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Sample records for fermentation ammoniakemissionen aus

  1. Ammonia from manure slurry and measures for its reduction - in particular in connection with fermentation; Ammoniakemissionen aus Guelle und deren Minderungsmassnahmen unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Vergaerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersener, J.-L.; Meier, U.; Dinkel, F.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to demonstrate the potential of reducing ammonia emissions from manure slurries in connection with anaerobic digestion. The various methods of treatment that were assessed, including digestion, aeration, separation of the liquid phase, additives, acidification, flocculation, precipitation and stripping are discussed. The findings on the effectiveness of the different treatment methods are compared with normal slurry storage and distribution methods (open pits for storage, distribution by splash plate). Recommendations on convenient methods for reducing ammonia losses are made, whereby the authors state their opinion that digestion is not to be recommended and that separation is practical and can be realised rapidly.

  2. Process combination of thermo pressure hydrolysis and fermentation for innovative processing of residual biogenous mass; Verfahrenskombination aus Thermodruckhydrolyse und Vergaerung zur innovativen Verwertung biogener Restmassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prechtl, S.; Merkl, M.; Schieder, D.; Schneider, R.; Bischof, F. [Applikations- und Technikzentrum fuer Energieverfahrens-, Umwelt- und Stroemungstechnik (ATZ-EVUS), Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The described processing technique consisting of topped thermal hydrolysis and downstream fermentation is particularly suitable for wet, low-structure organic waste. High turnover rates at short treatment times permit to minimize residues effectively, yield a fair amount of biogas and allow compact design because of low fermenter volumes, which has a positive impact on investment cost. (orig.) [German] Das vorgestellt Verwertungsverfahren bestehend aus vorgeschalteter thermischer Hydrolyse und nachgeschalteter Vergaerung eignet sich besonders fuer nasse, strukturarme organische Abfaelle. Hohe Umsatzraten bei kurzen Behandlungszeiten ermoeglichen eine gute Reststoffminimierung und Biogasausbeute sowie eine kompakte Bauweise durch kleine Fermentervolumina, was sich positiv auf die Investitionskosten auswirkt. (orig.)

  3. Cleaning of process and excess water from organic waste fermentation with a combination of biological treatment stage and microfiltration; Reinigung von Prozess- und Ueberschusswaessern aus der Bioabfallvergaerung durch Kombination aus biologischer Stufe und Mikrofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buer, T.; Schumacher, J. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft

    1999-07-01

    Within the framework of an R and D project sponsored by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt, cleaning of process and excess water from organic waste fermentation plants was studied at the Institute for Siedlungswasserwirtschaft of Aachen Technical University RWTH. The focus in studying these waste waters was on the adaptation and optimization of the ZenoGem {sup trademark} process - a biological cleaning technique with an integrated microfiltration membrane. The use of this technology had the following objectives: to safeguard compliance with the limiting values for direct or indirect discharge of excess water and to reduce the heavy metal freight of circulating process water reentering the fermentation process for mashing raw organic waste. Thus the pollutant content of the fermentation residue was to be cut down. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen eines von der Deutschen Bundesstiftung Umwelt gefoerderten Forschungs- und Entwicklungsvorhabens wurde am Institut fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft der RWTH Aachen die Prozess- und Ueberschusswasserreinigung von Bioabfallvergaerungsanlagen untersucht. Dabei stellte die Adaption und Optimierung des ZenoGem {sup trademark} -Verfahrens - ein biologisches Reinigungsverfahren mit integrierter Mikrofiltrationsmembran - fuer diese Abwaesser den Untersuchungsschwerpunkt dar. Ziel war es, mit dieser Technologie zum einen die Grenzwerte fuer eine direkte oder indirekte Einleitung des Ueberschusswassers zu gewaehrleisten und zum anderen die zirkulierenden Prozesswaesser, die in den Vergaerungsprozess zum Anmaischen der Roh-Bioabfaelle zurueckgefuehrt werden, an Schwermetallen zu entfrachten. Hierdurch sollte eine Schadstoffreduktion im Gaerreststoff erzielt werden. (orig.)

  4. Investigating the properties of residues. Characterization of pellets from fermentation residues; Den Eigenschaften der Reststoffe auf der Spur. Untersuchung widmet sich der Charakterisierung von Pellets aus Gaerresten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratzeisen, Martin; Mueller, Joachim [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Agrartechnik; Starcevic, Nikica [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Agrartechnik; Strabag Umweltanlagen GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Projekt Produktentwicklung/Schlammbehandlung

    2009-09-15

    Fermentation residues are by-products of the biogas process. Farmers use them as fertilizers, but as the size of biogas plants grows, so does the residues volume. It is now too much for local use, and transport to other sites is expensive. Fuel pellets production may be an alternative. Pellets from fermentation residues are not accepted as yet because too little is known about their characteristics. The contribution describes an investigation that intends to identify the fuel characteristics of pellets from fermentation residues. (orig.)

  5. fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... osmotic pressure, ethanol stress and other metabolic inhibitors accumulation in broth. At 48 h, the maximum ethanol concentration reached 137 g L-1, after which fermentation ended with the residual glucose at approximately 4.71 g L-1 and the volumetric productivity at approximately 2.54 g L-1 h-1.

  6. Kuldma, Aus, Roosma ja Siska

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    2006. aasta Kuldnõela võitja kuulutatakse välja Tallinnas Viru keskuses 9.03.2007. Kandidaadid Katrin Kuldma kollektsiooniga Chocolate, Reet Aus kaubamärgiga Re Use, Tiiu Roosma pesukollektsiooniga BonBon Lingerie ja Marika Siska kaubamärgiga Sangar

  7. Berufliche Bildung aus wirtschaftspolitischer Sicht

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Erwin

    2008-01-01

    Ausgehend von der aktuellen Diskussion über Bildung und der Forderung nach Verbesserung der Bildungsangebote spricht sich der Autor Erwin Huber (derzeit Bayerischer Staatsminister für Wirtschaft, Infrastruktur, Verkehr und Technologie) für eine Optimierung von Bildungsstrukturen und -methoden aus. Im Zusammenhang mit der beruflichen Bildung zeigt er Lösungsansätze auf und regt zu weiteren Diskussionen an. Die duale Berufsausbildung sieht er als „Erfolgsmodell“. Angesichts der Auswirkungen der...

  8. Extraktion von Produktfamilienanforderungen aus Benutzerdokumentation

    OpenAIRE

    John, I.; Doerr, J.

    2003-01-01

    Existierende Software wird oft von Dokumentation wie beispielsweise Benutzerhandbüchern begleitet. Diese Dokumentation ist eine wichtige Quelle für eine neue Produktfamilie. Durch das gezielte Nutzen von existierender Dokumentation können Experten entlastet und existierende Systeme reibungsloser integriert werden. Dieses Kapitel beschreibt eine Methode zur strukturierten Extraktion von Anforderungen an eine Produktfamilie aus der Benutzerdokumentation existierender Altsysteme. Mit Hilfe der M...

  9. Haushofer, Heinz: Aus der bayerischen Agrargeschichte

    OpenAIRE

    Fried, Pankraz

    1986-01-01

    Haushofer, Heinz: Aus der bayerischen Agrargeschichte : 1525-1978 ; ges. Beitr. zur bayer. Agrargeschichte ; zu seinem 80. Geburtstag / hrsg. von Pankraz Fried ... - München u.a. : BLV Verl.-Ges., 1986. - 240 S.

  10. Niedermolekulare Verbindungen aus Spinnen als chemische Sensoren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Christian Adam; Kristensen, Anders S.; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    sie als Leitstrukturen für die Entwicklung, Synthese und biologische Untersuchung synthetischer Analoga verwendet. Weit weniger erforscht sind hingegen Verbindungen, die der Kommunikation von Spinnen dienen. Vor kurzem wurden jedoch auf dem Gebiet der Pheromone und Allomone aus Spinnen neue...

  11. Mollusken aus posttertiären Schichten von Celebes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepman, M.M.

    1912-01-01

    Die im Folgenden behandelten Mollusken stammen aus der Nähe von Kajoe ragi auf Celebes, woselbst sie durch R. FENNEMA aus denselben Schichten ausgelesen wurden, aus denen früher durch J. G. DE MAN einige brachyure Krebse beschrieben sind. Es darf deswegen betreffs näherer Angaben über die Herkunft

  12. Dezentrale Wasserstofferzeugung aus Diesel und Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Stefan; Ascher, Torsten; Kraaij, Gerard; Dietrich, Ralph-Uwe; Wörner, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Der Energieträger Wasserstoff wird im Verkehrssektor in den kommenden Jahren zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnen. Eine mögliche Alternative zur zentralen H2-Erzeugung aus Erdgas ist die dezentrale Bereitstellung von Wasserstoff durch Reformierung von Flüssigbrennstoffen. Im Rahmen des EU-Projektes NEMESIS2+ (www.nemesis-project.eu) wird ein Wasserstoffgenerator (50 Nm3/h) auf Basis von Diesel und Biodiesel entwickelt. Am DLR Stuttgart werden im Rahmen des Projektes grundlegende experimentelle Unt...

  13. Estudo das ausências da equipe de enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Haidê Rodrigues Belem

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available As ausências dos elementos da equipe de enfermagem comprometem a organização do trabalho causando sobrecarga dessa equipe, e queda na qualidade da assistência de enfermagem. O presente estudo caracteriza o tipo e distribuição das ausências da equipe de enfermagem em um hospital geral de grande porte, propondo um índice de Segurança Técnica para cobertura das ausências a partir da realidade investigada. Foram estudadas 8 tipos de ausências entre previstas e não previstas. O maior número de tipos de ausências encontradas foram aquelas referentes à ausências previstas, em seqüência encontramos licença maternidade representando o maior número de ausências não previstas.

  14. AUS98 - The 1998 version of the AUS modular neutronic code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, G.S.; Harrington, B.V

    1998-07-01

    AUS is a neutronics code system which may be used for calculations of a wide range of fission reactors, fusion blankets and other neutron applications. The present version, AUS98, has a nuclear cross section library based on ENDF/B-VI and includes modules which provide for reactor lattice calculations, one-dimensional transport calculations, multi-dimensional diffusion calculations, cell and whole reactor burnup calculations, and flexible editing of results. Calculations of multi-region resonance shielding, coupled neutron and photon transport, energy deposition, fission product inventory and neutron diffusion are combined within the one code system. The major changes from the previous AUS publications are the inclusion of a cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VI, the addition of the MICBURN module for controlling whole reactor burnup calculations, and changes to the system as a consequence of moving from IBM main-frame computers to UNIX workstations This report gives details of all system aspects of AUS and all modules except the POW3D multi-dimensional diffusion module refs., tabs.

  15. Reet Aus - egoismiülikooli õppejõud / Reet Aus ; intervjueerinud Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aus, Reet, 1974-

    2009-01-01

    Moekunstnik Reet Aus osalemisest oma kollektsiooniga Londoni moenädala raames toimunud näitusel "Estethica", rohelisest disainist, tööst teatrikunstnikuna, oma kaubamärgist ReUse, moekunsti eelistest ja puudustest, ilust, endast, majanduskriisist, linnastumisest

  16. Calculation of reactivity coefficients using AUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, B.V.

    1992-01-01

    The DIDO class High-Flux Australia Reactor (HIFAR) at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) achieved initial criticality in 1958. For the first 10 yr of operation, fuel management and safety arguments were based on parameters measured during the commissioning period of the reactor augmented by additional measurements where these were thought necessary, chiefly as a consequence of changes in the type of reactor fuel element or disposition of irradiation rigs. In the early 1970s, development of the modular neutronics code AUS began, and in the intervening years, a transition from experimental to calculated data has occurred. This has been partly the result of the difficulty of gaining reactor time for experimental purposes but, perhaps more importantly, partly the result of the realization of the difficulty of obtaining adequate accuracy in measurements of space and energy-dependent data. Experience in using the code and extensive benchmark testing has led to great confidence in the correctness of calculations to the point where the reactor can be almost entirely operated and managed with the use of calculated data. This paper briefly describes the present status of the AUS code modules and specific problems that have been addressed with them

  17. Zusammenarbeit aus Sicht eines outgesourcten Instandhalters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüßer, Stefan; Loeven, Heinz-Wilhelm

    Dauerhafter Unternehmenserfolg ist nur mit einer fortschrittlichen Instandhaltung zu erzielen. Durch den enormen Kostendruck infolge der Globalisierung und die Innovationssprünge auf der technischen Seite wird auch die Frage nach der modernen Organisationsform für die Instandhaltung gestellt. Eine Möglichkeit der Kostenoptimierung ist das Outsourcing von Instandhaltungsleistungen. Hierbei ist es unerlässlich, dass sich die Mitarbeiter zum Dienstleister entwickeln. In diesem Beitrag wird die Entwicklung der InfraServ Knapsack von einer internen Instandhaltungsabteilung hin zu einem Industriellen Dienstleister beschrieben und Aspekte der Zusammenarbeit mit externen Kunden aus der Sicht des outgesourcten Instandhalters geschildert. Es werden die wichtigen Entwicklungsschritte zur Dienstleistungsorientierung der früheren Eigeninstandhaltung aufgezeigt. Dieser Beitrag ist nicht als "Königsweg“ zu verstehen, er soll vielmehr anhand der Erfahrungen einer outgesourcten Eigeninstandhaltung Anregungen für die Entwicklung der eigenen Instandhaltungsorganisation liefern.

  18. Risiko Energiewende Wege aus der Sackgasse

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinknecht, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Der Ausstieg aus der Nutzung der Kernenergie in Deutschland wurde im Sommer 2011 im Eiltempo beschlossen. Jetzt zeigt sich, dass es keinen realistischen Plan für den Umbau der Energieversorgung in der vorgesehenen Frist von zehn Jahren gibt. Für die Umstellung unserer gesamten Stromversorgung und damit unserer Wirtschaft ist der Zeitraum zu kurz. Es fehlt eine belastbare empirische Begründung, die Fragen der Versorgungssicherheit, der Finanzierbarkeit, der Auswirkungen auf die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung und die soziale Gerechtigkeit behandeln müsste. Somit droht diese Wende an ihren Widersprüchen zu scheitern. Konrad Kleinknecht versucht in seinem Buch, die Probleme zu benennen und Antworten zu finden. Für ihn stellen sich die folgenden Fragen: Welche Möglichkeit haben wir, mit Windkraft und Solarenergie einen Teil der Stromversorgung zu ersetzen? Welche Stromquellen bieten gesicherte Leistung? Können wir auf Kohlekraftwerke verzichten? Brauchen wir neue Stromtrassen? Wie lässt sich Strom speichern?...

  19. Vegetable Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Eifert, Joell

    2014-01-01

    People have been fermenting vegetables for centuries to increase the stability of fresh foods, to make the foods safer to eat in the absence of refrigeration and to enhance their flavor. Today, vegetable fermentation is done on a large-scale setting in factories as well as in households across the world. In the United States, the primary vegetables fermented are cucumbers (pickles), cabbage (sauerkraut and Kimchi) and olives. In many parts of the world, especially in developing countries wher...

  20. Zusammensetzung eukaryotischer RNase P aus pflanzlichen Zellkernen und Plastiden

    OpenAIRE

    Heubeck, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Ribonuklease P (RNaseP) ist eine essentielle Endonuklease, welche die 5'-Flanke von pre-tRNAs entfernt. In nahezu allen bisher untersuchten Organismen und Organellen besteht das Holoenzym aus einer RNA-Untereinheit und einer Protein-Komponente. Nur die Zusammensetzung des Enzyms in den Chloroplasten und Mitochochondrien mehrzelliger Eukaryonten scheint unklar. Eine RNA-Untereinheit konnte hier bis jetzt nicht nachgewiesen werden. Um den Aufbau der RNaseP aus photosynthetischen...

  1. A guide to the AUS modular neutronics code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.S.

    1987-04-01

    A general description is given of the AUS modular neutronics code system, which may be used for calculations of a very wide range of fission reactors, fusion blankets and other neutron applications. The present system has cross-section libraries derived from ENDF/B-IV and includes modules which provide for lattice calculations, one-dimensional transport calculations, and one, two, and three-dimensional diffusion calculations, burnup calculations and the flexible editing of results. Details of all system aspects of AUS are provided but the major individual modules are only outlined. Sufficient information is given to enable other modules to be added to the system

  2. Regulierung der Expression der Onkogene aus Agrobakterien in Wirtspflanzen

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Virulente Bakterien des Stamms Agrobakterium tumefaciens, transferieren und integrieren einen Teil ihrer DNA, die T-DNA aus dem Tumor induzierenden Plasmid (Ti), in das Pflanzengenom. Dadurch wird die Tumorbildung induziert und die Krankheit bricht aus. Die wichtigsten Gene, die für die Entwicklung eines Tumors benötigt werden, sind auf der T-DNA lokalisierte Onkogene: IaaH (indole-3-aceetamide hydrolase), IaaM (tryptophan monooxygenase) für die Auxin Biosynthese und Ipt (isopentenyl transfer...

  3. AUS - the Australian modular scheme for reactor neutronics computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.S.

    1975-12-01

    A general description is given of the AUS modular scheme for reactor neutronics calculations. The scheme currently includes modules which provide the capacity for lattice calculations, 1D transport calculations, 1 and 2D diffusion calculations (with feedback-free kinetics), and burnup calculations. Details are provided of all system aspects of AUS, but individual modules are only outlined. A complete specification is given of that part of user input which controls the calculation sequence. The report also provides sufficient details of the supervisor program and of the interface data sets to enable additional modules to be incorporated in the scheme. (author)

  4. Fermentation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Power generation using fermentation of solids: ecological assessment; Stromproduktion aus Feststoff-Vergaerung: Oekobilanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleiss, K. [Umwelt- und Kompostberatung, Baar (Switzerland); Edelmann, W. [Arbi GmbH, Maschwanden (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    As a result of the liberalisation of the electricity market, clients have the opportunity to choose between different power providers and qualities of products. One of them is 'eco-power', sold in Switzerland under the brand name 'naturemade star'. Biogas from the digestion of source-separated municipal solid waste is a potential energy source to produce 'naturemade star'. The goal of the present study was to evaluate under which prerequisites biogas from bio waste can fulfil the criteria set by the mentioned label. The life cycle analysis of three different systems of bio waste digestion have been compared with two types of 'composting' plants ('windrow' and 'hall composting'). The calculation was based on the power production of 1 kWh. For the comparison with 'composting' - which is an energy consumer - 1 kg of bio waste was taken as a unit. Usually, digestion is followed by a short aerobic post-treatment. In same installations, only a part of the bio waste, i.e. the wetter, protein-rich fraction, is digested whereas the lignin-rich fraction is composted. All calculations were based on real installations, however, it was assumed that the same amount of waste with an identical composition was treated (35% dry matter, 70% volatile solids, degradation rate 55%). The three anaerobic/aerobic systems digest 100%, 60% and 30% of the waste respectively. Composting includes only aerobic treatment. All the anaerobic systems are favoured when it comes to energy production whereas the windrow composting has lower methane emissions and the indoor composting decreased ammonia emissions. Compared to electricity from PV and wind, biogas has higher emissions of methane, ammonia and NO{sub x}, whereas CO{sub 2} is far lower thanks to the recycling into plant material. However, it is important to optimise combined heat and power generation with respect to flue gas emissions. Beside the direct comparison of the possible pollutants between the five technical solutions on overall, life cycle analysis has been calculated by two different methods, 'Ecoindicator 95' and a point system (UBP) developed by the Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL). (author)

  6. Fermentation of pulp from coffee production; Vergaerung von Pulpa aus der Kaffee-Produktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, M.; Baier, U.

    2003-07-01

    Harvesting of coffee berries and production of dried coffee beans produces large amounts of solid wastes. Per ton of consumable coffee beans, roughly 2 tons of spent coffee pulp are wasted at the production facilities. Coffee pulp represents a valuable source of energy and can be used for anaerobic biogas production. In this study it was shown that coffee pulp can be anaerobically digested as a sole carbon source without further addition of co-substrates. No nutrient limitations and only a very moderate substrate inhibition have been found in concentrated pulp. The mesophilic biogas formation potential was found to be 0.38 m{sup 3} biogas per kg of organic matter. The anaerobic degradability was higher than 70%. In semi-continuously operated biogas reactors a high degradation of organics and a subsequent biogas production was shown at hydraulic detention times of 16 days. Methanization of fresh pulp is technically feasible in fully mixed tank reactors as well as in plug flow reactors. Due to the presence of easily degradable carbon sources, fresh pulp will quickly show microbiological growth. Storage in the presence of ambient oxygen will result in aerobic degradation of organics in parallel with energy loss. Additionally, anaerobic zones with methane emission will quickly occur. Therefore, it is recommended to store fresh pulp under oxygen free, lactic acid conditions (silage) until anaerobic treatment in the biogas reactor. (author)

  7. 371 Exhumierungen : eine Untersuchung aus morphologischer, versicherungsmedizinischer und rechtsmedizinischer Sicht

    OpenAIRE

    Ulm, Kristin

    2008-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden die Ergebnisse von 371 Exhumierungen aus den Jahren 1967 bis 1998 ausgewertet unter der Fragestellung, ob aussagekräftige morphologische Befunde auch noch nach einer längeren Leichenliegezeit erhoben werden und versicherungsmedizinische Fragen hierdurch beantwortet werden können. Die erhobenen morphologischen Befunde sowohl auf mikroskopischer als auch auf makroskopischer Ebene wurden zu einem Erwartungskatalog zusammengefasst und mit den Ergebnissen der...

  8. Räumliche Aspekte von Transformationsproblemen aus systemtheoretischer Perspektive

    OpenAIRE

    Klüter, Helmut

    2000-01-01

    Der mit dem Topos "Transformation von Wirtschafts- und Gesellschaftssystemen" axiomatisch angenommene Unvereinbarkeit sozialistischer und marktwirtschaftlicher Strukturen ist aus raumwissenschaftlicher Sicht nicht nachvollziehbar. Zum einen gibt es in Wirtschaftsgeographie und Infrastrukturtheorie eine ganze Reihe von Gemeinsamkeiten und Berührungspunkten, die man für den konstruktiven Systemumbau nutzen kann. Zum andern benötigt der Umbau selbst eine räumliche Infrastruktur. Und zum dritten ...

  9. Roberta - EV3-Geschöpfe aus einem Baukasten

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Fay

    2014-01-01

    Die "Roberta Reihe" dokumentiert das Roberta-Konzept. Beides wurde vom Fraunhofer IAIS zusammen mit PartnerInnen entwickelt und vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung gefördert. Die Reihe präsentiert Lehr- und Lernmaterialien für Roboterkurse, die für Mädchen interessant sind und von geschulten Roberta-Kursleitungen durchgeführt werden. Unterstützung finden die Kursleitungen im internationalen Netzwerk der RobertaRegioZentren. Das Buch EV3-Geschöpfe aus einem Baukasten ergänzt mit se...

  10. Energy from biomass. Teaching material; Energie aus Biomasse. Ein Lehrmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    The textbook discusses the available options for power and heat generation from biomass as well as the limits of biomass-based power supply. The main obstacle apart from the high cost is a lack of knowledge, which the book intends to remedy. It addresses students of agriculture, forestry, environmental engineering, heating systems engineering and apprentice chimney sweepers, but it will also be useful to all other interested readers. [German] Biomasse kann aufgrund seiner vielfaeltigen Erscheinungs- und Umwandlungsformen sowohl als Brennstoff zur Waerme- und Stromgewinnung oder als Treibstoff eingesetzt werden. Die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse birgt zudem nicht zu verachtende Vorteile. Zum einen wegen des Beitrags zum Klimaschutz aufgrund der CO{sub 2}-Neutralitaet oder einfach, weil Biomasse immer wieder nachwaechst und von fossilen Ressourcen unabhaengig macht. All den bisher erschlossenen Moeglichkeiten der energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse moechte dieses Lehrbuch Rechnung tragen. Es zeigt aber auch die Grenzen auf, die mit der Energieversorgung durch Bioenergie einhergehen. Hohe Kosten und ein erhebliches Informationsdefizit behinderten bisher eine verstaerkte Nutzung dieses Energietraeges. Letzterem soll dieses Lehrbuch entgegenwirken. Das vorliegende Lehrbuch wurde fuer die Aus- und Weiterbildung erstellt. Es richtet sich vor allem an angehende Land- und Forstwirte, Umwelttechniker, Heizungsbauer und Schornsteinfeger, ist aber auch fuer all diejenigen interessant, die das Thema ''Energie aus Biomasse'' verstehen und ueberblicken moechten. (orig.)

  11. Protein modification by fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkholt, Helle Vibeke; Jørgensen, P.B.; Sørensen, Anne Dorthe

    1998-01-01

    The effect of fermentation on components of potential significance for the allergenicity of pea was analyzed. Pea flour was fermented with three lactic acid bacteria, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus raffinolactis, and Lactobacillus plantarum, and two fungi, Rhizopus microsporus, var. oligosp...

  12. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božanić; Irena Rogelj

    2003-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  13. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Tamime

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  14. Was haben Feuertaufe, Deckung und Stellung gemeinsam? - Einigen Phrasemen aus dem Soldatenalltag auf der Spur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Valenčič Arh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden feste Wortverbindungen mit den Komponeten Feuertaufe, Deckung und Stellung unter lexikalischem und semantischem Aspekt dargestellt und einem diachronen Vergleich unterzogen. Als Untersuchungsmaterial dienen das authentische Kriegstagebuch aus dem I. Weltkrieg und Belege aus dem lexikographischen Korpus DWDS der gegenwärtigen deutschen Sprache.

  15. GUT FERMENTATION SYNDROME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    individuals who became intoxicated after consuming carbohydrates, which became fermented in the gastrointestinal tract. These claims of intoxication without drinking alcohol, and the findings on endogenous alcohol fermentation are now called Gut. Fermentation Syndrome. This review will concentrate on understanding ...

  16. Dynamische Prozesse in stabilen Partnerschaften: Multivariate Analysen mit Daten aus einem 25-Jahres-Längsschnitt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grä ser, H.; Lux, C.; Oud, J.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamische Prozesse zwischen langjährig verheirateten Eheleuten des mittleren bis höheren Erwachsenenalters wurden anhand der Daten aus einer Längsschnitterhebung über 25 Jahre untersucht. Die multivariate Analyse wurde mittels Strukturgleichungsmodellen

  17. Charakterisierung der alternativen NADH-Ubichinon-Oxidoreduktase (NDH2) aus Yarrowia lipolytica

    OpenAIRE

    Eschemann, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Neben dem protonenpumpenden Komplex I (NDH-1) der Atmungskette besitzt die obligat aerobe Hefe Yarrowia lipolytica eine alternative NADH:Ubichinon Oxidoreduktase (NDH-2). Diese Enzyme, die in den Atmungsketten von Pflanzen, Pilzen und Bakterien vorkommen, bestehen aus nur einer Untereinheit, führen jedoch dieselbe Reaktion aus wie Komplex I, nämlich die Elektronenübertragung von NADH auf Ubichinon, wobei allerdings keine Protonen über die Membran transloziert werden. Nur peripher mit der Memb...

  18. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds,

  19. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fermented milk for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle i...

  1. Food Technologies: Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation refers to the use of microorganisms to achieve desirable food properties in the fermented food or beverage. Although the word ‘fermentation’ indicates ‘anaerobic metabolism,’ it is also used in a broader sense to indicate all anaerobic and aerobic microbiological and biochemical

  2. Fermentative alcohol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  3. Engaging children at-risk through World Vision Australia’s Kids Hope Aus. Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Larmar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of a pilot study examining teacher perceptions of the efficacy of the Kids Hope Aus. program. Kids Hope Aus. is an early intervention and prevention program for children at risk of social and academic disengagement. The program emphasises the significance of developing a child’s social skills to build resilience and enhance the child’s social engagement and general academic achievement within the school setting. The intervention incorporates an adult/child-mentoring framework that serves to ameliorate the effects of specific risk factors that place children at greater risk of vulnerability. The evaluation involved 188 teachers drawn from rural and metropolitan districts in the State of Victoria, Australia, of children who participated in the Kids Hope Aus. program. The findings of the study provide preliminary data that identifies the Kids Hope Aus. program as a cogent intervention framework for fostering greater social inclusion and academic enhancement for young children that can be easily disseminated in regular school communities.  Keywords:  mentoring, at-risk children, Kids Hope Aus., early intervention and prevention.

  4. DNA fingerprinting and diversity analysis in Aus genotypes using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. MONIRUL ISLAM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA fingerprinting and genetic diversity of 94 Aus (6 BRRI released Aus variety and 88 local Aus landraces genotypes were carried out to protect the Aus landraces from biopiracy. A total of 91 microsatellite markers were tested for screening the genotypes. Among 91 amplified products, 56% have polymorphic bands giving 195 alleles. The number of alleles per locus ranged from four (RM25 and RM147 to twenty seven (RM519, where average allele number was 9.76. The Polymorphism Information Contents (PIC lied between 0.455 (RM5 to 0.934 (RM519. Most robust marker was found RM519 since it provided the highest PIC value (0.934. Pair-wise genetic dissimilarity co-efficient showed the lowest genetic dissimilarity was found BRRI dhan42 and BRRI dhan43 and the highest genetic dissimilarity was found local landraces each other. Here it is shown that most Aus landraces is recognized to have broad genetic base. Thus it is recommended to use these landraces for future breeding program or include new and untouched local landraces to incorporate new genes and broaden genetic base.

  5. Drei Dimensionen von filmischem Archivmaterial. Die Untersuchung von Archivfilmen aus der Zeit des Holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Ebbrecht-Hartmann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Filmisches Archivmaterial aus der Zeit des Holocaust ist eine ambivalente Quelle. Daher sind spezifische Ansätze notwendig, um dieses Material zu ‘lesen’. Es geht darum, den besonderen Inhalt der Bilder zu analysieren, den Kontext ihrer Entstehung zu bestimmen, aber auch, ihre spätere Verwendung und Zirkulation in der visuellen Kultur und damit auch ihren wechselnden Status mit einzubeziehen. Am Beispiel ausgewählter Filmfragmente aus dem Warschauer Ghetto und dem Ghetto Theresienstadt skizziert der Artikel einen Ansatz, wie man diese drei Dimensionen von filmischem Archivmaterial analysieren kann und schlägt damit eine entsprechende Historiographie von Archivfilmen aus der Zeit des Holocaust vor.

  6. AUS module MIRANDA - a data preparation code based on multiregion resonance theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.S.

    1977-07-01

    MIRANDA is a data preparation module of the AUS reactor neutronics scheme and is used to prepare multigroup cross-section data which are pertinent to a particular reactor system from a general purpose multigroup library of cross sections. The cross-section library has been prepared from ENDF/B and includes temperature dependent data and resonance cross sections represented by subgroup parameters. The MIRANDA module includes a multiregion resonance calculation in slab, cylinder or cluster geometry, a homogeneous Bsub(L) flux solution, and a group condensation facility. Interaction with other AUS modules, particularly for burnup calculations, is provided. (Author)

  7. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  8. Co-fermentation of sewage sludge and organic waste; CO-Vergaerung von Klaerschlamm und Bioabfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelz, K.G. [Emschergenossenschaft und Lippeverband, Essen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The processes taking place in sewage sludge digestion and organic waste fermentation are identical. It therefore seems obvious to treat organic waste and sewage sludge jointly. In contrast to organic waste fermentation plants to be newly erected, co-fermentation permits making use of anaerobic treatment systems that are already installed at sewage treatment plants. At these plants, in principle only the sections responsible for acceptance and conditioning of organic waste need to be retrofitted. Apart from the possibility to treat organic waste very inexpensively, the co-fermentation process offers a number of other advantages. For this reason, the Emschergenossenschaft and Lippeverband carried out extensive semi-technical scale tests in co-fermentation of organic waste and sewage sludge. (orig.) [German] Die ablaufenden biologischen Prozesse sind bei der Klaerschlammfaulung und der Bioabfallvergaerung gleich. Es liegt daher nahe, Bioabfaelle und Klaerschlaemme gemeinsam zu behandeln. Gegenueber neu zu errichtenden Bioabfall-Vergaerungsanlagen kann bei der Co-Vergaerung auf die bereits installierte Anaerobtechnik auf den Klaeranlagen zurueckgegriffen werden. Dort muss im wesentlichen nur der Annahme- und Aufbereitungsbereich fuer die Bioabfaelle nachgeruestet werden. Das Verfahren der Co-Vergaerung bietet ausser einer sehr kostenguenstigen Behandlungsmoeglichkeit fuer Bioabfaelle eine Reihe weiterer Vorteile. Aus diesem Grund wurden bei Emschergenossenschaft und Lippeverband umfangreiche halbtechnische Versuche zur Co-Vergaerung von Bioabfaellen und Klaerschlamm durchgefuehrt. (orig.)

  9. Aufbau durch Wasserstoffbrücken zusammengehaltener Nanostrukturen aus 15 Komponenten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolliffe, K.A.; Timmerman, P.; Reinhoudt, David

    1999-01-01

    Insgesamt 72 Wasserstoffbrücken werden bei der spontanen Assoziation von Tetramelamin-Calix[4]arenen und Barbitursäurederivaten zu Nanoaggregaten des schematisch dargestellten Typs gebildet. Diese bestehen aus 15 Komponenten, die vollkommen diastereoselektiv assoziieren: Von acht möglichen

  10. Zur Internationalität der Pädagogischen Psychologie aus dem deutschsprachigen Bereich

    OpenAIRE

    Krampen, Günter; Schui, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Vor dem Hintergrund der Internationalisierungsdebatte der Psychologie in den deutschsprachigen Ländern wird der Internationalisierungsgrad der Pädagogischen Psychologie im Vergleich zur gesamten psychologischen Forschung aus dem deutschsprachigen Bereich unter zwei Perspektiven bibliometrisch untersucht: Zum ersten geht es inhaltlich um die Entwicklung der englischsprachigen Anteile der in PSYNDEX unter der Klassifikation "Pädagogische Psychologie" dokumentierten Literatur, zum zweiten um Ana...

  11. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous...... morphology, together with non-Newtonian rheological properties (shear thinning), result in poor oxygen transfer unless sufficient energy is provided to the fermentation. While genomic research may improve the organisms, there is no doubt that to enable further application in future it will be necessary...... to match such research with studies of oxygen transfer and energy supply to high viscosity fluids. Hence, the implementation of innovative solutions (some of which in principle are already possible) will be essential to ensure the further development of such fermentations....

  12. Fermentative Alcohol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martín, Mariano; Sánchez, Antonio; Woodley, John M.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter we present some of key principles of bioreactor design for the production of alcohols by fermentation of sugar and syngas . Due to the different feedstocks, a detailed analysis of the hydrodynamics inside the units , bubble columns or stirred tank reactors , the gas-liquid mass...

  13. Aircraft produced particles and their interaction with contrails, cirrus clouds and climate (PAZI); Partikel aus Flugzeugtriebwerken und ihr Einfluss aus Kondensstreifen, Zirruswolken und Klima (PAZI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, B.; Schumann, U. (eds.)

    2003-07-01

    PAZI is a national research project supported by the German Secretary of Education and Research (BMBF) through the Helmholtz-Gesellschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren (HGF). Research in PAZI is performed in concert with the projects SiA, INCA, PartEmis, and PARTS funded by the European Commission. PAZI investigates the interaction of aerosols with cirrus clouds, with an emphasis on aviation-produced aerosols and contrails, and their impact on atmospheric composition, radiation, clouds, and climate. Besides presenting summaries of individual workpackages, this final project report summarizes important results obtained and highlights the following issues: Formation and evolution of black carbon (BC) particles in burners and jet engines; physico-chemical characterization of aircraft-produced BC particles; measured freezing properties of liquid and BC particles; calculated global atmospheric distribution of BC; observed differences in cirrus properties between clean and polluted air masses; correlations between air traffic and cirrus cloud cover deduced from satellite observations; process studies of aerosol-cirrus interactions; parameterization of cirrus cloud formation; representation of ice supersaturation and cirrus clouds in a climate model and possible aviation impact on global cirrus properties. (orig.) [German] PAZI ist ein vom Bundesministerium fuer Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) gefoerdertes und im Rahmen der Helmholtz-Gesellschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren (HGF) durchgefuehrtes Verbundprojekt. In PAZI sind Teile der von der Europaeischen Kommission gefoerderten Vorhaben SiA, INCA, PartEmis, and PARTS integriert. Es wird die Aerosol-Zirruswolken-Wechselwirkung untersucht, mit einem Schwerpunkt aus Partikeln aus dem Luftverkehr und Kondensstreifen sowie deren Einfluss auf Spurenstoffverteilung, Strahlung, Wolken und Klima. Neben den Berichten einzelner Arbeitsgruppen gibt dieser Endbericht eine Zusammenschau und Bewertung folgender Hauptergebnisse: Bildung und

  14. Redox reactions in food fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Egon Bech

    2018-01-01

    Food fermentations are typically performed without actively supplying air. Except for possible surface microorganisms, oxygen will only be transiently available and the redox reactions during the fermentation need to be in balance. Production of ATP from fermentation of carbohydrates typically in...... of the redox properties of strains used to compose food cultures.......Food fermentations are typically performed without actively supplying air. Except for possible surface microorganisms, oxygen will only be transiently available and the redox reactions during the fermentation need to be in balance. Production of ATP from fermentation of carbohydrates typically...... involves oxidative steps in the early part of the pathways whereas a multitude of different reactions are used as compensating reductions. Much of the diversity seen between food fermentations arise from the different routes and the different electron acceptors used by microorganisms to counterbalance...

  15. Different qualifiers of AUS/FLUS thyroid FNA have distinct BRAF, RAS, RET/PTC, and PAX8/PPARg alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellevicine, Claudio; Sgariglia, Roberta; Migliatico, Ilaria; Vigliar, Elena; D'Anna, Melania; Nacchio, Maria Antonia; Serra, Nicola; Malapelle, Umberto; Bongiovanni, Massimo; Troncone, Giancarlo

    2018-02-22

    The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology category of atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) includes fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens that cannot straightforwardly be classified as benign or malignant. To determine whether morphological subcategorization based on atypia qualifiers and molecular testing could improve malignancy risk stratification of AUS/FLUS patients, this study assessed the correlation between these qualifiers and the molecular alterations commonly harbored by thyroid neoplasms. A total of 162 AUS/FLUS cases were subcategorized by atypia qualifiers (Hürthle cell changes, architectural atypia, and cytologic atypia [CyA]) and were tested for BRAF, N-H-KRAS, RET/PTC, and paired box 8 (PAX8)/peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARg) mutations. CyA was observed more frequently in mutation-positive AUS/FLUS (14 of 37 [37.84%]) than mutation-negative AUS/FLUS (20 of 125 [16.00%]; P < .0084), and it specifically harbored the BRAFV600E point mutation. Malignancy was confirmed in the available follow-up. Conversely, although RAS was the most frequent mutation identified in AUS/FLUS FNA specimens (26 of 37 cases [70.27%]; P < .0001), it was distributed across various AUS/FLUS subcategories and was not significantly associated with a specific atypia qualifier or malignant outcome according to the available follow-up. Rearrangements of both RET/PTC (n = 1) and PAX8/PPARg (n = 3) were rarely retrieved in the FNA samples. BRAF and RAS mutations are associated with different AUS/FLUS qualifiers and hence have different risks of malignancy. Consequently, a hybrid molecular and morphological subcategorization system could improve the malignancy risk stratification of thyroid FNA samples diagnosed as AUS/FLUS. Cancer Cytopathol 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  16. Electro-Fermentation - Merging Electrochemistry with Fermentation in Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; Pepé Sciarria, Tommy; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; De Wever, Heleen; Puig, Sebastià; Andersen, Stephen J; Rabaey, Korneel; Pant, Deepak

    2016-11-01

    Electro-fermentation (EF) merges traditional industrial fermentation with electrochemistry. An imposed electrical field influences the fermentation environment and microbial metabolism in either a reductive or oxidative manner. The benefit of this approach is to produce target biochemicals with improved selectivity, increase carbon efficiency, limit the use of additives for redox balance or pH control, enhance microbial growth, or in some cases enhance product recovery. We discuss the principles of electrically driven fermentations and how EF can be used to steer both pure culture and microbiota-based fermentations. An overview is given on which advantages EF may bring to both existing and innovative industrial fermentation processes, and which doors might be opened in waste biomass utilization towards added-value biorefineries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Potentiale und Barrieren der Nutzung des Mobile Payment aus Kundensicht: eine empirische Untersuchung

    OpenAIRE

    Haarstick, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Während sich das Zahlungsverfahren Mobile Payment seit einigen Jahren international mehr und mehr etabliert, fristet es entgegen jährlich wiederkehrender Erfolgsprognosen in Deutschland immer noch ein Nischendasein. Die vorliegende Untersuchung entstand im Rahmen einer Bachelorarbeit des Studiengangs der Betriebswirtschaftslehre an der Hochschule Hannover und beschäftigt sich mit den Potentialen und Barrieren der Nutzung des Mobile Payment aus Kundensicht, mit dem Ziel, die wesentlichen Fakto...

  18. Exploring traditional aus-type rice for metabolites conferring drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casartelli, Alberto; Riewe, David; Hubberten, Hans Michael; Altmann, Thomas; Hoefgen, Rainer; Heuer, Sigrid

    2018-01-25

    Traditional varieties and landraces belonging to the aus-type group of rice (Oryza sativa L.) are known to be highly tolerant to environmental stresses, such as drought and heat, and are therefore recognized as a valuable genetic resource for crop improvement. Using two aus-type (Dular, N22) and two drought intolerant irrigated varieties (IR64, IR74) an untargeted metabolomics analysis was conducted to identify drought-responsive metabolites associated with tolerance. The superior drought tolerance of Dular and N22 compared with the irrigated varieties was confirmed by phenotyping plants grown to maturity after imposing severe drought stress in a dry-down treatment. Dular and N22 did not show a significant reduction in grain yield compared to well-watered control plants, whereas the intolerant varieties showed a significant reduction in both, total spikelet number and grain yield. The metabolomics analysis was conducted with shoot and root samples of plants at the tillering stage at the end of the dry-down treatment. The data revealed an overall higher accumulation of N-rich metabolites (amino acids and nucleotide-related metabolites allantoin and uridine) in shoots of the tolerant varieties. In roots, the aus-type varieties were characterised by a higher reduction of metabolites representative of glycolysis and the TCA cycle, such as malate, glyceric acid and glyceric acid-3-phosphate. On the other hand, the oligosaccharide raffinose showed a higher fold increase in both, shoots and roots of the sensitive genotypes. The data further showed that, for certain drought-responsive metabolites, differences between the contrasting rice varieties were already evident under well-watered control conditions. The drought tolerance-related metabolites identified in the aus-type varieties provide a valuable set of protective compounds and an entry point for assessing genetic diversity in the underlying pathways for developing drought tolerant rice and other crops.

  19. A Multi-Layer Fusion-Based Facial Expression Recognition Approach with Optimal Weighted AUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibin Jia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Affective computing is an increasingly important outgrowth of Artificial Intelligence, which is intended to deal with rich and subjective human communication. In view of the complexity of affective expression, discriminative feature extraction and corresponding high-performance classifier selection are still a big challenge. Specific features/classifiers display different performance in different datasets. There has currently been no consensus in the literature that any expression feature or classifier is always good in all cases. Although the recently updated deep learning algorithm, which uses learning deep feature instead of manual construction, appears in the expression recognition research, the limitation of training samples is still an obstacle of practical application. In this paper, we aim to find an effective solution based on a fusion and association learning strategy with typical manual features and classifiers. Taking these typical features and classifiers in facial expression area as a basis, we fully analyse their fusion performance. Meanwhile, to emphasize the major attributions of affective computing, we select facial expression relative Action Units (AUs as basic components. In addition, we employ association rules to mine the relationships between AUs and facial expressions. Based on a comprehensive analysis from different perspectives, we propose a novel facial expression recognition approach that uses multiple features and multiple classifiers embedded into a stacking framework based on AUs. Extensive experiments on two public datasets show that our proposed multi-layer fusion system based on optimal AUs weighting has gained dramatic improvements on facial expression recognition in comparison to an individual feature/classifier and some state-of-the-art methods, including the recent deep learning based expression recognition one.

  20. Carbohydrates for fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Dietmar

    2006-01-01

    Biomass accumulated by the photosynthetic fixation of carbon dioxide is the only renewable carbon source, and hence, the only renewable raw material for the chemical industry. Carbohydrates are the main constituents of biomass and occur as cell wall and storage carbohydrates, transportation carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. Cellulose, hemicelluloses and starch in particular as well as pectin, inulin and saccharose to a smaller extent are the most abundant carbohydrates. Glucose is the most important monosaccharide and monomer of polysaccharides in natural carbohydrates. Thus, it is the most abundant organic compound on earth. Production of pulp from wood cellulose, applications of starch for paper making as well as uses of glucose and saccharose for fermentation are the most important chemical and technical uses of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates used as fermentation feedstock are essential for the chemical industry. Their importance is steadily growing due to the increasing implementation of biotechnological processes.

  1. Erstnachweis von Taiwania, Cryptomeria und Liquidambar aus dem Bitterfelder und Baltischen Bernstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jähnichen

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Aus dem untermiozänen Bernstein von Bitterfeld (Sachsen-Anhalt werden erstmalig ein strukturzeigender Zweig von Taiwania schaeferi, ein isoliertes Nadel-Fragment von Cryptomeria sp. sowie ein Fruchtstand von Liquidambar europaea beschrieben. Außerdem muß “Widdringtonites oblongifolius” (Goeppert & Menge Caspary & Klebs 1906/07 pro parte aus dem obereozänen Baltischen Bernstein nach morphologisch-anatomischen Merkmalskomplexen ebenfalls zu Taiwania schaeferi gestellt werden. “Enormicutis eoconferta” — aff. Cryptomeria spec. (Schneider 1986 aus der obereozänen Braunkohle von Nordwestsachsen muß nach morphologisch-anatomischen Details zu Athrotaxis couttsiae (Heer Gardner revidiert werden. First record of Taiwania, Cryptomeria and Liquidambar from Bitterfeld and Baltic amber A structure-bearing twig of Taiwania schaeferi, an isolated needle-fragment of Cryptomeria spec. as also an aggregate fruit of Liquidambar europaea are firstly described from the Lower Miocene amber of Bitterfeld (Saxony-Anhalt. Moreover “Widdringtonites oblongifolius” (Goeppert & Menge Caspary & Klebs 1906/07 p.p. from the Upper Eocene Baltic amber after morphological-anatomical features must be also assigned to Taiwania schaeferi. “Enormicutis eoconferta” — aff. Cryptomeria sp. (Schneider 1986 from the Upper Eocene brown-coal of North Western Saxony after morphological-anatomical details must be revised to Athrotaxis couttsiae (Heer Gardner. doi:10.1002/mmng.19980010112

  2. Internationalität in Gender Studies – Reflexionen aus Indien und der Türkei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörte Segebart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Der audiovisuelle Beitrag Internationalität in Gender Studies – Reflexionen aus Indien und der Türkei stellt durch die Darstellung sehr persönlicher individueller Sichtweisen und Erfahrungen die Spannbreite von Positionen zum Thema dar. Theoretische Reflexionen werden nicht unbedingt untermauert, aber auch nicht negiert. Der Beitrag will innerhalb des Jahrbuchs daran erinnern, dass hinter den theoretischen Debatten Menschen stehen, die sich miteinander austauschen und auseinandersetzen wollen. Multidirektionale Transfers sind erwünscht sowie eine ständige kritische Auseinandersetzung über das Wie. Duygu Aloglu aus Ankara, Türkei und Lavinia Mawlong aus Shillong und Mumbai, Indien promovieren am Institut für Geographische Wissenschaften an der FU Berlin. Sie sprechen über ihre persönliche Sichtweise auf das Thema Internationalisierung von Gender Studies, fokussieren speziell auf die Situation in der Türkei und in Indien und betten dies in ihren eigenen persönlichen Hintergrund ein. Die Interviews wurden auf Englisch und separat geführt. Sie sind im Film zusammengefügt worden.

  3. Use of Vegetation Health Data for Estimation of Aus Rice Yield in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nizamuddin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice is a vital staple crop for Bangladesh and surrounding countries, with interannual variation in yields depending on climatic conditions. We compared Bangladesh yield of aus rice, one of the main varieties grown, from official agricultural statistics with Vegetation Health (VH Indices [Vegetation Condition Index (VCI, Temperature Condition Index (TCI and Vegetation Health Index (VHI] computed from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR data covering a period of 15 years (1991–2005. A strong correlation was found between aus rice yield and VCI and VHI during the critical period of aus rice development that occurs during March-April (weeks 8–13 of the year, several months in advance of the rice harvest. Stepwise principal component regression (PCR was used to construct a model to predict yield as a function of critical-period VHI. The model reduced the yield prediction error variance by 62% compared with a prediction of average yield for each year. Remote sensing is a valuable tool for estimating rice yields well in advance of harvest and at a low cost.

  4. 2000 Jahre Varusschlacht: Bücher aus dem Bestand der Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Münster

    OpenAIRE

    Mühl, H. (Hans)

    2014-01-01

    Verzeichnis selbständiger Schriften zur Varusschlacht, ihrer Erforschung und Rezeption aus dem Bestand der Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Münster (mit Signaturangaben) zum Jubiläum der Varusschlacht 2009.

  5. Ärma talu ehitanud Aus Invest müüdi Panama riiulifirmale maha / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Ärma talu ehitanud Aus Invest OÜ ei ole maksnud tööde eest kõigile alltöövõtjatele. Proua Evelin Ilvese sõnul on Ermamaa peatöövõtjale kõigi kokkulepitud tööde eest maksnud. 2007. a. mais müüsid Aivar Aus ja Mait Aus Tartu maakohtu registriosakonna andmetel Aus Invest OÜ Panamal registreeritud riiulifirmale Arliana Enterprises Corp. Vt. samas: Nõunik sekkus presidendi teleintervjuusse. Kui telekanali TV3 Lõuna-Eesti reporter Valgamaal visiidil viibivalt Toomas Hendrik Ilveselt ja proua Evelin Ilveselt Ärma talu ehitusega kaasnenud võlgade kohta aru päris, sekkus kõnelusse presidendi avalike suhete nõunik Toomas Sildam. Vt. ka lk. 10: Urmo Soonvald. Ärma triibulised. Ajakirjanik ootab Ärma talu probleemidega seoses suuremat avalikustamist

  6. Health benefits of fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şanlier, Nevin; Gökcen, Büşra Başar; Sezgin, Aybüke Ceyhun

    2017-09-25

    In the past, the beneficial effects of fermented foods on health were unknown, and so people primarily used fermentation to preserve foods, enhance shelf life, and improve flavour. Fermented foods became an important part of the diet in many cultures, and over time fermentation has been associated with many health benefits. Because of this, the fermentation process and the resulting fermented products have recently attracted scientific interest. In addition, microorganisms contributing to the fermentation process have recently been associated with many health benefits, and so these microorganisms have become another focus of attention. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been some of the most studied microorganisms. During fermentation, these bacteria synthesize vitamins and minerals, produce biologically active peptides with enzymes such as proteinase and peptidase, and remove some non-nutrients. Compounds known as biologically active peptides, which are produced by the bacteria responsible for fermentation, are also well known for their health benefits. Among these peptides, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have a blood pressure lowering effect, exopolysaccharides exhibit prebiotic properties, bacteriocins show anti-microbial effects, sphingolipids have anti-carcinogenic and anti-microbial properties, and bioactive peptides exhibit anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, opioid antagonist, anti-allergenic, and blood pressure lowering effects. As a result, fermented foods provide many health benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-atherosclerotic activity. However, some studies have shown no relationship between fermented foods and health benefits. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the health effects of fermented foods.

  7. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Eddy, Christina K.; Deanda, Kristine A.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  8. Pentose fermentation by recombinant zymomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Eddy, Christina K.; Deanda, Kristine A.; Finkelstein, Mark; Mohagheghi, Ali; Newman, Mildred M.; McMillan, James D.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  9. Alcohol by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamoki, H.

    1973-08-22

    Alcohol was obtained by culturing Saccharomyces diastaticus and S. cerevisiae on a medium containing saccharified starch as the main carbon source. Starch was saccharified with either acid or enzyme. Thus, 185 ml fermented mash (10.52% EtOH) was obtained by culturing yeast starter on 200 ml saccharified solution containing yeast extract 2 and peptone 2 g for 94 hours at 30 degrees; the saccharified solution was prepared by adding 0.006 mole NaCl, 0.001 mole CaCl2, and 40 mg bacterial dextrinogenic amylase to 20% potato starch suspension and allowed to react for 30 minutes at 75 degrees.

  10. TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS OF LESOTHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendekayi H. Gadaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the traditional methods of preparing fermented foods and beverages of Lesotho. Information on the preparation methods was obtained through a combination of literature review and face to face interviews with respondents from Roma in Lesotho. An unstructured questionnaire was used to capture information on the processes, raw materials and utensils used. Four products; motoho (a fermented porridge, Sesotho (a sorghum based alcoholic beverage, hopose (sorghum fermented beer with added hops and mafi (spontaneously fermented milk, were found to be the main fermented foods prepared and consumed at household level in Lesotho. Motoho is a thin gruel, popular as refreshing beverage as well as a weaning food. Sesotho is sorghum based alcoholic beverage prepared for household consumption as well as for sale. It is consumed in the actively fermenting state. Mafi is the name given to spontaneously fermented milk with a thick consistency. Little research has been done on the technological aspects, including the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of fermented foods in Lesotho. Some of the traditional aspects of the preparation methods, such as use of earthenware pots, are being replaced, and modern equipment including plastic utensils are being used. There is need for further systematic studies on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of these these products.

  11. Hydrogen Production by Thermophilic Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niel, van E.W.J.; Willquist, K.; Zeidan, A.A.; Vrije, de T.; Mars, A.E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the many ways hydrogen can be produced, this chapter focuses on biological hydrogen production by thermophilic bacteria and archaea in dark fermentations. The thermophiles are held as promising candidates for a cost-effective fermentation process, because of their relatively high yields and broad

  12. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Ai Leng; Heard, Gillian; Cox, Julian

    2004-09-01

    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and physiological tests. During the fermentation of each of the four products, yeasts were enumerated from both the cellulosic pellicle and liquor of the Kombucha. The number and diversity of species varied between products, but included Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. While these yeast species are known to occur in Kombucha, the enumeration of each species present throughout fermentation of each of the four Kombucha cultures demonstrated for the first time the dynamic nature of the yeast ecology. Kombucha fermentation is, in general, initiated by osmotolerant species, succeeded and ultimately dominated by acid-tolerant species.

  13. Sich selbst und den anderen aus einer asymmetrischen Position verstehen – Die Kunst der Unterscheidung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Čikel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sich selbst und den Anderen zu kennen setzt immer eine asymmetrische Position voraus. Die Person ist darauf gestellt, diese Leistung aus einer Position durchzuführen, die keine klare Orientierung ermöglicht und unsere derzeitigen Dispositionen beträchtlich übersteigt. Dem Menschen wird schließlich immer so viel gezeigt, damit er weiß und sieht, aber nicht so klar, damit er auch versteht. Die Art und Weise, in welcher eine Person mit sich selbst, mit dem Zorn, der Frustration, den Leidenschaften, der Sprache umgeht, vermittelt Informationen über individuelle Regungen der Seele, über Bewältigungsmechanismen. Man kann sie für eine gewisse Hilfestellung der Sprache selbst halten. Aber das Verständnis dieser Hilfestellung und des Ratschlags nur im Verhältnis zu sich selbst wäre zu eng. Wir wollen oder bekommen oft Ratschläge, die andere betreffen, aber wir müssen sie „aus sich selbst“ lösen. Und gerade aus sich selbst sollen wir fragen und sprechen. Im Augenblick, wenn diese Tiefe des Sprechens und Hörens erreicht wird, eröffnet sich die Möglichkeit, mit sich selbst und mit dem Anderen zu sein. Es ist jedoch zugleich ein Augenblick des Kampfes, der sich am Hintergrund des Gehörten konstituiert, das am Anfang oft als etwas Unverständliches erscheint oder das durch Vorstellungen und Schmerzen gestört wird. Die Antwort auf diesen Kampf ist die Kunst der Unterscheidung.

  14. Lactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of fermenting cellobiose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Oh, Eun Joong; Pathanibul, Panchalee; Turner, Timothy L; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-09-20

    Lactose is an inevitable byproduct of the dairy industry. In addition to cheese manufacturing, the growing Greek yogurt industry generates excess acid whey, which contains lactose. Therefore, rapid and efficient conversion of lactose to fuels and chemicals would be useful for recycling the otherwise harmful acid whey. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a popular metabolic engineering host, cannot natively utilize lactose. However, we discovered that an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (EJ2) capable of fermenting cellobiose can also ferment lactose. This finding suggests that a cellobiose transporter (CDT-1) can transport lactose and a β-glucosidase (GH1-1) can hydrolyze lactose by acting as a β-galactosidase. While the lactose fermentation by the EJ2 strain was much slower than the cellobiose fermentation, a faster lactose-fermenting strain (EJ2e8) was obtained through serial subcultures on lactose. The EJ2e8 strain fermented lactose with a consumption rate of 2.16g/Lh. The improved lactose fermentation by the EJ2e8 strain was due to the increased copy number of cdt-1 and gh1-1 genes. Looking ahead, the EJ2e8 strain could be exploited for the production of other non-ethanol fuels and chemicals from lactose through further metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Kontrastive Phonetik Deutsch-Slowakisch : Parallelen und Unterschiede aus auslandsgermanistischer Sicht und Forschungsergebnisse der deutschen Phonetik in der slowakischen Germanistik in der Vergangenheit und in der Gegenwart

    OpenAIRE

    Adamcová, Lívia

    2011-01-01

    Im folgenden Artikel wird der Versuch unternommen, die Hauptmerkmale der phonetischen Forschung in der slowakischen Germanistik (teils aus kontrastiver Sicht) in den letzten zwei Jahrzehnten zu dokumentieren. Aus verständlichen Gründen verzichten wir dabei auf Vollständigkeit: Die Ergebnisse der phonetischen Arbeiten sind in bibliographischen Abteilungen der Bibliotheken bzw. im Internet zusammengetragen. In unserer Analyse berücksichtigen wir nur diejenigen AutorInnen, die wir aus anderen...

  16. Thermodynamic stability of AuSe at temperature from (400 to 700) K by a solid state galvanic cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Dawei; Taskinen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental data on AuSe were obtained from T = (400 to 700) K. • Superionic conductor AgI was used as the solid electrolyte. • EMF accuracy was improved by advanced cell design. -- Abstract: The numerical values on the standard thermodynamic functions of AuSe were determined by the electromotive force (EMF) method in a solid-state galvanic cell with a superionic conductor AgI as the solid electrolyte. According to the experimental data on the EMF vs. temperature, the analytical equations for Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy were obtained for the single stable polymorphic form of AuSe. The temperature-dependent relationships of Gibbs free energy of formation of AuSe and the standard thermodynamic functions of compounds within the temperature range (400 to 700) K were also evaluated. No α–β transformation was identified in the gold saturation and β-form is a metastable modification of AuSe

  17. (AJST) INFLUENCE OF FERMENTATION AND COWPEA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opiyo

    Cowpeas was the main source of glucose/galactose. Fermentation caused a reduction in stacchyose and glucose/galactose. The mixing of cowpea flour with fermented maize dough prior to drying (single component fermentation) gave similar effects on sugar concentrations as detected in the co-fermented samples ...

  18. Ausência de expectativa de suporte para o cuidado aos idosos da comunidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah Cristina de Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: identificar fatores associados à ausência de expectativa de suporte para o cuidado aos idosos da comunidade. Método: foram utilizados parte dos dados do estudo multicêntrico "Fragilidade em Idosos Brasileiros", pesquisa quantitativa, epidemiológica e transversal desenvolvida no período de 2008 a 2009. Foram realizadas análises de comparação e regressão dos dados de 671 idosos. Resultados: a avaliação da expectativa de suporte para o cuidado aos idosos mostrou-se um bom indicador de risco para ausência de expectativa de suporte em mulheres, idosos que residiam sozinhos e com percepção ruim da própria saúde. Conclusão: conclui-se que é preciso refletir sobre o sistema de suporte oferecido aos idosos no Brasil, visto que o perfil destes que estão em risco é cada vez maior na população. Ressalta-se também a importância da inserção de métodos subjetivos para avaliação da percepção dos idosos sobre suporte para o cuidado.

  19. Fermented Broth in Tyrosinase- and Melanogenesis Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Feng Chan; Ching-Cheng Huang; Ming-Yuan Lee; Yung-Sheng Lin

    2014-01-01

    Fermented broth has a long history of applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Recently, the use of fermented broth in skin care products is in ascendance. This review investigates the efficacy of fermented broth in inhibiting tyrosinase and melanogenesis. Possible active ingredients and hypopigmentation mechanisms of fermented broth are discussed, and potential applications of fermented broth in the cosmetic industry are also addressed.

  20. Fermented Broth in Tyrosinase- and Melanogenesis Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Feng Chan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fermented broth has a long history of applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Recently, the use of fermented broth in skin care products is in ascendance. This review investigates the efficacy of fermented broth in inhibiting tyrosinase and melanogenesis. Possible active ingredients and hypopigmentation mechanisms of fermented broth are discussed, and potential applications of fermented broth in the cosmetic industry are also addressed.

  1. EDITAR: a module for reaction rate editing and cross-section averaging within the AUS neutronics code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.S.

    1986-03-01

    The EDITAR module of the AUS neutronics code system edits one and two-dimensional flux data pools produced by other AUS modules to form reaction rates for materials and their constituent nuclides, and to average cross sections over space and energy. The module includes a Bsub(L) flux calculation for application to cell leakage. The STATUS data pool of the AUS system is used to enable the 'unsmearing' of fluxes and nuclide editing with minimal user input. The module distinguishes between neutron and photon groups, and printed reaction rates are formed accordingly. Bilinear weighting may be used to obtain material reactivity worths and to average cross sections. Bilinear weighting is at present restricted to diffusion theory leakage estimates made using mesh-average fluxes

  2. Modelling ethanol production from cellulose: separate hydrolysis and fermentation versus simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drissen, R.E.T.; Maas, R.H.W.; Tramper, J.; Beeftink, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    In ethanol production from cellulose, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentative conversion may be performed sequentially (separate hydrolysis and fermentation, SHF) or in a single reaction vessel (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, SSF). Opting for either is essentially a trade-off between

  3. Starter cultures for kimchi fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mo-Eun; Jang, Ja-Young; Lee, Jong-Hee; Park, Hae-Woong; Choi, Hak-Jong; Kim, Tae-Woon

    2015-05-01

    Kimchi is a traditional Korean vegetable product that is naturally fermented by various microorganisms present in the raw materials. Among these microorganisms, lactic acid bacteria dominate the fermentation process. Natural fermentation with unsterilized raw materials leads to the growth of various lactic acid bacteria, resulting in variations in the taste and quality of kimchi, which may make it difficult to produce industrial-scale kimchi with consistent quality. The use of starter cultures has been considered as an alternative for the industrial production of standardized kimchi, and recent trends suggest that the demand for starter cultures is on the rise. However, several factors should be carefully considered for the successful application of starter cultures for kimchi fermentation. In this review, we summarize recent studies on kimchi starter cultures, describe practical problems in the application of industrial-scale kimchi production, and discuss the directions for further studies.

  4. Disseny de les pautes per la redacció del protocol de gestió per les aus del PNAE

    OpenAIRE

    Merino Fajarnés, Eladio; Murlà Tuyls, Damián; Pérez Martínez, Sònia; Soley Prieto, Susanna

    2006-01-01

    Aquest projecte té com a objectius: determinar les Directrius a seguir per la futura redacció d’un protocol de gestió de les zones inundables del PNAE, amb la finalitat de potenciar la presència d’aus; determinar les millors condicions d’hàbitat per les poblacions d’aus del PNAE i redactar unes línies de seguiment que permetin d'una banda avaluar si les pautes proposades tindran l’efecte desitjat i d'altra banda que permetin la redacció del protocol de gestió

  5. OXYGEN MANAGEMENT DURING ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    MOENNE VARGAS, MARÍA ISABE

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen additions are a common practice in winemaking, as oxygen has a positive effect in fermentative kinetics, biomass synthesis and improvement of color, structure and :flavor in treated wines. However, most oxygen additions are carried out heuristically through pump-over operations solely on a know-how basis, which is difficult to manage in terms of the exact quantity of oxygen transferred to the fermenting must. It is important to estímate the amount of oxygen added because...

  6. The role of ABC proteins Aus1p and Pdr11p in the uptake of external sterols in yeast: dehydroergosterol fluorescence study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohut, Peter; Wüstner, Daniel; Hronska, L

    2011-01-01

    of sterol molecules into plasma membrane is not spontaneous but requires assistance of two ABC (ATP-binding cassette) pumps--Aus1p or Pdr11p. DHE taken up by uptake-competent hem1ΔAUS1PDR11 cells could be directly visualized by UV-sensitive wide field fluorescence microscopy. HPLC analysis of sterols...

  7. Was ist ungerecht? Diskriminierungsebenen aus multiplen Blickwinkeln What is Unjust? Levels of Discrimination from Multiple Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Sorge

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aus einer interdisziplinären Kolloquiumsreihe im Wintersemester 2004/2005 des Cornelia Goethe Centrums für Frauenstudien und die Erforschung der Geschlechterverhältnisse (CGC ist eine Aufsatzsammlung mit acht Beiträgen entstanden, welche sich mit frauenspezifischen Unrechtserfahrungen auseinandersetzen. Der Facettenreichtum der Aufsatzthemen entspricht dem im Titelkompositum „Unrechtserfahrungen“ ausgedrückten Spannungsverhältnis: Zum einen wird anhand von konkret erlebten Einzelschicksalen und von Darstellungen in der Literatur die Erfahrung von Ungerechtigkeit und Unrecht problematisiert. Zum anderen wird die rechtliche Begrifflichkeit genauer untersucht. Die Autorinnen kommen aus den Bereichen Philologie, Rechts- und Geschichtswissenschaft. Entsprechend bietet der Band eine vielfältige und insgesamt ergiebige Gesamtschau auf die Unrechtserfahrungen von Frauen in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart.This collected volume of eight essays tackles the experience of injustice specific to women. It was born out of an interdisciplinary colloquium during the winter semester of 2004/2005 at the Cornelia Goethe Center for Women’s Studies and the Study of Gender Relations (CGC. The richly varied themes of the essays correspond to the tension expressed in the composite word in the title “unjust-experience”: For one, the volume problematizes the experience of inequality and injustice through individual concrete experience and through literary presentations. In addition, it examines legal terminology in detail. The authors come from the wide-ranging areas of philology, law, and history. Accordingly, the volume offers a diverse and altogether rich overview of women’s experiences of injustice in the past and the present.

  8. Ein Versuch, Naturverhältnisse aus feministischer Sicht zu interpretieren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Purgand

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Mit dem vorliegenden Sammelband Geschlechterverhältnisse – Naturverhältnisse wird nach dem innovativen Beitrag der feministischen Debatte für umweltsoziologisches Denken gefragt und nach Überschneidungen, Grenzen und Zwischenräumen zwischen „Geschlecht“ und „Natur“ gesucht. In ihm wird der lobenswerte Versuch unternommen, einen Zusammenhang zwischen Geschlechter- und Naturverhältnissen herzustellen „die in der Umweltsoziologie bislang stark vernachlässigte feministische Diskussion und Geschlechterforschung einzubeziehen und als genderbezogene Perspektive zu etablieren“. (S. 9 Das Buch enthält Beiträge von 15 Autorinnen, die unterschiedliche Natur- und Geschlechtsverhältnisse facettenreich, überwiegend kreativ und theoretisch anspruchsvoll betrachten. Das Buch enthält Zugänge aus der allgemeinen Soziologie, den Sprach- und Kulturwissenschaften, aus politik- und naturwissenschaftlichen Zusammenhängen. Den ausdrücklich formulierten Anspruch, von multi- zu einer inter-disziplinären Durchdringung zu gelangen, erfüllt es nur in Ansätzen (besonders mit der Einleitung und den theoretischen Problemexplikationen. Das zustande gekommene „Nach-, Zusammen- und Querdenken“ über Begriffe, Theorien und neuere Forschungsansätze (von Foucault über Butler bis zu Donna Haraway belegt die Notwendigkeit, die naturwissenschaftlichen Annahmen „immanent zu dekonstruieren“. Sehr aufschlussreich sind in diesem Zusammenhang die Beiträge von Irmgard Schultz, Elvira Scheich, aber auch von Mary Mellor und besonders von Paula-Irene Villa, die interessante und kreative Gedanken zur Klärung des Verhältnisses von Natur, Kultur und Geschlecht anbieten. Deutlich wurde, dass weiterhin ein kontroverses Ringen um angemessene konzeptionelle Fassungen von Geschlechts- und Naturverhältnissen und die Integration von Gender als zentraler analytischer Querschnitts-Kategorie nötig sind. Insgesamt ist dem Buch ist eine schnelle Verbreitung und

  9. Interkulturelle kommunikative Kompetenz – ein Versuch der Operationalisierung aus dem Fach Deutsch an der dänischen Lehrerausbildung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Kirsten; Daryai-Hansen, Petra

    2017-01-01

    hierbei stellen. Im Anschluss präsentieren wir unser Modell der interkulturellen kommunikativen Kompetenz, das wir für das Fach Deutsch ain der dänischen Lehrerausbildung auf der Grundlage eines Modells von Michael Byram aus dem Jahre 1997 entwickelt haben. Byrams Modell der interkulturellen...

  10. Briefe aus dem Morgenland - Otto Friedrich von Richters Forschungsreise in den Jahren 1814-1816 / Vladimir Sazonov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sazonov, Vladimir, 1979-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Briefe aus dem Morgenland - Otto Friedrich von Richters Forschungsreise in den Jahren 1814-1816, hrsg. von Indrek Jürjo, Sergei Stadnikov, Hamburger Beiträge zur Geschichte des östlichen Europa, Bd. 20. Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovač 2013, 313 lk.

  11. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcarde, Andre Ricardo; Horii, Jorge [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao]. E-mail: aralcard@esalq.usp.br; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia

    2003-12-01

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and my influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the general Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated: yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%. (author)

  12. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin [Lakewood, CO; Elander, Richard [Evergreen, CO; Hennessey, Susan M [Avondale, PA

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  13. Experiments with Fungi Part 2: Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Michele; Hetherington, Shane

    1996-01-01

    Gives details of three experiments with alcoholic fermentation by yeasts which yield carbon dioxide and ethanol. Lists procedures for making cider, vinegar, and fermentation gases. Provides some historical background and detailed equipment requirements. (DDR)

  14. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  15. PYRUVATE FERMENTATION BY STREPTOCOCCUS FAECALIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DEIBEL, R H; NIVEN, C F

    1964-07-01

    Deibel, R. H. (American Meat Institute Foundation, Chicago, Ill.), and C. F. Niven, Jr. Pyruvate fermentation by Streptococcus faecalis. J. Bacteriol. 88:4-10. 1964.-Streptococcus faecalis, as opposed to S. faecium, utilizes pyruvate as an energy source for growth. The fermentation is adaptive, as demonstrated by growth experiments in a casein-hydrolysate medium and the fermentation of pyruvate by cell suspensions. The principal products of pyruvate catabolism were acetoin, CO(2), and lactic, acetic, and formic acids, although carbon recoveries were low due to the formation of slime. End-product analyses suggested that both the phosphoroclastic and dismutation systems were active in pyruvate breakdown. Studies with cell-free extracts indicated a thiamine diphosphate requirement for active pyruvate catabolism. The involvement of lipoic acid in the phosphoroclastic system was investigated, and, although inconclusive results were obtained, no association of this cofactor with phosphoroclastic activity could be made.

  16. „NS-Raubgut aus zweiter Hand“ - Provenienzrecherchen in der Bibliothek des IGdJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Kreuzer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Das Institut für die Geschichte der deutschen Juden in Hamburg führt im Rahmen des Projekts "NS-Raubgut in der Bibliothek des IGdJ" umfangreiche Recherchen in seinen Buchbeständen durch. Die Untersuchung fügt sich in die Reihe von Forschungsvorhaben, die in der Folge der "Washingtoner Konferenz über Vermögenswerte aus der Zeit des Holocaust" (1998 und der ein Jahr später verabschiedeten "Erklärung der Bundesregierung, der Länder und der kommunalen Spitzenverbände zur Auffindung und zur Rückgabe NS-verfolgungsbedingt entzogenen Kulturgutes, insbesondere aus jüdischem Besitz" in diversen deutschen Bibliotheken, Museen, Archiven und anderen kulturellen Einrichtungen durchgeführt werden. Zurzeit befinden sich in der Bibliothek des IGdJ rund 50.000 Bände. Im Grunde ist bei allen Werken, die vor 1945 erschienen sind, eine Provenienz aus NS-Raub- bzw. NS-Beutegutbeständen möglich. Eine systematische Erfassung und Bearbeitung dieses rund 6.000 bis 9.000 Bände umfassenden Bestandes ist bislang nicht erfolgt. Da die Institutsbibliothek als jüdische Sammlung konzipiert und aufgebaut wurde, verstärkt sich diese Vermutung. Weil das Institut erst 1966 gegründet wurde, handelt es sich wahrscheinlich um "NS-Raubgut aus zweiter Hand“. Eine weitere Aufgabenstellung ergibt sich aus der Tatsache, dass in den Anfangsjahren der Bibliothek keine Zugangsjournale geführt wurden. Somit können in vielen Fällen nur die Bücher selbst Hinweise auf ihre Herkunft geben, weshalb als erste Maßnahme die eingehende Buchautopsie anhand des Zettelkatalogs durchgeführt wird. Der systematischen Suche nach NS-verfolgungsbedingt entzogenem Kulturgut folgt die Dokumentation und Bekanntgabe der Ergebnisse mit dem Ziel der Restitution an die Vorbesitzer oder deren Erben. In einem Werkstattbericht werden erste Ergebnisse vorgestellt. The Institute of the History of the German Jews (Institut für die Geschichte der deutschenJuden, IGdJ is currently conducting a

  17. Thua nao: Thai fermented soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekachai Chukeatirote

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thua nao is a traditionally fermented food in Thailand. It is manufactured by fermenting cooked soybeans with naturally occurring microbes. There are also similar products including natto in Japan, kinema in India, and chongkukjang in Korea. In Thailand, thua nao is widely consumed, especially by people in the northern part. The product is generally regarded as a protein supplement and widely used as a condiment. Two major types of thua nao can be distinguished; fresh and dried forms. To date, scientific information on thua nao is scarce and thus this article aims to document the updated knowledge of Thai thua nao.

  18. PAT tools for fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Bolic, Andrijana; Svanholm, Bent

    2012-01-01

    The publication of the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) guidance has been one of the most important milestones for pharmaceutical production during the past ten years. The ideas outlined in the PAT guidance are also applied in other industries, for example the fermentation industry. Process...... knowledge is central in PAT projects. This manuscript therefore gives a brief overview of a number of PAT tools for collecting process knowledge on fermentation processes: on-line sensors, mechanistic models and small-scale equipment for high-throughput experimentation. The manuscript ends with a short...

  19. PAT tools for fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist

    The publication of the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) guidance has been one of the most important milestones for pharmaceutical production during the past ten years. The ideas outlined in the PAT guidance are also applied in other industries, for example the fermentation industry. Process...... knowledge is central in PAT projects. This presentation therefore gives a brief overview of a number of PAT tools for collecting process knowledge on fermentation processes: - On-line sensors, where for example spectroscopic measurements are increasingly applied - Mechanistic models, which can be used...

  20. Biotransformation of algal waste by biological fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To treat this garbage of algae, we employed a biological fermentation process using lactic acid bacteria (BL11) and yeast (THE 16). These were isolated and selected for their acidifying and fermentation qualities, respectively. The fermentation resulted in a decrease of pH from 7.4 to 3.75 and a reduction of the different ...

  1. Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually

  2. Fermentation of pretreated corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the effect of unknown fermentation inhibitors in corncob hemicellulose acid hydrolysate processed by pretreatment and detoxification on fermentation, corncob hemicellulose acid hydrolysate and artificially prepared hydrolysate were fermented in parallel by Candida shehatae YHFK-2. The results show that ...

  3. Phytosynthesized iron nanoparticles: effects on fermentative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of FeSO4 and FeNPs on batch fermentative H2 production from glucose was investigated. The fermentation exper- iments reveal that the ... control (no supplementation) and FeSO4 containing media. The maximum H2 yield of 1.9 mol ... tion, dark fermentative process has been recognized as the most suitable because of its ...

  4. Traditional fermented foods and beverages of Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Misihairabgwi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Fermented foods and beverages play a major role in the diet, socioeconomic, and cultural activities of the Namibian population. Most are spontaneously fermented. Research is scarce and should be conducted on the microbiology, biochemistry, nutritional value, and safety of the fermented foods and beverages to ensure the health of the population.

  5. Comparison of biochemical changes during alcoholic fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whatever the type of fermentation, yields of ethanol was highest at 30°C. Fermentation conducted with controlled yeast gave a better yield of ethanol with 8.4 % than spontaneous fermentation that yielded only 4.3 %. There were significant differences (p<0.05) between both alcohol productivity and yield at spontaneous and ...

  6. Fermentation du citron par inoculation microbienne | Bousmaha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work attempts to replace the traditional process known in Morocco by a controlled process allowing the fermentation and the preservation of lemon. We isolated and selected lactic bacteria and yeasts with big acidifying capacity and with high fermentative potential able to preserve and to ferment in a natural way ...

  7. Homogenization of Cocoa Beans Fermentation to Upgrade Quality Using an Original Improved Fermenter

    OpenAIRE

    Aka S. Koffi; N'Goran Yao; Philippe Bastide; Denis Bruneau; Diby Kadjo

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cocoa L.) are the main components for chocolate manufacturing. The beans must be correctly fermented at first. Traditional process to perform the first fermentation (lactic fermentation) often consists in confining cacao beans using banana leaves or a fermentation basket, both of them leading to a poor product thermal insulation and to an inability to mix the product. Box fermenter reduces this loss by using a wood with large thickness (e>3cm), but mixing to homogenize ...

  8. Regelwerke im multilingualen Kontext – ein Erfahrungsbericht aus einem multilingualen Verbund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Küssow

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Der Bibliotheksverbund NEBIS (Netzwerk von Bibliotheken und Informationsstellen in der Schweiz ist der grösste Verbund wissenschaftlicher Bibliotheken der Schweiz. Ihm gehören rund 140 Bibliotheken an 154 Standorten aus allen Landesteilen der Schweiz an. Im NEBIS arbeiten Bibliotheken sowohl aus der Deutschschweiz als auch aus den Französisch und Italienisch sprechenden Landesteilen. Der Anteil der nicht-deutschsprachigen Bibliotheken beträgt im NEBIS über 15 Prozent. Auf den Jahresbeginn 2016 hat der NEBIS-Verbund das bisher verwendete Regelwerk KIDS (Katalogisierungsregeln des IDS durch das internationale Regelwerk RDA sowie die hauseigene Normdatenbank durch die deutschorientierte Normdatenbank GND abgelöst. Der Zustand der französischsprachigen Übersetzung der RDA sowie die Übersetzung der Anwendungsregeln des D-A-CH Raumes waren eine der grössten Herausforderungen bei der Einführung im Verbund. In einer mehrsprachigen Umgebung mit einer monolingualen Datenbank wie der GND zu arbeiten, bedeutete besonders für die französischsprachigen Bibliotheken viel Umstellung und Flexibilität. Die Arbeit mit deutschen Begriffen wie zum Beispiel die Berufsbegriffe in der GND erfordert sowohl von der NEBIS-Verbundzentrale wie auch von den französischsprachigen Bibliotheken einen ausserordentlichen Effort. Der NEBIS-Verbund wird auch künftig darauf angewiesen sein, dass die französische Übersetzung der RDA sowie die Übersetzung der Anwendungsregeln möglichst aktuell bleibt. Zudem wird auch im Bereich GND weiterhin eine flexible und geduldige Arbeitsweise aller Beteiligten erforderlich sein. The network of libraries NEBIS (Netzwerk von Bibliotheken und Informationsstellen in der Schweiz is the biggest network of scientific libraries in Switzerland. It comprises ca. 140 libraries with 154 locations in all over Switzerland. Libraries from the German, French and Italian speaking parts of the country are working together in NEBIS. More than

  9. Drinking water pollution with nickel from water boilers; Nickel-Eintrag aus Wasserkochern ins Trinkwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmers, E. [Amt fuer Umweltschutz, Stuttgart (Germany). Chemisches Inst.

    1998-07-01

    The EU is planning to drop the threshold value for nickel in drinking water down to 20 {mu}g/l (present German threshold value: 50 {mu}g/l). Since ICP-MS-screenings of spot checks of water cookers were striking with respect to nickel, emissions of electrical water cookers have been investigated systematically within this study. As a result, water cookers with open heating coils are emitting relevant amounts of nickel into the water while it is brought to the boil. Investigation of eight preused water cookers with open heating coils revealed that the boiled water contained more than 50 {mu}g Ni/l in one case, more than 20 {mu}g Ni/l in two cases and, between 10 and 20 {mu}g Ni/l in two more cases, respectively. Removing of the lime by the aid of citric acid is increasing the nickel concentrations by a factor of up to 50 (max. 640 {mu}g/l). A new device was checked in a long-term test. During standard use with tapwater, Ni concentrations fall below the detection limit of 5 {mu}g Ni/l (120 cooking events). However, after removing of the lime, 5 times of cooking were necessary in order to diminish the Ni concentrations below the limit of 20 {mu}g/l. In the case of dionized water Ni concentrations below the limit of 20 {mu}g/l. In the case of deionized water Ni concentrations remained between 94 und 190 {mu}g/l. Health risk assessment: The intake of nickel with beverages made from hot water out of these cookers is in the range of 26 {mu}g/day. Considering an alltogether dietary nickel intake of 130-170 (900) {mu}g/day, this is not beyond the scope. However, according to the fact that nickel allergies (dermatitis) are very frequent (up to 13% of the population), this source should be limited or closed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aus Anlass der geplanten Absenkung des Trinkwassergrenzwertes fuer Nickel auf 20 {mu}g/l sowie aufgrund von Auffaelligkeiten bei Stichprobenuntersuchungen wurde das Nickel-Emissionsverhalten von elektrischen Wassererhitzern betrachtet. Hierbei erwies sich

  10. Muenstraia, ein neues Rugosa-Genus (Anthozoa aus dem Obersilur und Unterdevon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Weyer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Muenstraia n. gen. ist eine der ältesten ahermatypischen Rugosa (Subordo Cyathaxoniina und umfasst neben der Typusart Muenstraia franconica n. sp. (Ludlovium, Elbersreuther Orthoceratitenkalk, Frankenwald drei weitere Arten: Muenstraia squarrosa (Sutherland, 1965 (unteres Ludlovium, Henryhouse-Formation, Oklahoma, Muenstraia sp. (oberes Lochkovium, Yukon-Gebiet, Muenstraia thuringica n. sp. (Pragium, Thüringisches Schiefergebirge und Tafilalt. Die Gattung kann von dem isolierten, nur aus Xinjiang bekannten Protozaphrentis Yü, 1957 des hohen Mittelordoviz abgeleitet werden; wichtige Deszendenten im Ludlovian sind Laccophyllum Simpson, 1900 und Sutherlandinia Weyer, 1972. Der Bauplan entspricht dem seit Schindewolf (1931 traditionellen Konzept der Gattung Petraia Münster, 1839, die aber nach Revision (Weyer 2000 ihrer wahren Typusart Petraia decussata Münster, 1839 aus dem oberen Famennium einer anderen Entwicklungsreihe angehört (Neaxoninae Hill, 1981, jetzt Petraiidae Koninck, 1872. Für die dadurch namenlos gewordene Familia "Petraiidae" (etwa sensu Hill 1981 werden die bisher als Synonym ruhenden Protozaphrentidae Ivanovskiy, 1959 verfügbar, denen noch Duncanella Nicholson, 1874 sowie die Sutherlandiniinae Weyer, 1972 und die Ditoecholasmatinae Sutherland, 1965 zugeordnet sind. Muenstraia, a new genus of Rugosa (Anthozoa from the Late Silurian and Early Devonian The new taxon, one of the most ancient members of the ahermatypic suborder Cyathaxoniina, includes the type species Muenstraia franconica n. sp. (Ludlovian, Elbersreuth Orthoceratites-Limestone Formation. Upper Franconia, Germany and three further species: Muenstraia squarrosa (Sutherland, 1965 (lower Ludlovian, Henryhouse Formation, Oklahoma, USA, Muenstraia sp. (upper Lochkovian, Yukon Territories, Canada. Muenstraia thuringica n. sp. (middle/upper Pragian, Tentaculitid Limestone Formation, Thuringian Mountains, Germany, and middle Pragian, Tafilalt, Morocco. The genus

  11. Waste heat recovery from clinker cooler for seawater desalination; Abwaermerueckgewinnung aus Klinkerkuehlern zur Meerwasserentsalzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidharan, V.M.; Swaminathan, R.; Lagu, S.R.; Kulkarni, R.V.

    2002-10-01

    The utilization of waste heat has been practised in cement works for many years. However, the clinker cooler exhaust air is being used for the first time in India to generate steam for a seawater desalination plant. The plant installed at the Gujarat cement works of Larsen and Toubro contributes to the production of 2040 m{sup 3}/day of demineralized water from seawater. Hot exhaust air from the clinker cooler at about 270 C is cooled to about 170 C in a waste heat recovery steam generator (WHRSG). The plant has now been in operation for more than three years and contributes to the production of water in an area in which water is a precious commodity. The plant was installed in an existing cement works, so a number of factors, such as operation of the clinker cooler, configuration and installation of the equipment, machinery and gas ducts, had to be taken into account during the design of the waste heat boiler. State-of-the-art techniques, such as pinch point analysis, finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics, were used in the design. (orig.) [German] Die Abwaermenutzung in Zementwerken ist seit vielen Jahren gaengige Praxis. Zum ersten Mal wurde jetzt in Indien die Klinkerkuehlerabluft zur Dampferzeugung fuer eine Meerwasserentsalzungsanlage eingesetzt. Die im Zementwerk Gujarat von Larsen and Toubro installierte Anlage traegt zur Gewinnung von 2040 m{sup 3}/Tag destilliertem Wasser aus Meerwasser bei. Etwa 270 C heisse Abluft aus dem Klinkerkuehler wird in einem Abhitzekessel (WHRSG) auf ca. 170 C abgekuehlt. Die Anlage ist inzwischen seit mehr als drei Jahren in Betrieb und traegt zur Wassergewinnung in einem Gebiet bei, in dem Wasser ein kostbarer Rohstoff ist. Da die Anlage in einem vorhandenen Zementwerk errichtet wurde, gab es eine Reihe von Faktoren, wie z.B. Betrieb des Klinkerkuehlers, Anordnung und Montage der Ausruestungen, Maschinen und Gasleitungen, die bei der Konstruktion des Abhitzekessels zu beruecksichtigen waren. Fuer die

  12. Korean traditional fermented soybean products: Jang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghwa Shin

    2015-03-01

    Fermented products are going beyond the boundaries of their use as mere side dishes, and are seeing significant increases in their use as a functional food. Kanjang (fermented soy sauce, Doenjang (fermented soybean paste, and Gochujang (fermented red pepper paste are the most well-known fermented products in Korea. These products occupy an important place in people's daily lives as seasonings and are used in many side dishes. It has been proven through clinical studies that these products have many health benefits, such as their ability to fight cancer and diabetes, and to prevent obesity and constipation.

  13. Anaerobic xylose fermentation by Spathaspora passalidarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaoru

    2012-01-01

    A cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into bioethanol requires that the xylose released from the hemicellulose fraction (20–40% of biomass) can be fermented. Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, efficiently ferments glucose but it lacks the ability to ferment xylose. Xylose-fermenting...... yeast such as Pichia stipitis requires accurately controlled microaerophilic conditions during the xylose fermentation, rendering the process technically difficult and expensive. In this study, it is demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions Spathaspora passalidarum showed high ethanol production...

  14. Mystery behind Chinese liquor fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Guangyuan; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Background Chinese liquor, a very popular fermented alcoholic beverage with thousands of years’ history in China, though its flavour formation and microbial process have only been partly explored, is facing the industrial challenge of modernisation and standardisation for food quality and safety as

  15. ENDOSPORES OF THERMOPHILIC FERMENTATIVE BACTERIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volpi, Marta

    2016-01-01

    solely based on endospores of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which presumably constitute only a small fraction of the total thermophilic endospore community reaching cold environments. My PhD project developed an experimental framework for using thermophilic fermentative endospores (TFEs) to trace...

  16. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula o...

  17. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roa Engel, C.A.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Zijlmans, T.W.; Van Gulik, W.M.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid

  18. The Brewing Process: Optimizing the Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Coldea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Beer is a carbonated alcoholic beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation of malt wort boiled with hops. Brown beer obtained at Beer Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of a recipe based on blond, caramel and black malt in different proportions, water, hops and yeast. This study aimed to monitorize the evolution of wort in primary and secondary alcoholic fermentation in order to optimize the process. Two wort batches were assambled in order to increase the brewing yeast fermentation performance. The primary fermentation was 14 days, followed by another 14 days of secondary fermentation (maturation. The must fermentation monitoring was done by the automatic FermentoStar analyzer. The whole fermentation process was monitorized (temperature, pH, alcohol concentration, apparent and total wort extract.

  19. Fermentation of hexoses to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Lena [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology]|[Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept of Chemical Reaction Engineering

    2000-06-01

    The Goals of the project has been: to increase the ethanol yield by reducing the by-product formation, primarily biomass and glycerol, and to prevent stuck fermentations, i.e. to maintain a high ethanol production rate simultaneously with a high ethanol yield. The studies have been performed both in defined laboratory media and in a mixture of wood- and wheat hydrolysates. The yeast strains used have been both industrial strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and haploid laboratory strains. The Relevance of these studies with respect to production of ethanol to be used as fuel is explained by: With the traditional process design used today, it is very difficult to reach a yield of more than 90 % of the theoretical maximal value of ethanol based on fermented hexose. During 'normal' growth and fermentation conditions in either anaerobic batch or chemostat cultures, substrate is lost as biomass and glycerol in the range of 8 to 11 % and 6 to 11 % of the substrate consumed (kg/kg). It is essential to reduce these by-products. Traditional processes are mostly batch processes, in which there is a risk that the biocatalyst, i.e. the yeast, may become inactivated. If for example yeast biomass production is avoided by use of non-growing systems, the ethanol production rate is instantaneously reduced by at least 50%. Unfortunately, even if yeast biomass production is not avoided on purpose, it is well known that stuck fermentations caused by cell death is a problem in large scale yeast processes. The main reason for stuck fermentations is nutrient imbalances. For a good process economy, it is necessary to ensure process accessibility, i.e. to maintain a high and reproducible production rate. This will both considerably reduce the necessary total volume of the fermentors (and thereby the investment costs), and moreover minimize undesirable product fall-out.

  20. Chancen und Herausforderungen der religiösen Bildung im Lebensraum Schule aus muslimischer Perspektive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Dursun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag basiert – mit dem Hinweis auf die zunehmende Präsenz der herkunftsorientierten religiösen Einrichtungen in Europa – auf dem Argument, dass die islamisch-religiöse Bildung in den Schulen Europas überdacht werden muss und ihr eine entscheidende Rolle zukommt. Neben den herkunftsorientierten religiösen Einrichtungen in Europa wird in diesem Beitrag die Bedeutung des islamischen Religionsunterrichts aus dem Blickwinkel des kontextualisierten Islams beleuchtet. Mittels Fallbeispielen zur religiösen Bildung am religiösen Markt (= religiöse Institutionen außerhalb des Schulraums wird in diesem Beitrag aufgezeigt, dass der islamische Religionsunterricht im Gegensatz zu den religiösen Institutionen keine Monopolkirche sein darf, in der vorwiegend eine Art Volksfrömmigkeit vermittelt wird. Opportunities and Challenges of Religious Education in Schools – A Muslim Perspective This contribution is based on the argument that the role of Islamic religious education at schools should be reconceived in relation to the growing presence of origin-oriented religious institutions in Europe. In addition to the origin-oriented religious institutions in Europe, this paper aims to present the importance of Islamic religious education from the perspective of contextualized Islam. Based on case studies for religious education in the religious market (outside the education area this paper shows that the Islamic religious education cannot offer Church`s monopoly and act like origin-oriented religious institutions to mediate popular piety.

  1. Die Energiebranche am Beginn der digitalen Transformation: aus Versorgern werden Utilities 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doleski, Oliver D.

    Die traditionelle Energieversorgung befindet sich in einer Zäsur. Das seit Jahrzehnten bewährte und stabile Geschäftsmodell einer zuverlässig planbaren, zentralen Energieerzeugung mit anschließender unidirektionaler Verteilung geriet spätestens seit der Energiewende des Jahres 2011 immer mehr unter Druck. Angesichts fortschreitender Digitalisierung und Dezentralisierung einerseits und gestiegener Erwartungshaltung der Kunden gegenüber "ihrem" Versorger andererseits sieht sich die Energiebranche heute einem epochalen Transformationsprozess gegenübergestellt. Bei diesem entwickeln sich aus den monopolistischen Versorgern des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts (Utility 1.0), über die liberalisierten Energieversorgungsunternehmen (Utility 2.0) und Energiedienstleistungsunternehmen (Utility 3.0) heutiger Prägung, die digitalen Energiedienstleistungsunternehmen (Utility 4.0) von morgen. Oliver D. Doleski beschränkt sich in seinem Beitrag nicht auf die reine Beschreibung dieses Veränderungsprozesses an sich. Vielmehr werden darüber hinaus sowohl die mit dieser Entwicklung verbundenen übergeordneten Ziele als auch die wesentlichen Anforderungen an erfolgreiche Utilities 4.0 skizziert. Das Kapitel endet mit einem prägnanten Überblick profitabler Betätigungsfelder, die zur Sicherung der ökonomischen Zukunft von Energiekonzernen, Regionalversorgern und Stadtwerken beitragen können.

  2. Status epilepticus ausência de novo: relato de caso "De novo" absence status: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria M. Almeida Tedrus

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucos relatos na literatura de pacientes adultos com status epilepticus não convulsivo, do tipo ausência típica. Apresentamos o caso de paciente do sexo feminino de 53 anos de idade, diabética, que iniciou quadro de confusão mental após crise tônico-clônica generalizada. O eletrencefalograma mostrou descargas contínuas generalizadas caracterizadas por complexos ponta-onda irregulares. As descargas ao eletrencefalograma desapareceram após diazepan endovenoso. A tomografia computadorizada de crânio foi normal. Esse caso mostra que o reconhecimento dessa entidade clínico-eletrencefalográfica é essencial, devido à semelhança com distúrbio psiquiátrico e da pronta resposta ao tratamento medicamentoso.There are few descriptions about middle-aged patients who have nonconvulsive status epilepticus, absence status. We reported the clinical case of a woman, 52-year-old, diabetic, referred to the emergency room in a confusional state. Initial electroencephalogram showed continuous typical, bilateral, symmetric and synchronous spike-and-wave discharges. Clinical and electroencephalogram normalization occurred immediatelly following intravenous injection of benzodiazepine. Computerized axial tomography was normal. The recognition of this entity is essential because of its similarity to psychiatric disturbance and its prompt response to proper treatment.

  3. Der zivilisationswortschatz bei den Serben und Kroaten im 19. jahrhundert: Am beispiel einiger begriffe aus wirtschaft und bankwesen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveklovski Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available (nemački Die angeführten Belege aus den Sachgebieten Wirtschaft, Handel Bankwesen stellen eine Auswahl aus dem umfangreichen Projekt 'Gesellschaft und Wirtschaft' der Balkankommission der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften dar. Sie zeigen deutlich, wie bei den Serben und Kroaten bei der Schaffung eines den Zeiterfordernissen angepassten Wortschatzes auf verschiedene Traditionen zurückgegriffen wird, und dass diese Traditionen ihre Kontinuität bis heute besitzen. Bei den Serben bleiben viel eher internationale Entlehnungen erhalten als bei den Kroaten, die eher einheimisches Wortmaterial vorziehen. Im einzelnen werden die Begriffe Aktie Bankrott, Darlehen, Kapital, Kasse, Pacht, Ware, Zinsen mit ihren Ableitungen behandelt. Die Beispiele sind Beiträge zur Wortgeschichte, die Angaben im großen Akademiewörterbuch (ARj ergänzen oder korrigieren und einen Überblick über die Techniken der Entstehung neuer Wörter vermitteln sollen.

  4. Amphibienreste aus dem Oberpliozän von Kaltensundheim (Rhön, Thüringen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Böhme

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aus den oberpliozänen Füllsedimenten eines fossilen Erdfalles bei Kaltensundheim in der Rhön (Thüringen werden Skelettreste von anuren Amphibien beschrieben. Es liegen Reste von Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758, Bufo sp., Rana temporaria Linus, 1758 sowie vermutliche Parietale nicht bestimmbarer Salientia vor. Die bisher mehrfach genannte Latonia lässt sich nicht nachweisen. Sie muss aus der Faunenliste von Kaltensundheim gestrichen werden. Skeletal remains of anuran amphibians are described from sediment filled earthfall depression of upper Pliocene age near Kaltensundheim/Rhön (Thuringia. Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758, Bufo sp., Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, as well as a probable parietal of an indeterminate salientian could be distinguished. There is no evidence of the often mentioned Latonia. This genus should be eliminated from the faunal list of Kaltensundheim. doi:10.1002/mmng.20020050113

  5. Commercialization of a novel fermentation concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar-Shaw, Kiran; Suryanarayan, Shrikumar

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation is the core of biotechnology where current methodologies span across technologies based on the use of either solid or liquid substrates. Traditionally, solid substrate fermentation technologies have been the widely practiced in the Far East to manufacture fermented foods such as soya sauce, sake etc. The Western World briefly used solid substrate fermentation for the manufacture of antibiotics and enzymes but rapidly replaced this technology with submerged fermentation which proved to be a superior technology in terms of automation, containment and large volume fermentation. Biocon India developed its enzyme technology based on solid substrate fermentation as a low-cost, low-energy option for the production of specialty enzymes. However, the limitations of applying solid substrate fermentation to more sophisticated biotechnology products as well as large volume fermentations were recognized by Biocon India as early as 1990 and the company embarked on a 8 year research and development program to develop a novel bioreactor capable of conducting solid substrate fermentation with comparable levels of automation and containment as those practiced by submerged fermentation. In addition, the novel technology enabled fed-batch fermentation, in situ extraction and other enabling features that will be discussed in this article. The novel bioreactor was christened the "PlaFractor" (pronounced play-fractor). The next level of research on this novel technology is now focused on addressing large volume fermentation. This article traces the evolution of Biocon India's original solid substrate fermentation to the PlaFractor technology and provides details of the scale-up and commercialization processes that were involved therein. What is also apparent in the article is Biocon India's commercially focused research programs and the perceived need to be globally competitive through low costs of innovation that address, at all times, processes and technologies that

  6. Dokumentation der Fachtagung "Resilienz - Was Kinder aus armen Familien stark macht" am 13. September 2005 in Frankfurt am Main

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    "Die Dokumentation ist das Ergebnis der Fachtagung 'Resilienz: Was Kinder aus armen Familien stark macht', die das ISS-Frankfurt a.M. am 13. September 2005 durchgeführt hat. Ziel der Fachtagung war es, notwendige Brücken zwischen den fachlichen Diskursen zu bauen. Es sollten Informationen zur aktuellen Kinderarmutsforschung und Resilienzforschung gegeben, Herausforderungen für das professionelle sozialpädagogische Handeln identifiziert sowie Erfahrungen praktische Handlungsansätze reflektiert...

  7. Complete CRM documentation as a basis for successfull Churn Management; Wie aus Rueckholung Vorbeugung wird. Vollstaendige Kundenkontakthistorie als Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannssen, T. [ConTakt GmbH, Itzehoe (Germany)

    2002-09-09

    The contribution explains modern customer relationship management strategies for electric utilities. The role of a complete and detailed documentation of the CRM history is explained as a basis for establishing reliable customer loyalty, winning back lost customers, or preventing customers from changing their power service. (orig./CB) [German] Erkenntnisse aus der Kundenrueckgewinnung sind eine wertvolle Grundlage fuer Kuendigungspraevention. Bei durchdachtem Vorgehen koennen sie mit den gesammelten Erfahrungen sogar schon im Vorfeld Kuendigungen verhindern. (orig./CB)

  8. Studien zur Messung von Rekonstruktionseffizienz und Untergrund der $\\tau$-Lepton-Identifikation im Zerfall $Z\\to \\tau \\tau$ beim ATLAS-Experiment aus Daten

    CERN Document Server

    Johnert, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    In dieser Diplomarbeit werden zwei Methoden vorgestellt, mit denen τ -Leptonen in den zuk ̈nf- u tigen Daten des ATLAS-Experiments untersucht werden sollen. Den ersten Teil bildet die Be- stimmung von Missidentifikationsraten von Jets aus QCD-2-Jet-Ereignissen als τ -Leptonen. Der zweite Teil ist die Entwicklung einer Methode zur Bestimmung der τ -Rekonstruktions- und -Identifikationseffizienz relativ zur μ-Effizienz. In diesem Zusammenhang werden invariante Massen aus Z → ll-Ereignissen bestimmt, die Massen aus Z → τ τ -Ereignissen mit denen aus Z → ee und Z → μμ verglichen, τ -Effizienzen gemittelt uber alle Bereiche und in verschiedenen ̈ o η-Bereichen berechnet sowie eine M ̈glichkeit zur Bestimmung von τ -Effizienzen in unterschied- lichen Transversalimpulsbereichen vorgestellt. Des Weiteren wird eine verbesserte Absch ̈tzung a des QCD-Untergrunds vorgenommen und das Verhalten der τ -Effizienz unter Ber ̈cksichtigung u des Triggers untersucht.

  9. Schmidt. Sinfonie Nr. 1 E-Dur; Strauss. Vier sinfonische Zwischenspiele aus Intermezzo. Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Helge Grünewald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grünewald, Helge

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Schmidt. Sinfonie Nr. 1 E-Dur; Strauss. Vier sinfonische Zwischenspiele aus Intermezzo. Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos/Koch CD 9357 (WD: 68'20") DDD (WD:114'36")

  10. Thermotolerant fermenting yeasts for simultaneous saccharification fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairam Choudhary

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant renewable source of energy that has been widely explored as second-generation biofuel feedstock. Despite more than four decades of research, the process of ethanol production from lignocellulosic (LC biomass remains economically unfeasible. This is due to the high cost of enzymes, end-product inhibition of enzymes, and the need for cost-intensive inputs associated with a separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF process. Thermotolerant yeast strains that can undergo fermentation at temperatures above 40°C are suitable alternatives for developing the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process to overcome the limitations of SHF. This review describes the various approaches to screen and develop thermotolerant yeasts via genetic and metabolic engineering. The advantages and limitations of SSF at high temperatures are also discussed. A critical insight into the effect of high temperatures on yeast morphology and physiology is also included. This can improve our understanding of the development of thermotolerant yeast amenable to the SSF process to make LC ethanol production commercially viable.

  11. Der Zusammenhang von Partnermarktopportunitäten aus dem Freundeskreis und der Stabilität von Paarbeziehungen : Eine Analyse mit den Daten des Partnermarktsurvey

    OpenAIRE

    Häring, Armando

    2014-01-01

    "Der Beitrag analysiert den Zusammenhang zwischen Partnermarktoportunitäten aus dem Freundeskreis und der Stabilität von Paarbeziehungen. Unter Verwendung des theoretischen Konzepts der Theorie der Interaktionsgelegenheiten sowie von Annahmen der Austauschtheorie und der Familienökonomie, werden mögliche Zusammenhänge zwischen gemeinsamen Freundeskreisen mit dem Partner, Partnermarktgelegenheiten aus dem Freundeskreis (sex ratio) und der Stabilität von Paarbeziehungen diskutiert. Der Beitrag ...

  12. Large-volume heat storage tank made of GFK; Grosswaermespeichertank aus GFK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehl, J.; Schultheis, P. [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany). Fachgebiet Technische Thermodynamik

    1998-12-31

    The Technical University of Ilmenau, the company Verbundwerkstoff- und Kunststoffanwendungstechnik Schoenbrunn, the Institute for Aerospace and Light-weight construction of Dresden University with its approved testing facilities for plastics and the Institute for Construction Engineering in Berlin and several other institutions co-operated since 1996 in developing a concept for a series of long-term heat storage tanks up to 6,000 cubic metres storage volume made of plastic (GFK components) with a combined thermal insulation. A model tank (sandwich body with proportional thermal insulation layer and selected mixed laminates) with a volume of 1.5 cubic metres was built and installed in November 1996. The tank has been continuously operated at various test levels. The experiment proves the longevity of the materials used. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Zusammenarbeit der TU Ilmenau mit der Fa. Verbundwerkstoff - und Kunststoffanwendungstechnik Schoenbrunn und dem Institut fuer Luftfahrttechnik und Leichtbau Dresden, seiner akkredierten Pruefstelle fuer Kunststoffe, in Abstimmung mit dem Institut fuer Bautechnik Berlin und weiteren Einrichtungen und Partnern wird seit 1996 an einem Konzept fuer eine Typenreihe Langzeitwaermespeicher bis vorerst 6.000 m{sup 3} Speichervolumen aus Kunststoff (GFK-Komponenten) und kombinierter integrierter thermischer Isolation gearbeitet. Im Vorfeld dieser Entwicklung wurde auf der Basis vorausgewaehlter Materialien und Kompositionen ein Musterspeicher (ein Sandwich - Modellkoerper mit proportionaler Waermedaemmschicht sowie ausgewaehlten Mischlaminaten) mit einem Speichervolumen von 1,5 m{sup 3} realisiert. Dieser Musterspeicher wurde im November 1996 installiert und wird seither kontinuierlich in den entsprechenden Erprobungsstufen betrieben. Der Nachweis der Langlebigkeit der eingesetzten Materialien wurde experimentell erbracht. (orig.)

  13. Não basta gerar, tem que participar?: um estudo sobre a ausência paterna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Daiana Cúnico

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo buscou conhecer, por meio de uma abordagem qualitativa, quais as possíveis razões para a ausência paterna na vida dos filhos após o rompimento conjugal. Para tanto, foram entrevistados pais que participaram do serviço de mediação familiar e tiveram acordo homologado judicialmente em um Núcleo de Práticas Judiciárias Gratuitas. A pesquisa foi realizada utilizando a técnica de entrevistas semidirigidas de questões abertas, e os resultados analisados por meio da análise de conteúdo temática. Os pais relataram terem se sentido vítimas de um golpe - o golpe da barriga - que teve por objetivo mantêlos em um relacionamento em vias de dissolução. Assim, apresentaram dificuldades em estabelecer um vínculo afetivo com esse filho, visto que amá-lo seria assumir a efetividade de tal golpe. Ademais, foram identificadas semelhanças na história familiar dos participantes que envolviam a paternidade, as quais, por não terem sido problematizadas, não se tornaram objeto de reflexão, o que levou à repetição. Por fim, entende-se que o estudo aponta a importância do cuidado com relação aos efeitos da dissolução conjugal no que tange ao exercício dos papéis parentais, em especial, à paternidade.

  14. Probiotics in Dairy Fermented Products

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Araújo, Emiliane; Dos Santos Pires , Ana Clarissa; Soares Pinto, Maximiliano; Jan, Gwenael; De Carvahlo, Antonio Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Interest in the role of probiotics for human health began as early as 1908 when Metchnikoff associated the intake of fermented milk with prolonged life (Lourens-Hattingh and Vilijoen, 2001b). However, the relationship between intestinal microbiota and good health and nutrition has only recently been investigated. Therefore, it was not until the 1960’s that health benefit claims began appearing on foods labels. In recent years,there has been an increasing interest in probiotic foods, which...

  15. Marine sponges as microbial fermenters

    OpenAIRE

    Hentschel, Ute; Usher, Kayley M.; Taylor, Michael W.

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of phylogenetically complex, yet highly sponge-specific microbial communities in marine sponges, including novel lineages and even candidate phyla, came as a surprise. At the same time, unique research opportunities opened up, because the microorganisms of sponges are in many ways more accessible than those of seawater. Accordingly, we consider sponges as microbial fermenters that provide exciting new avenues in marine microbiology and biotechnology. This review covers recent fi...

  16. Transcription profiling of sparkling wine second fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Penacho, Vanessa; Valero, Eva; González García, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    There is a specific set of stress factors that yeast cells must overcome under second fermentation conditions, during the production of sparkling wines by the traditional (Champenoise) method. Some of them are the same as those of the primary fermentation of still wines, although perhaps with a different intensity (high ethanol concentration, low pH, nitrogen starvation) while others are more specific to second fermentation (low temperature, CO 2 overpressure). The transcription profile of Sa...

  17. Fermentation characteristics of yeasts isolated from traditionally fermented masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, L.K.; Nout, M.J.R.; Smid, E.J.; Boekhout, C.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Yeast strains were characterized to select potential starter cultures for the production of masau fermented beverages. The yeast species originally isolated from Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits and their traditionally fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe were examined for their ability to ferment

  18. Microbial fermented tea - a potential source of natural food preservatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Chen, Z.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of microbial fermented tea are much less known than its health beneficial properties. These antimicrobial activities are generated in natural microbial fermentation process with tea leaves as substrates. The antimicrobial components produced during the fermentation process

  19. PERVAPORATION MEMBRANE SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE FERMENTATION PRODUCT RECOVERY AND DEHYDRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economics of fermentative production of fuels and commodity chemicals can be a strong function of the efficiency with which the fermentation products are removed from the biological media. Due to growth inhibition by some fermentation products, including ethanol, concentrati...

  20. Biogas from algae, seaweed and seagrass?; Biogas aus Algen, Tang und Seegras?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Holger [Fachhochschule Flensburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Algae, seaweed and sea grass are discussed again and again as alternative sources for raw materials for agricultural biogas plants. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the identification and optimization of the biogas potential of microalgae, macroalgae and flotsam (mixture of seaweed, seaweed, and so on). Algae, seaweed and sea grass can be fermented into biogas by means of an anaerobic process. The specific yield of biogas is small. The processing of these substrates requires a technical adjustment of the biogas plants. Thus, the effective use of these substrates will continue to fall. The achievable benefit highly depends on the location of the facilities and on the available substrates with the corresponding specific gas yields. The economic efficiency of these substrates in agricultural systems must be examined in each case.

  1. Solar Thermal Power Generation 2000: solar-assisted district heating, tight sealing of pit water storage tanks made out of pre-stressed concrete; Solarthermie 2000, TP3: Solarunterstuetzte Nahwaermeversorgung: Dichte Heisswasser - Waermespeicher aus Hochleistungsbeton. Erdbeckenspeicher aus Hochleistungsbeton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reineck, K.H.; Lichtenfels, A.; Schlaich, J. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Konstruktion und Entwurf 2

    1998-12-31

    In 1996 the two large heat storage tanks in Hamburg-Bramfeld (4,750 cubic metres) and Friedrichshafen-Wiggenhausen (12,000 cubic metres) were built out of concrete with an inner stainless steel lining. This was a big step towards economic efficiency. The research project ``Tight sealing of pit water storage tanks made out of pre-stressed concrete`` was launched by the BMBF in order to show that the concrete construction will not only bear loads but also ensure sealing. Building costs for underground hot water storage tanks could then be reduced by at least 25%. The first results of this research project are presented. The paper also contains recommendations for the further development of heat storage tanks built with pre-stressed concrete. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Jahre 1996 wurden die beiden grossen Waermespeicher in Hamburg-Bramfeld mit einem Volumen von 4.750 m{sup 3} und in Friedrichshafen-Wiggenhausen mit 12.000 m{sup 3} aus Beton mit innenliegender Edelstahlauskleidung fertiggestellt. Mit dem Bau dieser beiden Grossspeicher konnte ein richtungsweisender Schritt hin zur Wirtschaftlichkeit gemacht werden, wie man es in Studien vor 15 Jahren nicht fuer moeglich hielt. Mit dem BMBF - Forschungsvorhaben `Dichte Heisswasser - Waermespeicher aus Hochleistungsbeton` soll gezeigt werden, dass das Betontragwerk nicht nur Lasten abtragen sondern auch die Funktion der Abdichtung uebernehmen kann. Damit sollen die Baukosten fuer unterirdische Heisswasser-Waermespeicher um mindestens 25% gesenkt werden. Es werden die ersten Ergebnisse dieses Forschungsvorhabens mitgeteilt und Empfehlungen fuer die weitere Entwicklung von Waermespeichern aus Hochleistungsbeton gegeben. (orig.)

  2. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  3. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Christian Fandrych, Maria Thurmair: Textsorten im Deutschen. Linguistische Analysen aus sprachdidaktischer Sicht.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojan Bračič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Das vorliegende Buch ist eine didaktisch orientierte texgrammatische Untersu- chung, die anhand eines nach unterschiedlichen Kriterien ausgewählten Korpus die spezifische Anwendung sprachlicher Mittel in zwanzig Textsorten der deutschen Gegenwartssprache analysiert. Dem Vorwort und dem einführenden theoretischen Kapitel mit Angaben zur Konzeption und zum Ansatz der Studie folgen zwanzig Kapitel zu je einer Textsorte. Im abschließenden Kapitel werden linguistische und didaktische Erträge und Perspektiven zusammengefasst. Am Schluss stehen ein repräsentatives Literaturverzeichnis und ein Stichwortregister, das in Kombination mit dem übersichtlich gegliederten Inhaltsverzeichnis die Suche nach einschlägigen Themen erleichtert. Die einzelnen Kapitel weisen einen einheitlichen Aufbau auf. Ausgegangen wird von der Kommunikationssituation und der Textfunktion, um über die Analyse der jeweiligen Textsortenstruktur zu den textsortenspezifischen sprachlichen Merkmalen überzugehen. Angewandt wird eine Top-down-Perspektive, die die Verwendung von spezifischen sprachlichen Mitteln aus ihrer Einbettung in die übergeordneten Kategorien Tätigkeitsbereich und Kommunikationsintention ableitet. Die traditionelle Auffassung von Mündlichkeit und Schriftlichkeit wird außerdem durch die Unterscheidung von medialer und konzeptioneller Mündlichkeit bzw. Schriftlichkeit diffe- renziert („Nähesprache“ und „Distanzsprache“ (17, was in den Analysen als eines der entscheidenden Kriterien für die Beurteilung der Angemessenheit der Sprachverwendung berücksichtigt wird. Dabei wird auch den Kombinationsvarianten Rechnung getragen, die durch neue elektronische Medien entstehen. Eingangs wird bei jeder für die Analyse ausgewählten Textsorte auch angeführt, welche Textsorten als verwandt betrachtet werden können bzw. welche Abgrenzungskriterien dabei gelten (z.B. Arztfragebogen vs. Formular. Es wird auf die funktionale Bündelung von Text- sorten

  5. AusLAMP long period magnetotellurics: progress update and new insights into Victorian geology and mineral prospectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopping, R. G.; Duan, J.; Czarnota, K.; Kemp, T.

    2016-12-01

    It is becoming generally accepted that world-class mineral deposits have a footprint on a scale of the lithosphere. For this reason, Australia has embarked on the Australian Lithospheric Architecture Magnetotelluric Project (AusLAMP) to map the conductivity of the mid to lower crust and the lithospheric mantle. AusLAMP is a collaborative project between Geoscience Australia, State and Territory Geological Surveys and Universities. The project aims to collect long-period magnetotelluric data across the Australian continent on a nominal 0.5x0.5° ( 55x55 km) grid. To date, more than 450 sites have been acquired including all sites for the state of Victoria, two-thirds of sites in South Australia and Tasmania, and approximately 25 stations in Western Australia. Progress is ramping up with acquisition to turn to the state of New South Wales, the remainder of South Australia and also acquisition in northern Australia. To support this increasing acquisition activity, additional instruments have been purchased to add to those already in Australia. 3D inversion results are now available for AusLAMP Victoria. In collaboration with the National Computational Infrastructure (NCI), the 3D ModEM codes were optimised for use on the NCI's supercomputer, speeding up large-scale inversions by an order of magnitude. The results of these inversions indicate anomalously conductive lithospheric mantle associated with the central region of Victoria which contains significant mineral deposits and prospectivity, and also anomalous resistive lithosphere associated with the southern extension of the dynamically supported Australian Alps and the Newer Volcanics Province. Modelled conductivities are also consistent with mantle xenolith data from central Victoria. Within the crust, the dominant trend of the data is along elongate north-eastern corridors of conductive material. These results shed new questions on the geological history of this region and the lithospheric architecture of the

  6. Recycling systems and material flows from the viewpoint of thermal waste treatment; Kreislaufwirtschaft- und Stoffstrombetrachtungen aus Sicht der thermischen Abfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnke, B. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Mast, P.G. [Tauw Umwelt GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Material stream analysis can serve as a basis for decisions on which materials should be kept in circulation, and in what quantity, and which materials it is better to remove from the recycling system and dispose of as waste. Wastes destined for disposal are mostly transferred to waste treatment plants and landfills. The role of thermal treatment as part of the disposal system is to destroy or decompose organic pollutants contained in the waste, concentrate and remove inorganic pollutants, make the heat arising during the treatment process available for use as energy, and make the greatest possible physical use of the treatment residues. The present paper reviews the current regulations for the promotion of recycling and investigates selected material streams and the fate of these materials. In connection with the residue quality of household waste incineration slag as a thermal waste treatment product it also considers the influence of waste management measures on wastes destined for disposal. [Deutsch] Stoffstrombetrachtungen koennen als Grundlage fuer Entscheidungen dienen, welche Stoffe in welchem Umfang im Kreislauf verbleiben oder wieder integriert werden sollten und welche besser als Abfall zur Beseitigung aus dem Kreislaufsystem auszuschleusen sind. Fuer Abfaelle zur Beseitigung wird diese Aufgabe i.d.R. von thermischen Abfallbehandlungsanlagen und Deponien uebernommen. Im Rahmen der Entsorgung kommt der thermischen Behandlung dabei die Aufgabe zu, die im Abfall zur Beseitigung enthaltenen organischen Schadstoffe zu zerstoeren oder abzubauen, anorganische Schadstoffe aufzukonzentrieren und auszuschleusen, die bei dem Behandlungsprozess entstehende Waerme einer weitgehenden Energienutzung zuzufuehren und die Rueckstaende aus der Behandlung so weit wie moeglich stofflich zu verwerten. Nachfolgend sollen insbesondere die Regelungen zur Unterstuetzung der Kreislaufwirtschaft, ausgewaehlte Stofffluesse und der Verbleib dieser Stoffe und Materialien und der

  7. Microbiology of keribo fermentation: an Ethiopian traditional fermented beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abawari, Rashid Abafita

    2013-10-15

    Keribo is an indigenous traditional fermented beverage and is being served on holidays, wedding ceremony and also used as sources of income of many households in Jimma zone. The aim of this study was to document the microbiology of the product and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of LAB. Samples of Keribo were collected from Jimma town and four of its districts. Keribo was fermented in the laboratory following the traditional techniques for microbial succession monitored at 6 h intervals. Finally, dominant LAB was evaluated for their antibiotic susceptibility patterns against eight antibiotics. Samples of Keribo from open markets and households in Jimma zone showed average Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), Aerobic Mesophilic Bacteria (AMB), Aerobic Spore-formers (ASF) and yeasts with mean counts of (log CFU mL(-1)) 2.70 +/- 2.07, 2.34 +/- 2.37, 4.96 +/- 2.80 and 2.01 +/- 0.60, respectively. The mean counts of Enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci and moulds were below detectable levels. The early stage was dominated by AMB and ASF. However, the mean counts of LAB increased exponentially for the first 30 h and remain constant thereafter. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, identified as the most dominant LAB, were found to be susceptible to penicillin G, gentamicin, ampicilin, chloramphenicol, amikacin, bacitracin and norfloxacin but resistant to vancomycin.

  8. Atividade física como discriminador da ausência de hipertensão arterial em homens adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jose Gondim Pitanga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Diversos estudos epidemiológicos demonstram que a atividade física reduz a pressão arterial, porém a quantidade necessária para que estes benefícios sejam alcançados permanece especulativa. Objetivo: Analisar a quantidade (duração e intensidade de atividade física em seus diferentes domínios (trabalho, deslocamento, atividade doméstica e tempo livre como discriminador da ausência de hipertensão arterial em adultos do sexo masculino. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado na cidade de Lauro de Freitas, Bahia, Brasil com amostra constituída por 220 indivíduos do sexo masculino com idade superior a 18 anos. Foram construídas diversas curvas Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC e comparadas às áreas sobre as mesmas entre a quantidade de atividade física em seus diferentes domínios e a ausência de hipertensão arterial. Verificou-se também a sensibilidade e especificidade para a quantidade de atividade física necessária para prevenção de hipertensão arterial. Foi utilizado o intervalo de confiança a 95%. Resultados: Entre os diferentes domínios de atividade física analisados encontrou-se maior significância estatística nas áreas sob a curva ROC para a atividade física no trabalho e no tempo livre. A caminhada não foi boa discriminadora para a ausência de hipertensão arterial em nenhum dos domínios analisados. Observou-se também que 180 min/semana de atividade física moderada, acumulada nos diferentes domínios foi o melhor ponto de corte para discriminar a ausência de hipertensão arterial. Conclusão: A prática da atividade física, principalmente de intensidade moderada, com duração de pelo menos 180 min/semana deve ser sugerida para indivíduos do sexo masculino visando contribuir para a prevenção da hipertensão arterial.

  9. Atividade física como discriminador da ausência de hipertensão arterial em homens adultos

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Jose Gondim Pitanga; Luiz Alberto Bastos de Almeida; Marcela Mota Freitas; Cristiano Penas Seara Pitanga; Carmem Cristina Beck

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: Diversos estudos epidemiológicos demonstram que a atividade física reduz a pressão arterial, porém a quantidade necessária para que estes benefícios sejam alcançados permanece especulativa. Objetivo: Analisar a quantidade (duração e intensidade) de atividade física em seus diferentes domínios (trabalho, deslocamento, atividade doméstica e tempo livre) como discriminador da ausência de hipertensão arterial em adultos do sexo masculino. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado...

  10. Effektivität verschiedener Spültechniken bei der Entfernung von Kalziumhydroxid aus dem Wurzelkanal

    OpenAIRE

    Wießner, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    1.1 Hintergrund und Ziele Eine undichte Wurzelkanalfüllung kann zur bakteriellen Reinfektion und zum Misserfolg der endodontischen Behandlung führen. Eine unvollständige Entfernung der medikamentösen Einlage trägt zur insuffizienten Randständigkeit bei und sollte aus diesem Grund vermieden werden. Es existieren verschiedene Methoden zur Reinigung von Wurzelkanälen. Ziel dieser Studie war es drei Techniken zur Entfernung von Kalziumhydroxid vergleichend zu prüfen und deren Reinigungsleistung z...

  11. Der Tod im Leben. Einige Grundgedanken zu und aus Franz Rosenzweigs der Stern der Erlösung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasser Martin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Franz Rosenzweig gilt als Existenzphilosoph, weil er das Thema des Todes ins Zentrum der Argumentation in seinem philosophisch-theologischen Hauptwerk Der Stern der Erlösung gestellt hat. Die Religion wird dort als der Ort verstanden, an dem der Tod nicht mehr wie im a-religiösen Leben aus dem Leben herausgedrängt werden muss. Wenn Religion Liebe ist, dann ist der Tod so Teil des Lebens wie er Teil der Liebe zwischen zwei Liebenden ist: als bejahter Bestandteil ihres gemeinsamen Lebens. Der Aufsatz versucht diese Argumentation nachzuzeichnen und zu plausibilisieren.

  12. Marine sponges as microbial fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Ute; Usher, Kayley M; Taylor, Michael W

    2006-02-01

    The discovery of phylogenetically complex, yet highly sponge-specific microbial communities in marine sponges, including novel lineages and even candidate phyla, came as a surprise. At the same time, unique research opportunities opened up, because the microorganisms of sponges are in many ways more accessible than those of seawater. Accordingly, we consider sponges as microbial fermenters that provide exciting new avenues in marine microbiology and biotechnology. This review covers recent findings regarding diversity, biogeography and population dynamics of sponge-associated microbiota, and the data are discussed within the larger context of the microbiology of the ocean.

  13. Sensory Properties of Traditionally-Fermented Buttermilk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out to test the hypothesis that the main problems of traditionally-fermented milk products processed in the rural setup are based on variable sensory quality, hygiene and unattractive presentation to consumers. Sensory evaluation scores of 9 samples of traditional fermented buttermilk and control ...

  14. Composition, Acceptability and Efficacy of Fermented and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The main objective was to evaluate the efficacy of fermented and unfermented cereal-based-Oral Rehydration Solution (CB-ORS) for home management of diarrhoea in children. Materials and Methods: Local varieties of white maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oritz sativa) fermented (48h) and unfermented were ...

  15. Replacement Value of fermented millet ( Pennisetum americanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The replacement value of fermented millet for maize in the diets of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings reared in a recirculation system was determined. Five isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain graded levels of fermented millet meal replacing 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of maize and fed to triplicate groups of fingerlings ...

  16. Method for anaerobic fermentation and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for biomass processing, anaerobic fermentation of the processed biomass, and the production biogas. In particular, the invention relates to a system and method for generating biogas from anaerobic fermentation of processed organic material that comprises...

  17. 7122 EFFECT OF FERMENTATION CONTAINERS ON THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARIA

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... effectively eliminating much of the heat-sensitive indigenous micro flora [19]. However, the protein loss was much more in samples fermented banana leaf compared to plastic bowl. This could be as a result of leaching of some proteins into the porous banana leaf. Further decrease as fermentation ...

  18. Physicochemical and textural properties of kombucha fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility of kombucha application cultivated on two different tea types in combination with probiotics for milk fermentation at different temperatures, as well as the physicochemical and textural properties of manufactured fermented milk products were investigated. Combination of probiotic starter culture and kombucha ...

  19. Characterization of antimicrobial activity in Kombucha fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sreeramulu, G.; Zhu, Y.; Knol, W.

    2001-01-01

    Fermented tea drink, Kombucha, can inhibit the growth of Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium. Several metabolites were analyzed every two days during a 14-day Kombucha fermentation. Levels of acetic acid and gluconic acid were found to increase with

  20. Scleroglucan: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant A. Survase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides produced by a variety of microorganisms find multifarious industrial applications in foods, pharmaceutical and other industries as emulsifiers, stabilizers, binders, gelling agents, lubricants, and thickening agents. One such exopolysaccharide is scleroglucan, produced by pure culture fermentation from filamentous fungi of genus Sclerotium. The review discusses the properties, fermentative production, downstream processing and applications of scleroglucan.

  1. Energy balance in solid state fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L.J.A.; Torres, A.; Echevarria, J.; Saura, G. (Instituto Cubano de Investigaciones de los Derivados de la Cana de Azucar (ICIDCA), La Habana (Cuba))

    1991-01-01

    It was applied a macroscopic energy balance to a solid state fermentation process and an electron balance in order to estimate the temperature and the heat evolved in the process. There were employed several equations that describe the development of the system and offer the possibility to design or control such fermentations. (orig.).

  2. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  3. Characteristics of fermentation yeast isolated from traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous honey wine, known locally as ogol, was collected in a village of the Majangir ethnic group in Southwest Ethiopia, and the procedure for ogol fermentation was investigated. A fermentation yeast was first isolated from ogol and identified as being a strain of the genus Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Honey wine made ...

  4. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Prakash Tamang; Dong Hwa Shin; Soo Wan eChae; Su-Jin eJung

    2016-01-01

    Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some...

  5. Fermentation Studies on Roselle ( Hibiscus Sabdariffa ) Calyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of trona on the fermentation of roselle calyces was evaluated. The addition of trona to the calyces raised the initial pH from 3.3 to 5.3. The important microorganisms of roselle calyces fermentation were enumerated, isolated and identified. The fungi isolated consist of one yeast identified as Saccharomyces ...

  6. co-fermentation of kocho with barley

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fermentation scheme was therefore developed for the production of injera with improved protein content in ... of more than one species of lactic acid bacteria has also been reported in the fermentation process of kocho ... cereals, liberation of amino acids, synthesis of certain vitamins and the availability of trace minerals ...

  7. Fermentation optimization and antioxidant activities of mycelia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uwerhiavwe

    2013-03-13

    Mar 13, 2013 ... esculenta mycelia made good use of soybean residues. The optimal media ... volume 10%, temperature 28°C, and fermentation time 56 h. ... seeding media. Soybean residues were used as the base for fermentation medium, with 20 g glucose, 1.5 g MgSO4, 1g KH2PO4 and 1000 ml of water. Soybean ...

  8. Handbook of Indigenous Foods Involving Alkaline Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkar, P.K.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    This book details the basic approaches of alkaline fermentation, provides a brief history, and offers an overview of the subject. The book discusses the diversity of indigenous fermented foods involving an alkaline reaction, as well as the taxonomy, ecology, physiology, and genetics of predominant

  9. Characterization of carbohydrate fractions and fermentation quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of adding fast-sile (FS), previous fermented juice (PFJ), sucrose (S) or fast-sile + sucrose (FS + S) on the fermentation characteristics and carbohydrates fractions of alfalfa silages by the Cornell net carbohydrates and proteins systems (CNCPS). Silages quality were well ...

  10. Solid state fermentation for foods and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional

  11. Physiochemical Properties and Antinutrient Content of Fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Popcorn and groundnut composite flours were fermented using pure strains of Rhizopus nigricans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by solid substrate fermentation method. There was decrease in pH with increase in total titrable acidity in all the samples. The result of the proximate analysis revealed that there was an ...

  12. Naturally fermented ethnic soybean foods of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Tamang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kinema, hawaijar, tungrymbai, bekang, aakhone, and peruyaan are naturally fermented ethnic soybean foods of India; they are popular among the Mongolian-origin races in the Eastern Himalayas. Bacillus subtilis is the dominant functional bacterium in all naturally fermented soybean foods of these regions. Although there is a good demand for ethnic fermented soybean foods among local consumers in north-east India, the production is limited to household level. A ready-to-use pulverized starter culture for kinema production can be introduced to kinema-makers or similar sticky fermented soybean foods of north-east India and adapted to local conditions for additional income generation. Ethnic fermented soybeans are one of the major food resources in the Eastern Himalayas; they supplement inexpensive, high-digested plant protein in the local diet with low fat/cholesterol content and high nutritive value as well as antioxidant and other health-promoting properties.

  13. FERMENTED MILK AS A FUNCTIONAL FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Rogelj

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain foods have been associated with health benefits for many years; fermented milks and yoghurt are typical examples. The health properties of these dairy products were a part of folklore until the concept of probiotics emerged, and the study of fermented milks and yoghurt containing probiotic bacteria has become more systematic. Functional foods have thus developed as a food, or food ingredient, with positive effects on host health and/or well-being beyond their nutritional value, and fermented milk with probiotic bacteria has again become the prominent representative of this new category of food. Milk alone is much more than the sum of its nutrients. It contains an array of bioactivities: modulating digestive and gastrointestinal functions, haemodynamics, controlling probiotic microbial growth, and immunoregulation. When fermented milk is enriched with probiotic bacteria and prebiotics it meets all the requirements of functional food. The possible positive effects of enriched fermented milk on host health will be reviewed.

  14. Yersinia enterocolitica in fermented sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, R.; Janković, V.; Baltić, B.; Ivanović, J.

    2017-09-01

    Different types of food, among them meat, can be the cause of food-borne diseases, and infections are commonly caused by Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica, verotoxic Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. All these bacteria, depending on a number of factors, including animal species, geographical origin, climatic factors, methods of animal breeding and meat production, could cause disease. Here, we summarise results on production of different groups of sausages produced with or without added starter culture, and contaminated with Y.enterocolitica (control sausages were not contaminated). During the ripening, changes in the microbiological status of the fermented sausages and their physical and chemical properties were monitored. For all tests, standard methods were used. In these fermented sausages, the number of Y. enterocolitica decreased during ripening. The number of Y. enterocolitica was statistically significantly lower in sausages with added starter culture on all days of the study Zoonotic pathogens in meat should be controlled through the complete production chain, from the farms to consumers, in order to reduce the probability of disease in humans. However, the necessary controls in the production chain are not the same for all bacteria.

  15. „Unser Thema was die Landskap, eikö“ – ein Erfahrungsbericht aus dem mehrsprachigen Unterrichtsalltag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Jylhä

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Erfahrungsbericht beschreibt aus LehrerInnensicht, wie es ist, Deutsch als Fremdsprache in einer finnischen Gesamtschule zu unterrichten. Dabei sind die ganz unterschiedlichen Sprachlernhintergründe der SchülerInnen (CLIL, Immersion, herkömmlicher Fremdsprachenunterricht zu berücksichtigen; sie werden zu Beginn des Beitrags besprochen. Konkrete Beispiele sollen anschließend zeigen, wie man die Kenntnisse der SchülerInnen aus verschiedenen vorher gelernten Sprachen, ihr Weltwissen und auch ihr lernstrategisches Wissen im Deutschunterricht nutzen kann. Auch wird die Einstellung der SchülerInnen zu den verschiedenen Sprachen besprochen. Die finnischen SchülerInnen empfinden Englisch häufig als leicht und cool, Deutsch dagegen als schwer. Wie man eine solche Einstellung im Unterricht thematisieren kann, wird als letztes diskutiert. This experience report deals with teaching German as a foreign language for students with very diverse language learning backgrounds in a Finnish lower secondary school.  First the pupils’ different language learning backgrounds are described. Then examples are given on how the pupils’ knowledge of the previously learned languages, their world knowledge and their language learning strategies can be included in teaching German. After that, the pupils’ attitudes towards different languages are described. Finnish pupils tend to regard English as easy and cool and German as difficult. How this attitude can be addressed in the classroom, is discussed in the end.

  16. Illuminating Australia's conductivity structure at 0.5x0.5° resolution: AusLAMP progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopping, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Australian Lithospheric Architecture Magnetotelluric Project (AusLAMP) collaborative project is a program designed to deploy long period magnetotelluric (MT) stations across the Australian continent at a nominal resolution of 0.5x0.5° (approximately 50 by 50 km). The program brings together Federal and State government geological surveys with universities to acquire these MT data sites. The aim is to use these data to produce a 3D model of the conductivity of Australia to lithospheric depths. To date, the entire state of Victoria has been imaged, along with a large portion of South Australia, and smaller regions in Queensland and New South Wales. A pool of instruments are used for these data collection tranches, with standards for acquisition parameters, processing and modelling developed to ensure consistent data acquisition. We will provide an update on the program, including current deployments, plus an overview of data collected so far. Finally, we will discuss the future acquisition plans of the AusLAMP project.

  17. Adhesive bonding layer properties - calculated and experimentally determined; Klebschichtkennwerte aus Experiment und Simulation. Simulationsgestuetzter Zugscherversuch mit dicken gestuften Fuegeteilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gegner, J. [SKF Kugellagerfabriken GmbH, Schweinfurt (Germany); Oechsner, A. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Mechanik

    2001-07-01

    In this contribution, important procedures for testing of adhesive bondings are presented. The strain-shear test with thick joined parts represents the basic online test procedure. An optimized test procedure and an extended data evaluation are described. By application of the finite element method an identification procedure has been developed, in order to get adhesive bonding layer properties for modelling of complex components which cannot be determined by such basic procedures. The new tool for materials testing has been applied to a silicon sealing substance for joined parts made of steel and aluminium. (orig.) [German] Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt wichtige Methoden zur Materialpruefung in der Klebtechnik vor: Der Zugscherversuch mit dicken Fuegeteilen bildet das In-situ-Basis-Testverfahren. Es werden die verbesserte Versuchstechnik und die erweiterte Messdatenauswertung beschrieben. Mit Hilfe der Finite-Elemente-Methode wurde ein Identifikationsverfahren entwickelt, um aus diesem einen Grundversuch nicht direkt bestimmbare Klebschichtkennwerte fuer die Modellierung komplexer Bauelemente zu entnehmen. Das neue Werkzeug der Materialpruefung wird auf ein Silikon-Dichtmittel mit Fuegeteilen aus Aluminium beziehungsweise Stahl angewandt. (orig.)

  18. Production of oil and coke from sludges containing organic pollutants; Gewinnung von Oel und Koks aus organisch belasteten Schlaemmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steger, M. [Martin Steger GmbH, Eggenfelden (Germany); Meissner, W.; Herold, R. [Max Aicher Umwelttechnik GmbH, Freilassing (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Since the mid-eighties, Messrs. Max Aicher Umwelttechnik GmbH at Hammerau, Germany have been investigating sewage sludge pyrolysis. Laboratory experiments and semi-industrial investigations led to the construction of a combined sludge drying and conversion plant (``Aicher sludge recycling process``), in which the organic sludge fraction is converted into recyclable or combustible oils. Carbon is obtained as a by-product in solid form as conversion coke which can be utilized. Apart from sewage sludge, also industrial sludges with high organic fractions can be processed, e.g. sludges and sewage sludges from petroleum processing. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der Bundesrepublik Deutschland beschaeftigt sich die Max Aicher Umwelttechnik GmbH in Hammerau seit Mitte der Achtzigerjahre mit der Niedertemperaturkonvertierung (Pyrolyse) von Klaerschlamm. Versuche im Labor- und im halbtechnischen Massstab fuehrten zur Realisierung einer betriebstechnischen Anlage mit den Komponenten Schlammtrocknung und Konvertierung. Ziel des Aicher-Schlamm-Recycling-Verfahrens ist die Umwandlung der organischen Schlammfraktion in stofflich und energetisch verwertbare Oele. Bei der Umwandlung entsteht fixer Kohlenstoff, der im festen Rueckstand (Konversionskoks) angereichert wird. Neben dem gewonnenen Oel ist auch der produzierte Koks verwertbar. Einsatzstoffe fuer das Verfahren sind neben Klaerschlamm aus der kommunalen Abwasserreinigung vor allem industrielle Schlaemme mit hohen organischen Anteilen z.B. Schlaemme und Klaerschlaemme aus der Erdoelverarbeitung. (orig.)

  19. Integratives versus traditionelles Lernen aus Sicht der Studierenden [Integrative vs. Traditional Learning from the Student Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadmon, Guni

    2011-05-01

    CuMed beinhaltet interaktive, fallbasierte Kleingruppenseminare, Fertigkeiten- und Kommunikationstraining, Problem-orientiertes Lernen, studentische Fallbearbeitungen und -präsentationen sowie Unterricht am Krankenbett. Die Dozenten werden didaktisch geschult. Das vorangegangene traditionelle Curriculum basierte dagegen auf Vorlesungen und lediglich zwei Wochenstunden praktischen Unterrichts am Krankenbett. Ziel: Die vorliegende Arbeit analysiert den Beitrag didaktischer Merkmale des traditionellen und Reformcurriculums sowie der aktiven Mitarbeit der Studierenden zum Lernerfolg aus Sicht der Studierenden. Methode: Differenzierte studentische Evaluationen der chirurgischen Lehrveranstaltungen zwischen 1999 and 2008 wurden mittels Korrelations- und Regressionsanalysen untersucht.Ergebnisse: Das Engagement der Dozenten, ihre Fähigkeit, Interesse zu wecken und Kompliziertes verständlich zu erklären, der Beitrag des Unterrichts zum Lernzuwachs, die Unterrichtsqualität und besonders die geförderte Mitarbeit wurden in HeiCuMed signifikant besser bewertet als im traditionellen Curriculum. Die Abhängigkeit des subjektiven Lernzuwachses von der didaktischen Qualität war hingegen in beiden Curricula gleich. Die geförderte studentische Mitarbeit erwies sich als wichtig für den subjektiven Lernzuwachs in den Seminaren und Praktika von HeiCuMed und für die evaluierte Qualität der Praktika aber nicht für den Lernzuwachs im traditionellen Curriculum. Schlussfolgerung: Die Ergebnisse stehen im Einklang mit psychologisch-pädagogischen Erkenntnissen, dass integrative Lehrmethoden mehr zum Lehr- und Lernerfolg beitragen als der passive Wissenstransfer durch die traditionelle Vorlesung, und belegen die wichtige Bedeutung der didaktischen Kompetenz für den Lehrerfolg.

  20. Mathematical modeling of thin-layer drying of fermented and non-fermented sugarcane bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazutti, Marcio A.; Zabot, Giovani; Boni, Gabriela; Skovronski, Aline; de Oliveira, Debora; Di Luccio, Marco; Oliveira, J. Vladimir; Treichel, Helen [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, P.O. Box 743, CEP 99700-000, Erechim - RS (Brazil); Rodrigues, Maria Isabel; Maugeri, Francisco [Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6121, CEP 13083-862, Campinas - SP (Brazil)

    2010-05-15

    This work reports hot-air convective drying of thin-layer fermented and non-fermented sugarcane bagasse. For this purpose, experiments were carried out in a laboratory-scale dryer assessing the effects of solid-state fermentation (SSF) on the drying kinetics of the processing material. The fermented sugarcane bagasse in SSF was obtained with the use of Kluyveromyces marxianus NRRL Y-7571. Drying experiments were carried out at 30, 35, 40 and 45 C, at volumetric air flow rates of 2 and 3 m{sup 3} h{sup -1}. The ability of ten different thin-layer mathematical models was evaluated towards representing the experimental drying profiles obtained. Results showed that the fermented sugarcane bagasse presents a distinct, faster drying, behavior from that verified for the non-fermented material at the same conditions of temperature and volumetric air flow rate. It is shown that the fermented sugarcane bagasse presented effective diffusion coefficient values of about 1.3 times higher than the non-fermented material. A satisfactory agreement between experimental data and model results of the thin-layer drying of fermented and non-fermented sugarcane bagasse was achieved at the evaluated experimental conditions. (author)

  1. Biohydrogen production from soluble condensed molasses fermentation using anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lay, Chyi-How; Lin, Chiu-Yue [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724 (China); Wu, Jou-Hsien; Hsiao, Chin-Lang [Department of Water Resource Engineering, Feng Chia University (China); Chang, Jui-Jen [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University (China); Chen, Chin-Chao [Environmental Resources Laboratory, Department of Landscape Architecture, Chungchou Institute of Technology (China)

    2010-12-15

    Using anaerobic micro-organisms to convert organic waste to produce hydrogen gas gives the benefits of energy recovery and environmental protection. The objective of this study was to develop a biohydrogen production technology from food wastewater focusing on hydrogen production efficiency and micro-flora community at different hydraulic retention times. Soluble condensed molasses fermentation (CMS) was used as the substrate because it is sacchariferous and ideal for hydrogen production. CMS contains nutrient components that are necessary for bacterial growth: microbial protein, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins and coenzymes. The seed sludge was obtained from the waste activated sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant in Central Taiwan. This seed sludge was rich in Clostridium sp. A CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor) lab-scale hydrogen fermentor (working volume, 4.0 L) was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3-24 h with an influent CMS concentration of 40 g COD/L. The results showed that the peak hydrogen production rate of 390 mmol H{sub 2}/L-d occurred at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 320 g COD/L-d at a HRT of 3 h. The peak hydrogen yield was obtained at an OLR of 80 g COD/L-d at a HRT of 12 h. At HRT 8 h, all hydrogenase mRNA detected were from Clostridium acetobutylicum-like and Clostridium pasteurianum-like hydrogen-producing bacteria by RT-PCR analysis. RNA based hydrogenase gene and 16S rRNA gene analysis suggests that Clostridium exists in the fermentative hydrogen-producing system and might be the dominant hydrogen-producing bacteria at tested HRTs (except 3 h). The hydrogen production feedstock from CMS is lower than that of sucrose and starch because CMS is a waste and has zero cost, requiring no added nutrients. Therefore, producing hydrogen from food wastewater is a more commercially feasible bioprocess. (author)

  2. Annual report 1999 of the air pollution monitoring network of the German Federal Environmental Agency; Jahresbericht 1999 aus dem Messnetz des Umweltbundesamtes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beilke, S.; Uhse, K. [comps.

    2000-12-01

    In this annual report the results of the air pollution monitoring network of the German Federal Environmental Agency (FEA) are presented for the year 1999. The network consists of 23 stations (9 stations with personnel and 14 automatically working container stations) which are situated in rural areas. As the data set was thoroughly quality controlled reliable statements on trends can be made. (orig.) [German] Im vorliegenden Jahresbericht werden die Ergebnisse aus dem Messnetz des Umweltbundesamtes fuer das Jahr 1999 vorgestellt, interpretiert und mit den Messungen aus frueheren Jahren verglichen. Das UBA-Messnetz besteht heute aus insgesamt 23 in laendlichen Regionen gelegenen Stationen, wovon 9 Messstellen personell besetzt und 14 automatisch arbeitende Containerstationen sind. Die Datensaetze sind in sich homogen, d.h. es wurden im Verlauf der Jahre keine gravierenden Veraenderungen an den Messbedingungen vorgenommen, weder bei der Probenahme noch bei der Analytik. Die Daten wurden einer eingehenden Qualitaetspruefung unterzogen, sowohl intern als auch bei internationalen Ringvergleichen der Analysenverfahren. (orig.)

  3. Effects of submerged and anaerobic fermentations on cassava flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava tubers for processing into cassava flour, Lafun a Nigerian locally fermented product was subjected to two different types of fermentations: submerged and anaerobic fermentation for 72 h. Physicochemical changes that occurred during fermentation and their influence on the functional, rheological and sensory ...

  4. Prebiotics in piglet nutrition? Fermentation kinetics along the GI tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awati, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: fermentation, gas production, pigletsThe generalized theory behind the carbohydrate to protein fermentation in the GIT is that in presence of fermentable carbohydrate substrate, microbes prefer to ferment carbohydrate source to derive energy and use the nitrogen available for their own

  5. Discovery and History of Amino Acid Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shin-Ichi

    There has been a strong demand in Japan and East Asia for L-glutamic acid as a seasoning since monosodium glutamate was found to present umami taste in 1907. The discovery of glutamate fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum in 1956 enabled abundant and low-cost production of the amino acid, creating a large market. The discovery also prompted researchers to develop fermentative production processes for other L-amino acids, such as lysine. Currently, the amino acid fermentation industry is so huge that more than 5 million metric tons of amino acids are manufactured annually all over the world, and this number continues to grow. Research on amino acid fermentation fostered the notion and skills of metabolic engineering which has been applied for the production of other compounds from renewable resources. The discovery of glutamate fermentation has had revolutionary impacts on both the industry and science. In this chapter, the history and development of glutamate fermentation, including the very early stage of fermentation of other amino acids, are reviewed.

  6. Transcription profiling of sparkling wine second fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penacho, Vanessa; Valero, Eva; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2012-02-01

    There is a specific set of stress factors that yeast cells must overcome under second fermentation conditions, during the production of sparkling wines by the traditional (Champenoise) method. Some of them are the same as those of the primary fermentation of still wines, although perhaps with a different intensity (high ethanol concentration, low pH, nitrogen starvation) while others are more specific to second fermentation (low temperature, CO(2) overpressure). The transcription profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during primary wine fermentation has been studied by several research groups, but this is the first report on yeast transcriptome under second fermentation conditions. Our results indicate that the main pathways affected by these particular conditions are related to aerobic respiration, but genes related to vacuolar and peroxisomal functions were also highlighted in this study. A parallelism between the transcription profile of wine yeast during primary and second fermentation is appreciated, with ethanol appearing as the main factor driving gene transcription during second fermentation. Low temperature seems to also influence yeast transcription profile under these particular winemaking conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbial interactions associated with secondary cucumber fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, W; Pérez-Díaz, I M

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the interaction between selected yeasts and bacteria and associate their metabolic activity with secondary cucumber fermentation. Selected yeast and bacteria, isolated from cucumber secondary fermentations, were inoculated as single and mixed cultures in a cucumber juice model system. Our results confirmed that during storage of fermented cucumbers and in the presence of oxygen, spoilage yeasts are able to grow and utilize the lactic and acetic acids present in the medium, which results in increased brine pH and the chemical reduction in the environment. These conditions favour opportunistic bacteria that continue the degradation of lactic acid. Lactobacillus buchneri, Clostridium bifermentans and Enterobacter cloacae were able to produce acetic, butyric and propionic acids, respectively, when inoculated in the experimental medium at pH 4.6. Yeast and bacteria interactions favoured the survival of Cl. bifermentans and E. cloacae at the acidic pH typical of fermented cucumbers (3.2), but only E. cloacae was able to produce a secondary product. The methodology used in this study confirmed that a complex microbiota is responsible for the changes observed during fermented cucumber secondary fermentation and that certain microbial interactions may be essential for the production of propionic and butyric acids. Understanding the dynamics of the development of secondary cucumber fermentation aids in the identification of strategies to prevent its occurrence and economic losses for the pickling industry. © 2012 No claim to US Government works.

  8. Experiments of biogas production from the solid phase of potato distillery wastes. Versuche zur Biogaserzeugung aus eingedickten Schlempen der Kartoffelbrennerei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albin, A.

    1988-05-03

    In the present study the solid phase of separated potato distillery waste was tested for its suitability for biogas production. It was further investigated whether methanation of this residue could be improved by mixing with fresh or ensiled plant materials. The experiments were conducted in laboratory scale using batch or semicontinuous fermentation methods. For inoculation a continuous precultured enrichment was used, which was adapted to separated distillery waste. Comparison of this inoculant with other bacterial cultures showed, that only the adapted culture allowed an immediate start of the fermentation and led to a steady methane formation and a high methane yield (353 l CH/sub 4//kg VS).

  9. Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  10. Biotechnology of Flavor Generation in Fermented Meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toldrá, Fidel

    Traditionally, meat fermentation was based on the use of natural flora, including the “back-slopping”, or addition of a previous successful fermented sausage. However, these practices gave a great variability in the developed flora and affected the safety and quality of the sausages (Toldrá, 2002; Toldrá & Flores, 2007). The natural flora of fermented meat has been studied for many years (Leistner, 1992; Toldrá, 2006a), and more recently, these micro-organisms have been isolated and biochemically identified through molecular methods applied to extracted DNA and RNA (Cocolin, Manzano, Aggio, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Cocolin, Manzano, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Comi, Urso, Lacumin, Rantsiou, Cattaneo & Cantoni, 2005).

  11. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Jyoti P.; Shin, Dong-Hwa; Jung, Su-Jin; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers. PMID:27199913

  12. Researchers foment better ways to ferment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    Researchers in Australia and the US are experimenting with Zymomonas mobilis, the bacteria strain used to make tequila. It could reduce fermentation times because it can withstand substantially higher temperatures than yeast. MIT is experimenting with Clostridium thermocellum, a bacteria strain which has the ability to hydrolyze cellulose into glucose sugar and simultaneously ferment the glucose to ethanol. Purdue University is working with Rhizopus, used in the fermentation of certain Chinese wines where alcohol content approaches 18%. Other researchers are looking at enzyme-based processes to improve sugar yields from starch and cellulose, and Purdue is making a major effort to cut distillation energy consumption.

  13. Novel strategies for control of fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart; Sin, Gürkan

    Bioprocesses are inherently sensitive to fluctuations in processing conditions and must be tightly regulated to maintain cellular productivity. Industrial fermentations are often difficult to replicate across production sites or between facilities as the small operating differences in the equipment...... of a fermentation. Industrial fermentation processes are typically operated in fed batch mode, which also poses specific challenges for process monitoring and control. This is due to many reasons including non-linear behaviour, and a relatively poor understanding of the system dynamics. It is therefore challenging...

  14. Quality and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee Processed by Some Fermentation Treatments: Temperature, Containers, and Fermentation Agents Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee fermentation is a step of wet processing. In fact, some microorganisms naturally exist on the surface of coffee cherry. Using a starter culture of microorganisms may change equilibrium of microorganism population. Among some safe fermentation agents are present in “ragi tape” (yeast, “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk. A fermentor machine equipped with eating-control and stirrer had been designed, and tested before. Some treatments investigated were fermentation containers (fermentor machine and plastic sacks; fermentation agents (fresh cage-luwakcoffee, “ragi tape”, “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk; temperature of fermentation (room, 30 C, 35 C, and 40 C; and duration of fermentation (6, 12, and 18 hours. The experiment were replicated three times. Wet-coffee parchments were washed and sundried until moisture content reached 12%. The dried parchment was hulled and examined for the bean quality and flavors. The experiment indicated that 40 C fermentation in fermentor machine resulted in higher content of “full sour defect”. Fermentation agents significanly influenced bean size. Temperature treatment significanly influenced bulk density and bean size. The best flavor profile was obtained from fermentation in plastic sack at ambient temperature. Bacteria of fermented milk and “fresh luwak coffee” as fermentation agents resulted up to excellent flavor. Twelve hours fermentation produced best flavor of Arabica coffee compared to 6 and 18 hours. Key words: Arabica coffee, fermentation, flavour, fermentation agents

  15. Antimutagenicity of fermented milk with lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    細野, 明義; Akiyoshi, Hosono; 信州大学大学院農学研究科; Graduate School of Agriculture, Shinshu University

    2002-01-01

    Fermented milk and lactic acid bacteria have been considered to provide potential health benefits to human beings. Milk containing casein has been shown to be highly antimutagenic, and fermentation by lactic acid bacteria produces various hydrolytic peptides which contribute to the high antimutagenicity of fermented milk. The antimutagenic property of fermented milk was dependent on the strains of lactic acid bacteria and the fermentation time. Not only the proteolytic products of casein, but...

  16. International experience with technical and marketing aspects of rational energy use. Lessons to be drawn from examples abroad; Erfahrungen aus dem internationalen Bereich bei Technik- und Marketingaspekten zur rationellen Energienutzung - Lernen aus auslaendischen Fallbeispielen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath-Nagel, S.

    1997-02-01

    Examples from Austria, Switzerland, Sweden, France, the USA and Canada show on account of which different cost, competition and environmental situations certain marketing strategies were chosen. The most successful marketing measures were those that aimed at confidence-based cooperation with the customer. The keys to success with this concept are clear market segmenting, convincing communication with the customer, a comprehensive range of services, and constant effort to maintain and develop customer relations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fallbeispiele aus Oesterreich, Schweiz, Schweden, Frankreich, USA und Kanada veranschaulichen, aufgrund welch unterschiedlicher Kosten-, Wettbewerbs- und Umweltsituationen bestimmte Marketingstrategien gewaehlt wurden. Das beste Ergebnis hatten Marketingmassnahmen, die auf Kooperation durch Schaffung einer Vertrauensbasis mit dem Kunden angelegt waren. Klare Marktsegmentierung, ueberzeugende Kommunikation mit den Kunden, komplette Dienstleistungsangebote sowie nachhaltige Entwicklung und Pflege der Kundenbeziehungen sind dabei die Schluessel zum Erfolg. (orig.)

  17. Survey about the situation of district cooling systems in Austria; Ueberblick ueber die Situation der Kaelteproduktion aus Fernwaerme in Oesterreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wischinka, A.

    1999-07-01

    With a district heat-network supply of appr. 9.500 GWh in the year 1997, the district heat share of the total low temperature potential of Austria amounted to barely 10%. 85% of this falls to the 8 cities with more than 50.000 inhabitants, to include the capital, Vienna. Next to the favourable climatic conditions, also the small district heat share is involved in the cause of an almost disappearingly small cold production from district heat in Austria. Further reasons for the small share of the district cold through district heat are that a large part of the offices and administration buildings, but also hotels, were built during the time of the monarchy, which means the 2nd half of the 19th century. Aside from rather high ceilinged rooms, these objects also have comparatively small window surfaces and thick brick walls with large storage effect, so that cooling becomes only necessary for a few hours in the year or for special occasions. Also the hydraulically generated electricity of over 70% of the yearly quantity of Austria, may be named as a reason. At the time of the snow melting in Austria's mountains, there are days, even weeks, where hydraulic power generation exceeds the demand in Austria and the calorific power plants - even the CHP's run on low power - if at all. (orig.) [German] Mit einer Fernwaerme-Netzeinspeisung von ca. 9.500 GWh hat im Jahre 1997 der Fernwaermeanteil am gesamten Niedertemperaturpotential Oesterreichs nur knapp 10% betragen. Davon entfallen 85% auf die 8 Staedte mit mehr als 50.000 Einwohnern, einschliesslich der Bundeshauptstadt Wien. Neben den guenstigen klimatischen Bedingungen ist also auch der geringe Fernwaermeanteil an den Ursachen einer nahezu verschwindend kleinen Kaelteproduktion aus Fernwaerme in Oesterreich beteiligt. Weitere Gruende fuer den geringen Anteil der Fernkaelte durch Fernwaerme sind, dass ein Grossteil der Buero- und Verwaltungsgebaeude, aber auch der Hotels, noch aus der Zeit der Monarchie, und zwar

  18. FERMENTATION ACTIVITY OF LACTOSE-FERMENTATION YEAST IN WHEY-MALT WORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Greek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main parameters of fermentation of whey-malt wort with the use of different strains of lactose-fermentation yeast was investigated experimentally. According to the findings of investigation of fermentive activity for different types of lactose-fermentation microorganisms in whey-malt wort it was found that the most active spirituous fermentation for all parameters was in wort fermented by microorganisms Zygosaccharomyces lactis 868-K and Saccharomyces lactis 95. High capacity for utilization of malt carbohydrates represented by easily metabolized carbohydrates of malt extract was determined. Also organoleptic analysis of fermented whey drinks derived from the renewed mixtures of dry whey and fermented malt and yeast Zygosaccharomyces lactis 868-K and Saccharomyces lactis 95 was carried out. It was found that the drink fermented with yeast Zygosaccharomyces lactis 868-K had intense refreshing flavor of rye bread with fruit tones. Intensity growth of aromatization for complex of sample with microorganisms Saccharomyces lactis 95, indicating high organoleptic indexes of the drink was observed.

  19. The interactive effect of fungicide residues and yeast assimilable nitrogen on fermentation kinetics and hydrogen sulfide production during cider fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Boudreau, Thomas F; Peck, Gregory M; O'Keefe, Sean F; Stewart, Amanda C

    2016-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND Fungicide residues on fruit may adversely affect yeast during cider fermentation, leading to sluggish or stuck fermentation or the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is an undesirable aroma compound. This phenomenon has been studied in grape fermentation but not in apple fermentation. Low nitrogen availability, which is characteristic of apples, may further exacerbate the effects of fungicides on yeast during fermentation. The present study explored the effects of...

  20. Study on Incentive Price of Fermented Cocoa to Overcome Reluctance of Farmer to Apply Fermentation : Case Study in Jembrana Regency

    OpenAIRE

    Soemarno, Joko; Hariyanti, Yuli; Soeparto, Soetanto Abdoellah; Sophia Hartatri, Diany Faila

    2015-01-01

    Improving cocoa quality through encouraging farmers to do fermentation is one of the ways to increase the added value of cocoa. However, majority ofIndonesian farmers are reluctance to do fermentation. This research aimed to study factors causing farmers reluctant to do fermentation, weight differencebetween fermented and unfermented cocoa, cocoa processing time difference between fermented and unfermented cocoa, quality difference between fermentedand unfermented coco refers to cocoa bean st...

  1. Methane fermentation of regionally accrued wet biomass

    OpenAIRE

    浅野, 憲哉

    2017-01-01

    The methane fermentation of Japanese mushroom ligneous bed waste was conducted for estimate steam explosion as pretreatment. Methane yield was improved to 50-75% by pretreatment of mushroom bed with severity factor 2.1-3.2

  2. Pervaporation of ethanol from lignocellulosic fermentation broth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaykawad, S.S.; Zha, Y.; Punt, P.J.; Groenestijn, J.W. van; Wielen, L.A.M. van der; Straathof, A.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Pervaporation can be applied in ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Hydrophobic pervaporation, using a commercial PDMS membrane, was employed to concentrate the ethanol produced by fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysate. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing this.

  3. Nutraceutical impact of fermented products on human

    OpenAIRE

    KORANDOVÁ, Eliška

    2008-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with nutraceutical impact of fermented products on human immunity, on the state of oxidative stress and on the quality of life. It presents probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics and their expected influence on human health.

  4. [Fermentation transformed ginsenoside by Lactobacillus plantarum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Wang, Yi; Sun, Liang; Wang, Kang-Yu; Jiang, Shi-Cui; Sun, Chun-Yu; Zhang, Mei-Ping

    2014-04-01

    To explore ginseng fermentation process by Lactobacillus plantarum, and to make part of total saponins transformed into more reactive ginsenoside Rd. Microbial fermentation was carried out by still dark culture. Total saponins were extracted by Soxhlet extraction, and determined by UV visible spectrophotometry with colours reaction by vanillin-sulfuric acid. Ginsenoside Rd was determined by HPLC method. The fermentation process was: MRS medium, 35 degrees C, pH 5.0, cultured for 2 days. The content of total saponins was inhance 32%, and the content of ginsenoside Rd was increased 4.864 mg x g(-1). The fermentation system's process was reasonable, and it's suitable for mass production, important significance for ginsenoside microbial transformation.

  5. Phytosynthesized iron nanoparticles: effects on fermentative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Iron nanoparticles; green synthesis; Syzygium cumini; dark fermentation; biohydrogen production; Enterobacter cloacae. ... Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tezpur University, Napaam, Tezpur 784 028, Assam, India; Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Napaam, Tezpur 784 028, ...

  6. Exploiting the potential of gas fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redl, Stephanie Maria Anna; Diender, Martijn; Jensen, Torbjørn Ølshøj

    2017-01-01

    The use of gas fermentation for production of chemicals and fuels with lower environmental impact is a technology that is gaining increasing attention. Over 38 Gt of CO2 is annually being emitted from industrial processes, thereby contributing significantly to the concentration of greenhouse gases...... in the atmosphere. Together with the gasification of biomass and different waste streams, these gases have the potential for being utilized for production of chemicals through fermentation processes. Acetogens are among the most studied organisms capable of utilizing waste gases. Although engineering...... focus on the advantages of alternative fermentation scenarios, including thermophilic production strains, multi-stage fermentations, mixed cultures, as well as mixotrophy. Such processes have the potential to significantly broaden the product portfolio, increase the product concentrations and yields...

  7. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates: Inhibition and detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmqvist, E.

    1998-02-01

    The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds produced during hydrolysis. Evaluation of the effect of various biological, physical and chemical detoxification treatments by fermentation assays using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to characterise inhibitors. Inhibition of fermentation was decreased after removal of the non-volatile compounds, pre-fermentation by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei, treatment with the lignolytic enzyme laccase, extraction with ether, and treatment with alkali. Yeast growth in lignocellulosic hydrolysates was inhibited below a certain fermentation pH, most likely due to high concentrations of undissociated weak acids. The effect of individual compounds were studied in model fermentations. Furfural is reduced to furfuryl alcohol by yeast dehydrogenases, thereby affecting the intracellular redox balance. As a result, acetaldehyde accumulated during furfural reduction, which most likely contributed to inhibition of growth. Acetic acid (10 g 1{sup -1}) and furfural (3 g 1{sup -1}) interacted antagonistically causing decreased specific growth rate, whereas no significant individual or interaction effects were detected by the lignin-derived compound 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2 g 1{sup -1}). By maintaining a high cell mass density in the fermentor, the process was less sensitive to inhibitors affecting growth and to fluctuations in fermentation pH, and in addition the depletion rate of bioconvertible inhibitors was increased. A theoretical ethanol yield and high productivity was obtained in continuous fermentation of spruce hydrolysate when the cell mass concentration was maintained at a high level by applying cell recirculation 164 refs, 16 figs, 5 tabs

  8. Fermentation based carbon nanotube bionic functional composites

    OpenAIRE

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique mechanical and physical properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Based on grape must and bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at r...

  9. Open Innovation neu denken und steuern: Ein Beitrag aus der Perspektive des Innovationsmanagements an der ETH-Bibliothek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Regner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Der Artikel nennt und erläutert Grundlagen und exemplarische Felder, die sich aus Sicht des Innovationsmanagements an der ETH-Bibliothek anbieten, um Open Innovation zu implementieren und etablierte Methoden des Innovationsmanagements zu erweitern. The article outlines basic principles and exemplary fields concerning the implementation of Open Innovation in order to expand established methods in innovation management. The article is based on the perspective of innovation management at ETH-Bibliothek. Cet article esquisse les principes de base ainsi que des exemples de champs d’action permettant la mise en place d’une innovation ouverte (« open innovation ». La perspective se base sur la gestion de l’innovation à la bibliothèque de l’École polytechnique fédérale de Zurich (ETH.

  10. Fermented dairy products: knowledge and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, Sharareh; Koba, Lesia

    2006-01-01

    Much has been published on the nutritional and health benefits of fermented dairy products, especially those containing probiotic microorganisms. However, consumers may not be familiar with the term "fermented dairy products," and therefore may not take full advantage of them. University students' knowledge and consumption patterns of fermented dairy products were assessed. University students (n=223) completed a survey consisting of a section on demographics and another on knowledge and consumption patterns. The majority of respondents (62%) were not familiar with the term "fermented dairy products." Most respondents consumed yogourt a few times a week (40%) or a few times a month (30%). Almost all respondents (92%) were unable to identify the difference between regular and probiotic yogourt. Most respondents (93%) had not heard of acidophilus milk, but the majority (65%) would be willing to try it. Most respondents were unsure whether sour cream (65%), yogourt beverages (74%), and cheddar cheese (61%) were fermented dairy products. Sixty percent of respondents never consumed yogourt drinks. Education is needed about fermented dairy products, especially probiotics, and their nutritional and health benefits. Such education may increase their acceptability and consumption.

  11. Fermented dairy food and CVD risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-04-01

    Fermented dairy foods such as yoghurt and cheese are commonly found in the Mediterranean diet. Recent landmark research has confirmed the effect of the Mediterranean diet on reducing the CVD risk, but the relative contributions of fermented dairy foods have not been fully articulated. The present study provides a review of the relationship between fermented dairy foods consumption and CVD risk in the context of the whole diet. Studies show that people who eat healthier diets may be more likely to consume yoghurt, so there is a challenge in attributing separate effects to yoghurt. Analyses from large population studies list yoghurt as the food most negatively associated with the risk of weight gain (a problem that may lead to CVD). There is some suggestion that fermented dairy foods consumption (yoghurt or cheese) may be associated with reduced inflammatory biomarkers associated with the development of CVD. Dietary trials suggest that cheese may not have the same effect on raising LDL-cholesterol levels as butter with the same saturated fat content. The same might be stated for yoghurt. The use of different probiotic cultures and other aspects of study design remain a problem for research. Nevertheless, population studies from a range of countries have shown that a reduced risk of CVD occurs with the consumption of fermented dairy foods. A combination of evidence is necessary, and more research is always valuable, but indications remain that fermented dairy foods such as cheese and yoghurt are integral to diets that are protective against CVD.

  12. Acetone-butanol Fermentation of Marine Macroalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Urquhart, Lindsay A.; Gill, Gary A.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2012-03-01

    Mannitol and laminarin, which are present at high concentrations in the brown macroalga Saccharina spp., a type of kelp, are potential biochemical feedstocks for butanol production. To test their bioconversion potential, aqueous extracts of the kelp Saccharina spp., mannitol, and glucose (a product of laminarin hydrolysis) were subjected to acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum (ATCC 824). Both mannitol and glucose were readily fermented. Mixed substrate fermentations with glucose and mannitol resulted in diauxic growth of C. acetobutylicum with glucose depletion preceding mannitol utilization. Fermentation of kelp extract exhibited triauxic growth, with an order of utilization of free glucose, mannitol, and bound glucose, presumably laminarin. The lag in laminarin utilization reflected the need for enzymatic hydrolysis of this polysaccharide into fermentable sugars. The butanol and total solvent yields were 0.12 g/g and 0.16 g/g, respectively, indicating that significant improvements are still needed to make industrial-scale acetone-butanol fermentations of seaweed economically feasible.

  13. Nutritional Guidelines and Fermented Food Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Victoria; Ferrão, Jorge; Fernandes, Tito

    2017-08-07

    This review examines different nutritional guidelines, some case studies, and provides insights and discrepancies, in the regulatory framework of Food Safety Management of some of the world's economies. There are thousands of fermented foods and beverages, although the intention was not to review them but check their traditional and cultural value, and if they are still lacking to be classed as a category on different national food guides. For understanding the inconsistencies in claims of concerning fermented foods among various regulatory systems, each legal system should be considered unique. Fermented foods and beverages have long been a part of the human diet, and with further supplementation of probiotic microbes, in some cases, they offer nutritional and health attributes worthy of recommendation of regular consumption. Despite the impact of fermented foods and beverages on gastro-intestinal wellbeing and diseases, their many health benefits or recommended consumption has not been widely translated to global inclusion in world food guidelines. In general, the approach of the legal systems is broadly consistent and their structures may be presented under different formats. African traditional fermented products are briefly mentioned enhancing some recorded adverse effects. Knowing the general benefits of traditional and supplemented fermented foods, they should be a daily item on most national food guides.

  14. Indicadores de estresse salino em abacaxizeiro cultivado na ausência e presença de fitorreguladores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Lima Melo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de NaCl nas fases de multiplicação e enraizamento in vitro do abacaxizeiro cultivar MD Gold. Brotos de abacaxizeiro foram inoculados em meio MS, na ausência e presença dos fitorreguladores ácido naftalenoacético (ANA e 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP e também de diferentes concentrações de NaCl (Controle - 0; 50; 100 e 150 mM. Mensalmente, os brotos foram subcultivados e foram analisados altura média, número de folhas vivas e mortas, taxas de brotação e enraizamento. Durante a multiplicação e na ausência de ANA e BAP, o NaCl provocou significativa redução no crescimento e desenvolvimento de brotos de abacaxizeiro, expresso pela altura e pelo número de folhas, nas doses mais elevadas, contrariamente, na presença dos fitorreguladores. Durante os 60 dias iniciais, ocorreu aumento na produção de folhas. Contudo, aos 90 dias, observou-se decréscimo na média de folhas vivas nos brotos tratados com sal. O cultivo in vitro de abacaxizeiro em presença de sal é mais eficiente na presença de ANA e BAP, garantindo a manutenção do crescimento, aumentando o número de folhas, produzindo novas gemas e acelerando o processo de enraizamento.

  15. Fermentation performance of lager yeast in high gravity beer fermentations with different sugar supplementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hongjie; Xu, Huaide; Feng, Li; Yu, Zhimin; Zhao, Haifeng; Zhao, Mouming

    2016-11-01

    The effects of glucose, sucrose and maltose supplementations on the fermentation performance and stress tolerance of lager yeast (Saccharomyces pastorianus) during high gravity (18°P) and very high gravity (24°P) fermentations were studied. Results showed that throughout 18°P wort fermentation, fermentation performance of lager yeast was significantly improved by glucose or sucrose supplementation, compared with maltose supplementation, especially for sucrose supplementation increasing wort fermentability and ethanol production by 6% and 8%, respectively. However, in the later stage of 24°P wort fermentation, fermentation performance of lager yeast was dramatically improved by maltose supplementation, which increased wort fermentability and ethanol production by 14% and 10%, respectively, compared with sucrose supplementation. Furthermore, higher HSP12 expression level and more intracellular trehalose accumulation in yeast cells were observed by maltose supplementation with increase of the wort gravity from 18°P to 24°P, indicating higher stress response of yeast cells. The excretion of Gly and Ala, and the absorption of Pro in the later stage of fermentation were promoted by maltose supplementation. In addition, with increase of the wort gravity from 18°P to 24°P, higher alcohols level was decreased with maltose supplementation, while esters formation was increased significantly with glucose supplementation. This study suggested that the choice of optimal fermentable sugars maintaining better fermentation performance of lager yeast should be based on not only strain specificity, but also wort gravity. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Amsterdam Expeditions to the West Indian Islands, Report 3. Eine neue Gattung der Familie Parabathynellidae (Bathynellacea, Syncarida) aus dem nördlichen Südamerika

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmincke, Horst Kurt

    1979-01-01

    Eine neue Gattung und Art der Familie Parabathynellidae, Psalidobathynella stocki gen. n., sp. n., wird beschrieben. Die Tiere stammen aus einer Quelle und einem Brunnen von der Halbinsel Paraguana in Venezuela. Es handelt sich um sehr urtümliche Parabathynellidae. Da Männchen bisher nicht bekannt

  17. [Anja Wilhelmi, Menschenbilder aus Reval und St. Peterburg. Reiseeindrücke einer Engländerin um 1840] / Paul Kaegbein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaegbein, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Arvustus: Anja Wilhelmi, Menschenbilder aus Reval und St. Peterburg. Reiseeindrücke einer Engländerin um 1840. In: Kollektivität und Individualität. Hamburg: Kovaè, 2001. S. 224-242. Elizabeth Rigby 1840. aastal Londonis anonüümselt ilmunud raamatust "Letters from the shores of the Baltic"

  18. The Au-S bond and SAM-protein contact in long-range electron transfer of pure and biomimetic metalloproteins via functionalized alkanethiol linkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Qijin; Ford, Michael J.; Halder, Arnab

    is exceedingly sensitive to the structure of the thiol-based SAM molecules, testifying to the crucial importance of SAM packing and Au-S binding, and of the SAM link to the protein. Some of the subtleties are illustrated simpler by similar size (5-6 nm) nanoparticles (NPs). Biomimetic NPs must possess a certain...

  19. Coffee fermentation and flavor--An intricate and delicate relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2015-10-15

    The relationship between coffee fermentation and coffee aroma is intricate and delicate at which the coffee aroma profile is easily impacted by the fermentation process during coffee processing. However, as the fermentation process in coffee processing is conducted mainly for mucilage removal, its impacts on coffee aroma profile are usually neglected. Therefore, this review serves to summarize the available literature on the impacts of fermentation in coffee processing on coffee aroma as well as other unconventional avenues where fermentation is employed for coffee aroma modulation. Studies have noted that proper control over the fermentation process imparts desirable attributes and prevents undesirable fermentation which generates off-flavors. Other unconventional avenues in which fermentation is employed for aroma modulation include digestive bioprocessing and the fermentation of coffee extracts and green coffee beans. The latter is an area that should be explored further with appropriate microorganisms given its potential for coffee aroma modulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Improved fermentation performance in an expanded ectopic fermentation system inoculated with thermophilic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Zhu, Changxiong; Geng, Bing; Liu, Xue; Ye, Jing; Tian, Yunlong; Peng, Xiawei

    2015-12-01

    Previous research showed that ectopic fermentation system (EFS) inoculated with thermophilic bacteria is an excellent alternative for cow wastewater treatment. In this study, the effects of thermophilic bacterial consortium on the efficiency and quality of the fermentation process in EFS were evaluated by measuring physicochemical and environmental factors and the changes in organic matter composition. In parallel, the microbial communities correlated with fermentation performance were identified. Inoculation of EFS with thermophilic bacterial consortium led to higher temperatures, increased wastewater requirements for continuous fermentation, and improved quality of the litters in terms of physicochemical factors, security test, functional group analysis, and bacterial community composition. The relationship between the transformation of organic component and the dominant bacteria species indicated that environmental factors contributed to strain growth, which subsequently promoted the fermentation process. The results highlight the great potential of EFS model for wide application in cow wastewater treatment and re-utilization as bio-fertilizer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Importance of lactic acid bacteria in Asian fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Sook Jong; Lee, Jang-Eun; Lee, Cherl-Ho

    2011-08-30

    Lactic acid bacteria play important roles in various fermented foods in Asia. Besides being the main component in kimchi and other fermented foods, they are used to preserve edible food materials through fermentation of other raw-materials such as rice wine/beer, rice cakes, and fish by producing organic acids to control putrefactive microorganisms and pathogens. These bacteria also provide a selective environment favoring fermentative microorganisms and produce desirable flavors in various fermented foods. This paper discusses the role of lactic acid bacteria in various non-dairy fermented food products in Asia and their nutritional and physiological functions in the Asian diet.

  2. Relationship between fermentation index and other biochemical changes evaluated during the fermentation of Mexican cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Cortes, Teresa; Salgado-Cervantes, Marco Antonio; García-Alamilla, Pedro; García-Alvarado, Miguel Angel; Rodríguez-Jimenes, Guadalupe del C; Hidalgo-Morales, Madeleine; Robles-Olvera, Víctor

    2013-08-15

    During traditional cocoa processing, the end of fermentation is empirically determined by the workers; consequently, a high variability on the quality of fermented cocoa beans is observed. Some physicochemical properties (such as fermentation index) have been used to measure the degree of fermentation and changes in quality, but only after the fermentation process has concluded, using dried cocoa beans. This would suggest that it is necessary to establish a relationship between the chemical changes inside the cocoa bean and the fermentation conditions during the fermentation in order to standardize the process. Cocoa beans were traditionally fermented inside wooden boxes, sampled every 24 h and analyzed to evaluate fermentation changes in complete bean, cotyledon and dried beans. The value of the fermentation index suggested as the minimal adequate (≥1) was observed at 72 h in all bean parts analyzed. At this time, values of pH, spectral absorption, total protein hydrolysis and vicilin-class globulins of fermented beans suggested that they were well fermented. Since no difference was found between the types of samples, the pH value could be used as a first indicator of the end of the fermentation and confirmed by evaluation of the fermentation index using undried samples, during the process. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Hybridization of halotolerant yeast for alcohol fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limtong, S.

    1991-01-01

    Attempt have been made to construct a new yeast strain from alcohol fermenting strains and salt tolerant strains. It is anticipated that the new yeast strain will be able to ferment alcohol in molasses mash with high salinity, up to 3% of NaCl. Another characteristics is its ability to tolerate up to 40 C temperature which is desirable for alcohol fermentation in tropical countries. Commercial and wild strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were screened for their fermenting ability and strain SC90, 191 TJ3, and AM12 were selected as parental strains for fusion among themselves and with other halo tolerant species. Halo tolerant strains selected at 5% NaCl in molasses mash were tentatively identified as Torulopsis grabrata, T. candida, T. Bovina and S. Rouxii whereas all of those strains selected at 17% NaCl were Citeromyces sp. It was found that fusant TA73 derived from wild strain and sake fermenting strain performed best among 4,087 fusants investigated. This fusant fermented much better than their parental strains when salt concentrations were increased to 5 and 7% NaCl. Experiment was carried out in fermentor, 1.5 liter working volume using molasses mash with 3% NaCl and temperature was controlled at 35 degree C. Fermentation rate of TA73, TJ3 and AM12 were 2.17, 1.50 and 1.87 g/L/hr respectively, Maximum ethanol concentration obtained were 7.6, 6.7 and 7.4% by weight after 60 and 78 hours respectively. Other fusants derived from fusion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with other halo tolerant species were mostly inferior to their parental strains and only 7 fusants were slightly better than parental strains. (author)

  4. Defective quiescence entry promotes the fermentation performance of bottom-fermenting brewer's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomuro, Mayu; Kato, Taku; Zhou, Yan; Watanabe, Daisuke; Motoyama, Yasuo; Yamagishi, Hiromi; Akao, Takeshi; Aizawa, Masayuki

    2016-11-01

    One of the key processes in making beer is fermentation. In the fermentation process, brewer's yeast plays an essential role in both the production of ethanol and the flavor profile of beer. Therefore, the mechanism of ethanol fermentation by of brewer's yeast is attracting much attention. The high ethanol productivity of sake yeast has provided a good basis from which to investigate the factors that regulate the fermentation rates of brewer's yeast. Recent studies found that the elevated fermentation rate of sake Saccharomyces cerevisiae species is closely related to a defective transition from vegetative growth to the quiescent (G 0 ) state. In the present study, to clarify the relationship between the fermentation rate of brewer's yeast and entry into G 0 , we constructed two types of mutant of the bottom-fermenting brewer's yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus Weihenstephan 34/70: a RIM15 gene disruptant that was defective in entry into G 0 ; and a CLN3ΔPEST mutant, in which the G 1 cyclin Cln3p accumulated at high levels. Both strains exhibited higher fermentation rates under high-maltose medium or high-gravity wort conditions (20° Plato) as compared with the wild-type strain. Furthermore, G 1 arrest and/or G 0 entry were defective in both the RIM15 disruptant and the CLN3ΔPEST mutant as compared with the wild-type strain. Taken together, these results indicate that regulation of the G 0 /G 1 transition might govern the fermentation rate of bottom-fermenting brewer's yeast in high-gravity wort. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Xylose fermentation to ethanol. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J D

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  6. Understanding Kombucha Tea Fermentation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Soto, Silvia Alejandra; Beaufort, Sandra; Bouajila, Jalloul; Souchard, Jean-Pierre; Taillandier, Patricia

    2018-03-01

    Kombucha is a beverage of probable Manchurian origins obtained from fermented tea by a microbial consortium composed of several bacteria and yeasts. This mixed consortium forms a powerful symbiosis capable of inhibiting the growth of potentially contaminating bacteria. The fermentation process also leads to the formation of a polymeric cellulose pellicle due to the activity of certain strains of Acetobacter sp. The tea fermentation process by the microbial consortium was able to show an increase in certain biological activities which have been already studied; however, little information is available on the characterization of its active components and their evolution during fermentation. Studies have also reported that the use of infusions from other plants may be a promising alternative. Kombucha is a traditional fermented tea whose consumption has increased in the recent years due to its multiple functional properties such as anti-inflammatory potential and antioxidant activity. The microbiological composition of this beverage is quite complex and still more research is needed in order to fully understand its behavior. This study comprises the chemical and microbiological composition of the tea and the main factors that may affect its production. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Deterioration and fermentability of energy cane juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Ceccato-Antonini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The main interest in the energy cane is the bioenergy production from the bagasse. The juice obtained after the cane milling may constitute a feedstock for the first-generation ethanol units; however, little attention has been dedicated to this issue. In order to verify the feasibility of the energy cane juice as substrate for ethanol production, the objectives of this research were first to determine the microbiological characteristics and deterioration along the time of the juices from two clones of energy cane (Type I and second, their fermentability as feedstock for utilization in ethanol distilleries. There was a clear differentiation in the bacterial and yeast development of the sugarcane juices assayed, being much faster in the energy canes than in sugarcane. The storage of juice for 8 hours at 30oC did not cause impact in alcoholic fermentation for any sample analyzed, although a significant bacterial growth was detected in this period. A decrease of approximately seven percentage points in the fermentative efficiency was observed for energy cane juice in relation to sugarcane in a 24-hour fermentation cycle with the baking yeast. Despite the faster deterioration, the present research demonstrated that the energy cane juice has potential to be used as feedstock in ethanol-producing industries. As far as we know, it is the first research to deal with the characteristics of deterioration and fermentability of energy cane juices.

  8. One hundred years of clostridial butanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyeon Gi; Jang, Yu-Sin; Cho, Changhee; Lee, Joungmin; Binkley, Robert; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-02-01

    Butanol has been widely used as an important industrial solvent and feedstock for chemical production. Also, its superior fuel properties compared with ethanol make butanol a good substitute for gasoline. Butanol can be efficiently produced by the genus Clostridium through the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, one of the oldest industrial fermentation processes. Butanol production via industrial fermentation has recently gained renewed interests as a potential solution to increasing pressure of climate change and environmental problems by moving away from fossil fuel consumption and moving toward renewable raw materials. Great advances over the last 100 years are now reviving interest in bio-based butanol production. However, several challenges to industrial production of butanol still need to be overcome, such as overall cost competitiveness and development of higher performance strains with greater butanol tolerance. This minireview revisits the past 100 years of remarkable achievements made in fermentation technologies, product recovery processes, and strain development in clostridial butanol fermentation through overcoming major technical hurdles. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Quality and Composition of Red Wine Fermented with Schizosaccharomyces pombe as Sole Fermentative Yeast, and in Mixed and Sequential Fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Palomero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the physiology of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (represented by strain 938 in the production of red wine, as the sole fermentative yeast, and in mixed and sequential fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae 796. For further comparison, fermentations in which Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the sole fermentative yeast were also performed; in these fermentations a commercial lactic acid bacterium was used to perform malolactic fermentation once alcoholic fermentation was complete (unlike S. cerevisiae, the Sc. pombe performs maloalcoholic fermentation and therefore removes malic acid without such help. Relative density, acetic, malic and pyruvic acid concentrations, primary amino nitrogen and urea concentrations, and pH of the musts were measured over the entire fermentation period. In all fermentations in which Sc. pombe 938 was involved, nearly all the malic acid was consumed from an initial concentration of 5.5 g/L, and moderate acetic acid concentrations below 0.4 g/L were formed. The urea content of these wines was notably lower, showing a tenfold reduction when compared with those that were made with S. cerevisiae 796 alone. The sensorial properties of the different final wines varied widely. The wines fermented with Sc. pombe 938 had maximum aroma intensity and quality, and they were preferred by the tasters.

  10. Biogas production from beta beets dependent on the type; Art- und sortenabhaengige Biogasproduktion aus Beta-Rueben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettcher, Robert [Hochschule Wismar, Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany). Business and Design; Stollberg, Christian; Gerath, Horst; Kanswohl, Norbert

    2012-07-01

    Fodder and sugar beet silage as mono-substrate has been studied for their fermentation behaviour in semi-continuous biogas tests according to VDI guideline 4630. Especially the methane formation potential and the maximum loading rate of different beet varieties are in the focus of investigations. It has been shown that sugar beet silage can be used with a lower loading rate in the biogas digester as fodder beet silage. Here, the methane yields of sugar beet silages tend to be higher than the methane yields of the investigated fodder beet silage. The methane yields of the individual beet silage are not depending on the dry matter content of the investigated beets. In the co-fermentation of corn silage and beet silage, the proportion of beet silage at the dry matter content of the feed is crucial for a stable fermentation process. Furthermore sugar beet silage has economic advantages compared to silage from fodder beets due to a higher methane production potential. The deployment costs of sugar beet silage are significantly depending on the variety and choice of silage method and lie at the level of corn silage. In case of a digestion of the beet variety Mosaik as silage the deployment might be underneath the deployment costs of corn silage. (orig.)

  11. Evaluiertes Training von Führungskompetenzen in der medizinischen Aus- und Weiterbildung [Training of Leadership Skills in Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer, Martin R.

    2013-11-01

    Zusammenarbeit in Teams ist eine wichtige Voraussetzung für qualitativ hochwertige Versorgung im Gesundheitswesen. In diesem Zusammenhang spielen auch Führungskompetenzen von Ärztinnen und Ärzten im klinischen Alltag eine wichtige Rolle. Bisher wurde die Entwicklung von Führungskompetenzen in medizinischen Curricula in der Aus- und Weiterbildung von Ärztinnen und Ärzten jedoch kaum systematisch abgebildet. Die Entwicklung adäquater und effektiver Trainingsmethoden für die Vermittlung von Führungskompetenzen ist daher wünschenswert. Ziel: Das Review soll vorliegende Ergebnisse der Literatur zu Trainings von Führungskompetenzen in der Medizin zusammenfassen und integrieren, um zukünftige Forschung und Trainingsentwicklung anzuregen. Methode: Die Datenbanken PubMED, ERIC, PsycArticles, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX und dem Academic search complete durch EBSCOhost wurden auf Deutsch und Englisch nach Trainings von Führungskompetenzen in der Medizin durchsucht. Relevante Artikel wurden identifiziert und die Studienergebnisse hinsichtlich des zugrundeliegenden Führungsverständnisses, der Zielgruppe und Teilnehmeranzahl, der zeitlichen Ressourcen, sowie der Inhalte und Methoden des Trainings, des Evaluationsdesigns und der berichteten Trainingseffekte zusammengefasst. Ergebnisse: Auf acht Studien trafen alle Einschluss- und kein Ausschlusskriterium zu. Die Trainings selbst sowie die thematisierten Führungskompetenzen differenzieren jedoch stark voneinander. Die Trainingsdesigns beinhalten im Schwerpunkt die theoretische Auseinandersetzung mit dem Thema Führung sowie die Diskussion von Fallstudien aus der Praxis. Die Dauer der Trainings reicht von mehrstündigen bis hin zu mehrjährigen Veranstaltungen. Die selbst eingeschätzte Reaktion der Teilnehmer auf alle Trainings war positiv; es fand jedoch bisher keine systematische Überprüfung des Trainingserfolgs in Bezug auf konkrete Verhaltensänderungen der Teilnehmer statt.Schlussfolgerungen: Es bedarf weiterer Forschung, um die

  12. EFFECT OF FERMENTED CACAO POD SUPPLEMENTATION ON SHEEP RUMEN MICROBIAL FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wulandari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to improve beneficial value of cacao pod as sheep feedingredients comprising up to 50% total feed. This research was conducted in two stages. Stage 1 wascacao pod fermentation. Completely randomized design with 3x3 factorial patterns was used in thisstage, in which factor I was microbial inoculum dosage of 0%, 0.05% and 0.1% and factor II wasincubation period of 0, 3 and 6 days. Result demonstrated that six-day fermentation with 0.05%microbial inoculum could lower cacao NDF, ADF and theobromine. The optimum inoculum dosage andfermentation time from stage 1 was applied to stage 2. Stage 2 was rumen microbial fermentation test.This research administrated 3x3 of latin square design. In period I sheep were fed with CF0 (nonfermentedcomplete feed, in period II sheep were given CF 1 (complete feed containing fermentedcacao pod and in period III sheep were given CF2 (fermented complete feed based cacao pod. Resultdemonstrated that pH value of sheep microbial liquid in treatment of CF0, CF1 and CF2 was in normalpH range and did not affect volatile fatty acids (VFA and ammonia. In conclusion, supplementing up to 50% of feed with complete feed containing fermented or non-fermented cacao pod did not affect theprocess of rumen microbial fermentation.

  13. A review on traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages: microbiota, fermentation process and quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Filiz; Karbancıoglu-Güler, Funda; Daskaya-Dikmen, Ceren; Heperkan, Dilek

    2013-10-01

    Shalgam juice, hardaliye, boza, ayran (yoghurt drink) and kefir are the most known traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages. The first three are obtained from vegetables, fruits and cereals, and the last two ones are made of milk. Shalgam juice, hardaliye and ayran are produced by lactic acid fermentation. Their microbiota is mainly composed of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei in shalgam fermentation and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei and Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum in hardaliye fermentation are predominant. Ayran is traditionally prepared by mixing yoghurt with water and salt. Yoghurt starter cultures are used in industrial ayran production. On the other hand, both alcohol and lactic acid fermentation occur in boza and kefir. Boza is prepared by using a mixture of maize, wheat and rice or their flours and water. Generally previously produced boza or sourdough/yoghurt are used as starter culture which is rich in Lactobacillus spp. and yeasts. Kefir is prepared by inoculation of raw milk with kefir grains which consists of different species of yeasts, LAB, acetic acid bacteria in a protein and polysaccharide matrix. The microbiota of boza and kefir is affected from raw materials, the origin and the production methods. In this review, physicochemical properties, manufacturing technologies, microbiota and shelf life and spoilage of traditional fermented beverages were summarized along with how fermentation conditions could affect rheological properties of end product which are important during processing and storage. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Challenges in industrial fermentation technology research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Nørregaard, Anders; Bolic, Andrijana

    2014-01-01

    Industrial fermentation processes are increasingly popular, and are considered an important technological asset for reducing our dependence on chemicals and products produced from fossil fuels. However, despite their increasing popularity, fermentation processes have not yet reached the same...... engineering challenges: scaling up and scaling down fermentation processes, the influence of morphology on broth rheology and mass transfer, and establishing novel sensors to measure and control insightful process parameters. The greatest emphasis is on the challenges posed by filamentous fungi, because...... of their wide applications as cell factories and therefore their relevance in a White Biotechnology context. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is introduced as a promising tool that can be used to support the scaling up and scaling down of bioreactors, and for studying mixing and the potential occurrence...

  15. Microbiota in fermented feed and swine gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Shi, Changyou; Zhang, Yu; Song, Deguang; Lu, Zeqing; Wang, Yizhen

    2018-04-01

    Development of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) used in swine production requires a better understanding of their impacts on the gut microbiota. Supplementing fermented feed (FF) in swine diets as a novel nutritional strategy to reduce the use of AGP and feed price, can positively affect the porcine gut microbiota, thereby improving pig productivities. Previous studies have noted the potential effects of FF on the shift in benefit of the swine microbiota in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The positive influences of FF on swine gut microbiota may be due to the beneficial effects of both pre- and probiotics. Necessarily, some methods should be adopted to properly ferment and evaluate the feed and avoid undesired problems. In this mini-review, we mainly discuss the microbiota in both fermented feed and swine gut and how FF influences swine gut microbiota.

  16. Improvement of tea leaves fermentation through pectinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Jagriti; Gupta, Reena

    2012-09-01

    The pectinase enzymes isolated from Aspergillus niger, Byssochlamys fulva and Mucor circinelloides were used for fermentation of tea leaves from Camellia sinensis plant. The use of partially purified enzymes from Aspergillus niger and Mucor circinelloides resulted in significant (p < 0.001) increase in the phenolic compounds, hence, improvement in tea quality. Maximum increase in phenolic compounds was found in tea leaves treated with partially purified polygalacturonase (PGase) from Mucor circinelloides. Hence, purified polygalacturonase from Mucor circinelloides was used to study its effect on the improvement of tea leaves fermentation. The partially purified polygalacturonase from Mucor circinelloides was found to be most effective in tea fermentation, whereas pectin lyase from Byssochlamys fulva had little role in improvement of tea quality.

  17. Yeast interactions in inoculated wine fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio eCiani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of selected starter culture is widely diffused in winemaking. In pure fermentation, the ability of inoculated Saccharomyces cerevisiae to suppress the wild microflora is one of the most important feature determining the starter ability to dominate the process. Since the wine is the result of the interaction of several yeast species and strains, many studies are available on the effect of mixed cultures on the final wine quality. In mixed fermentation the interactions between the different yeasts composing the starter culture can led the stability of the final product and the analytical and aromatic profile. In the present review, we will discuss the recent developments regarding yeast interactions in pure and in mixed fermentation, focusing on the influence of interactions on growth and dominance in the process.

  18. Enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Kristensen, Jan Bach; Felby, Claus

    2007-01-01

    into fermentable sugars requires a number of different cellulases and hemicellulases. The hydrolysis of cellulose is a sequential breakdown of the linear glucose chains, whereas hemicellulases must be capable of hydrolysing branched chains containing different sugars and functional groups. The technology......The economic dependency on fossil fuels and the resulting effects on climate and environment have put tremendous focus on utilizing fermentable sugars from lignocellulose, the largest known renewable carbohydrate source. The fermentable sugars in lignocellulose are derived from cellulose...... for pretreatment and hydrolysis has been developed to an extent that is close to a commercially viable level. It has become possible to process lignocellulose at high substrate levels and the enzyme performance has been improved. Also the cost of enzymes has been reduced. Still a number of technical and scientific...

  19. Antimutagenicity of milk fermented by Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belicová, A; Krajcovic, J; Dobias, J; Ebringer, L

    1999-01-01

    The diethyl ether extracts isolated from unfermented milk and milk fermented by Enterococcus faecium exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of mutagenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), nitrovin (NIT), 5-nitro-2-furylacrylic acid (NFA) and UV-irradiation on the Ames bacterial test (Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97 and TA100) and the unicellular flagellate Euglena gracilis. Overall, the fermented milk extract was the most active against UV-irradiation, less active against NIT and MNNG, and the least active against NFA on bacteria. The highest antibleaching effects were observed against MNNG. The differences between antimutagenic effects from fermented and unfermented milk extracts were determined to be statistically significant at the 0.95 CI level.

  20. Novel strategies for control of fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa

    to highly optimised industrial host strains. The focus of this project is instead on en-gineering of the process. The question to be answered in this thesis is, given a highly optimised industrial host strain, how can we operate the fermentation process in order to maximise the productivity of the system...... (2012). This model describes the fungal processes operated in the fermentation pilot plant at Novozymes A/S. This model is investigated using uncertainty analysis methods in order to as-sess the applicability to control applications. A mechanistic model approach is desirable, as it is a predictive....... This provides a prediction of the future trajectory of the process, so that it is possible to guide the system to the desired target mass. The control strategy is applied on-line at 550L scale in the Novozymes A/S fermentation pilot plant, and the method is challenged with four different sets of process...

  1. Effects of Fermented Milk Products on Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, René; Biver, Emmanuel

    2018-04-01

    Fermented milk products like yogurt or soft cheese provide calcium, phosphorus, and protein. All these nutrients influence bone growth and bone loss. In addition, fermented milk products may contain prebiotics like inulin which may be added to yogurt, and provide probiotics which are capable of modifying intestinal calcium absorption and/or bone metabolism. On the other hand, yogurt consumption may ensure a more regular ingestion of milk products and higher compliance, because of various flavors and sweetness. Bone mass accrual, bone homeostasis, and attenuation of sex hormone deficiency-induced bone loss seem to benefit from calcium, protein, pre-, or probiotics ingestion, which may modify gut microbiota composition and metabolism. Fermented milk products might also represent a marker of lifestyle promoting healthy bone health.

  2. Ausência de veia cava inferior: relato de caso Absence of the inferior vena cava: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Correia Alves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A ausência congênita de veia cava inferior é achado incomum e ocasional durante exames complementares ou cirurgias do abdome. Em razão de a maioria dos pacientes sem outras malformações serem assintomáticos, há dificuldade em estimar a prevalência dessas anomalias. O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar o caso de um paciente de 28 anos, sexo masculino, referido para radiografia de tórax devido a quadro de febre alta (39ºC não-responsiva à medicação. Radiografia de tórax sugeriu dilatação de veia ázigos. Em inquérito dirigido para sintomas cardiovasculares, referiu dor torácica (durante atividade física e em repouso e dispneia ocasionais durante o sono associada ao período em que intensificou a prática de exercícios. Realizada tomografia computadorizada sem contraste e, posteriormente, contrastada. As mesmas não esclareceram o caso, fazendo-se necessário angiotomografia, a qual evidenciou ausência de veia cava inferior torácica.The congenital absence of the inferior vena cava is a rare and occasional finding at complementary exams or abdominal surgeries. As the majority of patients without other malformations are asymptomatic, it is hard to estimate the prevalence of these anomalies. Our goal was to report a case of a 28-year-old patient, male, referred to thorax X-ray due to high fever state (39ºC, nonresponder to medication. The X-ray suggested azygos vein dilatation. The interview about cardiovascular symptoms revealed thoracic pain during both physical exercises and at rest, and occasional dyspnea during sleep related to the period of intensification of physical exercises. Computadorized tomography with and without contrast did not solve the case, what explain the request of an angiotomography, that showed absence of thoracic inferior vena cava.

  3. Evolving electrical SCLM models of the Australian continent - results of the South Australia AusLAMP deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K. E.; Thiel, S.; Heinson, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Australian Lithospheric Architecture Magnetotelluric Project (AusLAMP) is an Australian initiative to map the Australian continental lithosphere using magnetotelluric (MT) stations to obtain a resistivity model of the subsurface. It is a joint project between Geoscience Australia, state surveys, and Universities. We present new MT 3D inversion results of the largest coherent array of the AusLAMP MT deployments to date covering two-thirds of South Australia, funded largely by the Geological Survey of South Australia with additional funding by Geoscience Australia and The University of Adelaide. The model extends across the South Australian Gawler Craton, including the Eucla Basin to the west of the craton and the Flinders Ranges and Curnamona Province to the east. The MT array covers parts of the Australian lithosphere, which has been largely unexplored with seismic tomography methods and provide a unique insight into the tectonic evolution of the continent. We incorporate 284 long-period (10s-10,000s) MT stations separated roughly every half degree latitude and longitude across an area spanning 1200 km x 800 km, south of latitude -28.5 degrees and from longitude 129 degrees to 141 degrees. We invert 24 discrete periods of the impedance tenor between 7 s and 13,000 s, and 22 different periods of the tipper data between 7s-8000 s period. The results show a heterogeneous lower crust and mantle lithosphere with a primarily resistive mantle (>1000 Ωm) lithosphere in the central and western part of the Gawler Craton and Eucla Domain. The model shows a generally NS oriented electric LAB offset from deeper cratonic lithosphere in the west to a shallow lithosphere along the eastern margin of the Gawler Craton extending further east towards the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic eastern part of Australia. The lower crust is generally resistive with elongated lower crustal conductivity anomalies, which are associated with major translithospheric shear zones likely existent

  4. Influence of aeration in the fermentative activity of Kloeckera apiculata during fermentation of apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estela Escalante, Waldir D; Rychtera, Mojmir; Melzoch, Karel; Guerrero Ochoa, Manuel R

    2012-01-01

    The influence of aeration on the fermentative activity of Kloeckera apiculata RIVE 9-2-1 was studied in order to evaluate the production of metabolites of the fermentation. To achieve this, the strain was cultured in Erlenmeyer flasks containing sterilized and aroma removed apple juice, and the chemical compounds produced during fermentation in shaken (200 min-1) and static (without agitation) cultivation were determined. The results showed that the agitation of the culture medium increases production of higher alcohols (till 591.0 mg/L) compared to static cultivation, whereas on the contrary, the production of acetic acid, ethyl acetate and glycerol (260.0 ± 11.0 mg/L, 196.0 ± 10.0 mg/L y 2.6±0.2 g/L) were higher compared to shaken cultivation (222.0 ± 8.0 mg/L, 96.0 ± 4.5 mg/L and 1.8 ± 0.2 g/L) respectively. Batch cultivations carried out in bioreactor with air flux of 25 l/h reported a growth rate μ of 0.17 h-1, production of ethanol (12.5 ± 2.0 g/L) and other compounds typically produced during alcoholic fermentation. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the fermentation medium affects its metabolism thus; insufficient amounts of oxygen would provoke a respirofermentative metabolism. The best results in terms of organoleptic quality of the fermented beverage regarding to aroma, taste and flavor was obtained when fermented in static cultivation. The control of aeration during fermentation can be used to control the synthesis of chemical compounds of sensory impact in the production of fermented beverages.

  5. Pilot scale fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber pulp mashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziobro, G.C.; Williams, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Processing and fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber pulp mashes were successfully carried out at pilot scales of 60 gallons and 1000 gallons. Whole tubers were pulped mechanically into a thick mash and fermented, using commercially available Saccharomyces cerevisiae and selected strains of Kluyveromyces fragilis. EtOH fermentation yields ranging from 50-70% of theoretical maximum were obtained in 3-4 days. Several problems regarding the processing and direct fermentation of tuber pulp mashes are discussed.

  6. Ultrasonic Monitoring of the Progress of Lactic Acid Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Kimura, Akihiro; Ohdaira, Etsuzo

    2003-05-01

    Promotion of lactic acid fermentation by ultrasonic irradiation has been attempted. It is possible to determine the progress of fermentation and production of a curd, i.e., yoghurt and or kefir, by measuring acidity using a pH meter. However, this method is inconvenient and indirect for the evaluation of the progress of lactic acid fermentation under anaerobic condition. In this study, an ultrasonic monitoring method for evaluating the progress of lactic acid fermentation was examined.

  7. Microbiology of traditional fermented soybean curd (Sufu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhoom, A.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms in traditional fermenting soybean curd (Sufu were quantitated. Total microbial populations of bacteria, molds and yeasts were 1.6×101 to 4.0×105, 2.4×101 to 3.9×105 and 4.4×103 to 8.0×105 CFU/g, respectively. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Bacillus were dominantly found in koji inoculum. Bacillus, Pediococcus and Saccharomyces were mainly detected throughout the fermentation process. The other microorganisms were Staphylococcus, Pichia and Debaryomyces. All isolated microorganisms were halotolerant at salt concentrations between 5 to 20%. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Bacillus could produce potential proteolytic and amylolytic enzymes, implying that these microorganisms may play significant roles in the fermentation of tofu substrate. The nutritional evaluation of fermenting Sufu had protein content between 16.09-21.91%, sugar 4.23- 9.14%, lipid 7.20- 12.76%, salt 10.06-11.26%, humidity 47.55-57.97%, ash 9.24-15.63%, fibre 0.10-0.16%, pH 4.99-5.75 and fermenting temperature at 29-31ºC. Additionally, aflatoxin B1 at the concentration of 10.8- 22.8 ppb could be detected in the fermenting Sufu by ELISA methods whereas the final product of Sufu remained 18.4 ppb. Additionally, the commercial Sufu in the markets had aflatoxin in the range of 1.5-15.2 ppb which is in the control of FDA (U.S.A. standard that aflatoxin in food and peanut products should be less than 20 ppb.

  8. Kombucha tea fermentation: Microbial and biochemical dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Chakraborty, Writachit; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan

    2016-03-02

    Kombucha tea, a non-alcoholic beverage, is acquiring significant interest due to its claimed beneficial properties. The microbial community of Kombucha tea consists of bacteria and yeast which thrive in two mutually non-exclusive compartments: the soup or the beverage and the biofilm floating on it. The microbial community and the biochemical properties of the beverage have so far mostly been described in separate studies. This, however, may prevent understanding the causal links between the microbial communities and the beneficial properties of Kombucha tea. Moreover, an extensive study into the microbial and biochemical dynamics has also been missing. In this study, we thus explored the structure and dynamics of the microbial community along with the biochemical properties of Kombucha tea at different time points up to 21 days of fermentation. We hypothesized that several biochemical properties will change during the course of fermentation along with the shifts in the yeast and bacterial communities. The yeast community of the biofilm did not show much variation over time and was dominated by Candida sp. (73.5-83%). The soup however, showed a significant shift in dominance from Candida sp. to Lachancea sp. on the 7th day of fermentation. This is the first report showing Candida as the most dominating yeast genus during Kombucha fermentation. Komagateibacter was identified as the single largest bacterial genus present in both the biofilm and the soup (~50%). The bacterial diversity was higher in the soup than in the biofilm with a peak on the seventh day of fermentation. The biochemical properties changed with the progression of the fermentation, i.e., beneficial properties of the beverage such as the radical scavenging ability increased significantly with a maximum increase at day 7. We further observed a significantly higher D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone content and caffeine degradation property compared to previously described Kombucha tea fermentations. Our

  9. Production, characteristics and fermentation of soymilk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajka Božanić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest for soybean increases because of its extraordinary nutritive and health characteristics. In West countries soymilk is intended for population that cannot consume cow’s milk, due to lactose intolerance, allergies to cow’s milk proteins or non consumption of animal foodstuffs from belief. Health benefits of soymilk increase significantly by fermentation with lactic acid bacteria. Because of that, in this paper composition of soybean is described, with special overview on proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates as well as antinutritive factors and isoflavones. Soymilk composition and production, and its nutritive value are represented also. Advantages of fermentation of soybean and soymilk are described, especially with probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

  10. Statistical Optimisation of Fermentation Conditions for Citric Acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the optimisation of fermentation conditions during citric acid production via solid state fermentation (SSF) of pineapple peels using Aspergillus niger. A three-variable, three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) comprising 17 experimental runs was used to develop a statistical model for the fermentation ...

  11. 21 CFR 573.450 - Fermented ammoniated condensed whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fermented ammoniated condensed whey. 573.450... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.450 Fermented ammoniated condensed whey. (a) Identity. The product is produced by the Lactobacillus bulgaricus fermentation of whey with the addition of ammonia. (b...

  12. Fate of pathogenic bacteria during fermentation of cereal porridge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out to study the fate of pathogenic coliform bacteria namely, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella aerogenes during fermentation of cereal porridge (“Ogi”), a weaning food formula. Fermentation studies for Ogi production was carried out by fermenting the maize grain in a controlled ...

  13. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to examine the influence of Lagenaria siceraria seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor. Three seed fermentation methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested on two cultivars during two years. Seed germination and ...

  14. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production by fermentation. 24.197 Section 24.197 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added before or...

  15. Gut fermentation syndrome | Fayemiwo | African Journal of Clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been documented among few individuals who became intoxicated after consuming carbohydrates, which became fermented in the gastrointestinal tract. These claims of intoxication without drinking alcohol, and the findings on endogenous alcohol fermentation are now called Gut Fermentation Syndrome. This review ...

  16. Method for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2014-02-18

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  17. Fermentation and protein enrichment of Cassava pulp and rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The protein content of pulped cassava and rice husks were enhanced by fermentation using native populations in Rumen digesta as source of inoculum. After three days of fermentation the microbial population increased with microbial succession as the fermentation progressed. A mixed culture of yeast and bacteria were ...

  18. Effects of submerged and anaerobic fermentations on cassava flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oke Oluwatoyin Victoria

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... fermentation had greater sensory quality and higher consumer preference than that of anaerobic fermentation. Key words: Cassava fermentation, physicochemical, functional, ... enumerated the influence of age and variety of cassava roots as another constraint. Oyewole and Afolami (2004) investigated the ...

  19. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24.212 Section 24.212 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made...

  20. Microbe-microbe interactions in mixed culture food fermentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, E.J.; Lacroix, C.

    2013-01-01

    Most known natural and industrial food fermentation processes are driven by either simple or complex communities of microorganisms. Obviously, these fermenting microbes will not only interact with the fermentable substrate but also with each other. These microbe–microbe interactions are complex but

  1. Quality of fermented cassava flour processed into placali | Koko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermented cassava flour was obtained from Yace variety. Cassava roots were washed, peeled and ground. After adding cassava inoculums at 8% (m/m), the pulp was allowed to ferment for 72 hours at ambient temperature. The fermented dough was removed, squeezed and oven-dried for 48 hours at 55 °C. The dried ...

  2. System for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2016-04-26

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  3. Reduction of the cyanide content during fermentation of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reduction of the cyanide content during fermentation of cassava roots and leaves to produce bikedi and ntoba mbodi, two food products from Congo. ... the cassava roots is a lactic fermentation (pH 3.8) with Lactobacillus as dominant microflora whereas that of the cassava leaves is an alkaline fermentation (pH 8.5) where ...

  4. Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, A.G.; Chen, Y.R.; Varel, V.H.

    1981-01-01

    The research to convert livestock manure and crop residues into methane and a high protein feed ingredient by thermophilic anaerobic fermentation are summarized. The major biological and operational factors involved in methanogenesis were discussed, and a kinetic model that describes the fermentation process was presented. Substrate biodegradability, fermentation temperature, and influent substrate concentration were shown to have significant effects on CH/sub 4/ production rate. The kinetic model predicted methane production rates of existing pilot and full-scale fermentation systems to within 15%. The highest methane production rate achieved by the fermenter was 4.7 L CH/sub 4//L fermenter day. This is the highest rate reported in the literature and about 4 times higher than other pilot or full-scale systems fermenting livestock manures. Assessment of the energy requirements for anaerobic fermentation systems showed that the major energy requirement for a thermophilic system was for maintaining the fermenter temperature. The next major energy consumption was due to the mixing of the influent slurry and fermenter liquor. An approach to optimizing anaerobic fermenter designs by selecting design criteria that maximize the net energy production per unit cost was presented. Based on the results, we believe that the economics of anaerobic fermentation is sufficiently favorable for farm-scale demonstration of this technology.

  5. The potential for upgrading traditional fermented foods through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    upgraded to high technology production system because of the strong research tradition in fermented food technology. Their experience can be used to upgrade some Nigeria's indigenous fermented foods and beverages. Indigenous fermentation technology has been used to a limited extent in food and beverage industry.

  6. Anti-nutritional and phytochemical evaluation of raw and fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-nutritional and phytochemical analyses of raw and fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa were carried out. The unfermented seeds contained low levels of anti-nutrients (oxalates and phytates) and these were significantly reduced by fermentation. Fermentation also resulted in the release and detection of some ...

  7. Extraction of volatile fatty acids from fermented wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyhanitash, Ehsan; Zaalberg, Bart; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Schuur, Boelo

    2016-01-01

    Valorization of wastewater streams can be done by fermentation to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs) which are applied as platform chemicals for synthesis of value-added chemicals. Since VFA concentration in fermented wastewater is very low (∼1 wt%) and fermented wastewater contains considerable

  8. Effect of Fermentation and Malting on Some Cereal Weaning Foods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT; Effect of fermentation and malting on some cereal weaning foods enriched with African locust beans were carried out. Cereals (wheat and millet) were malted for the period of 144 hours and further fermented for 48 hours by natural fermentation. The millet, wheat and locust bean flours were mixed together in ...

  9. Effect of controlled fermentation on the oligosaccharides content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For oloyin beans slurry, fermentation for 72 h also resulted in significant reduction in the raffinose content when fermented with L. plantarum, L. fermentum and P. acidilactici with 53.68, 73.17 and 64.02% reductions, respectively. Sucrose content showed significant increase for both beans slurry fermented for 72 h with all of ...

  10. Effect of fermentation and malting on some cereal weaning foods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of fermentation and malting on some cereal weaning foods enriched with African locust beans were carried out. Cereals (wheat and millet) were malted for the period of 144 hours and further fermented for 48 hours by natural fermentation. The millet, wheat and locust bean flours were mixed together in the ratio ...

  11. Effects of Fermentation on the Fatty Acids, Sterols and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Walnut contains fatty acids that are essential for infants' growth and development. This study explored the possibility of fermenting walnuts for use as a complementary food. Raw fermented (RF), cooked fermented (CF), raw unfermented (RUF) and cooked unfermented (CUF) samples of walnuts products were analyzed for ...

  12. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a Thai low-salt fermented fish product and the role of garlic as substrate for fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Huss, Hans Henrik; Gram, Lone

    1999-01-01

    , homofermentative lactobacillus species, dominated by Lb. plantarum/pentosus, was found during fermentation. In total, 9% of the strains fermented starch and 19% fermented garlic, the two main carbohydrate components in som-fak. The ability to ferment garlic was paralleled by a capacity to ferment inulin...

  13. The Effect of Fungicide Residues and Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen on Fermentation Kinetics and H2S Production during Cider Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Boudreau IV, Thomas Francis

    2016-01-01

    The Virginia cider industry has grown rapidly in the past decade, and demands research-based recommendations for cider fermentation. This study evaluated relationships between the unique chemistry of apples and production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in cider fermentations. Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) concentration and composition and residual fungicides influence H2S production by yeast during fermentation, but these factors have to date only been studied in wine grape fermentations. This ...

  14. Quality and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee Processed by Some Fermentation Treatments: Temperature, Containers, and Fermentation Agents Addition

    OpenAIRE

    Yusianto; Widyotomo, Sukrisno

    2013-01-01

    Coffee fermentation is a step of wet processing. In fact, some microorganisms naturally exist on the surface of coffee cherry. Using a starter culture of microorganisms may change equilibrium of microorganism population. Among some safe fermentation agents are present in “ragi tape” (yeast), “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk. A fermentor machine equipped with eating-control and stirrer had been designed, and tested before. Some treatments investigated were fermentation containers (fermentor ma...

  15. Cooling water treatment with ozone. Operating experience from a large power plant; Kuehlwasserbehandlung mit Ozon. Betriebserfahrungen aus dem Grosskraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmittecker, B.M. [Energie-Versorgung Schwaben AG, Heilbronn (Germany); Henke, K.P.; Bergmann, R. [BWT Wassertechnik GmbH, Schriesheim (Germany)

    1999-06-01

    In two auxiliary cooling circuits of large power plant Heilbronn the recirculated cooling water has been treated with ozone since 1995 in order to abate mucilage-forming microbiology and to minimize corrosion - especially to eliminate pitting corrosion. It could be shown that the application of ozone in cooling circuits also of power plants has a number of advantages. Compared to other alternatives, ozone is the most effective microbiocide without environmental-relevant effects. As in this case ozone has been generated from the atmospheric air and electricity, no requirements regarding transport and storage are to be met. The ozone generator can be installed at any place. (orig.) [Deutsch] In zwei Nebenkuehlkreislaeufen des Grosskraftwerks Heilbronn wird das Rueckkuehlwasser seit November 1995 mit Ozon zur Bekaempfung schleimbildender Mikrobiologie und zur Minimierung der Korrosion - insbesondere zur Eliminierung der Lochkorrosion - behandelt. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass die Anwendung von Ozon in Kuehlkreislaeufen auch im Kraftwerk eine Reihe von Vorteilen mit sich bringt. Ozon ist im Vergleich zu anderen Alternativen das wirkungsvollste Mikrobiozid ohne umweltrelevante Folgeprodukte. Da hier das Ozon aus atmosphaerischer Luft und Elektrizitaet erzeugt wurde, entfaellt jede Transportanforderung und Lagerhaltung. Der Ozongenerator ist ueberall installierbar. (orig.)

  16. Socio-demographic correlates of prolonged television viewing time in Australian men and women: the AusDiab study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Bronwyn Kay; Sugiyama, Takemi; Healy, Genevieve N; Salmon, Jo; Dunstan, David W; Shaw, Jonathan E; Zimmet, Paul Z; Owen, Neville

    2010-09-01

    Sedentary behaviors, particularly television viewing (TV) time, are associated with adverse health outcomes in adults, independent of physical activity levels. These associations are stronger and more consistent for women than for men. Multivariate regression models examined the sociodemographic correlates of 2 categories of TV time (≥ 2 hours/day and ≥ 4 hours/day); in a large, population-based sample of Australian adults (4950 men, 6001 women; mean age 48.1 years, range 25-91) who participated in the 1999/2000 Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study. Some 46% of men and 40% of women watched ≥ 2 hours TV/day; 9% and 6% respectively watched ≥ 4 hours/day. For both men and women, ≥ 2 hours TV/day was associated with less than tertiary education, living outside of state capital cities, and having no paid employment. For women, mid and older age (45-64 and 65+) were also significant correlates of ≥ 2 hours TV/day. Similar patterns of association were observed in those viewing ≥ 4 hours/day. Prolonged TV time is associated with indices of social disadvantage and older age. These findings can inform the understanding of potential contextual influences and guide preventive initiatives.

  17. Uroboros : [aus "Uroboros"] : [luuletused] / Ene Mihkelson ; tlk. Irja Grönholm ja Gisbert Jänicke

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Ene, 1944-2017-

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: Uroboros : "In der Nacht fragt heimlich jemand Wie heisst du..." ; "Am Meer stand ein Mann mit einer Sense..." ; "An dem Tag als es Kugeln regnete..." ; "Zum Zeitvertrieb ersteigerte ich mir auf einer Auktion ein paar..." ; "Sie hat sich mit der Zeit eingelassen und daraus..." ; Das Feld ; "Mutter ist wieder bei mir obgleich..." ; "Wir waren ein Mädchen Wir redeten..." ; "Als ich vier Jahre alt wurde Da wurde so viel..." ; "Wer ist dein Vater Der Fremde aus der Ferne..." ; "Das letzte Wort Das letzte Das letzte Das allein...". Orig.: Uroboros : "Öö aegu keegi küsib sala Mis su nimi on..." ; "Mere ees seisis vikatiga mees..." ; "Sel päeval kui sadas kuulivihma..." ; "Ajaviiteks ostsin enampakkumisel sõpru..." ; "Ta ajaga läinud on sohki ja sellest..." ; Põld ; "Mu ema on jälle mu juures kuigi..." ; "Meid oli üks türduk Me rääkisime..." ; "Kui olin saanud neljaseks Nii väga kiitis..." ; "Kes on su isa Kaugelt tulnud võõras..." ; "Viimast sõna Viimast Viimast Ainu..."

  18. Purifying flue gas scrubber washings by means of membranes; Membranunterstuetztes Verfahren zur Reinigung von Waschwasser aus Rauchgasreinigungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenwinkel, K.H.; Nagy, J. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Abfalltechnik; Mueller, H.; Baumgarten, G. [Amafilter Deutschland, Langenhagen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    A process was developed to purify the wastewater of a flue gas purification process of a wood combustion plant. The water treatment process consists of a filtration with saw-dust and a reverse-osmosis process. A pilot plant has been developed and the performance has been tested. (SR) [Deutsch] Im Auftrag der Firma Wilhelm Mende GmbH, Gittelde/Harz, fuehrt das Institut fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Abfalltechnik der Universitaet Hannover im Fruehjahr 1996 am Waschwasser der dortigen Rauchgasreinigungsanlage eine Bestandsaufnahme durch, um die Ursachen fuer die Betriebsstoerungen herauszufinden. Bei den Untersuchungen wurde festgestellt, dass die Waschwasserreinigung nur unzureichend funktionierte und einige konzeptionelle Fehler aufwies. Aufbauend auf den Voruntersuchungen wurde ein kombiniertes Verfahren aus herkoemmlicher Filtration und einer Umkehrosmose entwickelt, mit dem es moeglich sein sollte, die Belastung des Waschwassers auf einem fuer die Systemstabilitaet ausreichenden Niveau zu halten. Das Konzept wurde in Pilotversuchen im Fruehherbst 1996 erfolgreich geprueft. Die grosstechnische Anlage wird derzeit von der Fa. Amafilter installiert und getestet. Betriebsergebnisse liegen z.Zt. noch nicht vor. Die wissenschaftliche Inbetriebnahmebegleitung erfolgt durch das Institut und wird von der Deutschen Bundesstiftung Umwelt gefoerdert. (orig.)

  19. Pesquisa e desenvolvimento responsável? Traduzindo ausências a partir da nanotecnologia em Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo F.C. Fonseca

    Full Text Available Resumo Analisa como a inovação responsável é discutida e implementada no contexto de uma das principais ações de fomento à nanotecnologia do governo português. Por meio da teoria do ator-rede e da sociologia das ausências, investigamos o processo de coprodução do International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory para identificar como preocupações quanto ao desenvolvimento responsável têm sido implementadas ou ausentadas nas normas e práticas. O instituto foi concebido a partir de um imaginário sociotécnico que o vislumbra como unidade autônoma de produção de inovações tecnológicas voltadas exclusivamente para o aumento da competitividade num mercado global, o que tem servido como obstáculo para práticas robustas de desenvolvimento responsável.

  20. Aussteigen aus dem Rechtsextremismus: Foto-Praxis, bildwissenschaftliche Analyse und Ausstellungsarbeit als Methoden individueller Reflexion und des wissenschaftlichen und (sozialpädagogischen Kompetenzerwerbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Pilarczyk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Der Beitrag zeigt die medienpädagogischen und bildwissenschaftlichen Dimensionen eines zeitlich und thematisch gestaffelten Projektes auf. Ausgangspunkt war das in den Jahren 2009/10 von der Organisation EXIT-Deutschland in Berlin mit Aussteigern/-innen aus der rechtsextremen Szene initiierte Fotoprojekt «Lebensbilder». Die im Rahmen biografisch orientierter, medien- und sozialpädagogischer Fallarbeit entstandenen Fotos wurden als Prozess individueller Bilderzeugung und als Mittel zur Reflexion der jeweiligen Lebenssituation der Aussteiger(innen verstanden und eingesetzt. Eine Ausstellung schloss diese erste Phase des hier beschriebenen Projektes ab. Dem Wunsch folgend, die praktischen Erfahrungen aus der Arbeit mit Fotos wissenschaftlich überprüfen zu lassen, wurden in den Jahren 2011 und 2012 mit Studierenden am erziehungswissenschaftlichen Institut der TU Braunschweig die «Lebensbilder» zunächst einer wissenschaftlichen Bildanalyse unterzogen und anschliessend in einem gestalterisch-interpretativen Projekt durch die Studierenden zu einer Ausstellung weiterentwickelt.

  1. Galaxias maculatus (Galaxiidae, Salmoniformes infectados com Acanthostomoides apophalliformis (Digenea, Platyhelminthes no Sul da Argentina: Histopatologia e ausência de mortalidade induzida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Revenga

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi conduzido para analisar ao nível histopatológico, lesões produzidas por Acanthostomoides apophalliformis no peixe nativo Galaxias maculatus, e relacioná-las com os resultados do mortalidade induzida por parasitas na população dessa espécie, no lago Moreno, Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Argentina. A ausência de inflamação na maioria das lesões, o fígado sem alterações em uma distância curta do foco das lesões e a aparência viável dos parasitas, sugerem uma boa relação parasita-hospedeiro. Esta hipótese é reforçada pelos dados que mostram a ausência de mortalidade induzida por A. apophalliformis na população dos peixes.

  2. Monitoring `Renewable resources`. Vegetable oils and other fuels from plants. Third status report; Monitoring `Nachwachsende Rohstoffe`. Pflanzliche Oele und andere Kraftstoffe aus Pflanzen. Dritter Sachstandsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, C.

    1997-11-01

    The present status report `vegetable oils and other fuels from plants` deals with important developments on the utilization of biofuels in spark ignition engines and diesel engines since presentation of the report `growing raw materials` of the Enquete comission `Technikfolgenabschaetzung und -bewertung`. The report deals mainly with rapeseed oil and rape seed oil fatty acid methyl ester produced from this (mentioned short of biodiesel) as well as with bioethanol made from sugar beet and grain. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Sachstandsbericht `Pflanzliche Oele und andere Kraftstoffe aus Pflanzen` beschaeftigt sich mit den wichtigsten Entwicklungen beim Einsatz von Biokraftstoffen in Otto- und Dieselmotoren seit Vorlage des Berichts `Nachwachsende Rohstoffe` der Enquete-Kommission `Technikfolgenabschaetzung und -bewertung`. Der Bericht befasst sich schwerpunktmaessig mit Rapsoel und daraus hergestelltem Rapsoelfettsaeuremethylester (kurz Biodiesel genannt) sowie mit aus Zuckerrueben und Getreide erzeugtem Bioethanol. (orig./SR)

  3. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  4. Fermentation performance of engineered and evolved xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonderegger, M.; Jeppsson, M.; Larsson, C.

    2004-01-01

    Lignocellulose hydrolysate is an abundant substrate for bioethanol production. The ideal microorganism for such a fermentation process should combine rapid and efficient conversion of the available carbon sources to ethanol with high tolerance to ethanol and to inhibitory components in the hydrol......Lignocellulose hydrolysate is an abundant substrate for bioethanol production. The ideal microorganism for such a fermentation process should combine rapid and efficient conversion of the available carbon sources to ethanol with high tolerance to ethanol and to inhibitory components...... in the hydrolysate. A particular biological problem are the pentoses, which are not naturally metabolized by the main industrial ethanol producer Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several recombinant, mutated, and evolved xylose fermenting S. cerevisiae strains have been developed recently. We compare here the fermentation...

  5. Determination of the thermal conductivity of sediment rock from measurements on cuttings; Ermittlung der Gesteinswaermeleitfaehigkeit von Sedimentgesteinen aus Messungen am Bohrklein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troschke, B.; Burkhardt, H. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Angewandte Goephysik

    1997-12-01

    Due to high costs core recovery in many wells is strongly restricted. To determine thermal conductivity in these cases measurements on cuttings are necessary, since in situ measurements are expensive and protracted, too. Therefore cores from three hydrogeothermal wells of the north-east part of the German sedimentary basin were grinded to compare the results of measurements on cuttings with known values of thermal conductivity from the original cores. By a suitable model of the two-phase-system cuttings-water it is possible to calculate the thermal conductivity of the rock-matrix. On the basis of this value and a suitable rock-model an average thermal conductivity for the water saturated rock can be estimated. Certainly all influences of the texture (anisotropy, grain bond) and of the characteristics of the porespace (porosity, internal surface, saturation, permeability) are lost with measurements on cuttings. Therefore for the different systems cuttings-water and rock-porefluid as well as for different rock types different models are necessary. (orig.) [Deutsch] In vielen Bohrungen werden aus Kostengruenden keine Kerne gezogen. Fuer die Ermittlung der Waermeleitfaehigkeit koennen deshalb nur in-situ-Messungen, die ebenfalls zeit- und kostenintensiv sind, oder Messungen am Bohrklein herangezogen werden. Es wurden daher Kerne aus drei Hydrogeothermalbohrungen des nordostdeutschen Beckens aufgemahlen, um so vergleichende Messungen am `Bohrklein` aus Kernen mit bekannter Waermeleitfaehigkeit durzhzufuehren. Durch eine geeignete Modellvorstellung des Zwei-Phasen-Systems Bohrklein/Wasser laesst sich die Waermeleitfaehigkeit der Gesteinsmatrix bestimmen und aus dieser durch ein Gesteinsmodell auch eine mittlere Waermeleitfaehigkeit des wassergesaettigten Festgesteins berechnen. Klar ist, dass bei Messungen am Bohrklein Einfluesse, die durch Gefuege (Anisotropie, Kornbindung) und Porenraumeigenschaften (Porositaet, Saettigung, Permeabilitaet) hervorgerufen werden

  6. Einreise- und Aufenthaltsrecht von Bürgern aus Drittstaaten in Kroatien im Kontext der Annäherung an die Europäische Union

    OpenAIRE

    Goldner Lang, Iris

    2006-01-01

    Ein eigenes Gebiet innerhalb der Angleichung des Rechtssystems der Republik Kroatien an den Acquis communautaire bilden Fragen bezüglich der Einreise und des Aufenthalts von Bürgern aus Drittstaaten auf dem Territorium der Republik Kroatien. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit dieser Problematik unter dem Blickwinkel ihrer rechtlichen, politischen und praktischen Bedeutung; eine Analyse des eigentlichen technischen Anpassungsprozesses ist jedoch nicht das Ziel. Der besondere Schwerpun...

  7. [Robert Schweitzer. Eine Unveröffentlichte Quelle zur Schulgeschichte von Reval Ferdinand Wiedemanns Geschichte des Revaler Gouvernementsgymnasiums aus dem Jahr 1856] / Paul Kaegbein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaegbein, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Robert Schweitzer. Eine Unveröffentlichte Quelle zur Schulgeschichte von Reval Ferdinand Wiedemanns Geschichte des Revaler Gouvernementsgymnasiums aus dem Jahr 1856. - Buch und Bildung im Baltikum. Münster : LIT, 2005. lk. 495-525. Kubermangugümnaasiumi vanemõpetaja Ferdinand Wiedemann kirjutas 1856. aastal kooli ajaloo, mis mingitel põhjustel jäi avaldamata. Tema tööd on kasutanud 1881. aastal Gotthard von Hansen

  8. Kompetenz verleiht Flügel. Ursprung und theoretische Grundlagen der Kompetenzorientierung. Ausgewählte Kapitel aus dem Buch: Der Siegeszug der Kompetenzen

    OpenAIRE

    Zaiser, Richard

    2016-01-01

    „Woher stammt die Kompetenzorientierung und Standardisierung?“ In diesem Text werden 18 ausgewählte Kapitel aus dem Buch (Der Siegeszug der Kompetenzen) angeboten. Das Bemühen um wissenschaftliche Genauigkeit, der Einbezug der persönlichen Erfahrung und Betroffenheit des Autors und der Versuch, ein komplexes und heikles Thema klar und verständlich darzustellen, sind drei besondere Aspekte, die den Text kennzeichnen. [...] Die Frage nach dem Ursprung (die im vorliegenden Text behandelt wird) w...

  9. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Diane D.; Grohmann, Karel; Wyman, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and glucose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this yeast, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol.

  10. Liquid Fermentation of Ganoderma applanatum and Antioxidant Activity of Exopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong-Hua, Liu; Xiao-Ge, Hou; Jin-Hui, Zhao; Le, H E

    2015-01-01

    The medium composition and fermentation conditions of Ganoderma applanatum(GA) strain were optimized by the liquid shake flask fermentation, and the antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharides was investigated. The results showed that the optimal conditions of the liquid fermentation of GA strain were as follows: Carbon source was corn powder, nitrogen source was soy powder, the initial pH was 6.0, the inoculum size was 8%, the fermentation temperature was 32(o)C, the fermentation time was 7 d. The exopolysaccharides of GA strain could scavenge hydroxyl radicals(HR) and superoxide anion radicals(SAR), and the concentration of exopolysaccharides was positively related to the antioxidant activity.

  11. Analysis of problems with dry fermentation process for biogas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilát, Peter; Patsch, Marek; Jandačka, Jozef

    2012-04-01

    The technology of dry anaerobic fermentation is still meeting with some scepticism, and therefore in most biogas plants are used wet fermentation technology. Fermentation process would be not complete without an optimal controlled condition: dry matter content, density, pH, and in particular the reaction temperature. If is distrust of dry fermentation eligible it was on the workplace of the Department of Power Engineering at University of Zilina built an experimental small-scale biogas station that allows analysis of optimal parameters of the dry anaerobic fermentation, in particular, however, affect the reaction temperature on yield and quality of biogas.

  12. Acetic acid bacteria in fermented foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roos, Jonas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2018-02-01

    Although acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are commonly found in spontaneous or backslopped fermented foods and beverages, rather limited knowledge about their occurrence and functional role in natural food fermentation ecosystems is available. Not only is their cultivation, isolation, and identification difficult, their cells are often present in a viable but not culturable state. Yet, they are promising starter cultures either to better control known food fermentation processes or to produce novel fermented foods and beverages. This review summarizes the most recent findings on the occurrence and functional role of AAB in natural food fermentation processes such as lambic beer, water kefir, kombucha, and cocoa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biochemical analysis of extracting fermented coconut oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YATI SUDARYATI SOEKA

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oil can be produced from a perennial plant such as coconut (Cocos nucifera L.. There are few techniques for coconut oil extraction, such as physical, chemical, and fermentative processes. The fermentation process uses microbial inoculum as starter. Ground coconut meat was soaked in warm water, than squeezed several times to get coconut milk. After being allowed to stand for 4-5 hours, it separated into two layers, cream and skim. Starter was prepared from a mixture of milk and coconut water (1:9, v/v which enriched with 2% tomato extract, 0.5% urea, and 1.0% molasses and then preincubated for 5 days under agitation. Starter with different concentration (1.0; 2.5; 5.0; and 10% were added onto coconut milk and allowed to be fermented for over night. The extracting oil was analyzed for further experiment, especially, on its antibacterial activity. The maximum yield of 23% was achieved by using 2.5% starter. Total protein, fat, FFA, and cholesterol content of the fermented coconut oil were 0.05%, 96.45%, 0.29%, and 0.008%, respectively. The gas chromatogram showed that this oil contained high lauric acid (46.20%, and 13.94% miristic, 5.97% palmitic, 9.00% palmitoleic, and 19.73% stearic acid, respectively.

  14. Wheaten ferments spontaneous fermantation in biotechnological methods

    OpenAIRE

    KAKHRAMON SANOQULOVICH RAKHMONOV; ISABAEV ISMAIL BABADJANOVICH

    2016-01-01

    In article are shown results of research of biotechnological properties of wheaten leavens of spontaneous fermentation (in the example of pea-anisetree leaven) and their analysis. Also is established influence of the given type of leavens on the basic biopolymers of the flour, on the property of the pastry and quality of bread from wheaten flour.

  15. Drying characteristics and engineering properties of fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of variety on the drying and engineering properties of fermented ground cassava was studied in order to generate data for design and optimum performance of various dryers used in cassava processing. This research attempts to provide data on the engineering properties such as moisture content, specific heat ...

  16. Multivariate Analysis of Industrial Scale Fermentation Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Nørregård, Rasmus; Stocks, Stuart M.

    2015-01-01

    Multivariate analysis allows process understanding to be gained from the vast and complex datasets recorded from fermentation processes, however the application of such techniques to this field can be limited by the data pre-processing requirements and data handling. In this work many iterations...

  17. Phytosynthesized iron nanoparticles: effects on fermentative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In recent years the application of metal nanoparticles is gaining attention in various fields. The present study focuses on the additive effect of `green' synthesized iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) on dark fermentative hydrogen (H2) production by a mesophilic soil bacterium Enterobacter cloacae. The FeNPs were synthesized by ...

  18. Fermentation of pretreated corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    academicjournal

    single carbon source because the ethanol conversion of glucose was higher than that of xylose. Using parallel fermentation of corncob hemicellulose acid hydrolysate and the artificially prepared hydrolysate, it was found that complex components in the corncob hemicellulose acid hydrolysate probably promoted ethanol ...

  19. 1 INFLUENCE OF SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION ON SOME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RopSvr

    Spontaneous fermentation has been identified to improve the quality characteristics of foods derived from them. When combined with cowpea fortification and nixtamalization, it is expected to improve the nutritional, functional, physico-chemical and sensory qualities of maize based foods thereby improving the qualities as ...

  20. Health and Safety Considerations of Fermented Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askild Holck

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented sausages are highly treasured traditional foods. A large number of distinct sausages with different properties are produced using widely different recipes and manufacturing processes. Over the last years, eating fermented sausages has been associated with potential health hazards due to their high contents of saturated fats, high NaCl content, presence of nitrite and its degradation products such as nitrosamines, and use of smoking which can lead to formation of toxic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Here we review the recent literature regarding possible health effects of the ingredients used in fermented sausages. We also go through attempts to improve the sausages by lowering the content of saturated fats by replacing them with unsaturated fats, reducing the NaCl concentration by partly replacing it with KCl, and the use of selected starter cultures with desirable properties. In addition, we review the food pathogenic microorganisms relevant for fermented sausages (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, and Toxoplasma gondii and processing and postprocessing strategies to inhibit their growth and reduce their presence in the products.

  1. Production of Star Fruit Alcoholic Fermented Beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Flávia de Paula; Aguiar-Oliveira, Elizama; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Alves, Vanessa Dias; Maldonado, Rafael Resende

    2016-12-01

    Star fruit ( Averrhoa carambola ) is a nutritious tropical fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of a star fruit alcoholic fermented beverage utilizing a lyophilized commercial yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). The study was conducted utilizing a 2 3 central composite design and the best conditions for the production were: initial soluble solids between 23.8 and 25 °Brix (g 100 g -1 ), initial pH between 4.8 and 5.0 and initial concentration of yeast between 1.6 and 2.5 g L -1 . These conditions yielded a fermented drink with an alcohol content of 11.15 °GL (L 100 L -1 ), pH of 4.13-4.22, final yeast concentration of 89 g L -1 and fermented yield from 82 to 94 %. The fermented drink also presented low levels of total and volatile acidities.

  2. Daqu - a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Rezaei Tabrizi, M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Han, B.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the world's oldest distilled alcoholic beverages, and it is typically obtained with the use of Daqufermentation starters. Daqu is a saccharifying and fermenting agent, having a significant impact on the flavour of the product. Daqucan be categorized according to maximum

  3. Biotransformation of algal waste by biological fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... agro-food waste has been the subject of the previous work on sugar cane Ouhssine et al., 2000b), the breakdown of the cellulose (Fann and Lee, 1992) and fermentation of olives (Asehraou A, 1993). Other processes have been used for the transformation of garbage of animal origin (Hammoumi A., 1998).

  4. Galactose Fermentation and Classification of Thermophilic Lactobacilli

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Keith W.; Martley, F. G.

    1983-01-01

    The ability to ferment galactose is a major characteristic which can be used to differentiate Lactobacillus helveticus (galactose positive) from Lactobacillus lactis and Lactobacillus bulgaricus (galactose negative). In milk cultures, galactose-positive strains produced d- and l-lactic acid with little galactose accumulation, whereas galactose-negative strains produced d-lactic acid, and galactose accumulated to high levels.

  5. Characterization of carbohydrate fractions and fermentation quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of adding fast-sile (FS), previous fermented .... DM: Dry matter, WSC: water soluble carbohydrate, NDF: neutral detergent fiber, ADF: acid detergent fiber, ADL: acid detergent lignin, C: ..... ment, which included starch, cell wall and so on (Ohyama.

  6. Modelling Fungal Fermentations for Enzyme Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Mads Orla; Gernaey, Krist; Hansen, Morten S.

    We have developed a process model of fungal fed-batch fermentations for enzyme production. In these processes, oxygen transfer rate is limiting and controls the substrate feeding rate. The model has been shown to describe cultivations of both Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei strains in 550...

  7. Exploiting the potential of gas fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redl, Stephanie; Diender, Martijn; Jensen, Torbjørn Ølshøj; Machado de Sousa, Diana; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    2017-01-01

    The use of gas fermentation for production of chemicals and fuels with lower environmental impact is a technology that is gaining increasing attention. Over 38 Gt of CO2 is annually being emitted from industrial processes, thereby contributing significantly to the concentration of greenhouse gases

  8. Adaptation effects of ionophores on rumen fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S.Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 1983, l3(l). Adaptation effects of ionophores on rumen fermentation. A. de Jong and F. Berschauer. Institute for Chemotherapy, Bayer AG,. P.O. Box 101709. D 5600 Wuppertal-l West Germany. The effect of monensin on the in vitro degradation of cellulose was investigated using ruminal fluid obtained from ...

  9. Growth response of Oreochromis niloticus fingerlingsfed fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the growth response of Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings fed fermented Parkia biglobosa (locust beans) diets. P. biglobosa served as an attractant in these diets. Two hundred and twenty-five fingerlings (10.1±0.1 g/fish) mixed sex were treated with five diets containing maize, fishmeal, ...

  10. Voluntary intake, nitrogen metabolism and rumen fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Voluntary intake, nitrogen metabolism and rumen fermentation patterns in sheep given cowpea, silverleaf desmodium and fine-stem stylo legume hays as ... utilisation, the negative nitrogen retentions might indicate the inadequacy of the specific legume hays used as nitrogen supplementary feeds to sheep fed a basal diet

  11. an Ethiopian Traditional Fermented Cereal Beverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an Ethiopian Traditional Fermented Cereal Beverage. >“Kebede Abegazliz, Thor Langsrud1 , Fekadu Beyene2 and Judith A. Narvhus1. 1 Department of Food Science, Agricultural University of Norway, ~. P.O.Box 5036, N-1432 As, Norway. 3 Awassa College of Agriculture, Debub University,. P.O.Box 5, Awassa, Ethiopia.

  12. Measurement of yeast invertase during alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naudin, O.; Boudarel, M.J.; Ramirez, A.

    1986-01-01

    In continuous alcoholic fermentation of molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is important but difficult to know the variation of yeast physiological state with time, so as to maintain maximum yeast productivity. We decided to quantify invertase activity, for which there are few if any appropriate methods (Vitolo and Borzani, Analytical Biochemistry 130, 469-470, 1983). 1 reference.

  13. Production of Mandioca alcohol by continuous fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govea, V.deS.

    1973-01-01

    Slurries of cassava meal were saccharified by the action of amylase from Bacillus subtilis and amyloglucosidase from Aspergillus awamori. The resulting glucose medium was fermented continuously on a semi-industrial scale using Saccharomyces cerevisiae without addition of artificial nutrients. A 90.87% yield was obtained in the conversion of glucose to EtOH.

  14. Supervision of Fed-Batch Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lars; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    Process faults may be detected on-line using existing measurements based upon modelling that is entirely data driven. A multivariate statistical model is developed and used for fault diagnosis of an industrial fed-batch fermentation process. Data from several (25) batches are used to develop a mo...

  15. Kombucha fermentation and its antimicrobial activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sreeramulu, G.; Zhu, Y.; Knol, W.

    2000-01-01

    Kombucha was prepared in a tea broth (0.5% w/v) supplemented with sucrose (10% w/v) by using a commercially available starter culture. The pH decreased steadily from 5 to 2.5 during the fermentation while the weight of the 'tea fungus' and the OD of the tea broth increased through 4 days of the

  16. Influence of spontaneous fermentation on some quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous fermentation has been identified to improve the quality characteristics of foods derived from them. When combined with cowpea fortification and nixtamalization, it is expected to improve the nutritional, functional, physico- chemical and sensory qualities of maize based foods thereby improving the qualities as ...

  17. Fermentation characteristics and nutrient composition of browses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Browses are important sources of feed and are widely used for animal nutrition to enhance productivity. They are commonly ensiled with other forages such as maize (Zea mays). However, the fermentation pattern and chemical composition of browses, that are commonly used are largely unknown. Thus, a study was carried ...

  18. Changes in protein solubility, fermentative capacity, viscoelasticity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of frozen dough remedied availability of fresh bread. However, bread elaborated from frozen dough has less volume and texture is firmer. This study evaluates how storage affects the protein solubility, fermentative capacity and viscoelasticity of frozen dough. In addition to examining the effects of storage on the ...

  19. Solid-state fermentation - A mini review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.; Sonsbeek, H.M.; Rinzema, A.; Tramper, J.

    1998-01-01

    The increasing interests in biotechnology for the application of fungi on the one hand, and for cheap agricultural products on the other, can be combined in so-called solid-state fermentation (SSF). SSF resembles a close to natural habitat for filamentous microorganisms and can be applied to

  20. Fungal mats in solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahardjo, Y.S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Since over 2000 years man has cultivated fungi on grains, beans or other (by)products from agriculture or agro-industries, in order to produce tastier and healthier foods. Nowadays, cultivation on solid substrates (solid-state fermentation, SSF) is also used to produce industrial enzymes, drugs and

  1. Schostakowitsch: Fünf Ballettsuiten, Suite aus Katerina Ismailova, Festliche Ouvertüre op. 96. Royal Scottisch National Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Helge Grünewald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grünewald, Helge

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Schostakowitsch: Fünf Ballettsuiten, Suite aus Katerina Ismailova, Festliche Ouvertüre op. 96. Royal Scottisch National Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos/Koch 2 CD 700/1 (WD:114'36")

  2. Study on Incentive Price of Fermented Cocoa to Overcome Reluctance of Farmer to Apply Fermentation : Case Study in Jembrana Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Soemarno

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Improving cocoa quality through encouraging farmers to do fermentation is one of the ways to increase the added value of cocoa. However, majority ofIndonesian farmers are reluctance to do fermentation. This research aimed to study factors causing farmers reluctant to do fermentation, weight differencebetween fermented and unfermented cocoa, cocoa processing time difference between fermented and unfermented cocoa, quality difference between fermentedand unfermented coco refers to cocoa bean standard (SNI: 01-2323-2008/Amd-2010, and feasible added value incentive of fermented cocoa beans. The data collectionwere conducted through household farmers’ survey, focus group discussion and experimental research. The experimental research was conducted to understandthe weight and processing time differences; and to asess the quality, including moisture content, bean count, pH and fermentation index. Analysis of the datawere conducted by methods of Fishbone Ishikawa and logit multiplier linear analysis. The research results showed that the main factors causing farmers reluctant todo fermentation were insuitable of selling price of fermented cocoa, the existence of village collectors in buying unfermented cocoa, the lack of cooperation amongfarmers in farmer group (Subak Abian and the lack of farmers’ skills on cocoa bean fermentation. This study also found that the weight depreciation differencebetween fermented and unfermented cocoa was 0.5-3.75%, and the processing time difference between fermented and unfermented cocoa was 12-24 hours. Qualityof fermented cocoa beans was higher than that of unfermented cocoa beans and it can fulfill the standard of SNI: 01-2323-2008/Amd-2010. It was found that thefeasible added value incentive of fermented cocoa benas was 2,126-3,426 IDR/kg. Keywords: cocoa, fermentation, unfermented, quality, incentive

  3. The fermented milk product of functional destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a flavor component selected syrup made from viburnum. This berry is widely used in various forms in the food industry including the dairy. Particular attention should be paid to the fact that the viburnum is a wild plant, and does not need to land and cultivation costs. Viburnum is rich in biologically active substances and raw materials is a drug. Fruits of Viburnum is rich in organic acids, in particular valeric acid. From berries contain minerals: manganese, zinc, iron, phosphorus, copper, chromium, iodine, selenium. Mass fraction of iron in Kalina in 2–3 times higher compared to other berries. The Kalina 70% more than the C vitamin, than lemon, it also contains vitamins A, E, P and K. In berries contains tannin, pectin, tannins, coumarins, resinous esters, glycoside viburnin (very useful in the composition of Viburnum, namely it makes bitter berries. It is suggested the use of syrup of viburnum in the production of fermented milk product. Since the biologically active substances is not destroyed by freezing and processing was freeze berries and added sucrose. The syrup had the gray edge-ruby color and a pleasant taste. Fermented milk product functionality produced reservoir method. Technological process of obtaining a fermented milk product is different from the traditional operations of preparation components and their introduction in the finished product. The consumption of 100 g of fermented milk product with a vitamin premix meets the daily requirement of vitamins A, B complex, C, D, E 40–50%. According to the research developed formulation of dairy products, assessed their quality. Production of fermented milk product thus expanding the range of dairy products functional orientation.

  4. Pilot-scale waste activated sludge alkaline fermentation, fermentation liquid separation, and application of fermentation liquid to improve biological nutrient removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Hong; Hu, Lanfang; Yu, Lei; Chen, Yinguang; Gu, Guowei

    2011-03-01

    The use of sludge fermentative short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) as an additional carbon source of biological nutrient removal (BNR) has drawn much attention recently as it can reuse sludge organics, reduce waste activated sludge production, and improve BNR performance. Our previous laboratory study had shown that the SCFA production was significantly enhanced by controlling sludge fermentation at pH 10 with NaOH. This paper focused on a pilot-scale study of alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge, separation of the fermentation liquid from the alkaline fermentation system, and application of the fermentation liquid to improve municipal biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. NaOH and Ca(OH)(2) were used respectively to adjust the alkaline fermentation pH, and their effects on sludge fermentation and fermentation liquid separation were compared. The results showed that the use of Ca(OH)(2) had almost the same effect on SCFA production improvement and sludge volatile suspended solids reduction as that of NaOH, but it exhibited better sludge dewatering, lower chemical costs, and higher fermentation liquid recovery efficiency. When the fermentation liquids, adjusted with Ca(OH)(2) and NaOH respectively, were added continuously to an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic municipal wastewater BNR system, both the nitrogen and phosphorus removals, compared with the control, were improved to the same levels. This was attributed to the increase of not only influent COD but also denitrifying phosphorus removal capability. It seems that the use of Ca(OH)(2) to control sludge fermentation at pH 10 for efficiently producing a carbon source for BNR is feasible.

  5. The Effect of Cocoa Beans Fermentation on Processed Chocolate in West Kalimantan

    OpenAIRE

    H, Jhon David; P, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    Research studies of fermentation effects on processed chocolate have been made. The purpose of this study was to see the effect of different levels of fermentation of cocoa preparations (pasta, fats and powder) to the chemical quality and flavor. Harvested Cocoa beans will be treated fermentation. The treatment used was the time of fermentation namely: (A) Non fermentation, (B) Imperfect fermentation (4 days) and (C) Perfect fermentation (5 days). The parameters observed was: (a) chemical qua...

  6. Sick building syndrome - results of the 'Proklima' research project; Befindlichkeitsstoerungen in Buerogebaeuden - Ergebnisse aus dem Proklima Forschungsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruppa, B. [Bundesindustrieverband Heizungs-, Klima-, Sanitaertechnik und Technische Gebaeudesysteme e.V., Bonn (Germany); Bischof, W.; Brasche, S. [Arbeitsgruppe Raumklimatologie der FSU Jena (ARK), Erfurt (Germany); Bullinger-Naber, M. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Medizinische Psychologie; Mayer, E. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bauphysik, Holzkirchen (Germany); Gebhardt, H. [Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Arbeitsmedizin, Sicherheitstechnik und Ergonomie

    2000-07-01

    Einfluesse auf das Sick Building Syndrome gehen jedoch vom psychosozialen Umfeld und den Taetigkeitsmerkmalen der Personen aus. Gegenueber Faktoren wie Geschlecht, Arbeitszufriedenheit, Arbeitsanforderungen und Bildungsniveau tritt der Einfluss raumlufttechnischer Anlagen auf die Befindlichkeit der Personen in den Hintergrund. (orig.)

  7. Validity of a multi-context sitting questionnaire across demographically diverse population groups: AusDiab3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Bronwyn K; Lynch, Brigid M; Winkler, Elisabeth Ah; Gardiner, Paul A; Healy, Genevieve N; Dunstan, David W; Owen, Neville

    2015-12-04

    Sitting time questionnaires have largely been validated in small convenience samples. The validity of this multi-context sitting questionnaire against an accurate measure of sitting time is reported in a large demographically diverse sample allowing assessment of validity in varied demographic subgroups. A subgroup of participants of the third wave of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle (AusDiab3) study wore activPAL3™ monitors (7 days, 24 hours/day protocol) and reported their sitting time for work, travel, television viewing, leisure computer use and "other" purposes, on weekdays and weekend days (n = 700, age 36-89 years, 45% men). Correlations (Pearson's r; Spearman's ρ) of the self-report measures (the composite total, contextual measures and items) with monitor-assessed sitting time were assessed in the whole sample and separately in socio-demographic subgroups. Agreement was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. The composite total had a correlation with monitor-assessed sitting time of r = 0.46 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40, 0.52); this correlation did not vary significantly between demographic subgroups (all >0.4). The contextual measure most strongly correlated with monitor-assessed sitting time was work (ρ = 0.25, 95 % CI: 0.17, 0.31), followed by television viewing (ρ = 0.16, 95 % CI: 0.09, 0.24). Agreement of the composite total with monitored sitting time was poor, with a positive bias (B = 0.53, SE 0.04, p < 0.001) and wide limits of agreement (±4.32 h). This multi-context questionnaire provides a total sitting time measure that ranks participants well for the purposes of assessing health associations but has limited accuracy relative to activPAL-assessed sitting time. Findings did not differ in demographic subgroups.

  8. Energy recovery from industrial biowastes from Greek sugar and citrus industries; Energetische Nutzung industrieller Bioabfaelle aus der Zucker- und Citrusindustrie in Griechenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rammensee, W.; Agiorgitis, G.

    2000-07-01

    There is no technical problem in operating a fermentation plant at a profit as long as it can run throughout the year. However, if it is to run on seasonally arising wastes, these have to be spread over the whole year to permit continuous fermentation all year round. [German] Ein wirtschaftlicher Betrieb einer Fermentationsanlage ist technisch ohne weiteres erreichbar, setzt aber einen kontinuierlichen, ganzjaehrigen Betrieb voraus. Zur Realisierung eines wirtschaftlichen Betriebs der Fermentation fuer nur jahreszeitlich verfuegbare Abfaelle ist es erforderlich, diese ueber das ganze Jahr zu strecken und somit einen kontinuierlichen Ganzjahresbetrieb der Biofermentation zu ermoeglichen. (orig.)

  9. Physiological and fermentation properties of Bacillus coagulans and a mutant lacking fermentative lactate dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yue; Rhee, Mun Su; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2011-03-01

    Bacillus coagulans, a sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, grows optimally at 50-55 °C and produces lactic acid as the primary fermentation product from both hexoses and pentoses. The amount of fungal cellulases required for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 55 °C was previously reported to be three to four times lower than for SSF at the optimum growth temperature for Saccharomyces cerevisiae of 35 °C. An ethanologenic B. coagulans is expected to lower the cellulase loading and production cost of cellulosic ethanol due to SSF at 55 °C. As a first step towards developing B. coagulans as an ethanologenic microbial biocatalyst, activity of the primary fermentation enzyme L-lactate dehydrogenase was removed by mutation (strain Suy27). Strain Suy27 produced ethanol as the main fermentation product from glucose during growth at pH 7.0 (0.33 g ethanol per g glucose fermented). Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) acting in series contributed to about 55% of the ethanol produced by this mutant while pyruvate formate lyase and ADH were responsible for the remainder. Due to the absence of PDH activity in B. coagulans during fermentative growth at pH 5.0, the l-ldh mutant failed to grow anaerobically at pH 5.0. Strain Suy27-13, a derivative of the l-ldh mutant strain Suy27, that produced PDH activity during anaerobic growth at pH 5.0 grew at this pH and also produced ethanol as the fermentation product (0.39 g per g glucose). These results show that construction of an ethanologenic B. coagulans requires optimal expression of PDH activity in addition to the removal of the LDH activity to support growth and ethanol production.

  10. Solid Substrate Fermentation of Cassava Peel for Poultry Feed Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassava peel which is not used during cassava starch extraction is one of potential resources for animal feed. However, cassava peel has low level protein content, high level crude fiber, and high level of toxic cyanogenic compound. These problems limit the utilization of cassava peel as feed. Solid substrate fermentation using mold may be a solution process to increase its nutritional value and decrease toxic level of cassava peel. In this paper, matters that related with cassava peel fermentation process are subsequently described, namely: (i problems of cassava peel; (ii biodegradation and detoxification process; (iii solid state fermentation methods on cassava peel; (iv nutritional quality of fermented cassava peel; and (v application of fermented cassava peel in poultry feed. The fermented cassava peel application is compared with those of cassava root and waste (onggok. Addition of nitrogen inorganic in the fermentation process increases the mold growth and protein content of the product, while fiber and cyanogenic contents are decreased due to mold degradation activity. The fermentation process may be carried out using only the cassava peel as the substrate or mixed with wheat flour, using indigenous microbes, Aspergillus niger or a white rot fungus, Panus tigrinus as inoculum. As well as fermented cassava root and waste, fermented cassava peel can be used to substitute maize as poultry feed, although it is reported that the optimum substitution in broiler ration is only 10%.

  11. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-06

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  12. Sugaring-out extraction of acetoin from fermentation broth by coupling with fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jian-Ying; Ma, Lin-Hui; Wang, Zhuang-Fei; Guan, Wen-Tian; Xiu, Zhi-Long

    2017-03-01

    Acetoin is a natural flavor and an important bio-based chemical which could be separated from fermentation broth by solvent extraction, salting-out extraction or recovered in the form of derivatives. In this work, a novel method named as sugaring-out extraction coupled with fermentation was tried in the acetoin production by Bacillus subtilis DL01. The effects of six solvents on bacterial growth and the distribution of acetoin and glucose in different solvent-glucose systems were explored. The operation parameters such as standing time, glucose concentration, and volume ratio of ethyl acetate to fermentation broth were determined. In a system composed of fermentation broth, glucose (100%, m/v) and two-fold volume of ethyl acetate, nearly 100% glucose was distributed into bottom phase, and 61.2% acetoin into top phase without coloring matters and organic acids. The top phase was treated by vacuum distillation to remove solvent and purify acetoin, while the bottom phase was used as carbon source to produce acetoin in the next batch of fermentation.

  13. Gas fermentation for commodity chemicals and fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Dürre, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Gas fermentation is a microbial process that contributes to at least four of the sustainable development goals (SDGs) of the United Nations. The process converts waste and greenhouse gases into commodity chemicals and fuels. Thus, world's climate is positively affected. Briefly, we describe the background of the process, some biocatalytic strains, and legal implications. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Microbial Methane Fermentation Kinetics for Toxicant Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-31

    Brock , 1979). The acid-producing fermentative organisms are facultative and obligate anaerobic bacteria. These bacteria include Clostridium spp...was released to the atmosphere. The microorganism concentration, as volatile suspended solids (VSS), of the inoculum source was measured for each...Mah, R.A., Ward, D.M., and Kaplan, I.R. (1978) "Methanogenesis from Acetate Enrichment Cultures," Applied and Environmental Micro- biology , 36, 186

  15. Mixed sugar fermentation by Pichia stipitis , Sacharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ability of K. marxianus to ferment mixed sugars comprised of 30 g/l glucose, 30 g/l xylose, 12 g/l mannose and 8 g/l galactose (total sugar 80 g/l), as a model of many hydrolysates, were compared to P. stipitis and S. cerevisiae and then a coculture of P. stipitis and S. cerevisiae was compared with a coculture of P. stipitis and ...

  16. Mathematical model of self-cycling fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wincure, B.M.; Cooper, D.G.; Rey, A. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-04-20

    This article presents a mathematical model for biomass, limiting substrate, and dissolved oxygen concentrations during stable operation of self-cycling fermentation (SCF). Laboratory experiments using the bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 and ethanol as the limiting substrate were performed to validate the model. A computer simulation developed from the model successfully matched experimental SCF intracycle trends and end-of-cycle results and, most importantly, settled into an unimposed periodicity characteristic of stable SCF operation.

  17. Biomass based energy. A review on raw materials and processing methods; Energie aus Biomasse. Eine Uebersicht ueber Rohstoffe und Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woellauer, P.

    2007-07-01

    The book reviews the variety of biogenic raw materials and the technologically important biomass conversion techniques. The chapter on the different kinds of biomass includes a) wood from forestry, landscape culturing and saw mills, bark and old wood; b) plants (corn, miscanthus, cannabis, wheat, rye, sugar beets, grass, rape, etc.), residuals and wastes (straw, liquid manure, slaughthouse wastes, kitchen wastes, sewage sludge, others). The chapter on biomass conversion processing discusses combustion, oxidation in spercritical water, gasification and reforming, fermentation, extrusion or extraction, and downstream processes. The chapter on biomass based electricity and mechanical energy includes refrigeration engineering, direct utilization: Otto engines, Diesel engines, microgas turbine fuel cells, and heat processing: Striling engine, vapour turbine, ORC turbine, externally fired gas turbine, and the Kalina process.

  18. Influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration treatment on aroma compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in different industrial scale fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jian; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Lu, Lin; Lan, Yi-Bin; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2014-07-01

    The influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration (CM) on Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in two different industrial-scale fermenters was studied. CM treatment had different effects on wine aroma depending on the types of fermenter, being more effective for automatic pumping-over tank (PO-tank) than automatic punching-down tank (PD-tank). When PO-tank was used, CM-treated wine showed a decrease in some fusel alcohols (isobutanol and isopentanol) and an increase in some esters (especially acetate esters). However, no significant changes were detected in these compounds when PD-tank was used. Ethyl 2-hexenoate and diethyl succinate were decreased, while geranylacetone was increased by the CM treatment in both fermenters. β-Damascenone was increased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines but decreased in PD-tank fermented wines. The fruity, caramel and floral aroma series were enhanced while chemical series were decreased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines. The content of (Z)-6-nonen-1-ol in the final wines was positively correlated to CM treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Challenges in industrial fermentation technology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Nørregaard, Anders; Bolic, Andrijana; Hernandez, Daniela Quintanilla; Hagemann, Timo; Heins, Anna-Lena; Larsson, Hilde; Mears, Lisa; Mauricio-Iglesias, Miguel; Krühne, Ulrich; Gernaey, Krist V

    2014-06-01

    Industrial fermentation processes are increasingly popular, and are considered an important technological asset for reducing our dependence on chemicals and products produced from fossil fuels. However, despite their increasing popularity, fermentation processes have not yet reached the same maturity as traditional chemical processes, particularly when it comes to using engineering tools such as mathematical models and optimization techniques. This perspective starts with a brief overview of these engineering tools. However, the main focus is on a description of some of the most important engineering challenges: scaling up and scaling down fermentation processes, the influence of morphology on broth rheology and mass transfer, and establishing novel sensors to measure and control insightful process parameters. The greatest emphasis is on the challenges posed by filamentous fungi, because of their wide applications as cell factories and therefore their relevance in a White Biotechnology context. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is introduced as a promising tool that can be used to support the scaling up and scaling down of bioreactors, and for studying mixing and the potential occurrence of gradients in a tank. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Kombucha fermentation and its antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramulu, G; Zhu, Y; Knol, W

    2000-06-01

    Kombucha was prepared in a tea broth (0.5% w/v) supplemented with sucrose (10% w/v) by using a commercially available starter culture. The pH decreased steadily from 5 to 2.5 during the fermentation while the weight of the "tea fungus" and the OD of the tea broth increased through 4 days of the fermentation and remained fairly constant thereafter. The counts of acetic acid-producing bacteria and yeasts in the broth increased up to 4 days of fermentation and decreased afterward. The antimicrobial activity of Kombucha was investigated against a number of pathogenic microorganisms. Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia enterolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus epidermis, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Helicobacterpylori, and Listeria monocytogenes were found to be sensitive to Kombucha. According to the literature on Kombucha, acetic acid is considered to be responsible for the inhibitory effect toward a number of microbes tested, and this is also valid in the present study. However, in this study, Kombucha proved to exert antimicrobial activities against E. coli, Sh. sonnei, Sal. typhimurium, Sal. enteritidis, and Cm. jejuni, even at neutral pH and after thermal denaturation. This finding suggests the presence of antimicrobial compounds other than acetic acid and large proteins in Kombucha.

  1. Kinetics of saccharose fermentation by Kombucha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Eva S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of saccharose fermentation by Kombucha is not yet well defined due to lack of knowledge of reaction mechanisms taking place during this process. In this research kinetics of saccharose fermentation by Kombucha was analysed using the suggested empirical model. The data were obtained on 1.5 g L-1 of black tea, with 66.47 g L-1 of saccharose and using 10% (v/v or 15% (v/v of Kombucha. Total number of viable cells was as follows: approximately 5x105 of yeast cells per mL of the inoculum and approximately 2x106 of bacteria cells per mL of the inoculum. The samples were analysed after 0, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 10 days. Their pH values and contents of saccharose, glucose, fructose, total acids and ethanol were determined. A saccharose concentration model was defined as sigmoidal function at 22oC and 30oC, and with 10% (v/v and 15% (v/v of inoculum quantity. Determination coefficients of the functions were very high (R2>0.99. Reaction rates were calculated as first derivatives of Boltzmann’s functions. No simple correlation between rate of reaction and independent variables (temperature and inoculum concentration was found. Analysis of empirical model indicated that saccharose fermentation by Kombucha occurred according to very complex kinetics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009

  2. Fermentation based carbon nanotube multifunctional bionic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-06-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Here we produced living hybrid materials by giving to unicellular organisms the nutrient to grow. Based on bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the CNTs were internalized by the cell after fermentation bridging the cells. Tensile tests on dried composite films have been rationalized in terms of a CNT cell bridging mechanism where the strongly enhanced strength of the composite is governed by the adhesion energy between the bridging carbon nanotubes and the matrix. The addition of CNTs also significantly improved the electrical conductivity along with a higher photoconductive activity. The proposed process could lead to the development of more complex and interactive structures programmed to self-assemble into specific patterns, such as those on strain or light sensors that could sense damage or convert light stimulus in an electrical signal.

  3. Korean traditional fermented fish products: jeotgal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ok Kyung Koo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jeotgal (醢 is a traditional Korean fermented food with thousands years of history with kimchi and other jang (fermented soybean products, 醬. The history was proved by research from historical literature and antique architecture. Jeotgal was developed along with jang (豆醬, fish jang (魚醬, meat jang (肉醬 as a part of jang (醬 up to the Chosun Dynasty and it was always offered during the ancestral rites or ceremonies. According to antique documents written by women, jeotgal had been used as seasonings or condiments that were popular especially for women rather than as food served for ancestral rites. In Southeast Asia and other countries, jeotgal uses varieties of fish and seafoods to provide rich and varied flavors, and thanks to the next generation sequencing technology, we can identify microorganisms that are involved in the fermentation process. Major microorganisms in jeotgal are Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Micrococcus, Pediococcus, Pseudomonas, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, and Halobacterium. Recently, much research on various health function of jeotgal has been conducted, reflecting increasing interest in the safety and the functionality of jeotgal. Many reports on functionalities of jeotgal such as supplying essential amino acids, and having antioxidant and antitumorgenic have been published recently. Because of the diverse flavor, types, and their function, jeotgal is expected to continue to develop as an important seasoning in the world sauce market.

  4. Aus der AGMB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hentschel, Eike

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We preview the Annual Meeting of the German MLA (AGMB 2015 in Basel and the planned Annual Meetings in Göttingen, Wien and Oldenburg 2016–2018. We inform about the German MLA (AGMB competition “Pioneer projects in medical libraries” 2015, co-operations with and MFT and travel expenses subventions for members. The list of medical libraries was updated. We search for authors for the weblog “MEDINFO”. The members are asked for updating their membership records.

  5. Aus der AGMB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimann, Iris

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We inform about the main focus of the executive board of the German MLA (AGMB 2015/2016 and preview the Annual Meeting of the AGMB 2016 in Göttingen. We inform about the AGMB competition “Pioneer projects in medical libraries 2016”, about the AGMB colloquium in Münster, co-operations, travel allowances for members and the weblog MEDINFO. The Migration of the AGMB website to a new provider takes place at the moment.

  6. Aus der AGMB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimann, Iris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We look back to a successful Annual Meeting of the German MLA (AGMB 2017 in Vienna. A new executive board was elected as well as the management of the working groups for the period 2017 to 2019. The next conference location in Oldenburg was also presented. The executive board met already with the Oldenburg local committee to visit the conference venues there.

  7. Verbundwerkstoffe aus der Walze

    CERN Multimedia

    Beier, Ernst

    2003-01-01

    In the LHC of CERN, phenomena which can appear collisions of protons must be examined in the future. In this way, conditions which reigned in the first moments of the universe are reproduced. The particles are accelerated in tubes made of a tubular assembly of special steel and copper

  8. Does fermented milk possess antihypertensive effect in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usinger, Lotte; Ibsen, Hans; Jensen, Lars T

    2009-06-01

    The putative antihypertensive effect of milk after fermentation by lactic bacteria has attracted attention over the past 20 years. Research on fermented milk and hypertension has mainly focused on the content of peptides with in-vitro angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor effect. However, fermented milk products contain several proteins, peptides and minerals, all with possible different antihypertensive modes of actions. The burden of cardiovascular events in industrialized countries caused by hypertension is considerable. Diet modifications are one way to lower blood pressure, and fermented milk could be a feasible way. In this review, interventional human studies of the possible antihypertensive effect of fermented milk are evaluated. The results are diverging, and the antihypertensive effect is still debatable. Additionally, present knowledge of bioavailability and in-vivo actions of the peptides in fermented milk are discussed.

  9. Alcoholic fermentation process control by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morawski, J.; Dincer, A.K.; Ivie, K.

    1983-02-01

    In large-scale fermentation for energy production high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) provides an accurate method of monitoring the original oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, as well as their hydrolysis to fermentable monosaccharides. Also measuring the saccharide and alcohol content of the fermentation vat allows overseeing of the process, providing the capability of allowing the fermentation to proceed to the most economical level prior to distillation. Another application for HPLC in a large-scale fermentation for energy is to analyze the stillage for its ethanol content during distillation, in order to observe the efficiency of the still. HPLC can separate and detect very low levels, (i.e., 100 parts per million), of ethanol to yield information concerning the distillation process. These capabilities indicate that HPLC is an extremely useful efficient instrument to the fermentation industries. (Refs. 2).

  10. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochuba, G.U.; Von Riesen, V.L.

    1980-05-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

  11. Immobilized yeast cell systems for continuous fermentation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbelen, Pieter J; De Schutter, David P; Delvaux, Filip; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2006-10-01

    In several yeast-related industries, continuous fermentation systems offer important economical advantages in comparison with traditional systems. Fermentation rates are significantly improved, especially when continuous fermentation is combined with cell immobilization techniques to increase the yeast concentration in the fermentor. Hence the technique holds a great promise for the efficient production of fermented beverages, such as beer, wine and cider as well as bio-ethanol. However, there are some important pitfalls, and few industrial-scale continuous systems have been implemented. Here, we first review the various cell immobilization techniques and reactor setups. Then, the impact of immobilization on cell physiology and fermentation performance is discussed. In a last part, we focus on the practical use of continuous fermentation and cell immobilization systems for beer production.

  12. Review: Diversity of Microorganisms in Global Fermented Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Jyoti P.; Watanabe, Koichi; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.

    2016-01-01

    Culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms naturally ferment majority of global fermented foods and beverages. Traditional food fermentation represents an extremely valuable cultural heritage in most regions, and harbors a huge genetic potential of valuable but hitherto undiscovered strains. Holistic approaches for identification and complete profiling of both culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms in global fermented foods are of interest to food microbiologists. The application of culture-independent technique has thrown new light on the diversity of a number of hitherto unknown and non-cultural microorganisms in naturally fermented foods. Functional bacterial groups (“phylotypes”) may be reflected by their mRNA expression in a particular substrate and not by mere DNA-level detection. An attempt has been made to review the microbiology of some fermented foods and alcoholic beverages of the world. PMID:27047484

  13. Review: Diversity of Microorganisms in Global Fermented Foods and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Tamang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Majority of global fermented foods is naturally fermented by culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms. Food fermentations represent an extremely valuable cultural heritage in most regions, and harbour a huge genetic potential of valuable but hitherto undiscovered strains. Holistic approaches for identification and complete profiling of both culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms in global fermented foods are interest to food microbiologists. The application of molecular and modern identification tools through culture-independent techniques has thrown new light on the diversity of a number of hitherto unknown and uncultivable microorganisms in naturally fermented foods. Functional bacterial groups (phylotypes may be reflected by their mRNA expression in a particular substrate and not by mere DNA-level detection. An attempt is made here to review the microbiology of some global fermented foods and alcoholic beverages.

  14. Elucidating Flux Regulation of the Fermentation Modes of Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Siu Hung Joshua

    an important subject for basic research in cellular metabolism because L. lactis exhibits an interesting metabolic shift. Under anaerobic conditions, on fast fermentable sugars, L. lactis produces lactate as the primary product, known as homolactic fermentation but on slowly fermentable sugars, significant...... amounts of formate, acetate and ethanol are formed, known as mixed-acid fermentation. This shift is termed the mixedacid shift. This type of shift between a low-yield and a high-yield metabolism has drawn a lot of research focus and has similarly been observed in other bacteria, yeast and even tumor cells...... the expression level of certain genes in glycolysis and fermentation pathways, the levels of the cofactors NADH, NAD+, ATP and ADP, the balance between catabolism and anabolism, etc. In this project, we studied the mixed-acid fermentation of L. lactis by (i) examining the roles of the enzymes in the mixed...

  15. An untargeted metabolomic assessment of cocoa beans during fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mayorga Gross, Ana Lucía; Quirós Guerrero, Luis Manuel; Fourny, G.; Vaillant Barka, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Fermentation is a critical step in the processing of high quality cocoa; however, the biochemistry behind is still not well understood at a molecular level. In this research, using a non-targeted approach, the main metabolomic changes that occur throughout the fermentation process were explored. Genetically undefined cocoa varieties from Trinidad and Tobago (n = 3), Costa Rica (n = 1) and one clone IMC-67 (n = 3) were subjected to spontaneous fermentation using farm-based and pilot plant cont...

  16. glutamic acid from high-viscosity fermentation broth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was adjusted to 2.5 - 11.5 with 6 mol/L HCI and. 10 mol/L NaOH. The effect of temperature on the viscosity of fermentation broth with different dilution times was evaluated. Figure 4 shows that the viscosity of fermentation broth was affected by pH and dilution fold. At the end of fermentation, the pH of the culture broth was.

  17. Probiotic Delivery through Fermentation: Dairy vs. Non-Dairy Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Chaminda Senaka Ranadheera; Janak K. Vidanarachchi; Ramon Silva Rocha; Adriano G. Cruz; Said Ajlouni

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, mainly through the process of replacing or including beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Fermented dairy foods such as yogurt, fermented milk and cheese are the major vehicle in delivering probiotics, and probiotic delivery have been traditionally associated with these fermented dairy foods. Additionally, many other non-dairy probiotic products and non-food form ...

  18. Development of a goat fermented milk with probiotics starter culture

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Hernández-Monzón; Ariagne Torres-Herrera; Cira Duarte-Garcia; Diómedes Rodríguez-Villacis

    2016-01-01

    The goat milk for their multiple properties nutraceutical and for the high yield of their derived products, it represents an interesting commercial alternative for the elaboration of special fermented milk. At the present time the probiotics starter culture for their proven properties are used thoroughly in the elaboration of fermented milk. Keeping in mind these antecedents this work had as objective to develop a fermented milk of goat with characteristic probiotics, good acceptability and a...

  19. Reverse Osmosis Processing of Organic Model Compounds and Fermentation Broths

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    key species found in the fermentation broth: ethanol, butanol, acetic acid, oxalic acid, lactic acid, and butyric acid. Correlations of the rejection...AFRL-ML-TY-TP-2007-4545 POSTPRINT REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESSING OF ORGANIC MODEL COMPOUNDS AND FERMENTATION BROTHS Robert Diltz...TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) Bioresource Technology 98 (2007) 686–695Reverse osmosis processing of organic model compounds and fermentation broths

  20. Current progress on butyric acid production by fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhui; Yang, Hua; Yang, Fangxiao; Ma, Yujiu

    2009-12-01

    Several issues of butyric acid production with bacteria through fermentation are presented in this review. The current progress including the utilization of butyric acid, the production strains, the metabolic pathway, and regulation are presented in the paper. Process operation modes such as batch, fed-batch, and continuous fermentation are being discussed. Genetic engineering technologies for microbial strain improvement are also being discussed and fermentation systems have been recommended.

  1. What is alcoholic fermentation? A study about the alcoholic fermentation conception through the history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. F. Cardoso

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the historical development of the alcoholic fermentation conception, based on expe-rimental results obtained from European scientists, from Renascence to the beginning of 20th century(1930. From this, ve concepts were identied for the phenomenon: putrefactive, spiritual, chemical,biological and biochemical. The current conception of alcoholic fermentation was also evaluated. Forthis proposal, three groups of teachers were interviewed through the question? What is alcoholicfermentation? The P group (pilot, n=12 made of professionals that teach on secondary and highschools, group A composed of PhDs from the Center of Technology Education - NUTES (n=9 andgroup B from Department of Medical Biochemistry (called group B, n=41 both of Federal Universityof Rio de Janeiro, respectively. Key words associated with the fermentative process were identiedidentify in the interviewees answers. The group A components mentioned only six key words andpointed out the alcoholic fermentation products. Dierently, subjects from P and B groups cited ahigher number and also more unusual key words (n = 9 and 12, respectively. We also analyzedtheir answers throughout fermentative descriptive words (sugar, alcohol, carbon dioxide, anaerobic,yeast and ATP. These words were established after an evaluation of alcoholic fermentation conceptstated in the Biology/Biochemistry books most adopted in high schools and Universities. Our analysisshowed that group A used only three descriptive words (sugar, alcohol and yeast while componentsof group B used all the selected descriptive words. However, only one interviewee used all the sixwords together. From this analysis, we proposed that the chemical concept of alcoholic fermentationprevailed on the other concepts found on the historical research (spiritual, putrefactive, biological ebiochemical.

  2. Marginal flow and gap flow in strongly staggered cascades of slightly convex profiles; Rand- und Spaltstroemungen in stark gestaffelten Verdichtergittern aus schwach gewoelbten Profilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasongko, H. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik

    1997-09-01

    Marginal flow and gap flow through a highly staggered cascade consisting of slightly convex profiles were investigated in two steps. Cascades without gap were investigated in the first step and cascades with gap in the second. In the first step, a slightly staggered cascade of identical geometry was used for comparison. In the second step, an external rotor cascade of 9C7/32,5C50 profiles with a division ratio t/l = 1.0 and a staggering angle of {lambda} = 50 was used. At a Reynolds number Re{sub j} = 3.5 x 10{sup 5} and gap widths of s/l = 0.0, 0.01 and 0.3, flows, wakes and pressure distributions were measured and diagrams made. The measurements were evaluated by mass averaging and with the aid of the pulse method. In addition to the averaged results of a standard investigation, the dissertation comprises extensive data on 3D flow near the blade ends and at the side wall as a function of blade angles and gap widths between blades and side wall. This was the first time that marginal flow and gap flow of strongly staggered cascades with slightly convex profiles were investigated in a cascade wind tunnel. The findings are therefore quite new and deviate strongly from the results of earlier investigations on strongly convex profiles. The findings were compared with the results of compressor investigations, and good agreement was found. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Arbeit berichtet ueber die in zwei Schritten durchgefuehrten Untersuchungen der Rand- und Spaltstroemungen eines hoch gestaffelten Verdichtergitters aus schwach gewoelbten Profilen. Im ersten Schritt wurde das Gitter ohne Spalt, im zweiten Schritt mit Spalt untersucht. Vergleichsgitter im ersten Schritt war ein zusaetzlich untersuchtes Gitter schwacher Staffelung mit sonst gleicher Geometrie. Vergleichsgitter im zweiten Schritt war das hoch gestaffelte Gitter aus dem ersten Schritt. Das untersuchte Verdichtergitter ist ein Rotor-Aussenschnitt-Gitter aus 9C7/32,5C50-Profilen mit einem

  3. Biomonitoring of lead and cadmium in women from industrial regions of eastern Germany; Biomonitoring von Blei und Cadmium bei Frauen aus industriellen Regionen Sachsen-Anhalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, I.; Wichmann, H.E. [Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Epidemiologie; GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie; Becker, K.; Lippold, U.; Meyer, E. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Heinrich, J. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie

    2003-07-01

    kreatininbezogene Cadmiumkonzentration im Urin bestimmt. Es wurde eine mittlere korporale Belastung mit Blei von 41,5 {mu}g/l Blut (95% K.I.: 39,6-43,6) und eine mittlere innere Exposition mit Cadmium von 0,417 {mu}g/gKr (95% K.I.: 0,390-0,447) festgestellt. Somit unterschied sich die innere Belastung mit Blei und Cadmium nicht oder nur geringfuegig von der der Allgemeinbevoelkerung. Von der gemessenen korporalen Belastung ging keine gesundheitliche Gefaehrdung aus. Frauen aus der schwermetallbelasteten Region Hettstedt hatten im Vergleich zu Frauen aus den beiden anderen Regionen keine erhoehten Blutbleikonzentrationen. Die Blutbleikonzentration, die v.a. die aktuelle Exposition gegenueber Blei reflektiert, wurde bei Frauen im 6. Lebensjahrzehnt von individuellen Verhaltensweisen wie dem Rauchen sowie von der Distanz des Wohngebietes zu den Hettstedter Huettengebieten beeinflusst. Ausserdem fuehrte eine erhoehte Bleikonzentration im Trinkwasser sowie die Freisetzung von Blei aus den Knochen nach der Menopause zu einer erhoehten Blutbleikonzentration. Im Vergleich zu Frauen aus den Kontrollregionen wiesen Frauen aus Hettstedt eine deutlich erhoehte Cadmiumexkretion mit dem Urin auf. Die Cadmiumkonzentration im Urin spiegelt v.a. die kumulative, lebenslange Exposition gegenueber Cadmium wider. (orig.)

  4. Associations of overall sitting time and TV viewing time with fibrinogen and C reactive protein: the AusDiab study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Bethany J; Balkau, Beverley; Thorp, Alicia A; Magliano, Dianna J; Shaw, Jonathan E; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W

    2015-02-01

    Sedentary behaviour is associated with increased risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Plasma fibrinogen and C reactive protein (CRP)-key inflammatory and/or haemostatic markers-may contribute to this association; however, few studies have examined their relationships with sedentary behaviours. We examined associations of overall sitting and TV viewing time with fibrinogen and high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP). Plasma fibrinogen and hsCRP were measured in 3086 Australian adults (mean age: 55±12 years) who participated in the 2004-2005 AusDiab (Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle) study. Multiple linear regression analyses examined cross-sectional associations of self-reported overall sitting and TV viewing time (h/day) with plasma fibrinogen and hsCRP, adjusting for sociodemographic, behavioural and medical treatments and conditions as potential covariates. Overall sitting time and TV viewing time were positively associated with plasma fibrinogen (sitting: β: 0.02 g/L, 95% CI (0.01 to 0.02); TV time: 0.03 g/L (0.02 to 0.05)) and hsCRP (sitting: 2.4% (1.2% to 3.6%); TV time: 4.5% (1.7% to 7.4%)). Associations were independent of leisure-time physical activity, but after adjusting for waist circumference, they remained for fibrinogen, but for hsCRP were attenuated to the null. Interactions were observed for gender×TV (p=0.011) with fibrinogen (associations in women only) and for waist circumference×TV (p=0.084) with hsCRP (associations in low-risk only). Overall sitting time was positively associated with plasma fibrinogen and hsCRP in men and women; associations of TV viewing time with fibrinogen were observed in women only. Abdominal adiposity-mediated associations for hsCRP but not for fibrinogen. Prospective and intervention studies are needed to establish likely causality and elucidate potential mechanisms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. High-performance ceramic filters for energy engineering. Final report; Filter aus Hochleistungskeramik fuer die Energietechnik. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerheide, R. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik (IWM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Adler, J. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Keramische Technologien und Sinterwerkstoffe (IKTS), Dresden (Germany); Buhl, H. [ESK-SIC GmbH, Frechen-Grefrath (Germany); Fister, D. [H.C. Starck GmbH, Laufenburg (Germany); Krein, J. [LLB Lurgi Lentjes Energietechnik GmbH, Frankfurt (Germany); Voelker, W. [Annawerk GmbH, Roedental (Germany); Walch, A. [eds.] [USF Schumacher Umwelt- und Trenntechnik GmbH, Crailsheim (Germany)

    1999-09-30

    The hot gas particulate removal of many advanced coal fired power generation technologies works at temperatures above 800 C. The filter elements for these applications are often based on ceramic materials, e.g. silicon carbide. However, the mostly clay bonded silicon carbide is subject to creep and oxidation due to probable changes of the binder phase. In this work the development of new ceramic filter materials based on silicon carbide and alumina is described. The goal of the development was to increase the potential application temperature. To obtain the goal, the work was performed together with ceramic powder manufacturers, developers of ceramic materials and components as well as with companies who operate test facilities. Different routes were chosen to increase the high temperature resistance in consideration of corrosion resistance, fracture strength and pressure loss of the filter materials. One of these routes was the optimization of the binder phase of the silicon carbide materials. Other routes were concentrated on the base material and the investigation of other possibilities for the silicon carbide bonding, i.e. a recrystallization process of SiC (RSiC) or a self bonding of granulated small grained silicon carbide powder. Additionally filter materials based on alumina were developed. The report covers these material development oriented topics as well as the additional work in materials reliability, coating development and modeling of microstructure. (orig.) [German] In der Kombikraftwerkstechnik wird insbesondere bei Kohlefeuerung die Heissgasreinigung oft bei Temperaturen ueber 800 C eingesetzt. Die Filterelemente fuer diese Anwendungen bestehen oft aus keramischen Materialien. Das haeufig eingesetzte tongebundene Siliciumcarbid unterliegt jedoch besonders aufgrund der Beschaffenheit der Bindephase Kriech- und Oxidationsschaedigungen. In diesem Bericht wird die Entwicklung von neuen keramischen Filtermaterialien, die auf Siliciumcarbid oder

  6. Yeast Diversity and Persistence in Botrytis-Affected Wine Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, David A.; Johannsen, Eric A.; Cocolin, Luca

    2002-01-01

    Culture-dependent and -independent methods were used to examine the yeast diversity present in botrytis-affected (“botrytized”) wine fermentations carried out at high (∼30°C) and ambient (∼20°C) temperatures. Fermentations at both temperatures possessed similar populations of Saccharomyces, Hanseniaspora, Pichia, Metschnikowia, Kluyveromyces, and Candida species. However, higher populations of non-Saccharomyces yeasts persisted in ambient-temperature fermentations, with Candida and, to a lesser extent, Kluyveromyces species remaining long after the fermentation was dominated by Saccharomyces. In general, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of yeast ribosomal DNA or rRNA amplified from the fermentation samples correlated well with the plating data. The direct molecular methods also revealed a Hanseniaspora osmophila population not identified in the plating analysis. rRNA analysis also indicated a large population (>106 cells per ml) of a nonculturable Candida strain in the high-temperature fermentation. Monoculture analysis of the Candida isolate indicated an extreme fructophilic phenotype and correlated with an increased glucose/fructose ratio in fermentations containing higher populations of Candida. Analysis of wine fermentation microbial ecology by using both culture-dependent and -independent methods reveals the complexity of yeast interactions enriched during spontaneous fermentations. PMID:12324335

  7. Low energy Kombucha fermented milk-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Spasenija D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates manufacturing of fermented beverages from two types of milk (1 % w/w and 2.2 % w/w fat by applying of Kombucha, which contains several yeasts and bacterial strains. The starter was the inoculum produced from previous Kombucha fermentation. The applied starter concentrations were: 10 % v/v, 15 % v/v and 20 % v/v. Also, the traditional yoghurt starter was used to produce the control samples. All fermentations were performed at 42oC and the changes in the pH were monitored. The fermentation process was about three times faster in the control yoghurt than in the Kombucha samples. Influence of Kombucha inoculum concentration on the rate of fermentation appeared not to be significant. All fermentations were stopped when the pH reached 4.4. After the production, the quality of the fermented milk beverages with Kombucha was determined and compared with the quality of the control yoghurt samples. It was concluded that the difference in fat contents in milks affects the difference in quantities of other components in the fermented milk beverages with Kombucha. Sensory characteristics of the beverages manufactured from the partially skimmed milk are much better than those of the fermented beverages produced from the low fat milk.

  8. Aeration-Controlled Formation of Acid in Heterolactic Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Jens

    1994-01-01

    fermentation processes should be analyzed as fed-batch fermentations with oxygen as the limiting substrate. Addition of fructose in limited amounts leads to the formation of one half mole of acetic acid for each mole fructose, thus offering an alternative mechanism for controlling acetic acid formation.......Controlled aeration of Leuconostoc mesenteroides was studied as a possible mechanism for control of the formation of acetic acid, a metabolite of major influence on the taste of lactic fermented foods. Fermentations were carried out in small scale in a medium in which growth was limited...

  9. Evaluation of fermented whole crop wheat and barley feeding on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of fermented whole crop wheat and barley feeding on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, faecal volatile fatty acid emission, blood constituents, and faecal microbiota in growing pigs.

  10. Fermented functional foods based on probiotics and their biogenic metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Van Sinderen, Douwe

    2005-04-01

    The claimed health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interaction of ingested live microorganisms, bacteria or yeast with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as a result of ingestion of microbial metabolites produced during the fermentation process (biogenic effect). Although still far from fully understood, several probiotic mechanisms of action have been proposed, including competitive exclusion, competition for nutrients and/or stimulation of an immune response. The biogenic properties of fermented functional foods result from the microbial production of bioactive metabolites such as certain vitamins, bioactive peptides, organic acids or fatty acids during fermentation.

  11. Factors affecting methanol content of fermented plant beverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting methanol content of fermented plant beverage containing Morinda citrifolia. Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Supakan Jantavong, Chakkrapong Kruatama, Sartjin Peerajan, Sasithorn Sirilun, Lalida Shank ...

  12. Single zymomonas mobilis strain for xylose and arabinose fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen; Picataggio, Stephen K.; Finkelstein, Mark

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to single microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugars which are genetically altered to ferment the pentose sugars, xylose and arabinose, to produce ethanol, and a fermentation process utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with a combination of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase, transaldolase and transketolase. Expression of added genes are under the control of Z. mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting glucose, xylose and arabinose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose or starch, to produce ethanol.

  13. A Perspective on PSE in Fermentation Process Development and Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the chemical industry, the use of PSE methods and tools is not as widespread in industrial fermentation processes. This paper gives an overview of some of the main engineering challenges in industrial fermentation processes. Furthermore, a number of mathematical models are highlighted...... as examples of PSE methods and tools that are used in the context of industrial fermentation technology. Finally, it is discussed what could be done to increase the future use of PSE methods and tools within the industrial fermentation technology area....

  14. Microbiological analysis and antibacterial effects of the indigenous fermented Puer tea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Xu, X.Q.; Yan, M.C.; Yang Zhu, Yang

    2005-01-01

    Microbiological analysis was done on samples from an indigenously fermented tea - Puer. Microbial counting and identification revealed that Aspergillus niger was the dominating microorganism during the fermentation. Antimicrobial activity of fermentation samples showed inhibitory effect on several

  15. Flavonoide aus der Larvennahrung bestimmen die UV-Muster der Flügel des Bläulings Polyommatus icarus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Knüttel, Helge; Fiedler, Konrad

    1999-01-01

    Die Raupen des Hauhechel-Bläulings Polyommatus icarus Rottemburg sequestrieren aus ihrer Pflanzennahrung spezifisch Flavonoide, die während der Puppenphase v.a. in den Flügeln eingelagert werden. Die Flavonoide absorbieren ultraviolettes (UV) Licht und bestimmen damit wesentlich das optische Erscheinungsbild der Falter in diesem Wellenlängenbereich. Die UV-Muster der Flügelunterseiten variieren abhängig von der Raupennahrung und können als Indikator bei der Partnerwahl dienen.

  16. Eine Einführung in die Inverted/Flipped-Classroom-Methode in der Aus- und Weiterbildung in der Medizin und den Gesundheitsberufen

    OpenAIRE

    Tolks, Daniel; Schäfer, Christine; Raupach, Tobias; Kruse, Leona; Sarikas, Antonio; Gerhardt-Szép, Susanne; Kllauer, Gertrud; Lemos, Martin; Fischer, Martin R.; Eichner, Barbara; Sostmann, Kai; Hege, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Dieser Artikel beschreibt die Inverted-Classroom-Methode(ICM) im Sinne einer Einführung in die Thematik und soll als Praxisleitleitfaden für diejenigen dienen, die diese Methode in der medizinischen Aus-, Fort- und Weiterbildung einsetzen möchten. Es handelt sich bei der ICM um einen Blended-Learning-Methode, bei dem eine Selbstlernphase (individuelle Phase) vor die Präsenzunterrichtsphase gesetzt wird. In der Online-Phase wird Faktenwissen vermittelt, das als Grundlage für die Präsenzphase d...

  17. Täter- und Opfergeschichten. Schuld in Alois Hotschnigs Prosawerken «Aus», «Leonardos Hände» und «Ludwigs Zimmer»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Gösweiner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The assumption this article is based on is that guilt is perhaps the most important theme in Alois Hotschnig’s writing. This article therefore aims at analyzing Hotschnig’s focus on the theme of guilt in his novels. Three examples of Hotschnig’s prose work serve as case studies: his debut Aus, and the two novels Leonardos Hände, and Ludwigs Zimmer. Since guilt seems to be a very important topic in the Austrian literary tradition, this article also tries to establish whether and how Hotschnig takes up this grand Austrian tradition of writing about guilt.

  18. Combustion of high-rank light fraction. First experiences with GAVI/VAM; Verbrennung von heizwertreicher Leichtfraktion. Erste Erfahrungen aus der GAVI-VAM (Wijster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wandschneider, J. [Goepfert, Reimer und Partner Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    GAVI/VAM consists of a sorting plant which is topped by an RDF combustion plant. These two plant components are directly linked with each other via an RDF bunker (24 h). The present contribution addresses the main components of the combustion plant individually and points out its special features as compared with crude waste combustion. [Deutsch] Die GAVI/VAM besteht aus einer Sortieranlage mit nachgeschalteter RDF-Verbrennungsanlage, beide Anlagenteile sind durch einen RDF-Bunker (24 h) unmittelbar miteinander verbunden. Nachfolgend werden die wesentlichen Komponenten der Verbrennungsanlage einzeln angesprochen und die Besonderheiten im Vergleich zur Rohmuellverbrennung dargestellt. (orig./SR)

  19. Regulation und Funktion der NADPH-Oxidase 1 in pulmonalvaskulären glatten Muskelzellen aus Ratten im Modell der Monocrotalin-induzierten pulmonalen Hypertonie

    OpenAIRE

    Veit, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonale Hypertonie (PH) ist eine schwerwiegende Erkrankung der pulmonalarteriellen Gefäße und ist durch einen hohen mittleren pulmonalarteriellen Blutdruck charakterisiert. Die Krankheit steht in Verbindung mit einem Umbau der betroffenen Gefäße, dem sog. Remodeling. Dadurch wird das Lumen der Gefäße verringert, es kann zu einem Verlust von Gefäßen kommen und der Blutdruck steigt an. Obwohl kontrovers diskutiert, geht eine Hypothese davon aus, dass der Umbauprozess, unter anderem, durch die...

  20. New alternatives for the fermentation process in the ethanol production from sugarcane: Extractive and low temperature fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Ensinas, Adriano; Modesto, Marcelo; Nebra, Silvia A.

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is produced in large scale from sugarcane in Brazil by fermentation of sugars and distillation. This is currently considered as an efficient biofuel technology, leading to significant reduction on greenhouse gases emissions. However, some improvements in the process can be introduced in order to improve the use of energy. In current distilleries, a significant fraction of the energy consumption occurs in the purification step – distillation and dehydration – since conventional fermentation systems employed in the industry require low substrate concentration, which must be distilled, consequently with high energy consumption. In this study, alternatives to the conventional fermentation processes are assessed, through computer simulation: low temperature fermentation and vacuum extractive fermentation. The aim of this study is to assess the incorporation of these alternative fermentation processes in ethanol production, energy consumption and electricity surplus produced in the cogeneration system. Several cases were evaluated. Thermal integration technique was applied. Results shown that the ethanol production increases between 3.3% and 4.8% and a reduction in steam consumption happens of up to 36%. About the electricity surplus, a value of 85 kWh/t of cane can be achieved when condensing – extracting steam turbines are used. - Highlights: • Increasing the wine concentration in the ethanol production from sugarcane. • Alternatives to the conventional fermentation process. • Low temperature fermentation and vacuum extractive fermentation. • Reduction of steam consumption through the thermal integration of the processes. • Different configurations of cogeneration system maximizing the electricity surplus

  1. Effect of Fermentation Temperature on the Volatile Composition of Kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sang Pil; Lee, Eun Joo; Kim, Young Ho; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-10-17

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fermentation temperature on the volatile composition in Kimchi. Kimchi was fermented at 2 temperature conditions (4 and 20 °C). Volatile compounds of Kimchi samples were analyzed during the fermentation periods using the dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The optimum ripening time for the Kimchi fermented at 4 °C was 35 d, and that of 20 °C was 2 d. The pH at the optimum ripening time was 4.97 and 4.41, and the titratable acidity was 0.59% and 0.76% for the Kimchi fermented at 4 and 20 °C, respectively. Forty different types of volatile compounds, including alcohol, aldehyde, ester, and sulfur compounds, were identified. The Kimchi fermented at 20 °C produced greater amounts of volatile compounds than that at 4 °C. The amounts of most volatiles increased as the fermentation time increased, but those of aldehydes decreased rapidly during both 4 and 20 °C fermentation. Organic acids, ester, and nitriles were detected only in Kimchi fermented at 20 °C. The amounts of dimethyl disulfide, methyl-2-propenyl disulfide, and di-2-propenyl disulfide produced from the Kimchi fermented at 20 °C were more than 2-times of those at 4 °C. Therefore, it is concluded that the strong pungent odor of Kimchi fermented at 20° C is probably due to the high amount of organic acids (low pH) and sulfur compounds (dimethyl disulfide, methyl-2-propenyl disulfide, and di-2-propenyl disulfide) between the 2 Kimchi. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Characteristics of Spoilage-Associated Secondary Cucumber Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Wendy; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D.; McFeeters, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary fermentations during the bulk storage of fermented cucumbers can result in spoilage that causes a total loss of the fermented product, at an estimated cost of $6,000 to $15,000 per affected tank. Previous research has suggested that such fermentations are the result of microbiological utilization of lactic acid and the formation of acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. The objectives of this study were to characterize the chemical and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations and to isolate and characterize potential causative microorganisms. Both commercial spoilage samples and laboratory-reproduced secondary fermentations were evaluated. Potential causative agents were isolated based on morphological characteristics. Two yeasts, Pichia manshurica and Issatchenkia occidentalis, were identified and detected most commonly concomitantly with lactic acid utilization. In the presence of oxygen, yeast metabolic activities lead to lactic acid degradation, a small decline in the redox potential (Eh, Ag/AgCl, 3 M KCl) of the fermentation brines, and an increase in pH to levels at which bacteria other than the lactic acid bacteria responsible for the primary fermentation can grow and produce acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. Inhibition of these yeasts by allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) resulted in stabilization of the fermented medium, while the absence of the preservative resulted in the disappearance of lactic and acetic acids in a model system. Additionally, three Gram-positive bacteria, Lactobacillus buchneri, a Clostridium sp., and Pediococcus ethanolidurans, were identified as potentially relevant to different stages of the secondary fermentation. The unique opportunity to study commercial spoilage samples generated a better understanding of the microbiota and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations. PMID:22179234

  3. Fermentation instead of animal feeding; In den Fermenter statt in den Magen des Schweins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brombach, T.

    2008-07-01

    Since 2006, Germany has prohibited the feeding of class K3 waste food from gastronomy, canteens and the food industry to pigs. Fermentation is a creative solution. In Haid on the Schwaebische Alb mountain range, two creative waste managers developed a plant for power generation from fat and used oils. (orig.)

  4. La fermentation éthanolique. Les microorganismes Ethanol Fermentation. The Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballerini D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude précise l'état actuel des connaissances concernant la fermentation éthanolique, d'un point de vue microbiologique. Outre les microorganismes utilisés depuis longtemps, sont décrites les nouvelles espèces de levures et de bactéries capables de transformer en éthanol des substrats aussi divers que les composés cellulosiques et hémicellulosiques issus de la biomasse et leurs produits d'hydrolyse. Pour la fermentation des substrats traditionnels tels que les mélasses et les jus d'extraction de plantes sucrières, ou encore l'amidon de maïs, les performances des levures du genre Saccharomyces sont comparées à celles des bactéries du genre Zymomonas. This review gives the state-of-the-art of what is known about ethanol fermentation from the microbiological viewpoint. In addition to the microorganisms that have been used for a long time, it describes new species of yeasts and bacteria capable of transforming, in ethanol, substrates including such different ones as cellulosic and hemicellulosic compounds issuing from biomass and their hydrolysis products. For the fermentation of traditional substrates such as molasses and juices extracted from sugar plants, or cornstarch, the performances of yeasts of the Saccharomyces type are compared to those of bacteria of the Zymomonas type.

  5. Growth media in anaerobic fermentative processes : The underestimated potential of thermophilic fermentation and anaerobic digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.T.W.M.; van Lier, J.B.; de Kreuk, M.K.

    2018-01-01

    Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic waste and wastewater is broadly studied and applied. Despite widely available results and data for these processes, comparison of the generated results in literature is difficult. Not only due to the used variety of process conditions, but also

  6. Use of innovative projects in the Agenda procedure: Heating - ventilation - sanitary. Compilation of selected projects from data base of Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt. CD-ROM of May 2000 as further added sources.; Nutzung innovativer Projekte im Agenda Prozess: Heizung - Lueftung - Sanitaer. Zusammenstellung ausgewaehlter Projekte aus der Datenbank der Deutschen Bundesstiftung Umwelt. CD-ROM vom Mai 2000 sowie weiterer hinzugezogene Quellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefe, W. (comp.)

    2001-05-01

    Compilation of selected projects from data base of Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt. (orig.) [German] Zusammenstellung ausgewaehlter Projekte aus der Datenbank der Deutschen Bundesstiftung Umwelt. (orig.)

  7. Materials data for fatigue life calculation of steel sheet structures for automotive engineering; Werkstoffkennwerte fuer die Lebensdauerberechnung von Strukturen aus Stahlfeinblechen fuer den Automobilbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonsino, C.M.; Kaufmann, H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Betriebsfestigkeit LBF, Darmstadt (Germany); Masendorf, R.; Hatscher, A.; Zenner, H. [Institut fuer Maschinelle Anlagentechnik und Betriebsfestigkeit (IMAB), Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Bork, C.P. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Hinterdorfer, J. [Voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Linz (Austria); Sonne, H.M. [ThyssenKrupp Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany); Engl, B. [MgF Magnesium Flachprodukte GmbH, Dortmund (Germany); Steinbeck, G. [Stahlinstitut VDEh, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    Within a joint project of the steel and automotive industry 17 steel sheet materials for automotive engineering in various delivery and forming conditions at temperatures of -40 C, 22 C and 100 C were investigated. In the course of 37 test series strain controlled fatigue curves to crack initiation and stress-strain-curves under monotonic and cyclic loading were determined. All experimental data, hysteresis loops and determined cyclic properties are available in a database. A correlation between the mechanical properties from tensile tests and the properties from strain controlled cyclic experiments seems to be possible. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Im Rahmen eines gemeinschaftlichen Projektes der Stahl- und Automobilindustrie wurden fuer 17 Stahlfeinbleche des Automobilbaus in verschiedenen Anlieferungs- und Verformungszustaenden unter -40 C, Raumtemperatur und +100 C mit 37 Versuchsreihen Anrisswoehlerlinien und zuegige bzw. zyklische Spannung-Dehnung-Kurven bestimmt. Saemtliche Versuchspunkte, Hysteresen und ermittelte zyklische Kennwerte liegen in einer Datenbank vor. Eine Korrelationen zwischen den Kennwerten aus dem Zugversuch und den Kennwerten aus den zyklischen, dehnungsgeregelten Versuchen ist grundsaetzlich moeglich. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. A dualidade presença/ausência nas imagens impressas de Edvard Munch e Andy Warhol: aproximações possíveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Mobilon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ao observar a iconografia na obra impressa desses dois artistas de contextos diversos, é possível estabelecer uma aproximação. Ambos praticaram repetições e variações temáticas/cromáticas. Uma exposição ocorrida no Louisiana Museum of Modern Art (Dinamarca colocou lado a lado os dois artistas. O curador da exposição, Poul Erik Tøjner, afirma que ambos compartilham uma consciência retórica sobre os meios e fins da arte. A retórica de Munch, ancorada no Simbolismo, vai além da reiteração de um pensamento sobre o fantasma da ausência, muitas vezes materializado em mancha, sombra e duplo. Warhol, ao emergir nos anos 1960 em Nova York, escolheu a serigrafia - um meio utilizado na publicidade - para "pintar" os seus ícones - estrelas de Hollywood, quase todas de destino trágico. As suas imagens - Marilyns, cadeiras elétricas, latas de sopa Campbell, etc. - tematizam não a presença desses seres e objetos, e sim sua ausência.

  9. Neue Pflanzenfunde aus dem Tertiär der Rhön. – Teil 1: Miozäne Fundstellen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Gümbel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aus dem Tertiär der Rhön werden 47 Pflanzenarten aus 32 Familien nach Früchten und Samen beschrieben. Sie entstammen den braunkohlenführenden Kaltennordheimer Schichten vom Bauersberg bei Bischofsheim, Hochrain bei Gerstengrund und Kaltennordheim. Ihr untermiozänes. Alter ist durch tierische Fossilien und radiometrische Altersdatierungen von Basalt festgelegt. Unklar bleibt ihre Einordnung in den Florenkomplex „Brandis-Bílina” (etwa 20,5–18 Mio. J. oder "Kleinleipisch-Františkove Láznê" (jünger als 17,5 Mio. J.. On the base of fossil fruits and seeds 47 plant species belonging to 32 families are described. They have been derived from the browncoal-bearing layers of the Kaltennordheim section at the Bauersberg near Bischofsheim, Hochrain near Gerstengrund and Kaltennordheim. The age is Lower Miocene based on gastropods and mammals and also radiometic dates of the basalt. The assignment to the floral assemblages “Brandis-Bílina” (ca. 20,5 to 18 mio y. or "Kleinleipisch-Františkove-Láznê" (younger than 17,5 mio y. is still uncertain. doi:10.1002/mmng.20020050122

  10. Neue Pflanzenfunde aus dem Tertiär der Rhön. – Teil 2: Pliozäne Fundstellen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gümbel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Aus dem Jungtertiär der Rhön werden 127 Pflanzenarten aus 59 Familien nach Früchten und Samen beschrieben. Nur Leontodon rhoenensis nov. spec. (Asteraceae ist eine neue Art. Sie entstammen den Füllsedimenten der Dolinen von Barchfeld, Kaltensundheim und Oberzella. Ihr oberpliozänes Alter ist durch tierische Fossilien (arvernsis-Schichten und paläomagnetische Altersdatierungen festgelegt. Ihre Einordnung in die Florenkomplexe "Ceyssac-Kaltensundheim" (2,8–2,56 Mio. J. und "Berga-Reuver" (2,65–2,47 Mio.J. ist sicher. On the base of fossil fruits and seeds 127 plant species belonging to 59 families are described from the Upper Tertiary of the Rhön mountains, including Leontodon rhoenensis nov. spec. (Asteraceae. They have been derived from the filling of dolines near Barchfeld, Kaltensundheim and Oberzella. The age of the sediments is Upper Pliocene based on mammals (arvernensis-beds and paleomagnetic dated. The assignment to the floral assemblages "Ceyssac-Kaltensundheim" (2.8 to 2.56 my. and "Berga-Reuver" (2.65 to 2.47 my. is quite sure. doi:10.1002/mmng.20040070110

  11. Comparison of different methods of assessing the tar content of gases from wood gasification; Vergleich verschiedener Methoden zur Bestimmung des Teergehalts in Gasen aus der Holzvergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moersch, O.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    1998-09-01

    The authors present a method developed at the Institute of Chemical Engineering and Steam Boiler Technology (IVD) of Stuttgart University for quasi-continuous online measurement of tar concentrations in gases from biomass gasification. The method is compared with other methods in terms of time requirements, accuracy, and cost: Gravimetry, wet chemical analysis, solid phase amino-adsorption (SPA), and online process gas chromatography. The measurements were carried out on the fluidized-bed combustion system of the IVD. Wood was gasified at 800 degrees centigrade with a fuel/air ratio of 0.25. The measured tar concentrations differed widely, i.e. between 0.8 and 6.8 g per cubic metre. (orig.) [Deutsch] In dieser Arbeit wird ein am Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD) entwickeltes Verfahren zur quasikontinuierlichen Online-Messung des Teergehalts im Gas aus der Biomassevergasung vorgestellt und mit anderen Methoden aus der Literatur im Hinblick auf Zeitaufwand, Genauigkeit und Kosten verglichen. Untersucht wurden dabei eine gravimetrische Methode, die nasschemische Bestimmung, das Solid-Phase-Amino Adsorptionsverfahren (SPA), sowie die Online Analyse mittels Prozess-Gaschromatograph. Die Messungen wurden an der Wirbelschichtvergasungsanlage des IVD durchgefuehrt. Vergast wurde Holz bei 800 C und einer Luftzahl von 0.25. Der mit den verschiedenen Verfahren ermittelte Teergehalt unterscheidet sich zum Teil erheblich. Es ergaben sich Werte zwischen 0.8 und 6.8 g/m{sup 3}. (orig.)

  12. Television Viewing Time and 13-year Mortality in Adults with Cardiovascular Disease: Data from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Michelle C; Le Grande, Michael R; Dunstan, David W; Magliano, Dianna J; Murphy, Barbara M; Salmon, Jo; Gardiner, Paul A; Jackson, Alun C

    2016-08-01

    In the general population, excessive sedentary behaviour is associated with increased all-cause mortality. Few studies have examined this relationship in people with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Using a sample of people with CVD who were excluded from an analysis of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study, we examined the relationship between sedentary behaviour and 13-year all-cause mortality. In the original AusDiab study, television viewing time was used as a marker of sedentary behaviour in 609 adults (≥45 years of age) with CVD. During 6,291 person-years of follow-up (median follow-up 13 years), there were 294 deaths (48% of sample). Using the time scale of attained age, the Cox proportional hazards model predicting all-cause mortality adjusted for sex, self-rated general health, leisure-time physical activity, smoking status, education, household income, body mass index, lipid levels, blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus was used. Compared with a TV viewing time of 4hours per day. Sedentary behaviour was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality in people with CVD, independent of physical activity and other confounders. In addition to the promotion of regular physical activity, cardiac rehabilitation efforts which also focus on reducing sedentary behaviour may be beneficial. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Fermentation broth components influence droplet coalescence and hinder advanced biofuel recovery during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeres, Arjan S; Schroën, Karin; Heijnen, Joseph J; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Cuellar, Maria C

    2015-08-01

    Developments in synthetic biology enabled the microbial production of long chain hydrocarbons, which can be used as advanced biofuels in aviation or transportation. Currently, these fuels are not economically competitive due to their production costs. The current process offers room for improvement: by utilizing lignocellulosic feedstock, increasing microbial yields, and using cheaper process technology. Gravity separation is an example of the latter, for which droplet growth by coalescence is crucial. The aim of this study was to study the effect of fermentation broth components on droplet coalescence. Droplet coalescence was measured using two setups: a microfluidic chip and regular laboratory scale stirred vessel (2 L). Some fermentation broth components had a large impact on droplet coalescence. Especially components present in hydrolysed cellulosic biomass and mannoproteins from the yeast cell wall retard coalescence. To achieve a technically feasible gravity separation that can be integrated with the fermentation, the negative effects of these components on coalescence should be minimized. This could be achieved by redesign of the fermentation medium or adjusting the fermentation conditions, aiming to minimize the release of surface active components by the microorganisms. This way, another step can be made towards economically feasible advanced biofuel production. © 2015 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-NoDerivs Licence, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  14. Utilization of mouldy sorghum and Cassia tora through fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study the potential of developing a probiotic feed ingredient from a combination of mouldy sorghum and Cassia tora seeds, using spontaneous fermentation was explored. The effect of fermentation at 0, 24 and 36 h on the microflora, ergosterol, mycotoxins and nutritive value, of mouldy sorghum was assessed ...

  15. Health benefits of fermented foods: microbiota and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marco, M.L.; Heeney, D.

    2017-01-01

    Fermented foods and beverages were among the first processed food products consumed by humans. The production of foods such as yogurt and cultured milk, wine and beer, sauerkraut and kimchi, and fermented sausage were initially valued because of their improved shelf life, safety, and organoleptic

  16. Influence of sodium chloride on wine yeast fermentation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stilianos Logothetis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilianos Logothetis1, Elias T Nerantzis2, Anna Gioulioti3, Tasos Kanelis2, Tataridis Panagiotis2, Graeme Walker11University of Abertay Dundee, School of Contemporary Sciences, Dundee, Scotland; 2TEI of Athens Department of Oenology and Spirit Technology, Biotechnology and Industrial Fermentations Lab Agiou Spiridonos, Athens, Greece; 3Ampeloiniki SA Industrial Park Thermi, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: This paper concerns research into the influence of salt (sodium chloride on growth, viability and fermentation performance in a winemaking strain of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Experimental fermentations were conducted in both laboratory-scale and industrial-scale experiments. Preculturing yeasts in elevated levels of sodium chloride, or salt “preconditioning” led to improved fermentation performance. This was manifest by preconditioned yeasts having an improved capability to ferment high-sugar containing media with increased cell viability and with elevated levels of produced ethanol. Salt-preconditioning most likely influenced the stress-tolerance of yeasts by inducing the synthesis of key metabolites such as trehalose and glycerol. These compounds may act to improve cells’ ability to withstand osmostress and ethanol toxicity during fermentations of grape must. Industrial-scale trials using salt-preconditioned yeasts verified the benefit of this novel physiological cell engineering approach to practical winemaking fermentations.Keywords: salt, preconditioning, fermentation performance, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, wine

  17. Overcoming bacterial contamination of fuel ethanol fermentations -- alterntives to antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel ethanol fermentations are not performed under aseptic conditions and microbial contamination reduces yields and can lead to costly "stuck fermentations". Antibiotics are commonly used to combat contaminants, but these may persist in the distillers grains co-product. Among contaminants, it is kn...

  18. Reduction of glucosinolates content during sayur asin fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugrahedi, P.Y.; Priatko, C.A.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Widianarko, B.

    2013-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GLSs), health promoting compounds commonly found in Brassica vegetables, were studied during sayur asin fermentation made from Indian mustard (B. juncea). The current preliminary study aims to investigate the changes of glucosinolates content during 3 and 7 days of fermentation in

  19. Quality, safety, biofunctionality and fermentation control in soya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Fermented soya foods play an important role in the diet and health of a large part of the world population. We will discuss the manufacture and properties of: soya sauce; semi-solid pastes such as miso, doujiang and doenjang; and solid fermented soya foods such as natto, kinema, tempe, sufu and

  20. Beneficial effects of fresh and fermented kimchi in prediabetic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, So-Yeon; Lee, Min Suk; Jeon, Ja Young; Ha, Eun Suk; Kim, Tae Ho; Yoon, Ja Young; Ok, Chang-Ok; Lee, Hye-Kyoung; Hwang, Won-Sun; Choe, Sun Jung; Han, Seung Jin; Kim, Hae Jin; Kim, Dae Jung; Lee, Kwan-Woo

    2013-01-01

    With the increased incidence of diabetes mellitus, the importance of early intervention in prediabetes has been emphasized. We previously reported that fermented kimchi, a traditional Korean food, reduced body weight and improved metabolic factors in overweight participants. We hypothesized that kimchi and its fermented form would have beneficial effects on glucose metabolism in patients with prediabetes. A total of 21 participants with prediabetes were enrolled. During the first 8 weeks, they consumed either fresh (1-day-old) or fermented (10-day-old) kimchi. After a 4-week washout period, they switched to the other type of kimchi for the next 8 weeks. Consumption of both types of kimchi significantly decreased body weight, body mass index, and waist circumference. Fermented kimchi decreased insulin resistance, and increased insulin sensitivity, QUICKI and disposition index values (p = 0.004 and 0.028, respectively). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) decreased significantly in the fermented kimchi group. The percentages of participants who showed improved glucose tolerance were 9.5 and 33.3% in the fresh and fermented kimchi groups, respectively. Consumption of kimchi had beneficial effects on glucose metabolism-related and anthropometric factors in participants with prediabetes. Fermented kimchi had additional effects on BP and insulin resistance/sensitivity. The percentage of participants who showed improvement in glucose tolerance was high in the fermented kimchi group. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Health benefits of fermented foods : microbiota and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marco, Maria L.; Heeney, Dustin; Binda, Sylvie; Cifelli, Christopher J.; Cotter, Paul D.; Foligné, Benoit; Gänzle, Michael; Kort, Remco; Pasin, Gonca; Pihlanto, Anne; Smid, Eddy J.; Hutkins, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Fermented foods and beverages were among the first processed food products consumed by humans. The production of foods such as yogurt and cultured milk, wine and beer, sauerkraut and kimchi, and fermented sausage were initially valued because of their improved shelf life, safety, and organoleptic

  2. Lactic acid fermentation from refectory waste: Factorial design analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... method. At the end of the fermentation process, lactic acid exists in the complex medium of fermentation broth that contains whey proteins, biomass, salts and other impurities. Lactic acid is then recovered from this complex medium. Since the high cost of lactic acid purification process limits the utilization of ...

  3. Biochemical changes occurring during fermentation of camel milk by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical changes occurring during fermentation of camel milk by selected bacterial starter cultures. ... Abstract. The biochemical changes in amino acids, water soluble vitamins, soluble sugars and organic acids occurring during fermentation (at 43°C for 6 h) of camel milk inoculated with Streptococcus thermophilus 37, ...

  4. Biochemical changes occurring during fermentation of camel milk by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-25

    Oct 25, 2010 ... The biochemical changes in amino acids, water soluble vitamins, soluble sugars and organic acids occurring during fermentation ... Key words: Camel milk, fermentation, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, sugars. INTRODUCTION ... milk, growth behavior of some lactic acid bacteria in camel milk and the ...

  5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing bacteriophage endolysins reduce Lactobacillus contamination during fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the challenges facing the fuel ethanol industry is the management of bacterial contamination during fermentation. Lactobacillus species are the predominant contaminants that decrease the profitability of biofuel production by reducing ethanol yields and causing “stuck” fermentations, which i...

  6. Characterization and utilization of fermented cassava flour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composite breads of 85% wheat and 15% cassava fermented flour were accepted by a sensory evaluation panellist. Fermented flour has been successfully used in breadmaking and placali preparation. It is a means of diversifying cassava utilization form. Keywords: Gelatinized food, yace cultivar, sensory evaluation, ...

  7. Studies On Fermentation, Alcohol Production And Viability In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighteen mutant yeasts (SCM 01 – SCM 18) selected (after visual examination) were tested for fermentation, alcohol production and viability by acid and gas production, reduction in specific gravity and turbidity respectively, with sugars and delignified sugarcane bagasse. The yeasts had varied fermentation profiles in ...

  8. Mucoraceous moulds involved in the commercial fermentation of Sufu Pehtze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.; Kuijpers, F.A.; Thanh, N.V.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Sufu is a fermented cheese-like soybean product in China and Vietnam, obtained by fungal solid-state fermentation of soybean curd (tofu), which results in moulded tofu or 'pehtze'. The final product sufu is obtained by maturing pehtze in a brine containing alcohol and salt during a period of several

  9. by fermented plant extracts of neem leaf and wild garlic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bombiti

    effective in reducing population densities of whitefly and aphid than either plant extract applied alone. In conclusion, results of this study suggested a synergistic effect of fermented plant extracts of neem and wild garlic as a bio-pesticide. Key words: Aphid, bio-pesticide, fermented plant extract (FPE), Solanum lycopersicum, ...

  10. Urea production by yeasts other than Saccharomyces in food fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Qun; Cui, Kaixiang; Lin, Jianchun; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Urea is an important intermediate in the synthesis of carcinogenic ethyl carbamate in various food fermentations. Identifying urea-producing microorganisms can help control or reduce ethyl carbamate production. Using Chinese liquor fermentation as a model system, we identified the yeasts responsible

  11. Fermentation and Electrohydrogenic Approaches to Hydrogen Production (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maness, P. C.; Thammannagowda, S.; Magnusson, L.; Logan, B.

    2010-06-01

    This work describes the development of a waste biomass fermentation process using cellulose-degrading bacteria for hydrogen production. This process is then integrated with an electrohydrogenesis process via the development of a microbial electrolysis cell reactor, during which fermentation waste effluent is further converted to hydrogen to increase the total output of hydrogen from biomass.

  12. Fermentation potentials of Zymomonas mobilis and its application in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of pH, high concentration of glucose and the initial ethanol content on the fermentation process of ethanol with three strains of Zymomonas mobilis were investigated and the strain of ATCC 29191 was chosen for the next study. The optimal parameters for the ethanol fermentation were studied using the sweet ...

  13. Recent advances in microbial fermentation for dairy and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Elke; Hill, Colin; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2017-01-01

    Microbial fermentation has been used historically for the preservation of foods, the health benefits of which have since come to light. Early dairy fermentations depended on the spontaneous activity of the indigenous microbiota of the milk. Modern fermentations rely on defined starter cultures with desirable characteristics to ensure consistency and commercial viability. The selection of defined starters depends on specific phenotypes that benefit the product by guaranteeing shelf life and ensuring safety, texture, and flavour. Lactic acid bacteria can produce a number of bioactive metabolites during fermentation, such as bacteriocins, biogenic amines, exopolysaccharides, and proteolytically released peptides, among others. Prebiotics are added to food fermentations to improve the performance of probiotics. It has also been found that prebiotics fermented in the gut can have benefits that go beyond helping probiotic growth. Studies are now looking at how the fermentation of prebiotics such as fructo-oligosaccharides can help in the prevention of diseases such as osteoporosis, obesity, and colorectal cancer. The potential to prevent or even treat disease through the fermentation of food is a medically and commercially attractive goal and is showing increasing promise. However, the stringent regulation of probiotics is beginning to detrimentally affect the field and limit their application. PMID:28649371

  14. Oxygen and diverse nutrients influence the water kefir fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, David; Aerts, Maarten; Vandamme, Peter; De Vuyst, Luc

    2018-08-01

    Eight water kefir fermentation series differing in the presence of oxygen, the nutrient concentration, and the nutrient source were studied during eight consecutive backslopping steps. The presence of oxygen allowed the proliferation of acetic acid bacteria, resulting in high concentrations of acetic acid, and decreased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium aquikefiri. Low nutrient concentrations resulted in slow water kefir fermentation and high pH values, which allowed the growth of Comamonas testosteroni/thiooxydans. Further, low nutrient concentrations favored the growth of Lactobacillus hilgardii and Dekkera bruxellensis, whereas high nutrient concentrations favored the growth of Lactobacillus nagelii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Dried figs, dried apricots, and raisins resulted in stable water kefir fermentation. Water kefir fermentation with dried apricots resulted in the highest pH and water kefir grain growth, whereas that with raisins resulted in the lowest pH and water kefir grain growth. Further, water kefir fermentation with raisins resembled fermentations with low nutrient concentrations, that with dried apricots resembled fermentations with normal nutrient concentrations, and that with fresh figs or a mixture of yeast extract and peptone resembled fermentations with high nutrient concentrations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimal Control of Beer Fermentation Process Using Differential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the mathematical model of batch fermentation process of ethanol was formulated. The method of differential transform was used to obtain the solution governing the fermentation process; the system of equation was transformed using the differential transform method. The result obtained from the model was ...

  16. Probiotic Delivery through Fermentation: Dairy vs. Non-Dairy Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaminda Senaka Ranadheera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, mainly through the process of replacing or including beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Fermented dairy foods such as yogurt, fermented milk and cheese are the major vehicle in delivering probiotics, and probiotic delivery have been traditionally associated with these fermented dairy foods. Additionally, many other non-dairy probiotic products and non-food form such as capsules, pills and tablets are also available and some of these non-food forms are highly popular among the consumers. Certain non-dairy probiotic foods, especially beverages that are non-fermented products, can also play an important role in probiotic delivery. There is an increasing demand for non-dairy probiotic foods (both fermented and non-fermented including fruit and vegetable juices, soy and certain cereal products due to vegetarianism, lactose intolerance and dairy allergies, as well as interest in low cholesterol foods. In this context, this review mainly focus on the different types of probiotic food products including beverages with special reference to their viability followed by a brief account on the applicability of using fermented and non-fermented beverage products in probiotic delivery.

  17. Effect of fermentation and sterilization on anthocyanins in blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qixing; Feng, Lei; Hu, Jielun; Wang, Sunan; Chen, Haihong; Huang, Xiaojun; Nie, Shaoping; Xiong, Tao; Xie, Mingyong

    2017-03-01

    Blueberry products have various health benefits due to their high content of dietary anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of fermentation and sterilization on total anthocyanin content, composition and some quality attributes of blueberry puree. The blueberry puree used here was fermented for 40 h at 37 °C by Lactobacillus after sterilization. The method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was optimized for the rapid analysis of anthocyanins. Quality attributes including pH, color, total soluble solids and viscosity were measured. A total of 21 anthocyanins and five anthocyanidins were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Fermented blueberry had reduced total anthocyanin content (29%) and levels of individual anthocyanins compared with fresh blueberry. Total anthocyanin content was decreased 46% by sterilization, and different degradation behavior of individual anthocyanin was appeared between fermented and sterilized-fermented blueberry puree. Fermentation and sterilization decreased the total soluble solids and pH and changed color parameters, while minimally influencing viscosity. The loss of total anthocyanin content by fermentation was related to the unstable structure of blueberry anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are sensitive to temperature (>80 °C), and degradation of anthocyanins by sterilization in blueberry should be considered in the fermentation procedure. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Nutritional and amino acid analysis of raw, partially fermented and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional and amino acid analysis of raw and fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa were carried out. Parameters investigated include moisture, crude protein, crude fat, ash, crude fibre and mineral contents; and the effect of the degree of fermentation on these parameters was also investigated. The amino acid ...

  19. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This

  20. Fermented Condiments from Melon ( Citrullus vulgaris ) and African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermented Citrullus vulgaris and Parkia biglobosa have been reported to contribute to minerals, calorie and protein intake when consumed. Although these traditionally fermented condiments have not attained full commercial status in Nigeria due to the subsistence level of farming and artisanal production; they have been ...

  1. Occurrence and function of yeasts in Asian indigenous fermented foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidoo, K.E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    In the Asian region, indigenous fermented foods are important in daily life. In many of these foods, yeasts are predominant and functional during the fermentation. The diversity of foods in which yeasts predominate ranges from leavened bread-like products such as nan and idli, to alcoholic beverages

  2. Optimization of the alcoholic fermentation of blueberry juice by AS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of the alcoholic fermentation of blueberry juice by AS 2.316 Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast. ... Central composite experimental design together with response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the fermentation temperature, pH and inoculums size for maximum production of ethanol ...

  3. The legend of laphet: A Myanmar fermented tea leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thazin Han

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Fermentation is the traditional method. Epigallocatechin gallate is a powerful constituent of laphet for human health. Its caffeinated effect is also popular in Myanmar society. This study will contribute to understanding Myanmar fermented tea leaves and spread the legend of laphet around the world.

  4. Fermentative intensity of L-lactic acid production using self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    fermentation had some merits such as immobilization carrier-independence, lower viscosity of the suspension in favor of mass transfer, shorter fermentation cycles and good production stability (Yang et al., 1995; Yin et al.,. 1998; Yu et al., 2007). Pellet was an appropriate form for recycling use of R. oryzae mycelia (Liu et al., ...

  5. Microbiology of natural fermentation of cowpea and groundnut for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditionally, locustbean is fermented naturally for dawadawa production. Scarcity of locustbean indicated a need for using other legumes as substitutes for producing dawadawa. The feasibility of using cowpea and groundnut was therefore investigated. The microorganisms associated with natural fermentation of cowpea ...

  6. Effect of temperature on moromi fermentation of soy sauce with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... fermentation by Z. rouxii would begin (Sluis et al., 2001). The decline of pH during fermentation might also be attributed to autolysis of microbial cells, accumulation of free fatty acid, amino acids and peptides containing carbolylic side chains as a result of hydrolysis of materials in soy sauce (Kim and Lee, ...

  7. Effect of fermentation containers on the chemical composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effects of using banana leaf and plastic (high density polyethylene) bowl as containers for fermentation on the nutrients and anti nutritional factors of sesame seed. Samples were fermented separately using banana leaf and plastic bowl for seven days at temperature of 35 ± 2°C. Samples were drawn at intervals during ...

  8. Fermented Corn Waste Liquor as a Potential Source for Probiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although some fermented cereals are known to contain LAB, limited information is available on the massive production of LAB from low cost fermented meals such as corn mash waste. Hence the efficiency of 72h- corn waste liquor as a rich source for probiotic LAB was evaluated. The liquor aseptically recovered from ...

  9. Fermentation Potentials of Citrus Limon and Hibiscus Sabdariffa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MASANAWA

    power. 2 . Alcoholic fermentation occurs when yeast cells convert carbohydrate sources to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Fermentation reactions are common in muscle cells, yeast, some bacteria, and plants. 3 . Citrus limon (aka lemon) belongs to .... using Bunsen burner. It was allowed to cool and subsequently sieved using ...

  10. Effect of length of fermentation on the functional characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... there was no significant difference between the 'fufu' fermented for 72 hours and 96 hours. A fermentation period of 72 hours was recommended for the production of good quality 'fufu' when using the cassava clone TMS 30572. The Journal of Food Technology in Africa Volume 6 Number 2 (April-June 2001), pp. 38-40 ...

  11. Effects of Fermentation and Extrusion on the Proximate Composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    breakfast cereals, noodles, pastas and cereals based blends. Cereals in turn are the customary, traditional snacks ingredient due to their high starch content ... 100g portion of each extrudate was weighed and 50ml of water was added. The samples were allowed to ferment at 30 ± 2°C for 72 h. The fermented samples were ...

  12. Effect of fermentation and drying on cocoa polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, Barbara; Schoubben, Aurélie; Guarnaccia, Davide; Pinelli, Filippo; Della Vecchia, Mirco; Ricci, Maurizio; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Blasi, Paolo

    2015-11-18

    Cocoa seed polyphenols have demonstrated interesting beneficial effects in humans. Most polyphenols contained in fresh seeds are chemically modified during fermentation, drying, and cocoa powder or chocolate production. The improvement of these procedures to obtain a high-polyphenol-content cocoa is highly desirable. To this aim, a field investigation on the effect of fermentation and natural drying on fine flavor National cocoa (cacao Nacional) was performed. Cocoa seeds were fermented for 6 days and, every day, samples were sun-dried and analyzed for polyphenol content and antioxidant power. During the first 2 days of fermentation, Folin-Ciocalteu and FRAP tests evidenced a significant reduction of polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity, respectively. Changes during the following days of fermentation were less significant. Epicatechin, the most studied member of the catechin family, followed a similar pathway of degradation. Data confirmed the high impact of fermentation and drying on cocoa seed polyphenols. Fermentation and drying are, on the one hand, necessary to obtain cocoa flavor and palatability but, on the other hand, are responsible for greatly compromising polyphenol content. To obtain high-polyphenol-content cocoa, the existing fermentation, drying, and manufacturing protocols should be scientifically reviewed to understand and modify the critical steps.

  13. Effects of lactic acid bacteria contamination on lignocellulosic ethanol fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slower fermentation rates, mixed sugar compositions, and lower sugar concentrations may make lignocellulosic fermentations more susceptible to contamination by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which is a common and costly problem to the corn-based fuel ethanol industry. To examine the effects of LAB con...

  14. Microbiota of Tayohounta, a fermented baobab flavour food of Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chadare, F.J.; Jonkman, J.; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.C.M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The present work provides data on the microbial composition of Tayohounta, a product of natural fermentation of baobab seed kernels. Samples were collected from 3 different small scale producers from Benin at the end of the fermentation process. Microorganisms were enumerated and identified using

  15. Recovery of butanol from fermentation broth by pervaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butanol can be produced by fermentation from corn, molasses or lignocellulosic biomass for use as a chemical or superior biofuel. However, butanol’s production is hampered by its toxicity to the microbial culture that produces it. In fermentation broths, final butanol concentrations typically range ...

  16. Formula and method for fermentation of sugarcane molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanchevskii, V.K.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Levandovskii, L.V.

    1982-01-01

    The technology parameters and equipment for fermentation of sugarcane molasses are given. Yeast fermentation of the molasses produced an alcoholic beverage containing 11-12% ethanol. The product contained minimal amounts of nonfermented sucrose and aldehydes and relatively high quantities of volatile acids and complex esters.

  17. Recycling of vinasse in ethanol fermentation and application in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vinasse production is one of the most significant and challenging issues in the industrial production of ethanol due to pollution problems. In this study, vinasse obtained from ethanol by fermentation of sugarcane molasses was used instead of water to prepare the fermentation medium. Saccharomyces cerevisiae F-727 was ...

  18. Antibacterial profile of fermented seed extracts of ricinus communis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to ascertain the antibacterial properties inherent in fermented seed extracts of Ricinus communis. Dry seeds of R. communis (Castor oil plant) were deshelled, grounded to powder, fermented, and then extracted both with alcohol and water using Soxhlet machine. Different concentrations of the ...

  19. Effects of germination and fermentation on the quality characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize and mushroom (MR) based products (GFMR, GFNMR, NGFMR and NGNMR) from all four maize grains were formulated. Germination and fermentation were investigated as methods of improving the nutritional and organoleptic properties of the formulations. Inocula recycling (use of 50% fermenting mixture as starter)

  20. Tempe fermentation, innovation and functionality: update into the third millenium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Kiers, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Fermented foods represent on average one-third of total food consumption. Tempe is a major fermented soyabean food and is known for its attractive flavour, texture and superior digestibility. This present review aims at providing an overview of literature data from ca 1990 until present. Although

  1. Parakari, an indigenous fermented beverage using amylolytic Rhizopus in Guyana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Terry W

    2005-01-01

    The alcoholic beverage parakari is a product of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation by Amerindians of Guyana. While fermented beverage production is nearly universal among indigenous Amazonians, parakari is unique among New World beverages because it involves the use of an amylolytic mold (Rhizopus sp., Mucoraceae, Zygomycota) followed by a solid substratum ethanol fermentation. The mycological significance of this dual fermentation process previously was unrecognized. A detailed study of parakari fermentation was made in the Wapisiana Amerindian village of Aishalton, South Rupununi, Guyana. Thirty steps were involved in parakari manufacture, and these exhibited a high degree of sophistication, including the use of specific cassava varieties, control of culture temperature and boosting of Rhizopus inoculum potential with purified starch additives. During the fermentation process, changes in glucose content, pH, flavor, odor and culture characteristics were concomitant with a desirable finished product. Parakari is the only known example of an indigenous New World fermentation that uses an amylolytic mold, likely resulting from domestication of a wild Rhizopus species in the distant past. Parakari production is remarkably similar to dual fermentations of Asia, yet it was independently derived.

  2. Integration of fermentation and cooling crystallisation to produce organic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roa Engel, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Fermentation products are gaining more attention in the last years due to the fact that the metabolic and genetic engineering field has been developing techniques to enhance fermentation yields and make biochemical processes competitive compared to traditional chemical production. However, as

  3. Microbiological analysis of traditionally fermented milk sold in Kinigi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this work was to determine the microbiological quality of traditionally fermented milk, which is consumed by Kinigi Center local people. The hypothesis was to analyze if traditionally fermented milk commercialized in Kinigi restaurants contained pathogenic bacteria such as fecal coliforms and ...

  4. Preservative effect of various indigenous plants on fermented milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... acid bacteria counts. The microbial counts to compare the quality properties of the five fermented milk samples were carried out daily for 11 days. Titratable acidity of fermented milk Samples: The percentage titratable acidity was determined according to AOAC method 947.05 (AOAC, 1995). To 20 ml of.

  5. Fermentative digestion in the ostrich ( Struthio camelus var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentative digestion in the ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus ), a large avian species that utilizes cellulose1. D Swart, RI Mackie, JP Hayes. Abstract. The production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) was studied in vitro to assess the possible contribution of microbial fermentation to the energy economy of growing ostrich ...

  6. The Effects of Technological Modifications on the Fermentation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... load of borde from all the above treatments. It was found possible to shorten the duration and simplify the technology of borde fermentation with some variations in acceptability. Key Words: food processing; traditional fermentation; cereal beverage, borde; Ethiopia Journal of Food Technology in Africa Vol.9(1) 2004: 3-12 ...

  7. Development of fermented milk “Leben” made from spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... products. Final characteristics of fermented milks depend on milk composition, heat treatment of milk, fermentation conditions and the composition of the starter's cultures. (Chammas ... dardization of the product (Tantaoui-Elaraki et al., 1983;. Guizani et ..... micellar structure and then to the modification in the.

  8. Koji – where East meets West in fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang Zhu, Yang; Tramper, J.

    2013-01-01

    Almost all biotechnological processes originate from traditional food fermentations, i.e. the many indigenous processes that can be found already in the written history of thousands of years ago. We still consume many of these fermented foods and beverages on a daily basis today. The evolution of

  9. In vitro fermentability of differently digested resistant starch preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fässler, C.; Arrigoni, E.; Venema, K.; Brouns, F.; Amadò, R.

    2006-01-01

    The in vitro fermentability of two resistant starch preparations type 2 (RS2) and type 3 (RS3) was investigated using human colonic microbiota. Prior to the fermentation experiments, samples were digested using two in vitro models, a batch (ba) and a dynamic (dy), as well as an in vivo method (il)

  10. Isolation and characterization of thermotolerant ethanol-fermenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermotolerant yeasts, which are expected to be applicable for high-temperature fermentation as an economical process, were isolated from four provinces in Laos. Of these yeasts, five isolates exhibited stronger fermentation abilities in a 16% sugars-containing medium of glucose, sucrose, sugarcane or molasses at 40°C ...

  11. Effects of fermentation and extrusion on the proximate composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of extrusion and fermentation on the proximate composition and organoleptic properties of six combinations (100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50) of sorghum - soya blend were investigated. A total number of 19 microorganisms were isolated during the fermentation of sorghum-soya extrudates; these ...

  12. Fermentation potentials of Citrus limon and Hibiscus sabdariffa juice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the fermentation potentials of yeast isolates from Citrus limon and Hibiscus sabdariffa for the fermentation of juice extracts of C. limon and H. sabdariffa. Isolation and morphological studies of yeast cells were carried out by standard protocols. Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) ...

  13. Effect of Fermentation Methods on the Nutrient Profile and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study evaluated the effect of fermentation method on the nutrient profile and organoleptic characteristics of African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth). Materials and Methods: Dry and mature African oil bean seeds were cleaned, boiled, dehulled, cooked, sliced/pulverized and fermented to ugba ...

  14. Influence of fermentation and cowpea steaming on some quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentation and cowpea steaming can be used to improve the protein quality and quantity of fermented maize dough. In the production of maize-cowpea blends, it is important that the quality characteristics are evaluated to determine their functionality in the products. A 5x4x2x2 factorial experiment with cowpea level, ...

  15. Optimization of Rice Bran Fermentation Conditions Enhanced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rice bran fermentation conditions for extraction of protein concentrate was enhanced by the use of baker's yeast at optimized conditions using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design with three independent variables: fermentation temperature (25 to 35oC), yeast concentration (1 to 5%) and ...

  16. Effect of lactic acid bacteria starter culture fermentation of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of lactic acid fermentation of cassava on the chemical and sensory characteristic of fufu flour were investigated. Two strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were used as starter cultures for the fermentation of cassava to fufu for 96 h. The resultant wet fufu samples were dried at 65oC in a cabinet dryer for 48 h and ...

  17. Effect of Fermentation Methods on Chemical and Microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mung flours were fermented using spontaneous and backslopping methods for 72 h and microbial analysis over a period of 72 h fermentation was carried out. The samples were subjected to biochemical test, anti-nutrient and selected mineral and vitamin contents evaluation using standard methods. There was a gradual ...

  18. Effect of Natural Fermentation on the Chemical and Nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in the chemical and nutritional composition of naturally fermented soy nono were studied at ambient temperature (27 ± 2oC) for 72 h. The differently fermented soy nono samples were collected at 6 h intervals and analysed for chemical, proximate and mineral composition using standard laboratory procedures.

  19. Breaking the spores of Ganoderma lucidum by fermentation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, fermentation of G. lucidum with Lactobacillus plantarum was applied to break down the sporoderm. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to characterize the spores. The broken spores were found on the 3rd day and complete breaking on the 5th day of fermentation. Lactic acid, acetic acid and ...

  20. Therapeutic relevance of HRCT findings from a pneumological viewpoint; Therapeutische Relevanz des HRCT-Befundes aus pneumologischer Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suchy, R. [Klinik Donaustauf, Zentrum fuer Pneumologie, Donaustauf (Germany); Pfeifer, M. [Klinik Donaustauf, Universitaetsklinikum Regensburg, Krankenhaus Barmherzige Brueder Regensburg, Donaustauf (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    semiquantitative evaluation of the extent of the disease on HRCT > 20 % is useful for identifying patients who require treatment. (orig.) [German] Die hochaufloesende CT (''high-resolution CT'', HRCT) ist der Goldstandard der bildgebenden Diagnostik bei der Abklaerung interstitieller Lungenerkrankungen (ILD), wobei sie richtungsweisende Befunde, ggf. eine favorisierte Verdachtsdiagnose liefert und das differenzialdiagnostische Spektrum einengt. Ausserdem ist sie wichtig zur Planung der weiteren invasiven Abklaerung mittels Bronchoskopie, bronchoalveolaerer Lavage sowie transbronchialer und ggf. chirurgischer Lungenbiopsie. Die Diagnose hinsichtlich der vorliegenden ILD wird im Gesamtkontext saemtlicher erhobener Untersuchungsergebnisse interdisziplinaer im ILD-Board gestellt, welches aus erfahrenen Kollegen der Pneumologie, Radiologie und Pathologie besteht. Exemplarisch wird die Therapie 5 verschiedener Lungenfibrosen dargestellt: Bei der exogen allergischen Alveolitis (EAA) hat die strenge Allergenexpositionsprophylaxe oberste Prioritaet. Die kryptogen organisierende Pneumonie spricht in der Regel gut auf eine Prednisolontherapie an, wobei von einer Gesamttherapiedauer von 6 bis 12 Monaten auszugehen ist. Im Falle einer Sarkoidose wird die Therapie von der Organbeteiligung sowie der funktionellen Einschraenkung abhaengig gemacht, aber keine ''Kosmetik'' der CT-morphologischen Veraenderungen per se vorgenommen. Im Allgemeinen besteht eine Therapieindikation bei einer ernsthaften oder progredienten Erkrankung. Bei der idiopathischen Lungenfibrose (IPF) ersetzt das HRCT-Muster der definitiven ''usual interstitial pneumonia'' (UIP) die chirurgische Lungenbiopsie. Die Diagnose IPF kann allerdings erst nach sorgfaeltigem Ausschluss bekannter Ursachen gestellt werden (chronische EAA, Asbestose, Lungenbeteiligung im Rahmen einer Kollagenose bzw. rheumatologischen Grunderkrankung, Medikamententoxizitaet). Die IPF kann mit dem

  1. Ausência de variação da flexibilidade durante o ciclo menstrual em universitárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves Christianne Pereira Giesbrecht

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTAÇÃO: Algumas variáveis da aptidão física são marcadamente influenciadas pelas fases do ciclo menstrual (CM; contudo, há pouca informação sobre eventuais modificações na flexibilidade. OBJETIVO: Analisar o comportamento da flexibilidade corporal - global, por articulação e por movimento - em mulheres adultas jovens nas diferentes fases do CM. MÉTODOS: Estudou-se uma amostra de 15 mulheres. O grupo experimental (GE foi constituído de alunas eumenorréicas, enquanto o grupo controle (GC incluía alunas em uso regular havia pelo menos um mês de anticoncepcional oral (AO. Dados referentes ao período menstrual e ao uso de AO foram obtidos através da aplicação de um questionário. A flexibilidade foi avaliada pelo Flexiteste, permitindo uma análise da flexibilidade global (Flexíndice, por articulação, por movimento e em sua variabilidade. Os Flexíndices foram ainda comparados com os correspondentes percentis para gênero e idade. Para a análise estatística das três medidas do GE - fases folicular, ovulatória e lútea - e das duas do GC entre dias cinco e 26 do ciclo, utilizou-se ANOVA ou teste t conforme apropriado. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças na flexibilidade, movimento a movimento ou Flexíndice nas diferentes fases do CM no GE e nas duas medidas do GC (p > 0,05. O percentil do Flexíndice para o GC variou de 14 a 35 e no GE, de 14 a 80. Analisando as articulações e os índices de variabilidade, não foram encontradas diferenças significativas com as fases do CM (p > 0,05, com a exceção do índice de variabilidade distal-proximal entre as fases ovulatória e folicular no GE. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados obtidos não corroboram a impressão empírica de que a flexibilidade varia durante as fases do CM. Não se pode, contudo, afastar a hipótese de que a ausência de variações tenha ocorrido devido a alguma característica da amostra ou por limitações do Flexiteste em identificar mínimas varia

  2. Platinum from automotive catalytic converters: environmental health evaluation based on recent data on exposure and effects; Platin aus Automobilabgaskatalysatoren: Umweltmedizinische Bewertung auf Basis neuer Expositions- und Wirkungsdaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, G. [Consulting-Buero Toxikologie - Umwelt, Merzhausen/Freiburg (Germany); Artelt, S. [Bayern Innovativ Gesellschaft fuer Innovation und Wissenstransfer mbH, Nuernberg (Germany); Mangelsdorf, I. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Aerosolforschung (ITA), Hannover (Germany); Merget, R. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut fuer Arbeitsmedizin (BGFA), Bochum (Germany)

    1998-12-01

    Emissionsfaktoren aus Motorstandversuchen atmosphaerische Immissionskonzentrationen fuer Gesamtplatin abgeleitet. Diese liegen im unteren pg/m{sup 3}-Bereich und werden durch Luftmessdaten bestaetigt. Das aus Automobilabgaskatalysatoren freigesetzte Platin wird im ng/km-Bereich und ueberwiegend in elementarer Form emittiert. Die nanokristallinen Platinpartikel sind an {mu}m-grosse Aluminiumoxid-Partikel gebunden. Ob freie ultrafeine Platinpartikel emittiert werden und biologische Effekte ausloesen koennen, ist nicht ausreichend untersucht. Derzeit ist nur fuer die atemwegssensibilisierende Wirkung halogenhaltiger Platinverbindungen eine Risikoabschaetzung moeglich, wobei es sich hierbei um einen sehr sensitiven Endpunkt handelt. Die Anwesenheit solcher Verbindungen im loeslichen Anteil der Gesamtplatinemissionen ({<=}1%) oder deren sekundaere Bildung aus Platinpartikeln ist nicht grundsaetzlich auszuschliessen. Die Risikoabschaetzung basiert auf neuen arbeitsmedizinischen Untersuchungen in einem Katalysatorfertigungsbetrieb, aus denen sich ein konservativer No Effect Level (NOEL) von 1,5 ng loesliches Pt/m{sup 3} ableiten laesst. In einer (reasonable) worst case-Betrachtung wird der Anteil halogenhaltiger und damit potentiell sensibilisierender Platinsalze an den Gesamtplatinemissionen aus Automobilabgaskatalysatoren mit 1 (0,1)% zugrundegelegt. Demzufolge ergeben sich NOELs von 150 bzw. 1500 ng/m{sup 3}. Bei Einbeziehung eines Unsicherheitsfaktors von 10 zur Beruecksichtigung empfindlicher Personengruppen resultieren Beurteilungskonzentrationen von 15 bzw. 150 ng/m{sup 3}. Die reale und die zu erwartende Exposition gegenueber luftgetragenen Platinimmissionen ist um mindestens zwei Groessenordnungen unterhalb dieses `kritischen` Bereiches. (orig.)

  3. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a Thai low-salt fermented fish product and the role of garlic as substrate for fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paludan-Müller, C; Huss, H H; Gram, L

    1999-02-18

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from raw materials (fish, rice, garlic and banana leaves) and processed som-fak (a Thai low-salt fermented fish product) were characterized by API 50-CH and other phenotypic criteria. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Leuconostoc citreum were specifically associated with fish fillet and minced fish, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei with boiled rice and Weisella confusa with garlic mix and banana leaves. In addition, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Pediococcus pentosaceus were isolated from raw materials. A succession of aciduric, homofermentative lactobacillus species, dominated by Lb. plantarum/pentosus, was found during fermentation. In total, 9% of the strains fermented starch and 19% fermented garlic, the two main carbohydrate components in som-fak. The ability to ferment garlic was paralleled by a capacity to ferment inulin. An increased percentage of garlic fermenting strains was found during fermentation of som-fak, from 8% at day 1 to 40% at day 5. No starch fermenting strains were isolated during fermentation. Three mixed LAB cultures, composed of either starch fermenting Lc. lactis subsp. lactis and Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei, or garlic fermenting Lb. plantarum and Pd. pentosaceus, or a combination of these strains were inoculated into laboratory prepared som-fak with or without garlic. In som-fak without garlic, pH was above 4.8 after three days, irrespective of addition of mixed LAB cultures. The starch fermenting LAB were unable to ferment som-fak and sensory spoilage occurred after three days. Fermentation with the combined mix of starch and garlic fermenting strains led to production of 2.5% acid and a decrease in pH to 4.5 in two days. The fermentation was slightly slower with the garlic fermenting strains alone. This is the first report describing the role of garlic as carbohydrate source for LAB in fermented fish products.

  4. Use of milk-based kombucha inoculum for milk fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolarov Ljiljana A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation fermented milk beverages with 0.9% of milk fat were produced using 10 and 15% (v/v of traditional and milk-based kombucha inoculum by application of appropriate technological process. Milk fermentation using two types and concentrations of kombucha inoculum were stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Sigmoidal fermentation profiles were noticed with traditional kombucha inoculums and linear with milk-based kombucha inoculums. Chemical content and physico-chemical characteristics of kombucha fermented milk beverages were typical and yoghurt-like for all obtained products. The best textural and sensory characteristics possesed beverage obtained in fermentation of milk using 10% (v/v of milk-based kombucha inoculum.

  5. DNA fingerprinting of lactic acid bacteria in sauerkraut fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plengvidhya, Vethachai; Breidt, Fredrick; Lu, Zhongjing; Fleming, Henry P

    2007-12-01

    Previous studies using traditional biochemical identification methods to study the ecology of commercial sauerkraut fermentations revealed that four species of lactic acid bacteria, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Lactobacillus brevis, were the primary microorganisms in these fermentations. In this study, 686 isolates were collected from four commercial fermentations and analyzed by DNA fingerprinting. The results indicate that the species of lactic acid bacteria present in sauerkraut fermentations are more diverse than previously reported and include Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc argentinum, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus coryniformis, and Weissella sp. The newly identified species Leuconostoc fallax was also found. Unexpectedly, only two isolates of P. pentosaceus and 15 isolates of L. brevis were recovered during this study. A better understanding of the microbiota may aid in the development of low-salt fermentations, which may have altered microflora and altered sensory characteristics.

  6. Health benefits of fermented foods: microbiota and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Maria L; Heeney, Dustin; Binda, Sylvie; Cifelli, Christopher J; Cotter, Paul D; Foligné, Benoit; Gänzle, Michael; Kort, Remco; Pasin, Gonca; Pihlanto, Anne; Smid, Eddy J; Hutkins, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Fermented foods and beverages were among the first processed food products consumed by humans. The production of foods such as yogurt and cultured milk, wine and beer, sauerkraut and kimchi, and fermented sausage were initially valued because of their improved shelf life, safety, and organoleptic properties. It is increasingly understood that fermented foods can also have enhanced nutritional and functional properties due to transformation of substrates and formation of bioactive or bioavailable end-products. Many fermented foods also contain living microorganisms of which some are genetically similar to strains used as probiotics. Although only a limited number of clinical studies on fermented foods have been performed, there is evidence that these foods provide health benefits well-beyond the starting food materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of black tea concentrate on kombucha fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is cultivated on substrates prepared with different concentrations of black tea and substrate obtained by diluting a substrate with highest concentration of black tea with cold tap water. Qualify of produced beverages is compared with the beverage obtained in traditional fermentation of 1.5 g/L of black tea, sweetened with 70 g/L of sucrose. Inoculation was performed with 10% (v/v of fermentation liquid from previous process, and the fermentation was carried out at 28°C under aerobic conditions, for ten days. Process of fermentation was monitored by following pH, total acids. D-gluconic acid and caffeine content. Beverages obtained in fermentation with diluted black tea concentrate had similar amounts of investigated metabolites compared with traditional one. Use of diluted black tea concentrate as a substrate needs the shorter time for the substrate preparation, which significantly saves energy.

  8. Comparative in vitro fermentation activity in the canine distal gastrointestinal tract and fermentation kinetics of fiber sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Rutten, P.G.P.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the variation in fermentation activity along the distal canine gastrointestinal tract (GIT, Exp. 1). It also aimed to assess fermentation kinetics and end product profiles of 16 dietary fibers for dog foods using canine fecal inoculum (Exp. 2). For Exp. 1, digesta

  9. Microbiota dynamics related to environmental conditions during the fermentative production of Fen-Daqu, a Chinese industrial fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Yan, Z.; Nout, M.J.R.; Smid, E.J.; Zwietering, M.H.; Boekhout, T.; Han, J.S.; Han, B.

    2014-01-01

    Chinese Daqu is used as a starter for liquor and vinegar fermentations. It is produced by solid state fermentation of cereal–pulse mixtures. A succession of fungi, lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp. was observed during the production of Daqu. Mesophilic bacteria followed by fungi, dominated the

  10. Microbiota dynamics related to environmental conditions during the fermentative production of Fen-Daqu, a Chinese industrial fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Yan, Zheng; Nout, M J Robert; Smid, Eddy J; Zwietering, Marcel H; Boekhout, Teun; Han, Jian-Shu; Han, Bei-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Chinese Daqu is used as a starter for liquor and vinegar fermentations. It is produced by solid state fermentation of cereal-pulse mixtures. A succession of fungi, lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp. was observed during the production of Daqu. Mesophilic bacteria followed by fungi, dominated the

  11. Production of Functional High-protein Beverage Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Korean Traditional Fermented Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Hee; Shin, Il-Seung; Hong, Sung-Moon; Kim, Cheol-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manufacture functional high protein fermented beverage, using whey protein concentrate (WPC) and Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 isolated from kimchi, and to evaluate the physicochemical, functional, and sensory properties of the resulting product. The fermented whey beverage (FWB) was formulated with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC 80), skim milk powder, and sucrose; and fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 as single, or mixed with Lactococcus lactis R704, a commercial starter culture. The pH, titratable acidity, and viable cell counts during fermentation and storage were evaluated. It was found that the mixed culture showed faster acid development than the single culture. The resulting FWB had high protein (9%) and low fat content (0.2%). Increased viscosity, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were observed after fermentation. A viable cell count of 10(9) CFU/mL in FWB was achieved within 10 h fermentation, and it remained throughout storage at 15℃ for 28 d. Sensory analysis was also conducted, and compared to that of a commercial protein drink. The sensory scores of FWB were similar to those of the commercial protein drink in most attributes, except sourness. The sourness was highly related with the high lactic acid content produced during fermentation. The results showed that WPC and vegetable origin lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi might be used for the development of a high protein fermented beverage, with improved functionality and organoleptic properties.

  12. Metabolism of lactic acid in fermented cucumbers by Lactobacillus buchneri and related species, potential spoilage organisms in reduced salt fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent evidence suggests that Lactobacillus buchneri may play an important role in spoilage-associated secondary fermentation of cucumbers. Lactic acid degradation during fermented cucumber spoilage is influenced by sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, pH, and presence of oxygen. Objectives were to...

  13. Incubation of selected fermentable fibres with feline faecal inoculum: correlations between in vitro fermentation characteristics and end products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rochus, K.; Bosch, G.; Vanhaecke, L.; Velde, van de H.; Depauw, S.; Xu, J.; Fievez, V.; Wiele, van der T.; Hendriks, W.H.; Janssens, G.P.J.; Hesta, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate correlations between fermentation characteristics and end products of selected fermentable fibres (three types of fructans, citrus pectin, guar gum), incubated with faecal inocula from donor cats fed two diets, differing in fibre and protein sources and concentrations.

  14. Heat transfer simulation in solid substrate fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-Castañeda, G; Gutiérrez-Rojas, M; Bacquet, G; Raimbault, M; Viniegra-González, G

    1990-04-05

    A mathematical model was developed and tested to simulate the generation and transfer of heat in solid substrate fermentation (SSF). The experimental studies were realized in a 1-L static bioreactor packed with cassava wet meal and inoculated with Aspergillus niger. A simplified pseudohomogeneous monodimensional dynamic model was used for the energy balance. Kinetic equations taking into account biomass formation (logistic), sugar consumption (with maintenance), and carbon dioxide formation were used. Model verification was achieved by comparison of calculated and experimental temperatures. Heat transfer was evaluated by the estimation of Biot and Peclet heat dimensionless numbers 5-10 and 2550-2750, respectively. It was shown that conduction through the fermentation fixed bed was the main heat transfer resistance. This model intends to reach a better understanding of transport phenomena in SSF, a fact which could be used to evaluate various alternatives for temperature control of SSF, i.e., changing air flow rates and increasing water content. Dimensionless numbers could be used as scale-up criteria of large fermentors, since in those ratios are described the operating conditions, geometry, and size of the bioreactor. It could lead to improved solid reactor systems. The model can be used as a basis for automatic control of SSF for the production of valuable metabolites in static fermentors.

  15. Fermented probiotic beverages based on acid whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skryplonek, Katarzyna; Jasińska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Production of fermented probiotic beverages can be a good method for acid whey usage. The obtained products combine a high nutritional value of whey with health benefits claimed for probiotic bacteria. The aim of the study was to define quality properties of beverages based on fresh acid whey and milk with addition of buttermilk powder or sweet whey powder. Samples were inoculated with two strains of commercial probiotic cultures: Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 or Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12. After fermentation, samples were stored at refrigerated conditions. After 1, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days sensory characteristics, hardness, acetaldehyde content, titratable acidity, pH acidity and count of bacteria cells were evaluated. Throughout all storage period, the number of bacteria was higher than 8 log cfu/ml in the all samples. Beverages with La-5 strain had higher hardness and acidity, whilst samples with Bb-12 contained more acetaldehyde. Samples with buttermilk powder had better sensory properties than with sweet whey powder. Obtained products made of acid whey combined with milk and fortified with buttermilk powder or sweet whey powder, are good medium for growth and survival of examined probiotic bacteria strains. The level of bacteria was sufficient to provide health benefits to consumers.

  16. Kefir: a multifaceted fermented dairy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Barbara; Gürakan, G Candan; Unlü, Gülhan

    2014-12-01

    Kefir is a fermented dairy beverage produced by the actions of the microflora encased in the "kefir grain" on the carbohydrates in the milk. Containing many bacterial species already known for their probiotic properties, it has long been popular in Eastern Europe for its purported health benefits, where it is routinely administered to patients in hospitals and recommended for infants and the infirm. It is beginning to gain a foothold in the USA as a healthy probiotic beverage, mostly as an artisanal beverage, home fermented from shared grains, but also recently as a commercial product commanding shelf space in retail establishments. This is similar to the status of yogurts in the 1970s when yogurt was the new healthy product. Scientific studies into these reported benefits are being conducted into these health benefits, many with promising results, though not all of the studies have been conclusive. Our review provides an overview of kefir's structure, microbial profile, production, and probiotic properties. Our review also discusses alternative uses of kefir, kefir grains, and kefiran (the soluble polysaccharide produced by the organisms in kefir grains). Their utility in wound therapy, food additives, leavening agents, and other non-beverage uses is being studied with promising results.

  17. Chitooligosaccharides as novel ingredients of fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela Gurovic, M S; Dello Staffolo, M; Montero, M; Debbaudt, A; Albertengo, L; Rodríguez, M S

    2015-11-01

    Chitooligosaccharides (COSs) have been clinically evaluated for their immunostimulating effects after oral intake. Similar to dietary supplements, prebiotics and biopreservatives, these water-soluble bioactives are easily incorporated into dairy products and beverages. Notwithstanding, the use of COS in fermented foods would be limited by its antimicrobial properties. In order to study the interaction with yoghurts as a model of fermented food, the effects of COS on chemical composition, viability, morphology and metabolism of lactic acid bacteria, fatty acid profiles and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were assessed over 28 days and after chemical digestion. There were no significant differences between the nutritional composition of controls and yoghurts supplemented with concentrations up to 0.1% w/w of COS. However, the acidification of milk decreased at 0.5% (p < 0.05) and the formation of yoghurt failed at 3.0%, without affecting viable counts. Lipid hydrolysis of yoghurts supplemented with 0.1% COS was not affected by chemical digestion. No significant differences were found between CLA percentages of controls and supplemented yoghurts after digestion. Although the nutritional composition, fatty acids and viable counts were not significantly modified after COS supplementation, the present study shows that COS diminishes bacterial acidification at concentrations higher than 0.1%, thus limiting the amounts that could be added to yoghurt.

  18. Upgrading syngas fermentation effluent usingClostridium kluyveriin a continuous fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildemyn, Sylvia; Molitor, Bastian; Usack, Joseph G; Nguyen, Mytien; Rabaey, Korneel; Angenent, Largus T

    2017-01-01

    The product of current syngas fermentation systems is an ethanol/acetic acid mixture and the goal is to maximize ethanol recovery. However, ethanol currently has a relatively low market value and its separation from the fermentation broth is energy intensive. We can circumvent these disadvantages of ethanol production by converting the dilute ethanol/acetic acid mixture into products with longer carbon backbones, which are of higher value and are more easily extracted than ethanol. Chain elongation, which is the bioprocess in which ethanol is used to elongate short-chain carboxylic acids to medium-chain carboxylic acids (MCCAs), has been studied with pure cultures and open cultures of microbial consortia (microbiomes) with several different substrates. While upgrading syngas fermentation effluent has been studied with open cultures, to our knowledge, no study exists that has performed this with pure cultures. Here, pure cultures of Clostridium kluyveri were used in continuous bioreactors to convert ethanol/acetic acid mixtures into MCCAs. Besides changing the operating conditions in regards to substrate loading rates and composition, the effect of in-line product extraction, pH, and the use of real syngas fermentation effluent on production rates were tested. Increasing the organic loading rates resulted in proportionally higher production rates of n -caproic acid, which were up to 40 mM day -1 (4.64 g L -1  day -1 ) at carbon conversion efficiencies of 90% or higher. The production rates were similar for bioreactors with and without in-line product extraction. Furthermore, a lower ethanol/acetic acid ratio (3:1 instead of 10:1) enabled faster and more efficient n -caproic acid production. In addition, n -caprylic acid production was observed for the first time with C. kluyveri (up to 2.19 ± 0.34 mM in batch). Finally, the use of real effluent from syngas fermentation, without added yeast extract, but with added defined growth factors, did maintain similar

  19. The interactive effect of fungicide residues and yeast assimilable nitrogen on fermentation kinetics and hydrogen sulfide production during cider fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Thomas F; Peck, Gregory M; O'Keefe, Sean F; Stewart, Amanda C

    2017-01-01

    Fungicide residues on fruit may adversely affect yeast during cider fermentation, leading to sluggish or stuck fermentation or the production of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), which is an undesirable aroma compound. This phenomenon has been studied in grape fermentation but not in apple fermentation. Low nitrogen availability, which is characteristic of apples, may further exacerbate the effects of fungicides on yeast during fermentation. The present study explored the effects of three fungicides: elemental sulfur (S 0 ) (known to result in increased H 2 S in wine); fenbuconazole (used in orchards but not vineyards); and fludioxonil (used in post-harvest storage of apples). Only S 0 led to increased H 2 S production. Fenbuconazole (≥0.2 mg L -1 ) resulted in a decreased fermentation rate and increased residual sugar. An interactive effect of yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) concentration and fenbuconazole was observed such that increasing the YAN concentration alleviated the negative effects of fenbuconazole on fermentation kinetics. Cidermakers should be aware that residual fenbuconazole (as low as 0.2 mg L -1 ) in apple juice may lead to stuck fermentation, especially when the YAN concentration is below 250 mg L -1 . These results indicate that fermentation problems attributed to low YAN may be caused or exacerbated by additional factors such as fungicide residues, which have a greater impact on fermentation performance under low YAN conditions. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Incubation of selected fermentable fibres with feline faecal inoculum: correlations between in vitro fermentation characteristics and end products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochus, Kristel; Bosch, Guido; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Van de Velde, Hannelore; Depauw, Sarah; Xu, Jia; Fievez, Veerle; Van de Wiele, Tom; Hendriks, Wouter Hendrikus; Paul Jules Janssens, Geert; Hesta, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate correlations between fermentation characteristics and end products of selected fermentable fibres (three types of fructans, citrus pectin, guar gum), incubated with faecal inocula from donor cats fed two diets, differing in fibre and protein sources and concentrations. Cumulative gas production was measured over 72 h, fermentation end products were analysed at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-incubation, and quantification of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and bacteroides in fermentation liquids were performed at 4 and 48 h of incubation. Partial Pearson correlations, corrected for inoculum, were calculated to assess the interdependency of the fermentation characteristics of the soluble fibre substrates. Butyric and valeric acid concentrations increased with higher fermentation rates, whereas acetic acid declined. Concentrations of butyric acid (highest in fructans) and propionic acid were inversely correlated with protein fermentation end products at several time points, whereas concentrations of acetic acid (highest in citrus pectin) were positively correlated with these products at most time points. Remarkably, a lack of clear relationship between the counts of bacterial groups and their typically associated products after 4 h of incubation was observed. Data from this experiment suggest that differences in fibre fermentation rate in feline faecal inocula coincide with typical changes in the profile of bacterial fermentation products. The observed higher concentrations of propionic and butyric acid as a result of fibre fermentation could possibly have beneficial effects on intestinal health, and may be confounded with a concurrent decrease in the production of putrefactive compounds. In conclusion, supplementing guar gum or fructans to a feline diet might be more advantageous compared with citrus pectin. However, in vivo research is warranted to confirm these conclusions in domestic cats.

  1. A biochemically structured model for ethanol fermentation by Kluyveromyces marxianus: A batch fermentation and kinetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sansonetti, Sascha; Hobley, Timothy John; Calabrò, V.

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic batch fermentations of ricotta cheese whey (i.e. containing lactose) were performed under different operating conditions. Ethanol concentrations of ca. 22gL−1 were found from whey containing ca. 44gL−1 lactose, which corresponded to up to 95% of the theoretical ethanol yield within 15h....... The experimental data could be explained by means of a simple knowledge-driven biochemically structured model that was built on bioenergetics principles applied to the metabolic pathways through which lactose is converted into major products. Use of the model showed that the observed concentrations of ethanol......, lactose, biomass and glycerol during batch fermentation could be described within a ca. 6% deviation, as could the yield coefficients for biomass and ethanol produced on lactose. The model structure confirmed that the thermodynamics considerations on the stoichiometry of the system constrain the metabolic...

  2. Mathematical models of ABE fermentation: review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayank, Rahul; Ranjan, Amrita; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2013-12-01

    Among different liquid biofuels that have emerged in the recent past, biobutanol produced via fermentation processes is of special interest due to very similar properties to that of gasoline. For an effective design, scale-up, and optimization of the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process, it is necessary to have insight into the micro- and macro-mechanisms of the process. The mathematical models for ABE fermentation are efficient tools for this purpose, which have evolved from simple stoichiometric fermentation equations in the 1980s to the recent sophisticated and elaborate kinetic models based on metabolic pathways. In this article, we have reviewed the literature published in the area of mathematical modeling of the ABE fermentation. We have tried to present an analysis of these models in terms of their potency in describing the overall physiology of the process, design features, mode of operation along with comparison and validation with experimental results. In addition, we have also highlighted important facets of these models such as metabolic pathways, basic kinetics of different metabolites, biomass growth, inhibition modeling and other additional features such as cell retention and immobilized cultures. Our review also covers the mathematical modeling of the downstream processing of ABE fermentation, i.e. recovery and purification of solvents through flash distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, and pervaporation. We believe that this review will be a useful source of information and analysis on mathematical models for ABE fermentation for both the appropriate scientific and engineering communities.

  3. Wastewater recycling technology for fermentation in polyunsaturated fatty acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaojin; Ma, Zengxin; Tan, Yanzhen; Zhang, Huidan; Cui, Qiu

    2017-07-01

    To reduce fermentation-associated wastewater discharge and the cost of wastewater treatment, which further reduces the total cost of DHA and ARA production, this study first analyzed the composition of wastewater from Aurantiochytrium (DHA) and Mortierella alpina (ARA) fermentation, after which wastewater recycling technology for these fermentation processes was developed. No negative effects of DHA and ARA production were observed when the two fermentation wastewater methods were cross-recycled. DHA and ARA yields were significantly inhibited when the wastewater from the fermentation process was directly reused. In 5-L fed-batch fermentation experiments, using this cross-recycle technology, the DHA and ARA yields were 30.4 and 5.13gL -1 , respectively, with no significant changes (P>0.05) compared to the control group, and the water consumption was reduced by half compared to the traditional process. Therefore, this technology has great potential in industrial fermentation for polyunsaturated fatty acid production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality of Bread Supplemented with Antrodia
salmonea-Fermented Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Rao-Chi; Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal

    2016-01-01

    Summary Fermented grains of buckwheat, oat, embryo rice and wheat, which were prepared by solid-state fermentation with Antrodia salmonea, and the mycelium was used to substitute 7% of wheat flour to make bread. No difference in proximate composition, texture profile and contents of non-volatile taste components was observed among bread samples. White bread and bread supplemented with mycelium and fermented grains looked different. Bread supplemented with fermented grains had similar thermal properties, which differed from those of white bread and bread supplemented with mycelium. Bread supplemented with fermented grains contained substantial mass fractions (on dry mass basis) of adenosine (0.92–1.96 µg/g), ergosterol (24.53–30.12 µg/g), ergothioneine (2.16–3.18 µg/g) and γ-aminobutyric acid (2.20–2.45 µg/g). In addition, bread supplemented with mycelium contained lovastatin (0.43 µg/g). White bread and bread supplemented with fermented grains had similar sensory results. Overall, fermented grains could be incorporated into bread to provide beneficial effects. PMID:27904408

  5. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  6. In vitro fermentation of copra meal hydrolysate by chicken microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayoonthien, Phatcharin; Nitisinprasert, Sunee; Keawsompong, Suttipun

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out preliminary investigations on the in vitro fermentation selectivity of copra meal hydrolysate (CMH) by chicken gut microbiota. The ileum and cecum contents from three 35-day-old birds were used as inocula. Yeast mannooligosaccharide (yeast-MOS) or α-mannan was selected as a positive control. Batch culture fermentation with fecal bacteria was performed at 42 °C for 24 h in an anaerobic chamber. Samples were collected at 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h of fermentation and evaluated using real-time PCR and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) analysis. Results showed that the medium containing ileum and both CMH and yeast-MOS substrates led to an increase in the growth of the dominant groups as Lactobacillus , Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus spp. compared with 0-h fermentation. Campylobacter spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. were not detected in any samples. A significant decrease in Acinetobacter was observed in all substrates tested after 6 h of fermentation ( P  CMH fermentation showed a significantly greater reduction in the population of Pseudomonas after 18-h fermentation with ileum content ( P  CMH can be utilized by ileum and cecum microbial of chickens, and CMH has a generally desirable effect on the microbiota. CMH has the potential for use as a supplementary diet with similar or improved benefits and lower costs compared to commercial prebiotics. Further experiments in animal trials would seem to be justified.

  7. Dynamics of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptome during bread dough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Zhu, Bo; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Voordeckers, Karin; De Maeyer, Dries; Marchal, Kathleen; Dornez, Emmie; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2013-12-01

    The behavior of yeast cells during industrial processes such as the production of beer, wine, and bioethanol has been extensively studied. In contrast, our knowledge about yeast physiology during solid-state processes, such as bread dough, cheese, or cocoa fermentation, remains limited. We investigated changes in the transcriptomes of three genetically distinct Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during bread dough fermentation. Our results show that regardless of the genetic background, all three strains exhibit similar changes in expression patterns. At the onset of fermentation, expression of glucose-regulated genes changes dramatically, and the osmotic stress response is activated. The middle fermentation phase is characterized by the induction of genes involved in amino acid metabolism. Finally, at the latest time point, cells suffer from nutrient depletion and activate pathways associated with starvation and stress responses. Further analysis shows that genes regulated by the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, the major pathway involved in the response to osmotic stress and glycerol homeostasis, are among the most differentially expressed genes at the onset of fermentation. More importantly, deletion of HOG1 and other genes of this pathway significantly reduces the fermentation capacity. Together, our results demonstrate that cells embedded in a solid matrix such as bread dough suffer severe osmotic stress and that a proper induction of the HOG pathway is critical for optimal fermentation.

  8. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiane da Silva Oliveira Nunes

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52, belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil, and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis.

  9. Spontaneous Food Fermentations and Potential Risks for Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Capozzi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods and beverages are a heterogeneous class of products with a relevant worldwide significance for human economy, nutrition and health for millennia. A huge diversity of microorganisms is associated with the enormous variety in terms of raw materials, fermentative behavior and obtained products. In this wide microbiodiversity it is possible that the presence of microbial pathogens and toxic by-products of microbial origin, including mycotoxins, ethyl carbamate and biogenic amines, are aspects liable to reduce the safety of the consumed product. Together with other approaches (e.g., use of preservatives, respect of specific physico-chemical parameters, starter cultures technology has been conceived to successfully dominate indigenous microflora and to drive fermentation to foresee the desired attributes of the matrix, assuring quality and safety. Recent trends indicate a general return to spontaneous food fermentation. In this review, we point out the potential risks for human health associated with uncontrolled (uninoculated food fermentation and we discuss biotechnological approaches susceptible to conciliate fermented food safety, with instances of an enhanced contribution of microbes associated to spontaneous fermentation.

  10. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Giovani Brandão Mafra; da Silva, Gervásio Paulo

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52), belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil), and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium) were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct) was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis. PMID:28419110

  11. Fermented foods, neuroticism, and social anxiety: An interaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilimire, Matthew R; DeVylder, Jordan E; Forestell, Catherine A

    2015-08-15

    Animal models and clinical trials in humans suggest that probiotics can have an anxiolytic effect. However, no studies have examined the relationship between probiotics and social anxiety. Here we employ a cross-sectional approach to determine whether consumption of fermented foods likely to contain probiotics interacts with neuroticism to predict social anxiety symptoms. A sample of young adults (N=710, 445 female) completed self-report measures of fermented food consumption, neuroticism, and social anxiety. An interaction model, controlling for demographics, general consumption of healthful foods, and exercise frequency, showed that exercise frequency, neuroticism, and fermented food consumption significantly and independently predicted social anxiety. Moreover, fermented food consumption also interacted with neuroticism in predicting social anxiety. Specifically, for those high in neuroticism, higher frequency of fermented food consumption was associated with fewer symptoms of social anxiety. Taken together with previous studies, the results suggest that fermented foods that contain probiotics may have a protective effect against social anxiety symptoms for those at higher genetic risk, as indexed by trait neuroticism. While additional research is necessary to determine the direction of causality, these results suggest that consumption of fermented foods that contain probiotics may serve as a low-risk intervention for reducing social anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prediction of problematic wine fermentations using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, R César; Hernández, O Gonzalo; Urtubia, U Alejandra

    2011-11-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been used for the recognition of non-linear patterns, a characteristic of bioprocesses like wine production. In this work, ANNs were tested to predict problems of wine fermentation. A database of about 20,000 data from industrial fermentations of Cabernet Sauvignon and 33 variables was used. Two different ways of inputting data into the model were studied, by points and by fermentation. Additionally, different sub-cases were studied by varying the predictor variables (total sugar, alcohol, glycerol, density, organic acids and nitrogen compounds) and the time of fermentation (72, 96 and 256 h). The input of data by fermentations gave better results than the input of data by points. In fact, it was possible to predict 100% of normal and problematic fermentations using three predictor variables: sugars, density and alcohol at 72 h (3 days). Overall, ANNs were capable of obtaining 80% of prediction using only one predictor variable at 72 h; however, it is recommended to add more fermentations to confirm this promising result.

  13. Quality of Bread Supplemented with Antrodia salmonea-Fermented Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao-Chi Chien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented grains of buckwheat, oat, embryo rice and wheat, which were prepared by solid-state fermentation with Antrodia salmonea, and the mycelium was used to substitute 7 % of wheat flour to make bread. No difference in proximate composition, texture profile and contents of non-volatile taste components was observed among bread samples. White bread and bread supplemented with mycelium and fermented grains looked different. Bread supplemented with fermented grains had similar thermal properties, which differed from those of white bread and bread supplemented with mycelium. Bread supplemented with fermented grains contained substantial mass fractions (on dry mass basis of adenosine (0.92–1.96 μg/g, ergosterol (24.53–30.12 μg/g, ergothioneine (2.16–3.18 μg/g and γ-aminobutyric acid (2.20–2.45 μg/g. In addition, bread supplemented with mycelium contained lovastatin (0.43 μg/g. White bread and bread supplemented with fermented grains had similar sensory results. Overall, fermented grains could be incorporated into bread to provide beneficial effects.

  14. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cassiane da Silva Oliveira; de Carvalho, Giovani Brandão Mafra; da Silva, Marília Lordêlo Cardoso; da Silva, Gervásio Paulo; Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52), belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil), and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium) were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct) was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis.

  15. CINEMA NO AMAZONAS: o imaginário colonizado navegando numa sociologia de ausências e emergências

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Figueiredo Lopes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe uma reflexão sobre o Cinema no Amazonas, apresentando aspectos da produção audiovisual desde o início do século XX à contemporaneidade, dando ênfase a produção de cineastas locais. Propomos a configuração de um “ecossistema comunicacional” a partir da relação entre contexto histórico, artistas, meio ambiente, políticas públicas, estéticas e ideologias. A abordagem teórico-metodológica parte da ideia de sociologia das ausências e emergências, de Boaventura de Sousa Santos, em diálogo com autores amazônicos, como João de Jesus Paes Loureiro, e de teóricos da cultura e do audiovisual. Além da pesquisa bibliográfica foi realizado um estudo de campo para mapear a situação do setor audiovisual regional. Percebe-se que, por diversos fatores ao longo da história, o cinema amazonense é um segmento que se mantém praticamente imperceptível ou ignorado, pois além de estar apartado do sistema industrial de produção, distribuição e exibição, ainda não conquistou o reconhecimento do público regional.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Ecossistemas comunicacionais; Sociologia das emergências; cinema no Amazonas; Imaginário.     ABSTRACT This paper proposes a reflection on the Cinema in the Amazon, presenting aspects of audiovisual production since the beginning of the twentieth century to the contemporary, emphasizing the production of local filmmakers. We propose setting up a “communication ecosystem” from the relationship between historical context, artists, environment, public policy, aesthetics and ideologies. The theoretical and methodological approach of the idea of ​​sociology of absences and emergencies, Boaventura de Sousa Santos, in dialogue with Amazonian authors like Paes Loureiro, and theorists of culture and audiovisual. In addition to the literature search was conducted a field study to map the situation of the regional audiovisual sector. It is perceived that by various factors

  16. Parameters affecting ethyl ester production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saerens, S M G; Delvaux, F; Verstrepen, K J; Van Dijck, P; Thevelein, J M; Delvaux, F R

    2008-01-01

    Volatile esters are responsible for the fruity character of fermented beverages and thus constitute a vital group of aromatic compounds in beer and wine. Many fermentation parameters are known to affect volatile ester production. In order to obtain insight into the production of ethyl esters during fermentation, we investigated the influence of several fermentation variables. A higher level of unsaturated fatty acids in the fermentation medium resulted in a general decrease in ethyl ester production. On the other hand, a higher fermentation temperature resulted in greater ethyl octanoate and decanoate production, while a higher carbon or nitrogen content of the fermentation medium resulted in only moderate changes in ethyl ester production. Analysis of the expression of the ethyl ester biosynthesis genes EEB1 and EHT1 after addition of medium-chain fatty acid precursors suggested that the expression level is not the limiting factor for ethyl ester production, as opposed to acetate ester production. Together with the previous demonstration that provision of medium-chain fatty acids, which are the substrates for ethyl ester formation, to the fermentation medium causes a strong increase in the formation of the corresponding ethyl esters, this result further supports the hypothesis that precursor availability has an important role in ethyl ester production. We concluded that, at least in our fermentation conditions and with our yeast strain, the fatty acid precursor level rather than the activity of the biosynthetic enzymes is the major limiting factor for ethyl ester production. The expression level and activity of the fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes therefore appear to be prime targets for flavor modification by alteration of process parameters or through strain selection.

  17. Efficient L-lactic acid fermentation by the mold Rhizopus oryzae using activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koide, M.; Hirata, M.; Gaw, M.; Takanashi, H.; Hano, T. [Oita Univ, Oita (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2004-11-01

    Batch fermentations of Rhizopus oryzae AHU 6537 in medium containing granular activated carbon from coal, powder activated carbon from coal or granular activated carbon from coconut were carried out in an airlift bioreactor. As a result, fermentation broths were decolorized by activated carbon, and clearer fermentation broths were obtained than in fermentation without activated carbon. With activated carbon from coal, the cells formed smaller pellets than in fermentation without activated carbon, and fermentation performance was improved. Productivity was further improved by increasing the amount of activated carbon from coal. Therefore, the productivity of lactic acid fermentation could be improved by selecting a suitable activated carbon and by controlling the amount of activated carbon.

  18. Studies on bio-hydrogen production of different biomass fermentation types using molasses wastewater as substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, K.; Jiao, A.Y.; Rao, P.H. [Northeast Forestry Univ., Harbin (China). School of Forestry; Li, Y.F. [Northeast Forestry Univ., Harbin (China). School of Forestry; Shanghai Univ. Engineering, Shanghai (China). College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Li, W. [Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China)

    2010-07-01

    Anaerobic fermentation technology was used to treat molasses wastewater. This study compared the hydrogen production capability of different fermentation types involving dark fermentation hydrogen production. The paper discussed the experiment including the results. It was found that the fermentation type changed by changing engineered control parameters in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). It was concluded that ethanol-type fermentation resulted in the largest hydrogen production capability, while butyric acid-type fermentation took second place followed by propionic acid-type fermentation.

  19. Biological production of hydrogen from agricultural raw materials and residues with a subsequent methanisation step; Biologische Wasserstoffproduktion aus landwirtschaftlichen Roh- und Reststoffen mit nachfolgender Methanstufe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.; Stegmann, R. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer AbfallRessourcenWirtschaft

    2007-07-01

    In order to examine the thermophile fermentative production from biohydrogen, discontinuous attempts were accomplished at a temperature of 60 C. As an inoculum, heat-treated sewage sludge was used. Glucose was used as a substrate. The fermenting residues of the hydrogen attempts were used as a substrate in a methane reactor in order to examine a two-stage system. The hydrogen attempts in the anaerobic test system were operated with a hydraulic retention time by 3.3 days and were performed during a period of 300 days. The optimal space load amounts to 5 g (l*d). The production rate at hydrogen amounts to 1.2 Nl/(l{sub R}*d). The yields amount to between 200 and 250 Nml/g oTS. In the case of an overloading of the system with substrate, the hydrogen production decreases drastically due to poor yields. Biological hydrogen production by fermentation possesses the potential to become a component for a lasting emission-free power supply. The thermophile approach ensures a simultaneous hygienization. As a fermenting remainder treatment a downstream methanation stage is possible.

  20. Effect of surfactants on separate hydrolysis fermentation and simultaneous saccharification fermentation of pretreated lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Maobing; Zhang, Xiao; Paice, Mike; McFarlane, Paul; Saddler, Jack N

    2009-01-01

    The effects of surfactants addition on enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent fermentation of steam exploded lodgepole pine (SELP) and ethanol pretreated lodgepole pine (EPLP) were investigated in this study. Supplementing Tween 80 during cellulase hydrolysis of SELP resulted in a 32% increase in the cellulose-to-glucose yield. However, little improvement was obtained from hydrolyzing EPLP in the presence of the same amount of surfactant. The positive effect of surfactants on SELP hydrolysis led to an increase in final ethanol yield after the fermentation. It was found that the addition of surfactant led to a substantial increase in the amount of free enzymes in the 48 h hydrolysates derived from both substrates. The effect of surfactant addition on final ethanol yield of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was also investigated by using SELP in the presence of additional furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The results showed that the surfactants slightly increased the conversion rates of furfural and HMF during SSF process by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The presence of furfural and HMF at the experimental concentrations did not affect the final ethanol concentration either. The strategy of applying surfactants in cellulase recycling to reduce enzyme cost is presented. (c) 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009.