK a values.

  14. Determination of Some Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Capacity, of Organic and Conventional Milk in Turkey Produced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Ürkek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, determination of effect of production systems (conventional and organic and time of milk collection on some physicochemical properties, fatty acids and antioxidant capacity of conventional and organic raw milk in produced Turkey were aimed. In this research, the milk samples was collected from nine conventional farms and nine organic farms at bimonthly years for one year. Fatty acid composition, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic matter, dry matter, fat, protein, ash, titratable acidity (lactic acid % and pH values of organic and conventional milk were investigated. According to results of this research, the mean values of conventional and organic milk samples respectively for dry matter, fat, protein, ash, specific gravity, acidity and pH was determined as 12.06-11.97%, 3.67-3.50%, 3.33-3.34%, 0.67-0.66%, 1.0381-1.0381 g mL-1, 0.18-0.16% and 6.67-6.73, respectively. Conjugated linoliec acid proportions changed between 1.39% and 2.87% in organic milk, between 1.67% and 2.96% in conventional milk. Consequently, the farm production type did not have effects on the milk compassion (dry matter, fat, protein and ash, fatty acid composition, EC50 and total phenolic compounds. On the other hand, the significant variations in the fat, protein, fatty acid proportions, EC50, inhibition and total phenolic compound values were determined as regarding time of milk collection.

  15. Effect of Humic Acid and Organic Manure Tea on Plant Physiology and Fruit Characteristics of Pepino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Javanmardi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pepino (SolanummuricatumAit., a Solanaceous vegetable fruit has been recently introduced to Iran markets. Organic farming is currently the fastest growing agricultural sector worldwide. Although several investigations are available on chemical fertilization of pepino, the knowledge of organic fertilization ismostly lacking. Therefore, at the beginning of introducing pepino plant to Iranian farmers it worth to evaluate the impact of organic fertilization on the productivity, profitability, acceptability and sustainability of farming systemsto this plant. High chemical fertilization of pepinoincreases the vegetative growth over the generative and fruit production. The aim of this investigation was to introduce the possibility of organic production of pepino. Materials and Methods.A two-year experiment was carried out to assess the possibility of organic production of pepino using organic fertilizers. Humistar® organic fertilizer (containing 8.6% humic acid at 50 L/ha and sheep or cow manure teas at 1:10 and 1:5 ratios were used for production of pepino cv. Kanseola to evaluate their effects on the physiology of reproductive stage and some fruit quality characteristics. The experiments were arranged as factorial in a randomized complete block design comprised of 3 replications, each of which 10 plants. Mother plants were obtained from Mashhad Ferdowsi University and incubated in a greenhouse (mean temperature of 25 °C and 60-70% relative humidity for 1 month to proliferate. Cuttings with 2-3 leaves at the top, 3-5 healthy buds and 20 cm length were rooted for 14 days in a rooting media, ( 1:1:2 of field soil, composted leaf and perlite, respectively. Plants were transplanted into the field in 100 × 75 cm spacing after the danger of frost was over. Treatments consisted of two levels of 1:5 and 1:10 (w:w cow or sheep manure teas in combination with two levels of Humistar® organic fertilizer as 0 and 50L/ha levels. Control plants

  16. Effects of Dietary Zinc Oxide and a Blend of Organic Acids on Broiler Live Performance, Carcass Traits, and Serum Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BG Sarvari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of different dietary supplementation levels of zinc oxide and of an organic acid blend on broiler performance, carcass traits, and serum parameters. A total of 2400 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks, with average initial body weight 44.21±0.19g, was distributed according to a completely randomized design in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. Six treatments, consisting of diets containing two zinc oxide levels (0 and 0.01% of the diet and three organic acid blend levels (0, 0.15, and 0.30% were applied, with eight replicates of 50 birds each. The experimental diets were supplied ad libitum for 42 days. There were significant performance differences among birds fed the different zinc oxide and organic acid blend levels until 42 d of age (p<0.01. The result of this experiment showed that the organic acid blend did not affect feed intake, but zinc oxide increased feed intake. Carcass traits were not influenced by the experimental supplements. Zinc oxide supplementation increased serum alkaline phosphatase level (p<0.01. The organic acid blend reduced serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels (p<0.05. No interactions were found between zinc oxide and the organic acid blend for none of the evaluated parameters. We concluded that zinc oxide and the evaluated organic acid blend improve broiler performance.

  17. Enhancing Skin Permeation of Biphenylacetic Acid (BPA) Using Salt Formation with Organic and Alkali Metal Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Vijay; Naik, Prashant; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a series of organic and alkali metal salts of biphenylacetic acid (BPA) have been prepared and evaluated in vitro for percutaneous drug delivery. The physicochemical properties of BPA salts were determined using solubility measurements, DSC, and IR. The DSC thermogram and FTIR spectra confirmed the salt formation with organic and alkali metal bases. Among the series, salts with organic amines (ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, and diethylamine) had lowered melting points while the alkali metal salt (sodium) had a higher melting point than BPA. The in vitro study showed that salt formation improves the physicochemical properties of BPA, leading to improved permeability through the skin. Amongst all the prepared salts, ethanolamine salt (1b) showed 7.2- and 5.4-fold higher skin permeation than the parent drug at pH 7.4 and 5.0, respectively, using rat skin.

  18. Milk phospholipids: Organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid compared with conventional milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, T; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the phospholipid content of conventional milk with that of organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The membrane enclosing the fat globules of milk is composed, in part, of phospholipids, which have properties of interest for the development of so-called functional foods and technologically novel ingredients. They include phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and the sphingophospholipid sphingomyelin (SM). Milk from organically managed cows contains higher levels of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids than conventionally produced milk, but we know of no study with analogous comparisons of major phospholipid contents. In addition, the use of polyunsaturated-lipid-rich feed supplement (extruded linseed) has been reported to increase the phospholipid content of milk. Because supplementation with linseed and increased unsaturated fatty acid content are the main dietary modifications used for production of CLA-rich milk, we investigated whether these modifications would lead to this milk having higher phospholipid content. We used HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection to determine PE, PI, PC, PS, and SM contents in 16 samples of organic milk and 8 samples of CLA-rich milk, in each case together with matching reference samples of conventionally produced milk taken on the same days and in the same geographical areas as the organic and CLA-rich samples. Compared with conventional milk and milk fat, organic milk and milk fat had significantly higher levels of all the phospholipids studied. This is attributable to the differences between the 2 systems of milk production, among which the most influential are probably differences in diet and physical exercise. The CLA-rich milk fat had significantly higher levels of PI, PS, and PC than conventional milk fat, which is also attributed to dietary differences: rations for

  19. Effects of low molecular weight organic acids on 137Cs release from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Po Neng; Wang, Ming Kuang; Huang, Pan Ming; Wang, Jeng Jong

    2011-01-01

    Radio pollutant removal is one of several priority restoration strategies for the environment. This study assessed the effect of low molecular weight organic acid on the lability and mechanisms for release of 137 Cs from contaminated soils. The amount of 137 Cs radioactivity released from contaminated soils reacting with 0.02 M low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) specifically acetic, succinic, oxalic, tartaric, and citric acid over 48 h were 265, 370, 760, 850, and 1002 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The kinetic results indicate that 137 Cs exhibits a two-step parabolic diffusion equation and a good linear relationship, indicating that the parabolic diffusion equation describes the data quite well, as shown by low p and high r 2 values. The fast stage, which was found to occur within a short period of time (0.083-3 h), corresponds to the interaction of LMWOAs with the surface of clay minerals; meanwhile, during the slow stage, which occurs over a much longer time period (3-24 h), desorption primarily is attributed to inter-particle or intra-particle diffusion. After a fifth renewal of the LMWOAs, the total levels of 137 Cs radioactivity released by acetic, succinic, oxalic, tartaric, and citric acid were equivalent to 390, 520, 3949, 2061, and 4422 Bq kg -1 soil, respectively. H + can protonate the hydroxyl groups and oxygen atoms at the broken edges or surfaces of the minerals, thereby weakening Fe-O and Al-O bonds. After protonation of H + , organic ligands can attack the OH and OH 2 groups in the minerals easily, to form complexes with surface structure cations, such as Al and Fe. The amounts of 137 Cs released from contaminated soil treated with LMWOAs were substantially increased, indicating that the LMWOAs excreted by the roots of plants play a critical role in 137 Cs release.

  20. Mechanism of the extraction of nitric acid and water by organic solutions of tertiary alkyl-amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourisse, D.

    1966-06-01

    The micellar aggregation of tri-alkyl-ammonium nitrates in low polarity organic solvents has been verified by viscosity, conductivity and sedimentation velocity measurements. The aggregation depends upon the polarity of solvent, the length of the alkyl radicals and the organic concentration of the various constituents (tri-alkyl-ammonium nitrate, tri-alkyl-amine, nitric acid, water). The amine salification law has been established and the excess nitric acid and water solubilities in the organic solutions have been measured. Nitric acid and water are slightly more soluble in micellar organic solutions than in molecular organic solutions. A description of excess nitric acid containing tri-alkyl-ammonium nitrate solutions is proposed. (author) [fr

  1. Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Organic Acids and Alcohols by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    One possible process responsible for methane generation on Mars is abiotic formation by Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) synthesis during serpentinization reactions. Measurement of carbon and hydrogen isotopes of intermediary organic compounds can help constrain the origin of this methane by tracing the geochemical pathway during formation. Of particular interest within the context of this work is the isotopic composition of organic intermediaries produced on the surfaces of mineral catalysts (i.e. magnetite) during hydrothermal experiments, and the ability to make meaningful and reproducible hydrogen isotope measurements. Reported here are results of experiments to characterize the hydrogen isotope composition of low molecular weight organic acids and alcohols. The presence of these organic compounds has been suggested by others as intermeadiary products made during mineral surface catalyzed reactions. This work compliments our previous study characterizing the carbon isotope composition of similar low molecular weight intermediary organic compounds (Socki, et al, American Geophysical Union Fall meeting, Abstr. #V51B-2189, Dec., 2010). Our hydrogen isotope measurements utilize a unique analytical technique combining Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry-High Temperature Conversion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS-TC-IRMS). Our technique is unique in that it carries a split of the pyrolyzed GC-separated product to a Thermo DSQ-II? quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making qualitative and semi-quantitative compositional measurements of separated organic compounds, therefore both chemical and isotopic measurements can be carried out simultaneously on the same sample.

  2. Extended survival of several organisms and amino acids under simulated martian surface conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A. P.; Pratt, L. M.; Vishnivetskaya, T.; Pfiffner, S.; Bryan, R. A.; Dadachova, E.; Whyte, L.; Radtke, K.; Chan, E.; Tronick, S.; Borgonie, G.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Rothschild, L. J.; Rogoff, D. A.; Horikawa, D. D.; Onstott, T. C.

    2011-02-01

    Recent orbital and landed missions have provided substantial evidence for ancient liquid water on the martian surface as well as evidence of more recent sedimentary deposits formed by water and/or ice. These observations raise serious questions regarding an independent origin and evolution of life on Mars. Future missions seek to identify signs of extinct martian biota in the form of biomarkers or morphological characteristics, but the inherent danger of spacecraft-borne terrestrial life makes the possibility of forward contamination a serious threat not only to the life detection experiments, but also to any extant martian ecosystem. A variety of cold and desiccation-tolerant organisms were exposed to 40 days of simulated martian surface conditions while embedded within several centimeters of regolith simulant in order to ascertain the plausibility of such organisms' survival as a function of environmental parameters and burial depth. Relevant amino acid biomarkers associated with terrestrial life were also analyzed in order to understand the feasibility of detecting chemical evidence for previous biological activity. Results indicate that stresses due to desiccation and oxidation were the primary deterrent to organism survival, and that the effects of UV-associated damage, diurnal temperature variations, and reactive atmospheric species were minimal. Organisms with resistance to desiccation and radiation environments showed increased levels of survival after the experiment compared to organisms characterized as psychrotolerant. Amino acid analysis indicated the presence of an oxidation mechanism that migrated downward through the samples during the course of the experiment and likely represents the formation of various oxidizing species at mineral surfaces as water vapor diffused through the regolith. Current sterilization protocols may specifically select for organisms best adapted to survival at the martian surface, namely species that show tolerance to radical

  3. Ursolic acid inhibits superoxide production in activated neutrophils and attenuates trauma-hemorrhage shock-induced organ injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsong-Long Hwang

    Full Text Available Neutrophil activation is associated with the development of organ injury after trauma-hemorrhagic shock. In the present study, ursolic acid inhibited the superoxide anion generation and elastase release in human neutrophils. Administration of ursolic acid attenuated trauma-hemorrhagic shock-induced hepatic and lung injuries in rats. In addition, administration of ursolic acid attenuated the hepatic malondialdehyde levels and reduced the plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels after trauma-hemorrhagic shock. In conclusion, ursolic acid, a bioactive natural compound, inhibits superoxide anion generation and elastase release in human neutrophils and ameliorates trauma-hemorrhagic shock-induced organ injury in rats.

  4. Nectar sugars and amino acids in day- and night-flowering Nicotiana species are more strongly shaped by pollinators' preferences than organic acids and inorganic ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedge, Kira; Lohaus, Gertrud

    2017-01-01

    Floral nectar contains mainly sugars but also amino acids, organic acids, inorganic ions and secondary compounds to attract pollinators. The genus Nicotiana exhibits great diversity among species in floral morphology, flowering time, nectar compositions, and predominant pollinators. We studied nectar samples of 20 Nicotiana species, composed equally of day- and night-flowering plants and attracting different groups of pollinators (e.g. hummingbirds, moths or bats) to investigate whether sugars, amino acids, organic acids and inorganic ions are influenced by pollinator preferences. Glucose, fructose and sucrose were the only sugars found in the nectar of all examined species. Sugar concentration of the nectar of day-flowering species was 20% higher and amino acid concentration was 2-3-fold higher compared to the nectar of night-flowering species. The sucrose-to-hexose ratio was significantly higher in night-flowering species and the relative share of sucrose based on the total sugar correlated with the flower tube length in the nocturnal species. Flowers of different tobacco species contained varying volumes of nectar which led to about 150-fold higher amounts of total sugar per flower in bat- or sunbird-pollinated species than in bee-pollinated or autogamous species. This difference was even higher for total amino acids per flower (up to 1000-fold). As a consequence, some Nicotiana species invest large amounts of organic nitrogen for certain pollinators. Higher concentrations of inorganic ions, predominantly anions, were found in nectar of night-flowering species. Therefore, higher anion concentrations were also associated with pollinator types active at night. Malate, the main organic acid, was present in all nectar samples but the concentration was not correlated with pollinator type. In conclusion, statistical analyses revealed that pollinator types have a stronger effect on nectar composition than phylogenetic relations. In this context, nectar sugars and amino

  5. Nectar sugars and amino acids in day- and night-flowering Nicotiana species are more strongly shaped by pollinators’ preferences than organic acids and inorganic ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedge, Kira; Lohaus, Gertrud

    2017-01-01

    Floral nectar contains mainly sugars but also amino acids, organic acids, inorganic ions and secondary compounds to attract pollinators. The genus Nicotiana exhibits great diversity among species in floral morphology, flowering time, nectar compositions, and predominant pollinators. We studied nectar samples of 20 Nicotiana species, composed equally of day- and night-flowering plants and attracting different groups of pollinators (e.g. hummingbirds, moths or bats) to investigate whether sugars, amino acids, organic acids and inorganic ions are influenced by pollinator preferences. Glucose, fructose and sucrose were the only sugars found in the nectar of all examined species. Sugar concentration of the nectar of day-flowering species was 20% higher and amino acid concentration was 2-3-fold higher compared to the nectar of night-flowering species. The sucrose-to-hexose ratio was significantly higher in night-flowering species and the relative share of sucrose based on the total sugar correlated with the flower tube length in the nocturnal species. Flowers of different tobacco species contained varying volumes of nectar which led to about 150-fold higher amounts of total sugar per flower in bat- or sunbird-pollinated species than in bee-pollinated or autogamous species. This difference was even higher for total amino acids per flower (up to 1000-fold). As a consequence, some Nicotiana species invest large amounts of organic nitrogen for certain pollinators. Higher concentrations of inorganic ions, predominantly anions, were found in nectar of night-flowering species. Therefore, higher anion concentrations were also associated with pollinator types active at night. Malate, the main organic acid, was present in all nectar samples but the concentration was not correlated with pollinator type. In conclusion, statistical analyses revealed that pollinator types have a stronger effect on nectar composition than phylogenetic relations. In this context, nectar sugars and amino

  6. Nectar sugars and amino acids in day- and night-flowering Nicotiana species are more strongly shaped by pollinators' preferences than organic acids and inorganic ions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Tiedge

    Full Text Available Floral nectar contains mainly sugars but also amino acids, organic acids, inorganic ions and secondary compounds to attract pollinators. The genus Nicotiana exhibits great diversity among species in floral morphology, flowering time, nectar compositions, and predominant pollinators. We studied nectar samples of 20 Nicotiana species, composed equally of day- and night-flowering plants and attracting different groups of pollinators (e.g. hummingbirds, moths or bats to investigate whether sugars, amino acids, organic acids and inorganic ions are influenced by pollinator preferences. Glucose, fructose and sucrose were the only sugars found in the nectar of all examined species. Sugar concentration of the nectar of day-flowering species was 20% higher and amino acid concentration was 2-3-fold higher compared to the nectar of night-flowering species. The sucrose-to-hexose ratio was significantly higher in night-flowering species and the relative share of sucrose based on the total sugar correlated with the flower tube length in the nocturnal species. Flowers of different tobacco species contained varying volumes of nectar which led to about 150-fold higher amounts of total sugar per flower in bat- or sunbird-pollinated species than in bee-pollinated or autogamous species. This difference was even higher for total amino acids per flower (up to 1000-fold. As a consequence, some Nicotiana species invest large amounts of organic nitrogen for certain pollinators. Higher concentrations of inorganic ions, predominantly anions, were found in nectar of night-flowering species. Therefore, higher anion concentrations were also associated with pollinator types active at night. Malate, the main organic acid, was present in all nectar samples but the concentration was not correlated with pollinator type. In conclusion, statistical analyses revealed that pollinator types have a stronger effect on nectar composition than phylogenetic relations. In this context

  7. Flash pyrolysis of adsorbed aromatic organic acids on carbonate minerals: Assessing the impact of mineralogy for the identification of organic compounds in extraterrestrial bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, R.

    2017-12-01

    The relationship between minerals and organics is an essential factor in comprehending the origin of life on extraterrestrial bodies. So far organic molecules have been detected on meteorites, comets, interstellar medium and interplanetary dust particles. While on Mars, organic molecules may also be present as indicated by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Curiosity Rover in Martian sediments. Minerals including hydrated phyllosilicate, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have been confirmed in carbonaceous chondrites. The presence of phyllosilicate minerals on Mars has been indicated by in situ elemental analysis by the Viking Landers, remote sensing infrared observations and the presence of smectites in meteorites. Likewise, the presence of carbonate minerals on the surface of Mars has been indicated by both Phoenix Lander and Spirit Rover. Considering the fact that both mineral and organic matter are present on the surface of extraterrestrial bodies including Mars, a comprehensive work is required to understand the interaction of minerals with specific organic compounds. The adsorption of the organic molecule at water/mineral surface is a key process of concentrating organic molecules on the surface of minerals. Carboxylic acids are abundantly observed in extraterrestrial material such as meteorites and interstellar space. It is highly suspected that carboxylic acids are also present on Mars due to the average organic carbon infall rate of 108 kg/yr. Further aromatic organic acids have also been observed in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. This work presents the adsorption of an aromatic carboxylic acid at the water/calcite interface and characterization of the products formed after adsorption via on-line pyrolysis. Adsorption and online pyrolysis results are used to gain insight into adsorbed aromatic organic acid-calcite interaction. Adsorption and online pyrolysis results are related to the interpretation of organic compounds identified

  8. The Role of Concentration and Solvent Character in the Molecular Organization of Humic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Klučáková

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The molecular organization of humic acids in different aqueous solutions was studied over a wide concentration range (0.01–10 g·dm−3. Solutions of humic acids were prepared in three different media: NaOH, NaCl, and NaOH neutralized by HCl after dissolution of the humic sample. Potentiometry, conductometry, densitometry, and high resolution ultrasound spectrometry were used in order to investigate conformational changes in the humic systems. The molecular organization of humic acids in the studied systems could be divided into three concentration ranges. The rearrangements were observed at concentrations of ~0.02 g·dm−3 and ~1 g·dm−3. The first “switch-over point” was connected with changes in the hydration shells of humic particles resulting in changes in their elasticity. The compressibility of water in the hydration shells is less than the compressibility of bulk water. The transfer of hydration water into bulk water increased the total compressibility of the solution, reducing the ultrasonic velocity. The aggregation of humic particles and the formation of rigid structures in systems with concentrations higher than 1 g·dm−3 was detected.

  9. Organic compounds containing methoxy and cyanoacrylic acid: Synthesis, characterization, crystal structures, and theoretical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalaji, A. D., E-mail: alidkhalaji@yahoo.com [Golestan University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maddahi, E. [Iran University of Science & Technology, Ms.C Educated, Department of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dusek, M.; Fejfarova, K. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i. (Czech Republic); Chow, T. J. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Chemistry (China)

    2015-12-15

    Metal-free organic compounds 24-SC ((E)-2-cyano-3-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acrylic acid) and 34-SC ((E)-2-cyano-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acrylic acid), containing methoxy groups as a donor and the acrylic acid as an acceptor were synthesized and characterized by CHN, FT-IR, UV-Vis, {sup 1}H-NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction and used as photosensitizers for the application of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The sensitizing characteristics of them were evaluated. Both compounds contain the natural molecule, its anionic form and the piperidinium cation and they differ by number of these molecules in the asymmetric unit. To get further insight into the effect of molecular structure on the performance of DSSC, their geometry and energies of HOMO and LUMO were optimized by density functional theory calculation at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level with Gaussian 03. Overall conversion efficiencies of 0.78 under full sunlight irradiation are obtained for DSSCs based on the new metal-free organic dyes 24-SC and 34-SC.

  10. Chemically activated formation of organic acids in reactions of the Criegee intermediate with aldehydes and ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalan, Amrit; Allen, Joshua W; Green, William H

    2013-10-21

    Reactions of the Criegee intermediate (CI, ˙CH2OO˙) are important in atmospheric ozonolysis models. In this work, we compute the rates for reactions between ˙CH2OO˙ and HCHO, CH3CHO and CH3COCH3 leading to the formation of secondary ozonides (SOZ) and organic acids. Relative to infinitely separated reactants, the SOZ in all three cases is found to be 48-51 kcal mol(-1) lower in energy, formed via 1,3-cycloaddition of ˙CH2OO˙ across the C=O bond. The lowest energy pathway found for SOZ decomposition is intramolecular disproportionation of the singlet biradical intermediate formed from cleavage of the O-O bond to form hydroxyalkyl esters. These hydroxyalkyl esters undergo concerted decomposition providing a low energy pathway from SOZ to acids. Geometries and frequencies of all stationary points were obtained using the B3LYP/MG3S DFT model chemistry, and energies were refined using RCCSD(T)-F12a/cc-pVTZ-F12 single-point calculations. RRKM calculations were used to obtain microcanonical rate coefficients (k(E)) and the reservoir state method was used to obtain temperature and pressure dependent rate coefficients (k(T, P)) and product branching ratios. At atmospheric pressure, the yield of collisionally stabilized SOZ was found to increase in the order HCHO reactions were found to be the most sensitive parameters determining SOZ and organic acid yield.

  11. Production of hydrogen and volatile fatty acid by Enterobacter sp. T4384 using organic waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Chun; Deshpande, Tushar R; Chun, Jongsik; Yi, Sung Chul; Kim, Hyunook; Um, Youngsoon; Sang, Byoung-In

    2013-02-01

    In a study of hydrogen-producing bacteria, strain T4384 was isolated from rice field samples in the Republic of Korea. The isolate was identified as Enterobacter sp. T4384 by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequences. Enterobacter sp. T4384 grew at a temperature range of 10-45 degrees C and at an initial pH range of 4.5-9.5. Strain T4384 produced hydrogen at 0-6% NaCl by using glucose, fructose, and mannose. In serum bottle cultures using a complete medium, Enterobacter sp. T4384 produced 1,098 ml/l H2, 4.0 g/l ethanol, and 1.0 g/l acetic acid. In a pH-regulated jar fermenter culture with the biogas removed, 2,202 ml/l H2, 6.2 g/l ethanol, and 1.0 g/l acetic acid were produced, and the lag-phase time was 4.8 h. Strain T4384 metabolized the hydrolysate of organic waste for the production of hydrogen and volatile fatty acid. The strain T4384 produced 947 ml/l H2, 3.2 g/l ethanol, and 0.2 g/l acetic acid from 6% (w/v) food waste hydrolysate; 738 ml/l H2, 4.2 g/l ethanol, and 0.8 g/l acetic acid from Miscanthus sinensis hydrolysate; and 805 ml/l H2, 5.0 g/l ethanol, and 0.7 g/l acetic acid from Sorghum bicolor hydrolysate.

  12. Quantification and role of organic acids in cucumber root exudates in Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengge; Meng, Xiaohui; Yang, Xingming; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong

    2014-10-01

    The ability to colonize on plant roots is recognized as one of the most important characteristics of the beneficial fungi Trichoderma spp. The aim of this study is to prove that the utilization of organic acids is a major trait of Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 for colonization of cucumber roots. A series experiments in split-root hydroponic system and in vitro were designed to demonstrate the association between the utilization of organic acids and T-E5 colonization on cucumber roots. In the split-root hydroponic system, inoculation with T-E5 (T) significantly increased the biomass of cucumber plants compared with CK (non-inoculation with T-E5). The T-E5 hyphae densely covering the cucumber root surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Three organic acids (oxalic acid, malic acid and citric acid) were identified from both the CK and T treatments by HPLC and LC/ESI-MS procedures. The amounts of oxalic acid and malic acid in T were significantly higher than those in CK. All the organic acids exhibited different and significant stimulation effects on the mycelial growth and conidial germination of T-E5 in vitro. An additional hydroponic experiment demonstrated the positive effects of organic acids on the T-E5 colonization of cucumber roots. In conclusion, the present study revealed that certain organic acids could be used as nutritional sources for Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 to reinforce its population on cucumber roots. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrophysiological studies of salty taste modification by organic acids in the labellar taste cell of the blowfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yoshihiro; Kataoka-Shirasugi, Naoko; Amakawa, Taisaku

    2002-01-01

    Using the labellar salt receptor cells of the blowfly, Phormia regina, we electrophysiologically showed that the response to NaCl and KCl aqueous solutions was enhanced and depressed by acetic, succinic and citric acids. The organic acid concentrations at which the most enhanced salt response (MESR) was obtained were found to be different: 0.05-1 mM citric acid, 0.5-2 mM succinic acid and 5-50 mM acetic acid. Moreover, the degree of the salt response was not always dependent on the pH values of the stimulating solutions. The salt response was also enhanced by HCl (pH 3.5-3.0) only when the NaCl concentration was greater than the threshold, indicating that the salty taste would be enhanced by the comparatively lower concentrations of hydrogen ions. Another explanation for the enhancement is that the salty taste may also be enhanced by undissociated molecules of the organic acids, because the MESRs were obtained at the pH values lower than the pKa(1) or pKa(2) values of these organic acids. On the other hand, the salty taste could be depressed by both the lower pH range (pH 2.5-2.0) and the dissociated organic anions from organic acid molecules with at least two carboxyl groups.

  14. Eight supramolecular assemblies constructed from bis(benzimidazole) and organic acids through strong classical hydrogen bonding and weak noncovalent interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shouwen; Wang, Daqi

    2014-05-01

    Eight crystalline organic acid-base adducts derived from alkane bridged bis(N-benzimidazole) and organic acids (2,4,6-trinitrophenol, p-nitrobenzoic acid, m-nitrobenzoic acid, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, 5-sulfosalicylic acid and oxalic acid) were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. Of the eight compounds five are organic salts (1, 4, 6, 7 and 8) and the other three (2, 3, and 5) are cocrystals. In all of the adducts except 1 and 8, the ratio of the acid and the base is 2:1. All eight supramolecular assemblies involve extensive intermolecular classical hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. These weak interactions combined, all the complexes displayed 3D framework structure. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the classical N+-H⋯O-, O-H⋯O, and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds (ionic or neutral) and other nonbonding associations between acids and ditopic benzimidazoles are sufficient to bring about the formation of cocrystals or organic salts.

  15. PRODUCT SAFETY AND COLOR CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUND BEEF PROCESSED FROM BEEF TRIMMINGS TREATED WITH PEROXYACETIC ACID ALONE OR FOLLOWED BY NOVEL ORGANIC ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Pohlman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial interventions using peroxyacetic acetic acid (PAA followed by novel organic acids on beef trimmings prior to grinding with conventional spray (CS or electrostatic spray (ES on ground beef microbial populations and color. Beef trimmings (80/20; 25kg were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, non- O157:H7 shiga toxin producing (STEC E. coli (EC and Salmonella spp. (SA at 105 CFU/g. Inoculated trimmings (1.5 kg /treatment/replicate, 2 replicates were treated with CS application of 0.02% PAA alone or followed by CS or ES application of 3% octanoic acid (PO, 3% pyruvic acid (PP, 3% malic acid (PM, saturated solution of fumaric acid (PF or deionized water (W. Findings from this study suggest that PA as a single or multiple chemical hurdle approach with malic, pyruvic, octanoic and fumaric acid on beef trimmings may be effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 as well as non-STEC serotypes and Salmonella in ground beef up to day 2 of simulated retail display. Results of this study showed that instrumental color properties of ground beef treated with peroxyacetic acid followed by organic acids had little or no difference (P > 0.05 compared to the untreated un-inoculated control ground beef samples. The results also indicate that ES application of some organic acids may have similar or greater efficiency in controlling ground beef microbial populations compared to the CS application of the same acid providing a more economical and waste manageable decontamination approach.

  16. An accurate description of Aspergillus niger organic acid batch fermentation through dynamic metabolic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Daniel J; McQueen-Mason, Simon J; Wood, A Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus niger fermentation has provided the chief source of industrial citric acid for over 50 years. Traditional strain development of this organism was achieved through random mutagenesis, but advances in genomics have enabled the development of genome-scale metabolic modelling that can be used to make predictive improvements in fermentation performance. The parent citric acid-producing strain of A. niger , ATCC 1015, has been described previously by a genome-scale metabolic model that encapsulates its response to ambient pH. Here, we report the development of a novel double optimisation modelling approach that generates time-dependent citric acid fermentation using dynamic flux balance analysis. The output from this model shows a good match with empirical fermentation data. Our studies suggest that citric acid production commences upon a switch to phosphate-limited growth and this is validated by fitting to empirical data, which confirms the diauxic growth behaviour and the role of phosphate storage as polyphosphate. The calibrated time-course model reflects observed metabolic events and generates reliable in silico data for industrially relevant fermentative time series, and for the behaviour of engineered strains suggesting that our approach can be used as a powerful tool for predictive metabolic engineering.

  17. Computational 17O-NMR spectroscopy of organic acids and peracids: comparison of solvation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggioli, Alberto; Castiglione, Franca; Raos, Guido; Crescenzi, Orlando; Field, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine several computational strategies for the prediction of the 17 O-NMR shielding constants for a selection of organic acids and peracids in aqueous solution. In particular, we consider water (the solvent and reference for the chemical shifts), hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid, lactic acid and peracetic acid. First of all, we demonstrate that the PBE0 density functional in combination with the 6-311+G(d,p) basis set provides an excellent compromise between computational cost and accuracy in the calculation of the shielding constants. Next, we move on to the problem of the solvent representation. Our results confirm the shortcomings of the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) in the description of systems susceptible to strong hydrogen bonding interactions, while at the same time they demonstrate its usefulness within a molecular-continuum approach, whereby PCM is applied to describe the solvation of the solute surrounded by some explicit solvent molecules. We examine different models of the solvation shells, sampling their configurations using both energy minimizations of finite clusters and molecular dynamics simulations of bulk systems. Hybrid molecular dynamics simulations, in which the solute is described at the PM6 semiempirical level and the solvent by the TIP3P model, prove to be a promising sampling method for medium-to-large sized systems. The roles of solvent shell size and structure are also briefly discussed. (authors)

  18. Anaerobic acidification of sugar-containing wastewater for biotechnological production of organic acids and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwin; Charles, Wipa; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2018-05-03

    Anaerobic acidification of sugars can produce some useful end-products such as alcohol, volatile fatty acids (e.g. acetate, propionate, and butyrate) and lactic acid. The production of end-products is highly dependent on factors including pH, temperature, hydraulic retention time and the types of sugar being fermented. Results of this current study indicate that the pH and hydraulic retention time played significant roles in determining the end products from the anaerobic acidification of maltose and glucose. Under uncontrolled pH, the anaerobic acidification of maltose ceased when pH in the reactor dropped below 5 while anaerobic acidification of glucose continued and produced ethanol as the main end-product. Under controlled pH, lactic acid was found to be the dominant end-product produced from both maltose and glucose at pH 5. Acetate was the main end-product from both maltose and glucose fermented at neutral pH (6 and 7). Short hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 days could induce the production of ethanol from the anaerobic acidification of glucose. However, the anaerobic acidification of maltose could stop when short HRT of 2 days was applied in the reactor. This finding is significant for industrial fermentation and waste management systems, and selective production of different types of organic acids could be achieved by managing pH and HRT in the reactor.

  19. Thraustochytrids as production organisms for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), squalene, and carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasen, Inga Marie; Ertesvåg, Helga; Heggeset, Tonje Marita Bjerkan; Liu, Bin; Brautaset, Trygve; Vadstein, Olav; Ellingsen, Trond E

    2016-05-01

    Thraustochytrids have been applied for industrial production of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic (DHA) since the 1990s. During more than 20 years of research on this group of marine, heterotrophic microorganisms, considerable increases in DHA productivities have been obtained by process and medium optimization. Strains of thraustochytrids also produce high levels of squalene and carotenoids, two other commercially interesting compounds with a rapidly growing market potential, but where yet few studies on process optimization have been reported. Thraustochytrids use two pathways for fatty acid synthesis. The saturated fatty acids are produced by the standard fatty acid synthesis, while DHA is synthesized by a polyketide synthase. However, fundamental knowledge about the relationship between the two pathways is still lacking. In the present review, we extract main findings from the high number of reports on process optimization for DHA production and interpret these in the light of the current knowledge of DHA synthesis in thraustochytrids and lipid accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms in general. We also summarize published reports on squalene and carotenoid production and review the current status on strain improvement, which has been hampered by the yet very few published genome sequences and the lack of tools for gene transfer to the organisms. As more sequences now are becoming available, targets for strain improvement can be identified and open for a system-level metabolic engineering for improved productivities.

  20. determination of TOC value (sugar, organic acid and pesticides) in sewage waste water in Damascus city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takriti, S.; Odah, A.

    2000-03-01

    The determination and radiation degradation of organic pollutant existing in municipal sewage wastewater of Damascus plant were investigated. The wastewater samples were analyzed using TOC, HPLC, and GC techniques, and irradiation was carried out using gamma radiation with dose rate 3.5 kGy/h. The results have shown that the TOC value increases in hot season. Some of pesticides have been noticed in wastewater. These pesticides need 2.5 kGy to be degraded. The variation of TOC gives the raison to determined the existence of organic acids as function of gamma doses. Therefore, the concentration of the citric, malic, oxalic and acitic acids was increased with the increase of gamma dose. it is clear that the high value of TOC need high dose to be degraded. It is shown that with low dose the value of TOC increased and then started to be decreased. This remark may be due to the radiation reactions in aqueous phase. Significant decrease of organic pollutants degradation is caused by the presence of very small amount of hydroxyl group which known as effective scavenger for radicals. (Author)

  1. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate Radiation-induced Oxidative Stress and Organ Dysfunctions in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Aziz, N.; Yacoub, S.F.

    2013-01-01

    The Aim of the present study was to determine the possible protective effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA) against radiation-induced oxidative stress associated with organ dysfunctions. Omega-3 PUFA was administered by oral gavages to male albino rats at a dose of 0.4 g/ kg body wt daily for 4 weeks before whole body γ-irradiation with 4Gy. Significant increase of serum lipid peroxidation end product as malondialdehyde (MDA) along with the reduction in blood glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) enzyme activities were recorded on 3rd and 8th days post-irradiation. Oxidative stress was associated with a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) enzyme activities, markers of heart damage, significant increases in uric acid, urea and creatinine levels, markers of kidney damage, significant increases of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and transaminases (ALT and AST) activities, markers of liver damage. Moreover significant increases in total cholesterol and triglycerides levels were recorded. Omega-3 PUFA administration pre-irradiation significantly attenuated the radiation-induced oxidative stress and organ dysfunctions tested in this study. It could be concluded that oral supplementation of omega-3 PUFA before irradiation may afford protection against radiation-induced oxidative stress and might preserve the integrity of tissue functions of the organs under investigations.

  2. Fat and fatty acid composition of cooked meat from UK retail chickens labelled as from organic and non-organic production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, Courtney J; Kliem, Kirsty E; Givens, D Ian

    2015-07-15

    This study compared fat and fatty acids in cooked retail chicken meat from conventional and organic systems. Fat contents were 1.7, 5.2, 7.1 and 12.9 g/100 g cooked weight in skinless breast, breast with skin, skinless leg and leg with skin respectively, with organic meat containing less fat overall (Porganic meat contained less than did conventional meat (1850 vs. 2538 mg/100 g; POrganic meat was also lower (Pvs. 180 mg/100 g) and, whilst it contained more (Pvs. 13.7 mg/100 g), this was due to the large effect of one supermarket. This system by supermarket interaction suggests that poultry meat labelled as organic is not a guarantee of higher long chain n-3 fatty acids. Overall there were few major differences in fatty acid contents/profiles between organic and conventional meat that were consistent across all supermarkets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling the degradation of Portland cement pastes by biogenic organic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Windt, Laurent; Devillers, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Reactive transport models can be used to assess the long-term performance of cement-based materials subjected to biodegradation. A bioleaching test (with Aspergillus niger fungi) applied to ordinary Portland cement pastes during 15 months is modeled with HYTEC. Modeling indicates that the biogenic organic acids (acetic, butyric, lactic and oxalic) strongly accelerate hydrate dissolution by acidic hydrolysis whilst their complexation of aluminum has an effect on the secondary gel stability only. The deepest degradation front corresponds to portlandite dissolution and decalcification of calcium silicate hydrates. A complex pattern of sulfate phases dissolution and precipitation takes place in an intermediate zone. The outermost degraded zone consists of alumina and silica gels. The modeling accurateness of calcium leaching, pH evolution and degradation thickness is consistently enhanced whilst considering increase of diffusivity in the degraded zones. Precipitation of calcium oxalate is predicted by modeling but was hindered in the bioleaching reactor.

  4. Oleic acid-associated bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Botts, S; Morton, D; Knickerbocker, M J; Adler, R

    2006-03-01

    Accidental intra-airway exposure of dogs with pure oleic acid produced bronchiolitis obliterans and bronchopneumonia. Pulmonary changes included multifocal to coalescing necrosis of bronchioles and adjacent alveoli, hemorrhage, inflammation, and exudation of fibrin. Hyperplasia of bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells and proliferation of loose fibrovascular connective tissue formed polyps or plugs of variable size and shape. Polyps in the airways primarily consisted of fibroblasts with loose or myxoid stroma and were variably covered with attenuated epithelial cells. Some polyps had prominent vasculature, mixed inflammatory cell infiltration, and/or necrosis. Polyps or plugs variably effaced bronchioles and adjacent alveoli. The changes closely resembled human bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia (BOOP). Controlled intra-airway delivery of oleic acid in dogs may be a potential animal model of obstructive pulmonary diseases such as BOOP or bronchiolitis obliterans.

  5. Reaction of hypotaurine or taurine with superoxide produces the organic peroxysulfonic acid peroxytaurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Roxanna Q; Karpowicz, Steven J

    2017-07-01

    Hypotaurine and taurine are amino acid derivatives and abundant molecules in many eukaryotes. The biological reaction in which hypotaurine is converted to taurine remains poorly understood. Here, hypotaurine and taurine were observed to react with superoxide anion in vitro to form the novel molecule peroxytaurine. In contrast, hypotaurine reacts with hydrogen peroxide to form taurine, but taurine does not react with hydrogen peroxide in vitro. Mass and NMR spectrometry as well as FTIR and Raman spectroscopy support the molecular characterization of peroxytaurine. Gravitometric and spectroscopy experiments suggest a stoichiometry of two superoxide anions reacting with one hypotaurine or two taurines. The newly identified molecule is a semi-stable, organic peroxysulfonic acid that may be an intermediate metabolite in taurine synthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of dietary supplementation of salts of organic acid on production performance of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Dahiya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing different levels of salts of organic acid in the laying hen’s diet on their production performance and egg quality parameters during a period of 16-week. Materials and Methods: A total of 140 white leghorn laying hens at 24 weeks of age were randomly distributed to seven dietary treatment groups, i.e. T1 (control, T2 (0.5% sodium-butyrate, T3 (1.0% sodium-butyrate, T4 (1.5% sodium-butyrate, T5 (0.5% calcium-propionate, T6 (1.0% calcium-propionate and T7 (1.5% calcium-propionate consisting of 5 replications of 4 birds each in each treatment and housed in individual cages from 24 to 40 weeks of age. Feed intake, percent hen-day egg production, egg weight, egg mass production, feed conversion ratio (FCR, and economics of supplementation of salts of organic acids in layers’ ration were evaluated. Results: The dietary supplementation of salts of organic acids did not significantly affect the feed intake (g/day/hen and body weight gain (g. Different levels of supplementation significantly (p<0.05 improved production performance (percent hen-day egg production and egg mass production as compared to control group. FCR in terms of feed intake (kg per dozen eggs was lowest (1.83±0.05 in T4 and feed intake (kg per kg egg mass was lowest (2.87±0.05 in T5 as comparison to control (T1 group. Salts of organic acids supplementation resulted in significant (p<0.05 improvement in FCR. Egg weight was significantly (p<0.05 increased at 0.5% level of salts of organic acids in the diet. The cumulative mean values of feed cost per dozen egg production were Rs. 44.14, 42.40, 42.85, 43.26, 42.57, 43.29 and 43.56 in treatment groups T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7, respectively, and reduction in feed cost per kg egg mass production for Rs. 0.52 and 0.99 in groups T2 and T5, respectively, in comparison to T1 group. Conclusions: It can be concluded that supplementation of salts of organic acids

  7. Changes in monosaccharides, organic acids and amino acids during Cabernet Sauvignon wine ageing based on a simultaneous analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Ke; Lan, Yi-Bin; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Xiang, Xiao-Feng; Duan, Chang-Qing; Shi, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Monosaccharides, organic acids and amino acids are the important flavour-related components in wines. The aim of this article is to develop and validate a method that could simultaneously analyse these compounds in wine based on silylation derivatisation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and apply this method to the investigation of the changes of these compounds and speculate upon their related influences on Cabernet Sauvignon wine flavour during wine ageing. This work presented a new approach for wine analysis and provided more information concerning red wine ageing. This method could simultaneously quantitatively analyse 2 monosaccharides, 8 organic acids and 13 amino acids in wine. A validation experiment showed good linearity, sensitivity, reproducibility and recovery. Multiple derivatives of five amino acids have been found but their effects on quantitative analysis were negligible, except for methionine. The evolution pattern of each category was different, and we speculated that the corresponding mechanisms involving microorganism activities, physical interactions and chemical reactions had a great correlation with red wine flavours during ageing. Simultaneously quantitative analysis of monosaccharides, organic acids and amino acids in wine was feasible and reliable and this method has extensive application prospects. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. RodZ and PgsA Play Intertwined Roles in Membrane Homeostasis of Bacillus subtilis and Resistance to Weak Organic Acid Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, Johan; Blohmke, Christoph J.; Folkerts, Hendrik; de Boer, Richard; Zakrzewska, Anna; Kulik, Wim; Vaz, Fred M.; Brul, Stanley; Ter Beek, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Weak organic acids like sorbic and acetic acid are widely used to prevent growth of spoilage organisms such as Bacilli. To identify genes involved in weak acid stress tolerance we screened a transposon mutant library of Bacillus subtilis for sorbic acid sensitivity. Mutants of the rodZ (ymfM) gene

  9. Method for characterization of low molecular weight organic acids in atmospheric aerosols using ion chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Lacey C; Reiner, Jessica L; Dickerson, Russell R; Sander, Lane C

    2014-08-05

    The structural composition of PM2.5 monitored in the atmosphere is usually divided by the analysis of organic carbon, black (also called elemental) carbon, and inorganic salts. The characterization of the chemical composition of aerosols represents a significant challenge to analysts, and studies are frequently limited to determination of aerosol bulk properties. To better understand the potential health effects and combined interactions of components in aerosols, a variety of measurement techniques for individual analytes in PM2.5 need to be implemented. The method developed here for the measurement of organic acids achieves class separation of aliphatic monoacids, aliphatic diacids, aromatic acids, and polyacids. The selective ion monitoring capability of a triple quadropole mass analyzer was frequently capable of overcoming instances of incomplete separations. Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649b Urban Dust was characterized; 34 organic acids were qualitatively identified, and 6 organic acids were quantified.

  10. Hierarchically organized architecture of potassium hydrogen phthalate and poly(acrylic acid): toward a general strategy for biomimetic crystal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaki, Yuya; Imai, Hiroaki

    2005-12-28

    A hierarchically organized architecture in multiple scales was generated from potassium hydrogen phthalate crystals and poly(acrylic acid) based on our novel biomimetic approach with an exquisite association of polymers on crystallization.

  11. Bioleaching of heavy metals from soil using fungal-organic acids : bench scale testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathum, S.J.; Ousmanova, D.; Somers, A.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brown, C.E. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Engineering Division]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Technology Centre

    2006-07-01

    The ability of fungi to solubilize metals from solid materials may present new opportunities in environmental remediation. This paper presented details of a bench scale experiment that evaluated the leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soil using in situ fungal-generated organic acids. Rice was used as the growing media for organic acid production by A. foetidus. The cultivated fungus was placed on large pieces of potato-dextrose agar (PDA) plates and suspended in 5 L of sterilized water. The cooked rice was inoculated by pouring the 5 L spore suspension over the rice layer. Soil was obtained from a soil pile impacted with heavy metals at a private industrial site and augmented with Pb-contaminated soil. A polyethylene tub was used with a drain pipe leading to a leachate vessel. Crushed stone was spread over the bottom of the tub to assist leachate drainage. Approximately 45 kg of the contaminated soil was spread evenly over the stone layer to a depth of 10 cm. The concentrated spore suspension was sprinkled over the rice. Each week the leachate collection vessel was removed from the bioleaching system and the fine soil particles were allowed to settle. A control was run using the contaminated soil and solid substrate without fungus. Growth of A. foetidus was observed in both control experiment and test experiment after a period of 35 days. The pH of the leachate was measured as the fungal growth progressed. The process was assessed using ICP Mass Spectroscopy and electron spectroscopy, which showed that approximately 65 g of heavy metals were mobilized from 45 kg of soil, and that the biological leaching process resulted in greater mobilization of heavy metals relative to the control experiment. It was concluded that organic acids generated by A. foetidus were capable of leaching heavy metals from the soil. 30 refs., 4 tabs., 15 figs.

  12. Chemical characterisation of natural organic substrates for biological mitigation of acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Oriol; de Pablo, Joan; Luis Cortina, José; Ayora, Carlos

    2004-11-01

    The current approach of the biological treatment of acid mine drainage by means of a passive remediation system involves the choice of an appropriate organic substrate as electron donor for sulphate reducers. Nowadays this selection is one of the critical steps in the performance of such treatment, as this depends to a great extent on the degradability of the organic substrate. Thus, a prior characterisation of the organic substrate predicting its biodegradability would be desirable before embarking on an extensive large-scale application. The aim of this study was to correlate the chemical composition (lignin content) of four different natural organic substrates (compost, sheep and poultry manures, oak leaf) and their capacity to sustain bacterial activity in an attempt to predict biodegradation from chemical characterisation. The results showed that the lower the content of lignin in the organic substrate, the higher its biodegradability and capacity for developing bacterial activity. Of the four organic materials, sheep and poultry manures and oak leaf evolved reducing conditions and sustained active sulphidogenesis, which coupled with the decrease in sulphate concentration indicated bacterial activity. Sheep manure was clearly the most successful organic material as electron donor (sulphate removal >99%), followed by poultry manure and oak leaf (sulphate removal of 80%). Compost appeared to be too poor in carbon to promote sulphate-reducing bacteria activity by itself. Column experiments emphasised the importance of considering the residence time as a key factor in the performance of continuous systems. With a residence time of 0.73 days, sheep manure did not promote sulphidogenesis. However, extending residence time to 2.4 and 9.0 days resulted in an increase in the sulphate removal to 18% and 27%, respectively.

  13. Role of organic acids on the bioavailability of selenium in soil: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Quang Toan; Li, Zhe; Tran, Thi Anh Thu; Wang, Dan; Liang, Dongli

    2017-10-01

    Organic Acids (OAs) are important components in the rhizosphere soil and influence Se bioavailability in soil. OAs have a bidirectional contrasting effect on Se bioavailability. Understanding the interaction of OAs with Se is essential to assessing Se bioavailability in soil and clarifying the role of OAs in controlling the behavior and fate of Se in soil. This review examines the mechanisms for the (im)mobilization of Se by OAs and discusses the practical implications of these mechanisms in relation to sequestration and bioavailability of Se in soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ambient air monitoring for organic compounds, acids, and metals at Los Alamos National Laboratory, January 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.H.; Eberhart, C.F.

    1992-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) contracted Radian Corporation (Radian) to conduct a short-term, intensive air monitoring program whose goal was to estimate the impact of chemical emissions from LANL on the ambient air environment. A comprehensive emission inventory had identified more than 600 potential air contaminants in LANL's emissions. A subset of specific target chemicals was selected for monitoring: 20 organic vapors, 6 metals and 5 inorganic acid vapors. These were measured at 5 ground level sampling sites around LANL over seven consecutive days in January 1991. The sampling and analytical strategy used a combination of EPA and NIOSH methods modified for ambient air applications

  15. Synthesis and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrids formed between conducting polymers and crystalline antimonic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beleze Fábio A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the synthesis and characterization of novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials between the crystalline antimonic acid (CAA and two conductive polymers: polypyrrole and polyaniline. The hybrids were obtained by in situ oxidative polymerization of monomers by the Sb(V present in the pyrochlore-like CAA structure. The materials were characterized by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, CHN elemental analysis and electronic paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that both polymers were formed in their oxidized form, with the CAA structure acting as a counter anion.

  16. Spectroscopy of charge transfer complexes of four amino acids as organic two-dimensional conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhiyar, Ashvin; Patel, A J; Oza, A T

    2007-01-01

    It is found in this study that four amino acids, namely asparagine, arginine, histidine and glutamine form two-dimensional conducting systems which are charge transfer complexes (CTCs) with organic acceptors like TCNQ, TCNE, chloranil, DDQ, TNF and iodine. It is verified using optical absorption edges that these are 2d conductors like transition metal dichalcogenides obeying absorption functions different from 1d and 3d conductors. This 2d nature is related to the network of intermolecular H-bonding in these complexes, which leads to a global H-bonded network resulting in the absence of local deformation due to the relaxation of strain

  17. Content and distribution of phytanic acid diastereomers in organic milk as affected by feed composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Che, Brita Ngum; Kristensen, Troels; Nebel, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Phytanic acid (PA) is a bioactive compound found in milk that is derived from the phytol chain of chlorophyll, and the content of PA in milk fat depends on the availability of phytol from feed. In this study, the content of PA diastereomers was analyzed in milk sampled from five organic herds twice...... during the grazing season (May and September). The total content of PA was higher in September compared to May, but was not affected by breed (Danish Holstein or Danish Jersey). Total PA could not be directly related to intake of green feed items. The distribution between diastereomers was closely...

  18. Metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids in chlorotic leaves of 'Honeycrisp' apple (Malus domestica Borkh) with excessive accumulation of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huicong; Ma, Fangfang; Cheng, Lailiang

    2010-07-01

    Metabolite profiles and activities of key enzymes in the metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids were compared between chlorotic leaves and normal leaves of 'Honeycrisp' apple to understand how accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates affects the metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids. Excessive accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates and much lower CO(2) assimilation were found in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves, confirming feedback inhibition of photosynthesis in chlorotic leaves. Dark respiration and activities of several key enzymes in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, ATP-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, citrate synthase, aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were significantly higher in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. However, concentrations of most organic acids including phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), pyruvate, oxaloacetate, 2-oxoglutarate, malate and fumarate, and activities of key enzymes involved in the anapleurotic pathway including PEP carboxylase, NAD-malate dehydrogenase and NAD-malic enzyme were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. Concentrations of soluble proteins and most free amino acids were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. Activities of key enzymes in nitrogen assimilation and amino acid synthesis, including nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, ferredoxin and NADH-dependent glutamate synthase, and glutamate pyruvate transaminase were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. It was concluded that, in response to excessive accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates, glycolysis and TCA cycle were up-regulated to "consume" the excess carbon available, whereas the anapleurotic pathway, nitrogen assimilation and amino acid synthesis were down-regulated to reduce the overall rate of amino acid and protein synthesis.

  19. Role of organic acids in enhancing the desorption and uptake of weathered p,p'-DDE by Cucurbita pepo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Jason C.; Mattina, MaryJane Incorvia; Lee, W.-Y.; Eitzer, Brian D.; Iannucci-Berger, William

    2003-01-01

    The addition of low molecular weight organic acids to soil may enhance phytoremediation of persistent organic pollutants. - Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of seven organic acids [succinic, tartaric, malic, malonic, oxalic, citric, ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA)] over a concentration range of two orders of magnitude (0.001-0.10 M) on the abiotic desorption of weathered p,p'-DDE and the extraction of polyvalent inorganic ions from soil. At 0.05 M all organic acids significantly increased contaminant desorption by 19-80%. Organic acids also increased the aqueous concentration of eight inorganic constituents extracted from soil, with at least a six-fold increase in the release of Al, Fe, Mn, and P at 0.001 M. Zucchini seedlings grown for 28 d in soil containing weathered p,p'-DDE (300 ng/g, dry weight) were periodically amended with distilled water, citric or oxalic acids (0.01 M). Plants receiving water removed 1.7% of the p,p'-DDE from the soil. Seedlings amended with citric or oxalic acids removed 2.1 and 1.9% of the contaminant, respectively, and contained up to 66% more contaminant in the shoot system than unamended vegetation. A second crop of untreated (distilled water) zucchini in the same soil removed more contaminant than the first crop (2.5%), although the addition of organic acids did not further enhance contaminant uptake. The data indicate that the addition of low molecular weight organic acids causes the partial dissolution of the soil structure through the chelation of inorganic structural ions, potentially enhancing bioavailability and having implications for the phytoremediation of persistent organic pollutants in soil

  20. Enhancing Cooperativity in Bifunctional Acid–Pd Catalysts with Carboxylic Acid-Functionalized Organic Monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coan, Patrick D. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado—Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, United States; Ellis, Lucas D. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado—Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, United States; Griffin, Michael B. [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Schwartz, Daniel K. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado—Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, United States; Medlin, J. Will [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado—Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, United States

    2018-03-01

    Cooperative catalysts containing a combination of noble metal hydrogenation sites and Bronsted acid sites are critical for many reactions, including the deoxygenation (DO) of biomass-derived oxygenates in the upgrading of pyrolysis oil. One route toward the design of cooperative catalysts is to tether two different catalytically active functions so that they are in close proximity while avoiding undesirable interactions that can block active sites. Here, we deposited carboxylic acid (CA)-functionalized organophosphonate monolayers onto Al2O3-supported Pd nanoparticle catalysts to prepare bifunctional catalysts containing both Bronsted acid and metal sites. Modification with phosphonic acids (PAs) improved activity and selectivity for gas-phase DO reactions, but the degree of improvement was highly sensitive to both the presence and positioning of the CA group, suggesting a significant contribution from both the PA and CA sites. Short spacer lengths of 1-2 methylene groups between the phosphonate head and CA tail were found to yield the best DO rates and selectivities, whereas longer chains performed similarly to self-assembled monolayers having alkyl tails. Results from a combination of density functional theory and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested that the enhanced catalyst performance on the optimally positioned CAs was due to the generation of strong acid sites on the Al2O3 support adjacent to the metal. Furthermore, the high activity of these sites was found to result from a hydrogen-bonded cyclic structure involving cooperativity between the phosphonate head group and CA tail function. More broadly, these results indicate that functional groups tethered to supports via organic ligands can influence catalytic chemistry on metal nanoparticles.

  1. Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when…

  2. Atmospheric oxidation of isoprene and 1,3-Butadiene: influence of aerosol acidity and Relative humidity on secondary organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of acidic seed aerosols on the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA)have been examined in a number of previous studies, several of which have observed strong linear correlations between the aerosol acidity (measured as nmol H+ per m3 air s...

  3. Differential Effects of Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids on the Mobilization of Soil-Borne Arsenic and Trace Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nworie, Obinna Elijah; Qin, Junhao; Lin, Chuxia

    2017-08-21

    A batch experiment was conducted to examine the effects of six low-molecular-weight organic acids on the mobilization of arsenic and trace metals from a range of contaminated soils. The results showed that the organic acids behaved differently when reacting with soil-borne As and trace metals. Oxalic acid and acetic acid had the strongest and weakest capacity to mobilize the investigated elements, respectively. The solubilisation of iron oxides by the organic acids appears to play a critical role in mobilizing other trace metals and As. Apart from acidification and complexation, reductive dissolution played a dominant role in the dissolution of iron oxides in the presence of oxalic acid, while acidification tended to be more important for dissolving iron oxides in the presence of other organic acids. The unique capacity of oxalic acid to solubilize iron oxides tended to affect the mobilization of other elements in different ways. For Cu, Mn, and Zn, acidification-driven mobilization was likely to be dominant while complexation might play a major role in Pb mobilization. The formation of soluble Fe and Pb oxalate complexes could effectively prevent arsenate or arsenite from combining with these metals to form solid phases of Fe or Pb arsenate or arsenite.

  4. Influence of organic diet on the amount of conjugated linoleic acids in breast milk of lactating women in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rist, L.; Mueller, A.; Barthel, C.; Snijders, B.; Jansen, M.; Simões-Wüst, A.P.; Huber, M.; Kummeling, I.; Mandach, U. von; Steinhart, H.; Thijs, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out whether the incorporation of organic dairy and meat products in the maternal diet affects the contents of the conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA) and trans-vaccenic acid (TVA) in human breast milk. To this purpose, milk samples from 312 breastfeeding

  5. Development and Assessment of a Diagnostic Tool to Identify Organic Chemistry Students' Alternative Conceptions Related to Acid Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClary, LaKeisha M.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2012-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to create a new diagnostic tool to identify organic chemistry students' alternative conceptions related to acid strength. Twenty years of research on secondary and college students' conceptions about acids and bases has shown that these important concepts are difficult for students to apply to qualitative problem…

  6. Solvent extraction of thorium(IV) with dibutyldithiophosphoric acid in various organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtui, M.; Haiduc, I.

    1994-01-01

    The extraction of thorium(IV) from perchlorate solutions with di-n-butyldithiophosphoric acid (HBudtp) in various organic solvents occurs through an ion exchange mechanism. The extracted species in the organic phase is an eight-coordinate complex Th(Budtp) 4 . The higher values of the distribution ratio obtained in HBudtp-benzene-water system than in HBudtp-n-butanol-water system are explained by higher solubility of the complex species in nonpolar solvents. The position of the extraction curves in the pH-range lower than 0.7 reduces the complexation of thorium(IV) with Budtp - in the aqueous phase and also the hydrolysis process. (author) 8 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  7. Kinetics of renal organic acid transport; studies on the counter-transport of p-aminohippuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Saeng Park

    1979-04-01

    The experiments have been performed in various conditions using 14 C-PAH as a tracer. The relative ratio of the inhibitor constant (Ki) between Diodrast and probenecid was of the same magnitude as the concentrations of these inhibitors for maximal stimulation of PAH efflux. The author observed that in metabolically inhibited slices there was no PAH uptake against concentration gradient, but the efflux of PAH was greater than that in the normal slice. In these metabolically inhibited slice PAH efflux was also biphasically altered by Diodrast and probenecid added to the medium. When the concentration of sodium was reduced in medium, PAH influx was decreased but PAH efflux facilitated. 0.1mM disulfonic stilbene derivative, SITS (4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyano-2.2' disulfonic stilbene) increased PAH efflux in the normal slice, but decreased the efflux in the metabolically inhibited slice. Analyzing the data presented, the contractor came to the conclusion that the influx and efflux of PAH in the renal slice are mediated by mobile carrier cycling across the peritubular membrane of renal tubular cell. He observed also that the affinity of carrier for organic acids is altered by the energy-linking reaction at the cytoplasmic border of the membrane

  8. Patterns of organic acids exuded by pioneering fungi from a glacier forefield are affected by carbohydrate sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ivano; Goren, Asena; Schlumpf, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Bare soils in the area of retreating glaciers are ideal environments to study the role of microorganisms in the early soil formation and in processes of mineral weathering. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the source of carbohydrate would influence the patterns of organic acids exuded by fungal species. Three pioneering fungus species, isolated from fine granitic sediments in front of the Damma glacier from the central Swiss Alps, have previously been found to have the capability to exude organic acids and dissolve granite powder. In batch experiments, various carbohydrates, including glucose, cellulose, pectin, pollen, and cell remnants of cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, were applied as carbohydrate sources and the patterns of exuded organic acids recorded. The results showed that two fungi, the zygomycete fungus Mucor hiemalis and the ascomycete fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, released a significantly higher amount of organic acids in dependence on specific carbohydrate sources. Pollen and algae as carbohydrate sources triggered significantly the exudation of malate in M. hiemalis, and pollen and cellulose that of oxalate in P. chrysogenum. We conclude that the occurrence of complex carbohydrate sources in nutrient-deficient deglaciated soils may positively influence the exudation of organic acids of fungi. In particular, pollen and remnants of other microorganisms can trigger the exudation of organic acids of fungi in order to promote the weathering of minerals and to make nutrients available that would otherwise be trapped in that cryospheric environment.

  9. Patterns of organic acids exuded by pioneering fungi from a glacier forefield are affected by carbohydrate sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Ivano; Goren, Asena; Schlumpf, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Bare soils in the area of retreating glaciers are ideal environments to study the role of microorganisms in the early soil formation and in processes of mineral weathering. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the source of carbohydrate would influence the patterns of organic acids exuded by fungal species. Three pioneering fungus species, isolated from fine granitic sediments in front of the Damma glacier from the central Swiss Alps, have previously been found to have the capability to exude organic acids and dissolve granite powder. In batch experiments, various carbohydrates, including glucose, cellulose, pectin, pollen, and cell remnants of cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, were applied as carbohydrate sources and the patterns of exuded organic acids recorded. The results showed that two fungi, the zygomycete fungus Mucor hiemalis and the ascomycete fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, released a significantly higher amount of organic acids in dependence on specific carbohydrate sources. Pollen and algae as carbohydrate sources triggered significantly the exudation of malate in M. hiemalis, and pollen and cellulose that of oxalate in P. chrysogenum. We conclude that the occurrence of complex carbohydrate sources in nutrient-deficient deglaciated soils may positively influence the exudation of organic acids of fungi. In particular, pollen and remnants of other microorganisms can trigger the exudation of organic acids of fungi in order to promote the weathering of minerals and to make nutrients available that would otherwise be trapped in that cryospheric environment. (paper)

  10. The effect of cocoa fermentation and weak organic acids on growth and ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Copetti, Marina V.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Mororó, Raimundo C.

    2012-01-01

    The acidic characteristics of cocoa beans have influence on flavor development in chocolate. Cocoa cotyledons are not naturally acidic, the acidity comes from organic acids produced by the fermentative microorganisms which grow during the processing of cocoa. Different concentrations of these met...... by Aspergillus carbonarius in cocoa, and the effect of weak organic acids such as acetic, lactic and citric at different pH values on growth and ochratoxin A production by A. carbonarius and Aspergillus niger in culture media. A statistical difference (ρ......The acidic characteristics of cocoa beans have influence on flavor development in chocolate. Cocoa cotyledons are not naturally acidic, the acidity comes from organic acids produced by the fermentative microorganisms which grow during the processing of cocoa. Different concentrations...... of these metabolites can be produced according to the fermentation practices adopted in the farms, which could affect the growth and ochratoxin A production by fungi. This work presents two independent experiments carried out to investigate the effect of some fermentation practices on ochratoxin A production...

  11. Extraction of lanthanides and actinides (III) by DI-2 ethyl dithiophosphoric acid and DI-2 ethyl hexyl monothiophosphoric acid. Structure of the complexes in the organic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattee, D.; Musikas, C.; Faure, A.; Chachaty, C.

    1986-09-01

    To operate a trivalent actinide-lanthanide (III) group chemical separation from low pH nitric solutions we studied the extractive properties of the di-2 ethyl hexyl dithiophosphoric acid (HDEHDTP); this bidentate ligand which possesses a sulfur donor atom is a good extractant of soft acids. We so expect a better selectivity for the actinides (III) extraction. We also have investigated extractive properties of di-2 ethyl hexyl monothiophosphoric acid (HDEHTP) for trivalent actinides and lanthanides; HDEHDTP is a bidentate ligand with one oxygen donor atom and so is a better extractant for hard acids like actinides and lanthanides (III); but its selectivity is weak. The addition of TBP (tri-n butyl phosphate) to HDEHDTP deals to strong synergistic organic complexes with a great selectivity for Am(III). We explicited this phenomenon. When the metal is macroconcentrated the organic complexes aggregate and form inverted micelles

  12. Marsh plant response to metals: Exudation of aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2016-03-01

    Metal exposure is known to induce the production and secretion of substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere by plant roots. Knowledge on this matter is extensive for soil plants but still considerably scarce regarding marsh plants roots adapted to high salinity media. Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides, two marsh plants commonly distributed in European estuarine salt marshes, were used to assess the response of roots of both species, in terms of ALMWOAs exudation, to Cu, Ni and Cd exposure (isolated and in mixture since in natural environment, they are exposed to mixture of metals). As previous studies were carried out in unrealistic and synthetic media, here a more natural medium was selected. Therefore, in vitro experiments were carried out, with specimens of both marsh plants, and in freshwater contaminated with two different Cu, Ni and Cd concentrations (individual metal and in mixture). Both marsh plants were capable of liberating ALMWOAs into the surrounding medium. Oxalic, citric and maleic acids were found in P. australis root exudate solutions and oxalic and maleic acids in H. portulacoides root exudate solutions. ALMWOA liberation by both plants was plant species and metal-dependent. For instance, Cu affected the exudation of oxalic acid by H. portulacoides and of oxalic and citric acids by P. australis roots. In contrast, Ni and Cd did not stimulate any specific response. Regarding the combination of all metals, H. portulacoides showed a similar response to that observed for Cu individually. However, in the P. australis case, at high metal concentration mixture, a synergetic effect led to the increase of oxalic acid levels in root exudate solution and to a decrease of citric acid liberation. A correlation between ALMWOAs exudation and metal accumulation could not be established. P. australis and H. portulacoides are considered suitable metal phytoremediators of estuarine impacted areas

  13. Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus From Organ Donors Despite Nucleic Acid Test Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryaprasad, A; Basavaraju, S V; Hocevar, S N; Theodoropoulos, N; Zuckerman, R A; Hayden, T; Forbi, J C; Pegues, D; Levine, M; Martin, S I; Kuehnert, M J; Blumberg, E A

    2015-07-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is recommended for screening of organ donors, yet not all donor infections may be detected. We describe three US clusters of HCV transmission from donors at increased risk for HCV infection. Donor's and recipients' medical records were reviewed. Newly infected recipients were interviewed. Donor-derived HCV infection was considered when infection was newly detected after transplantation in recipients of organs from increased risk donors. Stored donor sera and tissue samples were tested for HCV RNA with high-sensitivity quantitative PCR. Posttransplant and pretransplant recipient sera were tested for HCV RNA. Quasispecies analysis of hypervariable region-1 was used to establish genetic relatedness of recipient HCV variants. Each donor had evidence of injection drug use preceding death. Of 12 recipients, 8 were HCV-infected-6 were newly diagnosed posttransplant. HCV RNA was retrospectively detected in stored samples from donor immunologic tissue collected at organ procurement. Phylogenetic analysis showed two clusters of closely related HCV variants from recipients. These investigations identified the first known HCV transmissions from increased risk organ donors with negative NAT screening, indicating very recent donor infection. Recipient informed consent and posttransplant screening for blood-borne pathogens are essential when considering increased risk donors. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  14. Predicting nitrogen and acidity effects on long-term dynamics of dissolved organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, E.C.; Tipping, E.; Posch, M.; Oulehle, F.; Cooper, D.M.; Jones, T.G.; Burden, A.; Hall, J.; Evans, C.D.

    2014-01-01

    Increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes may relate to changes in sulphur and nitrogen pollution. We integrated existing models of vegetation growth and soil organic matter turnover, acid–base dynamics, and organic matter mobility, to form the ‘MADOC’ model. After calibrating parameters governing interactions between pH and DOC dissolution using control treatments on two field experiments, MADOC reproduced responses of pH and DOC to additions of acidifying and alkalising solutions. Long-term trends in a range of acid waters were also reproduced. The model suggests that the sustained nature of observed DOC increases can best be explained by a continuously replenishing potentially-dissolved carbon pool, rather than dissolution of a large accumulated store. The simulations informed the development of hypotheses that: DOC increase is related to plant productivity increase as well as to pH change; DOC increases due to nitrogen pollution will become evident, and be sustained, after soil pH has stabilised. -- Highlights: • A model of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was developed by integrating simple models • MADOC simulates effects of sulphur and nitrogen deposition and interactions with pH. • Responses of DOC and pH to experimental acidification and alkalisation were reproduced. • The persistence of DOC increases will depend on continued supply of potential DOC. • DOC fluxes are likely determined by plant productivity as well as soil solution pH. -- Effects of changes in sulphur and nitrogen pollution on dissolved organic carbon fluxes are predicted by simulating soil organic matter cycling, the release of potentially-dissolved carbon, and interactions with soil pH

  15. Fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissues of organic and conventional Blanca Andaluza suckling kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De la Vega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the preservation of autochthonous breeds such as the Blanca Andaluza goat (meat breed, raised under grazing-based management, has recently increased among Spanish farmers. A study of the possibilities of transformation to organic production needs to analyze the quality of their products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid (FA composition of muscle and adipose tissues of Blanca Andaluza goat kids under organic and conventional grazing–based management system. Twenty-four twin kids (12 males, 12 females were selected from each system. The FA profile was determined in the longissimus thoracis muscle, kidney and pelvic fat. The percentages of C17:0, C17:1, C20:1, C20:4 n-6, C22:2 and several n-3 FAs were higher in organic meat; C12:0, C18:1 trans-11, CLA and C20:5 n-3 were lower in organic meat. The fat depots from the conventional kids showed lower percentages of C12:0, C14:0, C15:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:3 n-3 and atherogenicity index, and higher percentage of C18:0. In the pelvic fat, the conventional kids displayed lower percentages of C16:0, C18:2 n-6 cis, PUFA, n-3 and n-6 FAs, and greater percentages of C18:1 n-9 cis and MUFA. The conventional kids displayed a major n6:n3 ratio in the kidney fat. No gender differences were observed. Significant differences were found only in some FA percentages of muscle and adipose tissues of suckling kids raised in organic and conventional livestock production systems, and due to this reason conventional grazing–based management farms could easily be transformed into organic production.

  16. Potentially bioavailable natural organic carbon and hydrolyzable amino acids in aquifer sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lashun K.; Widdowson, Mark A.; Novak, John T.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Benner, Ronald; Kaiser, Karl

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between concentrations of operationally defined potentially bioavailable organic -carbon (PBOC) and hydrolyzable amino acids (HAAs) in sediments collected from a diverse range of chloroethene--contaminated sites. Concentrations of PBOC and HAA were measured using aquifer sediment samples collected at six selected study sites. Average concentrations of total HAA and PBOC ranged from 1.96 ± 1.53 to 20.1 ± 25.6 mg/kg and 4.72 ± 0.72 to 443 ± 65.4 mg/kg, respectively. Results demonstrated a statistically significant positive relationship between concentrations of PBOC and total HAA present in the aquifer sediment (p amino acids are known to be readily biodegradable carbon compounds, this relationship suggests that the sequential chemical extraction procedure used to measure PBOC is a useful indicator of bioavailable carbon in aquifer sediments. This, in turn, is consistent with the interpretation that PBOC measurements can be used for estimating the amount of natural organic carbon available for driving the reductive dechlorination of chloroethenes in groundwater systems.

  17. Respiration rates in forest soil organic horizon materials treated with simulated acid rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salonius, P O

    1990-01-01

    The entire organic horizon above the mineral soil was collected under a mature black spruce (Picea mariana) stand in central New Brunswick. The organic horizon consisted of litter, fermentation, and humus layers of 1.5, 4.0, and 1.0 cm depths respectively. In concert with a series of simulated rain experiments, which dealt with the effects of acid precipitation of pH 4.6, 3.6, and 2.6 compared with controls at pH 5.6 on germination and early growth of forest tree seedlings, 30 randomly distributed, unplanted tubes in each rain chamber were exposed to treatment during each of the 5-week treatments of the various tree species. During the experiments, ca 315 mm of simulated rain was deposited on the soil surfaces in the tube containers. Marked decreases in soil microbial activity were found only with pH 2.6 rain, but responsiveness to increasing temperature was lower as rain of greater acidity was applied to the soil. Ammonium nitrogen mineralization rates were not affected by treatment of soil with acidified precipitation. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Carbon isotope effects in carbohydrates and amino acids of photosynthesizing organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivlev, A.A.; Kaloshin, A.G.; Koroleva, M.Ya. (Ministerstvo Geologii SSR, Moscow)

    1982-02-10

    The analysis of the carbon isotope distribution in carbohydrates and amino acids of some photosynthesizing organisms revealed the close relationship between distribution and the pathways of biosynthesis of the molecules. This relationship is explained on the basis of the previously proposed mechanism of carbon isotope fractionation in a cell, in which the chief part is played by kinetic isotope effects in the pyruvate decarboxylation reaction progressively increased in the conjugated processes of gluconeogenesis. Isotope differences of C/sub 2/ and C/sub 3/ fragments arising in decarboxylation of pyruvate, as well as isotope differences of biogenic acceptor and environmental CO/sub 2/ appearing in assimilation are the main reasons of the observed intramolecular isotopic heterogeneity of biomolecules. The heterogeneity is preserved in metabolites owing to an incomplete mixing of carbon atoms in biochemical reactions. The probable existence of two pools of carbohydrates in photosynthesizing organisms different in isotopic composition is predicted. Two types of intramolecular isotope distribution in amino acids are shown.

  19. 14C-incorporation into sugars and organic acids of water-stressed maize leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, T.; Fock, H.

    1986-01-01

    The incorporation of 14 C into sugars and some organic acids of maize leaves has been studied in relation to the leaf water potential by feeding 14 CO 2 (370 ppm) for 1,2 and 4 min during steady state photosynthesis at 25 0 C (PAR = 800 μmol m -2 s -1 ). The relative specific radioactivity (RSA) of the sugars was low (0.2% after 4 min) at -0.62 MPa (control) and decreased by about 50% when psi dropped to -0.95 MPa. The authors conclude that the low rate of photosynthetic sugar synthesis in maize leaves decreased during water stress. The RSA of malate was extremely low at -0.62 MPa (0.02%). This result may be the consequence of the large pool size of malate in maize leaves. The authors presume that there are two malate pools present in maize leaves, a small metabolic pool and a larger storage pool. The RSA of malate decreased during the stress period. This is consistent with the decline in net CO 2 uptake during water stress. The pool sizes of citrate and isocitrate increased when psi dropped to -0.95 MPa. As practically no radioactivity was detected in these organic acids, they conclude that these compounds are synthesized from unlabelled precursors during water stress

  20. Coordination Polymers and Metal Organic Frameworks Derived from 1,2,4-Triazole Amino Acid Linkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Garcia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The perceptible appearance of biomolecules as prospective building blocks in the architecture of coordination polymers (CPs and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs are redolent of their inclusion in the synthon/tecton library of reticular chemistry. In this frame, for the first time a synthetic strategy has been established for amine derivatization in amino acids into 1,2,4-triazoles. A set of novel 1,2,4-triazole derivatized amino acids were introduced as superlative precursors in the design of 1D coordination polymers, 2D chiral helicates and 3D metal-organic frameworks. Applications associated with these compounds are diverse and include gas adsorption-porosity partitioning, soft sacrificial matrix for morphology and phase selective cadmium oxide synthesis, FeII spin crossover materials, zinc-b-lactamases inhibitors, logistics for generation of chiral/non-centrosymmetric networks; and thus led to a foundation of a new family of functional CPs and MOFs that are reviewed in this invited contribution.

  1. Thermal decomposition of organic solvent with nitric acid in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Tadao; Nishio, Gunji; Takada, Junichi; Tukamoto, Michio; Watanabe, Kouji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Miyata, Sadaichirou

    1995-02-01

    Since a thermal decomposition of organic solvent containing TBP (tributyl phosphate) with nitric acid and heavy metal nitrates is an exothermic reaction, it is possible to cause an explosive decomposition of TBP-complex materials formed by a nitration between the solvent and nitric acid, if the solvent involving TBP-complex is heated upto a thermal limit in an evaporator to concentrate a fuel liquid solution from the extraction process in the reprocessing plant. In JAERI, the demonstration test for explosive decomposition of TBP-complex by the nitration was performed to elucidate the safety margin of the evaporator in the event of hypothetical explosion under auspices of the Science and Technology Agency. The demonstration test was carried out by heating TBP/n-dodecane solvent mixed with nitric acid and uranium nitrate. In the test, the thermal decomposition behavior of the solvent was examined, and also a kinematic reaction constant and a heat formation of the TBP-complex decomposition were measured by the test. In the paper, a safety analysis of a model evaporator was conducted during accidental conditions under the explosive decomposition of the solvent. (author).

  2. Adsorption of marine phycotoxin okadaic acid on a covalent organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Laura M; Pinela, Sara R; Fernandes, Soraia P S; Louçano, João; Carbó-Argibay, Enrique; Sarriá, Marisa P; Rodríguez-Abreu, Carlos; Peixoto, João; Espiña, Begoña

    2017-11-24

    Phycotoxins, compounds produced by some marine microalgal species, can reach high concentrations in the sea when a massive proliferation occurs, the so-called harmful algal bloom. These compounds are especially dangerous to human health when concentrated in the digestive glands of seafood. In order to generate an early warning system to alert for approaching toxic outbreaks, it is very important to improve monitoring methods of phycotoxins in aquatic ecosystems. Solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking devices reported thus far based on polymeric resins have not been able to provide an efficient harmful algal bloom prediction system due to their low adsorption capabilities. In this work, a water-stable covalent organic framework (COF) was evaluated as adsorbent for the hydrophobic toxin okadaic acid, one of the most relevant marine toxins and the parental compound of the most common group of toxins responsible for the diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. Adsorption kinetics of okadaic acid onto the COF in seawater showed that equilibrium concentration was reached in only 60min, with a maximum experimental adsorption of 61mgg -1 . Desorption of okadaic acid from the COF was successful with both 70% ethanol and acetonitrile as solvent, and the COF material could be reused with minor losses in adsorption capacity for three cycles. The results demonstrate that COF materials are promising candidates for solid-phase adsorption in water monitoring devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Downstream extraction process development for recovery of organic acids from a fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekatorou, Argyro; Dima, Agapi; Tsafrakidou, Panagiotia; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-11-01

    The present study focused on organic acids (OAs) recovery from an acidogenic fermentation broth, which is the main problem regarding the use of OAs for production of ester-based new generation biofuels or other applications. Specifically, 10 solvents were evaluated for OAs recovery from aqueous media and fermentation broths. The effects of pH, solvent/OAs solution ratios and application of successive extractions were studied. The 1:1 solvent/OAs ratio showed the best recovery rates in most cases. Butyric and isobutyric acids showed the highest recovery rates (80-90%), while lactic, succinic, and acetic acids were poorly recovered (up to 45%). The OAs recovery was significantly improved by successive 10-min extractions. Alcohols presented the best extraction performance. The process using repeated extractions with 3-methyl-1-butanol led to the highest OAs recovery. However, 1-butanol can be considered as the most cost-effective option taking into account its price and availability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of organic fertilizer and its residual on cowpea and soybean in acid soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Kuntyastuty

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of planting areas on acid soils is one of the strategies to achieve Indonesian self-sufficiency program on food. Acidic soil has low pH that causes contents of Al, Fe, and Mn are high. In addition, acidic soil also only has low microbial population. These conditions make soybean growth is not optimal. This research consisted of two phases i.e., the first and second planting. The first planting was aimed to study the effectiveness of fertilizer treatment, with three replications, using cowpea commodity. The second planting was done without additional fertilizer that consisted of three replicates (continued from the first planting using soybean. This research that was carried out at Iletri’s greenhouse Malang in 2014 was arranged in a randomized block design consisting of eight treatments, namely: (a control/without fertilizer; (B 300 kg/ha (15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O, 10% S; (C 1500 kg/ha cow manure; (D 3000 kg/ha cow manure; (E 5000 kg/ha cow manure; (F 1500 kg/ha fermented chicken + cow manures; (G 3000 kg/ha fermented chicken + cow manures; and (H 5000 kg/ha fermented chicken + cow manures. The results showed that organic fertilizer (cow manure 5000 kg/ha had higher yields both in the first planting and second planting compared to inorganic fertilizer 300 kg/ha (15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O, 10% S

  5. Acidity-Controlled Conducting Polymer Films for Organic Thermoelectric Devices with Horizontal and Vertical Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woongki; Song, Myeonghun; Park, Soohyung; Nam, Sungho; Seo, Jooyeok; Kim, Hwajeong; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2016-09-01

    Organic thermoelectric devices (OTEDs) are recognized one of the next generation energy conversion platforms because of their huge potentials for securing electricity continuously from even tiny heat sources in our daily life. The advantage of OTEDs can be attributable to the design freedom in device shapes and the low-cost fabrication by employing solution coating processes at low temperatures. As one of the major OTE materials to date, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been used, but no study has been yet carried out on its acidity control even though the acidic components in OTEDs can seriously affect the device performance upon operation. Here we demonstrate that the addition of aniline (a weak base) can control the acidity of PEDOT:PSS and enhance the performance of OTEDs. In particular, the vertical OTEDs with aniline-doped PEDOT:PSS films (active area = 1.0 cm2) could continuously generate electricity (0.06 nW) even at low temperatures (<38 °C) when they were mounted on a desk lamp (power = 24 W).

  6. Liquid–liquid extraction combined with differential isotope dimethylaminophenacyl labeling for improved metabolomic profiling of organic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Jun; Li, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •An improved method for profiling the carboxylic acid sub-metabolome is reported. •Liquid–liquid extraction was used for separating the organic acids from the amines. • 12 C/ 13 C-p-dimethylaminophenacyl (DmPA) labeling of the organic acids was carried out on the extract. •Detection interference by amines and labeling efficiency reduction by water were reduced. •About 2500 12 C/ 13 C-peak pairs or putative metabolites could be detected from 20 μL of human urine. -- Abstract: A large fraction of the known human metabolome belong to organic acids. However, comprehensive profiling of the organic acid sub-metabolome is a major analytical challenge. In this work, we report an improved method for detecting organic acid metabolites. This method is based on the use of liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) to selectively extract the organic acids, followed by using differential isotope p-dimethylaminophenacyl (DmPA) labeling of the acid metabolites. The 12 C-/ 13 C-labeled samples are analyzed by liquid chromatography Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC–FTICR–MS). It is shown that this LLE DmPA labeling method offers superior performance over the method of direct DmPA labeling of biofluids such as human urine. LLE of organic acids reduces the interference of amine-containing metabolites that may also react with DmPA. It can also remove water in a biofluid that can reduce the labeling efficiency. Using human urine as an example, it is demonstrated that about 2500 peak pairs or putative metabolites could be detected in a 30-min gradient LC–MS run, which is about 3 times more than that detected in a sample prepared using direct DmPA labeling. About 95% of the 1000 or so matched metabolites to the Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) are organic acids. It is further shown that this method can be used to handle as small as 10 μL of urine. We believe that this method opens the possibility of generating a

  7. Liquid–liquid extraction combined with differential isotope dimethylaminophenacyl labeling for improved metabolomic profiling of organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Jun; Li, Liang, E-mail: Liang.Li@ualberta.ca

    2013-11-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •An improved method for profiling the carboxylic acid sub-metabolome is reported. •Liquid–liquid extraction was used for separating the organic acids from the amines. •{sup 12}C/{sup 13}C-p-dimethylaminophenacyl (DmPA) labeling of the organic acids was carried out on the extract. •Detection interference by amines and labeling efficiency reduction by water were reduced. •About 2500 {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C-peak pairs or putative metabolites could be detected from 20 μL of human urine. -- Abstract: A large fraction of the known human metabolome belong to organic acids. However, comprehensive profiling of the organic acid sub-metabolome is a major analytical challenge. In this work, we report an improved method for detecting organic acid metabolites. This method is based on the use of liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) to selectively extract the organic acids, followed by using differential isotope p-dimethylaminophenacyl (DmPA) labeling of the acid metabolites. The {sup 12}C-/{sup 13}C-labeled samples are analyzed by liquid chromatography Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC–FTICR–MS). It is shown that this LLE DmPA labeling method offers superior performance over the method of direct DmPA labeling of biofluids such as human urine. LLE of organic acids reduces the interference of amine-containing metabolites that may also react with DmPA. It can also remove water in a biofluid that can reduce the labeling efficiency. Using human urine as an example, it is demonstrated that about 2500 peak pairs or putative metabolites could be detected in a 30-min gradient LC–MS run, which is about 3 times more than that detected in a sample prepared using direct DmPA labeling. About 95% of the 1000 or so matched metabolites to the Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) are organic acids. It is further shown that this method can be used to handle as small as 10 μL of urine. We believe that this method opens the

  8. Influence of microflora on texture and contents of amino acids, organic acids, and volatiles in semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionibacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehn, Lina Ulrika Ingeborg; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Persson, S.-E.

    2011-01-01

    The microflora of semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionic acid bacteria (PAB) is quite complex, and we investigated the influence of its variation on texture and contents of organic acids, free amino acids, and volatile compounds. Variation in the microflora within the normal range...... of log 8 to log 9 cfu/g, which was about 1 log unit higher than the total number of starter bacteria and about 2 log units higher than the number of nonstarter lactic acid bacteria. Eye formation was observed during the warm room period and further ripening (at 8 to 10°C). The amounts of acetate......, propionate, total content of free amino acids, 2-propanol, and ethyl propionate in the ripened cheeses were related to the number of PAB. A decrease in the relative content of Asp and Lys and increase of Phe over the ripening time were different from what is observed in semi-hard cheese without PAB...

  9. Staining of proteins in gels with Coomassie G-250 without organic solvent and acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Ann-Marie; Besir, H Uuml Seyin

    2009-08-14

    In classical protein staining protocols using Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB), solutions with high contents of toxic and flammable organic solvents (Methanol, Ethanol or 2-Propanol) and acetic acid are used for fixation, staining and destaining of proteins in a gel after SDS-PAGE. To speed up the procedure, heating the staining solution in the microwave oven for a short time is frequently used. This usually results in evaporation of toxic or hazardous Methanol, Ethanol or 2-Propanol and a strong smell of acetic acid in the lab which should be avoided due to safety considerations. In a protocol originally published in two patent applications by E.M. Wondrak (US2001046709 (A1), US6319720 (B1)), an alternative composition of the staining solution is described in which no organic solvent or acid is used. The CBB is dissolved in bidistilled water (60-80 mg of CBB G-250 per liter) and 35 mM HCl is added as the only other compound in the staining solution. The CBB staining of the gel is done after SDS-PAGE and thorough washing of the gel in bidistilled water. By heating the gel during the washing and staining steps, the process can be finished faster and no toxic or hazardous compounds are evaporating. The staining of proteins occurs already within 1 minute after heating the gel in staining solution and is fully developed after 15-30 min with a slightly blue background that is destained completely by prolonged washing of the stained gel in bidistilled water, without affecting the stained protein bands.

  10. Phenolics and essential mineral profile of organic acid pretreated unripe banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyasi, Tonna A; Jideani, Afam I O; Mchau, Godwin R A

    2018-02-01

    Banana fruit (Musa spp) though rich in essential minerals, has also been implicated for the presence of phytochemicals which nonetheless beneficial, can also act as mineral inhibitors when in forms such as phenolic compounds, phytates and tannins. This study assayed the essential macro and trace minerals as well as phenolic compounds present in unripe banana flour (UBF) obtained from the pulp of four different cultivars. Unripe banana flour was processed by oven drying in a forced air oven dryer at 70°C upon pretreatment with ascorbic, citric and lactic acid. Organic acid pretreatment was done separately on each unripe banana cultivar at concentrations of 10, 15 and 20g/L. Phenolic compounds were profiled using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry electrospray ion (LC-MS-ESI) while essential minerals were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) respectively. Results of LC-MS-ESI assay of phenolics revealed the presence of flavonoids: epicatechin and myricetin 3-O-rhamnosyl-glucoside in varying concentrations in UBF. Essential mineral profile indicated that Zinc had the least occurrence of 3.55mg/kg (ppotassium was the most abundant mineral at 14746.73mg/kg in UBF of all four banana cultivars. Correlation between phenolic compounds and essential minerals using Pearson's Correlation Coefficient test revealed weak and inverse association between flavonoids and most macro and trace minerals present in UBF samples. Organic acid pretreatment thus exhibited little effect on phenolics and essential minerals of UBF samples, though, inhibitory influence of phenolic compounds was recorded on essential minerals. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved dissolution and absorption of ketoconazole in the presence of organic acids as pH-modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Masashi; Hinatsu, Yuta; Kusamori, Kosuke; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Nakatani, Manabu; Wada, Koichi; Yamamoto, Akira

    2015-08-30

    Formulation development of poorly water-soluble compounds can be challenging because of incomplete dissolution that causes low and variable bioavailability. Enhancing compound solubility is important and many techniques have been investigated to that end, but they require specific materials and machinery. This study investigates the incorporation of a pH-modifier as a method to increase compound solubility and uses ketoconazole (KZ), which is weakly basic (pKa: 6.5), as a model compound. Organic acids are effective pH-modifiers and are generally used in pharmaceutical industries. We successfully obtained granules containing variable organic acids (KZ/acid granule) using a high-shear mixer. Dissolution tests of the KZ/acid granule resulted in highly enhanced solubility under non-sink conditions. Adding water-soluble acids, such as citric acid (CA) and tartaric acid, resulted in more than 8-fold higher dissolution at pH 6.0 compared to that of KZ only. The granules containing citric acid (KZ/CA granule) improved the dissolution of KZ after oral administration to rats under low gastric acid conditions, where the bioavailability of the KZ/CA granules at elevated gastric pH was comparable with that of KZ only at gastric acidic pH. The incorporation of organic acids would result in effective therapeutic outcomes independent of gastric pH in patients. In addition, higher bioavailability of KZ was observed after oral administration of KZ/CA granules under gastric acidic pH conditions than that of KZ alone. Thus, CA improved the dissolution and absorption rate of KZ after oral administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Organic acid compounds in root exudation of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) and its bioactivity as affected by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junren; Shafi, Mohammad; Wang, Ying; Wu, Jiasen; Ye, Zhengqian; Liu, Chen; Zhong, Bin; Guo, Hua; He, Lizhi; Liu, Dan

    2016-10-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) has great potential as phytoremediation material in soil contaminated by heavy metals. A hydroponics experiment was conducted to determine organic acid compounds of root exudates of lead- (Pb), zinc- (Zn), copper- (Cu), and cadmium (Cd)-tolerant of Moso bamboo. Plants were grown in nutrients solution which included Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd applied as Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (200 μM), ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O (100 μM), CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O (25 μM), and CdCl 2 (10 μM), respectively. Oxalic acid and malic acid were detected in all treatments. Lactic acid was observed in Cu, Cd, and control treatments. The oxalic was the main organic acid exudated by Moso bamboo. In the sand culture experiment, the Moso bamboo significantly activated carbonate heavy metals under activation of roots. The concentration of water-soluble metals (except Pb) in sand were significantly increased as compared with control. Organic acids (1 mM mixed) were used due to its effect on the soil adsorption of heavy metals. After adding mixed organic acids, the Cu and Zn sorption capacity in soils was decreased markedly compared with enhanced Pb and Cd sorption capacity in soils. The sorption was analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich equations with R 2 values that ranged from 0.956 to 0.999 and 0.919 to 0.997, respectively.

  13. Winter supplementation of ground whole flaxseed impacts milk fatty acid composition on organic dairy farms in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate supplementation of ground whole flaxseed to organic dairy cows during the non-grazing season to maintain levels of beneficial fatty acid concentrations in milk typically observed during the grazing season. During the winters of 2013-14 and 2014-15, 9 organ...

  14. Solvent extraction of organic acids from stillage for its re-use in ethanol production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, G A; Caicedo, L A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Sanchez, O F

    2010-06-01

    Stillage re-use in the fermentation stage in ethanol production is a technique used for the reduction of water and fermentation nutrients consumption. However, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth of the by-products and feed components that remains in stillage increases with re-use and reduces the number of possible recycles. Several methods such as ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and advanced oxidation processes have been used in stillage treatment prior its re-use in the fermentation stage. Nevertheless, few studies evaluating the effect of solvent extraction as a stillage treatment option have been performed. In this work, the inhibitory effect of serial stillage recycling over ethanol and biomass production was determined, using acetic acid as a monitoring compound during the fermentation and solvent extraction process. Raw palm oil methyl ester showed the highest acetic acid extraction from the aqueous phase, presenting a distribution coefficient of 3.10 for a 1:1 aqueous phase mixture:solvent ratio. Re-using stillage without treatment allowed up to three recycles with an ethanol production of 53.7 +/- 2.0 g L(-1), which was reduced 25% in the fifth recycle. Alternatively, treated stillage allowed up to five recycles with an ethanol final concentration of 54.7 +/- 1.3 g L(- 1). These results show that reduction of acetic acid concentration by an extraction process with raw palm oil methyl ester before re-using stillage improves the number of recycles without a major effect on ethanol production. The proposed process generates a palm oil methyl ester that contains organic acids, among other by-products, that could be used for product recovery and as an alternative fuel.

  15. Simultaneous determination of gallic acid and gentisic acid in organic anion transporter expressing cells by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Halquist, Matthew S; Sweet, Douglas H

    2013-10-15

    In order to elucidate the role of organic anion transporters (OATs) in the renal elimination of gallic acid and gentisic acid, a new, rapid, and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of gallic acid and gentisic acid in cell lysate, using Danshensu as the internal standard (IS). After a simple liquid-liquid extraction, the analytes were detected in negative ESI mode using selected reaction monitoring. The precursor-to-product ion transitions (m/z) were 169.0→125.0, 153.1→108.0, and 196.8→135.2 for gallic acid, gentisic acid, and the IS, respectively. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column using mobile phases consisting of water with 0.1% acetic acid (A) and acetonitrile with 0.05% formic acid. (B) The total run time was 3min and calibration curves were linear over the concentrations of 0.33-2400ng/mL for both compounds (r(2)>0.995). Good precision (between 3.11% and 14.1% RSD) and accuracy (between -12.7% and 11% bias) was observed for quality controls at concentrations of 0.33 (lower limit of quantification), 1, 50, and 2000ng/mL. The mean extraction recovery of gallic acid and gentisic acid was 80.7% and 83.5%, respectively. Results from post-column infusion and post-extraction methods indicated that the analytical method exhibited negligible matrix effects. Finally, this validated assay was successfully applied in a cellular uptake study to determine the intracellular concentrations of gallic acid and gentisic acid in OAT expressing cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Oxidizing gel formulation for nuclear decontamination: rheological and acidic properties of the organic matrix and its ozonolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouy, E.

    2003-10-01

    An acidic and oxidizing gel was formulated with a purely organic matrix, xanthan gum, at low concentrations (1 to 2 wt %). This polymer gel was investigated in various media (aqueous, acidic and ceric) by means of rheology: shear thinning behaviour, thixotropy, yield stress... Evidences of unexpected rheological properties in highly concentrated media show that xanthan is quite convenient for industrial projection of this type of gel on metallic walls in nuclear plants, notwithstanding its time-limited resistance to oxidation (about a few hours). Complexation mechanisms between ceric species and polar sites of the polymer led us to characterise acidic properties of our xanthan sample by potentiometric titration and 1 H NMR techniques. The matrix was finally treated by ozonolysis to suppress organic residues, as required to handle nuclear wastes. In acidic medium, ozonolysis of the gel was achieved successfully while in acidic and ceric medium this process showed limited efficiency, needing further investigation to be clarified. (author)

  17. Changes in the carbohydrate and organic acid contents of tomatoes as a function of radiation dose and storage time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, E.

    1974-01-01

    Sugars and organic acids of tomatoes, variety Original Fruehrot, in different stages of development were examined by gas chromatography after silylation. Changes in the carbohydrate and organic acid content of half-ripe and ripe tomatoes were determined after treatment with different radiation doses (5, 15, 30, 60, 250 and 500 krad). Fructose, glucose, saccharose and malic acid could be detected in the tomato samples. The saccharose and malic acid contents of half-ripe tomatoes decreased as a result of irradiation with doses above 250 krad. In ripe tomatoes, the malic acid content fell most markedly under the influence of irradiation. The sugar content tended to decrease as a function of storage time, except for samples treated with 15 krad which usually delayed decomposition of the components tested. The effect of irradiation was more extensive in half-ripe tomatoes than in ripe ones. (F.J.)

  18. [Dynamics of the amino acid composition of the medium during cultivation of isolated organs by the directed perfusion method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, V A; Gitel'zon, I I; Nefedov, V P; Trubachev, I N

    1975-07-01

    The dynamics of the amino acid composition of the medium under conditions of adequate perfusion of the isolated organs of a dog (sternum, kidney and liver) was studied. It was found that after a 6-hour perfusion of the complex of organs the amount in the perfusion medium of such amino acids as histidine, lysine, alanine, considerably increased, whereas the amount of arginine, serine, aspartic acid, threonine with glutamine, isoleucine, proline, leucine and valine decreased as compared with their initial concentration. The dynamics of the amino acid medium composition during a 4-hour perfusion was studied in experiments with the isolated sternum. The concentration of alanine, lysine and histidine increased in the medium. At the same time there was seen a decrease in the concentration of serine, aspartic acid, isoleucine, tyrosine and phenyl-alanine.

  19. Changes in the carbohydrate and organic acid contents of tomatoes as a function of radiation dose and storage time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, E [Kozponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1974-01-01

    Sugars and organic acids of tomatoes, variety Original Fruehrot, in different stages of development were examined by gas chromatography after silylation. Changes in the carbohydrate and organic acid content of half-ripe and ripe tomatoes were determined after treatment with different radiation doses (5, 15, 30, 60, 250 and 500 krad). Fructose, glucose, saccharose and malic acid could be detected in the tomato samples. The saccharose and malic acid contents of half-ripe tomatoes decreased as a result of irradiation with doses above 250 krad. In ripe tomatoes, the malic acid content fell most markedly under the influence of irradiation. The sugar content tended to decrease as a function of storage time, except for samples treated with 15 krad which usually delayed decomposition of the components tested. The effect of irradiation was more extensive in half-ripe tomatoes than in ripe ones.

  20. Towards an understanding of feedbacks between plant productivity, acidity and dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Ed; Tipping, Ed; Davies, Jessica; Monteith, Don; Evans, Chris

    2014-05-01

    leaching rates may thus control soil formation (Vitousek et al., 2010). Large observed DON concentrations that were observed in an experimental study are difficult to reconcile with the amount of N retention necessary to have accumulated observed organic matter stocks. We examine potential reasons for this discrepancy. - Evans CD, Jones TG, Burden A et al. (2012) Acidity controls on dissolved organic carbon mobility in organic soils. Global Change Biology 18, 3317-3331. - Monteith DT, Stoddard JL, Evans CD et al. (2007) Rising freshwater dissolved organic carbon driven by changes in atmospheric deposition. Nature 450, 537-540. - Rowe EC, Tipping E, Posch M et al. (2014) Predicting nitrogen and acidity effects on long-term dynamics of dissolved organic matter. Environmental Pollution 184, 271-282. - Tipping E, Billett MF, Bryant CL et al. (2010) Sources and ages of dissolved organic matter in peatland streams: evidence from chemistry mixture modelling and radiocarbon data. Biogeochemistry 100, 121-137. - Vitousek PM, Porder S, Houlton BZ et al. (2010) Terrestrial phosphorus limitation: mechanisms, implications, and nitrogen-phosphorus interactions. Ecological Applications 20, 5-15.

  1. Reactivity of nitrate and organic acids at the concrete–bitumen interface of a nuclear waste repository cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertron, A., E-mail: bertron@insa-toulouse.fr [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INSA (France); LMDC (Laboratoire Matériaux et Durabilité des Constructions), 135, avenue de Rangueil, F-31 077, Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Jacquemet, N. [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INSA (France); LMDC (Laboratoire Matériaux et Durabilité des Constructions), 135, avenue de Rangueil, F-31 077, Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Erable, B. [Université de Toulouse (France); INPT, UPS (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, 4, Allée Emile Monso, F-31030 Toulouse (France); Sablayrolles, C. [Université de Toulouse (France); INP (France); LCA (Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-Industrielle), ENSIACET, 4 allée Emile Monso, BP 44 362, 31432 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); INRA (France); LCA (Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-Industrielle), F-31029 Toulouse (France); Escadeillas, G. [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INSA (France); LMDC (Laboratoire Matériaux et Durabilité des Constructions), 135, avenue de Rangueil, F-31 077, Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Albrecht, A. [Andra, 1-7, rue Jean-Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry (France)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Interactions of cement paste and organic acid–nitrate solutions were investigated. • Cement leaching imposed alkaline pH (>10) very rapidly in the liquid media. • Acetic acid action on cement paste was similar to that of classical leaching. • Oxalic acid attack formed Ca-oxalate salts; organic matter in solution decreased. • Nitrate was stable under abiotic conditions and with organic matter. - Abstract: This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumen–concrete interface within repository cell for long-lived, intermediate-level, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V cement paste specimens) were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite) and cations (calcium, potassium) and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the abiotic conditions of the experiments. The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching in the absence of organic acids (i.e. carried out with water or strong acids); no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium.

  2. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals key genes potentially related to soluble sugar and organic acid accumulation in watermelon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    Full Text Available Soluble sugars and organic acids are important components of fruit flavor and have a strong impact on the overall organoleptic quality of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus fruit. Several studies have analyzed the expression levels of the genes related to soluble sugar accumulation and the dynamic changes in their content during watermelon fruit development and ripening. Nevertheless, to date, there have been no reports on the organic acid content in watermelon or the genes regulating their synthesis. In this study, the soluble sugars and organic acids in watermelon were measured and a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify the key genes involved in the accumulation of these substances during fruit development and ripening. The watermelon cultivar '203Z' and its near-isogenic line (NIL 'SW' (in the '203Z' background were used as experimental materials. The results suggested that soluble sugar consist of fructose, glucose and sucrose while malic-, citric-, and oxalic acids are the primary organic acids in watermelon fruit. Several differentially expressed genes (DEGs related to soluble sugar- and organic acid accumulation and metabolism were identified. These include the DEGs encoding raffinose synthase, sucrose synthase (SuSy, sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPSs, insoluble acid invertases (IAI, NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (NAD-cyt MDH, aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT, and citrate synthase (CS. This is the first report addressing comparative transcriptome analysis via NILs materials in watermelon fruit. These findings provide an important basis for understanding the molecular mechanism that leads to soluble sugar and organic acid accumulation and metabolism during watermelon fruit development and ripening.

  3. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals key genes potentially related to soluble sugar and organic acid accumulation in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Zhao, Shengjie; Lu, Xuqiang; He, Nan; Zhu, Hongju; Dou, Junling; Liu, Wenge

    2018-01-01

    Soluble sugars and organic acids are important components of fruit flavor and have a strong impact on the overall organoleptic quality of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit. Several studies have analyzed the expression levels of the genes related to soluble sugar accumulation and the dynamic changes in their content during watermelon fruit development and ripening. Nevertheless, to date, there have been no reports on the organic acid content in watermelon or the genes regulating their synthesis. In this study, the soluble sugars and organic acids in watermelon were measured and a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify the key genes involved in the accumulation of these substances during fruit development and ripening. The watermelon cultivar '203Z' and its near-isogenic line (NIL) 'SW' (in the '203Z' background) were used as experimental materials. The results suggested that soluble sugar consist of fructose, glucose and sucrose while malic-, citric-, and oxalic acids are the primary organic acids in watermelon fruit. Several differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to soluble sugar- and organic acid accumulation and metabolism were identified. These include the DEGs encoding raffinose synthase, sucrose synthase (SuSy), sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPSs), insoluble acid invertases (IAI), NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (NAD-cyt MDH), aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT), and citrate synthase (CS). This is the first report addressing comparative transcriptome analysis via NILs materials in watermelon fruit. These findings provide an important basis for understanding the molecular mechanism that leads to soluble sugar and organic acid accumulation and metabolism during watermelon fruit development and ripening.

  4. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals key genes potentially related to soluble sugar and organic acid accumulation in watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Zhao, Shengjie; Lu, Xuqiang; He, Nan; Zhu, Hongju; Dou, Junling

    2018-01-01

    Soluble sugars and organic acids are important components of fruit flavor and have a strong impact on the overall organoleptic quality of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit. Several studies have analyzed the expression levels of the genes related to soluble sugar accumulation and the dynamic changes in their content during watermelon fruit development and ripening. Nevertheless, to date, there have been no reports on the organic acid content in watermelon or the genes regulating their synthesis. In this study, the soluble sugars and organic acids in watermelon were measured and a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify the key genes involved in the accumulation of these substances during fruit development and ripening. The watermelon cultivar ‘203Z’ and its near-isogenic line (NIL) ‘SW’ (in the ‘203Z’ background) were used as experimental materials. The results suggested that soluble sugar consist of fructose, glucose and sucrose while malic-, citric-, and oxalic acids are the primary organic acids in watermelon fruit. Several differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to soluble sugar- and organic acid accumulation and metabolism were identified. These include the DEGs encoding raffinose synthase, sucrose synthase (SuSy), sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPSs), insoluble acid invertases (IAI), NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (NAD-cyt MDH), aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT), and citrate synthase (CS). This is the first report addressing comparative transcriptome analysis via NILs materials in watermelon fruit. These findings provide an important basis for understanding the molecular mechanism that leads to soluble sugar and organic acid accumulation and metabolism during watermelon fruit development and ripening. PMID:29324867

  5. Proton and aluminum binding properties of organic acids in surface waters of the northeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhraei, Habibollah; Driscoll, Charles T

    2015-03-03

    A variety of mathematical estimators have been used to quantify the degree of protonation of naturally occurring organic acids. These estimators range from monoprotic, diprotic, and triprotic analog models to the discrete and continuous (Gaussian) distributions of a single proton binding-dissociation. Natural water samples from two long-term monitoring programs in the northeastern U.S. were used to quantify proton- and aluminum-binding properties of naturally occurring organic matter. Water chemistry observations were clustered into 0.05 pH intervals (over 3.75-7.35 pH range) and fit to a triprotic analog model. The model optimization indicates that about 5% of dissolved organic carbon participates in ion binding, and organic acids are composed of both strong and weak acids (i.e., pKa1 = 2.54, pKa2 = 6.19, and pKa3 = 7.52 for Adirondack samples). Binding between organic acids and aluminum can substantially influence the acid behavior of dissolved organic matter and the availability of the toxic form of aluminum (i.e., inorganic monomeric aluminum).

  6. Different low-molecular-mass organic acids specifically control leaching of arsenic and lead from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Christopher; Tejnecký, Václav; Borůvka, Luboš; Drábek, Ondřej

    2016-04-01

    Low-molecular-mass organic acids (LMMOA) are of key importance for mobilisation and fate of metals in soil, by functioning as ligands that increase the amount of dissolved metal in solution or by dissociation of metal binding minerals. Column leaching experiments were performed on soil polluted with As and Pb, in order to determine the specificity of LMMOA related release for individual elements, at varying organic acid concentrations. Acetic, citric and oxalic acids were applied in 12h leaching experiments over a concentration range (0.5-25 mM) to soil samples that represent organic and mineral horizons. The leaching of As followed the order: oxalic>citric>acetic acid in both soils. Arsenic leaching was attributed primarily to ligand-enhanced dissolution of mineral oxides followed by As released into solution, as shown by significant correlation between oxalic and citric acids and content of Al and Fe in leaching solutions. Results suggest that subsurface mineral soil layers are more vulnerable to As toxicity. Leaching of Pb from both soils followed the order: citric>oxalic>acetic acid. Mineral soil samples were shown to be more susceptible to leaching of Pb than samples characterised by a high content of organic matter. The leaching efficiency of citric acid was attributed to formation of stable complexes with Pb ions, which other acids are not capable of. Results obtained in the study are evidence that the extent of As and Pb leaching in contaminated surface and subsurface soil depends significantly on the types of carboxylic acid involved. The implications of the type of acid and the specific element that can be mobilised become increasingly significant where LMMOA concentrations are highest, such as in rhizosphere soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ancient low-molecular-weight organic acids in permafrost fuel rapid carbon dioxide production upon thaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Travis W; Wickland, Kimberly P; Spencer, Robert G M; McKnight, Diane M; Striegl, Robert G

    2015-11-10

    Northern permafrost soils store a vast reservoir of carbon, nearly twice that of the present atmosphere. Current and projected climate warming threatens widespread thaw of these frozen, organic carbon (OC)-rich soils. Upon thaw, mobilized permafrost OC in dissolved and particulate forms can enter streams and rivers, which are important processors of OC and conduits for carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. Here, we demonstrate that ancient dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leached from 35,800 y B.P. permafrost soils is rapidly mineralized to CO2. During 200-h experiments in a novel high-temporal-resolution bioreactor, DOC concentration decreased by an average of 53%, fueling a more than sevenfold increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration. Eighty-seven percent of the DOC loss to microbial uptake was derived from the low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids acetate and butyrate. To our knowledge, our study is the first to directly quantify high CO2 production rates from permafrost-derived LMW DOC mineralization. The observed DOC loss rates are among the highest reported for permafrost carbon and demonstrate the potential importance of LMW DOC in driving the rapid metabolism of Pleistocene-age permafrost carbon upon thaw and the outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere by soils and nearby inland waters.

  8. Ancient low–molecular-weight organic acids in permafrost fuel rapid carbon dioxide production upon thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Travis W.; Wickland, Kimberly P.; Spencer, Robert G. M.; McKnight, Diane M.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Northern permafrost soils store a vast reservoir of carbon, nearly twice that of the present atmosphere. Current and projected climate warming threatens widespread thaw of these frozen, organic carbon (OC)-rich soils. Upon thaw, mobilized permafrost OC in dissolved and particulate forms can enter streams and rivers, which are important processors of OC and conduits for carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. Here, we demonstrate that ancient dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leached from 35,800 y B.P. permafrost soils is rapidly mineralized to CO2. During 200-h experiments in a novel high–temporal-resolution bioreactor, DOC concentration decreased by an average of 53%, fueling a more than sevenfold increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration. Eighty-seven percent of the DOC loss to microbial uptake was derived from the low–molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids acetate and butyrate. To our knowledge, our study is the first to directly quantify high CO2 production rates from permafrost-derived LMW DOC mineralization. The observed DOC loss rates are among the highest reported for permafrost carbon and demonstrate the potential importance of LMW DOC in driving the rapid metabolism of Pleistocene-age permafrost carbon upon thaw and the outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere by soils and nearby inland waters.

  9. Behavior of soluble and immobilized acid phosphatase in hydro-organic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, H; Horvath, C

    1975-11-20

    The hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate by wheat germ acid phosphatase (orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.2) has been investigated in mixtures of aqueous buffers with acetone, dioxane and acetonitrile. The enzyme was either in free solution or immobilized on a pellicular support which consisted of a porous carbonaceous layer on solid glass beads. The highest enzyme activity was obtained in acetone and acetonitrile mixed with citrate buffer over a wide range of organic solvent concentration. In 50% (v/v) acetone both V and Km of the immobilized enzyme were about half of the values in the neat aqueous buffer, but the Ki for inorganic phosphate was unchanged. In 50% (v/v) mixtures of various solvents and citrate buffers of different pH, the enzymic activity was found to depend on the pH of the aqueous buffer component rather than the pH of the hydro-organic mixture as measured with the glass-calomel electrode. The relatively high rates of p-nitrophenol liberation in the presence of glucose even at high organic solvent concentrations suggest that transphosphorylation is facilitated at low water activity.

  10. Validation of a UV Spectrometric Method for the Assay of Tolfenamic Acid in Organic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been carried out to validate a UV spectrometric method for the assay of tolfenamic acid (TA in organic solvents. TA is insoluble in water; therefore, a total of thirteen commonly used organic solvents have been selected in which the drug is soluble. Fresh stock solutions of TA in each solvent in a concentration of 1 × 10−4 M (2.62 mg% were prepared for the assay. The method has been validated according to the guideline of International Conference on Harmonization and parameters like linearity, range, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and robustness have been studied. Although the method was found to be efficient for the determination of TA in all solvents on the basis of statistical data 1-octanol, followed by ethanol and methanol, was found to be comparatively better than the other studied solvents. No change in the stock solution stability of TA has been observed in each solvent for 24 hours stored either at room (25±1°C or at refrigerated temperature (2–8°C. A shift in the absorption maxima has been observed for TA in various solvents indicating drug-solvent interactions. The studied method is simple, rapid, economical, accurate, and precise for the assay of TA in different organic solvents.

  11. Molecular structures of five adducts assembled from p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shouwen; Wang, Lanqing; Liu, Hui; Liu, Li; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Daqi; Li, Minghui; Guo, Jianzhong; Guo, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Five adducts 1-5 derived from p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde have been prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. Of the five adducts two are organic salts (1, and 2) and the other three (3-5) are cocrystals. In salts 1, and 2, the L molecules are protonated. The supramolecular architectures of the adducts 1-5 involve extensive intermolecular N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O, O-H⋯S, and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds as well as other non-covalent interactions. The role of weak and strong non-covalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. The complexes displayed 2D/3D framework structure for the synergistic effect of the various non-covalent interactions. The results presented herein tell that the strength and directionality of the N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O, and O-H⋯S hydrogen bonds between organic acids and p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde are sufficient to bring about the formation of binary cocrystals or organic salts.

  12. The acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of an α-pinene-derived organic nitrate: kinetics, products, reaction mechanisms, and atmospheric impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindelaub, Joel D.; Borca, Carlos H.; Hostetler, Matthew A.; Slade, Jonathan H.; Lipton, Mark A.; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V.; Shepson, Paul B.

    2016-12-01

    The production of atmospheric organic nitrates (RONO2) has a large impact on air quality and climate due to their contribution to secondary organic aerosol and influence on tropospheric ozone concentrations. Since organic nitrates control the fate of gas phase NOx (NO + NO2), a byproduct of anthropogenic combustion processes, their atmospheric production and reactivity is of great interest. While the atmospheric reactivity of many relevant organic nitrates is still uncertain, one significant reactive pathway, condensed phase hydrolysis, has recently been identified as a potential sink for organic nitrate species. The partitioning of gas phase organic nitrates to aerosol particles and subsequent hydrolysis likely removes the oxidized nitrogen from further atmospheric processing, due to large organic nitrate uptake to aerosols and proposed hydrolysis lifetimes, which may impact long-range transport of NOx, a tropospheric ozone precursor. Despite the atmospheric importance, the hydrolysis rates and reaction mechanisms for atmospherically derived organic nitrates are almost completely unknown, including those derived from α-pinene, a biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) that is one of the most significant precursors to biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA). To better understand the chemistry that governs the fate of particle phase organic nitrates, the hydrolysis mechanism and rate constants were elucidated for several organic nitrates, including an α-pinene-derived organic nitrate (APN). A positive trend in hydrolysis rate constants was observed with increasing solution acidity for all organic nitrates studied, with the tertiary APN lifetime ranging from 8.3 min at acidic pH (0.25) to 8.8 h at neutral pH (6.9). Since ambient fine aerosol pH values are observed to be acidic, the reported lifetimes, which are much shorter than that of atmospheric fine aerosol, provide important insight into the fate of particle phase organic nitrates. Along with rate constant

  13. Vegetable milks and their fermented derivative products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Bernat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The so-called vegetable milks are in the spotlight thanks to their lactose-free, animal protein-free and cholesterol-free features which fit well with the current demand for healthy food products. Nevertheless, and with the exception of soya, little information is available about these types of milks and their derivatives. The aims of this review, therefore, are to: highlight the main nutritional benefits of the nut and cereal vegetable milks available on the market, fermented or not; describe the basic processing steps involved in their manufacturing process; and analyze the major problems affecting their overall quality, together with the current feasible solutions. On the basis of the information gathered, vegetable milks and their derivatives have excellent nutritional properties which provide them a high potential and positive market expectation. Nevertheless, optimal processing conditions for each raw material or the application of new technologies have to be researched in order to improve the quality of the products. Hence, further studies need to be developed to ensure the physical stability of the products throughout their whole shelf-life. These studies would also allow for a reduction in the amount of additives (hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers and thus reduce the cost of the products. In the particular case of fermented products, the use of starters which are able to both improve the quality (by synthesizing enhanced flavors and providing optimal textures and exert health benefits for consumers (i.e. probiotics is the main challenge to be faced in future studies.

  14. Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, J.N.; Soares, C.A.; Fabbri, A.D.T.; Cordenunsi, B.R.; Sabato, S.F.

    2012-01-01

    Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes. - Highlights: ► In Brazil, one of the largest producers and exporters of mangoes, tropical fruits are routinely treated with a hot water dip. ► Results from this study demonstrate that irradiation is a good alternative to this conventional quarantine treatment. ► Carbohydrate and organic acid results are presented for irradiation and hot water dip treatments. ► Texture measurements are shown as a function of storage time for each of these treatments.

  15. Acid tolerance in Salmonella typhimurium induced by culturing in the presence of organic acids at different growth temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Fernández, Ana; Bernardo, Ana; López, Mercedes

    2010-02-01

    The influence of growth temperature and acidification of the culture medium up to pH 4.25 with acetic, citric, lactic and hydrochloric acids on the growth and subsequent acid resistance at pH 3.0 of Salmonella typhimurium CECT 443 was studied. The minimum pH value which allowed for S. typhimurium growth within the temperature range of 25-37 degrees C was 4.5 when the pH was reduced using citric and hydrochloric acids, and 5.4 and 6.4 when lactic acid and acetic acid were used, respectively. At high (45 degrees C) or low (10 degrees C) temperatures, the growth pH boundary was increased about 1 pH unit. The growth temperature markedly modified the acid resistance of the resulting cells. In all cases, D-values were lower for cells grown at 10 degrees C and significantly increased with increasing growth temperature up to 37 degrees C, at which D-values obtained were up to 10 times higher. Cells grown at 45 degrees C showed D-values similar to those found for cells grown at 25 degrees C. The growth of cells in acidified media, regardless of the pH value, caused an increase in their acid resistance at the four incubation temperatures, although the magnitude of the Acid Tolerance Response (ATR) observed depended on the growth temperature. Acid adapted cultures at 10 degrees C showed D-values ranging from 5.75 to 6.91 min, which turned out to be about 2 times higher than those corresponding to non-acid adapted cultures, while higher temperatures induced an increase in D-values of at least 3.5 times. Another finding was that, while at 10 and 45 degrees C no significant differences among the effect of the different acids tested in inducing an ATR were observed, when cells were grown at 25 and 37 degrees C citric acid generally turned out to be the acid which induced the strongest ATR. Results obtained in this study show that growth temperature is an important factor affecting S. typhimurium acid resistance and could contribute to find new strategies based on intelligent

  16. Fatty acid profile, color and lipid oxidation of organic fermented sausage during chilling storage as influenced by acid whey and probiotic strains addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Maria Wójciak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic fermented sausages typically spoil during long-term storage due to oxidative rancidity. The application of natural antioxidants to meat stuffing is a major practice intended to inhibit the oxidation process and color changes. This study aimed to assess the effect of two unusual starter cultures: three probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei LOCK 0900, Lactobacillus casei LOCK 0908 and Lactobacillus paracasei LOCK 0919 and lactic acid bacteria from acid whey on model fermented sausage type products focusing on oxidative stability by measuring instrumental color (L*, a*, b* values, conjugated dienes (CD, TBARS immediately after 21 days of ripening (0 and after 90 and 180 days of refrigerated storage (4 ºC. Determination of fatty acid composition, in meat product was performed after ripening and after 180 days of storage. At the end of the storage period, the salted sausages were characterized by the same content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA compared to cured samples. The addition of acid whey and a mixture of probiotic strains to nitrite-free sausage formulation was barely able to protect lipids against oxidation in comparison to nitrite during vacuum storage. Surprisingly, the use of acid whey has an influence on the desired red-pinkish color of organic fermented sausage after ripening and after 180 days of storage period.

  17. Experimental design for extraction and quantification of phenolic compounds and organic acids in white "Vinho Verde" grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopico-García, M S; Valentão, P; Guerra, L; Andrade, P B; Seabra, R M

    2007-01-30

    An experimental design was applied for the optimization of extraction and clean-up processes of phenolic compounds and organic acids from white "Vinho Verde" grapes. The developed analytical method consisted in two steps: first a solid-liquid extraction of both phenolic compounds and organic acids and then a clean-up step using solid-phase extraction (SPE). Afterwards, phenolic compounds and organic acids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a diode array detector (DAD) and HPLC-UV, respectively. Plackett-Burman design was carried out to select the significant experimental parameters affecting both the extraction and the clean-up steps. The identified and quantified phenolic compounds were: quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin, kaempferol and epicatechin. The determined organic acids were oxalic, citric, tartaric, malic, shikimic and fumaric acids. The obtained results showed that the most important variables were the temperature (40 degrees C) and the solvent (acid water at pH 2 with 5% methanol) for the extraction step and the type of sorbent (C18 non end-capped) for the clean-up step.

  18. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in synthetic gastric fluid after cold and acid habituation in apple juice or trypticase soy broth acidified with hydrochloric acid or organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uljas, H E; Ingham, S C

    1998-08-01

    Extreme acid tolerance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 has raised doubts about the safety of acidic foods. This study examined whether prior storage in acidic and/or cold conditions enhanced survival of E. coli O157:H7 in synthetic gastric fluid (SGF). Three E. coli O157:H7 strains were stored in trypticase soy broth (TSB; acidified with HCl, malic acid, citric acid, or lactic acid) or pH 3.5 and 6.5 (nonacidic control) apple juice at 4 and 21 degrees C for acids, suggesting that juice constituents other than organic acids protect E. coli O157:H7. Refrigeration combined with low pH best protected cells in apple juice and acidified TSB, but, compared to the nonacidic control, only acidified TSB enhanced subsequent survival in pH 2.5 SGF. Equal survival in SGF occurred after storage in pH 3.5 or 6.5 apple juice at 4 degrees C, suggesting that low temperature alone in apple juice enhanced acid tolerance. Two strains stored at 4 degrees C in TSB containing malic or citric acid subsequently survived better in SGF than cells stored in nonacidified TSB but poorer than cells stored in the presence of HCl. These differences reflect the higher pKa of these organic acids. However, subsequent survival of these strains in SGF was poorer after refrigerated storage in apple juice than in TSB containing citric or malic acids. Cells stored in lactic acid were most likely to be completely eliminated upon transfer to SGF. Differences in survival in storage media or SGF related to strain, storage conditions, or acidifier were consistent and often statistically significant (P acidic beverages may not be affected by the type of acidifier used, the subsequent survival in SGF of this pathogen may be critically dependent on this factor.

  19. Production and analysis of organic acids in hairy-root cultures of Isatis indigotica Fort. (indigo woad).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tiefeng; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Xiaofen; Zhang, Hanming; Tang, Kexuan

    2004-02-01

    Hairy roots were induced from both cotyledon and hypocotyl explants of Isatis indigotica Fort. (indigo woad) through transformation with Agrobaterium rhizogenes strain A4, R1601 and ATCC15834. The results showed that the cotyledons were the preferred explants to hypocotyls and A4 was the most suitable A. rhizogenes strain for the transformation and induction of hairy roots of I. indigotica. High-voltage paper electrophoresis (HVPE) analysis demonstrated the production of mannopine in hairy roots and confirmed the successful transfer of Ri T-DNA (root-inducing transferred DNA) of A. rhizogenes into the I. indigotica genome. Five organic acids, namely CPQ [3-(2-carboxyphenol)-4(3 H )-quinazolinone], syringic acid, salicylic acid, benzoic acid and 2-aminobenzoic acid, which were considered as main antiviral components of I. indigotica, were detected in natural roots, hairy roots and liquid media with high-performance capillary electrophoresis. The results showed CPQ production in hairy roots was significantly higher than that in natural roots. Our results also revealed that all the five organic acids could be excreted from hairy roots into liquid media, and the concentrations of organic acids in the liquid media paralleled those in hairy roots. The hairy roots of I. indigotica grew fast and showed an S-shaped growth curve that reached its apex on the day 24 of culture with a 20-fold increase in fresh weight compared with the starting inoculums. The accumulation of the two organic acids CPQ and syringic acid in liquid media paralleled the growth of hairy roots. MS [Murashige, T. and Skoog, F. (1962) Physiol. Plant. 15, 473-497] medium or half-strength MS medium supplemented with 30 g/l maltose was found to be best for hairy-root culture and accumulation of CPQ.

  20. Organic acid production from potato starch waste fermentation by rumen microbial communities from Dutch and Thai dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; van de Weijer, Antonius H P; van Gelder, Antonie H; Stams, Alfons J M; de Vos, Willem M; Plugge, Caroline M

    2018-01-01

    Exploring different microbial sources for biotechnological production of organic acids is important. Dutch and Thai cow rumen samples were used as inocula to produce organic acid from starch waste in anaerobic reactors. Organic acid production profiles were determined and microbial communities were compared using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene amplicon pyrosequencing. In both reactors, lactate was the main initial product and was associated with growth of Streptococcus spp. (86% average relative abundance). Subsequently, lactate served as a substrate for secondary fermentations. In the reactor inoculated with rumen fluid from the Dutch cow, the relative abundance of Bacillus and Streptococcus increased from the start, and lactate, acetate, formate and ethanol were produced. From day 1.33 to 2, lactate and acetate were degraded, resulting in butyrate production. Butyrate production coincided with a decrease in relative abundance of Streptococcus spp. and increased relative abundances of bacteria of other groups, including Parabacteroides , Sporanaerobacter , Helicobacteraceae, Peptostreptococcaceae and Porphyromonadaceae. In the reactor with the Thai cow inoculum, Streptococcus spp. also increased from the start. When lactate was consumed, acetate, propionate and butyrate were produced (day 3-4). After day 3, bacteria belonging to five dominant groups, Bacteroides, Pseudoramibacter _ Eubacterium , Dysgonomonas , Enterobacteriaceae and Porphyromonadaceae, were detected and these showed significant positive correlations with acetate, propionate and butyrate levels. The complexity of rumen microorganisms with high adaptation capacity makes rumen fluid a suitable source to convert organic waste into valuable products without the addition of hydrolytic enzymes. Starch waste is a source for organic acid production, especially lactate.

  1. Study of Acid Hydrolysis on Organic Waste: Understanding The Effect of Delignification and Particle Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Nadiem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic wastes from Swiettenia marcophylla L, Artocarpus heterophyllus L, Mangifera indica L, and Annona muricata L were prepared by grinding into 0.1875, 0.3750, 0.7500 mm of particle size and delignified by 2% NaOH at 80°C for 90 minutes. Acid dilution hydrolysis process with H2SO4 1% was performed at 150°C for 120 minutes in a closed reactor. The effect of particle size and delignification on and reducing sugar concentration were investigated. The result showed (1 leaves that can be used as raw material to produce hydrogen should have 38–49% cellulose and hemicellulose. (2 Reducing sugar concentration increased with particle size reduction and delignification. (3 the best result with the highest reducing sugar concentration was achieved by 0.1875 mm particle size with delignification on Annona muricata L.

  2. Adsorptive removal of naproxen and clofibric acid from water using metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Zubair; Jeon, Jaewoo; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2012-03-30

    Adsorptive removal of naproxen and clofibric acid, two typical PPCPs (pharmaceuticals and personal care products), has been studied using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for the first time. The removal efficiency decreases in the order of MIL-101>MIL-100-Fe>activated carbon both in adsorption rate and adsorption capacity. The adsorption kinetics and capacity of PPCPs generally depend on the average pore size and surface area (or pore volume), respectively, of the adsorbents. The adsorption mechanism may be explained with a simple electrostatic interaction between PPCPs and the adsorbent. Finally, it can be suggested that MOFs having high porosity and large pore size can be potential adsorbents to remove harmful PPCPs in contaminated water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Flexible, all-organic ammonia sensor based on dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid-doped polyaniline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, G.; Arena, A.; Donato, N.; Latino, M.; Saitta, G.; Bonavita, A.; Neri, G.

    2010-01-01

    A stable chlorobenzene dispersion of conducting polyaniline (PANI) has been obtained by doping emeraldine base with dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) and studied by spectrophotometric measurements in the UV-vis-IR range. The electrical properties of PANI: DBSA films obtained from the above dispersion have been investigated under different temperature and relative humidity conditions. All-organic chemoresistive devices have been developed by spin-coating the PANI: DBSA dispersion on flexible substrates, and then by depositing electrodes on the top, from a carbon nanotube conducting ink. Sensing tests performed under exposition to calibrated amounts of ammonia reveal that these simple and inexpensive sensors are able to detect ammonia at room temperature in a reliable way, with a sensitivity linearly related to concentration in the range between 5 ppm and 70 ppm.

  4. Reverse osmosis influence over the content of metals and organic acids in low alcoholic beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrieş Mitică Tiberiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine is defined as an alcoholic beverage resulted from fermentation of grape must, having ethanol content higher than 8.5% (v/v. Wine consumption has health benefits related to the high concentration of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity and cardiovascular protection effects. However, the alcohol content restricts wine consumption, but wines with low-alcohol content can be obtained with the help of the dealcoholisation process, after it was produced through alcoholic fermentation. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the organic acid concentration, metal content and other physical-chemical parameters of low alcoholic beverages obtained from grape must by a process which involves reverse osmosis, mixing in a variable ratio the permeate and concentrate and then fermentation. For the experiments, a Muscat Ottonel grape must from Iaşi vineyard was used. There were ten variants of beverages (wines with low alcoholic concentration, by mixing known quantities of the two phases resulting from the reverse osmosis process. These beverages (wines had an alcoholic concentration starting from 2.5% (v/v in the first variant, up to 7% (v/v in the tenth variant. Alcoholic concentration varies for each variant by 0.5% (v/v. After fermentation in 50 L stainless steel tanks, the samples were filtered with 0.45μm sterile membrane and bottled in 0.75 L glass bottles. After 2 months of storage at constant temperature, the beverage samples were analyzed to determine the metal content (AAS method, organic acids concentration (HPLC method, and other physical-chemical characteristics (OIV standard methods. The results obtained indicate that the very complex physical-chemical composition of the low alcoholic beverages analyzed is influenced by the specific chemical composition of a given grape must, as well as by the use of products obtained from reverse osmosis.

  5. Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, J. N.; Soares, C. A.; Fabbri, A. D. T.; Cordenunsi, B. R.; Sabato, S. F.

    2012-08-01

    Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes.

  6. AMINO ACID-BASED FERTILIZER AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO CALDA VIÇOSA IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fontebasso Pelizari Pinto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to propose a mixture of micronutrients with amino acid-based foliar fertilizer as an alternative to calda viçosa for application in organic agriculture. The study was conducted in two simultaneous trials in an experimental field in Ipeúna, SP, Brazil. The test plant was carioca type dry edible bean cv. Pérola. The treatments in trial 1 were: Control 1 = water; FA = JK® amino acid-based foliar fertilizer; and FA+Mi = FA + CuSO4 + ZnSO4 + MnSO4 + H3BO3. In trial 2, the FA treatment was substituted by calda viçosa (CVi. The treatments were through spray application three times. Dry edible bean leaves were sampled for determination of macronutrient and micronutrient concentrations. Platings of the application rates used in the treatments were performed in the laboratory in a mixture with Bacillus thuringiensis and with Beauveria bassiana to compare the degree of compatibility by means of colony forming units (CFU. The FA+Mi and CVi treatments raised the concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Mn in the leaves. The FA+Mi was compatible, the FA was a stimulant, and the CVi was noxious to B. bassiana and to B. thuringiensis when integrated in the spray mixture.

  7. Coalescence of organic solutions in acid and metal extraction by tri-alkylamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, J.

    1970-01-01

    The formation of two layers with tri-alkylammonium salts solutions in low polarity diluents could be explained on the basis of settling of micelles. Light scattering and viscosity measurements reveal that micelles size increases rather sharply before coalescence. The existence of micelles in the solution has been confirmed by ultracentrifuge experiments. The behaviour of these solutions, in general, is similar to that of colloidal soap solutions. The various parameters which promote third phase formation are: anion size in the order of Cl - ∼ Br - 3 4 - ; extraction of excess acid; metal cation size in the order of UO 2 ++ 4+ ∼ Th 4+ ; decreasing in the length of the n-alkyl chain in the alkyl-ammonium salts; decreasing in diluent polarity. The above phenomenon could be explained on the basis of the affinity between alkylammonium salts and organic solvent. The composition of the three phases is independent of the initial amine concentration for a fixed acid and metal concentration. This has been verified experimentally and is in conformity with phase rule. (author) [fr

  8. Vaporization of protic ionic liquids derived from organic superbases and short carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Filipe M S; Lima, Carlos F R A C; Vaz, Inês C M; Rodrigues, Ana S M C; Sapei, Erlin; Melo, André; Silva, Artur M S; Santos, Luís M N B F

    2017-06-28

    This work presents a comprehensive evaluation of the phase behaviour and cohesive enthalpy of protic ionic liquids (PILs) composed of 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene (DBN) or 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) organic superbases with short-chain length (acetic, propionic and butyric) carboxylic acids. Glass transition temperatures, T g , and enthalpies of vaporization, ΔH vap , were measured for six [BH][A] (1 : 1) PILs (B = DBN, DBU; A = MeCOO, EtCOO, nPrCOO), revealing more significant changes upon increasing the number of -CH 2 - groups in the base than in the acid. The magnitude of ΔH vap evidences that liquid PILs have a high proportion of ions, although the results also indicate that in DBN PILs the concentration of neutral species is not negligible. In the gas phase, these PILs exist as a distribution of ion pairs and isolated neutral species, with speciation being dependent on the temperature and pressure conditions - at high temperatures and low pressures the separated neutral species dominate. The higher T g and ΔH vap of the DBU PILs are explained by the stronger basicity of DBU (as supported by NMR and computational calculations), which increases the extent of proton exchange and the ionic character of the corresponding PILs, resulting in stronger intermolecular interactions in condensed phases.

  9. Dietary fiber, organic acids and minerals in selected wild edible fruits of Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaia, Telma; Uamusse, Amália; Sjöholm, Ingegerd; Skog, Kerstin

    2013-12-01

    The harvesting, utilization and marketing of indigenous fruits and nuts have been central to the livelihoods of the majority of rural communities in African countries. In this study we report on the content of dietary fiber, minerals and selected organic acids in the pulps and kernels of the wild fruits most commonly consumed in southern Mozambique. The content of soluble fiber in the pulps ranged from 4.3 to 65.6 g/100 g and insoluble fiber from 2.6 to 45.8 g/100 g. In the kernels the content of soluble fiber ranged from 8.4 to 42.6 g/100 g and insoluble fiber from 14.7 to 20.9 g/100 g. Citric acid was found in all fruits up to 25.7 g/kg. The kernels of Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea were shown to be rich in calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc. The data may be useful in selecting wild fruit species appropriate for incorporation into diets.

  10. The Effect of Various Acids to the Gelation Process to the Silica Gel Characteristic Using Organic Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, NA; Widiyastuti, W.; Sigit, D.; Ajiza, M.; Sujana, W.

    2018-01-01

    Bagasse ash is solid waste of cane sugar industry which contain of silica more than 51%. Some previous study of silica gel from bagasse ash have been conducted often and been applied. This study concerns about the effect of various acid used in the process of gelation to the characteristic of silica gel produced. Then, this silica gel will be used as adsorbent. As that, the silica gel must fulfill the requirements of adsorbent, as have good pores characteristics, fit in mesoporous size so that adsorbent diffusion process is not disturbed. A fitted pores size of silica gel can be prepared by managing acid concentration used. The effect of acid, organic acid (tartaric acid) and inorganic acid (hydrochloric acid), is investigated in detail. The acid is added into sodium silicate solution in that the gel is formed, the pores structures can be investigated with BET, the crystal form is analyzed with XRD and the pore structure is analyzed visually with SEM. By managing the acid concentration added, it gets the effect of acid to the pore structure of silica gel. The bigger concentration is, the bigger the pore’s size of silica gel produced.

  11. Effect of Organic Acid Additions on the General and Localized Corrosion Susceptibility of Alloy 22 in Chloride Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carranza, R M; Giordano, C M; Rodr?guez, M A; Ilevbare, G O; Rebak, R B

    2007-08-28

    Electrochemical studies such as cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were performed to determine the corrosion behavior of Alloy 22 (N06022) in 1M NaCl solutions at various pH values from acidic to neutral at 90 C. All the tested material was wrought Mill Annealed (MA). Tests were also performed in NaCl solutions containing weak organic acids such as oxalic, acetic, citric and picric. Results show that the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 was significantly higher in solutions containing oxalic acid than in solutions of pure NaCl at the same pH. Citric and picric acids showed a slightly higher corrosion rate, and acetic acid maintained the corrosion rate of pure chloride solutions at the same pH. Organic acids revealed to be weak inhibitors for crevice corrosion. Higher concentration ratios, compared to nitrate ions, were needed to completely inhibit crevice corrosion in chloride solutions. Results are discussed considering acid dissociation constants, buffer capacity and complex formation constants of the different weak acids.

  12. Zero risk tolerance costs lives: loss of transplantable organs due to human immunodeficiency virus nucleic acid testing of potential donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Teresa J; Schkade, David; Schkade, Lawrence; Geier, Steven S; Orlowski, Jeffrey P; Klintmalm, Goran

    2011-09-01

    Patients' deaths due to the organ donor shortage make it imperative that every suitable organ be transplanted. False-positive results of tests for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) result in lost organs. A survey of US organ procurement organizations collected the numbers of donors and ruled-out potential donors who had a positive result on an HIV test from January 1,2006, to October 31, 2008. Sixty-two percent of US organ procurement organizations participated. Of the 12397 donor/nondonor cases, 56 (0.45%) had an initial positive result on an HIV antibody or HIV nucleic acid test, and only 8 (14.3%) of those were confirmed positive. Of the false-positive results, 50% were from HIV antibody tests and 50% were from HIV nucleic acid tests. Organs are a scarce, finite, and perishable resource. Use of HIV antibody testing has produced a remarkably safe track record of avoiding HIV transmission, with 22 years of nonoccurrence between transmissions. Because false positives occur with any test, including the HIV Ab test, adding nucleic acid testing to the standard donor testing panel doubles the number of false-positive HIV test results and thus the number of medically suitable donors lost. The required HIV antibody test is 99.99% effective in preventing transmission of the HIV virus. Adding the HIV nucleic acid test to routine organ donor screening could result in as many as 761 to 1551 unnecessary deaths of patients between HIV transmission events because medically suitable organs are wasted.

  13. Direct fermentation of sweet sorghum juice by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium tetanomorphum to produce bio-butanol and organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ndaba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Single- and co-culture clostridial fermentation was conducted to obtain organic alcohols and acids from sweet sorghum juice as a low cost feedstock. Different inoculum concentrations of single cultures (3, 5, 10 v/v % as well as different ratios of C. acetobutylicum to C. tetanomorphum (3:10, 10:3, 6.5:6.5, 3:3, and 10:10 v/v %, respectively were utilized for the fermentation. The maximum butanol concentration of 6.49 g/L was obtained after 96 h fermentation with 10 % v/v C. acetobutylicum as a single culture. The fermentation with 10% v/v C. tetanomorphum resulted in more than 5 g/l butyric acid production. Major organic acid concentration (lactic acid of 2.7 g/L was produced when an inoculum ratio of 6.5: 6.5 %v/v C. acetobutylicum to C. tetanomorphum was used.

  14. Carbon and Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Alcohols and Organic Acids by Online Pyroprobe-GC-IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The detection of methane in the atmosphere of Mars, combined with evidence showing widespread water-rock interaction during martian history, suggests that the production of methane on Mars may be the result of mineral surface-catalyzed CO2 and or CO reduction during Fisher-Tropsch Type (FTT) reactions. A better understanding of these reaction pathways and corresponding C and H isotope fractionations is critical to deciphering the synthesis of organic compounds produced under abiotic hydrothermal conditions. Described here is a technique for the extraction and analysis of both C and H isotopes from alcohols (C1-C4) and organic acids (C1-C6). This work is meant to provide a "proof of concept" for making meaningful isotope measurements on complex mixtures of solid-phase hydrocarbons and other intermediary products produced during high-temperature and high-pressure synthesis on mineral-catalyzed surfaces. These analyses are conducted entirely "on-line" utilizing a CDS model 5000 Pyroprobe connected to a Thermo Trace GC Ultra that is interfaced with a Thermo MAT 253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer operating in continuous flow mode. Also, this technique is designed to carry a split of the GC-separated product to a DSQ II quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making semi-quantitative compositional measurements. Therefore, both chemical and isotopic measurements can be carried out on the same sample.

  15. 4-Phenylbutyric Acid Reveals Good Beneficial Effects on Vital Organ Function via Anti-Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Septic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liangming; Wu, Huiling; Zang, JiaTao; Yang, Guangming; Zhu, Yu; Wu, Yue; Chen, Xiangyun; Lan, Dan; Li, Tao

    2016-08-01

    Sepsis and septic shock are the common complications in ICUs. Vital organ function disorder contributes a critical role in high mortality after severe sepsis or septic shock, in which endoplasmic reticulum stress plays an important role. Whether anti-endoplasmic reticulum stress with 4-phenylbutyric acid is beneficial to sepsis and the underlying mechanisms are not known. Laboratory investigation. State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury. Sprague-Dawley rats. Using cecal ligation and puncture-induced septic shock rats, lipopolysaccharide-treated vascular smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes, effects of 4-phenylbutyric acid on vital organ function and the relationship with endoplasmic reticulum stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress were observed. Conventional treatment, including fluid resuscitation, vasopressin, and antibiotic, only slightly improved the hemodynamic variable, such as mean arterial blood pressure and cardiac output, and slightly improved the vital organ function and the animal survival of septic shock rats. Supplementation of 4-phenylbutyric acid (5 mg/kg; anti-endoplasmic reticulum stress), especially administered at early stage, significantly improved the hemodynamic variables, vital organ function, such as liver, renal, and intestinal barrier function, and animal survival in septic shock rats. 4-Phenylbutyric acid application inhibited the endoplasmic reticulum stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein in vital organs, such as heart and superior mesenteric artery after severe sepsis. Further studies showed that 4-phenylbutyric acid inhibited endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated cytokine release, apoptosis, and oxidative stress via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB, caspase-3 and caspase-9, and increasing glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase expression, respectively. Anti

  16. Dissolved organic matter signatures vary between naturally acidic, circumneutral and groundwater-fed freshwaters in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Aleicia; Stauber, Jenny; Wood, Chris M; Trenfield, Melanie; Jolley, Dianne F

    2018-06-15

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays important roles in both abiotic and biotic processes within aquatic ecosystems, and these in turn depend on the quality of the DOM. We collected and characterized chromophoric DOM (CDOM) from different Australian freshwater types (circumneutral, naturally acidic and groundwater-fed waterways), climatic regions and seasons. CDOM quality was characterized using absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy. Excitation emission scans followed by parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis showed that CDOM was characterized by three main components: protein-like, fulvic-like and humic-like components commonly associated with various waters globally in the Openfluor database. Principal component analysis showed that CDOM quality varied between naturally acidic, circumneutral and groundwater-fed waters, with unique CDOM quality signatures shown for each freshwater type. CDOM quality also differed significantly within some sites between seasons. Clear differences in dominant CDOM components were shown between freshwater types. Naturally acidic waters were dominated by highly aromatic (as indicated by the specific absorbance co-efficient (SAC 340 ) and the specific UV absorbance (SUVA 254 ) values which ranged between 31 and 50 cm 2  mg -1 and 3.9-5.7 mg C -1  m -1 respectively), humic-like CDOM of high molecular weight (as indicated by abs 254/365 which ranged from 3.8 to 4.3). In contrast, circumneutral waters were dominated by fulvic-like CDOM of lower aromaticity (SAC 340 : 7-21 cm 2  mg -1 and SUVA 254 : 1.5-3.0 mg C -1  m -1 ) and lower molecular weight (abs 254/365 5.1-9.3). The groundwater-fed site had a higher abundance of protein-like CDOM, which was the least aromatic (SAC 340 : 2-5 cm 2  mg -1 and SUVA 254 : 0.58-1.1 mg C -1  m -1 ). CDOM was generally less aromatic, of a lower molecular weight and more autochthonous in nature during the summer/autumn sampling compared to winter/spring. Significant

  17. Simultaneous determination of low-molecular-weight organic acids and chlorinated acid herbicides in environmental water by a portable CE system with contactless conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Weilong; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2007-05-01

    This report describes a method to simultaneously determine 11 low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids and 16 chlorinated acid herbicides within a single run by a portable CE system with contactless conductivity detection (CCD) in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-coated capillary. Under the optimized condition, the LODs of CE-CCD ranged from 0.056 to 0.270 ppm, which were better than for indirect UV (IUV) detection of the 11 LMW organic acids or UV detection of the 16 chlorinated acid herbicides. Combined with an on-line field-amplified sample stacking (FASS) procedure, sensitivity enhancement of 632- to 1078-fold was achieved, with satisfactory reproducibility (RSDs of migration times less than 2.2%, and RSDs of peak areas less than 5.1%). The FASS-CE-CCD method was successfully applied to determine the two groups of acidic pollutants in two kinds of environmental water samples. The portable CE-CCD system shows advantages such as simplicity, cost effectiveness, and miniaturization. Therefore, the method presented in this report has great potential for onsite analysis of various pollutants at the trace level.

  18. Prevalent fatty acids in cashew nuts obtained from conventional and organic cultivation in different stages of processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Josino Soares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the three largest producers of fruits in the world, and among those fruit trees, the cashew tree stands out due to the high nutritional and commercial value of its products. During its fruit processing, there are losses in some compounds and few studies address this issue. Over the last decade the conventional system of food production has been substituted for the organic cultivation system, which is a promising alternative source of income given the global demand for healthy food. Therefore, this research aimed to characterize and quantify the prevalent fatty acids found in cashew nuts obtained from conventional and organic cultivation during various stages of processing. The prevalent fatty acids found were palmitic, linoleic, oleic, and stearic acid. The average of these fatty acids were 6.93 ± 0.55; 16.99 ± 0.61; 67.62 ± 1.00 and 8.42 ± 0.55 g/100 g, respectively. There was no reduction in the palmitic, oleic and stearic fatty acid contents during processing. Very little difference was observed between the nuts obtained from conventional and organic cultivation, indicating that the method of cultivation used has little or no influence on the content of cashew nut fatty acids.

  19. Determination of volatile, phenolic, organic acid and sugar components in a Turkish cv. Dortyol (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2011-08-15

    Orange flavour is the results of a natural combination of volatile compounds in a well-balanced system including sugars, acids and phenolic compounds. This paper reports the results of the first determination of aroma, organic acids, sugars, and phenolic components in Dortyol yerli orange juices. A total of 58 volatile components, including esters (nine), terpenes (19), terpenols (13), aldehydes (two), ketones (three), alcohols (four) and acids (eight) were identified and quantified in Dortyol yerli orange juice by GC-FID and GC-MS. Organic acids, sugars and phenolic compositions were also determined by HPLC methods. The major organic acid and sugar found were citric acid and sucrose, respectively. With regard to phenolics, 14 compounds were identified and quantified in the orange juice. Terpenes and terpenols were found as the main types of volatile components in Dortyol yerli orange juice. In terms of aroma contribution to orange juice, 12 compounds were prominent based on the odour activity values (OAVs). The highest OAV values were recorded for ethyl butanoate, nootkatone, linalool and DL-limonene. When we compare the obtained results of cv. Dortyol orange juice with the other orange juice varieties, the composition of Dortyol orange juice was similar to Valencia and Navel orange juices. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Organic acids production by rhizosphere microorganisms isolated from a Typic Melanudands and its effects on the inorganic phosphates solubilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José Serna Posso

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that organic acid secretion by rhizosphere microorganisms is one of the mechanisms to solubilize the phosphorus (P attached to insoluble mineral compounds in soil. This action is an important biotechnological alternative, especially in those soils where high fixation of this nutrient occurs, a very common situation in the tropics. This research evaluated the ability performed by five bacterial and five fungal isolates from Typic Melanudands soil to produce organic acids and generate available phosphorus from insoluble P sources. Given these concerns, the selected microorganisms were replicated for 7 days in liquid medium Pikovskaya (PVK modified sources tricalcium phosphate (P-Ca, aluminum phosphate (P-Al and iron phosphate (P-Fe. The results indicated that phosphorus availability in the media, correlates positively with the organic acids production in each of the sources used (P-Ca (0.63, P-Al (0.67 and P-Fe (0.63. In turn, the chemical processes linked to the phosphates solubilization (e.g., Ca availability affected the development of the microorganisms tested. Both, fungi and bacteria varied in their ability production and type of metabolized organic acids, the most frequent were as follows: citric and gluconic acid.

  1. Effect of drying of figs (Ficus carica L.) on the contents of sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatnar, Ana; Klancar, Urska; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2011-11-09

    Fresh figs were subjected to two different drying processes: sun-drying and oven-drying. To assess their effect on the nutritional and health-related properties of figs, sugars, organic acids, single phenolics, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity were determined before and after processing. Samples were analyzed three times in a year, and phenolic compounds were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). In figs, monomer sugars predominate, which is important nutritional information, and the content of sugars as well as organic acids in fresh figs was lower than in dried fruits. However, the best sugar/organic acid ratio was measured after the sun-drying process. Analysis of individual phenolic compounds revealed a higher content of all phenolic groups determined after the oven-drying process, with the exception of cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside. Similarly, higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were detected after the drying process. With these results it can be concluded that the differences in analyzed compounds in fresh and dried figs are significant. The differences between the sun-dried and oven-dried fruits were determined in organic acids, sugars, chlorogenic acid, catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, luteolin-8-C-glucoside, and total phenolic contents. The results indicate that properly dried figs can be used as a good source of phenolic compounds.

  2. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, glyoxylic acid and glyoxal in tropical aerosols: implications for photochemical processes of organic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelyus L. Mkoma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tropical aerosols of PM2.5 and PM10 were collected at a rural site in Morogoro, Tanzania (East Africa, and analysed for stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C of dicarboxylic acids (C2–C9, glyoxylic acid (ωC2 and glyoxal (Gly using gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometer. PM2.5 samples showed that δ13C of oxalic (C2 acid are largest (mean, −18.3±1.7‰ followed by malonic (C3, −19.6±1.0‰ and succinic (C4, −21.8±2.2‰ acids, whereas those in PM10 are a little smaller: −19.9±3.1‰ (C2, −20.2±2.7‰ (C3 and −23.3±3.2‰ (C4. The δ13C of C2–C4 diacids showed a decreasing trend with an increase in carbon numbers. The higher δ13C values of oxalic acid can be explained by isotopic enrichment of 13C in the remaining C2 due to the atmospheric decomposition of oxalic acid or its precursors. δ13C of ωC2 and Gly that are precursors of oxalic acid also showed larger values (mean, −22.5‰ and −20.2‰, respectively in PM2.5 than those (−26.7‰ and −23.7‰ in PM10. The δ13C values of ωC2 and Gly are smaller than those of C2 in both PM2.5 and PM10. On the other hand, azelaic acid (C9; mean, −28.5‰ is more depleted in 13C, which is consistent with the previous knowledge; that is, C9 is produced by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids emitted from terrestrial higher plants. A significant enrichment of 13C in oxalic acid together with its negative correlations with relative abundance of C2 in total diacids and ratios of water-soluble organic carbon and organic carbon further support that a photochemical degradation of oxalic acid occurs during long-range transport from source regions.

  3. Preparation of value-added metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) using waste PET bottles as source of acid linker

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dyosiba, Xoliswa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available of Value-added Metal-organic Frameworks (MOFs) Using Waste PET Bottles as Source of Acid Linker Xoliswa Dyosiba, Jianwei Ren, Nicholas M. Musyoka, Henrietta W. Langmi, Mkhulu Mathe, Maurice S. Onyango PII: S2214-9937(16)30053-7 DOI: doi:10.1016/j..., Hen- rietta W. Langmi, Mkhulu Mathe, Maurice S. Onyango, Preparation of Value-added Metal-organic Frameworks (MOFs) Using Waste PET Bottles as Source of Acid Linker, Sustainable Materials and Technologies (2016), doi:10.1016/j.susmat.2016...

  4. Threshold photoelectron spectroscopy and photoionization total ion yield spectroscopy of simple organic acids, aldehydes, ketones and amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yencha, Andrew J; Malins, Andrew E R; Siggel-King, Michele R F; Eypper, Marie; King, George C

    2009-01-01

    We have initiated a research program to investigate the ionization behavior of some simple organic molecules containing the carboxyl group (R 2 C=O), where R could be H, OH, NH 2 , or CH 3 or other aliphatic or aromatic carbon groups, using threshold photoelectron spectroscopy and photoionization total ion yield spectroscopy. We report here on the simplest organic acid, formic acid, and two simple aldehydes: acetaldehyde and the simplest unsaturated aldehyde, 2-propenal (acrolein). The objective of this study was to characterize the valence cationic states of these molecules with vibrational structural resolution.

  5. Determination of free acid in highly concentrated organic and aqueous solutions of plutonium (IV) and uranium (VI) nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.F.; Lacour, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Free acidity is an important parameter in the nuclear reprocessing control. The accuracy on the determination of free acidity is not really required in the nuclear reprocessing control itself but is necessary for certain types of analysis such as spectrophotometry (Pu (VI), Am (III),...), density determinations. A new titripotentiometric method for free acidity determination in concentrated U(VI) and Pu(IV) solutions is presented. This method is based on the complexing properties of dipicolinic acid (pyridine 2.6 dicarboxylic acid) and medium effect with H 2 O/DMSO mixture. This method can be used either in organic or aqueous phases with ratio /H + I/ metal ≥ 5.10 -2 and a relative standard deviation of 1%

  6. Direct access to highly crystalline mesoporous nano TiO2 using sterically bulky organic acid templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakre, Pratibha V.; Tilve, S. G.

    2018-05-01

    Sterically bulky monocarboxylic acid templates pivalic acid and phenoxyacetic acid are reported for the first time as organic templates in the sol-gel synthesis of TiO2. Mesoporous nanoparticulates of pure anatase phase and of well defined size were synthesized. The characterization of the materials prepared was done by various methods such as XRD, SEM, TEM, FTIR, UV-DRS, BET, etc. The prepared TiO2 samples were evaluated for the day light photodegradation of methylene blue by comparing with Degussa P25 and templates free synthesized TiO2 and were found to be more efficient.

  7. Chemical characteristics and acidity of soluble organic substances from a northern hardwood forest floor, central Maine, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, G.F.; David, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    The authors understanding of the chemistry, structure, and reactions of organic substances in forest floor leachates is limited and incomplete. Therefore, the authors examined the organic and inorganic chemistry of forest floor leachates collected from a hardwood forest in central Maine over a two-year period (1987-1989), including detailed study of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Seasonal variations in NH 4 + , NO 3 - , K + , and total Al were believed due to organic matter decomposition and release. Leaching of other base cations closely followed that of NO 3 - . Total DOC ranged from 2,228 to 7,193 μmol L -1 with an average of 4,835 μmol L -1 . Monosaccharides and polyphenols constituted 3.9% (range of 3.4 to 4.4%) and 3.0% (2.2 to 3.7%) of the DOC, respectively, which suggests DOC may contain partially oxidized products that are possibly of a lignocellulose nature. Fractionation of the forest floor DOC indicated high organic acid contents (hydrophobic and hydrophilic acids) that averaged 92% of the total DOC. Organic acids were isolated and analyzed for elemental content (C, H, N, and S), and determination of UV absorptivity (E 4 /E 6 ) ratios, CuO oxidation products, FT-IR and 13 C-NMR spectra, and acidity by potentiometric titration. Their FT-IR and 13 C-NMR spectra suggest they are primarily carboxylic acids, with aliphatic and aromatic structure. An organic charge contribution model was developed using titration data, DOC fractionation percentages, and the total DOC in the forest floor leachates. Application of the model to all solutions accounted for 97% of the charge balance deficits

  8. Combined HPLC analysis of organic acids and furans formed during organosolv pulping of fiber hemp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, R.J.A.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Zomers, F.H.A.

    1995-01-01

    During organosolv pulping of fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L) with a mixture of ethanol/water, delignification is catalyzed by released acetic acid and formic acid in the effluent. The major sources of acetic acid are the acetyl groups, as determined by means of the acetyl balance, whereas formic acid

  9. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed particles composed of NaCl and water-soluble organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Suman; Wang, Bingbing; Tivanski, Alexei; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric aging of naturally emitted marine aerosol often leads to formation of internally mixed particles composed of sea salts and water-soluble organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Mixing of sea salt and organic components has profound effects on the evolving chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of the resulted particles, which are poorly understood. Here, we have studied chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated NaCl particles mixed with malonic acid (MA) and glutaric acid (GA) at different molar ratios using micro-FTIR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray elemental microanalysis. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed NaCl and organic acid particles were distinctly different from pure components and varied significantly with the type and amount of organic compound present. Experimental results were in a good agreement with the AIM modeling calculations of gas/liquid/solid partitioning in studied systems. X-ray elemental microanalysis of particles showed that Cl/Na ratio decreased with increasing organic acid component in the particles with MA yielding lower ratios relative to GA. We attribute the depletion of chloride to the formation of sodium malonate and sodium glutarate salts resulted by HCl evaporation from dehydrating particles.

  10. Aluminium Uptake and Translocation in Al Hyperaccumulator Rumex obtusifolius Is Affected by Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids Content and Soil pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráčková, Stanislava; Száková, Jiřina; Drábek, Ondřej; Tejnecký, Václav; Hejcman, Michal; Müllerová, Vladimíra; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims High Al resistance of Rumex obtusifolius together with its ability to accumulate Al has never been studied in weakly acidic conditions (pH > 5.8) and is not sufficiently described in real soil conditions. The potential elucidation of the role of organic acids in plant can explain the Al tolerance mechanism. Methods We established a pot experiment with R. obtusifolius planted in slightly acidic and alkaline soils. For the manipulation of Al availability, both soils were untreated and treated by lime and superphosphate. We determined mobile Al concentrations in soils and concentrations of Al and organic acids in organs. Results Al availability correlated positively to the extraction of organic acids (citric acid soil solution as well as from superphosphate that can probably modify distribution of total Al in R. obtusifolius as a representative of “oxalate plants.” The highest concentrations of Al and organic acids were recorded in the leaves, followed by the stem and belowground organ infusions. Conclusions In alkaline soil, R. obtusifolius is an Al-hyperaccumulator with the highest concentrations of oxalate in leaves, of malate in stems, and of citrate in belowground organs. These organic acids form strong complexes with Al that can play a key role in internal Al tolerance but the used methods did not allow us to distinguish the proportion of total Al-organic complexes to the free organic acids. PMID:25880431

  11. Synthesis of α-MoO3 nanoplates using organic aliphatic acids and investigation of sunlight enhanced photodegradation of organic dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V. Vinod; Gayathri, K.; Anthony, Savarimuthu Philip

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Thermodynamically stable α-MoO 3 nanoplates and nanorods were synthesized using organic structure controlling agents and demonstrated sun light enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine blue (Rh-B) dyes in aqueous solution. - Highlights: • α-MoO 3 hexagonal nanoplates using organic structure controlling agents. • Tunable optical band gap of MoO 3 . • Demonstrated strong sun light mediated enhanced photodegradation of methylene blue and rhodamine blue. • Photodegradation did not use any other external oxidizing agents. - Abstract: Thermodynamically stable α-MoO 3 nanoplates were synthesized using organic aliphatic acids as structure controlling agents and investigated photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine blue (Rh-B) in presence of sun light. Three different organic aliphatic acids, citric acid (CA), tartaric acid (TA) and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), were employed to control morphologies. CA and TA predominantly produced extended hexagonal plates where EDTA gave nanorods as well as nanoplates. PXRD studies confirmed the formation of α-MoO 3 nanoparticles. HR-TEM and FE-SEM reveal the formation of plate morphologies with 20–40 nm thickness, 50–100 nm diameter and 600 nm lengths. The different morphologies of α-MoO 3 nanoparticles lead to the tunable optical band gap between 2.80 and 2.98 eV which was obtained from diffused reflectance spectra (DRS). Interestingly, the synthesized α-MoO 3 nanoplates exhibited strong photocatalytic degradation of MB and Rh-B up to 99% in presence of sun light without using any oxidizing agents.

  12. Impact of organic fertilizer, humic acid and sea weed extract on wheat production in pothowar region of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, S.; Anjum, A.S.; Kasana, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) crop production was evaluated under organic conditions during the year 2008-09 and 2009-2010 at National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Pakistan Agricultural Research council (PARC) Islamabad. The study includes four treatments with four replications. The treatments includes; (1) Organic fertilizer 625 Kg ha/sup -1/, (2) Organic fertilizer 625 and Humic Acid 10 Kg ha/sup -1/ (3) Humic Acid and Sea weed extract 625 ml ha/sup -1/ and (4) Control. Organic amendments were incorporated during land preparation and seaweed extract as foliar spray. The basal dose of organic fertilizer and humic acid (granule) were added at the time of sowing of wheat during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010.Humic acid solution 1% and sea weed extract were applied as foliar spray at 6 inches of wheat crop. The second foliar spray was done at tillering while third and forth sprays at heading and milking stage respectively. The crop conditions, color, shoot length and spike and yield parameters were recorded at different stages of the organic fertilizer application. The soils and crops managed organically are sustainable. Similarly, biological and chemical properties of soil also improved significantly. The compost enriched with different organic waste increased all physico-chemical and biological properties of the soil as well as yield of the crop. The wheat crop morphological and agronomical parameters also increase significantly. Moreover, nutrients supply and other soil properties like pH, CEC, ECe and plant nutrients including microbial community structure influence positively. (author)

  13. Methodology adjustments for organic acid tolerance studies in oat under hydroponic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Marini Kopp

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of anaerobic conditions in hydromorphic soils favors the development of anaerobic microorganisms that produce phytotoxic substances representing primarily by organic acids. The selection of promising oat (Avena sativa L. genotypes for use in those situations requires field evaluations that can be cumbersome, making hydroponics a viable alternative. The objective of this work was to adjust a methodology to use in studies of tolerance to organic acids in oat under hydroponic systems. For such goal, the best germination system was determined in order to reduce the seedling initial establishment effects under hydroponics, the ideal concentration for screening genotypes and the best variable for stress evaluation. It was found that the most efficient germination system was "pleated germination paper" with small and husked seeds. The best concentration for studying organic acid tolerance ranged from 2.3 to 6.2 mM and the most suitable variable for the evaluation was root length.A ocorrência de condições anaeróbias nos solos hidromórficos favorece o desenvolvimento de microrganismos anaeróbios que produzem substâncias fitotóxicas representadas principalmente pelos ácidos orgânicos. A seleção de constituições genéticas de aveia (Avena sativa L. promissoras para utilização nestas situações requer avaliações de difícil execução no campo, tornando a utilização de sistemas hidropônicos mais vantajosa. O objetivo deste trabalho foi ajustar uma metodologia para ser utilizada em estudos de tolerância a ácidos orgânicos em aveia através de sistemas hidropônicos. Para tal fim foi determinada uma forma adequada de promover a germinação das sementes de maneira a reduzir os efeitos do estabelecimento inicial das plântulas na hidroponia, uma faixa de concentração ideal para discriminação dos genótipos e as variáveis de maior interesse para avaliação. O sistema de germinação mais eficiente é através de

  14. Zinc transformations in acidic soil and zinc efficiency on maize by adding six organic zinc complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Valdivia, L M; Fernández, M D; Obrador, A; Alvarez, J M

    2002-03-13

    Experiments under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were conducted to study the response of maize (Zea mays L.) to Zn fertilizer applications (Zn-phenolate, Zn-EDDHA, Zn-EDTA, Zn-lignosulfonate, Zn-polyflavonoid, and Zn-heptagluconate) in an Aquic Haploxeralf soil. The application of Zn complexes significantly increased Zn uptake by the plant compared with that in the control soil. The highest enhancements were obtained in soil treated with Zn-EDTA, Zn-lignosulfonate, and Zn-EDDHA. The highest percentages of Zn taken up by the plants occurred when 20 mg x kg(-1) Zn was applied as Zn-EDTA fertilizer and 10 mg x kg(-1) as Zn-lignosulfonate fertilizer. In the greenhouse experiment, Zn speciation in soil after harvesting showed that almost all Zn was found in the residual fraction followed by metal in the water-soluble plus exchangeable fraction and metal bound to organic matter. The most effective fertilizers maintaining Zn in the most labile fractions were Zn-phenolate, Zn-EDTA, and Zn-lignosulfonate. Conversely, in the incubation experiment, only a small percentage of Zn was found in the water-soluble plus exchangeable fraction and no differences in the Zn distribution were observed between the different fertilizer treatments. The micronutrient content in maize was positively correlated with the water-soluble plus exchangeable Zn as well as with the available Zn determined by the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and Mehlich-3 methods, in the greenhouse experiment. Results of this study showed that the incubation experiment in acidic soil is not a suitable tool to establish the different effectiveness of Zn chelates in plants.

  15. Molecular evidence for an involvement of organic anion transporters (OATs) in aristolochic acid nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhiya, Nadiya; Arlt, Volker M.; Bahn, Andrew; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Phillips, David H.; Glatt, Hansruedi

    2009-01-01

    Aristolochic acid (AA), present in Aristolochia species, is the major causative agent in the development of severe renal failure and urothelial cancers in patients with AA nephropathy. It may also be a cause of Balkan endemic nephropathy. Epithelial cells of the proximal tubule are the primary cellular target of AA. To study whether organic anion transporters (OATs) expressed in proximal tubule cells are involved in uptake of AA, we used human epithelial kidney (HEK293) cells stably expressing human (h) OAT1, OAT3 or OAT4. AA potently inhibited the uptake of characteristic substrates, p-aminohippurate for hOAT1 and estrone sulfate for hOAT3 and hOAT4. Aristolochic acid I (AAI), the more cytotoxic and genotoxic AA congener, exhibited high affinity for hOAT1 (K i = 0.6 μM) as well as hOAT3 (K i = 0.5 μM), and lower affinity for hOAT4 (K i = 20.6 μM). Subsequently, AAI-DNA adduct formation (investigated by 32 P-postlabelling) was used as a measure of AAI uptake. Significantly higher levels of adducts occurred in hOAT-expressing cells than in control cells: this effect was abolished in the presence of the OAT inhibitor probenecid. In Xenopus laevis oocytes hOAT-mediated efflux of p-aminohippurate was trans-stimulated by extracellular AA, providing further molecular evidence for AA translocation by hOATs. Our study indicates that OATs can mediate the uptake of AA into proximal tubule cells and thereby participate in kidney cell damage by this toxin.

  16. The Alleviation of Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms in Changbai Larch (Larix olgensis Seedlings by the Application of Exogenous Organic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Song

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous organic acids are beneficial in protecting plants from the stress of heavy metal toxins (e.g., Pb in soils. This work focuses on the potential role of organic acids in protecting Changbai larch (Larix olgensis seedlings from the stress of growing in nutrient deficient soil. The seedlings were planted in a nutrient rich or deficient soil (A1 horizon of a Haplic Cambisol without organic acid as the nutrient rich control, or fully-mixed A1 + B horizons in a proportion of 1:2 as deficient in pots in a greenhouse. In A1 + B horizons the seedlings were treated daily with concentrations of oxalic or citric acid (OA or CA at a rate approximately equivalent to 0, 0.04, 0.2, 1.0, or 2.0 mmol·kg−1 of soil for 10, 20, and 30 days. Nutrient deficiency stressed the seedlings as indicated by lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde (MDA content in leaves significantly increasing, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities, proline, photosynthetic pigment contents, and chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm decreasing. The stress increased in controls over the application periods. When nutrient deficient plants were exposed to an organic acid (especially 5.0 or 10.0 mmol·L−1 for 20 days, the stress as indicated by the physiological parameters was reversed, and survival rate of seedlings, and biomass of root, stem, and leaf significantly increased; CA was more effective than OA. The results demonstrate that exogenous organic acids alleviate nutrient deficiency-induced oxidative injuries and improve the tolerance of L. olgensis seedlings to nutrient deficiency.

  17. Different temperatures select distinctive acetic acid bacteria species and promotes organic acids production during Kombucha tea fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Francesca; Troise, Antonio Dario; Vitaglione, Paola; Ercolini, Danilo

    2018-08-01

    Kombucha is a traditional beverage produced by tea fermentation, carried out by a symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts. Acetic Acid Bacteria (AAB) usually dominate the bacterial community of Kombucha, driving the fermentative process. The consumption of this beverage was often associated to beneficial effects for the health, due to its antioxidant and detoxifying properties. We characterized bacterial populations of Kombucha tea fermented at 20 or 30 °C by using culture-dependent and -independent methods and monitored the concentration of gluconic and glucuronic acids, as well as of total polyphenols. We found significant differences in the microbiota at the two temperatures. Moreover, different species of Gluconacetobacter were selected, leading to a differential abundance of gluconic and glucuronic acids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High-level exogenous glutamic acid-independent production of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) with organic acid addition in a new isolated Bacillus subtilis C10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huili; Zhu, Jianzhong; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Cai, Jin; Zhang, Anyi; Hong, Yizhi; Huang, Jin; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zhinan

    2012-07-01

    A new exogenous glutamic acid-independent γ-PGA producing strain was isolated and characterized as Bacillus subtilis C10. The factors influencing the endogenous glutamic acid supply and the biosynthesis of γ-PGA in this strain were investigated. The results indicated that citric acid and oxalic acid showed the significant capability to support the overproduction of γ-PGA. This stimulated increase of γ-PGA biosynthesis by citric acid or oxalic acid was further proved in the 10 L fermentor. To understand the possible mechanism contributing to the improved γ-PGA production, the activities of four key intracellular enzymes were measured, and the possible carbon fluxes were proposed. The result indicated that the enhanced level of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity caused by oxalic acid was important for glutamic acid synthesized de novo from glucose. Moreover, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were the positive regulators of glutamic acid biosynthesis, while 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (ODHC) was the negative one. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sustainable Soil Washing: Shredded Card Filtration of Potentially Toxic Elements after Leaching from Soil Using Organic Acid Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Christopher; Drábek, Ondřej; Tejnecký, Václav; Jehlička, Jan; Michon, Ninon; Borůvka, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Shredded card (SC) was assessed for use as a sorbent of potentially toxic elements (PTE) carried from contaminated soil in various leachates (oxalic acid, formic acid, CaCl2, water). We further assessed SC for retention of PTE, using acidified water (pH 3.4). Vertical columns and a peristaltic pump were used to leach PTE from soils (O and A/B horizons) before passing through SC. Sorption onto SC was studied by comparing leachates, and by monitoring total PTE contents on SC before and after leaching. SC buffers against acidic soil conditions that promote metals solubility; considerable increases in solution pH (+4.49) were observed. Greatest differences in solution PTE content after leaching with/without SC occurred for Pb. In oxalic acid, As, Cd, Pb showed a high level of sorption (25, 15, and 58x more of the respective PTE in leachates without SC). In formic acid, Pb sorption was highly efficient (219x more Pb in leachate without SC). In water, only Pb showed high sorption (191x more Pb in leachate without SC). In desorption experiments, release of PTE from SC varied according to the source of PTE (organic/mineral soil), and type of solvent used. Arsenic was the PTE most readily leached in desorption experiments. Low As sorption from water was followed by fast release (70% As released from SC). A high rate of Cd sorption from organic acid solutions was followed by strong retention (~12% Cd desorption). SC also retained Pb after sorption from water, with subsequent losses of ≤8.5% of total bound Pb. The proposed use of this material is for the filtration of PTE from extract solution following soil washing. Low-molecular-mass organic acids offer a less destructive, biodegradable alternative to strong inorganic acids for soil washing. PMID:26900684

  20. Sustainable Soil Washing: Shredded Card Filtration of Potentially Toxic Elements after Leaching from Soil Using Organic Acid Solutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ash

    Full Text Available Shredded card (SC was assessed for use as a sorbent of potentially toxic elements (PTE carried from contaminated soil in various leachates (oxalic acid, formic acid, CaCl2, water. We further assessed SC for retention of PTE, using acidified water (pH 3.4. Vertical columns and a peristaltic pump were used to leach PTE from soils (O and A/B horizons before passing through SC. Sorption onto SC was studied by comparing leachates, and by monitoring total PTE contents on SC before and after leaching. SC buffers against acidic soil conditions that promote metals solubility; considerable increases in solution pH (+4.49 were observed. Greatest differences in solution PTE content after leaching with/without SC occurred for Pb. In oxalic acid, As, Cd, Pb showed a high level of sorption (25, 15, and 58x more of the respective PTE in leachates without SC. In formic acid, Pb sorption was highly efficient (219x more Pb in leachate without SC. In water, only Pb showed high sorption (191x more Pb in leachate without SC. In desorption experiments, release of PTE from SC varied according to the source of PTE (organic/mineral soil, and type of solvent used. Arsenic was the PTE most readily leached in desorption experiments. Low As sorption from water was followed by fast release (70% As released from SC. A high rate of Cd sorption from organic acid solutions was followed by strong retention (~12% Cd desorption. SC also retained Pb after sorption from water, with subsequent losses of ≤8.5% of total bound Pb. The proposed use of this material is for the filtration of PTE from extract solution following soil washing. Low-molecular-mass organic acids offer a less destructive, biodegradable alternative to strong inorganic acids for soil washing.

  1. Complexation of the actinides (III, IV and V) with organic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leguay, S.

    2012-01-01

    A thorough knowledge of the chemical properties of actinides is now required in a wide variety of fields: extraction processes involved in spent fuel reprocessing, groundwater in the vicinity of radioactive waste packages, environmental and biological media in the case of accidental release of radionuclides. In this context, the present work has been focused on the complexation of Am(III), Cm(III), Cf(III), Pu(IV) and Pa(V) with organic ligands: DTPA, NTA and citric acid. The complexation of pentavalent protactinium with citric and nitrilotriacetic acids was studied using liquid-liquid extraction with the element at tracer scale (C Pa ≤ 10 -10 M). The order and the mean charge of each complex were determined from the analysis of the systematic variations of the distribution coefficient of Pa(V) as function of ligand and proton concentration. Then, the apparent formation constants related of the so-identified complexes were calculated. The complexation of trivalent actinides with DTPA was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE-ICP-MS). The coexistence of the mono-protonated and non-protonated complexes (AnHDTPA - and AnDTPA 2- ) in acidic media (1.5 ≤ pH ≤ 3.5) was shown unambiguously. Literature data have been reinterpreted by taking into account both complexes and a consistent set of formation constants of An(III)-DTPA has been obtained. The experimental study was completed by theoretical calculations (DFT) on Cm-DTPA system. The coordination geometry of Cm in CmDTPA 2- and CmHDTPA - including water molecules in the first coordination sphere has been determined as well as interatomic distances. Finally, a study on the complexation of Pu(IV) with DTPA was initiated in order to more closely mimic physiological conditions. A three-step approach was proposed to avoid plutonium hydrolysis: i/ complexation of Pu(IV) with (NTA) in order to protect Pu(IV) from hydrolysis (at low pH) ii/ increase of pH toward neutral conditions

  2. Microbial mobilization of cesium from illite: Role of organic acids and siderophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazotte, Alice; Peron, Olivier; Abdelouas, Abdesselam; Lebeau, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the behavior of cesium (Cs) in soils and geological formations is interesting in the context of nuclear accidents and nuclear waste disposals. Indeed, this radionuclide with a 30-years half-life can contaminate crops and more generally the food chain. Cs with properties similar to potassium is known to be strongly accumulated in the clays of upper soil horizons. While excavation of contaminated soil cannot be feasible for the whole contaminated surfaces (huge volumes to be cleaned-up), in situ methods could provide a sustainable and low cost solution. Phytoextraction is one of a few solutions for in situ remediation of soils contaminated by trace elements and it preserves the quality of agricultural soils. However, many improvements are still needed to enhance phytoextraction effectiveness. The combination of bioaugmentation (soil inoculation with exogenous microorganisms) with phytoextraction is likely to increase the bioaccessibility of radionuclides and their accumulation in plants. The role of bacteria on soil-pollutants can be direct (direct metal complexation) and/or indirect (weathering of clays adsorbing Cs). This study aims to provide more specifically a mechanistic understanding of the bacterial mobilization of Cs from soil with the prospect of soil bioremediation. Bacterial metabolites of Pseudomonas fluorescens (ATCC 17400) were supplied to illite spiked with 0.1 and 1 mM of Cs. Purified siderophores including pyoverdine from P. fluorescens, or the whole metabolites from the bacterial culture supernatant were compared to low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) (citric and oxalic acids) at 0.04 mM, or synthetic chelants, i.e., acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) and desferrioxamine mesylate (DFOM) ranging from 50 µM up to 250 µM. The release of Cs and the structural alteration of illite (release of Al, Fe and Si) were monitored. When compared to the control, no release of Cs from illite was observed with LMWOA. On the contrary, a slight release

  3. [Inhibition of Low Molecular Organic Acids on the Activity of Acidithiobacillus Species and Its Effect on the Removal of Heavy Metals from Contaminated Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong-wei; Wang, He-rul; Cao, Yan-xiao; Li, Fei; Cui, Chun-hong; Zhou, Li

    2016-05-15

    Application of organic fertilizer can reduce the solubility and bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soil, but in the flooded anaerobic environment, organic fertilizer will be decomposed to produce a large number of low molecular organic acids, which can inhibit the biological activity of Acidithiobacillus species. Batch cultures studies showed that the monocarboxylic organic acids including formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid exhibited a marked toxicity to Acidithiobacillus species, as indicated by that 90% of inhibitory rate for Fe2 and So oxidation in 72 h were achieved at extremely low concentrations of 41.2 mg · L⁻¹, 78.3 mg · L⁻¹, 43.2 mg · L⁻¹, 123.4 mg · L⁻¹ and 81.9 mg 230. 4 mg · L⁻¹, 170.1 mg · L⁻¹, 123.4 mg · L⁻¹ respectively. Of these organic acids, formic acid was the most toxic one as indicated by that Fe2 and So oxidation was almost entirely inhibited at a low concentration. In addition, it was found that Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was more sensitive to low molecular organic acids than Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. What's more, there was little effect on biological acidification process of heavy metal contaminated soil when organic acids were added at initial stage (Oh), but it was completely inhibited when these acids were added after 12 h of conventional biological acidification, thus decreasing the efficiency of heavy metals dissolution from soil.

  4. Investigation of tritium removal by means of organic compounds. Catalytic hydrogenation (tritiation) of linoleic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sharnouby, A.; Weichselgartner, H.

    1984-11-01

    In the presence of noble-metal catalysts unsaturated fatty acids such as eruic acid and linoleic acid capture hydrogen (and tritium) quantitatively. The hydrogenation reaction of eruic acid has already been reported. The experimental results of the reaction of hydrogen (and tritium) with linoleic acid are now discussed in this paper. Obviously, the use of linoleic acid shows some advantages compared with eruic acid: - the hydrogenation reaction is faster, - linoleic acid is liquid, so that the choice of additional solvents is easier, and - linoleic acid is a more or less cheap natural product, which is available from a series of seeds, so that the cost of a technical tritium removal plant is not increased by the basic chemical material. (orig.)

  5. Amino Acid Composition of an Organic Brown Rice Protein Concentrate and Isolate Compared to Soy and Whey Concentrates and Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Kalman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A protein concentrate (Oryzatein-80™ and a protein isolate (Oryzatein-90™ from organic whole-grain brown rice were analyzed for their amino acid composition. Two samples from different batches of Oryzatein-90™ and one sample of Oryzatein-80™ were provided by Axiom Foods (Los Angeles, CA, USA. Preparation and analysis was carried out by Covance Laboratories (Madison, WI, USA. After hydrolysis in 6-N hydrochloric acid for 24 h at approximately 110 °C and further chemical stabilization, samples were analyzed by HPLC after pre-injection derivitization. Total amino acid content of both the isolate and the concentrate was approximately 78% by weight with 36% essential amino acids and 18% branched-chain amino acids. These results are similar to the profiles of raw and cooked brown rice except in the case of glutamic acid which was 3% lower in the isolate and concentrate. The amino acid content and profile of the Oryzatein-90™ isolate was similar to published values for soy protein isolate but the total, essential, and branched-chain amino acid content of whey protein isolate was 20%, 39% and 33% greater, respectively, than that of Oryzatein-90™. These results provide a valuable addition to the nutrient database of protein isolates and concentrates from cereal grains.

  6. Amino Acid Composition of an Organic Brown Rice Protein Concentrate and Isolate Compared to Soy and Whey Concentrates and Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Douglas S

    2014-06-30

    A protein concentrate (Oryzatein-80™) and a protein isolate (Oryzatein-90™) from organic whole-grain brown rice were analyzed for their amino acid composition. Two samples from different batches of Oryzatein-90™ and one sample of Oryzatein-80™ were provided by Axiom Foods (Los Angeles, CA, USA). Preparation and analysis was carried out by Covance Laboratories (Madison, WI, USA). After hydrolysis in 6-N hydrochloric acid for 24 h at approximately 110 °C and further chemical stabilization, samples were analyzed by HPLC after pre-injection derivitization. Total amino acid content of both the isolate and the concentrate was approximately 78% by weight with 36% essential amino acids and 18% branched-chain amino acids. These results are similar to the profiles of raw and cooked brown rice except in the case of glutamic acid which was 3% lower in the isolate and concentrate. The amino acid content and profile of the Oryzatein-90™ isolate was similar to published values for soy protein isolate but the total, essential, and branched-chain amino acid content of whey protein isolate was 20%, 39% and 33% greater, respectively, than that of Oryzatein-90™. These results provide a valuable addition to the nutrient database of protein isolates and concentrates from cereal grains.

  7. Study of intramolecular isotope heterogeneity of organic oxy acids in order to detect sophisticated wines and juice drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmina Helen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to International Code of Oenological Practices it is allowed to use acide L(+tartrique for wine acidification, while use of synthetic dihydroxysuccinic acid is forbidden. Today it is impossible to differentiate natural dihydroxysuccinic acid from synthetic one by standard techniques. Even by using very sensitive method of isotope mass spectrometry certain difficulties emerge because total isotope characteristics of carbon of dihydroxysuccinic acid of different nature have the same values. However, isotope characteristics of carbon of intramolecular structural groups of dihydroxysuccinic acid made of different raw materials differ significantly. This allows specifying the nature of dihydroxysuccinic acid that is used for making of wines and juice drinks. In Russia, scientific and research institute of beer brewing and wine-making industry carried out a work for studying isotope characteristics of intramolecular isotope heterogeneity of dihydroxysuccinic acid from different origins in order to identify wines and juice drinks. Isotope characteristics of organic oxy acids from different origins were studied including them obtained by synthetic way and numeric range of value δ13 C,‰ were specified. The obtained results allow performing identification tests of wines and juice drinks to find out the products that contain not specified additives as that allowed for its use in production process.

  8. Modulation of organic acids and sugar content in tomato fruits by an abscisic acid-regulated transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, Adriana; López-Climent, María; Valcárcel, Mercedes; Rosello, Salvador; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Casaretto, José A

    2011-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a role in fruit development. ABA signaling components of developmental programs and responses to stress conditions include the group of basic leucine zipper transcriptional activators known as ABA-response element binding factors (AREBs/ABFs). AREB transcription factors mediate ABA-regulated gene expression involved in desiccation tolerance and are expressed mainly in seeds and in vegetative tissues under stress; however, they are also expressed in some fruits such as tomato. In order to get an insight into the role of ABA signaling in fruit development, the expression of two AREB-like factors were investigated during different developmental stages. In addition, tomato transgenic lines that overexpress and downregulate one AREB-like transcription factor, SlAREB1, were used to determine its effect on the levels of some metabolites determining fruit quality. Higher levels of citric acid, malic acid, glutamic acid, glucose and fructose were observed in SlAREB1-overexpressing lines compared with those in antisense suppression lines in red mature fruit pericarp. The higher hexose concentration correlated with increased expression of genes encoding a vacuolar invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) and a sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13). No significant changes were found in ethylene content which agrees with the normal ripening phenotype observed in transgenic fruits. These results suggest that an AREB-mediated ABA signal affects the metabolism of these compounds during the fruit developmental program. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2010.

  9. Inactivation of Salmonella in tomato stem scars by organic acid wash and chitosan-allyl isothiocyanate coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inactivation of inoculated Salmonella enterica on tomato stem scars exploiting integrated treatment of organic acid wash (AW) followed by chitosan-allyl isothiocyanate (CT-AIT) coating. The treatment effect on microbial loads and fruit quality during 21 d...

  10. A Neat Trick Using Oxalic Acid Dihydrate and Potassium Permanganate and Other Experiments with Small Organic Amine or Oxygenated Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelland, Malcolm A.

    2011-01-01

    Solid potassium permanganate (KMnO[subscript 4]) is shown to react in a variety of ways with small organic amines or oxygenated compounds depending on whether they are liquids or solids and whether water is present. In particular, its reaction with solid oxalic acid dihydrate can be initiated by the moisture in one's breath, making an intriguing…

  11. Influence of Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids on Transport of Cadmium and Copper Ions across Model Phospholipid Membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parisová, Martina; Navrátil, Tomáš; Šestáková, Ivana; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Mareček, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2013), s. 27-44 ISSN 1452-3981 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400806 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : cadmium * copper * low molecular weight organic acid Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.956, year: 2013

  12. Tropanol esters of metallocene carboxylic acids. Syntheses, labelling with 103Ru and sup(103m)Rh and organ distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, M.; Wu, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The tropanol esters of the carboxylic acids of ferrocene, 103 Ru-ruthenocene and sup(103m)Rh-rhodocinium were synthezised. The organ distribution of the 103 Ru or sup(103m)Rh labelled tropanol-esters were investigated. Only the 103 Ru labelled ester showed a high heart/blood ratio. (author)

  13. Total sialic acid profile in regressing and remodelling organs during the metamorphosis of marsh frog (Pelophylax ridibundus Pallas 1771).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptan, Engin; Bas, Serap Sancar; Inceli, Meliha Sengezer

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional relationship of sialic acid in regressing and remodelling organs such as the tail, small intestine and liver during the metamorphosis of Pelophylax ridibundus. For this purpose, four groups were composed according to developmental periods by considering Gosner's criteria (1964). Our findings showed that the sialic acid content of the larval tail has an opposite profile to cell death process. Although the sialic acid content of the small intestine and liver did not change evidently during metamorphosis, it increased after the completion of metamorphosis. Frog tail extensively exhibited cell death process and decreased proliferative activity and underwent complete degeneration during metamorphic climax. In spite of increased apoptotic index, a decreased sialic acid level in the tail tissues during climax can be the indication of a death cell removal process. However, the intestine and the liver included both cell death and proliferative process and remodelling in their adult forms. Thus, their sialic acid profiles during metamorphosis were different from the tail's profile. These data show that sialic acid may be an indicator of the presence of some cellular events during metamorphosis and that it can have different roles in the developmental process depending on the organ's fate throughout metamorphosis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Self-Assembled Nanocomposite Organic Polymers with Aluminum and Scandium as Heterogeneous Water-Compatible Lewis Acid Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamura, Hiroyuki; Sonoyama, Arisa; Hayrapetyan, Davit; Kobayashi, Shū

    2015-09-01

    While water-compatible Lewis acids have great potential as accessible and environmentally benign catalysts for various organic transformations, efficient immobilization of such Lewis acids while keeping high activity and without leaching of metals even under aqueous conditions is a challenging task. Self-assembled nanocomposite catalysts of organic polymers, carbon black, aluminum reductants, and scandium salts as heterogeneous water-compatible Lewis acid catalysts are described. These catalysts could be successfully applied to various C-C bond-forming reactions without leaching of metals. Scanning transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed that the nanocomposite structure of Al and Sc was fabricated in these heterogeneous catalysts. It is noted that Al species, which are usually decomposed rapidly in the presence of water, are stabilized under aqueous conditions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Comparison of natural organic acids and synthetic chelates at enhancing phytoextraction of metals from a multi-metal contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clistenes do Nascimento, Williams A.; Amarasiriwardena, Dula; Xing, Baoshan

    2006-01-01

    Chemically assisted phytoremediation has been developing to induce accumulation of metals by high biomass plants. Synthetic chelates have shown high effectiveness to reach such a goal, but they pose serious drawbacks in field application due to the excessive amount of metals solubilized. We compared the performance of synthetic chelates with naturally occurring low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) in enhancing phytoextraction of metals by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) from multi-metal contaminated soils. Gallic and citric acids were able to induce removal of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Ni from soil without increasing the leaching risk. Net removal of these metals caused by LMWOA can be as much as synthetic chelates. A major reason for this is the lower phytotoxicity of LMWOA. Furthermore, supplying appropriate mineral nutrients increased biomass and metal removal. - Organic acids can be as efficient as synthetic chelates for use in phytoextraction of multi-metal contaminated soils

  16. Effect of tricarboxylic acid cycle regulator on carbon retention and organic