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Sample records for ferment soy product

  1. Evaluation of a functional soy product with addition of soy fiber and fermented with probiotic kefir culture

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    Tahis Regina Baú

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical, sensory properties and stability of a functional soy product with soy fiber and fermented with probiotic kefir culture. The product was characterized by the chemical composition, color and sensory analysis. The stability of the product was evaluated by pH, acidity, viscosity, firmness, syneresis measurements and cells counts. The functional soy product presented better chemical composition and difference in color compared to the fermented product without fiber. Sensory analysis showed that the functional soy product had good acceptance and had better firmness and reduced syneresis compared to fermented product without fiber. The lactic acid bacteria counts decreased slightly during 28 days at 4°C of the storage and the product showed good microbiological stability. The functional soy product due to high Lactococcus lactis counts could be considered as a probiotic for the entire storage period.

  2. Microbe participation in aroma production during soy sauce fermentation.

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    Harada, Risa; Yuzuki, Masanobu; Ito, Kotaro; Shiga, Kazuki; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2018-06-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional Japanese fermented seasoning that contains various constituents such as amino acids, organic acids, and volatiles that are produced during the long fermentation process. Although studies regarding the correlation between microbes and aroma constituents have been performed, there are no reports about the influences of the microbial products, such as lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol, during fermentation. Because it is known that these compounds contribute to microbial growth and to changes in the constituent profile by altering the moromi environment, understanding the influence of these compounds is important. Metabolomics, the comprehensive study of low molecular weight metabolites, is a promising strategy for the deep understanding of constituent contributions to food characteristics. Therefore, the influences of microbes and their products such as lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol on aroma profiles were investigated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based metabolic profiling. The presence of aroma constituents influenced by microbes and chemically influenced by lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol were proposed. Most of the aroma constituents were not produced by adding ethanol alone, confirming the participation of yeast in aroma production. It was suggested that lactic acid bacterium relates to a key aromatic compound, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone. However, most of the measured aroma constituents changed similarly in both samples with lactic acid bacterium and acids. Thus, it was clear that the effect of lactic acid and acetic acid on the aroma profile was significant. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethanol Production by Soy Fiber Treatment and Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-Fermentation in an Integrated Corn-Soy Biorefinery

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    Jasreen K. Sekhon

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Insoluble fiber (IF recovered from the enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP of soybeans is a fraction rich in carbohydrates and proteins. It can be used to enhance ethanol production in an integrated corn-soy biorefinery, which combines EAEP with traditional corn-based ethanol processing. The present study evaluated IF as a substrate for ethanol production. The effects of treatment of IF (soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA, liquid hot water (LHW, and enzymatic hydrolysis, primarily simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF, as well as scaling up (250 mL to 60 L on ethanol production from IF alone or a corn and IF slurry were investigated. Enzymatic hydrolysis (pectinase, cellulase, and xylanase, each added at 5% soy solids during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation/SSCF was the best treatment to maximize ethanol production from IF. Ethanol yield almost doubled when SSCF of IF was performed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli KO11. Addition of IF in dry-grind corn fermentation increased the ethanol production rate (~31%, but low ethanol tolerance of E. coli KO11 was a limiting factor for employing SSCF in combination corn and IF fermentation. Nonlinear Monod modeling accurately predicted the effect of ethanol concentration on E. coli KO11 growth kinetics by Hanes-Woolf linearization. Collectively, the results from this study suggest a potential of IF as a substrate, alone or in dry-grind corn fermentation, where it enhances the ethanol production rate. IF can be incorporated in the current bioethanol industry with no added capital investment, except enzymes.

  4. Conjoint analysis on the purchase intent for traditional fermented soy product (natto) among Japanese housewives.

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    Kimura, Atsushi; Kuwazawa, Shigetaka; Wada, Yuji; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Okamoto, Masako; Yamaguchi, Yui; Masuda, Tomohiro; Dan, Ippeita

    2011-04-01

    The effect of sensory and extrinsic attributes on consumer intentions to purchase the Japanese traditional fermented soybean product natto was evaluated using conjoint analysis. Six attributes with 2 levels each were chosen and manipulated: price (high compared with low), the country of origin of the soybeans (domestic compared with imported), stickiness (strong compared with moderate), smell (rich compared with moderate), attached seasonings (attached compared with no attached seasonings), and the environmental friendliness of the packaging (high compared with low). A fractional factorial design was applied and 8 hypothetical product labels were produced. A sample of 479 Japanese housewives ranked these product labels based on their purchase intentions. Overall purchase intention was affected by country of origin, attached seasonings, and price; those attributes accounted for 81.0%, while the sensory attributes of the product accounted for 19.0% of purchase intents. In order to estimate market segments for the natto products based on consumer preference, a cluster analysis was performed. It identified 4 segments of consumers: 1 oriented to attached seasonings, another conscious of the price, and the other 2 oriented to origins. The behavioral and demographic characteristics of the respondents had a limited influence on segment membership.   This research was conducted to understand how consumers valuate various sensory and nonsensory product attributes based on their assessment of the overall product in the case of Japanese fermented soy product (natto). The data of this research would be of great importance both in understanding consumer behavior and in designing strategies for product development.

  5. Using LC-MS to examine the fermented food products vinegar and soy sauce for the presence of gluten.

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    Li, Haili; Byrne, Keren; Galiamov, Renata; Mendoza-Porras, Omar; Bose, Utpal; Howitt, Crispin A; Colgrave, Michelle L

    2018-07-15

    A strict, lifelong gluten-free (GF) diet is currently the only treatment for coeliac disease (CD). Vinegar and soy sauce are fermented condiments that often include wheat and/or barley. During fermentation cereal proteins are partially degraded by enzymes to yield peptide fragments and amino acids. Whether these fermented products contain intact or degraded gluten proteins and if they are safe for people with CD remains in question. LC-MS offers the benefit of being able to detect hydrolysed gluten that might be present in commercial vinegar and soy sauce products. LC-MS revealed the presence of gluten in malt vinegar, wherein the identified peptides derived from B-, D- and γ-hordein from barley, as well as γ-gliadin, and HMW- and LMW-glutenins from wheat that are known to contain immunopathogenic epitopes. No gluten was detected in the soy sauces examined despite wheat being a labelled ingredient indicating extensive hydrolysis of gluten during soy sauce production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of the glutaminase genes of Aspergillus sojae involved in glutamate production during soy sauce fermentation.

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    Ito, Kotaro; Koyama, Yasuji; Hanya, Yoshiki

    2013-01-01

    Glutaminase, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamine to L-glutamate, enhances the umami taste in soy sauce. The Aspergillus sojae genome contains 10 glutaminase genes. In this study, we estimated that approximately 60% of the glutamate in soy sauce is produced through the glutaminase reaction. To determine which glutaminase is involved in soy sauce glutamate production, we prepared soy sauces using single and multiple glutaminase gene disruptants of A. sojae. The glutamate concentration in soy sauce prepared using the ΔgahA-ΔgahB-ΔggtA-Δgls disruptant was approximately 60% lower than that in the control strain, whereas it was decreased by approximately 20-30% in the ΔgahA-ΔgahB disruptant. However, the glutamate concentration was unchanged in the soy sauces prepared using the ΔgahA-ΔggtA-Δgls and ΔgahB-ΔggtA-Δgls disruptants. These results indicate that four glutaminases are involved in glutamate production in soy sauce, and that the peptidoglutaminase activities of GahA and GahB increase the glutamate concentration in soy sauce.

  7. A systematic, comparative study on the beneficial health components and antioxidant activities of commercially fermented soy products marketed in China.

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    Xu, Lu; Du, Bin; Xu, Baojun

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study are to systematically assess the bioactive substances and overall antioxidant capacities of commercially fermented soy products and to find the relationships between the presence of beneficial components in different types of soybean fermented products. The results show that phenolic profiles increased significantly after fermentation as compared with raw yellow soybeans. Among all the samples, the douchi and fermented black bean sauce had the highest detected antioxidant profiles. Even though the total isoflavone content was reduced in fermented soybean products (794.84 μg/g on average) as compared with raw yellow soybeans (3477.6 μg/g), there was an obvious trend of conversion of the glucoside form in raw soybeans into the aglycone-form isoflavones in the fermented soybean products. The highest daidzein and genistein values were found in the "Yangfan" black bean douchi, i.e. 860.3 μg/g and 1025.9 μg/g, respectively. The amounts of essential amino acids also were improved in most fermented soybean products. The douchi and black bean fermented products are recommended for consumption due to their abundant bioactive substances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fermented Soy Product Intake Is Inversely Associated with the Development of High Blood Pressure: The Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study.

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    Nozue, Miho; Shimazu, Taichi; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Charvat, Hadrien; Mori, Nagisa; Mutoh, Michihiro; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamaji, Taiki; Inoue, Manami; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-09-01

    Background: Randomized controlled studies have investigated the short-term effect of soy product intake on blood pressure (BP) in normotensive people. To our knowledge, no prospective studies exist on the effect of habitual intake of fermented soy products, separate from total soy products, on BP in the general population. Objective: We examined the association between the habitual intake of soy products, including fermented soy products, and the development of high BP during a 5-y period among participants in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. Methods: The study included normotensive participants aged 40-69 y at baseline (926 men and 3239 women) who completed 2 questionnaires and whose BP was measured at the baseline survey between 1993 and 1994 and the 5-y follow-up in the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study Cohort II. The intake of soy products was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. High BP was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mm Hg, or antihypertensive medication use. ORs and 95% CIs of high BP by frequency of soy products (miso, natto, and tofu) consumption, intake of total and fermented soy products, and intake of isoflavones from total and fermented soy products were estimated with the use of multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Multivariable-adjusted ORs of high BP for the highest compared with the lowest tertile of total and fermented soy product intake were 1.03 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.25; P -trend = 0.786) and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.92; P -trend = 0.009), respectively. The frequency of nonfermented soy product (tofu) intake was not associated with the development of high BP ( P -trend = 0.597). Conclusions: The intake of fermented soy products, but not total or nonfermented soy products, was inversely associated with developing high BP in men and women with normal BP. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Possibility of breast cancer prevention: use of soy isoflavones and fermented soy beverage produced using probiotics.

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    Takagi, Akimitsu; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Kaga, Chiaki

    2015-05-13

    The various beneficial effects of soybeans, which are rich in phytochemicals, have received much attention because of increasing health awareness. Soy milk that has been fermented using lactic acid bacteria has been used to prepare cheese-like products, tofu (bean-curd), and yogurt-type products. However, the distinct odor of soybeans has limited the acceptance of such foods, particularly in Western countries. In Japan, while tofu and soy milk have long been habitually consumed, the development of novel, palatable food products has not been easy. The unpleasant odor of soy milk and the absorption efficiency for isoflavones can be improved using a recently developed fermented soy milk beverage. Cancer has been the leading cause of death, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women. The most common type of breast cancer is estrogen-dependent, and the anti-estrogenic effects of isoflavones are known. The present review focuses on the characteristics of soy milk fermented using probiotics, an epidemiological study examining the incidence of breast cancer and soy isoflavone consumption, and a non-clinical study examining breast cancer prevention using fermented soy milk beverage.

  10. Possibility of Breast Cancer Prevention: Use of Soy Isoflavones and Fermented Soy Beverage Produced Using Probiotics

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    Akimitsu Takagi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The various beneficial effects of soybeans, which are rich in phytochemicals, have received much attention because of increasing health awareness. Soy milk that has been fermented using lactic acid bacteria has been used to prepare cheese-like products, tofu (bean-curd, and yogurt-type products. However, the distinct odor of soybeans has limited the acceptance of such foods, particularly in Western countries. In Japan, while tofu and soy milk have long been habitually consumed, the development of novel, palatable food products has not been easy. The unpleasant odor of soy milk and the absorption efficiency for isoflavones can be improved using a recently developed fermented soy milk beverage. Cancer has been the leading cause of death, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women. The most common type of breast cancer is estrogen-dependent, and the anti-estrogenic effects of isoflavones are known. The present review focuses on the characteristics of soy milk fermented using probiotics, an epidemiological study examining the incidence of breast cancer and soy isoflavone consumption, and a non-clinical study examining breast cancer prevention using fermented soy milk beverage.

  11. Volatile components of the enzyme-ripened sufu, a Chinese traditional fermented product of soy bean.

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    Moy, Yin-Soon; Lu, Ting-Jang; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2012-02-01

    In the present study, sufu, a soft cheese-like oriental fermented food, was prepared by ripening the salted-tofu cubes in Aspergillus oryzae-fermented soybean-rice koji at 37°C for 16 days (16-day sufu). Sufu was further held at room temperature for another 30 days (46-day sufu). The volatile components of the non-fermented tofu cubes and the sufu products were identified and quantified by GC and GC-MS. A total of 70 volatile compounds including 20 aldehydes, 18 alcohols, 16 esters, 5 ketones, 5 acids and 6 other compounds were identified. Sufu products contained more volatile compounds than non-fermented tofu cubes qualitatively and quantitatively. After 16-days of ripening, fatty acid, aldehyde and ester were noted to be the dominant volatile fractions. In contrast, the 46-day sufu contained ester, and alcohol as the major volatile fractions. They comprise approximately 63.9% of the total volatile components. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Soy production and certification

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    Tomei, Julia; Semino, Stella Maris; Paul, Helena

    2010-01-01

    With the rising emphasis on biofuels as a potential solution to climate change, this paper asks whether certification schemes, developed to promote sustainable feedstock production, are able to deliver genuine sustainability benefits. The Round Table on Responsible Soy (RTRS) is a certification...... the social and environmental impacts of soybean production can be mitigated by the RTRS. It concludes that at present certification schemes are unlikely to be able to address either the institutional challenges associated with their implementation or the detrimental impacts of the additional demand generated...... scheme that aims to promote responsible soy production through the development of principles and criteria. However, can and does this initiative address the negative impacts associated with the intensive production of soy? Taking the example of soy biodiesel produced in Argentina, this paper asks whether...

  13. KARAKTERISTIK PRODUK FERMENTASI DARI BAHAN BAKU KOMBINASI SUSU KAMBING DENGAN EKSTRAK KEDELAI, EKSTRAK JAGUNG, ATAU SANTAN KELAPA [Characterization of Fermented Products Made From Caprine Milk in Combination with Soy Extract, Corn Extract or Coconut Extract

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    Hartati Chairunnisa*

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the best combination of caprine milk with soy extract, corn extract, or coconut extract in the production of flavored fermented milk products. Products were analyzed for the lactic acid content, crude protein, viscosity and also organoleptic properties (color, texsture, flavour, overall acceptance. This study was performed by a Completely Randomized Design with four kind of treatments, i.e.caprine, caprine milk in combination with soy extract, corn extract, or coconut extract with five replications. The result indicated that the caprine milk in combination with soy extract resulted an acceptable flavored fermented milk product containing 0.78% lactic acid, 6.62% crude protein, and had a viscosity of 2120 centipoise. The texture of the most liked flavoured fermented milk product was viscous to most viscous, and the flavour was slightly sour to sour.

  14. Effect of salt-tolerant yeast of Candida versatilis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii on the production of biogenic amines during soy sauce fermentation.

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    Qi, Wei; Hou, Li-Hua; Guo, Hong-Lian; Wang, Chun-Ling; Fan, Zhen-Chuan; Liu, Jin-Fu; Cao, Xiao-Hong

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to enhance and improve the quality and safety of soy sauce. In the present work, the change of biogenic amines, such as histamine, tyramine, cadaverine, spermidine, was examined by the treatment of Candida versatilis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, and the influence of salt-tolerant yeast on biogenic amines was analysed during the whole fermentation process. The results showed that the content of biogenic amines was elevated after yeast treatment and the content of biogenic amines was influenced by using yeast. The dominating biogenic amine in soy sauce was tyramine. At the end of fermentation, the concentrations of biogenic amines produced by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida versatilis in the soy mash were 122.71 mg kg(-1) and 69.96 mg kg(-1) . The changes of biogenic amines in high-salt liquid soy mash during fermentation process indicated that a variety of biogenic amines were increased in the fermentation ageing period, which may be due to amino acid decarboxylation to form biogenic amines by yeast decarboxylase. The fermentation period of soy sauce should be longer than 5 months because biogenic amines began to decline after this time period. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Detection of Gluten during the Fermentation Process To Produce Soy Sauce.

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    Cao, Wanying; Watson, Damien; Bakke, Mikio; Panda, Rakhi; Bedford, Binaifer; Kande, Parnavi S; Jackson, Lauren S; Garber, Eric A E

    2017-04-03

    Advances have been made to provide people with celiac disease (CD) access to a diverse diet through an increase in the availability of gluten-free food products and regulations designed to increase label reliability. Despite advances in our knowledge regarding CD and analytical methods to detect gluten, little is known about the effects of fermentation on gluten detection. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow devices routinely used by analytical laboratories and regulatory agencies to test for the presence of gluten in food were examined for their ability to detect gluten during the fermentation processes leading to the production of soy sauce, as well as in finished products. Similar results were observed irrespective of whether the soy sauce was produced using pilot-plant facilities or according to a homemade protocol. In both cases, gluten was not detected after moromi (brine-based) fermentation, which is the second stage of fermentation. The inability to detect gluten after moromi fermentation was irrespective of whether the assay used a sandwich configuration that required two epitopes or a competitive configuration that required only one epitope. Consistent with these results was the observation that ELISA, lateral flow devices, and Western immunoblot analyses were unable to detect gluten in commercial soy sauce, teriyaki sauce, and Worcestershire sauce. Although reports are lacking on problems associated with the consumption of fermented soy-containing sauces by consumers with CD, additional research is needed to determine whether all immunopathogenic elements in gluten are hydrolyzed during soy sauce production.

  16. Immunomodulatory properties of fermented soy and dairy milks prepared with lactic acid bacteria.

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    Wagar, L E; Champagne, C P; Buckley, N D; Raymond, Y; Green-Johnson, J M

    2009-10-01

    Fermented soy and dairy milk preparations provide a means for delivering lactic acid bacteria and their fermentation products into the diet. Our aims were to test immunomodulatory bioactivity of fermented soy beverage (SB) and dairy milk blend (MB) preparations on human intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and to determine the impact of freezing medium on culture survival prior to bioactivity analyses. Fermented SB and MB were prepared using pure or mixed cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus ST5, Bifidobacterium longum R0175, and Lactobacillus helveticus R0052. Immunomodulatory bioactivity was assessed by testing selected SB and MB ferments on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)-treated IEC and measuring effects on Interleukin-8 (IL-8) production. Impact of timing of ferment administration relative to this pro-inflammatory challenge was investigated. The most pronounced reductions in IEC IL-8 production were observed when IEC were treated with either SB or MB ferment preparations prior to TNFalpha challenge. These results indicate that freezing-stable MB and SB ferments prepared with selected strains can modulate IEC IL-8 production in vitro, and suggest that yogurt-like fermented soy formulations could provide a functional food alternative to milk-based fermented products.

  17. The Production of Benzaldehyde by Rhizopus oligosporus USM R1 in a Solid State Fermentation (SSF System of Soy Bean Meal: Rice Husks

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    Norliza, A. W.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of Rhizopus oligosporus USM R1 for the production of benzaldehyde, a bitter cherry almond flavour was performed using soya bean meal and rice husks as the substrates. The identification of R. oligosporus USM R1 was performed based on the observation made under light microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The optimum conditions for the SSF in a 250-ml Erlenmeyer flask system were 40% (v/w water content, substrate particle size of 0.7 mm; inoculum size of 1 x 10^5 spores/g substrate; incubation temperature of 30C; substrate amount of 7 g and the ratio of soy bean meal: rice husks of 50:50%. A maximum benzaldehyde production was obtained when the substrate was agitated after 48 hour for a 96 hour fermentation time. The highest benzaldehyde production obtained after 96 hour cultivation was 5.47 mg g-1 substrate. The supplementation of carbon and nitrogen sources in the substrate mixture revealed an enhancement in the growth and benzyldehyde production. A maximum production of benzaldehyde was obtained with the supplementation of L-phenylalanine, a precursor for benzaldehyde biosynthesis which gave 38.69 mg benzaldehyde/g substrate. This is approximately 6-folds higher compared to the substrates without the supplementation of L-phenylalanine.

  18. Influence of yeast and lactic acid bacterium on the constituent profile of soy sauce during fermentation.

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    Harada, Risa; Yuzuki, Masanobu; Ito, Kotaro; Shiga, Kazuki; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2017-02-01

    Soy sauce is a Japanese traditional seasoning composed of various constituents that are produced by various microbes during a long-term fermentation process. Due to the complexity of the process, the investigation of the constituent profile during fermentation is difficult. Metabolomics, the comprehensive study of low molecular weight compounds in biological samples, is thought to be a promising strategy for deep understanding of the constituent contribution to food flavor characteristics. Therefore, metabolomics is suitable for the analysis of soy sauce fermentation. Unfortunately, only few and unrefined studies of soy sauce fermentation using metabolomics approach have been reported. Therefore, we investigated changes in low molecular weight hydrophilic and volatile compounds of soy sauce using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based non-targeted metabolic profiling. The data were analyzed by statistical analysis to evaluate influences of yeast and lactic acid bacterium on the constituent profile. Consequently, our results suggested a novel finding that lactic acid bacterium affected the production of several constituents such as cyclotene, furfural, furfuryl alcohol and methional in the soy sauce fermentation process. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of fermentation parameters to study the behavior of selected lactic cultures on soy solid state fermentation.

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    Rodríguez de Olmos, A; Bru, E; Garro, M S

    2015-03-02

    The use of solid fermentation substrate (SSF) has been appreciated by the demand for natural and healthy products. Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria play a leading role in the production of novel functional foods and their behavior is practically unknown in these systems. Soy is an excellent substrate for the production of functional foods for their low cost and nutritional value. The aim of this work was to optimize different parameters involved in solid state fermentation (SSF) using selected lactic cultures to improve soybean substrate as a possible strategy for the elaboration of new soy food with enhanced functional and nutritional properties. Soy flour and selected lactic cultures were used under different conditions to optimize the soy SSF. The measured responses were bacterial growth, free amino acids and β-glucosidase activity, which were analyzed by applying response surface methodology. Based on the proposed statistical model, different fermentation conditions were raised by varying the moisture content (50-80%) of the soy substrate and temperature of incubation (31-43°C). The effect of inoculum amount was also investigated. These studies demonstrated the ability of selected strains (Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei and Bifidobacterium longum) to grow with strain-dependent behavior on the SSF system. β-Glucosidase activity was evident in both strains and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei was able to increase the free amino acids at the end of fermentation under assayed conditions. The used statistical model has allowed the optimization of fermentation parameters on soy SSF by selected lactic strains. Besides, the possibility to work with lower initial bacterial amounts to obtain results with significant technological impact was demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Technological functional properties of soy, oat and wheat fibers and soy products with added fibers and fermented with kefir culturePropriedades funcionais tecnológicas das fibras de soja, aveia e trigo e produtos de soja com adição de fibras e fermentados com cultura de kefir

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    Elza Iouko Ida

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the technological functional properties of soy, oats and wheat fibers and evaluate soy products with added fiber and fermented with kefir. The fibers were characterized with regard to pH, water adsorption capacity, water and oil absorption capacity and swelling volume. Soy products were developed with the addition of 3% soy fiber, oat and wheat and fermented with kefir. The fermented products were characterized for pH, acidity, syneresis, viscosity and firmness, Lactococcus lactis counts and analysis of sanitary conditions. The soy fiber showed a higher content of protein and lipids, pH, water adsorption and adsorption capacity. The wheat fiber showed a higher oil absorption capacity. The addition of soy, oat and wheat fibers influence pH, acidity, syneresis, viscosity and firmness of fermented soy products with kefir. The lowest syneresis and highest viscosity and firmness were obtained with the soy fermented products with soy fiber. The addition of soy fiber stimulated Lactococcus lactis growth. The fermented soy products had enough Lactococcus lactis counts to be considered probiotics. The products presented satisfactory hygienic sanitary conditions.O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar as propriedades funcionais tecnológicas das fibras de soja, aveia e trigo e avaliar os produtos de soja com adição de fibras e fermentados com cultura de kefir. As fibras foram caracterizadas quanto a composição química, pH, capacidade de adsorção e absorção de água, capacidade de absorção de óleo e volume de intumescimento. Foram desenvolvidos produtos de soja com adição de 3% de fibra de soja, aveia e trigo e fermentados com cultura de kefir. Os produtos fermentados foram caracterizados quanto o pH, acidez, sinerese, viscosidade e firmeza, contagem de Lactococcus lactis e análise das condições higiênico-sanitárias. A fibra de soja apresentou maior teor de proteínas e lipídios, p

  1. Apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations of healthy adult dogs fed bioprocessed soy protein.

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    Beloshapka, A N; de Godoy, M R C; Detweiler, K B; Newcomb, M; Ellegård, K H; Fahey, G C; Swanson, K S

    2016-09-01

    Animal proteins are commonly used in extruded dog foods. Plant-based proteins have a more consistent nutrient profile than animal sources but may contain antinutritional factors, including trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. Bioprocessed soy protein (SP; HP-300; Hamlet Protein, Inc., Findlay, OH) is a processed soy-based product with low antinutritional factor concentrations and high protein quality. The objective was to evaluate the effects of SP on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end products. Furthermore, this study aimed to identify if SP can be a replacement for poultry byproduct meal (PBPM) in dog food and determine if there are practical limits to its use. Three palatability experiments were conducted to evaluate 1) 0 vs. 12% SP, 2) 0 vs. 48% SP, and 3) 12 vs. 48% SP. For digestibility, 48 healthy adult Beagle dogs (20 females and 28 males; 3.4 yr mean age and 10.0 kg mean BW) were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments, 0 (control), 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48% SP, in a completely randomized design. All diets were formulated to meet Association of American Feed Control Officials nutrient profiles and contained approximately 30% CP and 16% fat. The treatment period consisted of a 10-d diet adaptation phase followed by a 4-d fresh and total fecal collection phase. The palatability results suggest that of the 3 inclusion levels tested (0, 12, or 48% SP), the best inclusion of SP is 12%, which was preferred over 0 and 48% SP. Digestibility and fecal data were evaluated for linear and quadratic effects using SAS. Stool output (on both an as-is and a DM basis) did not differ from the control except for the 48% SP treatment ( dogs fed 24 and 48% SP compared with the control. Conversely, branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were lower ( dogs fed 8 to 48% SP compared with the control. These data suggest that SP is a suitable replacement for PBPM in dog diets up to a 24% inclusion level.

  2. Harnessing functional food strategies for the health challenges of space travel—Fermented soy for astronaut nutrition

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    Buckley, Nicole D.; Champagne, Claude P.; Masotti, Adriana I.; Wagar, Lisa E.; Tompkins, Thomas A.; Green-Johnson, Julia M.

    2011-04-01

    Astronauts face numerous health challenges during long-duration space missions, including diminished immunity, bone loss and increased risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Changes in the intestinal flora of astronauts may contribute to these problems. Soy-based fermented food products could provide a nutritional strategy to help alleviate these challenges by incorporating beneficial lactic acid bacteria, while reaping the benefits of soy isoflavones. We carried out strain selection for the development of soy ferments, selecting strains of lactic acid bacteria showing the most effective growth and fermentation ability in soy milk ( Streptococcus thermophilus ST5, Bifidobacterium longum R0175 and Lactobacillus helveticus R0052). Immunomodulatory bioactivity of selected ferments was assessed using an in vitro challenge system with human intestinal epithelial and macrophage cell lines, and selected ferments show the ability to down-regulate production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 following challenge with tumour necrosis factor-alpha. The impact of fermentation on vitamin B1 and B6 levels and on isoflavone biotransformation to agluconic forms was also assessed, with strain variation-dependent biotransformation ability detected. Overall this suggests that probiotic bacteria can be successfully utilized to develop soy-based fermented products targeted against health problems associated with long-term space travel.

  3. Characterization of a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain for reduction of citrulline accumulation during soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiran; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Fang, Fang

    2016-10-01

    To reduce the amount of citrulline produced by arginine-consuming bacteria in the moromi mash during soy sauce production. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JY06, a salt-tolerant strain with high arginine consumption ability and low citrulline accumulation capacity, was isolated from moromi mash. The concentration of citrulline was decreased from 26.8 to 5.1 mM and ethyl carbamate in soy sauce, after sterilization, decreased from 97 to 17 μg kg(-1) when B. amyloliquefaciens JY06 was added during fermentation. The aroma of the sauce was improved by increasing the ester content. B. amyloliquefaciens JY06 is a beneficial bacterium that can be used in soy sauce fermentation to eliminate ethyl carbonate and enhance the flavor of the sauce.

  4. Predictive modelling of Lactobacillus casei KN291 survival in fermented soy beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Dorota; Dorota, Zielińska; Kołożyn-Krajewska, Danuta; Danuta, Kołożyn-Krajewska; Goryl, Antoni; Antoni, Goryl; Motyl, Ilona

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to construct and verify predictive growth and survival models of a potentially probiotic bacteria in fermented soy beverage. The research material included natural soy beverage (Polgrunt, Poland) and the strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) - Lactobacillus casei KN291. To construct predictive models for the growth and survival of L. casei KN291 bacteria in the fermented soy beverage we design an experiment which allowed the collection of CFU data. Fermented soy beverage samples were stored at various temperature conditions (5, 10, 15, and 20°C) for 28 days. On the basis of obtained data concerning the survival of L. casei KN291 bacteria in soy beverage at different temperature and time conditions, two non-linear models (r(2)= 0.68-0.93) and two surface models (r(2)=0.76-0.79) were constructed; these models described the behaviour of the bacteria in the product to a satisfactory extent. Verification of the surface models was carried out utilizing the validation data - at 7°C during 28 days. It was found that applied models were well fitted and charged with small systematic errors, which is evidenced by accuracy factor - Af, bias factor - Bf and mean squared error - MSE. The constructed microbiological growth and survival models of L. casei KN291 in fermented soy beverage enable the estimation of products shelf life period, which in this case is defined by the requirement for the level of the bacteria to be above 10(6) CFU/cm(3). The constructed models may be useful as a tool for the manufacture of probiotic foods to estimate of their shelf life period.

  5. Biochemical changes in low-salt solid-state fermented soy sauce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-29

    Nov 29, 2010 ... oryzae on the raw material containing a mixture of steam- cooked defatted soybean and ... Contents of total nitrogen and formol titration nitrogen in raw soy sauce were .... process in soy sauce brewing. J. Ferment. Technol.

  6. Korean traditional fermented soybean products: Jang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghwa Shin

    2015-03-01

    Fermented products are going beyond the boundaries of their use as mere side dishes, and are seeing significant increases in their use as a functional food. Kanjang (fermented soy sauce, Doenjang (fermented soybean paste, and Gochujang (fermented red pepper paste are the most well-known fermented products in Korea. These products occupy an important place in people's daily lives as seasonings and are used in many side dishes. It has been proven through clinical studies that these products have many health benefits, such as their ability to fight cancer and diabetes, and to prevent obesity and constipation.

  7. The Investigation of Virginiamycin-Added Fungal Fermentation on the Size and Immunoreactivity of Heat-Sensitive Soy Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of soy protein for young monogastric animals is restricted due to potential allergens and high molecular weight. The investigation of fungi fermentation effect on soy protein has been interrupted by substrate sterilization. Virginiamycin at 0.05% was added together with Aspergillus oryzae for solid state fermentation (SSF in unsterilized soy meal (SM. When compared to A. oryzae SSF alone, virginiamycin did not cause the interference of fungal fermentation but elucidated the protein degradation. SDS-PAGE results showed that both α and α′ subunits of β-conglycinin were degraded significantly. In addition, western blot results showed that the immunoreactive signals of soy protein were considerably reduced in virginiamycin-added fermentation with unsterilized SM. Furthermore, fungal fermentation increased total protein and essential amino acid contents, suggesting the value enhancement of SM products. Taken together, this study demonstrated for the first time that virginiamycin could help investigate fermentation effect on heat-sensitive soy protein. Fermented SM has several potential applications in feed industry.

  8. Biochemical Changes in the Fermentation of the Soy Sauce Prepared with Bittern

    OpenAIRE

    Chunqi Mao; Guoqing He; Xinyong Du; Meilin Cui; Shiyang Gao

    2013-01-01

    A new bittern soy sauce was developed; the overall aim of this study was to characterize the quality of the soy sauce. Biochemical changes occurring during experimental soy sauce fermentations were described. Results revealed that, the contents of amino nitrogen, reducing sugars and enzyme activity were slightly lower in soy sauce prepared with bittern than with traditional one. No marked difference in pH was noted between the two types of soy sauce.

  9. Potentially synbiotic fermented beverage with aqueous extracts of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and soy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F; Rossi, E A; Gomes, R G; Sivieri, K

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a potentially synbiotic beverage fermented with Lactobacillus casei LC-1 based on aqueous extracts of soy and quinoa with added fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Five formulations with differing proportions of soy and quinoa extracts were tested. The viability of the microorganism, the pH, and the acidity of all formulations were monitored until the 28th day of storage at 5 ℃. The chemical composition of the extracts and beverages and the rheological and sensory properties of the final products were analyzed. Although an increase in acidity and a decrease in pH were observed during the 28 days of storage, the viability of the probiotic microorganism was maintained at 10(8) CFU·mL(-1) in all formulated beverages throughout the storage period. An increase in viscosity and consistency in the formulations with higher concentrations of quinoa (F1 and F2) was observed. Formulation F4 (70% soy and 30% quinoa extracts) showed the least hysteresis. Formulations F4 and F5 (100% soy extract) had the best sensory acceptance while F4 resulted in the highest intention to purchase from a group of 80 volunteers. For chemical composition, F3 (50% soy and 50% quinoa extracts) and F4 showed the best results compared to similar fermented beverages. The formulation F4 was considered the best beverage overall. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. SENSORY AND CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF FROZEN SOY YOGURT FERMENTED WITH Enterococcus faecium AND Lactobacillus jugurti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. MIGUEL

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    As recent studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects to health of soy yogurt fermented with E. faecium and L. jugurti, aim to offer new options of consumption or this product, the goal of this work was to present the processing of frozen soy yogurt and the evaluation of its sensory characteristics. Then compare it with the other ice creams regularly processed with cow and soymilk fermented with a mixed culture of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus and also with the non-fermented ice creams acidified with the addition of lactic acid. The effect of the lactic acid bacteria in the oxidation of the product was also evaluated. The results demonstrated that it is possible to have a frozen soy yogurt fermented with E. faecium and L. jugurti with good sensory characteristics up to a period of 180 days. The lactic bacteria were not able to stop the development of the oxidation process for a long period of storage but it did not alter the sensory characteristics of the product.

  11. Formulation of soy oil products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woerfel, John B.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper comments different formulations of soy oil products such as salad and cooking oils, margarine, shortenings, commercial shortenings, frying shortenings, and fluid shortenings. Hydrogenation and its influence on final products is also included.

    El trabajo presenta diferentes formulaciones a base de aceite de soja tales como aceites para ensalada y cocinado, margarina, grasas sólidas (shortenings, grasas sólidas comerciales, grasas sólidas para frituras y grasas fluidas. Hace también referencia al proceso de hidrogenación y a sus efectos en los productos finales.

  12. NIR spectroscopy for determining soy contents in processed meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soy products such as soy concentrate, soy protein and soy grits are used as a meat extender in processed meat products to improve meat texture. However, soy allergies are one of the common food allergies, especially in infants and young children, and can be mild to life-threatening. The United State...

  13. Soy sauce classification by geographic region and fermentation based on artificial neural network and genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Libin; Li, Yang; Xu, Ning; Hu, Yong; Wang, Chao; He, Jianjun; Cao, Yueze; Chen, Shigui; Li, Dongsheng

    2014-12-24

    This work demonstrated the possibility of using artificial neural networks to classify soy sauce from China. The aroma profiles of different soy sauce samples were differentiated using headspace solid-phase microextraction. The soy sauce samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 22 and 15 volatile aroma compounds were selected for sensitivity analysis to classify the samples by fermentation and geographic region, respectively. The 15 selected samples can be classified by fermentation and geographic region with a prediction success rate of 100%. Furans and phenols represented the variables with the greatest contribution in classifying soy sauce samples by fermentation and geographic region, respectively.

  14. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božanić; Irena Rogelj

    2003-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  15. Antagonism Between Osmophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts in Brine Fermentation of Soy Sauce

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Fumio; Hayashi, Kazuya; Mizunuma, Takeji

    1980-01-01

    Brine fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts for long periods of time is essential to produce a good quality of shoyu (Japanese fermented soy sauce). It is well known that lactic acid fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria results in the depression of alcoholic fermentation by osmophilic yeasts, but the nature of the interaction between osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in brine fermentation of shoyu has not been revealed. The inhibitory effect of osmophi...

  16. Production and quality evaluation of probiotic soy milk | Onyibe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soy milk is produced from a protein rich legume with high nutritional value. Adding probiotic agent(s) to soy milk increases its health value. In this study, soy milk and probiotic soy milk samples were produced, their qualities evaluated and shelf life at different temperatures of storage monitored. Products were of good taste ...

  17. Functional effects of Japanese style fermented soy sauce (shoyu) and its components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Shigehiro

    2005-09-01

    The functional effects of Japanese style fermented soy sauce (shoyu) have been studied. Soy sauce promotes digestion, because the consumption of a cup of clear soup containing soy sauce enhances gastric juice secretion in humans. Soy sauce possesses antimicrobial activity against bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, Vibrio cholera, Salmonella enteritidis, nonpathogenic Escherichia coli and pathogenic E. coli O157:H7. Soy sauce also contains an antihypertensive component. An angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor having antihypertensive effects was found in soy sauce. The active compound was identified as nicotianamine, which comes from soybeans. Soy sauce exhibits anticarcinogenic effects. Giving diets containing soy sauce to mice inhibit benzo[a]pyrene (BP)-induced forestomach neoplasia. The anticarcinogenic compounds in soy sauce were identified. The flavor components of Japanese style fermented soy sauce, such as 4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), which is a characteristic flavor component of Japanese style fermented soy sauce and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) and 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HMF) exhibit antioxidant activities and anticarcinogenic effects on BP-induced mice forestomach neoplasia when fed following carcinogen exposure. The feeding of a diet containing 10% soy sauce to male C3H mice for 13 months also reduces the frequency and multiplicity of spontaneous liver tumors. HDMF and HEMF also exhibit anticataract effects in the spontaneous cataract rat (ICR/f rat). Fermented soy sauce contains three tartaric isoflavone derivatives called shoyuflavones. These shoyuflavones were shown to have inhibitory activities against histidine decarboxylase, which produces histamine, a mediator of inflammation, allergy and gastric acid secretion. Soy sauce also exhibits antiplatelet activity. beta-Carbolines were isolated from soy sauce as the active compounds. Soybeans and wheat, which are the

  18. Microbial succession and the functional potential during the fermentation of Chinese soy sauce brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Joanita; Gan, Han Ming; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    The quality of traditional Chinese soy sauce is determined by microbial communities and their inter-related metabolic roles in the fermentation tank. In this study, traditional Chinese soy sauce brine samples were obtained periodically to monitor the transitions of the microbial population and functional properties during the 6 months of fermentation process. Whole genome shotgun method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida. Metabolic reconstruction of the metagenome sequences demonstrated a characteristic profile of heterotrophic fermentation of proteins and carbohydrates. This was supported by the detection of ethanol with stable decrease of pH values. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the temporal changes in microbial successions over a period of 6 months, through metagenome shotgun sequencing in traditional Chinese soy sauce fermentation and the biological processes therein.

  19. Microbial succession and the functional potential during the fermentation of Chinese soy sauce brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanita eSulaiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of traditional Chinese soy sauce is determined by microbial communities and their inter-related metabolic roles in the fermentation tank. In this study, traditional Chinese soy sauce brine samples were obtained periodically to monitor the transitions of the microbial population and functional properties during the six months of fermentation process. Whole genome shotgun (WGS method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida. Metabolic reconstruction of the metagenome sequences demonstrated a characteristic profile of heterotrophic fermentation of proteins and carbohydrates. This was supported by the detection of ethanol with stable decrease of pH values. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the temporal changes in microbial successions over a period of six months, through metagenome shotgun sequencing in traditional Chinese soy sauce fermentation and the biological processes therein.

  20. Are Soy Products Effective in DMD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Gemma; Winder, Steve J

    2018-03-27

    In addition to their nutritional value, processed soy bean extracts contain several activities with potential therapeutic benefits. These include anti-oxidants, and tyrosine kinase and protease inhibitory activity. There are also anecdotal reports of health benefits of soy products in alleviating DMD symptoms. Mdx mice were fed a control soy-free diet or the same diet containing either a proprietary soy preparation (Haelan 951), purified soy isoflavones, purified Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor or a combination of isoflavones and Bowman-Birk inhibitor. Mice were tested for their wire hanging ability at the start of the diet regimen and every 4 weeks until week 12 of treatment. The diet containing Bowman-Birk inhibitor was the only one to show a significant and sustained improvement over the 12 weeks of the study. All other dietary additions; Haelan 951, isoflavones and isoflavones with Bowman-Birk inhibitor, were not significantly different from each other or from control. The effectiveness of Bowman-Birk inhibitor in mdx mice clearly warrants further study.

  1. Accumulation of Citrulline by Microbial Arginine Metabolism during Alcoholic Fermentation of Soy Sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Zhang, Jiran; Zhou, Jingwen; Zhou, Zhaohui; Li, Tieqiao; Lu, Liling; Zeng, Weizhu; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2018-03-07

    Citrulline, the major precursor of ethyl carbamate in soy sauce, is an intermediate catabolite of arginine produced by bacteria present in soy sauce moromi mash. Pediococcus acidilactici is responsible for the formation of citrulline during the lactic acid fermentation process of soy sauce. However, citrulline accumulation during the alcoholic fermentation process and the corresponding bacteria involved have not been identified. Salt-tolerant, arginine-utilizing bacteria were isolated from moromi mash during the alcoholic fermentation process. Under normal cultivation conditions, arginine utilization by these strains did not contribute to citrulline accumulation. However, the conversion of arginine to citrulline by these bacteria increased when cultivated during the alcoholic fermentation process. Additionally, the ethanol-enhanced solubility of free fatty acids in moromi mash stimulated the accumulation of citrulline. Staphylococcus exhibited the highest capability in the conversion of arginine to citrulline.

  2. Soy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Soy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007204.htm Soy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Humans have been eating soy beans for almost 5000 years. The soybean is high in protein. The quality of protein from soy equals that of protein ...

  3. Aspergillus Associated with Meju, a Fermented Soybean Starting Material for Traditional Soy Sauce and Soybean Paste in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Seung-Beom; Kim, Dae-Ho; Samson, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus is an important fungal genus used for the fermentation of Asian foods; this genus is referred to as koji mold in Japan and China. A. oryzae, A. sojae, and A. tamari are used in the production of miso and shoyu in Japan, but a comprehensive taxonomic study of Aspergillus isolated from Meju, a fermented soybean starting material for traditional soy sauce and soybean paste in Korea, has not been conducted. In this study, various Aspergillus species were isolated during a study of the...

  4. South African consumers’ opinions and beliefs regarding the health benefits of soy and soy products

    OpenAIRE

    Bosman, Magdalena J.C.; Ellis, Susanna M.; Jerling, Johann C.; Badham, Jane; Van der Merwe, Daleen

    2011-01-01

    Studies linking diet and health and consumers’ demand for health information, has led to an increasing awareness of the role of nutrition in health and disease. Interest in soy foods and an awareness of its health benefits has also increased. The objective was to assess South African (SA) consumers’ opinions and beliefs regarding the health benefits of soy and soy products using different statements. This cross-sectional study randomly selected 3001 respondents from metropolita...

  5. South African consumers' opinions and consumption of soy and soy products

    OpenAIRE

    Badham, Jane; Jerling, Johann C; Bosman, Magdalena J C; Harmse, Naomi; Bouwer, Susanna C; Ellis, Susanna M; Erasmus, Alet C

    2009-01-01

    Studies linking diet and health and consumers’ demand for health information, has led to an increasing awareness of the role of nutrition in health and disease. Interest in soy foods and an awareness of its health benefits has also increased. The objective was to assess South African (SA) consumers’ opinions and beliefs regarding the health benefits of soy and soy products using different statements. This cross-sectional study randomly selected 3001 respondents from metropolita...

  6. Monitoring of Yeast Communities and Volatile Flavor Changes During Traditional Korean Soy Sauce Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Ran; Jeong, Do-Youn; Baik, Sang-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Flavor development in soy sauce is significantly related to the diversity of yeast species. Due to its unique fermentation with meju, the process of making Korean soy sauce gives rise to a specific yeast community and, therefore, flavor profile; however, no detailed analysis of the identifying these structure has been performed. Changes in yeast community structure during Korean soy sauce fermentation were examined using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods with simultaneous analysis of the changes in volatile compounds by GC-MS analysis. During fermentation, Candida, Pichia, and Rhodotorula sp. were the dominant species, whereas Debaryomyces, Torulaspora, and Zygosaccharomyces sp. were detected only at the early stage. In addition, Cryptococcus, Microbotryum, Tetrapisispora, and Wickerhamomyces were detected as minor strains. Among the 62 compounds identified in this study, alcohols, ketones, and pyrazines were present as the major groups during the initial stages, whereas the abundance of acids with aldehydes increased as the fermentation progressed. Finally, the impacts of 10 different yeast strains found to participate in fermentation on the formation of volatile compounds were evaluated under soy-based conditions. It was revealed that specific species produced different profiles of volatile compounds, some of which were significant flavor contributors, especially volatile alcohols, aldehydes, esters, and ketones. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Effects of Germination and Fermentation on the Functionality of Whole Soy Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Patrascu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional quality and technological performances of grains can be modulated through germination and controlled fermentation. The aim of the work was to estimate the effect of germination (72 h at 23oC and fermentation on the fundamental rheological properties of the soy flour based suspensions and sourdoughs, and to assess the bread making potential of the whole soy flours by considering the thermo-mechanical functionality of soy in admixture with white wheat flour. Soy flour based sourdough were prepared using three different starter cultures, consisting of mixtures of lactic acid bacteria like Lactobacillus plantarum, Lb. brevis, Lb. rhamnosus, Lb. casei, Lb. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium BB12®, and Streptococcus thermophilus and/or yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus subsp. Marxianus. The rheological behaviour of the suspensions and sourdoughs was influenced by the soy germination and fermentation processes. The stress sweep tests indicated significant narrowing of the linear viscoelastic regions, as well as the decrease of the stress values required for the beginning of flow. The temperature ramp test showed more intense swelling in case of the germinated and fermented samples. Both native and germinated soy flours were used to replace 15% of the wheat flour, and the Mixolab test indicated that the germination process caused the decrease of protein weakening and dough stability. The sourdoughs addition to the wheat flour resulted in significant changes of the thermo-mechanical properties of the dough. Properties related to stability of starch gel during heating, starch gelatinization and retrogradation depended on the type of starter culture used for fermentation.

  8. Effect of temperature on moromi fermentation of soy sauce with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... temperature of 45°C enhanced the aging of soy sauce, accompanying with lower contents of ethanol ... excretes protease, amylase and other enzymes. These .... produced through the microbial digestion of the starch.

  9. Fermentative production of isobutene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Bianca N M; van der Wulp, Albertus M; Duijnstee, Isabelle; van Maris, Antonius J A; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2012-02-01

    Isobutene (2-methylpropene) is one of those chemicals for which bio-based production might replace the petrochemical production in the future. Currently, more than 10 million metric tons of isobutene are produced on a yearly basis. Even though bio-based production might also be achieved through chemocatalytic or thermochemical methods, this review focuses on fermentative routes from sugars. Although biological isobutene formation is known since the 1970s, extensive metabolic engineering is required to achieve economically viable yields and productivities. Two recent metabolic engineering developments may enable anaerobic production close to the theoretical stoichiometry of 1isobutene + 2CO(2) + 2H(2)O per mol of glucose. One relies on the conversion of 3-hydroxyisovalerate to isobutene as a side activity of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase and the other on isobutanol dehydration as a side activity of engineered oleate hydratase. The latter resembles the fermentative production of isobutanol followed by isobutanol recovery and chemocatalytic dehydration. The advantage of a completely biological route is that not isobutanol, but instead gaseous isobutene is recovered from the fermenter together with CO(2). The low aqueous solubility of isobutene might also minimize product toxicity to the microorganisms. Although developments are at their infancy, the potential of a large scale fermentative isobutene production process is assessed. The production costs estimate is 0.9 Euro kg(-1), which is reasonably competitive. About 70% of the production costs will be due to the costs of lignocellulose hydrolysate, which seems to be a preferred feedstock.

  10. FLUORIDE CONTENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SOY MILK PRODUCTS IN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rirattanapong, Opas; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In Thailand, the consumption of soy milk products is common but there is limited data about their fluoride content. The purpose of this study was to es- timate the fluoride content of soy milk products available in Thailand. Fluoride content was determined for 76 brands of soy milk using a F-ion-specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.78 μg/ml. The fluoride content was not related to sugar content, soy bean content or the sterilization process. Among 3 brands of soy milk containing tea powder extract, the fluoride content was high (1.25 to 3.78 μg/ml). Most brands of soy milk tested in our study had fluoride content below the optimal daily intake but brands containing tea powder extract if consumed by children may increase their risk for fluorosis.

  11. PERUBAHAN KOMPONEN VOLATIL SELAMA FERMENTASI KECAP [Change Volatile Components During Soy Sauce Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Apriyantono1

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to investigate changes of volatile components during soy sauce fermentation. During the fermentation, many volatile components produced may contribute to soy sauce flavor. THe volatile identified by GC-MS werw classified into hydrocarbon (15, alcohol (15, aldehyde (14, ester (14, ketone (9, benzene derivative (11, fatty acid (9, furan (5, terpenoid (18, pyrazine (3, thiazole (1, pyridine (1 and sulfur containing compound (2.Concentration of compounds found in almost all fermentation steps, such as hexanal and benzaldehyde did. These compounds may be derived from raw soybean, since they were all present in raw soybean and their concentration did not change during fermentation. Concentration of palmitic acid and benzeneacetaldehyde, in general, increased during all fermentation steps. They are probably derived from lipid degradation or microorganism activities. Concentrations of some fatty acids, esters and hydrocarbons, such as linoleic acid, methyl palmitate and heptadecane increased during salt fermentation only. Concentration of some other compounds, such as 2,4 decadienal decreased or undetected during fermentation.The absence of some volatile compounds, e.g. (E-nerolidol and (E,E-famesol in boiled soybean which were previously present in raw soybean may be due to evaporation of these compounds during boiling. Some volatile compounds such as, methyl heptadecanoate and few aromatic alcohols are likely derived from Aspergillus sojae, since these compounds were identified only in 0 day koji

  12. Comparative study of the synbiotic effect of inulin and fructooligosaccharide with probiotics with regard to the various properties of fermented soy milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shalini; Mishra, H N

    2018-01-01

    Numerous combinations of probiotics were explored to find the suitable starter culture for the development of synbiotic soy yoghurt which can give good product characteristics and may be acceptable among consumers. Prebiotics (fructooligosaccharide (FOS) and inulin) were supplemented in an attempt to reduce the after-taste of soymilk, improve acidification profile and growth of probiotics. The addition of prebiotics in soy milk significantly enhanced the acidification rate (10.82 to 23.00 × 10 -3 pH units/min) and condensed the fermentation completion time. FOS-supplemented fermented soy milk showed better acidification and post-acidification profile as compared to inulin supplemented samples. The Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus (ST) - Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) with FOS gave the better textural properties with firmer gel (350.10), lower adhesiveness (-93.10) and springiness (0.92), higher gumminess (164.50) and average cohesiveness (0.47). FOS-supplemented ST-LA-fermented samples showed good gel characteristics with higher elastic modulus (1672.39 Pa), viscous modulus (416.41 Pa), complex modulus (1723.53 Pa), lower tan δ (14) and higher overall acceptability scores (7.40) on a 9-point hedonic scale. Developed synbiotic soy fermented milk showed more than the 9 log cfu/ml count throughout storage which is required for probiotic functional food.

  13. Development and application of a selective detection method for genetically modified soy and soy-derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoef, A M; Kok, E J; Bouw, E; Kuiper, H A; Keijer, J

    1998-10-01

    A method has been developed to distinguish between traditional soy beans and transgenic Roundup Ready soy beans, i.e. the glyphosate ('Roundup') resistant soy bean variety developed by Monsanto Company. Glyphosate resistance results from the incorporation of an Agrobacterium-derived 5-enol-pyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphatesynthase (EPSPS) gene. The detection method developed is based on a nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) procedure. Ten femtograms of soy bean DNA can be detected, while, starting from whole soy beans, Roundup Ready DNA can be detected at a level of 1 Roundup Ready soy bean in 5000 non-GM soy beans (0.02% Roundup Ready soy bean). The method has been applied to samples of soy bean, soy-meal pellets and soy bean flour, as well as a number of processed complex products such as infant formula based on soy, tofu, tempeh, soy-based desserts, bakery products and complex meat and meat-replacing products. The results obtained are discussed with respect to practical application of the detection method developed.

  14. Fermentative Alcohol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martín, Mariano; Sánchez, Antonio; Woodley, John M.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter we present some of key principles of bioreactor design for the production of alcohols by fermentation of sugar and syngas . Due to the different feedstocks, a detailed analysis of the hydrodynamics inside the units , bubble columns or stirred tank reactors , the gas-liquid mass...

  15. Profiling of dynamic changes in the microbial community during the soy sauce fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Quanzeng; Wang, Hongbin; Chen, Zhixin; Lv, Zhijia; Xie, Yufeng; Lu, Fuping

    2013-10-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional condiment manufactured by natural inoculation and mixed culture fermentation. As is well known, it is the microbial community that plays an important role in the formation of its flavors. However, to date, its dynamic changes during the long period of fermentation process are still unclear, intensively constraining the improvement and control of the soy sauce quality. In this work, we revealed the dynamic changes of the microbial community by combining a cultured dependent method and a cultured independent method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Results indicated that the two methods verified and complemented each other in profiling microbial community, and that significant dynamics of the microbial community existed during the fermentation process, especially the strong inhibition of the growth of most of the microbes when entering into the mash stage from the koji stage. In the analysis of bacterial community, Staphylococcus and Bacillus were found to be the dominant bacteria and detected in the whole fermentation process. Kurthia and Klebsiella began to appear in the koji stage and then fade away in the early stage of the mash fermentation. In the analysis of fungal community, Aspergillus sojae and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii were found to be the dominant fungi in the koji and mash fermentation, respectively. It was clearly shown that when A. sojae decreased and disappeared in the middle stage of the mash fermentation, Z. rouxii appeared and increased at the meantime. Aspergillus parasiticus, Trichosporon ovoides and Trichosporon asahii also appeared in the koji and the early period of the mash fermentation and disappeared thereafter. Similar to Z. rouxii, Millerozyma farinosa and Peronospora farinosa were also found spontaneously which appeared in the mid-late period of the mash fermentation. The principal component analysis suggested that the microbial community underwent significant changes in

  16. Glutaminase-producing Meyerozyma (Pichia) guilliermondii isolated from Thai soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryuman, Phichayaphorn; Lertsiri, Sittiwat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Niamsiri, Nuttawee; Bhumiratana, Amaret; Assavanig, Apinya

    2015-01-02

    In this study, 34 yeast isolates were obtained from koji and moromi samples of Thai soy sauce fermentation. However, the most interesting yeast strain was isolated from the enriched 2 month-old (M2) moromi sample and identified as Meyerozyma (Pichia) guilliermondii EM2Y61. This strain is a salt-tolerant yeast that could tolerate up to 20% (w/v) NaCl and produce extracellular and cell-bound glutaminases. Interestingly, its glutaminases were more active in 18% (w/v) NaCl which is a salt concentration in moromi. The extracellular glutaminase's activity was found to be much higher than that of cell-bound glutaminase. The highest specific activity and stability of the extracellular glutaminase were found in 18% (w/v) NaCl at pH4.5 and 37°C. A challenge test by adding partially-purified extracellular glutaminase from M. guilliermondii EM2Y61 into 1 month-old (M1) moromi sample showed an increased conversion of L-glutamine to L-glutamic acid. This is the first report of glutaminase producing M. guilliermondii isolated from the moromi of Thai soy sauce fermentation. The results suggested the potential application of M. guilliermondii EM2Y61 as starter yeast culture to increase l-glutamic acid during soy sauce fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for the Production of Bacteriocin Fermentate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-30

    FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ” by Anthony Sikes Wayne Muller and Claire Lee March 2015...From - To) October 2010 – November 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPTIMIZATION OF FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ...nisin and pediocin. Whey + yeast extract was the best performing whey fermentation media. The nisin producer strain Lactococcus. lactis ssp. lactis was

  18. Aspergillus Associated with Meju, a Fermented Soybean Starting Material for Traditional Soy Sauce and Soybean Paste in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung-Beom; Kim, Dae-Ho; Samson, Robert A

    2015-09-01

    Aspergillus is an important fungal genus used for the fermentation of Asian foods; this genus is referred to as koji mold in Japan and China. A. oryzae, A. sojae, and A. tamari are used in the production of miso and shoyu in Japan, but a comprehensive taxonomic study of Aspergillus isolated from Meju, a fermented soybean starting material for traditional soy sauce and soybean paste in Korea, has not been conducted. In this study, various Aspergillus species were isolated during a study of the mycobiota of Meju, and the aspergilli were identified based on phenotypic characteristics and sequencing of the β-tubulin gene. Most strains of Aspergillus were found to belong to the following sections: Aspergillus (n = 220), Flavi (n = 213), and Nigri (n = 54). The most commonly identified species were A. oryzae (n = 183), A. pseudoglaucus (Eurotium repens) (n = 81), A. chevalieri (E. chevalieri) (n = 62), A. montevidensis (E. amstelodami) (n = 34), A. niger (n = 21), A. tamari (n = 15), A. ruber (E. rubrum) (n = 15), A. proliferans (n = 14), and A. luchuensis (n = 14); 25 species were identified from 533 Aspergillus strains. Aspergillus strains were mainly found during the high temperature fermentation period in the later steps of Meju fermentation.

  19. High-efficiency removal of phytic acid in soy meal using two-stage temperature-induced Aspergillus oryzae solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyan; Vadlani, Praveen V; Madl, Ronald L

    2014-01-15

    Phytic acid of soy meal (SM) could influence protein and important mineral digestion of monogastric animals. Aspergillus oryzae (ATCC 9362) solid-state fermentation was applied to degrade phytic acid in SM. Two-stage temperature fermentation protocol was investigated to increase the degradation rate. The first stage was to maximize phytase production and the second stage was to realize the maximum enzymatic degradation. In the first stage, a combination of 41% moisture, a temperature of 37 °C and inoculum size of 1.7 mL in 5 g substrate (dry matter basis) favored maximum phytase production, yielding phytase activity of 58.7 U, optimized via central composite design. By the end of second-stage fermentation, 57% phytic acid was degraded from SM fermented at 50 °C, compared with 39% of that fermented at 37 °C. The nutritional profile of fermented SM was also studied. Oligosaccharides were totally removed after fermentation and 67% of total non-reducing polysaccharides were decreased. Protein content increased by 9.5%. Two-stage temperature protocol achieved better phytic acid degradation during A. oryzae solid state fermentation. The fermented SM has lower antinutritional factors (phytic acid, oligosaccharides and non-reducing polysaccharides) and higher nutritional value for animal feed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The Making of Salty Soy Sauce From Koro Benguk (Mucuna Pruriens (Study of Saline Concentration of Salt Solution and Duration of Moromi's Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Febrianto Mulyadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the saline concentration and moromi’s fermentation duration of Koro Benguk salty soy sauce at best organolepticly and determine consumers’ preferences towards Koro Benguk salty soy sauce from the best treatment results. The study was conducted using a randomized design method using two factors: the saline concentration (17%; 20%; and 23% and duration of moromi’s fermentation (2; 3; and 4 weeks. The best treatment results based on the Friedman test was on the saline concentration of 17% and moromi’s fermentation duration was 4 weeks, with the NP value of 1,000; had a preference color level of 5:40 (liked; aroma of 4.30 (rather liked; flavor of 4.55 (rather liked; and viscosity of 5.05 (liked. The obtained protein was 7.14%; and dissolved solids of 27obrix. Consumers’ preferences towards the best treatment showed that product of Koro Benguk salty soy sauce was acceptable to consumers.

  1. Dynamics of microbial community during the extremely long-term fermentation process of a traditional soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Deng, Yue; Jin, Yulan; Liu, Yanxi; Xia, Baixue; Sun, Qun

    2017-08-01

    Soy sauce produced by long-term natural fermentation is a traditional specialty in Asia, with a reputation for superior quality and rich flavour. In this study, both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches were used to investigate the microbial diversity and community dynamics during an extremely long-term (up to 4 years) natural fermentation of Xianshi Soy Sauce, a national intangible cultural heritage. Genera of Bacillus, Aspergillus and Cladosporium were detected by both methods above. The relative abundance of the genera Bacillus and Weissella was significantly higher in the late stage than in the early one, while the genera Klebsiella and Shimwellia were opposite (P fermentation time, while there was a fair homogeneousness among samples of the same year, especially during the late fermentation stage. The clustering analysis tended to separate the fermented mashes of the 4th year from the earlier stages, suggesting the necessity of the long fermentation period for developing distinctive microbiota and characteristic quality-related compounds. This is the first report to explore the temporal changes in microbial dynamics over a period of 4 years in traditional fermentation of soy sauce, and this work illustrated the importance of isolation of appropriate strains to be used as starter cultures in brewing processes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Simultaneous quantification of twenty Amadori products in soy sauce using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Hiroshi; Tatemichi, Yuki; Nakajima, Ayako

    2017-08-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method using a pentafluorophenylpropyl-bonded silica column was developed to simultaneously quantify twenty Amadori products (APs), including N-(1-Deoxy-d-fructosyl-1-yl)-l-isoleucine (Fru-Ile) and N-(1-Deoxy-d-fructosyl-1-yl)-l-leucine (Fru-Leu), in soy sauce, without the need for an ion-pairing reagent or sample derivatization. The method was applied to six types of soy sauce, to determine the total AP levels and the levels of individual APs. The level of total APs widely varied between the eight samples, from 358mg/L to 24347mg/L. The concentrations of N-ε-(1-deoxy-d-fructosyl-1-yl)-l-lysine (Fru-Lys) and N-(1-deoxy-d-fructosyl-1-yl)-l-pyroglutamic acid (Fru-pGlu) were the highest among the APs and the level of Fru-pGlu was similar to that of Fru-Lys. Furthermore, fermentation periods of up to six months greatly influenced AP levels in soy sauce but the levels remained constant thereafter. Thermal treatment of soy sauce had little effect on AP levels. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Hydrogen Production by Thermophilic Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niel, van E.W.J.; Willquist, K.; Zeidan, A.A.; Vrije, de T.; Mars, A.E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the many ways hydrogen can be produced, this chapter focuses on biological hydrogen production by thermophilic bacteria and archaea in dark fermentations. The thermophiles are held as promising candidates for a cost-effective fermentation process, because of their relatively high yields and broad

  4. Hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction associated with soy product consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepmann, Timo; Roofeh, Joseph; Kiefer, Florian W; Edelson, David G

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has focused on the beneficial effects of soy and its active ingredients, isoflavones. For instance, soy consumption has been associated with lower cardiovascular and breast cancer risks. However, the number of reports demonstrating adverse effects of isoflavones due to their estrogenlike properties has increased. We present the case of a 19-y-old type 1 diabetic but otherwise healthy man with sudden onset of loss of libido and erectile dysfunction after the ingestion of large quantities of soy-based products in a vegan-style diet. Blood levels of free and total testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were taken at the initial presentation for examination and continuously monitored up to 2 y after discontinuation of the vegan diet. Blood concentrations of free and total testosterone were initially decreased, whereas DHEA was increased. These parameters normalized within 1 y after cessation of the vegan diet. Normalization of testosterone and DHEA levels was paralleled by a constant improvement of symptoms; full sexual function was regained 1 y after cessation of the vegan diet. This case indicates that soy product consumption is related to hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a combination of decreased free testosterone and increased DHEA blood concentrations after consuming a soy-rich diet. Hence, this case emphasizes the impact of isoflavones in the regulation of sex hormones and associated physical alterations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Lactobacillus fermented soymilk and soy yogurt on hepatic lipid accumulation in rats fed a cholesterol-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitawaki, Ryoko; Nishimura, Yuko; Takagi, Naohiro; Iwasaki, Mitsuhiro; Tsuzuki, Kimiko; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2009-07-01

    We examined the effects of lactic acid fermented soymilk, in which part of the soymilk was replaced with okara (soy yogurt), on plasma and hepatic lipid profiles in rats fed a cholesterol-free diet. Additionally, we investigated the effects of soy yogurt on hepatic gene expression in rats using DNA microarray analysis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 5 weeks (n=5/group) were fed a control diet (AIN-93) or a test diet in which 20% of the diet was replaced by soy yogurt for 7 weeks. Soy yogurt consumption did not affect body weight or adipose tissue weight as compared with control diet. In the soy yogurt group, the liver weight and hepatic triglyceride content were significantly lower than the control group, and the level of plasma cholesterol was also lower. Furthermore, DNA microarray analysis indicated that soy yogurt ingestion down-regulated the expression of the SREBP-1 gene and enzymes related to lipogenesis in the rat liver, while expression of beta-oxidation-related genes was up-regulated. These results suggest that soy yogurt is beneficial in preventing hepatic lipid accumulation in rats.

  6. Fermentative alcohol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  7. Influence of a probiotic soy product on fecal microbiota and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavallini Daniela CU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work showed that daily ingestion of an aqueous soy extract fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus 416, supplemented or not with isoflavones, reduced the total cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels, increased the high-density lipoprotein (HDL concentration and inhibited the raising of autoantibody against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL Ab and the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Objective The aim of this study was to characterize the fecal microbiota in order to investigate the possible correlation between fecal microbiota, serum lipid parameters and atherosclerotic lesion development in rabbits with induced hypercholesterolemia, that ingested the aqueous soy extract fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus 416. Methods The rabbits were randomly allocated to five experimental groups (n = 6: control (C, hypercholesterolemic (H, hypercholesterolemic plus unfermented soy product (HUF, hypercholesterolemic plus fermented soy product (HF and hypercholesterolemic plus isoflavone-supplemented fermented soy product (HIF. Lipid parameters and microbiota composition were analyzed on days 0 and 60 of the treatment and the atherosclerotic lesions were quantified at the end of the experiment. The fecal microbiota was characterized by enumerating the Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Enterococcus spp., Enterobacteria and Clostridium spp. populations. Results After 60 days of the experiment, intake of the probiotic soy product was correlated with significant increases (P Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and Enterococcus spp. and a decrease in the Enterobacteria population. A strong correlation was observed between microbiota composition and lipid profile. Populations of Enterococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. were negatively correlated with total cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, autoantibodies against

  8. Effects of indigenous yeasts on physicochemical and microbial properties of Korean soy sauce prepared by low-salt fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Ran; Jeong, Do-Youn; Baik, Sang-Ho

    2015-10-01

    This study deals with understanding the effects of salt reduction on both the physicochemical and microbiological properties of soy sauce fermentation and also the application of indigenous yeast starters to compensate for undesirable changes occurring in salt-reduced processes. Fermentation was tested in situ at a Korean commercial soy sauce processing unit. Salt reduction resulted in higher acidity as well as lower pH and contents of residual sugar and ethanol. Moreover, undesired flavor characteristics, due to a lack of distinctive compounds, was observed. In addition, putrefactive Staphylococcus and Enterococcus spp. were present only during salt-reduced fermentation. To control these adverse effects, a single or mixed culture of two indigenous yeasts, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Pichia guilliermondii, producing high ethanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol, respectively, were tested. Overall, all types of yeast applications inhibited undesirable bacterial growth despite salt reduction. Of the starter cultures tested, the mixed culture resulted in a balance of more complex and richer flavors with an identical flavor profile pattern to that obtained from high salt soy sauce. Hence, this strategy using functional yeast cultures offers a technological option to manufacture salt-reduced soy sauce while preserving its typical sensory characteristics without affecting safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Viability and resistance of lactobacilli isolated from cocoa fermentation to simulated gastrointestinal digestive steps in soy yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, V S T; Dos Santos, T F; Vinderola, C G; Romano, C; Nicoli, J R; Araújo, L S; Costa, M M; Andrioli, J L; Uetanabaro, A P T

    2014-02-01

    To study the potential probiotic characteristics such as decrease of pH, microbial viability, and tolerance to simulated digestive steps of fermented soy beverage ("soy yogurt") produced with lactobacilli isolated from cocoa fermentation (Lactobacillus fermentum TcUESC01 and Lactobacillus plantarum TcUESC02) during fermentation and refrigerated storage. The sensory acceptance of the yogurts was also tested. Samples of soy yogurt produced with L. fermentum TcUESC01 or L. plantarum TcUESC02 were collected during fermentation (0, 4, 8, and 12 h) and refrigerated storage (1, 9, 18, and 27 d), and submitted to pH and bacterial viability determinations. Tolerance to simulated digestion steps was done with refrigerated storage samples at 9 °C. Simulated digestion was performed in 3 successive steps: exposure to pepsin-HCl solution, bile shock, and simulated small intestinal juice. During storage, a decrease in pH and lactobacillus viability was observed. L. fermentum TcUESC01 showed to be more resistant than L. plantarum TcUESC02 to simulated gastrointestinal digestion. All soy yogurts showed acceptable hedonic scores (greater than 5 in a 9-point hedonic scale ranging from "like extremely" to "dislike extremely") in sensory evaluation for flavor, aroma, color, consistency, and overall impression. L. plantarum TcUESC02 and, especially, L. fermentum TcUESC01 showed potential probiotic characteristics when considering pH, cell viability, and tolerance to simulated digestive steps and did not affect the sensory characteristics when supplemented to soy yogurt during storage. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. The influence of product- and person-related factors on consumer hedonic responses to soy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Backhaus, Birte W.; van Hoof, Joris Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Consumers in Western countries increasingly appreciate health benefits of soy products. However, several barriers prevent full acceptance of these products. This study investigates the effects of product-related factors (perceived familiarity and expected healthiness) and person-related factors

  11. Phytoestrogens and soy products: perspectives of application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Jargin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones and their metabolites are termed phytoestrogens because they bind to estrogen receptors, although weakly compared to physiologic estrogens. Soybean is the main source of phytoestrogens. Several recent reviews concluded that there is no evidence that phytoestrogens relieve menopausal symptoms better than placebo. At the same time, some studies suggest their efficacy. In theory, the use of phytoestrogens for hormone replacement appears irrational: biological action of estrogens is receptor-mediated; the question is therefore, why the vegetable analogues should be used instead of physiological hormones optimally complementary to the receptors. Apparently, the problem should be seen within the scope of placebo marketing under the guise of evidence-based medications. For example, a supposed anti-atherogenic effect of phytoestrogens was confirmed by doubtful experiments with cell cultures, which are discussed here. Furthermore, there is a contradiction: phytoestrogens are supposed to compensate for estrogen deficiency in menopause; but at the same time, their estrogenic potential does not prevent the widespread use of soy for infant food and other foodstuffs. Environmentally relevant doses of phytoestrogens have impacts on ovarian differentiation, fertility and genderrelated behavior in animals. In conclusion, the beneficial and potentially harmful effects of phytoestrogens should be clarified by independent research, which can be of importance for the future of the soybean in agriculture. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 67-72

  12. Fermentation characteristics and angiotensin I-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus helveticus isolate H9 in cow milk, soy milk, and mare milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jicheng; Li, Changkun; Xue, Jiangang; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Heping; Chen, Yongfu

    2015-06-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus isolate H9 demonstrated high angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity in previous research. Here, we evaluated the fermentation characteristics (pH, titratable acidity, free amino nitrogen, and viable bacterial counts), ACE-inhibitory activity, and contents of Val-Pro-Pro (VPP) and Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP) peptides of stored yogurt (4°C for 28 d) fermented by L. helveticus isolate H9 (initially inoculated at 4 concentrations), from cow, mare, and soy milks. During storage, the pH and titratable acidity remained stable in yogurts produced from all milk types and all inoculation concentrations. The viable bacterial counts in all stored yogurts ranged between 10(6.72) and 10(8.59) cfu/g. The highest ACE-inhibitory activity (70.9-74.5%) was achieved at inoculation concentrations of 5×10(6) cfu/mL. The ACE-inhibitory tripeptides VPP and IPP as determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were not produced in yogurt made from soy milk or mare milk. These evaluations indicate that L. helveticus H9 has good probiotic properties and would be a promising candidate for production of fermented food with probiotic properties. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fermentation of soy milk via Lactobacillus plantarum improves dysregulated lipid metabolism in rats on a high cholesterol diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhye Kim

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate whether in vitro fermentation of soy with L. plantarum could promote its beneficial effects on lipids at the molecular and physiological levels. Rats were fed an AIN76A diet containing 50% sucrose (w/w (CTRL, a modified AIN76A diet supplemented with 1% (w/w cholesterol (CHOL, or a CHOL diet where 20% casein was replaced with soy milk (SOY or fermented soy milk (FSOY. Dietary isoflavone profiles, serum lipids, hepatic and fecal cholesterol, and tissue gene expression were examined. The FSOY diet had more aglycones than did the SOY diet. Both the SOY and FSOY groups had lower hepatic cholesterol and serum triglyceride (TG than did the CHOL group. Only FSOY reduced hepatic TG and serum free fatty acids and increased serum HDL-CHOL and fecal cholesterol. Compared to CHOL, FSOY lowered levels of the nuclear forms of SREBP-1c and SREBP-2 and expression of their target genes, including FAS, SCD1, LDLR, and HMGCR. On the other hand, FSOY elevated adipose expression levels of genes involved in TG-rich lipoprotein uptake (ApoE, VLDLR, and Lrp1, fatty acid oxidation (PPARα, CPT1α, LCAD, CYP4A1, UCP2, and UCP3, HDL-biogenesis (ABCA1, ApoA1, and LXRα, and adiponectin signaling (AdipoQ, AdipoR1, and AdipoR2, as well as levels of phosphorylated AMPK and ACC. SOY conferred a similar expression profile in both liver and adipose tissues but failed to reach statistical significance in many of the genes tested, unlike FSOY. Our data indicate that fermentation may be a way to enhance the beneficial effects of soy on lipid metabolism, in part via promoting a reduction of SREBP-dependent cholesterol and TG synthesis in the liver, and enhancing adiponectin signaling and PPARα-induced expression of genes involved in TG-rich lipoprotein clearance, fatty acid oxidation, and reverse cholesterol transport in adipose tissues.

  14. Soy Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many foods, such as meat products, bakery goods, chocolate and breakfast cereals, may contain soy. Symptoms For ... greater risk of developing a soy allergy: Family history. You're at increased risk of allergy to ...

  15. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roa Engel, C.A.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Zijlmans, T.W.; Van Gulik, W.M.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid

  16. Chemical Composition of Defatted Cottonseed and Soy Meal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhongqi; Zhang, Hailin; Olk, Dan C.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition is critical information for product quality and exploration of new use. Hence defatted cottonseed meals from both glanded (with gossypol) and glandless (without gossypol) cotton seeds were separated into water soluble and insoluble fractions, or water soluble, alkali soluble as well as total protein isolates. The contents of gossypol, total protein and amino acids, fiber and carbohydrates, and selected macro and trace elements in these products were determined and compared with each other and with those of soy meal products. Data reported in this work improved our understanding on the chemical composition of different cottonseed meal products that is helpful for more economical utilization of these products. These data would also provide a basic reference for product standards and quality control when the production of the cottonseed meal products comes to pilot and industrial scales. PMID:26079931

  17. Zygomycota associated with traditional meju, a fermented soybean starting material for soy sauce and soybean paste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S.B.; Kim, D.H.; Lee, M.; Baek, S.Y.; Kwon, S.; Houbraken, J.; Samson, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various zygomycota species were detected during a study of the mycobiota of meju, a brick of dried fermented soybeans, used in Korean cuisine. Two hundred and sixty-eight strains were isolated from 98 finished meju products collected in various regions of Korea from 2009 to 2011, and 96 strains were

  18. Probiotic Soy Product Supplemented with Isoflavones Improves the Lipid Profile of Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cardoso Umbelino Cavallini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated that specific probiotics affect the host’s metabolism and may influence the cardiovascular disease risk. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an isoflavone-supplemented soy product fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus 416 on cardiovascular risk markers in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Design: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial Setting: São Paulo State University in Araraquara, SP, Brazil. Participants: 49 male healthy men with total cholesterol (TC >5.17 mmol/L and <6.21 mmol/L Intervention: The volunteers have consumed 200 mL of the probiotic soy product (group SP-1010 CFU/day, isoflavone-supplemented probiotic soy product (group ISP–probiotic plus 50 mg of total isoflavones/100 g or unfermented soy product (group USP-placebo for 42 days in a randomized, double-blind study. Main outcome measures: Lipid profile and additional cardiovascular biomarkers were analyzed on days 0, 30 and 42. Urine samples (24 h were collected at baseline and at the end of the experiment so as to determine the isoflavones profile. Results: After 42 days, the ISP consumption led to improved total cholesterol, non-HDL-C (LDL + IDL + VLDL cholesterol fractions and electronegative LDL concentrations (reduction of 13.8%, 14.7% and 24.2%, respectively, p < 0.05. The ISP and SP have prevented the reduction of HDL-C level after 42 days. The C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels were not improved. The equol production by the ISP group subjects was inversely correlated with electronegative LDL concentration. Conclusions: The results suggest that a regular consumption of this probiotic soy product, supplemented with isoflavones, could contribute to reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in moderately hypercholesterolemic men, through the an

  19. Contribution of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol to the cooked meat-like aroma of fermented soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qi; Kitagawa, Riho; Imamura, Miho; Katayama, Hiroshi; Obata, Akio; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2017-01-01

    The cooked meat-like aroma compound, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (2M3F), was detected in fermented soy sauce (FSS) by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS. 2M3F was present in FSS at a concentration considerably greater than the perception threshold, and the 2M3F concentration increased with heating temperature. Sensory analysis indicated that with the addition of only 0.2 μg/L of 2M3F to the soy sauce sample, the cooked meat-like aroma is significantly stronger than that of sample without the addition of 2M3F. Hence, 2M3F contributes to the cooked meat-like aroma of FSS, which constitutes the key aroma component of FSS. In addition, 2M3F was generated from the addition of ribose and cysteine in FSS by heating at 120 °C, but it was not detected in a phosphate buffer under the same condition. Furthermore, 2M3F was not detected in acid-hydrolyzed vegetable-protein-mixed soy sauce (ASS) and heated ASS. These results indicated that fermentation by micro-organisms facilitates the generation of 2M3F in FSS.

  20. Transcriptome and Proteome Expression Analysis of the Metabolism of Amino Acids by the Fungus Aspergillus oryzae in Fermented Soy Sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhong Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids comprise the majority of the flavor compounds in soy sauce. A portion of these amino acids are formed from the biosynthesis and metabolism of the fungus Aspergillus oryzae; however, the metabolic pathways leading to the formation of these amino acids in A. oryzae remain largely unknown. We sequenced the transcriptomes of A. oryzae 100-8 and A. oryzae 3.042 under similar soy sauce fermentation conditions. 2D gel electrophoresis was also used to find some differences in protein expression. We found that many amino acid hydrolases (endopeptidases, aminopeptidases, and X-pro-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase were expressed at much higher levels (mostly greater than double in A. oryzae 100-8 than in A. oryzae 3.042. Our results indicated that glutamate dehydrogenase may activate the metabolism of amino acids. We also found that the expression levels of some genes changed simultaneously in the metabolic pathways of tyrosine and leucine and that these conserved genes may modulate the function of the metabolic pathway. Such variation in the metabolic pathways of amino acids is important as it can significantly alter the flavor of fermented soy sauce.

  1. Transcriptome and Proteome Expression Analysis of the Metabolism of Amino Acids by the Fungus Aspergillus oryzae in Fermented Soy Sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guozhong; Yao, Yunping; Wang, Chunling; Tian, Fengwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Hou, Lihua; Yang, Zhen; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Cao, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids comprise the majority of the flavor compounds in soy sauce. A portion of these amino acids are formed from the biosynthesis and metabolism of the fungus Aspergillus oryzae; however, the metabolic pathways leading to the formation of these amino acids in A. oryzae remain largely unknown. We sequenced the transcriptomes of A. oryzae 100-8 and A. oryzae 3.042 under similar soy sauce fermentation conditions. 2D gel electrophoresis was also used to find some differences in protein expression. We found that many amino acid hydrolases (endopeptidases, aminopeptidases, and X-pro-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase) were expressed at much higher levels (mostly greater than double) in A. oryzae 100-8 than in A. oryzae 3.042. Our results indicated that glutamate dehydrogenase may activate the metabolism of amino acids. We also found that the expression levels of some genes changed simultaneously in the metabolic pathways of tyrosine and leucine and that these conserved genes may modulate the function of the metabolic pathway. Such variation in the metabolic pathways of amino acids is important as it can significantly alter the flavor of fermented soy sauce.

  2. Determination of 15 isoflavone isomers in soy foods and supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanaka, Kaoru; Takebayashi, Jun; Matsumoto, Teruki; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2012-04-25

    Soy isoflavone is the generic name for the isoflavones found in soy. We determined the concentrations of 15 soy isoflavone species, including 3 succinyl glucosides, in 22 soy foods and isoflavone supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total isoflavone contents in 14 soy foods and 8 supplements ranged from 45 to 735 μg/g and from 1,304 to 90,224 μg/g, respectively. Higher amounts of succinyl glucosides were detected in natto, a typical fermented soy product in Japan; these ranged from 30 to 80 μg/g and comprised 4.1-10.9% of the total isoflavone content. In soy powder, 59 μg/g of succinyl glucosides were detected, equivalent to 4.6% of the total isoflavone content. These data suggest that the total isoflavone contents may be underestimated in the previous studies that have not included succinyl glucosides, especially for Bacillus subtilis -fermented soy food products.

  3. Radioprotective effects of miso (fermented soy bean paste) against radiation in B6C3F1 mice. Increased small intestinal crypt survival, crypt lengths and prolongation of average time to death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Masayuki; Lu, Huimei; Shiraki, Katsutomo; Ishimura, Yoshimasa; Uesaka, Toshihiro; Katoh, Osamu; Watanabe, Hiromitsu

    2001-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of miso, a fermentation product from soy bean, was investigated with reference to the survival time, crypt survival and jejunum crypt length in male B6C3F1 mice. Miso at three different fermentation stages (early-, medium- and long-term fermented miso) was mixed in MF diet into biscuits at 10% and was administered from 1 week before irradiation. Animal survival in the long-term fermented miso group was significantly prolonged as compared with the short-term fermented miso and MF cases after 8 Gy of 60 Co-γ-ray irradiation at a dose rate of 2 Gy min -1 . Delay in mortality was evident in all three miso groups, with significantly increased survival. At doses of 10 and 12 Gy X-irradiation at a dose rate of 4 Gy min -1 , the treatment with long-term fermented miso significantly increased crypt survival. Also the protective influence against irradiation in terms of crypt lengths in the long-term fermented miso group was significantly greater than in the short-term or medium-term fermented miso and MF diet groups. Thus, prolonged fermentation appears to be very important for protection against radiation effects. (author)

  4. Radioprotective effects of miso (fermented soy bean paste) against radiation in B6C3F1 mice: increased small intestinal crypt survival, crypt lengths and prolongation of average time to death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, M; Lu, H; Shiraki, K; Ishimura, Y; Uesaka, T; Katoh, O; Watanabe, H

    2001-12-01

    The radioprotective effect of miso, a fermentation product from soy bean, was investigated with reference to the survival time, crypt survival and jejunum crypt length in male B6C3F1 mice. Miso at three different fermentation stages (early-, medium- and long-term fermented miso) was mixed in MF diet into biscuits at 10% and was administered from 1 week before irradiation. Animal survival in the long-term fermented miso group was significantly prolonged as compared with the short-term fermented miso and MF cases after 8 Gy of 60Co-gamma-ray irradiation at a dose rate of 2Gy min(-1). Delay in mortality was evident in all three miso groups, with significantly increased survival. At doses of 10 and 12 Gy X-irradiation at a dose rate of 4 Gy min(-1), the treatment with long-term fermented miso significantly increased crypt survival. Also the protective influence against irradiation in terms of crypt lengths in the long-term fermented miso group was significantly greater than in the short-term or medium-term fermented miso and MF diet groups. Thus, prolonged fermentation appears to be very important for protection against radiation effects.

  5. Knowledge of General Nutrition, Soy Nutrition, and Consumption of Soy Products: Assessment of a Sample Adult Population in Montgomery County, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Lida Catherine

    1999-01-01

    KNOWLEDGE OF GENERAL NUTRITION, SOY NUTRITION, AND CONSUMPTION OF SOY PRODUCTS: ASSESSMENT OF A SAMPLE ADULT POPULATION IN MONTGOMERY COUNTY, VIRGINIA Lida Catherine Johnson (ABSTRACT) Nutrition education programs in the prevention of chronic diseases has flourished over the last 15 years. Investigators continue to demonstrate that soy consumption plays a role in decreasing chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis and problems regarding menopause....

  6. Enhancement of preservation characteristics of Meju, an intermediate material for Korean legume-based fermented soy sauce, Kanjang, by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.-H.; Jo, Cheorun; Yook, H.-S.; Park, B.-J.; Byun, M.-W.

    2002-01-01

    Meju, an intermediate product for making Korean traditional soy sauce, Kanjang, was prepared and irradiated at 0, 5, 10 and 20 kGy and then stored at 25 deg. C for 12 months (mo). Mould and Lactobacillus spp. were nearly eliminated by gamma irradiation with a dose of 5-10 kGy, and the Bacillus spp. was decreased by 4 decimal reduction with a dose of 10 kGy. Changes of protease activity, NH 3 -nitrogen, NH 2 -nitrogen, pH and color in the gamma-irradiated Meju were stable compared to non-irradiated control. Sensory evaluation after 12-mo storage showed that soy sauce made from the Meju irradiated with 10 and 20 kGy was acceptable and scored as same as the freshly made one. Therefore, it was considered that the Meju can be stored up to 12 mo by treating with gamma irradiation without any adverse quality change to make soy sauce

  7. Water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion for the delivery of starter cultures in reduced-salt moromi fermentation of soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanthi, Putu Virgina Partha; Linforth, Robert; El Kadri, Hani; Gkatzionis, Konstantinos

    2018-08-15

    This study investigated the application of water-oil-water (W 1 /O/W 2 ) double emulsions (DE) for yeast encapsulation and sequential inoculation of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Tetragenococcus halophilus in moromi stage of soy sauce fermentation with reduced NaCl and/or substitution with KCl. Z. rouxii and T. halophilus were incorporated in the internal W 1 and external W 2 phase of DE, respectively. NaCl reduction and substitution promoted T. halophilus growth to 8.88 log CFU/mL, accompanied with faster sugar depletion and enhanced lactic acid production. Reducing NaCl without substitution increased the final pH (5.49) and decreased alcohols, acids, esters, furan and phenol content. However, the application of DE resulted in moromi with similar microbiological and physicochemical characteristics to that of high-salt. Principal component analysis of GC-MS data demonstrated that the reduced-salt moromi had identical aroma profile to that obtained in the standard one, indicating the feasibility of producing low-salt soy sauce without compromising its quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anti-colitic effects of kanjangs (fermented soy sauce and sesame sauce) in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jia-Le; Choi, Jung-Ho; Seo, Jae-Hoon; Lim, Yaung-Iee; Park, Kun-Young

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the preventive effects of different kanjangs (Korean soy sauces), including acid-hydrolyzed soy sauce (AHSS), fermented soy sauce (FSS), and fermented sesame sauce (FSeS), on 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6J mice. The fermented sauces, particularly FSeS, significantly suppressed DSS-induced body weight loss, increased colon length, and decreased colon weight/length ratios. Histological observations suggested that the fermented sauces prevented edema, mucosal damage, and the loss of crypts induced by DSS compared to the control mice and animals fed AHSS. FSeS and FSS decreased the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-17α. mRNA expression of these cytokines as well as that of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in colon mucosa was also inhibited by the two sauces. Our results suggest that fermented sauces, especially FSeS, exert an anticolitic effect partially by reducing the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting the mRNA expression of these factors in the colon tissue of mice treated with DSS. However, AHSS did not protect against DSS-induced colitis. In addition, low-dose treatment (4 mL/kg) with the fermented sauces resulted in greater anticolitic effects than consumption of a high quantity (8 mL/kg) of the sauces.

  9. Novel process of fermenting black soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] yogurt with dramatically reduced flatulence-causing oligosaccharides but enriched soy phytoalexins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shengbao; Saw, Chin Lee; Lee, Yuan Kun; Huang, Dejian

    2008-11-12

    Black soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] were germinated under fungal stress with food grade R. oligosporus for 3 days and were homogenized and fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to produce soy yogurt. Fungal stress led to the generation of oxylipins [oxooctadecadienoic acids (KODES) isomers and their respective glyceryl esters] and glyceollins--a type of phytoalexins unique to soybeans. In soy yogurt, the concentrations of total KODES and total glyceollins were 0.678 mg/g (dry matter) and 0.953 mg/g, respectively. The concentrations of other isoflavones (mainly genistein and daidzein and their derivatives) in soy yogurt remained largely unchanged after the processes compared with the control soy yogurt. Germination of black soybean under fungal stress for 3 days was sufficient to reduce stachyose and raffinose (which cause flatulence) by 92 and 80%, respectively. With a pH value of 4.42, a lactic acid content of 0.262%, and a maximum viable cell count of 2.1 x 10 (8) CFU/mL in the final soy yogurt, soy milk from germinated soybeans under fungal stress was concluded to be a suitable medium for yogurt-making. The resulting soy yogurt had significantly altered micronutrient profiles with significantly reduced oligosaccharides and enriched glyceollins.

  10. PERVAPORATION MEMBRANE SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE FERMENTATION PRODUCT RECOVERY AND DEHYDRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economics of fermentative production of fuels and commodity chemicals can be a strong function of the efficiency with which the fermentation products are removed from the biological media. Due to growth inhibition by some fermentation products, including ethanol, concentrati...

  11. Method for anaerobic fermentation and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for biomass processing, anaerobic fermentation of the processed biomass, and the production biogas. In particular, the invention relates to a system and method for generating biogas from anaerobic fermentation of processed organic material that comprises...

  12. Scleroglucan: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant A. Survase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides produced by a variety of microorganisms find multifarious industrial applications in foods, pharmaceutical and other industries as emulsifiers, stabilizers, binders, gelling agents, lubricants, and thickening agents. One such exopolysaccharide is scleroglucan, produced by pure culture fermentation from filamentous fungi of genus Sclerotium. The review discusses the properties, fermentative production, downstream processing and applications of scleroglucan.

  13. Modelling ethanol production from cellulose: separate hydrolysis and fermentation versus simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drissen, R.E.T.; Maas, R.H.W.; Tramper, J.; Beeftink, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    In ethanol production from cellulose, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentative conversion may be performed sequentially (separate hydrolysis and fermentation, SHF) or in a single reaction vessel (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, SSF). Opting for either is essentially a trade-off between

  14. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production by fermentation... fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added before or during fermentation. Special natural wine produced by fermentation may be ameliorated in the same manner...

  15. Anti-inflammatory properties of fermented soy milk with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis S-SU2 in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells and DSS-induced IBD model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Miho; Nemoto, Maki; Nakata, Toru; Kondo, Saya; Takahashi, Hajime; Kimura, Bon; Kuda, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    Six lactic acid bacteria strains (four Lactobacillus plantarum strains and one each of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Pediococcus pentosaceus) have been isolated and shown to possess anti-oxidant activity. In this study, we determined their acid, bile, salt resistance, and adhesion activity on human enterocyte-like HT-29-Luc and Caco-2 cells. An isolate Lc. lactis S-SU2 showed highest bile resistance and adhesion activity compared to type strains. S-SU2 could ferment both 10% skimmed milk and soy milk while the type strain could not ferment soy milk. Soy milk fermented with S-SU2 showed an increased nitric oxide (NO) secretion in the mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells without bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of the fermented soy milk on Escherichia coli O111 LPS-induced NO secretion were higher than those of fresh soy milk. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was induced in mice fed either 5% (w/v) dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water or 50% soy milk in drinking water. Shortening of colon length, breaking of epithelial cells, lowering liver and thymus weights, and enlargement of spleen are some of the characteristics observed in the IBD, which were prevented by the use of soy milk fermented with Lc. lactis S-SU2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fermented dairy products: knowledge and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, Sharareh; Koba, Lesia

    2006-01-01

    Much has been published on the nutritional and health benefits of fermented dairy products, especially those containing probiotic microorganisms. However, consumers may not be familiar with the term "fermented dairy products," and therefore may not take full advantage of them. University students' knowledge and consumption patterns of fermented dairy products were assessed. University students (n=223) completed a survey consisting of a section on demographics and another on knowledge and consumption patterns. The majority of respondents (62%) were not familiar with the term "fermented dairy products." Most respondents consumed yogourt a few times a week (40%) or a few times a month (30%). Almost all respondents (92%) were unable to identify the difference between regular and probiotic yogourt. Most respondents (93%) had not heard of acidophilus milk, but the majority (65%) would be willing to try it. Most respondents were unsure whether sour cream (65%), yogourt beverages (74%), and cheddar cheese (61%) were fermented dairy products. Sixty percent of respondents never consumed yogourt drinks. Education is needed about fermented dairy products, especially probiotics, and their nutritional and health benefits. Such education may increase their acceptability and consumption.

  17. Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually

  18. Water Footprint Assessment in the Agro-industry: A Case Study of Soy Sauce Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firda, Alfiana Aulia; Purwanto

    2018-02-01

    In terms of global water scarcity, the water footprint is an indicator of the use of water resources that given knowledge about the environmental impact of consuming a product. The sustainable use of water resources nowadays bring challenges related to the production and consumption phase of water intensive related goods such as in the agro-industry. The objective of the study was to assessment the total water footprint from soy sauce production in Grobogan Regency. The total water footprint is equal to the sum of the supply chain water footprint and the operational water footprint. The assessment is based on the production chain diagram of soy sauce production which presenting the relevant process stages from the source to the final product. The result of this research is the total water footprint of soy sauce production is 1.986,35 L/kg with fraction of green water 78,43%, blue water 21,4% and gray water 0,17%.

  19. Enhancement of preservation characteristics of Meju, an intermediate material for Korean legume-based fermented soy sauce, Kanjang, by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.-H.; Jo, Cheorun; Yook, H.-S.; Park, B.-J.; Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@nanumkaeri.re.kr

    2002-07-01

    Meju, an intermediate product for making Korean traditional soy sauce, Kanjang, was prepared and irradiated at 0, 5, 10 and 20 kGy and then stored at 25 deg. C for 12 months (mo). Mould and Lactobacillus spp. were nearly eliminated by gamma irradiation with a dose of 5-10 kGy, and the Bacillus spp. was decreased by 4 decimal reduction with a dose of 10 kGy. Changes of protease activity, NH{sub 3}-nitrogen, NH{sub 2}-nitrogen, pH and color in the gamma-irradiated Meju were stable compared to non-irradiated control. Sensory evaluation after 12-mo storage showed that soy sauce made from the Meju irradiated with 10 and 20 kGy was acceptable and scored as same as the freshly made one. Therefore, it was considered that the Meju can be stored up to 12 mo by treating with gamma irradiation without any adverse quality change to make soy sauce.

  20. Changes of Raffinose and Stachyose in Soy Milk Fermentation by Lactic Acid Bacteria From Local Fermented Foods of Indonesian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumarna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentative characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolated from local fermented foods and consume raffinose and stachyose during fermentation soymilk. Lactobacillus plantarum pentosus SMN, 01, Lactobacillus casei subsp rhamnosus FNCC, 098, Lactobacillus casei subsp rhamnosus FNCC, 099, Streptococcus thermofilus, 001, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus FNCC, 0045, Lactobacillus plantarum SMN, 25, and Lactobacillus plantarum pentosus FNCC, 235 exhibited variable α-galactosidase activity with Lactobacillus plantarum SMN, 25, showing the highest activity in MRS supplemented media. However, all organisms reached the desired therapeutic level (10^8 cfu/mL likely due to their ability to metabolize oligosaccharides during fermentation in soymilk at 41 °C. The oligosaccharide metabolism depended on α-galactosidase activity. Lactobacillus plantarum SMN, 25, L. plantarum pentosus SMN, 01 and Lactobacillus plantarum pentosus FNCC, 235 reduced raffinose and stachyose by 81.5, 73.0, 67.0 %, and 78.0, 72.5, 66.0 % respectively in soymilk.

  1. Soy Foods and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products, and used as a meat substitute in vegetarian products such as soy burgers and soy hot ... More on this topic for: Teens Becoming a Vegetarian Vegan Food Guide Figuring Out Fat and Calories ...

  2. Effects of Fermented Milk Products on Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, René; Biver, Emmanuel

    2018-04-01

    Fermented milk products like yogurt or soft cheese provide calcium, phosphorus, and protein. All these nutrients influence bone growth and bone loss. In addition, fermented milk products may contain prebiotics like inulin which may be added to yogurt, and provide probiotics which are capable of modifying intestinal calcium absorption and/or bone metabolism. On the other hand, yogurt consumption may ensure a more regular ingestion of milk products and higher compliance, because of various flavors and sweetness. Bone mass accrual, bone homeostasis, and attenuation of sex hormone deficiency-induced bone loss seem to benefit from calcium, protein, pre-, or probiotics ingestion, which may modify gut microbiota composition and metabolism. Fermented milk products might also represent a marker of lifestyle promoting healthy bone health.

  3. Probiotics in Dairy Fermented Products

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Emiliane Andrade; Pires, Ana Clarissa dos Santos; Pinto, Maximiliano Soares; Jan, Gwénaël; Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes de

    2012-01-01

    Interest in the role of probiotics for human health began as early as 1908 when Metchnikoff associated the intake of fermented milk with prolonged life (Lourens-Hattingh and Vilijoen, 2001b). However, the relationship between intestinal microbiota and good health and nutrition has only recently been investigated. Therefore, it was not until the 1960’s that health benefit claims began appearing on foods labels. In recent years,there has been an increasing interest in probiotic foods, which...

  4. Biochemical changes in low-salt solid-state fermented soy sauce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed that after a 15-day aging period, the contents of total nitrogen, formol titration nitrogen, free amino acids, reducing sugar, total sugar and the brown color were increased. However, pH was decreased during the fermentation period. Furthermore, contents of total free amino acids in low-salt solid-state ...

  5. The fermented milk product of functional destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a flavor component selected syrup made from viburnum. This berry is widely used in various forms in the food industry including the dairy. Particular attention should be paid to the fact that the viburnum is a wild plant, and does not need to land and cultivation costs. Viburnum is rich in biologically active substances and raw materials is a drug. Fruits of Viburnum is rich in organic acids, in particular valeric acid. From berries contain minerals: manganese, zinc, iron, phosphorus, copper, chromium, iodine, selenium. Mass fraction of iron in Kalina in 2–3 times higher compared to other berries. The Kalina 70% more than the C vitamin, than lemon, it also contains vitamins A, E, P and K. In berries contains tannin, pectin, tannins, coumarins, resinous esters, glycoside viburnin (very useful in the composition of Viburnum, namely it makes bitter berries. It is suggested the use of syrup of viburnum in the production of fermented milk product. Since the biologically active substances is not destroyed by freezing and processing was freeze berries and added sucrose. The syrup had the gray edge-ruby color and a pleasant taste. Fermented milk product functionality produced reservoir method. Technological process of obtaining a fermented milk product is different from the traditional operations of preparation components and their introduction in the finished product. The consumption of 100 g of fermented milk product with a vitamin premix meets the daily requirement of vitamins A, B complex, C, D, E 40–50%. According to the research developed formulation of dairy products, assessed their quality. Production of fermented milk product thus expanding the range of dairy products functional orientation.

  6. Novel Method of Lactic Acid Production by Electrodialysis Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Hongo, Motoyoshi; Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi

    1986-01-01

    In lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus delbrueckii, the produced lactic acid affected the lactic acid productivity. Therefore, for the purpose of alleviating this inhibitory effect, an electrodialysis fermentation method which can continuously remove produced lactic acid from the fermentation broth was applied to this fermentation process. As a result, the continuation of fermentation activity was obtained, and the productivity was three times higher than in non-pH-controlled fermentati...

  7. Biohydrogen production from soluble condensed molasses fermentation using anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lay, Chyi-How; Lin, Chiu-Yue [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724 (China); Wu, Jou-Hsien; Hsiao, Chin-Lang [Department of Water Resource Engineering, Feng Chia University (China); Chang, Jui-Jen [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University (China); Chen, Chin-Chao [Environmental Resources Laboratory, Department of Landscape Architecture, Chungchou Institute of Technology (China)

    2010-12-15

    Using anaerobic micro-organisms to convert organic waste to produce hydrogen gas gives the benefits of energy recovery and environmental protection. The objective of this study was to develop a biohydrogen production technology from food wastewater focusing on hydrogen production efficiency and micro-flora community at different hydraulic retention times. Soluble condensed molasses fermentation (CMS) was used as the substrate because it is sacchariferous and ideal for hydrogen production. CMS contains nutrient components that are necessary for bacterial growth: microbial protein, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins and coenzymes. The seed sludge was obtained from the waste activated sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant in Central Taiwan. This seed sludge was rich in Clostridium sp. A CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor) lab-scale hydrogen fermentor (working volume, 4.0 L) was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3-24 h with an influent CMS concentration of 40 g COD/L. The results showed that the peak hydrogen production rate of 390 mmol H{sub 2}/L-d occurred at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 320 g COD/L-d at a HRT of 3 h. The peak hydrogen yield was obtained at an OLR of 80 g COD/L-d at a HRT of 12 h. At HRT 8 h, all hydrogenase mRNA detected were from Clostridium acetobutylicum-like and Clostridium pasteurianum-like hydrogen-producing bacteria by RT-PCR analysis. RNA based hydrogenase gene and 16S rRNA gene analysis suggests that Clostridium exists in the fermentative hydrogen-producing system and might be the dominant hydrogen-producing bacteria at tested HRTs (except 3 h). The hydrogen production feedstock from CMS is lower than that of sucrose and starch because CMS is a waste and has zero cost, requiring no added nutrients. Therefore, producing hydrogen from food wastewater is a more commercially feasible bioprocess. (author)

  8. Developments and constraints in fermentative hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartacek, J.; Zabranska, J.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2007-01-01

    Fermentative hydrogen production is a novel aspect of anaerobic digestion. The main advantage of hydrogen is that it is a clean and renewable energy source/carrier with high specific heat of combustion and no contribution to the Greenhouse effect, and can be used in many industrial applications.

  9. Production, characteristics and fermentation of soymilk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajka Božanić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest for soybean increases because of its extraordinary nutritive and health characteristics. In West countries soymilk is intended for population that cannot consume cow’s milk, due to lactose intolerance, allergies to cow’s milk proteins or non consumption of animal foodstuffs from belief. Health benefits of soymilk increase significantly by fermentation with lactic acid bacteria. Because of that, in this paper composition of soybean is described, with special overview on proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates as well as antinutritive factors and isoflavones. Soymilk composition and production, and its nutritive value are represented also. Advantages of fermentation of soybean and soymilk are described, especially with probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

  10. System for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2016-04-26

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  11. Method for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2014-02-18

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  12. Influence of fungal morphology on the performance of industrial fermentation processes for enzyme production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintanilla Hernandez, Daniela Alejandra

    Production of industrial enzymes is usually carried out as submerged aerobic fermentations. Filamentous microorganisms are widely used as hosts in these processes due to multiple advantages. Nevertheless, they also present major drawbacks, due to the unavoidable oxygen transfer limitations...... in this work, along with its correlation to viscosity and other process variables. Considerable research work has been conducted through the years to study fungal morphology and its relation to productivity. However, the work reported in the literature lacks relevant industrial data. In this work, a platform...... was developed which was able to produce high enzyme titers in comparison with what has been reported thus far in fed-batch fermentation using a soluble inducer (lactose). Different nitrogen sources were compared, and it was found that soy meal allowed for higher enzyme titers compared to what has been reported...

  13. 13C-NMR-Based Metabolomic Profiling of Typical Asian Soy Sauces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mustafa Kamal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been a strong consumer interest to choose high quality food products with clear information about their origin and composition. In the present study, a total of 22 Asian soy sauce samples have been analyzed in terms of 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Spectral data were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods in order to find out the important metabolites causing the discrimination among typical soy sauces from different Asian regions. It was found that significantly higher concentrations of glutamate in Chinese red cooking (CR soy sauce may be the result of the manual addition of monosodium glutamate (MSG in the final soy sauce product. Whereas lower concentrations of amino acids, like leucine, isoleucine and valine, observed in CR indicate the different fermentation period used in production of CR soy sauce, on the other hand, the concentration of some fermentation cycle metabolites, such as acetate and sucrose, can be divided into two groups. The concentrations of these fermentation cycle metabolites were lower in CR and Singapore Kikkoman (SK, whereas much higher in Japanese shoyu (JS and Taiwan (China light (TL, which depict the influence of climatic conditions. Therefore, the results of our study directly indicate the influences of traditional ways of fermentation, climatic conditions and the selection of raw materials and can be helpful for consumers to choose their desired soy sauce products, as well as for researchers in further authentication studies about soy sauce.

  14. Drink fermented to the base of serum of milk and isolated soy protein / Bebida fermentada à base de soro de leite e isolado protéico de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Yurika Mizubuti

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The whey and soy protein were used as substrate to obtain a basic beverage, fermented by yogurt culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. buigaricus / Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus YC-180 and by probiotic culture (Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5. The formulation ( whey 10g/100mL; soy protein 2,4 g/100mL; fiber 0,5 g/100mL and sucrose 15 g/100mL was fermented separately, and mixed (1:1 to obtain the final fermented product with 0.72% (lactic acid acidity, pH 4.3 and lactic acid bacteria count of 2,0 x 108 cfu/mL, adequate for production of the proposed beverage.O soro de leite e o isolado protéico de soja foram utilizados para obtenção de uma bebida base, fermentada com cultura de iogurte (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus / Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus YC - 180 e cultura probiótica (Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5. A formulação (soro de leite 10 g/100mL; isolado protéico de soja 2,4 g/100mL; fibras 0,5 g/100mL e sacarose 15 g/100mL indicou que procedendo-se a fermentação seguida de mistura na proporção de 1:1, produziu-se um produto final com acidez de 0,72% de ácido láctico; pH 4,3 e contagem de bactérias lácticas de 2,0 x 108 ufc/mL adequado para a obtenção da bebida proposta.

  15. Production of Star Fruit Alcoholic Fermented Beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Flávia de Paula; Aguiar-Oliveira, Elizama; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Alves, Vanessa Dias; Maldonado, Rafael Resende

    2016-12-01

    Star fruit ( Averrhoa carambola ) is a nutritious tropical fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of a star fruit alcoholic fermented beverage utilizing a lyophilized commercial yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). The study was conducted utilizing a 2 3 central composite design and the best conditions for the production were: initial soluble solids between 23.8 and 25 °Brix (g 100 g -1 ), initial pH between 4.8 and 5.0 and initial concentration of yeast between 1.6 and 2.5 g L -1 . These conditions yielded a fermented drink with an alcohol content of 11.15 °GL (L 100 L -1 ), pH of 4.13-4.22, final yeast concentration of 89 g L -1 and fermented yield from 82 to 94 %. The fermented drink also presented low levels of total and volatile acidities.

  16. Potential of solid state fermentation for production of ergot alkaloids

    OpenAIRE

    Trejo Hernandez, M.R.; Raimbault, Maurice; Roussos, Sevastianos; Lonsane, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    Production of total ergot alkaloids by #Claviceps fusiformis$ in solid state fermentation was 3.9 times higher compared to that in submerged fermentation. Production was equal in the case of #Claviceps purpurea$ but the spectra of alkaloids were advantageous with the use of solid state fermentation. The data establish potential of solid state fermentation which was not explored earlier for production of ergot alkaloids. (Résumé d'auteur)

  17. Water Footprint Assessment in the Agro-industry: A Case Study of Soy Sauce Production

    OpenAIRE

    Aulia Firda Alfiana; Purwanto

    2018-01-01

    In terms of global water scarcity, the water footprint is an indicator of the use of water resources that given knowledge about the environmental impact of consuming a product. The sustainable use of water resources nowadays bring challenges related to the production and consumption phase of water intensive related goods such as in the agro-industry. The objective of the study was to assessment the total water footprint from soy sauce production in Grobogan Regency. The total water footprint ...

  18. Optimization of HTST process parameters for production of ready-to-eat potato-soy snack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, A; Chattopadhyay, P K; Majumdar, G C

    2012-08-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) potato-soy snacks were developed using high temperature short time (HTST) air puffing process and the process was found to be very useful for production of highly porous and light texture snack. The process parameters considered viz. puffing temperature (185-255 °C) and puffing time (20-60 s) with constant initial moisture content of 36.74% and air velocity of 3.99 m.s(-1) for potato-soy blend with varying soy flour content from 5% to 25% were investigated using response surface methodology following central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The optimum product in terms of minimum moisture content (11.03% db), maximum expansion ratio (3.71), minimum hardness (2,749.4 g), minimum ascorbic acid loss (9.24% db) and maximum overall acceptability (7.35) were obtained with 10.0% soy flour blend in potato flour at the process conditions of puffing temperature (231.0 °C) and puffing time (25.0 s).

  19. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavon...

  20. Irradiation of meat for the production of fermented sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, J.S.; Maxcy, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    A study assessing the potential of gamma irradiation for reducing pathogenic microflora in the production of fermented sausage revealed that an irradiation dose of 500 Krad could reduce total aerobic microflora in commercial sausage meat batter for up to 2.2 log cycles. Coliform and staphylococci counts were reduced to acceptably safe levels, allowing the use of a lower inoculum level, a longer fermentation time, and a more uniform fermentation and fermented product

  1. Irradiation of meat for the production of fermented sausage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, J. S.; Maxcy, R. B.

    1985-07-15

    A study assessing the potential of gamma irradiation for reducing pathogenic microflora in the production of fermented sausage revealed that an irradiation dose of 500 Krad could reduce total aerobic microflora in commercial sausage meat batter for up to 2.2 log cycles. Coliform and staphylococci counts were reduced to acceptably safe levels, allowing the use of a lower inoculum level, a longer fermentation time, and a more uniform fermentation and fermented product.

  2. Hydrogen production by fermentative consortia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdez-Vazquez, Idania [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Department of Marine Biotechnology, Ensenada, B.C. Mexico (Mexico); Poggi-Varaldo, Hector M. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, PO Box 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico)

    2009-06-15

    In this work, H{sub 2} production by anaerobic mixed cultures was reviewed. First, the different anaerobic microbial communities that have a direct relation with the generation or consumption of H{sub 2} are discussed. Then, the different methods used to inhibit the H{sub 2}-consuming bacteria are analyzed (mainly in the methanogenesis phase) such as biokinetic control (low pH and short hydraulic retention time), heat-shock treatment and chemical inhibitors along with their advantages/disadvantages for their application on an industrial scale. After that, biochemical pathways of carbohydrate degradation to H{sub 2}, organic acids and solvents are showed. Fourth, structure, diversity and dynamics of H{sub 2}-producers communities are detailed. Later, the hydrogenase structure and activity is related with H{sub 2} production. Also, the causes for H{sub 2} production inhibition are analyzed along with strategies to avoid it. Finally, immobilized-cells systems are presented as a way to enhance H{sub 2} production. (author)

  3. Water Footprint Assessment in the Agro-industry: A Case Study of Soy Sauce Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Firda Alfiana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of global water scarcity, the water footprint is an indicator of the use of water resources that given knowledge about the environmental impact of consuming a product. The sustainable use of water resources nowadays bring challenges related to the production and consumption phase of water intensive related goods such as in the agro-industry. The objective of the study was to assessment the total water footprint from soy sauce production in Grobogan Regency. The total water footprint is equal to the sum of the supply chain water footprint and the operational water footprint. The assessment is based on the production chain diagram of soy sauce production which presenting the relevant process stages from the source to the final product. The result of this research is the total water footprint of soy sauce production is 1.986,35 L/kg with fraction of green water 78,43%, blue water 21,4% and gray water 0,17%.

  4. A combination of tomato and soy products for men with recurring prostate cancer and rising prostate specific antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Elizabeth M; Schwartz, Steven J; Wang, Shihua; Unlu, Nuray Z; Boileau, Thomas W-M; Ferketich, Amy K; Monk, J Paul; Gong, Michael C; Bahnson, Robert R; DeGroff, Valerie L; Clinton, Steven K

    2008-01-01

    Tomato and soy products are hypothesized to reduce the risk of prostate cancer or enhance efficacy of therapy. A study was completed to determine if men with active prostate cancer will adhere to a dietary intervention rich in tomato products and a soy protein supplement men (n = 41) with recurrent, asymptomatic prostate cancer were randomized among 2 groups: Group A (n = 20) consumed tomato products (no soy) for Weeks 0 through 4, targeting a minimum of 25 mg of lycopene/day. Group B (n = 21) consumed soy (no tomatoes) for Weeks 0 through 4, providing 40 g of soy protein/day. For Weeks 4 through 8, all men consumed a combined tomato-rich diet and soy supplements. No grade II through IV toxicities were observed. During Weeks 0 through 4, mean daily lycopene intake for Group A was 43 mg (+/- 15 mg) and mean soy intake for Group B was 39 g (+/- 1 g), remaining similar during Weeks 4 through 8. Serum lycopene increased from 0.72 +/- 0.09 micromol/l to 1.21 +/- 0.10 micromol/l (P diet intervention. Serum prostate-specific antigen decreased between Weeks 0 and 8 for 14 / 41 men (34%). Mean serum vascular endothelial growth factor for the entire group was reduced from 87 to 51 ng/ml (P diets rich in tomato products and soy with excellent compliance and bioavailability of phytochemicals. Further studies combining tomato and soy foods to determine efficacy for prostate cancer prevention or management are encouraged.

  5. Peptides in fermented Finnish milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Kahala

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the rate of proteolysis and peptide profiles of different Finnish fermented milk products. The highest rate of proteolysis was observed in Biokefir, while the greatest change in the rate of proteolysis was observed in Gefilus®. Differences in starters and manufacturing processes reflected on the peptide profiles of the products. Most of the identified peptides originated from either the N- or C-terminal region of β-casein or from the N-terminal region of αs1-casein.

  6. Characterisation of aroma profiles of commercial soy sauce by odour activity value and omission test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yunzi; Su, Guowan; Zhao, Haifeng; Cai, Yu; Cui, Chun; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Mouming

    2015-01-15

    Twenty-seven commercial soy sauces produced through three different fermentation processes (high-salt liquid-state fermentation soy sauce, HLFSS; low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce, LSFSS; Koikuchi soy sauce, KSS) were examined to identify the aroma compounds and the effect of fermentation process on the flavour of the soy sauce was investigated. Results showed that 129 volatiles were identified, of which 41 aroma-active components were quantified. The types of odorants occurring in the three soy sauce groups were similar, although their intensities significantly differed. Many esters and phenols were found at relatively high intensities in KSS, whereas some volatile acids only occurred in LSFSS. Furthermore, 23 aroma compounds had average OAVs>1, among which 3-methylbutanal, ethyl acetate, 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-methylbutanal and 3-(methylthio)propanal exhibited the highest average OAVs (>100). In addition, omission tests verified the important contribution of the products resulting from amino acid catabolism to the characteristic aroma of soy sauce. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Kefir: a multifaceted fermented dairy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Barbara; Gürakan, G Candan; Unlü, Gülhan

    2014-12-01

    Kefir is a fermented dairy beverage produced by the actions of the microflora encased in the "kefir grain" on the carbohydrates in the milk. Containing many bacterial species already known for their probiotic properties, it has long been popular in Eastern Europe for its purported health benefits, where it is routinely administered to patients in hospitals and recommended for infants and the infirm. It is beginning to gain a foothold in the USA as a healthy probiotic beverage, mostly as an artisanal beverage, home fermented from shared grains, but also recently as a commercial product commanding shelf space in retail establishments. This is similar to the status of yogurts in the 1970s when yogurt was the new healthy product. Scientific studies into these reported benefits are being conducted into these health benefits, many with promising results, though not all of the studies have been conclusive. Our review provides an overview of kefir's structure, microbial profile, production, and probiotic properties. Our review also discusses alternative uses of kefir, kefir grains, and kefiran (the soluble polysaccharide produced by the organisms in kefir grains). Their utility in wound therapy, food additives, leavening agents, and other non-beverage uses is being studied with promising results.

  8. MODERN TECHNOLOGY OF FERMENTED MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. New trends of meat industry development, on the example of sausages are shown. The detailed description of indicators of quality of meat raw materials, auxiliary materials and their influence on the processes of tissue and microbial fermentation in the process of ripening raw sausages. Measures for improving the quality control of meat raw materials, auxiliary materials, as well as the processing conditions in all stages of production of smoked products are suggested. The modern technology of production of raw sausages with starter cultures and complex products, allowing better standardization process is considered. Questions of chemistry of color formation, the formation of taste and flavor, textures and the suppression of undesired microflora in foods in general, and in particular the raw sausage are thoroughly covered. Ideas about factors affecting the formation of color in sausages are given. It is pointed out that the susceptibility to oxidation of nitrosilmioglobin is directly related to the fat oxidation in the whole redox potential. Trends in the market of raw sausages are shown. Requirements used in the meat industry to starting cultures are shown. Recommendations on the rational use of starter cultures, and other functional additives in technology of uncooked fermented products, which are used to improve the quality and ensure a high level of product safety are given. The characteristic of the innovative series of starter cultures Protect, its species belonging and qualitative composition, providing a unique protection system in the process of ripening and storage of smoked products is given. The properties are proved on the example of smoked poultry sausage.

  9. Fermentation process for the production of organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Theron; Reinhardt, James; Yu, Xiaohui; Udani, Russell; Staples, Lauren

    2018-05-01

    This invention relates to improvements in the fermentation process used in the production of organic acids from biological feedstock using bacterial catalysts. The improvements in the fermentation process involve providing a fermentation medium comprising an appropriate form of inorganic carbon, an appropriate amount of aeration and a biocatalyst with an enhanced ability to uptake and assimilate the inorganic carbon into the organic acids. This invention also provides, as a part of an integrated fermentation facility, a novel process for producing a solid source of inorganic carbon by sequestering carbon released from the fermentation in an alkali solution.

  10. Development and quality characteristics of shelf-stable soy-agushie: a residual by-product of soymilk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nti, Christina A; Plahar, Wisdom A; Annan, Nana T

    2016-03-01

    A process was developed for the production of a high-protein food ingredient, soy-agushie, from the residual by-product of soymilk production. The product, with a moisture content of about 6%, was evaluated for its quality characteristics and performance in traditional dishes. The protein content was about 26% with similar amino acids content as that of the whole soybean. Lysine remained high in the dehydrated product (6.57 g/16 g N). While over 60% of the original B vitamins content in the beans was extracted with the milk, high proportions of the minerals were found to be retained in the residual by-product. The process adequately reduced the trypsin inhibitor levels in the beans from 25 to 1.5 mg/g. High sensory scores were obtained for recipes developed with soy-agushie in traditional dishes. The scope of utilization of the soy-agushie could be widened to include several traditional foods and bakery products for maximum nutritional benefits.

  11. Vegetable milks and their fermented derivative products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Bernat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The so-called vegetable milks are in the spotlight thanks to their lactose-free, animal protein-free and cholesterol-free features which fit well with the current demand for healthy food products. Nevertheless, and with the exception of soya, little information is available about these types of milks and their derivatives. The aims of this review, therefore, are to: highlight the main nutritional benefits of the nut and cereal vegetable milks available on the market, fermented or not; describe the basic processing steps involved in their manufacturing process; and analyze the major problems affecting their overall quality, together with the current feasible solutions. On the basis of the information gathered, vegetable milks and their derivatives have excellent nutritional properties which provide them a high potential and positive market expectation. Nevertheless, optimal processing conditions for each raw material or the application of new technologies have to be researched in order to improve the quality of the products. Hence, further studies need to be developed to ensure the physical stability of the products throughout their whole shelf-life. These studies would also allow for a reduction in the amount of additives (hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers and thus reduce the cost of the products. In the particular case of fermented products, the use of starters which are able to both improve the quality (by synthesizing enhanced flavors and providing optimal textures and exert health benefits for consumers (i.e. probiotics is the main challenge to be faced in future studies.

  12. Studying of the Viability of Selected Probioitcs in Soy Milk to Develop a Functional Beverage Product

    OpenAIRE

    Anh Thu, Dao Thi; Tuan, Chau Ngoc; Xuan Van, Nguyen Thi

    2015-01-01

    In this research, Lactobacillus casei (L.casei) and  Lactobacillus plantarum (L.plantarum) were added into two soymilk products. The number of survival probiotics as well as the effects of probiotic strains, soymilk brands and additives to the quality of final product were also studied. The initial number was added around 107 to 108(CFU/ml) into Fami and Vinasoy soy milk. The number of survival probiotics was stable during the first four weeks with about 107 (CFU/ml) and then decreased to aro...

  13. The collective actions in the form of cooperatives and the relevance in the soy production chain in Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lediany Freitas de Campos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to discuss the influence of collective actions, with a focus on cooperatives located on the soy production chain. It was noted that rural producers organize themselves in groups aiming to preserve their common interests, when they know they would succeed to act individually. The actions are performed by latent groups, through economic incentives, and there is strong influence of institutional environment. Collective cooperation results in benefits to all involved, in addition to generating positive externalities upstream and downstream on the chain. Cooperatives have had intense influence on the soy production in the State of Paraná, being responsible for a significant portion of the production, processing and distribution. By means of cooperatives, the state has maintained second position at national level in relation to the production of soy, with revealed comparative advantage, has gotten improvements in productivity and conquest of foreign markets.

  14. Protein and starch digestibilities and mineral availability of products developed from potato, soy and corn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlawat, P; Sehgal, S

    1998-01-01

    A technique for development of potato flour was standardized. Five products viz. cake, biscuit, weaning food, panjiri and ladoo were prepared incorporating potato flour, defatted soy flour and corn flour. Baking and roasting were the major processing techniques employed for the development of these products. Protein, ash and fat contents of potato flour were almost similar to those of raw potatoes. Significant differences in protein, ash and fat contents of all the products were observed. Protein and starch digestibility of potato flour was significantly higher than that of raw potatoes. Protein digestibility increased by 12 to 17 percent on baking or roasting of products. Processed products had significantly higher starch digestibility and mineral availability compared to raw products. Thus, it can be concluded that roasting and baking are effective means of improving starch and protein digestibility and mineral availability of products.

  15. Rapid analytical extraction of volatile fermentation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, N B; Flickinger, M C; Tsao, G T

    1979-10-01

    With renewed interest in production of liquid fuels and chemical feedstocks from carbohydrates, numerous authors have utilized gas-liquid chromatography (GC) for quantification of volatile products. Poor separation and short column life will result if residual sugars present in the medium are not separated from the volatile compounds before injection. In our current investigation of 2,3-butanediol production from xylose, we have developed a rapid GC assay for 2,3-butanediol, acetyl methyl carbinol (acetoin), 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl), and ethanol. This method extracts the fermentation products at high pH from residual xylose before injection into the GC. This routine is a modification of the method of Kolfenbach et al. and is more rapid than the method of separation of diacetyl and acetoin from carbohydrates by distillation reported by Gupta et al. Their erroneous reports of yields of 640 mg diacetyl + acetoin/g sugar are 30% higher than the theoretical maximum for Enterobacter cloacae (ATCC 27613) and points out the need for a reliable, accurate assay for these products.

  16. [Nutrition and bone health. Soybean and soy foods, and bone health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Megumi; Shimizu, Hirotoshi

    2009-10-01

    Soybean and various types of soy products, such as natto, tofu, miso, and soy sauce, have long been consumed in Japan. Soybean, a rich source of plant proteins, contains a relatively high amount of calcium as well as being an important source of isoflavones, a group of substances whose chemical structure is similar to that of estrogen. Natto, fermented soybeans, contains vitamin K, which is involved in the activation of osteocalcin. For bone health and osteoporosis prevention in Japanese, it is thus beneficial to consume adequate amounts of soybean and soy products on a daily basis.

  17. Teores de isoflavonas e capacidade antioxidante da soja e produtos derivados Isoflavone content and profile and antioxidant activity of soy and soy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Lopes Barbosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a capacidade antioxidante, o teor e as formas de isoflavonas presentes nos produtos derivados de soja e compará-los à soja em grão. A capacidade antioxidante foi mensurada por meio do método de cooxidação do beta-caroteno/ácido linoléico e pelo seqüestro de radicais livres (DPPH•. Os resultados mostraram que o conteúdo de isoflavonas nos produtos variou de 95 a 711 mg/100 g (b.s. e o teor de fenólicos totais de 101 a 413 mg equivalentes de catequina/100 g (b.s., sendo que o grão de soja apresentou um conteúdo de 110 e 200 mg/100 g (b.s., respectivamente, para isoflavonas e fenólicos totais. Em relação às formas de isoflavonas a farinha integral e sua respectiva farinha desengordurada e a farinha desengordurada de soja comercial apresentaram predominância de conjugados malonilglicosídeos ebeta-glicosídeos, similar aos grãos de soja. O suplemento à base de gérmen de soja e a farinha desengordurada de soja apresentaram a maior capacidade antioxidante por ambos os métodos (5 µmoles equivalentes de trolox/g e ~ 0,8 µmoles equivalentes de BHT/ g amostra b.s.. Os resultados demonstraram que o conteúdo total e tipo de isoflavonas e o teor de fenólicos dos produtos de soja dependem do processamento e que a capacidade antioxidante desses produtos varia significativamente.The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity and isoflavone content and type of soy seeds and soy products. The antioxidant activity was measured using beta-carotene bleaching and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH• free radical methods. The total isoflavone content of soy products varied from 95 to 711 mg/100 g DW (expressed as aglycones and total phenolics content from 101 to 413 mg equivalents of catechin/100 g DW. Soybeans presented 110 and 200 mg/100 g DW of isoflavones and total phenolics, respectively. The beta-glycosides and malonylglycosides were the main forms of the isoflavones

  18. The economics of ethanol production by extractive fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugulis, A J; Axford, D B; McLellan, P J [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    1991-04-01

    Extractive fermentation is a processing strategy in which reaction and recovery occur simultaneously in a fermentation vessel through the use of a water-immiscible solvent which selectively removes an inhibitory product. An ethanol-extractive fermentation process has been developed, incorporating continuous operation and the ability to ferment concentrated feedstocks. A detailed economic assessment of this process is provided relative to current technology for an annual capacity of 100 million litres of ethanol. Extractive fermentation provides significant economic advantages for both grass roots and retrofitted plants. Total production costs are estimated at 45{cents}/l for a conventional plant and 29.4{cents}/l for a retrofitted plant. The main cost saving achievable by extractive fermentation is in energy, used for evaporation and drying, since the process uses significantly less water in its conversion of concentrated feedstocks. Producing anhydrous ethanol without distillation is also a prospect. 15 refs., 5 fig., 10 tabs.

  19. Glycerol production by fermenting yeast cells is essential for optimal bread dough fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Aslankoohi

    Full Text Available Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts.

  20. Glycerol production by fermenting yeast cells is essential for optimal bread dough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts.

  1. Modelling Fungal Fermentations for Enzyme Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Mads Orla; Gernaey, Krist; Hansen, Morten S.

    We have developed a process model of fungal fed-batch fermentations for enzyme production. In these processes, oxygen transfer rate is limiting and controls the substrate feeding rate. The model has been shown to describe cultivations of both Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei strains in 550......L stirred tank pilot plant reactors well. For each strain, 8 biological parameters are needed as well as a correlation of viscosity, as viscosity has a major influence on oxygen transfer. The parameters were measured averages of at least 9 batches for each strain. The model is successfully able...... to cover a wide range of process conditions (0.3-2 vvm of aeration, 0.2-10.0 kW/m3 of specific agitation power input, and 0.1-1.3 barg head space pressure). Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis have shown that the uncertainty of the model is mainly due to difficulties surrounding the estimation...

  2. Bioavailability of isoflavones from soy products in equol producers and non-producers in Japanese women

    OpenAIRE

    Ayako Miura; Chitose Sugiyama; Hiroyuki Sakakibara; Kayoko Simoi; Toshinao Goda

    2016-01-01

    Background: The estimated intake of soy isoflavones from a meal has been based on the content in a food, but the health effects of soy isoflavones are possibly affected by their bioavailability. In this study we have evaluated the isoflavone bioavailability after the intake of three kinds of soy foods and a commercial soy isoflavone supplement, and examined whether the isoflavone bioavailability is different between equol producers and non-producers. Methods: Healthy female subjects (n = 2...

  3. Commercial processed soy-based food product contains glycated and glycoxidated lunasin proteoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Aida; Gallart-Palau, Xavier; See-Toh, Rachel Su-En; Hemu, Xinya; Tam, James P; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2016-05-18

    Nutraceuticals have been proposed to exert positive effects on human health and confer protection against many chronic diseases. A major bioactive component of soy-based foods is lunasin peptide, which has potential to exert a major impact on the health of human consumers worldwide, but the biochemical features of dietary lunasin still remain poorly characterized. In this study, lunasin was purified from a soy-based food product via strong anion exchange solid phase extraction and then subjected to top-down mass spectrometry analysis that revealed in detail the molecular diversity of lunasin in processed soybean foods. We detected multiple glycated proteoforms together with potentially toxic advanced glycation end products (AGEs) derived from lunasin. In both cases, modification sites were Lys24 and Lys29 located at the helical region that shows structural homology with a conserved region of chromatin-binding proteins. The identified post-translational modifications may have an important repercussion on lunasin epigenetic regulatory capacity. Taking together, our results demonstrate the importance of proper chemical characterization of commercial processed food products to assess their impact on consumer's health and risk of chronic diseases.

  4. Comparison of new immunofluorescence method for detection of soy protein in meat products with immunohistochemical, histochemical, and ELISA methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Petrášová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soy proteins are commonly used in the food industry thanks to their technological properties. However, soy is, along with cow’s milk, eggs, wheat, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, crustaceans, and molluscs, responsible for around 90% of food allergies, and is also one of the foodstuffs that can cause anaphylaxis. The aim of this work was to compare the immunofluorescence method for the detection of soy protein in meat products purchased from the retail market with other microscopic methods (immunohistochemical and histochemical, with the ELISA reference method and with the confirmatory results. Within the research, 127 meat products purchased in the retail network were examined using the immunofluorescence method used for the detection of soy protein. The method was compared to Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA, immunohistochemical, and histochemical methods. According to McNemar’s test, non-compliance between the immunofluorescence method and immunohistochemical method was low. In addition, a significant difference between the fluorescence method and ELISA (P P < 0.01 was found. The immunofluorescence method was also compared with confirmatory results. According to McNemar’s test, non-compliance between the immunofluorescence method and confirmatory results was low. The results showed the possibilities of this new method to detect the content of soy protein in meat products.

  5. Urea production by yeasts other than Saccharomyces in food fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Qun; Cui, Kaixiang; Lin, Jianchun; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Urea is an important intermediate in the synthesis of carcinogenic ethyl carbamate in various food fermentations. Identifying urea-producing microorganisms can help control or reduce ethyl carbamate production. Using Chinese liquor fermentation as a model system, we identified the yeasts responsible

  6. Improving the yield from fermentative hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Jeremy T; Bagley, David M

    2007-05-01

    Efforts to increase H(2) yields from fermentative H(2) production include heat treatment of the inoculum, dissolved gas removal, and varying the organic loading rate. Although heat treatment kills methanogens and selects for spore-forming bacteria, the available evidence indicates H(2) yields are not maximized compared to bromoethanesulfonate, iodopropane, or perchloric acid pre-treatments and spore-forming acetogens are not killed. Operational controls (low pH, short solids retention time) can replace heat treatment. Gas sparging increases H(2) yields compared to un-sparged reactors, but no relationship exists between the sparging rate and H(2) yield. Lower sparging rates may improve the H(2) yield with less energy input and product dilution. The reasons why sparging improves H(2) yields are unknown, but recent measurements of dissolved H(2) concentrations during sparging suggest the assumption of decreased inhibition of the H(2)-producing enzymes is unlikely. Significant disagreement exists over the effect of organic loading rate (OLR); some studies show relatively higher OLRs improve H(2) yield while others show the opposite. Discovering the reasons for higher H(2) yields during dissolved gas removal and changes in OLR will help improve H(2) yields.

  7. Decoupling of Deforestation and Soy Production in the Southern Amazon During the Late 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Marcia N.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Morton, Douglas C.; Stickler, Claudia M.; Galford, Gillian L.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.

    2011-01-01

    From 2006-2010 deforestation in the Amazon frontier state of Mato Grosso decreased to 30% of its historical average (1996-2005) while agricultural production reached an all time high, achieving the oft-cited objective of increasing production while maintaining forest cover. This study combines satellite data with government deforestation and production statistics to assess land-use transitions and potential market and policy drivers associated with these trends. In the forested region of the state, increased soy production from 2001-2005 was entirely due to cropland expansion into previously cleared areas (74%) or forests (26%). From 2006-2010, 78% of production increases were due to expansion (22% to yield increases), with 91% on previously cleared land. Cropland expansion fell from 10% to 2% of deforestation between the two periods, with pasture expansion accounting for most remaining deforestation. Declining deforestation coincided with a collapse of commodity markets and implementation of policy measures to reduce deforestation. Soybean profitability has since increased to pre-2006 levels while deforestation continued to decline, suggesting that anti-deforestation measures may have influenced the agricultural sector. We found little evidence of leakage of soy expansion into cerrado in Mato Grosso or forests in neighboring Amazon states during the late 2000s, although leakage to more distant regions is possible. This study provides empirical evidence that reduced deforestation and increased agricultural production can occur simultaneously in tropical forest frontiers through productive use of already cleared lands. It remains uncertain whether government and industry-led policies can contain deforestation when market conditions again favor a boom in agricultural expansion.

  8. Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  9. Fermentative hydrogen production from agroindustrial lignocellulosic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginatto, Valeria; Antônio, Regina Vasconcellos

    2015-01-01

    To achieve economically competitive biological hydrogen production, it is crucial to consider inexpensive materials such as lignocellulosic substrate residues derived from agroindustrial activities. It is possible to use (1) lignocellulosic materials without any type of pretreatment, (2) lignocellulosic materials after a pretreatment step, and (3) lignocellulosic materials hydrolysates originating from a pretreatment step followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. According to the current literature data on fermentative H2 production presented in this review, thermophilic conditions produce H2 in yields approximately 75% higher than those obtained in mesophilic conditions using untreated lignocellulosic substrates. The average H2 production from pretreated material is 3.17 ± 1.79 mmol of H2/g of substrate, which is approximately 50% higher compared with the average yield achieved using untreated materials (2.17 ± 1.84 mmol of H2/g of substrate). Biological pretreatment affords the highest average yield 4.54 ± 1.78 mmol of H2/g of substrate compared with the acid and basic pretreatment - average yields of 2.94 ± 1.85 and 2.41 ± 1.52 mmol of H2/g of substrate, respectively. The average H2 yield from hydrolysates, obtained from a pretreatment step and enzymatic hydrolysis (3.78 ± 1.92 mmol of H2/g), was lower compared with the yield of substrates pretreated by biological methods only, demonstrating that it is important to avoid the formation of inhibitors generated by chemical pretreatments. Based on this review, exploring other microorganisms and optimizing the pretreatment and hydrolysis conditions can make the use of lignocellulosic substrates a sustainable way to produce H2. PMID:26273246

  10. The Effect of Fungicide Residues and Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen on Fermentation Kinetics and H2S Production during Cider Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Boudreau IV, Thomas Francis

    2016-01-01

    The Virginia cider industry has grown rapidly in the past decade, and demands research-based recommendations for cider fermentation. This study evaluated relationships between the unique chemistry of apples and production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in cider fermentations. Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) concentration and composition and residual fungicides influence H2S production by yeast during fermentation, but these factors have to date only been studied in wine grape fermentations. This ...

  11. Continuous saccharification and fermentation in alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselov, I Ya; Gracheva, I M; Mikhailova, L E; Babaeva, S A; Ustinnikov, B A

    1968-01-01

    Submerged cultures of Aspergillus niger NRRL 337 and A. batatae 61, or a mixture of submerged A. niger culture with a surface culture of A. oryzae Kc are used for fermentations and compared with the usual barley malt procedure. The latter yields 71% maltose and 24 to 28% glucose, wherease the fungal procedure gives 14 to 21% maltose and 80 to 85% glucose in a continuous mashing-fermentation process with barley. The fungal method gives a higher degree of fermentation for sugars and dextrins and a lower content of total and high-molecular-weight residual dextrins. The amounts of propanol PrOH and iso-BuOH isobutyl alcohol are almost equal, whereas the amount of isoamylalcohol is lower in fungal fermentations.

  12. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Kobayashi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet, or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein.

  13. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein. PMID:25514389

  14. Effects of a probiotic soy product and physical exercise on formation of pre-neoplastic lesions in rat colons in a short-term model of carcinogenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Elizeu A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose In this study the influence of moderate or intense physical exercise, alone or in combination with the consumption of a soya product fermented with Enterococcus faecium, on the development of colon cancer induced chemically in rats with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, was investigated. Methods Eighty male Wistar SPF rats were randomly allocated to 8 groups (n = 10. One week after the start of the program of product ingestion and/or physical activity, all animals except the controls (group I were injected subcutaneously with 50 mg/kg b.w. of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH. This procedure was repeated at the end of the second week. At the end of the 6-week experiment, all the animals were euthanized; the colons were removed and numbers of ACF was estimated. Results Twenty-four days after the induction of pre-neoplastic lesions, it was evident that the formation of ACF was not significantly reduced by the ingestion of the fermented product, by intense or moderate physical activity or by a combination of these factors, in comparison with the positive control group of rats (p Conclusion The results reported in this article show that consumption of the fermented soy product described here and the practice of physical exercise (intense or moderate were incapable, separately or combined, of inhibiting the formation of ACF in DMH-induced rats. The intense physical exercise led to an increased number of foci in the colons of these rats and, probably, to greater susceptibility to colorectal cancer.

  15. How do consumer attitudes influence acceptance of a novel wild blueberry-soy product?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, T; Dougherty, M P; Camire, M E

    2007-09-01

    Acceptance of healthful foods by consumers is not yet well understood. In this study, 3 formulations of frozen dessert bars were prepared containing both soy and wild blueberries. Soy content was controlled to provide an amount of soy protein that qualified for the health claim for soy and reduced risks for cardiovascular disease. Consumers were asked to complete the Health and Taste Attitude Scales (HTAS) and then evaluate the acceptability of the 3 frozen bar types using a 9-point hedonic scale. One week after the 1st session, the participants returned. Approximately half were given information to read regarding the health benefits of soy protein, the other participants were given no information. The samples were then presented a 2nd time and labeled with their soy protein content. Changes in hedonic scores between sessions were compared and correlated with HTAS ratings. Nutrition information generally did not affect acceptability scores.

  16. Wastewater recycling technology for fermentation in polyunsaturated fatty acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaojin; Ma, Zengxin; Tan, Yanzhen; Zhang, Huidan; Cui, Qiu

    2017-07-01

    To reduce fermentation-associated wastewater discharge and the cost of wastewater treatment, which further reduces the total cost of DHA and ARA production, this study first analyzed the composition of wastewater from Aurantiochytrium (DHA) and Mortierella alpina (ARA) fermentation, after which wastewater recycling technology for these fermentation processes was developed. No negative effects of DHA and ARA production were observed when the two fermentation wastewater methods were cross-recycled. DHA and ARA yields were significantly inhibited when the wastewater from the fermentation process was directly reused. In 5-L fed-batch fermentation experiments, using this cross-recycle technology, the DHA and ARA yields were 30.4 and 5.13gL -1 , respectively, with no significant changes (P>0.05) compared to the control group, and the water consumption was reduced by half compared to the traditional process. Therefore, this technology has great potential in industrial fermentation for polyunsaturated fatty acid production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cassiane da Silva Oliveira; de Carvalho, Giovani Brandão Mafra; da Silva, Marília Lordêlo Cardoso; da Silva, Gervásio Paulo; Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52), belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil), and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium) were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct) was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis.

  18. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiane da Silva Oliveira Nunes

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52, belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil, and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis.

  19. [Effect of products of thermophilous methane fermentation on the fermentation of fruit must by Saccharomyces vini].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhlin, E D; Kotomina, E N; Pisarnitsky

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of extracts from products of thermophilous methane fermentation at a dose of 0.7+2.0 ml/100 ml on the proliferation and fermentation activity of yeast Saccharomyces vini of the Yablochnaya-7 and Vishnevaya-33 race during their cultivation in the Hansen medium and in the apple and cranberry must with a normal and elevated content of sugar and acid. In some experiments the must was enriched in (NH4)2HPO4 at a dose of 0.3 g/l. Additions of small amounts of products of thermophilous methane fermentation accelerated fermentation of fruit musts with a normal sugar content and to a greater extent musts with an increased sugar content (27%). In the must enriched in (NH4)2HPO4 an almost complete (over 98%) fermentation of sugar developed for 27 days. In the must with an increased acidity (due to citric acid added to bring titrable acidity to 25 g/l) additions of the preparation also accerlerated the begining of the fermentation and increased its intensity.

  20. Soy Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of reactions. Learn more here. Milk Egg Peanut Tree Nuts Soy Wheat Fish Shellfish Sesame Other Food ... federal law. Download our resource on how to identify soy ingredients on food labels. Avoid foods that ...

  1. Analysis of volatile flavor compounds influencing Chinese-type soy sauces using GC-MS combined with HS-SPME and discrimination with electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lihua; Liu, Ting; An, Xinjing; Zhang, Jinlan; Ma, Xiaoran; Cui, Jinmei

    2017-01-01

    Soy sauce contains a variety of volatiles that are highly valuable to its quality with regard to sensory characteristics. This paper describes the analysis of volatile compounds influencing the flavor quality of Chinese-type soy sauces. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with headspace-solid phase microextraction and electronic nose (E-nose) were applied for identifying the volatile flavor compounds as well as determining their volatile profiles of 12 soy sauces manufactured by different fermentation process. Forty one key volatile components of these 12 soy sauce products, a pure soy sauce and an acid-hydrolyzed vegetable protein sample, were compared in semi-quantitative form, and their volatile flavor profiles were analyzed by E-nose. The substantially similar results between hierarchical cluster analysis based on GC-MS data and E-nose analysis suggested that both techniques may be useful in evaluating the flavor quality of soy sauces and differentiating soy sauce products. The study also showed that there were less volatile flavor compounds in soy sauces produced through low-salt solid-state fermentation process, a traditional manufacturing technology and a widely adopted technology in Chinese soy sauce industries. In addition, the investigation suggested that the flavor quality of soy sauce varied widely in Chinese domestic market, and that the present Chinese national standards of soy sauce should be further perfected by the addition of flavor grades of soy sauce in the physical and chemical index. Meanwhile, this research provided valuable information to manufacturers and government regulators, which have practical significance to improve quality of soy sauces.

  2. Production of structured soy-based meat analogues using simple shear and heat in a Couette Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krintiras, G.A.; Gobel, T.W.; Goot, van der A.J.; Stefanidis, G.D.

    2015-01-01

    A Couette Cell device was employed to provide proof of concept for the production of structured meat analogues by application of simple shear flow and heat to a 31 wt% Soy Protein Isolate (SPI)–Wheat Gluten (WG) dispersion. Three relevant process parameters (temperature, time and rotation rate) were

  3. Development of a High Temperature Microbial Fermentation Processfor Butanol Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeor, Jeffery D.; Reed, David W.; Daubaras, Dayna L.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2016-01-01

    Transforming renewable biomass into cost competitive high-performance biofuels and bioproducts is key to US energy security. Butanol production by microbial fermentation and chemical conversion to polyolefins, elastomers, drop-in jet or diesel fuel, and other chemicals is a promising solution. A high temperature fermentation process can facilitate butanol recovery up to 40%, by using gas stripping. Other benefits of fermentation at high temperatures are optimal hydrolysis rates in the saccharification of biomass which leads to maximized butanol production, decrease in energy costs associated with reactor cooling and capital cost associated with reactor design, and a decrease in contamination and cost for maintaining a sterile environment. Butanol stripping at elevated temperatures gives higher butanol production through constant removal and continuous fermentation. We describe methods used in an attempt to genetically prepare Geobacillus caldoxylosiliticus for insertion of a butanol pathway. Methods used were electroporation of electrocompetent cells, ternary conjugation with E. coli, and protoplast fusion.

  4. The effect of kefir starter on Thai fermented sausage product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Jatupornpipat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of kefir starter from Wilderness Family Naturals Company on the initial formulation of Thai fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations and pH were not significant. Only, the total acid of batch D (added the kefir starter 15 ml was significantly higher (P0.05. It is concluded that the addition of kefir starter (7 ml could be useful to improve the final quality of Thai fermented sausages. The addition of kefir starter that initiates rapid acidification of the raw meat and that leads to a desirable sensory quality of the end-product are used for the production of fermented sausages, and represents a way of improving and optimizing the sausage fermentation process and achieving tastier, safer, and healthier products.

  5. Development of a High Temperature Microbial Fermentation Processfor Butanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeor, Jeffery D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Reed, David W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Daubaras, Dayna L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, Vicki S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Transforming renewable biomass into cost competitive high-performance biofuels and bioproducts is key to US energy security. Butanol production by microbial fermentation and chemical conversion to polyolefins, elastomers, drop-in jet or diesel fuel, and other chemicals is a promising solution. A high temperature fermentation process can facilitate butanol recovery up to 40%, by using gas stripping. Other benefits of fermentation at high temperatures are optimal hydrolysis rates in the saccharification of biomass which leads to maximized butanol production, decrease in energy costs associated with reactor cooling and capital cost associated with reactor design, and a decrease in contamination and cost for maintaining a sterile environment. Butanol stripping at elevated temperatures gives higher butanol production through constant removal and continuous fermentation. We describe methods used in an attempt to genetically prepare Geobacillus caldoxylosiliticus for insertion of a butanol pathway. Methods used were electroporation of electrocompetent cells, ternary conjugation with E. coli, and protoplast fusion.

  6. Open and continuous fermentation: products, conditions and bioprocess economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Teng; Chen, Xiang-bin; Chen, Jin-chun; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Microbial fermentation is the key to industrial biotechnology. Most fermentation processes are sensitive to microbial contamination and require an energy intensive sterilization process. The majority of microbial fermentations can only be conducted over a short period of time in a batch or fed-batch culture, further increasing energy consumption and process complexity, and these factors contribute to the high costs of bio-products. In an effort to make bio-products more economically competitive, increased attention has been paid to developing open (unsterile) and continuous processes. If well conducted, continuous fermentation processes will lead to the reduced cost of industrial bio-products. To achieve cost-efficient open and continuous fermentations, the feeding of raw materials and the removal of products must be conducted in a continuous manner without the risk of contamination, even under 'open' conditions. Factors such as the stability of the biological system as a whole during long cultivations, as well as the yield and productivity of the process, are also important. Microorganisms that grow under extreme conditions such as high or low pH, high osmotic pressure, and high or low temperature, as well as under conditions of mixed culturing, cell immobilization, and solid state cultivation, are of interest for developing open and continuous fermentation processes. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Standard working procedures in production of traditionally fermented Sremska sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesković-Moračanin Slavica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations conducted within project "Techonological and protective characteristics of autochthonous strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented sausages and possibilities for their implementation in the meat industry" (Project Number: 20127, financed on behalf of the Ministry for Science and Technology of the Republic of Serbia, have provided an answer on the characteristics of the quality of the used raw materials for the production of Sremska sausage - one of the most well-known Serbian traditionally fermented sausages (choice of meat, fatty tissue, additives and spices, and data have been registered in connection with the procedures of their processing, microclimatic conditions have been established (temperature, relative humidity, and air circulation during the entire process of production and fermentation, as well as the presence and types of microorganisms, primarily lactic acid bacteria (BMK, the carrier of lactic fermentation. The most important characteristics of the filling have been established, the smoking regimen, the regimens of fermentation, maturing, drying, as well as the parameters for quality and safety of the finished product. At the same time, the standard working procedure has been determined for the preparation of the meat, fatty tissue, the forming and inserting of the filling into the wrappers, as well as the characteristics of the finished products. The given standard working procedure should serve as a guideline for the meat industry in the production process of this traditional fermented sausage.

  8. Degradation and removal of soybean allergen in Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magishi, Norihiro; Yuikawa, Naoya; Kobayashi, Makio; Taniuchi, Shoichiro

    2017-08-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional fermented seasoning of Japan and is available throughout the world. The two main raw ingredients of soy sauce are soybean and wheat, both of which are established food allergens. The present study examined the degradation and removal of soybean allergens in soy sauce by immunoblotting with anti‑soybean protein antibody from rabbit and sera from two children with soybean allergy. It was demonstrated that soybean allergens were gradually degraded during the fermentation process, but were not completely degraded in raw soy sauce. During the processes of heat‑treatment and filtration, the soluble soybean allergens in raw soy sauce were denatured to insoluble allergens by heat‑treatment and subsequently completely removed from soy sauce by filtration. Therefore, to reduce the allergenicity of soy sauce, heat‑treatment and filtration are very important processes in addition to the enzymatic degradation during the fermentation of soy sauce.

  9. In vitro batch fecal fermentation comparison of gas and short-chain fatty acid production using "slowly fermentable" dietary fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Rose, Devin J; Rumpagaporn, Pinthip; Patterson, John A; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2011-01-01

    Sustained colonic fermentation supplies beneficial fermentative by-products to the distal colon, which is particularly prone to intestinal ailments. Blunted/delayed initial fermentation may also lead to less bloating. Previously, we reported that starch-entrapped alginate-based microspheres act as a slowly fermenting dietary fiber. This material was used in the present study to provide a benchmark to compare to other "slowly fermentable" fibers. Dietary fibers with previous reports of slow fermentation, namely, long-chain inulin, psyllium, alkali-soluble corn bran arabinoxylan, and long-chain β-glucan, as well as starch-entrapped microspheres were subjected to in vitro upper gastrointestinal digestion and human fecal fermentation and measured over 48 h for pH, gas, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). The resistant fraction of cooked and cooled potato starch was used as another form of fermentable starch and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) served as a fast fermenting control. Corn bran arabinoxylan and long-chain β-glucan initially appeared slower fermenting with comparatively low gas and SCFA production, but later fermented rapidly with little remaining in the final half of the fermentation period. Long-chain inulin and psyllium had slow and moderate, but incomplete, fermentation. The resistant fraction of cooked and cooled potato starch fermented rapidly and appeared similar to FOS. In conclusion, compared to the benchmark slowly fermentable starch-entrapped microspheres, a number of the purported slowly fermentable fibers fermented fairly rapidly overall and, of this group, only the starch-entrapped microspheres appreciably fermented in the second half of the fermentation period. Consumption of dietary fibers, particularly commercial prebiotics, leads to uncomfortable feelings of bloating and flatulence due to their rapid degradation in our large intestine. This article employs claimed potential slowly fermenting fibers and compares their fermentation rates

  10. Gas Fermentation using Thermophilic Moorella Species for production of Biochemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redl, Stephanie Maria Anna

    Gas fermentation is a promising technology which gained increasing attention over the last years. In this process, acetogenic bacteria convert gases rich in H2, CO2, and CO, into compounds of higher value. The gas can derive from industrial off-gas or from waste streams via gasification. In the gas...... fermentation processes that are nearly on commercial level, mesophilic acetogens are used to mainly produce ethanol and butanediol. However, thermophilic acetogens, such as Moorella thermoacetica would allow for easy downstream processing when producing volatile products such as acetone. This thesis starts...... with a review of the feedstock potential for gas fermentation and how thermophilic production strains as well as unconventional fermentation processes such as mixotrophy can help to exploit this potential. I analyzed a process with respect to thermodynamic and economic considerations, in which acetone...

  11. Process Optimization for Solid Extraction, Flavor Improvement and Fat Removal in the Production of Soymilk From Full Fat Soy Flakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prawiradjaja, Stanley [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally soymilk has been made with whole soybeans; however, there are other alternative raw ingredients for making soymilk, such as soy flour or full-fat soy flakes. US markets prefer soymilk with little or no beany flavor. modifying the process or using lipoxygenase-free soybeans can be used to achieve this. Unlike the dairy industry, fat reduction in soymilk has been done through formula modification instead of by conventional fat removal (skimming). This project reports the process optimization for solids and protein extraction, flavor improvement and fat removal in the production of 5, 8 and 12 °Brix soymilk from full fat soy flakes and whole soybeans using the Takai soymilk machine. Proximate analyses, and color measurement were conducted in 5, 8 and 12 °Brix soymilk. Descriptive analyses with trained panelists (n = 9) were conducted using 8 and 12 °Brix lipoxygenase-free and high protein blend soy flake soymilks. Rehydration of soy flakes is necessary to prevent agglomeration during processing and increase extractability. As the rehydration temperature increases from 15 to 50 to 85 C, the hexanal concentration was reduced. Enzyme inactivation in soy flakes milk production (measured by hexanal levels) is similar to previous reports with whole soybeans milk production; however, shorter rehydration times can be achieved with soy flakes (5 to 10 minutes) compared to whole beans (8 to 12 hours). Optimum rehydration conditions for a 5, 8 and 12 °Brix soymilk are 50 C for 5 minutes, 85 C for 5 minutes and 85 C for 10 minutes, respectively. In the flavor improvement study of soymilk, the hexanal date showed differences between undeodorized HPSF in contrast to triple null soymilk and no differences between deodorized HPSF in contrast to deodorized triple null. The panelists could not differentiate between the beany, cereal, and painty flavors. However, the panelists responded that the overall aroma of deodorized 8 °Brix triple null and HPSF soymilk are

  12. APPLE VINEGAR PRODUCTION BY FERMENTATION IN PILOT SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna M., Leoncio; Robles, R.; Huamán R., M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Vinegar has been elaborated from apple juice by inmersed fermentation at room temperature. The process was developed in two stages, firstly, the alcoholic termentation was carried out using Saccharomyces Cerevísíae yeast, Ellipsoideus variety. Secondly, an acetic fermentation was carried out using acetobacter. The global yield of the process, based on row material usage was around 52%. The product obtained has an acidity of 6,8% in acetic acid and fulfill the market requirements. Se ha ela...

  13. Microbiological Hydrogen Production by Anaerobic Fermentation and Photosynthetic Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Y.; Ohsawa, M.; Nagai, Y.; Fukatsu, M.; Ishimi, K.; Ichi-ishi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen gas is a clean and renewable energy carrier. Microbiological hydrogen production from glucose or starch by combination used of an anaerobic fermenter and a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter spheroides RV was studied. In 1984, the co-culture of Clostridium butyricum and RV strain to convert glucose to hydrogen was demonstrated by Miyake et al. Recently, we studied anaerobic fermentation of starch by a thermophilic archaea. (Author)

  14. Evaluation of the production of gases in the acetobutilic fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte Torres, Alberto; Alarcon Granobles, John F; Pineros Forero, Edgar R

    1995-01-01

    The growing costs of the raw materials coming from the petroleum, base of the processes of acetone and butane, they have originated a renovated interest for the fermentative processes. These processes stopped to be applied in 1930 by their unfavorable economic conditions in comparison with the synthetic processes. The Institute of Biotechnology of the National University of Colombia, after considering that the country imports annually around 2500 tons of butanol and 80% of acetone, began in 1987 a program of development of the acetobutilic fermentation starting from cane molasses. In accordance with the study of economic pre feasible for the butanol and acetone production for fermentation, of Serrano and Pinzon, the gases constitute 83% of the total revenues received by sales, while the solvents, ethanol, butanol and acetone, only 16%, reason for which is necessary the evaluation of the gases produced in the fermentation

  15. Effects of Fermented Dairy Products on Skin: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Alexandra R; Sivamani, Raja K

    2015-07-01

    Fermented dairy products, such as yogurt, have been proposed as a natural source of probiotics to promote intestinal health. Growing evidence shows that modulation of the gastrointestinal tract microbiota can modulate skin disease as well. This systematic review was conducted to examine the evidence for the use of ingested fermented dairy products to modulate skin health and function. We also sought to review the effects of the topical application of dairy products. The PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched for clinical studies involving humans only that examined the relationship between fermented dairy products and skin health. A total of 312 articles were found and a total of 4 studies met inclusion criteria. Three studies evaluated the effects of ingestion, while one evaluated the effects of topical application. All studies noted improvement with the use of fermented dairy. Overall, there is early and limited evidence that fermented dairy products, used both topically and orally, may provide benefits for skin health. However, existing studies are limited and further studies will be important to better assess efficacy and the mechanisms involved.

  16. EVALUATION OF FERMENTATION PARAMETERS DURING HIGH-GRAVITY BEER PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Almeida

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A large number of advantages are obtained from the use of highly concentrated worts during the production of beer in a process referred to as "high-gravity". However, problems related to slow or stuck fermentations, which cause the lower productivity and possibility of contamination, are encountered. This study examines the influence of factors pH, percentage of corn syrup, initial wort concentration and fermentation temperature on the fermentation parameters, namely productivity, wort attenuation and the yield coefficient for sugar-to-ethanol conversion. The results show that productivity increased when the higher temperature, the higher wort concentration and the lower syrup percentage were used, while wort attenuation increased when lower wort concentration and no syrup were used. The yield coefficient for sugar-to-ethanol conversion was not influenced by any of the factors studied.

  17. Optimization of fermentation conditions for ethanol production from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, F J; Izaguirre, M F; Michelena, V; Moreno, B

    1982-01-01

    Optimal conditions for ethanol production in 7% whey solutions by the yeast Candida pseudotropicalis ATCC 8619 included an initial pH of 4.57 and 30 degrees. Complete fermentation of the available lactose took place without supplementary nutrients; additions of N and P salts, yeast extract, or corn steep liquor resulted in increased yeast production and lower ethanol yields. A possible correlation was observed between increases in yeast inocula and lactose utilization and ethanol production rates; 8.35 g ethanol/L was obtained within 22 hours by using a yeast inoculum of 13.9 g/L. No differences in fermentation rates or ethanol yields were observed when whole or deproteinized whey solutions were used. Concentrated whey permeates, obtained after removal of the valuable proteins from whey, can be effectively fermented for ethanol production.

  18. Production of proteases from organic wastes by solid-state fermentation: downstream and zero waste strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Maria; Artola, Adriana; Sánchez, Antoni

    2018-04-01

    Production of enzymes through solid-state fermentation (SSF) of agro-industrial wastes reports high productivity with low investment. The extraction of the final product from the solid waste and solid disposal represent the main cost of the process. In this work, the complete downstream processes of SSF of two industrial residues for the production of proteases, soy fibre (SF) and a mixture of hair and sludge (HS), were studied in terms of activity recovery, using different extraction parameters (extracting solvent, ratio solid: solvent and extraction mode). Activity after lyophilisation was tested. Solid waste valorisation after extraction was studied using respiration techniques and biogas production tests, as part of a zero waste strategy. Results showed a maximum extraction yield of 91% for SF and 121% for HS, both in agitated mode and distilled water as extraction agent. An average activity recovery of 95 ± 6 and 94 ± 6% for SF and HS, respectively, was obtained after lyophilisation and redissolution. To reduce the cost of extraction, a ratio 1:3 w : v solid-solvent in static mode is advised for SF, and 1:2 w : v extraction ratio in agitated mode for HS, both with distilled water as extracting agent. Both composting and anaerobic digestion are suitable techniques for valorisation of the waste material.

  19. Soybean hull induced production of carbohydrases and protease among Aspergillus and their effectiveness in soy flour carbohydrate and protein separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Loman, Abdullah Al; Coffman, Anthony M; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2017-04-20

    Soybean hull consists mainly of three major plant carbohydrates, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. It is inexpensive and a good potential substrate for carbohydrase production because it is capable of inducing a complete spectrum of activities to hydrolyze complex biomass. Aspergillus is known for carbohydrase production but no studies have evaluated and compared, among Aspergillus species and strains, the soybean hull induced production of various carbohydrases. In this study, A. aculeatus, A. cinnamomeus, A. foetidus, A. phoenicis and 11 A. niger strains were examined together with T. reesei Rut C30, another known carbohydrase producer. The carbohydrases evaluated included pectinase, polygalacturonase, xylanase, cellulase, α-galactosidase and sucrase. Growth morphology and pH profiles were also followed. Among Aspergillus strains, morphology was found to correlate with both carbohydrase production and pH decrease profile. Filamentous strains gave higher carbohydrase production while causing slower pH decrease. The enzyme broths produced were also tested for separation of soy flour carbohydrate and protein. Defatted soy flour contains about 53% protein and 32% carbohydrate. The enzymatic treatment can increase protein content and remove indigestible oligo-/poly-saccharides, and improve use of soy flour in feed and food. Protease production by different strains was therefore also compared for minimizing protein degradation. A. niger NRRL 322 and A. foetidus NRRL 341 were found to be the most potent strains that produced maximal carbohydrases and minimal protease under soybean hull induction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ethanol production by extractive fermentation - Process development and technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugulis, A.J.; Axford, D.B.; Mau, T.K.

    1991-01-01

    Extractive Fermentation is an ethanol processing strategy in which the operations of fermentation and product recovery are integrated and undertaken simultaneously in a single step. In this process an inert and biocompatible organic solvent is introduced directly into the fermentation vessel to selectively extract the ethanol product. The ethanol is readily recovered from the solvent at high concentration by means of flash vaporization, and the solvent is recycled in a closed loop back to the fermentor. This process is characterized by a high productivity (since ethanol does not build up to inhibitory levels), continuous operation, significantly reduced water consumption, and lower product recovery costs. The technical advantages of this processing strategy have been extensively demonstrated by means of a continuous, fully integrated and computer-controlled Process Demonstration Unit in the authors' laboratory. Numerous features of this technology have been protected by US patent. A thorough economic comparison of Extractive Fermentation relative to modern ethanol technology (continuous with cell recycle) has been completed for both new plants and retrofitting of existing facilities for a capacity of 100 million liters of ethanol per year. Substantial cost savings are possible with Extractive Fermentation ranging, depending on the process configuration, from 5 cents to 16 cents per liter. Activities are under way to transfer this proprietary technology to the private sector

  1. Method for ph-controlled fermentation and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of biomass processing and bioenergy production and facilitates efficient biomass processing and an increased production of renewable energy from processing and anaerobic fermentation of a wide variety of organic materials. In order to control the pH value...

  2. Production of Citric Acid from Solid State Fermentation of Sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus niger is the leading microorganism of choice for citric acid production. Sugarcane waste was used as substrate under solid state fermentation to comparatively evaluate the citric acid production capacity of Aspergillus niger isolates and the indigenous microflora in the sugarcane waste. Known optimal cultural ...

  3. Solid state fermentation studies of citric acid production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... solid waste management, biomass energy conservation, production of high value products and little risk ... The carrier, sugarcane bagasse for solid state fermentation was procured from National Sugar Institute ... constant weight and designated as dry solid residue (DSR). The filtrate (consisting of biomass, ...

  4. Soy sauce allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, K; Sugiura, M

    2010-07-01

    Soy sauce is well-known as a Japanese traditional seasoning, namely shoyu. Usually, shoyu means sauce made from soy. Shoyu does have not only benefits but also adverse effects. Soy sauce allergy which is not caused by soy or wheat allergy is rare. Our four patients developed cellulites and dermatitis around lips with irritation after a meal with shoyu. The age of the patients was 10, 35, 46 and 51 years; they were all female. These inflammations can be developed by two causes; first it can be caused by allergic reactions to shoyu; the second, it can be caused by histamine poisoning. It is important to determine whether inflammation is caused by allergic reactions or histamine poisoning. We determined the volume of histamine in some sauces and performed prick test and laboratory tests. Four patients had positive reactions by prick test after using some sauces. We suspected that histamine caused their symptoms, but nine normal volunteers had negative reactions. Patient's specific IgE score to soy and wheat was class 0. The results showed that the sauce made from soybean and broad bean contained histamine, but histamine in other sauces was not detected. In this study, we confirmed by prick test, four cases of soy sauce allergy, which was caused by some products during brewing. When patients with inflammations around mouth, after a meal containing or using soy sauce, are examined, it should be considered whether dermatitis or cellulites were developed by allergic reaction or by histamine poisoning.

  5. Batch fermentative production of lactic acid from green- sugarcane juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Serna Cock

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Juice from the CC85-92 variety of green (unburned sugar cane was tested as a suitable substrate in lactic-acid production. Fermentations were carried out with a homo-fermentative strain isolated from crops of the same variety of cane. Both the centrifugation pre-treatment and concentrated-nitrogen effects on substrate conversion, lactic-acid concentration and yield were evaluated. After a fermentation time of 48 h at 32° C with 5% of yeast extract as nitrogen source, 40,78 g/L of lactic-acid concentration, 0.58 g/g of product yield and 33% of substrate conversion were obtained. Centrifugation did not affect lactic acid production. Key words: Lactic acid, green sugar cane, Lactococcus lactis subs. lactis.

  6. Baseline levels of melamine in food items sold in Canada. II. Egg, soy, vegetable, fish and shrimp products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Lau, Benjamin P-Y; Ménard, Cathie; Corrigan, Catherine; Sparling, Melissa; Gaertner, Dean; Cao, Xu-Liang; Dabeka, Bob; Hilts, Carla

    2010-01-01

    A variety of egg-containing, soy-based, fish, shrimp and vegetable products sold in Canada were analysed for melamine (MEL) using a sensitive solid-phase extraction LC-MS/MS analytical method. MEL was detected above the method quantification limit of 0.004 mg/kg in 98 of the 378 samples analysed. Concentrations in the various food product groups ranged 0.00507-0.247 mg/kg (egg-containing items), 0.00408-0.0479 mg/kg (soy-based meat substitutes), 0.00409-1.10 mg/kg (fish and shrimp products), and 0.00464-0.688 mg/kg (vegetable products). MEL was detected less frequently in egg- and soy-containing products. The presence of MEL in most of the Canadian Total Diet Study shrimp composites collected after 2001 suggested the residues in shrimp were caused by a relatively recent exposure to MEL. All concentrations of MEL reported were lower than the 2.5 mg/kg interim standard established for MEL in items containing milk and milk-derived ingredients and the respective maximum residue limits for cyromazine and its metabolite, melamine, in vegetables set by the Canadian Government (2009; http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/securit/chem-chim/melamine/qa-melamine-qr-eng.php#8 ). The consumption of foods containing these low levels of MEL does not constitute a health risk for consumers.

  7. Studies on bio-hydrogen production of different biomass fermentation types using molasses wastewater as substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, K.; Jiao, A.Y.; Rao, P.H. [Northeast Forestry Univ., Harbin (China). School of Forestry; Li, Y.F. [Northeast Forestry Univ., Harbin (China). School of Forestry; Shanghai Univ. Engineering, Shanghai (China). College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Li, W. [Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China)

    2010-07-01

    Anaerobic fermentation technology was used to treat molasses wastewater. This study compared the hydrogen production capability of different fermentation types involving dark fermentation hydrogen production. The paper discussed the experiment including the results. It was found that the fermentation type changed by changing engineered control parameters in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). It was concluded that ethanol-type fermentation resulted in the largest hydrogen production capability, while butyric acid-type fermentation took second place followed by propionic acid-type fermentation.

  8. Torulaspora delbrueckii for secondary fermentation in sparkling wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonico, Laura; Comitini, Francesca; Ciani, Maurizio

    2018-09-01

    In the search for the desired oenological features and flavour complexity of wines, there is growing interest in the potential use of non-Saccharomyces yeast that are naturally present in the winemaking environment. Torulaspora delbrueckii is one such yeast that has seen profitable use in mixed fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and with different grape varieties. T. delbrueckii can have positive and distinctive impacts on the overall aroma of wines, and has also been used at an industrial level. Here, T. delbrueckii was successfully used in pure and mixed secondary fermentations for sparkling wine. The two selected T. delbrueckii strains used completed the secondary fermentation 'prise de mousse' in these pure and mixed fermentations. The sparkling wines obtained with T. delbrueckii showed different aromatic compositions and sensory profiles to those of S. cerevisiae. T. delbrueckii strain DiSVA 130 showed high esters production and significantly high scores for some of the aromatic descriptors that positively influence the sensory profile of sparkling wine. Thus, the use of T. delbrueckii in pure and mixed fermentations is a suitable strategy to further develop the flavour complexity during secondary fermentation of sparkling wines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reduction of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli in production of fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holck, Askild L; Axelsson, Lars; Rode, Tone Mari; Høy, Martin; Måge, Ingrid; Alvseike, Ole; L'abée-Lund, Trine M; Omer, Mohamed K; Granum, Per Einar; Heir, Even

    2011-11-01

    After a number of foodborne outbreaks of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli involving fermented sausages, some countries have imposed regulations on sausage production. For example, the US Food Safety and Inspection Service requires a 5 log(10) reduction of E. coli in fermented products. Such regulations have led to a number of studies on the inactivation of E. coli in fermented sausages by changing processing and post-processing conditions. Several factors influence the survival of E. coli such as pre-treatment of the meat, amount of NaCl, nitrite and lactic acid, water activity, pH, choice of starter cultures and addition of antimicrobial compounds. Also process variables like fermentation temperature and storage time play important roles. Though a large variety of different production processes of sausages exist, generally the reduction of E. coli caused by production is in the range 1-2 log(10). In many cases this may not be enough to ensure microbial food safety. By optimising ingredients and process parameters it is possible to increase E. coli reduction to some extent, but in some cases still other post process treatments may be required. Such treatments may be storage at ambient temperatures, specific heat treatments, high pressure processing or irradiation. HACCP analyses have identified the quality of the raw materials, low temperature in the batter when preparing the sausages and a rapid pH drop during fermentation as critical control points in sausage production. This review summarises the literature on the reduction verotoxigenic E. coli in production of fermented sausages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Industrial alcohol production via whey and grain fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friend, B A; Cunningham, M L; Shahani, K M

    1982-01-01

    Six strains of a trained lactose fermenting Kluyveromyces yeast were examined for their ability to utilise lactose in sweet-whey permeate. All strains of K. fragilis tested reduced the concentration of the 5.1% lactose, initially present in whey permeate, to 0.1-0.2% within 48h. Periodic adjustment to maintain the pH during fermentation did not alter the lactose utilisation. The fermentation efficiency of K. fragilis was then compared with that of a mixture of K. fragilis and the classical alcohol fermenter Saccharomyces cerevisiae to verify that no unfavourable interactions occurred in the mixed culture. There were no differences in lactose utilisation or ethanol production between the two groups; both produced approximately 2% ethanol within 24h. This represented approximately 80% of the alcohol which theoretically could be produced from the 5.1% lactose present in the permeate. Whey permeate was also incorporated into the classical grain fermentation by substitution for one-half the water normally added to produce the mash. Fermentation was nearly complete by 36h and alcohol levels ranged from 9.7% for the mixed culture to 9.4% for the K. fragilis and 9.3% for the S. cerevisiae. Since the whey provided significant levels of fermentable sugars, studies were also conducted in which undiluted whey permeate was substituted for all of the water in the mash and the amount of grain was reduced by 20%. At the end of 36h K. fragilis produced 10.9% alcohol and at 60 h of fermentation the level had reached 12.2%. When whole sweet-whey was used, similar levels of alcohol were produced. (Refs. 20).

  11. Bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth by anaerobic fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jun; Zhou Junhu; Qi Feng; Xie Binfei; Cen Kefa

    2006-01-01

    The bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth by anaerobic fermentation of digested sludge is studied in this paper. The compositions of bio-gases and volatile fatty acids in fermentation liquids are determined on TRACE 2000 gas chromatography. It is found that the H 2 concentration in the biogas is 10%-20% and no CH 4 is detected. The bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth with the initial pH value of 5.5 is higher than that with the initial pH value of 4.5. The fermentation temperature of 55 C is better than that of 35 C, while the weight ratio of hyacinth to microorganism of 1:1 is better than that of 3:7. The highest hydrogen production of 122.3 mL/g is obtained when the initial pH value of fermentation solution is 5.5, the fermentation temperature is 55 C and the weight ratio of hyacinth to microorganism is 1:1. (authors)

  12. A comprehensive and quantitative review of dark fermentative biohydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rittmann Simon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biohydrogen production (BHP can be achieved by direct or indirect biophotolysis, photo-fermentation and dark fermentation, whereof only the latter does not require the input of light energy. Our motivation to compile this review was to quantify and comprehensively report strains and process performance of dark fermentative BHP. This review summarizes the work done on pure and defined co-culture dark fermentative BHP since the year 1901. Qualitative growth characteristics and quantitative normalized results of H2 production for more than 2000 conditions are presented in a normalized and therefore comparable format to the scientific community. Statistically based evidence shows that thermophilic strains comprise high substrate conversion efficiency, but mesophilic strains achieve high volumetric productivity. Moreover, microbes of Thermoanaerobacterales (Family III have to be preferred when aiming to achieve high substrate conversion efficiency in comparison to the families Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae. The limited number of results available on dark fermentative BHP from fed-batch cultivations indicates the yet underestimated potential of this bioprocessing application. A Design of Experiments strategy should be preferred for efficient bioprocess development and optimization of BHP aiming at improving medium, cultivation conditions and revealing inhibitory effects. This will enable comparing and optimizing strains and processes independent of initial conditions and scale.

  13. A critical review on factors influencing fermentative hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Richa; Kumar, Virendra; Pathak, Vinayak V; Ahmad, Shamshad; Aoyi, Ochieng; Tyagi, V V

    2017-03-01

    Biohydrogen production by dark fermentation of different waste materials is a promising approach to produce bio-energy in terms of renewable energy exploration. This communication has reviewed various influencing factors of dark fermentation process with detailed account of determinants in biohydrogen production. It has also focused on different factors such as improved bacterial strain, reactor design, metabolic engineering and two stage processes to enhance the bioenergy productivity from substrate. The study also suggest that complete utilization of substrates for biological hydrogen production requires the concentrated research and development for efficient functioning of microorganism with integrated application for energy production and bioremediation. Various studies have been taken into account here, to show the comparative efficiency of different substrates and operating conditions with inhibitory factors and pretreatment option for biohydrogen production. The study reveals that an extensive research is needed to observe field efficiency of process using low cost substrates and integration of dark and photo fermentation process. Integrated approach of fermentation process will surely compete with conventional hydrogen process and replace it completely in future.

  14. Producing chicken eggs containing isoflavone as functional food due to feeding effect of soy sauce by-product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfudz, L. D.; Sarjana, T. A.; Muryani, R.; Suthama, N.

    2018-01-01

    The present study was aimed to verify the impact of feeding soy sauce by-product in producing isoflavone-enriched chicken eggs as functional food. Experiment used 200 laying hens of 80-week old with average body weight of 1,932.75±189.50 g. Experimental diets were formulated using yellow corn, rice bran, soybean meal, fish meal, meat bone meal, poultry meal, premix, CaCO3, and soy sauce by-product (SSBP). A completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 5 replication (10 birds each), was assigned in this experiment. Inclusion levels of SSBP were the treatments, namely, none (T0), 10 (T1), 12.5 (T2), and 15.0% (T3). Parameters observed were colour, index, and weight of egg yolk, and isoflavone content. Analysis of variance was applied and continued to Duncan test at 5% probability. Results indicated that yolk colour index and weight were not affected by the treatments, but isoflavone content was significantly (P<0.05) increased by feeding SSBP. Egg yolk isoflavone in T2 (0.41 mg/g) and T3 (0.47 mg/g) were higher than those in T0 (0.31 mg/g) and T1 (0.35 mg/g). In conclusion, dietary inclusion of soy sauce by-product at higher level (12.5 and 15.0%) can produce isoflavone-enriched eggs as functional food.

  15. Some microbiological aspects of cassava fermentation with emphasis on detoxification of the fermented end-product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okafor, N.

    1990-01-01

    The search undertaken in this study was for microbial strains able to produce amylase and linamarase simultaneously. A total of 46 organisms (mainly yeasts) were isolated from garri production environments and eighteen more representative isolates were selected for screening. The highest production fo the above enzymes has been found with the yeast strain identified as Saccharomyces sp. Inoculation of this into the cassava mash led to a dramatic reduction of cyanide in the fermenting pulp: 73,4% and 69,2% reduction when compared with controls after 24 and 48 hours of fermentation respectively. The cyanide content of the fermented end-product derived from the inoculated mash was 60,8% and 24% less than in the control after 24 and 48 hours. Preliminary experiments with X-ray radiation of the yeast did not show a sufficient increase in the enzymatic activities of the mutants obtained but only a slight increase in the linamarase production was noticed in mutants derived from irradiation. (author). 27 refs, 9 tabs

  16. Multiphasic analysis of gas production kinetics for in vitro fermentation of ruminant feeds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.C.J.; Cone, J.W.; Williams, B.A.; Debersaques, F.M.A.; Lantinga, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Recently developed time-related gas production techniques to quantify the kinetics of ruminant feed fermentation have a high resolution. Consequently, fermentation processes with clearly contrasting gas production kinetics can be identified. Parameterization of the separate processes is possible

  17. Contribution of Lactobacillus plantarum in fermented dairy products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum recently isolated from artisanal fermented milks and milk products include L. plantarum AMA-K, L. plantarum KLDS1.0391, L. plantarum ST27, L. plantarum LL441, L. plantarum ST8K and L. plantarum BR12. The isolates exhibited in vitro antimicrobial activity against saprophytic and ...

  18. Amylase production under solid state fermentation by a bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was concerned with the screening of a suitable isolate and optimization of cultural conditions for the biosynthesis of thermostable amylase under solid state fermentation (SSF). Twenty seven isolates were screened for amylase production out of which one isolate designated as W74 showed maximal amylase ...

  19. 27 CFR 25.55 - Formulas for fermented products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... purposes (including consumer taste testing), produce a fermented product without an approved formula, but... is my formula approval valid? Your formula approved under this section remains in effect until: you... request to the Assistant Chief, Advertising, Labeling and Formulation Division, Alcohol and Tobacco Tax...

  20. The Bacteria Quality Of The Indigenously Fermented Milk Product ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty samples of 'nono', a fermented milk product akin to yoghurt, were carefully collected from three markets in Maiduguri municipality, and were examined for the presence of pathogenic bacteria. Twenty-eight percent of the samples were found to be contaminated with aciduric pathogenic bacteria that may cause ...

  1. Fermentative hydrogen production from pretreated biomass: A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.; Budde, M.A.W.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of employing biomass resources from different origin as feedstocks for fermentative hydrogen production. Mild-acid pretreated and hydrolysed barley straw (BS) and corn stalk (CS), hydrolysed barley grains (BG) and corn grains (CG), and sugar beet

  2. Whey-derived valuable products obtained by microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescuma, Micaela; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2015-08-01

    Whey, the main by-product of the cheese industry, is considered as an important pollutant due to its high chemical and biological oxygen demand. Whey, often considered as waste, has high nutritional value and can be used to obtain value-added products, although some of them need expensive enzymatic synthesis. An economical alternative to transform whey into valuable products is through bacterial or yeast fermentations and by accumulation during algae growth. Fermentative processes can be applied either to produce individual compounds or to formulate new foods and beverages. In the first case, a considerable amount of research has been directed to obtain biofuels able to replace those derived from petrol. In addition, the possibility of replacing petrol-derived plastics by biodegradable polymers synthesized during bacterial fermentation of whey has been sought. Further, the ability of different organisms to produce metabolites commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries (i.e., lactic acid, lactobionic acid, polysaccharides, etc.) using whey as growth substrate has been studied. On the other hand, new low-cost functional whey-based foods and beverages leveraging the high nutritional quality of whey have been formulated, highlighting the health-promoting effects of fermented whey-derived products. This review aims to gather the multiple uses of whey as sustainable raw material for the production of individual compounds, foods, and beverages by microbial fermentation. This is the first work to give an overview on the microbial transformation of whey as raw material into a large repertoire of industrially relevant foods and products.

  3. Cashew wine vinegar production: alcoholic and acetic fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, M. E.; Torres Neto, A. B.; Silva, W. B.; Silva, F. L. H.; Swarnakar, R.

    2007-01-01

    Cashew wine of demi-sec grade was produced in a stirred batch reactor. The kinetic parameters obtained for cashew wine fermentation were Y X/S=0.061, Y P/S=0.3 and µmax=0.16 h-1. The yield and the productivity of cashew wine were 57.7% and 0.78 g/Lh respectively. A 2² factorial experimental design was used for the cashew wine vinegar fermentation optimization study. The cashew wine vinegar process optimization ranges found for initial concentrations of ethanol and acetic acid as independent v...

  4. Productivity and fermentability of Jerusalem artichoke according to harvesting date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabbert, N.; Arnoux, M.; Braun, Ph.; Galzy, P.; Guiraud, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The amount of alcohol obtained per hectare of Jerusalem artichoke culture depends on the yield of tubers, the sugar content of the tubers and the fermentability of these sugars. Under Mediterranean climate conditions, the cultivar 'Violet commun' attained its maximum tuber production by 15 November, when the stems and leaves dried up, and then remained constant through the winter. The sugar content of the tubers varied little during this period. However, the sugar composition did vary with time: the polyfructosans were depolymerized. The fermentability of sugars without prior chemical hydrolysis was quite good with Kluyveromyces marxianus which showed high inulinase activity in contrast to Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  5. Productivity and fermentability of Jerusalem artichoke according to harvesting date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabbert, N.; Braun, P.; Guiraud, J.P.; Arnoux, M.; Galzy, P.

    1983-01-01

    The amount of alcohol obtained per hectare of Jerusalem artichoke culture depends on the yield of tubers, the sugar content of the tubers and the fermentability of these sugars. Under Mediterranean climate conditions, the cultivar Violet commun attained its maximum tuber production by 15 November, when the stems and leaves dried up, and then remained constant through the winter. The sugar content of the tubers varied little during this period. However, the sugar composition did vary with time: the polyfructosans were depolymerized. The fermentability of sugars without prior chemical hydrolysis was quite good with Kluyveromyces marxianus which showed high inulinase activity in contrast to Saccaromyces cerevisiae. 5 figures, 1 table.

  6. Productivity and fermentability of Jerusalem artichoke according to harvesting date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabbert, M.; Braunt, Ph.; Guiraud, J.P.; Arnoux, M.; Galzy, P.

    1983-01-01

    The amount of alcohol obtained per hectare of Jerusalem artichoke culture depends on the yield of tubers, the sugar content of the tubers and the fermentability of these sugars. Under Mediterranean climate conditions, the cultivar 'Violet commun' attained its maximum tuber production by 15 November, when the stems and leaves dried up, and then remained constant through the winter. The sugar content of the tubers varied little during this period. However, the sugar composition did vary with time: the polyfructosans were depolymerized. The fermentability of sugars without prior chemical hydrolysis was quite good with Kluyveromyces marxianus which showed high inulinase activity in contrast to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (Refs. 13).

  7. Amino acids production focusing on fermentation technologies – A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Este, Martina; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Angelidaki, Irini

    2018-01-01

    Amino acids are attractive and promising biochemicals with market capacity requirements constantly increasing. Their applicability ranges from animal feed additives, flavour enhancers and ingredients in cosmetic to specialty nutrients in pharmaceutical and medical fields. This review gives...... an overview of the processes applied for amino acids production and points out the main advantages and disadvantages of each. Due to the advances made in the genetic engineering techniques, the biotechnological processes, and in particular the fermentation with the aid of strains such as Corynebacterium...... glutamicum or Escherichia coli, play a significant role in the industrial production of amino acids. Despite the numerous advantages of the fermentative amino acids production, the process still needs significant improvements leading to increased productivity and reduction of the production costs. Although...

  8. Enhanced amylase production by fusarium solani in solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, Y.; Jawhar, M.; Arabi, M.I.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study illustrates the investigation carried out on the production of amylase by Fusarium species under solid state fermentation. All the tested Fusarium species were capable of producing amylase. A selected F. solani isolate SY7, showed the highest amylase production in solid state fermentation. Different substrates were screened for enzyme production. Among the several agronomic wastes, wheat bran supported the highest yield of amylase (141.18 U/g of dry substrate) after 3 days of incubation. Optimisation of the physical parameters revealed the optimum pH, temperature and moisture level for amylase production by the isolate as 8.0, 25 C and 70%, respectively. The above results indicate that the production of amylase by F. solani isolate SY7 could be improved by a further optimisation of the medium and culture conditions. (author)

  9. Production of pizza dough with reduced fermentation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Limongi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reduce the fermentation time of pizza dough by evaluating the development of the dough during fermentation using a Chopin® rheofermentometer and verifying the influence of time and temperature using a 2² factorial design. The focus was to produce characteristic soft pizza dough with bubbles and crispy edges and soft in the center. These attributes were verified by the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. The dough was prepared with the usual ingredients, fermented at a temperature range from 27 to 33 ºC for 30 to 42 minutes, enlarged, added with tomato sauce, baked, and frozen. The influence of the variables time and temperature on the release of carbon dioxide (H'm was confirmed with positive and significant effect, using a rheofermentometer, which was not observed for the development or maximum height of the dough (Hm. The same fermentation conditions of the experimental design were used for the production of the pizza dough in the industrial process; it was submitted to Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA, in which the samples were described by nine attributes. The results showed that some samples had the desired characteristics of pizza dough, demonstrated by the principal component analysis (PCA, indicating a 30 % fermentation time reduction when compared to the conventional process.

  10. New alternatives for the fermentation process in the ethanol production from sugarcane: Extractive and low temperature fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Ensinas, Adriano; Modesto, Marcelo; Nebra, Silvia A.

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is produced in large scale from sugarcane in Brazil by fermentation of sugars and distillation. This is currently considered as an efficient biofuel technology, leading to significant reduction on greenhouse gases emissions. However, some improvements in the process can be introduced in order to improve the use of energy. In current distilleries, a significant fraction of the energy consumption occurs in the purification step – distillation and dehydration – since conventional fermentation systems employed in the industry require low substrate concentration, which must be distilled, consequently with high energy consumption. In this study, alternatives to the conventional fermentation processes are assessed, through computer simulation: low temperature fermentation and vacuum extractive fermentation. The aim of this study is to assess the incorporation of these alternative fermentation processes in ethanol production, energy consumption and electricity surplus produced in the cogeneration system. Several cases were evaluated. Thermal integration technique was applied. Results shown that the ethanol production increases between 3.3% and 4.8% and a reduction in steam consumption happens of up to 36%. About the electricity surplus, a value of 85 kWh/t of cane can be achieved when condensing – extracting steam turbines are used. - Highlights: • Increasing the wine concentration in the ethanol production from sugarcane. • Alternatives to the conventional fermentation process. • Low temperature fermentation and vacuum extractive fermentation. • Reduction of steam consumption through the thermal integration of the processes. • Different configurations of cogeneration system maximizing the electricity surplus

  11. Gellan Gum: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishwar B. Bajaj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial exopolysaccharides are water-soluble polymers secreted by microorganisms during fermentation. The biopolymer gellan gum is a relatively recent addition to the family of microbial polysaccharides that is gaining much importance in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries due to its novel properties. It is commercially produced by C. P. Kelco in Japan and the USA. Further research and development in biopolymer technology is expected to expand its use. This article presents a critical review of the available information on the gellan gum synthesized by Sphingomonas paucimobilis with special emphasis on its fermentative production and downstream processing. Rheological behaviour of fermentation broth during fermentative production of gellan gum and problems associated with mass transfer have been addressed. Information on the biosynthetic pathway of gellan gum, enzymes and precursors involved in gellan gum production and application of metabolic engineering for enhancement of yield of gellan gum has been specified. Characteristics of gellan gum with respect to its structure, physicochemical properties, rheology of its solutions and gel formation behaviour are discussed. An attempt has also been made to review the current and potential applications of gellan gum in food, pharmaceutical and other industries.

  12. Ethanol production from alfalfa fiber fractions by saccharification and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenath, H.K. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States). Forest Products Lab.; Koegel, R.G. [US Department of Agriculture, Madison, WI (United States). Dairy Forage Research Center; Moldes, A.B. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States). Forest Products Lab.; Universidade de Vigo, Ourense (Spain); Jeffries, T.W. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States). Forest Products Lab.; Straub, R.J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering

    2001-07-01

    This work describes ethanol production from alfalfa fiber using separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with and without liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment. Candida shehatae FPL-702 produced 5 and 6.4 g/l ethanol with a yield of 0.25 and 0.16 g ethanol/g sugar respectively by SHF and SSF from alfalfa fiber without pretreatment. With LHW pretreatment using SSF, C. shehatae FPL-702 produced 18.0 g/l ethanol, a yield of 0.45 g ethanol/g sugar from cellulosic solids or 'raffinate'. Using SHF, it produced 9.6 g/l ethanol, a yield of 0.47 g ethanol/g sugar from raffinate. However, the soluble extract fraction containing hemicelluloses was poorly fermented in both SHF and SSF due to the presence of inhibitors. Addition of dilute acid during LHW pretreatment of alfalfa fiber resulted in fractions that were poorly saccharified and fermented. These results show that unpretreated alfalfa fiber produced a lower ethanol yield. Although LHW pretreatment can increase ethanol production from raffinate fiber fractions, it does not increase production from the hemicellulosic and pectin fractions. (author)

  13. Elemental balance in soy sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Yoshida, Koji.

    1996-01-01

    We have measured the elemental concentrations of soy sauce and its actual raw materials which are used in a certain soy sauce factory. In the present measurement, we measured de-fatted soybean, wheat and salt as raw materials and soy sauce and soy sauce waste as final products. Five kinds of elements, such as Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br, were detected. We obtained elemental concentrations of them except for Mn in each materials. The measured elemental concentration in soy sauce agreed well each other with the calculated one within the experimental errors using the measured concentration in the raw materials and their weight in actual producing process. Contrary to our expectation, it was found that wheat contributes to soy sauce bromine concentration dominantly in the present case. (author)

  14. Influence of the addition of soy product and wheat fiber on rheological, textural, and other quality characteristics of pizza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicerina, Virginia; Balestra, Federica; Capozzi, Francesco; Dalla Rosa, Marco; Romani, Santina

    2017-11-17

    The effect of partial replacement of wheat flour with soy paste and wheat fiber on rheological, textural, physicochemical, and organoleptic characteristics of an enriched pizza base (E) was investigated in comparison with those of a control pizza base (C). New ingredients (e.g., enriched cooked ham, whey cheese, and tomato sauce realized using food industry by-products) were also used in E pizza topping to further increase its nutritional properties. Enriched dough was developed first at a laboratory level. Large and small deformation, moisture, leavening activity, and metabolic heat were tested. On the final product, produced at the industrial level, textural, color, sensory, and nutritional analyses were performed. Preliminary rheological analysis was essential to evaluate the suitability of the new pizza to be processed at industrial level. Both pizza dough samples showed a solid elastic-like behavior; however, the addition of soy and fiber increased moisture content of E pizza, due to the water binding ability of soy protein and to the effect of fibers that also decreased E dough elasticity. No differences in extensibility between the two samples were observed, whereas significantly lower values of resistance to extension and dough force were shown in sample E. These differences were likely due to the presence of soy that interfere with gluten formation and to the dietary fibers that interact with water. Ingredients used in E pizza improved its nutritional quality increasing dietary fibers and protein, and decreasing saturated fatty acids and cholesterol content, which contributed to decrease energy value, in terms of kilocalorie reduction. In this work, the effects of using new ingredients (e.g., soy paste, wheat fiber) on the rheological, textural, physicochemical, nutritional, and organoleptic characteristics of an enriched pizza type were investigated both at laboratory and industrial levels. The new pizza provides a product that combines solid

  15. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573.500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in animal feed...

  16. Fermentation of calcium-fortified soymilk with Lactobacillus: effects on calcium solubility, isoflavone conversion, and production of organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, A L; Shah, N P; Wilcox, G; Walker, K Z; Stojanovska, L

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance calcium solubility and bioavailability from calcium-fortified soymilk by fermentation with 7 strains of Lactobacillus, namely, L. acidophilus ATCC 4962, ATCC33200, ATCC 4356, ATCC 4461, L. casei ASCC 290, L. plantarum ASCC 276, and L. fermentum VRI-003. The parameters that were used are viability, pH, calcium solubility, organic acid, and biologically active isoflavone aglycone content. Calcium-fortified soymilk made from soy protein isolate was inoculated with these probiotic strains, incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C, then stored for 14 d at 4 degrees C. Soluble calcium was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AA). Organic acids and bioactive isoflavone aglycones, including diadzein, genistein, and glycetein, were measured using HPLC. Viability of the strains in the fermented calcium-fortified soymilk was > 8.5 log(10) CFU/g after 24 h fermentation and this was maintained for 14-d storage at 4 degrees C. After 24 h, there was a significant increase (P casei ASCC 290 demonstrated the highest increase with 89.3% and 87.0% soluble calcium after 24 h, respectively. The increase in calcium solubility observed was related to lowered pH associated with production of lactic and acetic acids. Fermentation significantly increased (P < 0.05) the level of conversion of isoflavones into biologically active aglycones, including diadzein, genistein, and glycetein. Our results show that fermenting calcium-fortified soymilk with the selected probiotics can potentially enhance the calcium bioavailability of calcium-fortified soymilk due to increased calcium solubility and bioactive isoflavone aglycone enrichment.

  17. Amino acids production focusing on fermentation technologies - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Este, Martina; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Angelidaki, Irini

    Amino acids are attractive and promising biochemicals with market capacity requirements constantly increasing. Their applicability ranges from animal feed additives, flavour enhancers and ingredients in cosmetic to specialty nutrients in pharmaceutical and medical fields. This review gives an overview of the processes applied for amino acids production and points out the main advantages and disadvantages of each. Due to the advances made in the genetic engineering techniques, the biotechnological processes, and in particular the fermentation with the aid of strains such as Corynebacterium glutamicum or Escherichia coli, play a significant role in the industrial production of amino acids. Despite the numerous advantages of the fermentative amino acids production, the process still needs significant improvements leading to increased productivity and reduction of the production costs. Although the production processes of amino acids have been extensively investigated in previous studies, a comprehensive overview of the developments in bioprocess technology has not been reported yet. This review states the importance of the fermentation process for industrial amino acids production, underlining the strengths and the weaknesses of the process. Moreover, the potential of innovative approaches utilizing macro and microalgae or bacteria are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Linear programming model can explain respiration of fermentation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Philip; Liu, Xiaochen; Schuster, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Many differentiated cells rely primarily on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for generating energy in the form of ATP needed for cellular metabolism. In contrast most tumor cells instead rely on aerobic glycolysis leading to lactate to about the same extent as on respiration. Warburg found that cancer cells to support oxidative phosphorylation, tend to ferment glucose or other energy source into lactate even in the presence of sufficient oxygen, which is an inefficient way to generate ATP. This effect also occurs in striated muscle cells, activated lymphocytes and microglia, endothelial cells and several mammalian cell types, a phenomenon termed the “Warburg effect”. The effect is paradoxical at first glance because the ATP production rate of aerobic glycolysis is much slower than that of respiration and the energy demands are better to be met by pure oxidative phosphorylation. We tackle this question by building a minimal model including three combined reactions. The new aspect in extension to earlier models is that we take into account the possible uptake and oxidation of the fermentation products. We examine the case where the cell can allocate protein on several enzymes in a varying distribution and model this by a linear programming problem in which the objective is to maximize the ATP production rate under different combinations of constraints on enzymes. Depending on the cost of reactions and limitation of the substrates, this leads to pure respiration, pure fermentation, and a mixture of respiration and fermentation. The model predicts that fermentation products are only oxidized when glucose is scarce or its uptake is severely limited. PMID:29415045

  19. Production of fermentables and biomass by six temperate fuelcrops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, D.J.; Gammon, T.C.; Graves, B.

    1985-12-01

    Several potential fuelcrops have been studied individually, but relatively little work has been done to compare the various temperate species in side-by-side trials. The production has been examined of readily fermentable carbohydrates and biomass by six fuelcrop candidates: grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), Jerusalem articoke (Helianthus tuberosus), maize (Zea Mays), sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). A randomized complete block design with four replicates was employed at each of three locations that were somewhat diverse in soil type, elevation, growing season length, and 1980 rainfall distribution. Fermentables in the harvestable dry matter were determined colorimetrically following dilute acid plus enzymatic hydrolysis. Overall, sugarbeet was the most prolific producer of fermentables (7.4 Mg/ha); Jerusalem artichoke (5.8 Mg/ha), maize (4.8 Mg/ha) and sweet sorghum stems (5.8 Mg/ha) were statistically equivalent, while sweet potato (4.0 Mg/ha) and grain sorghum (3.8 Mg/ha) were less productive than the other candidates. The crops performed somewhat differently at each location, but the most striking site-specific differences were seen at the site with the coarsest textured soil and driest season. At that location, maize produced the least fermentables (0.6 Mg/ha). Biomass production generally reflected either the amount of time each species was actively growing or limiations to growth associated with drought. No general recommendations are made concerning a preferred temperature fuelcrop. Based on the studies, however, maize may not always be the fuelcrop of choice; others, especially sugarbeet and sweet sorghum (when harvested for grain also), may be superior to maize in productivity of fermentable substrates. 6 tabs., 13 refs.

  20. Linear programming model can explain respiration of fermentation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Philip; Liu, Xiaochen; Schuster, Stefan; Boley, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Many differentiated cells rely primarily on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for generating energy in the form of ATP needed for cellular metabolism. In contrast most tumor cells instead rely on aerobic glycolysis leading to lactate to about the same extent as on respiration. Warburg found that cancer cells to support oxidative phosphorylation, tend to ferment glucose or other energy source into lactate even in the presence of sufficient oxygen, which is an inefficient way to generate ATP. This effect also occurs in striated muscle cells, activated lymphocytes and microglia, endothelial cells and several mammalian cell types, a phenomenon termed the "Warburg effect". The effect is paradoxical at first glance because the ATP production rate of aerobic glycolysis is much slower than that of respiration and the energy demands are better to be met by pure oxidative phosphorylation. We tackle this question by building a minimal model including three combined reactions. The new aspect in extension to earlier models is that we take into account the possible uptake and oxidation of the fermentation products. We examine the case where the cell can allocate protein on several enzymes in a varying distribution and model this by a linear programming problem in which the objective is to maximize the ATP production rate under different combinations of constraints on enzymes. Depending on the cost of reactions and limitation of the substrates, this leads to pure respiration, pure fermentation, and a mixture of respiration and fermentation. The model predicts that fermentation products are only oxidized when glucose is scarce or its uptake is severely limited.

  1. Argentinean soy-based biodiesel: An introduction to production and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomei, Julia; Upham, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the economic, social and environmental context, drivers and impacts of increased demand for Argentine soy-based biodiesel. It is based on extensive stakeholder interviews in Argentina, including those in government, academia and the third sector; as well as participant observation with communities in soy cultivation areas; and review of relevant academic and grey literatures. Given Argentina's history of political instability and relatively weak levels of environmental protection, there is reason to be sceptical of the likely effectiveness of biofuel sustainability certification as applied to Argentine soy. Direct contracts between feedstock producers and biodiesel retailers may be a more reliable approach to minimise adverse environmental and social impacts than certification alone.

  2. Biological production of hydrogen by dark fermentation of OFMSW and co-fermentation with slaughterhouse wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, A.; Gomez, X.; Cuestos, M. J.

    2005-07-01

    Hydrogen is an ideal, clean and sustainable energy source for the future because of its high conversion and nonpolluting nature (Lin and Lay, 2003). There are different methods for the production of hydrogen, the traditional ones, are the production from fossil fuels. Aiming to reach a development based on sustainable principles the production of hydrogen from renewable sources is a desirable goal. Among the environmental friendly alternatives for the production of hydrogen are the biological means. Dark fermentation as it is known the process when light is not used; it is a preferable option thanks to the knowledge already collected from its homologous process, the anaerobic digestion for the production of methane. There are several studies intended to the evaluation of the production of hydrogen, many are dedicated to the use of pure cultures or the utilization of basic substrates as glucose or sucrose (Lin and Lay, 2003; Chang et al., 2002, Kim et al., 2005). This study is performed to evaluate the fermentation of a mixture of wastes for the production of hydrogen. It is used as substrate the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) and a mixture of this residue with slaughterhouse waste. (Author)

  3. Microbiota dynamics related to environmental conditions during the fermentative production of Fen-Daqu, a Chinese industrial fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Yan, Z.; Nout, M.J.R.; Smid, E.J.; Zwietering, M.H.; Boekhout, T.; Han, J.S.; Han, B.

    2014-01-01

    Chinese Daqu is used as a starter for liquor and vinegar fermentations. It is produced by solid state fermentation of cereal–pulse mixtures. A succession of fungi, lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp. was observed during the production of Daqu. Mesophilic bacteria followed by fungi, dominated the

  4. Microbiota dynamics related to environmental conditions during the fermentative production of Fen-Daqu, a Chinese industrial fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Yan, Zheng; Nout, M J Robert; Smid, Eddy J; Zwietering, Marcel H; Boekhout, Teun; Han, Jian-Shu; Han, Bei-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Chinese Daqu is used as a starter for liquor and vinegar fermentations. It is produced by solid state fermentation of cereal-pulse mixtures. A succession of fungi, lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp. was observed during the production of Daqu. Mesophilic bacteria followed by fungi, dominated the

  5. Fermentative hydrogen production by diverse microflora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghchehsaraee, B.; Nakhla, G.; Karamanev, D.; Margaritis, A.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text': In this study of hydrogen production with activated sludge, a diverse bacterial source has been investigated and compared to microflora from anaerobic digester sludge, which is less diverse. Batch experiments were conducted at mesophilic (37 o C) and thermophilic (55 o C) temperatures. The hydrogen production yields with activated sludge at 37 o C and 55 o C were 0.25 and 0.93 mol H 2 /mol glucose, respectively. The maximum hydrogen production rates with activated sludge in both temperatures were 4.2 mL/h. Anaerobic digester sludge showed higher hydrogen production yields and rates at both mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. The results of repeated batch experiments with activated sludge showed an increase in the hydrogen production during the consecutive batches. However, hydrogen production was not stable along the repeated batches. The observed instability was due to the formation of lactic acid and ethanol. (author)

  6. Evaluation of commercial soy sauce koji strains of Aspergillus oryzae for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Kadir, Safuan; Wan-Mohtar, Wan Abd Al Qadr Imad; Mohammad, Rosfarizan; Abdul Halim Lim, Sarina; Sabo Mohammed, Abdulkarim; Saari, Nazamid

    2016-10-01

    In this study, four selected commercial strains of Aspergillus oryzae were collected from soy sauce koji. These A. oryzae strains designated as NSK, NSZ, NSJ and NST shared similar morphological characteristics with the reference strain (A. oryzae FRR 1675) which confirmed them as A. oryzae species. They were further evaluated for their ability to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by cultivating the spore suspension in a broth medium containing 0.4 % (w/v) of glutamic acid as a substrate for GABA production. The results showed that these strains were capable of producing GABA; however, the concentrations differed significantly (P sauce production.

  7. Effective production of fermentable sugars from brown macroalgae biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Damao; Kim, Do Hyoung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2016-11-01

    Brown macroalgae are renewable and sustainable biomass resources for the production of biofuels and chemicals, owing to their high levels of carbohydrates and low levels of lignin. To increase the biological usage of brown macroalgae, it is necessary to depolymerize the polysaccharides that generate macroalgal monomeric sugars or sugar derivatives and to convert them into fermentable sugars for the production of biofuels and chemicals. In this review, we discuss the chemical and enzymatic saccharification of the major carbohydrates found in brown macroalgae and the use of the resulting constituents in the production of biofuels and chemicals, as well as high-value health-benefiting functional oligosaccharides and sugars. We also discuss recently reported experimental results, novel enzymes, and technological breakthroughs that are related to polysaccharide depolymerization, fermentable sugar production, and the biological conversion of non-favorable sugars for fermentation using industrial microorganisms. This review provides a comprehensive perspective of the efficient utilization of brown macroalgae as renewable resources for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

  8. Pilot-scale bioreactor production and long term stability of feruloyl soy glycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean oil was transesterified with ethyl ferulate at 60 °C using the immobilized lipase Candida antartica lipase B (Novozym 435) to produce a mixture of feruloylated monoacylglycerols and feruloylated diacylglycerols homologues, collectively referred to as feruloylated soy glycerides (FSG). A 1-to...

  9. Monitoring of the microbial communities involved in the soy sauce manufacturing process by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasushi; Watanabe, Jun; Mogi, Yoshinobu

    2012-08-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional seasoning produced through the fermentation of soybeans and wheat using microbes. In this study, the microbial communities involved in the soy sauce manufacturing process were analyzed by PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The bacterial DGGE profile indicated that the bacterial microbes in the koji were Weissella cibaria (Weissella confusa, Weissella kimchii, Weissella salipiscis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus iners, or Streptococcus thermophilus), Staphylococcus gallinarum (or Staphylococcus xylosus), and Staphylococcus kloosii. In addition to these bacteria, Tetragenococcus halophilus was also detected in the mash during lactic acid fermentation. The fungal DGGE profile indicated that the fungal microbes in the koji were not only Aspergillus oryzae but also several yeasts. In the mash, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii appeared in the early fermentation stage, Candida etchellsii (or Candida nodaensis) and Candida versatilis were detected at the middle fermentation stage, and Candida etchellsii was detected at the mature fermentation stage. These results suggest that the microbial communities present during the soy sauce manufacturing process change drastically throughout its production. This is the first report to reveal the microbial communities involved in the soy sauce manufacturing process using a culture-independent method. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fermentative Hydrogen Production: Influence of Application of Mesophilic and Thermophilic Bacteria on Mass and Energy Balances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foglia, D.; Wukovits, W.; Friedl, A.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fermentation of biomass residues and second generation biomasses is a possible way to enable a sustainable production of hydrogen. The HYVOLUTION-project investigates the production of hydrogen by a 2-stage fermentation process of biomass. It consists of a dark fermentation step of sugars to produce

  11. Letters: Milk and Mortality : Study used wrong assumption about galactose content of fermented dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Michaëlsson and colleagues’ proposed mechanism for the effect of milk intake on the risk of mortality and fractures is based on the assumption that fermented dairy products (which had the opposite effects to those of non-fermented milk) are free of galactose.1 For most fermented dairy products,

  12. fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... genes in glycolysis pathway, trehalose and steroid biosynthesis and heat shock proteins (HSP) in .... com) and prepared for microarray construction and analysis. .... a single time point of the late stage of VHG fermentation.

  13. Enhanced Sorbitol Production under Submerged Fermentation using Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nadiya Jan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Sorbitol is a non-toxic and slightly hygroscopic compound with different applications. Zymomonas mobiles produces sorbitol from sucrose or mixtures of glucose and fructose (formation is coupled with the dehydrogenation of glucose to glucono-δ- lactone. Recombinant Zymomonas mobilis may produce sorbitol and gluconic acid from glucose and fructose using different divalent metal ions with reduced the ethanol yield andsignificantly increased yield of sorbitol. Current study envisaged to alter the media components, physical process parameters and supplementation of amino acids for enhanced sorbitol production.Material and Methods: Several process variables were evaluated on sorbitol production including carbon sources (glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose, carbon concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 25 g l-1, nitrogen sources (peptone, tryptone, yeast extract, beef extract and organic nitrogen mix, temperatures (25, 29, 33, 37, 41°C, pH (6, 6.5, 7 , 7.5 ,8, agitation rate (50, 100, 150, 200 rpm and amino acids (cysteine, cystine, tryptophanin batch cultivation ofLactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2912. Shake flask cultivation performed under optimum conditions like temperature 37°C, pH 7.0 and agitation rate of 150 rpm, resulted in enhanced sorbitol production. Comparative study of sorbitol production in solid state fermentation and submerged fermentation was also evaluated.Results and Conclusion: Batch cultivation under submerged conditions further performed in 7.5-l lab scale bioreactor (working volume 3.0-l under optimized conditions resulted in maximum cell biomass of 8.95±0.03 g g-1 and a sorbitol content of 9.78±0.04 g l-1 after 42.0 h of fermentation. Scale up study on bioreactor resulted in maximum sorbitol yield (Yp/x and productivity of 1.11 g g-1 and 0.50 g l-1 h under submerged fermentation, respectively.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  14. Effects of adding food by-products mainly including noodle waste to total mixed ration silage on fermentation quality, feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization and ruminal fermentation in wethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kyohei; Yani, Srita; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2012-11-01

    Four wethers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the applicability of two types of total mixed ration (TMR) silage with food by-products. Four food by-products (i.e., potato waste, soy sauce cake, soybean curd residue and noodle waste) were obtained and mixed with commercial concentrate (CC) as TMR silage. The two types of TMR silage, T1 and T2, each contained CC, in addition to all by-products for T1 (TRE1), and soy sauce cake and noodle waste for T2 (TRE2) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The silage was well-fermented with low pH values and high lactic acid concentration. As the experimental treatments, T1, T2 and CC (CTL) were fed with a basal diet. The result showed that the digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) were higher for T1 than for CC (P < 0.05), while crude protein digestibility was not significantly different among T1, T2 and CC. The retained nitrogen was not affected by inclusion of food by-products. Ruminal pH in TRE1 and TRE2 immediately decreased compared to that in CTL. The study suggested that the two types of TMR silage, including food by-products, might be used as a substitute for commercial concentrate. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Exploring critical factors for fermentative hydrogen production from various types of lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.; Bakker, R.; Vrije, de G.J.; Niel, van E.W.J.; Koukios, E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Four dilute-acid pretreated and hydrolysed lignocellulosic raw materials were evaluated as substrates for fermentative hydrogen production by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus. Their fermentability was ranked in the order: barley straw > wheat straw > corn stalk > corn cob. The content

  16. Software sensor for primary metabolite production case of alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, G.; Dahhou, B.; Queinnec, I. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France)]|[Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France); Goma, G. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1995-12-31

    This paper investigate the application of an observer for state and parameter estimation to batch, continuous and fed batch fermentations for alcohol production taken as model for a primary metabolite production. This observer is provided to palliate the lack of suitable sensors for on-line biomass and ethanol concentrations measurements and to estimate the time varying specific growth rate. Estimates are obtained from an interlaced structure filter based on a `modified extended Kalman filter` by using on-line measurements of carbon dioxide outflow rate and substrate concentration. The filter algorithm was tested during batch, continuous and fed batch fermentation processes. The filter behaviour observed in the experiments gives good results with an agreement theory/practice. (authors) 18 refs.

  17. Continuous hydrogen production from starch by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Keigo; Tanisho, Shigeharu [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    This study was investigated the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on hydrogen production rate, hydrogen yield and the production rate of volatile fatty acid. The experiment was performed in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with a working volume of 1 L by using a Clostridium sp. The temperature of the CSTR was regulated 37 C. The pH was controlled 6.0 by the addition of 3 M of NaOH solution. Starch was used as the carbon source with the concentration of 30 g L{sup -1}. Hydrogen production rate increased from 0.9 L-H{sub 2} L-culture{sup -1} h{sup -1} to 3.2 L-H{sub 2} L-culture{sup -1} h{sup -1} along with the decrease of HRT from 9 h to 1.5 h. Hydrogen yield decreased at low HRT. The major volatile fatty acids are acetic acid, butyric acid and lactic acid. The production rates of acetic acid and butyric acid increased along with the decrease of HRT. On the other hand, the rate of lactic acid was low at high HRT while it increased at HRT 1.5 h. The increase of the production rate of lactic acid suggested one of the reasons that hydrogen yield decreased. (orig.)

  18. Soy, Soy Foods and Their Role in Vegetarian Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Rizzo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soy is a basic food ingredient of traditional Asian cuisine used for thousands of years. In Western countries, soybeans have been introduced about a hundred years ago and recently they are mainly used for surrogate foods production. Soy and soy foods are common nutritional solutions for vegetarians, due to their high protein content and versatility in the production of meat analogues and milk substitutes. However, there are some doubts about the potential effects on health, such as the effectiveness on cardiovascular risk reduction or, conversely, on the possible disruption of thyroid function and sexual hormones. The soy components that have stimulated the most research interest are isoflavones, which are polyphenols with estrogenic properties highly contained in soybeans. In this review, we discuss the characteristics of soy and soy foods, focusing on their nutrient content, including phytoestrogens and other bioactive substances that are noteworthy for vegetarians, the largest soy consumers in the Western countries. The safety of use will also be discussed, given the growing trend in adoption of vegetarian styles and the new soy-based foods availability.

  19. Production of Alpha Amylase by Bacillus cereus in Submerged Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen H. Raplong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have the ability to secrete enzymes when they are grown in the presence of certain substrates. Amylases are among the most important industrial enzymes and are of great significance in biotechnological studies. Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus were isolated using mannitol egg yolk polymyxin B (MYP agar a highly selective media for Bacillus cereus isolation. The isolates were tested for α-amylase production on nutrient agar supplemented with starch and in submerged fermentation. The bacteria isolated and identified (using the Microgen Bacillus identification kit were all Bacillus cereus and SB2 had the largest zone of hydrolysis of 12mm on nutrient agar supplemented with starch as well as the highest enzyme activity of 1.62U/ml. Amylase activity of 2.56U/ml was obtained after 24 hours incubation in submerged fermentation. When amylase enzyme production parameters where optimized, maximum amylase activity was obtained at a pH of 6.5, temperature of 350C, incubation time of 24 hours and 4% inoculums concentration. Bacillus cereus SB2 is a potential isolate for alpha-amylase production with soluble starch as the sole carbon source in submerged fermentation.

  20. Microbiology and optimization of hydrogen fermentation and bioelectricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makinen, A.

    2013-11-01

    This work investigated dark fermentative hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and bioelectricity production from carbohydrates. Meso- and thermophilic fermentative and mesophilic exoelectrogenic bacteria were enriched from different natural sources. The H{sub 2} production from different hexoses and pentoses, them main constituents of lignocellulose, was studied in batch assays. H{sub 2} production from xylose was examined in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Operational parameters for H{sub 2} production were optimized. Bioelectricity production was studied in microbial fuel cells and process parameters were optimized. Dynamics of microbial communities in H{sub 2} and bioelectricity production processes were determined. A novel thermophilic dark fermentative H{sub 2} producing bacterium, Thermovorax subterraneus, was enriched and isolated from geothermal underground mine. T. subterraneus had the optimum growth temperature of 72 deg C and the maximum H{sub 2} yield of 1.4 mol/mol glucose in batch assay. The main soluble fermentative end products of T. subterraneus were acetate and ethanol. Thermophilic dark fermentative mixed culture enriched from hot spring (Hisarlan, Turkey) had the maximum H{sub 2} yield of 1.7 mol/mol glucose. The optimal environmental parameters to maximize H{sub 2} yield were temperature 52 deg C, initial pH 6.5, 40 mg/L Fe{sup 2+}, 4.5 g/L yeast extract and glucose concentration of 4 g/L. Increasing the glucose concentration to 18 g/L increased the maximum H{sub 2} production rate to 56.2 mmol H{sub 2}/h/L. Environmental parameters had a significant effect on metabolic pathways of fermentation. Another hot spring (Hisarkoy, Turkey) enrichment culture was able to ferment different sugars to H{sub 2} favoring pentoses over hexoses. The best H{sub 2} yields in batch assays were obtained from pentoses: xylose, arabinose and ribose yielded 21, 15 and 8 % of the theoretical yield, respectively; whilst on glucose the yield was only 2 % of the theoretical

  1. Methane production from fermentation of winery waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, K V; Liao, P H

    1986-01-01

    A laboratory-scale reactor receiving a mixture of screened dairy manure and winery waste was studied at 35 degrees C and a hydraulic retention time of 4 days. The maximum methane production rate of 8.14 liter CH/sub 4//liter/day was achieved at a loading rate of 7.78 g VS/liter/day (VS = volatile solids). The corresponding methane yield was 1.048 liter CH/sub 4//g VS added. Using a mixture of winery wastes and screened dairy manure as the feed material to anaerobic reactor resulted in a significant increase in total methane production compared to that from screened dairy manure alone. The biodegradation efficiency increased with the addition of winery wastes to screened dairy manure. 18 references.

  2. Chinese vinegar and its solid-state fermentation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Dengru,; Yang Zhu, Yang; Beeftink, H.H.; Ooijkaas, L.P.; Rinzema, A.; Jian Chen,; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    China uses solid-state fermentation (SSF) processes on a large scale for products such as vinegar, Chinese distilled spirit, soy sauce, Furu, and other national foods that are consumed around the world. In this article, the typical SSF process is discussed, with a focus on Chinese vinegars,

  3. Process for the fermentative production of acetone, butanol and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassner, David A.; Jain, Mahendra K.; Datta, Rathin

    1991-01-01

    A process including multistage continuous fermentation followed by batch fermentation with carefully chosen temperatures for each fermentation step, combined with an asporogenic strain of C. acetobutylicum and a high carbohydrate substrate concentration yields extraordinarily high butanol and total solvents concentrations.

  4. Biological hydrogen production by dark fermentation: challenges and prospects towards scaled-up production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RenNanqi; GuoWanqian; LiuBingfeng; CaoGuangli; DingJie

    2011-06-01

    Among different technologies of hydrogen production, bio-hydrogen production exhibits perhaps the greatest potential to replace fossil fuels. Based on recent research on dark fermentative hydrogen production, this article reviews the following aspects towards scaled-up application of this technology: bioreactor development and parameter optimization, process modeling and simulation, exploitation of cheaper raw materials and combining dark-fermentation with photo-fermentation. Bioreactors are necessary for dark-fermentation hydrogen production, so the design of reactor type and optimization of parameters are essential. Process modeling and simulation can help engineers design and optimize large-scale systems and operations. Use of cheaper raw materials will surely accelerate the pace of scaled-up production of biological hydrogen. And finally, combining dark-fermentation with photo-fermentation holds considerable promise, and has successfully achieved maximum overall hydrogen yield from a single substrate. Future development of bio-hydrogen production will also be discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced fermentable sugar production from kitchen waste using various pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafid, Halimatun Saadiah; Rahman, Nor'Aini Abdul; Md Shah, Umi Kalsom; Baharudin, Azhari Samsu

    2015-06-01

    The kitchen waste fraction in municipal solid waste contains high organic matter particularly carbohydrate that can contribute to fermentable sugar production for subsequent conversion to bioethanol. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of single and combination pretreatments of kitchen waste by liquid hot water, mild acid pretreatment of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and enzymatic hydrolysis (glucoamylase). The maximum total fermentable sugar produced after combination pretreatment by 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase consisted of 93.25 g/L glucose, 0.542 g/L sucrose, 0.348 g/L maltose, and 0.321 g/L fructose. The glucose released by the combination pretreatment method was 0.79 g glucose/g KW equivalent to 79% of glucose conversion. The effects of the pre-treatment on kitchen waste indicated that the highest solubilization was 40% by the combination method of 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase. The best combination pre-treatment gave concentrations of lactic acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid of 11.74 g/L, 6.77 g/L, and 1.02 g/L, respectively. The decrease of aliphatic absorbance bands of polysaccharides at 2851 and 2923 cm(-1) and the increase on structures of carbonyl absorbance bands at 1600 cm(-1) reflects the progress of the kitchen waste hydrolysis to fermentable sugars. Overall, 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase treatment was the most profitable process as the minimum selling price of glucose was USD 0.101/g kitchen waste. Therefore, the combination pretreatment method was proposed to enhance the production of fermentable sugar, particularly glucose from kitchen waste as the feedstock for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Production and chemical composition of two dehydrated fermented dairy products based on cow or goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Fernández, Jorge; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, Maria J M; Hijano, Silvia; Nestares, Teresa; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the differences between the main macro and micronutrients including proteins, fat, minerals and vitamins in cow and goat dehydrated fermented milks. Fermented goat milk had higher protein and lower ash content. All amino acids (except for Ala), were higher in fermented goat milk than in fermented cow milk. Except for the values of C11:0, C13:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:5, C22:5 and the total quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, all the other fatty acid studied were significantly different in both fermented milks. Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Se were higher in fermented goat milk. Fermented goat milk had lower amounts of folic acid, vitamin E and C, and higher values of vitamin A, D3, B6 and B12. The current study demonstrates the better nutritional characteristics of fermented goat milk, suggesting a potential role of this dairy product as a high nutritional value food.

  7. Production of hydrogen by microbial fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roychowdhury, S.; Cox, D.; Levandowsky, M.

    1988-01-01

    Production of hydrogen by defined and undefined bacterial cultures was studied, using pure sugars (glucose and maltose) or natural sources rich in either pure sugars or polysaccharides. The latter included sugar cane juice, corn pulp (enzymatically treated or untreated), and enzymatically treated paper. Mixed microbial flora from sewage and landfill sediments, as well as pure and mixed cultures of known coliform bacteria produced mixtures of hydrogen and carbon dioxide at 37/sup 0/C and 55/sup 0/C, with hydrogen concentrations as high as 87%. In the case of the pure glucose substrate, an average yield of 0.7 mol hydrogen per mol glucose was obtained.

  8. Quality Attributes of Tapioca Meal Fortified With Defatted Soy Flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be processed to a variety of products such as soy flour, soy milk, soy yoghurt, soy .... Values are means of triplicate determinations on fresh weight basis; means ... of the sensory analysis is shown in Table 2 and it is based on the perception of.

  9. The interactive effect of fungicide residues and yeast assimilable nitrogen on fermentation kinetics and hydrogen sulfide production during cider fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Thomas F; Peck, Gregory M; O'Keefe, Sean F; Stewart, Amanda C

    2017-01-01

    Fungicide residues on fruit may adversely affect yeast during cider fermentation, leading to sluggish or stuck fermentation or the production of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), which is an undesirable aroma compound. This phenomenon has been studied in grape fermentation but not in apple fermentation. Low nitrogen availability, which is characteristic of apples, may further exacerbate the effects of fungicides on yeast during fermentation. The present study explored the effects of three fungicides: elemental sulfur (S 0 ) (known to result in increased H 2 S in wine); fenbuconazole (used in orchards but not vineyards); and fludioxonil (used in post-harvest storage of apples). Only S 0 led to increased H 2 S production. Fenbuconazole (≥0.2 mg L -1 ) resulted in a decreased fermentation rate and increased residual sugar. An interactive effect of yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) concentration and fenbuconazole was observed such that increasing the YAN concentration alleviated the negative effects of fenbuconazole on fermentation kinetics. Cidermakers should be aware that residual fenbuconazole (as low as 0.2 mg L -1 ) in apple juice may lead to stuck fermentation, especially when the YAN concentration is below 250 mg L -1 . These results indicate that fermentation problems attributed to low YAN may be caused or exacerbated by additional factors such as fungicide residues, which have a greater impact on fermentation performance under low YAN conditions. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Tannase Production by Solid State Fermentation of Cashew Apple Bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrigues, Tigressa H. S.; Dantas, Maria Alcilene A.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    The ability of Aspergillus oryzae for the production of tannase by solid state fermentation was investigated using cashew apple bagasse (CAB) as substrate. The effect of initial water content was studied and maximum enzyme production was obtained when 60 mL of water was added to 100.0 g of CAB. The fungal strain was able to grow on CAB without any supplementation but a low enzyme activity was obtained, 0.576 U/g of dry substrate (gds). Optimization of process parameters such as supplementation with tannic acid, phosphorous, and different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources was studied. The addition of tannic acid affected the enzyme production and maximum tannase activity (2.40 U/gds) was obtained with 2.5% (w/w) supplementation. Supplementation with ammonium nitrate, peptone, and yeast extract exerted no influence on tannase production. Ammonium sulphate improved the enzyme production in 3.75-fold compared with control. Based on the experimental results, CAB is a promising substrate for solid state fermentation, enabling A. oryzae growth and the production of tannase, with a maximum activity of 3.42 U/gds and enzyme productivity of 128.5×10-3 U·gds -1·h-1.

  11. Cashew wine vinegar production: alcoholic and acetic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cashew wine of demi-sec grade was produced in a stirred batch reactor. The kinetic parameters obtained for cashew wine fermentation were Y X/S=0.061, Y P/S=0.3 and µmax=0.16 h-1. The yield and the productivity of cashew wine were 57.7% and 0.78 g/Lh respectively. A 2² factorial experimental design was used for the cashew wine vinegar fermentation optimization study. The cashew wine vinegar process optimization ranges found for initial concentrations of ethanol and acetic acid as independent variables were 4.8 to 6.0% and 1.0 to 1.3% respectively.

  12. The effect of soy products in the diet on retention of non-heme iron from radiolabeled test meals fed to marginally iron-deficient young rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    Diets based either on casein or soy products and containing about 25 ppm iron were fed to weanling rats for 13 days. Rats were fasted overnight and fed a 59 Fe-radiolabeled casein test meal the morning of day 14. On day 21 less 59 Fe was retained by rats fed various diets based on selected soy products than by rats fed the casein-based diet. A similar adverse effect of diet components on 59 Fe retention from a casein test meal was observed for lactalbumin and for psyllium husk. No adverse effect of diet on 59 Fe retention was observed for the fiber of soy cotyledons or for rapeseed protein concentrate. For a commercial soy protein isolated (SPI) fed throughout the 21-day experiment, the adverse effect of diet on 59 Fe retention was observed to the sum of the effect of dietary SPI previous to the 59 Fe-radiolabeled casein test meal fed on day 14 and the effect of dietary SPI subsequent to the casein test meal. An effect of dietary soy products on 59 Fe retention from a casein test meal was not observed with diets containing higher iron levels (83 ppm) or when diets were fed for a longer period prior to the test meal (56 days). The present work shows that in some circumstances the concept of iron bioavailability must be expanded to include not only the influence of meal composition, but also the influence of diet previous to and subsequent to a meal

  13. Fermentative hydrogen production by microbial consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maintinguer, Sandra I.; Fernandes, Bruna S.; Duarte, Iolanda C.S.; Saavedra, Nora Katia; Adorno, M. Angela T.; Varesche, M. Bernadete [Department of Hydraulics and Sanitation, School of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Sao-carlense, 400, 13566-590 Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil)

    2008-08-15

    Heat pre-treatment of the inoculum associated to the pH control was applied to select hydrogen-producing bacteria and endospores-forming bacteria. The source of inoculum to the heat pre-treatment was from a UASB reactor used in the slaughterhouse waste treatment. The molecular biology analyses indicated that the microbial consortium presented microorganisms affiliated with Enterobacter cloacae (97% and 98%), Clostridium sp. (98%) and Clostridium acetobutyricum (96%), recognized as H{sub 2} and volatile acids' producers. The following assays were carried out in batch reactors in order to verify the efficiencies of sucrose conversion to H{sub 2} by the microbial consortium: (1) 630.0 mg sucrose/L, (2) 1184.0 mg sucrose/L, (3) 1816.0 mg sucrose/L and (4) 4128.0 mg sucrose/L. The subsequent yields were obtained as follows: 15% (1.2 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose), 20% (1.6 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose), 15% (1.2 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose) and 4% (0.3 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose), respectively. The intermediary products were acetic acid, butyric acid, methanol and ethanol in all of the anaerobic reactors. (author)

  14. Fermentative production of butyric acid from wheat straw: Economic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, G. N.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Westermann, P.

    2017-01-01

    2014) at 3.50 and 3.95 $ per kg product (for S1 and S2 respectively) and a plant capacity of 10,000 tonnes indicated an internal rate of return of 14.92% and 12.42% and payback time of 4.28 and 4.70 years for S1 and S2 respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that under the assumptions of the present......The economic feasibility of biochemical conversion of wheat straw to butyric acid was studied in this work. Basic process steps included physicochemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and saccharification, fermentation with in-situ acids separation by electrodialysis and product purification...

  15. Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Mazić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried out at room temperature until the media reached pH value of 5. Samples were evaluated for sensory characteristics using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. In all media the target pH was reached after 68-71 hours of fermentation, depending on citrate level. Fermentation and the production of aroma compounds were more intensive in media that contained whey proteins compared to media with only casein. Increased citrate level had a positive influence on the aroma production. Citrate increased the initial pH of the media and acted as a buffer during fermentation, which lead to longer fermentation and prolonged production of aroma compounds. At pH around 5, the desired cultured aroma was the most intensive, whereas sour taste was less dominant. The substrate with 0.25% citrate and 0.1% whey proteins, at pH 5, was rated as best regarding its sensory characteristics.

  16. Arrowroot as a novel substrate for ethanol production by solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tian-xiang; Tang, Qing-li; Zhu, Zuo-hua [School of Chemical Engineering, Guizhou University, Guizhou, Guiyang 550003 (China); Wang, Feng [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Ethanol production from Canna edulis Ker was successfully carried out by solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The enzymatic hydrolysis conditions of C. edulis were optimized by Plackett-Burman design. The effect of inert carrier (corncob and rice bran) on ethanol fermentation and the kinetics of solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was investigated. It was found that C. edulis was an alternative substrate for ethanol production, 10.1% (v/v) of ethanol concentration can attained when 40 g corncob and 10 g rice bran per 100 g C. edulis powder were added for ethanol fermentation. No shortage of fermentable sugars was observed during solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. There was no wastewater produced in the process of ethanol production from C. edulis with solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation and the ethanol yield of more than 0.28 tonne per one tonne feedstock was achieved. This is first report for ethanol production from C. edulis powder. (author)

  17. Biohydrogen production from combined dark-photo fermentation under a high ammonia content in the dark fermentation effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chun-Yen [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Sustainable Environment Research Center; Lo, Yung-Chung; Yeh, Kuei-Ling [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chang, Jo-Shu [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Sustainable Environment Research Center; National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Microalgae Biotechnology and Bioengineering Lab.

    2010-07-01

    Integrated dark and photo (two-stage) fermentation was employed to enhance the performance of H{sub 2} production. First, the continuous dark fermentation using indigenous Clostridium butyricum CGS5 was carried out at 12 h HRT and fed with sucrose at a concentration of 18750 mg/l. The overall H{sub 2} production rate and H{sub 2} yield were fairly stable with a mean value of 87.5 ml/l/h and 1.015 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose, respectively. In addition, a relatively high ammonia nitrogen content (574 mg/l) in the dark fermentation effluent was observed. The soluble metabolites from dark fermentation, consisting mainly of butyric, lactic and acetic acids, were directly used as the influent of continuous photo-H{sub 2} production process inoculated with Rhodopseudomonas palutris WP 3-5 under the condition of 35oC, 10000 lux irradiation, pH 7.0 and 48 h HRT. The maximum overall hydrogen production rate from photo fermentation was 16.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h, and the utilization of the soluble metabolites could reach 90%. The maximum H{sub 2} yield dramatically increased from 1.015 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose (in dark fermentation only) to 6.04 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose in the combined dark and photo fermentation. Surprisingly, the operation strategy applied in this work was able to attain an average NH{sub 3}-N removal efficiency of 92%, implying that our photo-H{sub 2} production system has a higher NH{sub 3}-N tolerance, demonstrating its high applicability in an integrated dark-photo fermentation system. (orig.)

  18. Targeting the middle region of CP4-EPSPS protein for its traceability in highly processed soy-related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Honghong; Wang, Xiaofu; Zhou, Xinghu; Zhang, Yihua; Huang, Ming; He, Jian; Shen, Wenbiao

    2017-09-01

    Transgenic components in genetically modified organisms consist not only of the transgenic genes, but also the transgenic protein. However, compared with transgenic DNA, less attention has been paid to the detection of expressed protein, especially those degraded from genetically modified soybean after food processing. In this study, the full length 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4-EPSPS, 47.6 kD) protein was probed with the SC-16 (S19-R33) and the DC-16 (D219-K233) polyclonal antibodies in immunoblots. Both antibodies were able to detect the full length CP4-EPSPS and its residues in soy powder made from Roundup-Ready soybeans after heating and microwaving treatments which also reduced the molecular weight of the protein to 45.8 and 38.7 kD, respectively. Taken together the immunoblot results suggest that the middle region of the CP4-EPSPS protein possessed better stability than its N-terminal during thermal processing. This deduction was further validated by autoclave treatment, where a 37.4 kD residue of the protein was recognized by DC-16. A similar result was obtained in processed smoked sausage containing Roundup Ready soybean protein isolate (as an extender). The additional use of a further polyclonal antibody CK-17 (C372-K388), showed that compared with only the one signal for CP4-EPSPS detected by the SC-16 and CK-17 antibodies, the DC-16 middle region antibody detected four signals for CP4-EPSPS from five market sourced soy protein concentrates. Taken together, the study suggested that the middle region of CP4-EPSPS was more useful than the N- and C-terminal for tracing transgenic CP4-EPSPS protein and its remnants in highly processed soy-related products.

  19. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation and Partial Saccharification and Co-Fermentation of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Ethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran-Peterson, Joy; Jangid, Amruta; Brandon, Sarah K.; Decrescenzo-Henriksen, Emily; Dien, Bruce; Ingram, Lonnie O.

    Ethanol production by fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass-derived sugars involves a fairly ancient art and an ever-evolving science. Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass is not avant-garde, and wood ethanol plants have been in existence since at least 1915. Most current ethanol production relies on starch- and sugar-based crops as the substrate; however, limitations of these materials and competing value for human and animal feeds is renewing interest in lignocellulose conversion. Herein, we describe methods for both simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and a similar but separate process for partial saccharification and cofermentation (PSCF) of lignocellulosic biomass for ethanol production using yeasts or pentose-fermenting engineered bacteria. These methods are applicable for small-scale preliminary evaluations of ethanol production from a variety of biomass sources.

  20. Solid-State Fermentation vs Submerged Fermentation for the Production of l-Asparaginase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doriya, K; Jose, N; Gowda, M; Kumar, D S

    l-Asparaginase, an enzyme that catalyzes l-asparagine into aspartic acid and ammonia, has relevant applications in the pharmaceutical and food industry. So, this enzyme is used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, a malignant disorder in children. This enzyme is also able to reduce the amount of acrylamide found in carbohydrate-rich fried and baked foods which is carcinogenic to humans. The concentration of acrylamide in food can be reduced by deamination of asparagine using l-Asparaginase. l-Asparaginase is present in plants, animals, and microbes. Various microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast, and fungi are generally used for the production of l-Asparaginase as it is difficult to obtain the same from plants and animals. l-Asparaginase from bacteria causes anaphylaxis and other abnormal sensitive reactions. To overcome this, eukaryotic organisms such as fungi can be used for the production of l-Asparaginase. l-Asparaginase can be produced either by solid-state fermentation (SSF) or by submerged fermentation (SmF). SSF is preferred over SmF as it is cost effective, eco-friendly and it delivers high yield of enzyme. SSF process utilizes agricultural and industrial wastes as solid substrate. The contamination level is substantially reduced in SSF through low moisture content. Current chapter will discuss in detail the chemistry and applications of l-Asparaginase enzyme and various methods available for the production of the enzyme, especially focusing on the advantages and limitations of SSF and SmF processes. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. PRODUCTION OF AN EXTRACELLULAR CELLOBIASE IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Agrawal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass has attracted wide interest globally in last decade. One of the main reasons for the high cost of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass is the expensive enzymes involved in enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose (cellulase. The utilization of agro-industrial waste as a potential substrate for producing enzymes may serve a dual purpose of reducing the environmental pollution along with producing a high value commercial product. Twelve different agro-industrial wastes were evaluated for extracellular cellobiose or β-glucosidase production by a mutant of Bacillus subtilis on solid state fermentations (SSF. The Citrus sinensis peel waste was found to be the most suitable substrate with highest BGL titre (35 U/gds. Optimum incubation time, inoculum size, moisture content and volume of buffer for enzyme extraction were 72 h, 40 % v/w, 10 mL and 20 mL respectively.

  2. Succinic acid production by escherichia coli under anaerobic fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Shafey, H.M.; Meleigy, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of alteration of growth conditions, addition of different sodium salts, and irradiation by gamma rays on succinic acid production by E. coli was studied. Twenty one isolates were obtained from buffalo's rumen, and anaerobic screening of the isolated bacterial strains showed the abilities of seventeen strains to produce succinic acid. The two bacterial strains having highest succinic acid production were identified as escherichia coli SP9 and SP16, and were selected for further studies. Results showed that growth conditions yielded highest succinic acid production for the two isolates were: 72 hours incubation, 37 degree c incubation temperature, initial ph of the fermentation medium 6.0,and 3% (v/v)inoculum size. Addition of 5 mm of nine different sodium salts to the fermentation medium showed stimulating effect on succinic acid production of the nine tried sodium salts, sodium carbonate was found to have the highest enhancing effect, especially if used at 15 mm concentration. Gamma irradiation doses tried were in the range of (0.25-1.50 kGy). An enhancing effect on succinic acid production was shown in the range of 0.25-0.75 kGy with a maximal production at 0.75 kGy (giving 8.36% increase) for e.coli SP9, and in the range of 0.25-1.00 kGy with a maximal production at 1.0 kGy (7.60% increase) for e.coli SP16. higher gamma doses led to a decrease in the enhancing effect. An overall increase in the succinic acid yield of 79.45% and 94.26% for e. coli SP9 and SP16, respectively, was achieved in implicating all optimized factors for succinic acid production in one time

  3. Optimization of asparaginase production from Zymomonas mobilis by continuous fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Bortoluzzi Menegat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Asparaginase is an enzyme used in clinical treatments as a chemotherapeutic agent and in food technology to prevent acrylamide formation in fried and baked foods. Asparaginase is industrially produced by microorganisms, mainly gram-negative bacteria. Zymomonas mobilis is a Gram-negative bacterium that utilizes glucose, fructose and sucrose as carbon source and has been known for its efficiency in producing ethanol, sorbitol, levan, gluconic acid and has recently aroused interest for asparaginase production. Current assay optimizes the production of Z. mobilis asparaginase by continuous fermentation using response surface experimental design and methodology. The studied variables comprised sucrose, yeast extract and asparagine. Optimized condition obtained 117.45 IU L-1 with dilution rate 0.20 h-1, yeast extract 0.5 g L-1, sucrose 20 g L-1 and asparagine 1.3 g L-1. Moreover, carbon:nitrogen ratio (1:0.025 strongly affected the response of asparaginase activity. The use of Z. mobilis by continuous fermentation has proved to be a promising alternative for the biotechnological production of asparaginase.

  4. Effect of fermentation conditions on lipase production by Candida utilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANJA Z. GRBAVCIC

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A wild yeast strain isolated from spoiled soybean oil and identified as Candida utilis initially presented rather low lipase activity (approximately 4 IU dm-3 in submerged culture in a universal yeast medium containing 2 % malt extract. Stu­dies were undertaken to improve the lipase production. The best yields of lipase were obtained with a medium supplemented with caprylic and oleic acids as indu­cers, but higher concentrations of the former (> 0.5 % had a negative effect on the lipase production and cell growth. The type of nitrogen source seemed also to be very important. The highest lipolytic activity of 284 IU dm-3 was achieved after 5 days of fermentation in a medium containing oleic acid and hydrolyzed casein as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, and supplemented with Tween 80®. It was shown that optimization of the fermentation conditions can lead to a significant improvement in the lipase production (more than 70-fold higher compared to the initial value obtained in the non-optimized medium.

  5. Fermented dairy products modulate Citrobacter rodentium-induced colonic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W; Chervaux, Christian; Raymond, Benoit; Derrien, Muriel; Brazeilles, Rémi; Kosta, Artemis; Chambaud, Isabelle; Crepin, Valerie F; Frankel, Gad

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated the protective effects of fermented dairy products (FDPs) in an infection model, using the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (CR). Treatment of mice with FDP formulas A, B, and C or a control product did not affect CR colonization, organ specificity, or attaching and effacing lesion formation. Fermented dairy product A (FDP-A), but neither the supernatant from FDP-A nor β-irradiated (IR) FDP-A, caused a significant reduction in colonic crypt hyperplasia and CR-associated pathology. Profiling the gut microbiota revealed that IR-FDP-A promoted higher levels of phylotypes belonging to Alcaligenaceae and a decrease in Lachnospiraceae (Ruminococcus) during CR infection. Conversely, FDP-A prevented a decrease in Ruminococcus and increased Turicibacteraceae (Turicibacter). Importantly, loss of Ruminococcus and Turicibacter has been associated with susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis. Our results demonstrate that viable bacteria in FDP-A reduced CR-induced colonic crypt hyperplasia and prevented the loss of key bacterial genera that may contribute to disease pathology. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  6. Protein concentrations of sweet soysauces from Rhizopus oryzae and R. oligosporus fermentation without moromi fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOOR SOESANTI HANDAJANI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Soy sauce was produce from soybean that fermented with koji/tempeh fungi and thenfermented under salt solution or moromi fermentation. The objectives of this experiment was to compare of protein (total and soluble content of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with Rhizopus oryzae and R. oligosporus without moromi fermentation to the sweet soysauce with moromi fermentation one. The total and soluble proteins of sweet soy sauces that produce from soybean without moromi fermentation were higher that sweet soy sauces that produce with moromi fermentation. Soluble protein of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with R. oligosporus without moromi fermentation was 8.2% and meet to the highest quality of sweet soy sweet sauce based on Indonesia Industrial Standard. Soluble protein of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with R. oryzae without moromi fermentation was 4.1% and meet to the medium quality of sweet soy sweet sauce based on Indonesia Industrial Standard.

  7. SOLID-STATE FERMENTATIVE PRODUCTION AND BIOACTIVITY OF FUNGAL CHITOSAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Aigbodion Omogbai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan production was investigated using a laboratory-scale solid substrate fermentation (SSF technique with four species of fungi: Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae and Fusarium moniliforme.The peak growth for the organisms was after 16 days. Aspergillus niger had the highest growth with a maximal dry cell biomass of 15.8g/kg after 16 days cultivation on corn straw under solid substrate fermentation. This was closely followed by Rhizopus oryzae (14.6g/kg, Penicillium expansum (13.8g/kg and Fusarium moniliforme (10.6g/kg respectively. The fungus Rhizopus oryzae had the highest chitosan production with a maximum of 8.57g/kg in 16 days under solid substrate fermentation (SSF with a medium containing corn straw. Aspergillus niger showed a modest chitosan yield of 6.8g/kg. Penicillium expansum and Fusarium moniliforme had low chitosan yields of 4.31g/kg and 3.1g/kg respectively. The degree of deacetylation of fungal chitosans ranged between 75.3-91.5% with a viscosity of 3.6-7.2 centipoises (Cp.Chitosan extracted from Rhizopus oryzae was found to have antibacterial activity on some bacterial isolates. At a concentration of 50mg/L, Rhizopus oryzae chitosan paralleled crab chitosan in susceptibility testing against some food-borne bacterial pathogens. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis showed inhibition rates of 83.2%, 67.9%, 63.8% and 62.4% respectively in response to 50mg/l Rhizopus oryzae chitosan in 24 h. The rate of inhibition (% increased with increase in chitosan concentration.

  8. Strain Screening from Traditional Fermented Soybean Foods and Induction of Nattokinase Production in Bacillus subtilis MX-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Li-Li; Xiang, Dian-Jun; Zhang, Chun-Lan

    2018-02-06

    The plasminogen-free fibrin plate assay method was used to isolate Bacillus subtilis MX-6, a strain with high production of nattokinase from Chinese douchi. The presence of aprN, a gene-encoding nattokinase, was verified with PCR method. The predicted amino acid sequence was aligned with homologous sequences, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. Nattokinase was sublimated with ammonium sulfate, using a DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow column, a CM-Sepharose Fast Flow column and a Sephadex G-75 gel filtration column. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the molecular weight of the purified nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis MX-6 was about 28 kDa. Fermentation of Bacillus subtilis MX-6 nattokinase showed that nattokinase production was maximized after 72 h; the diameter of clear zone reached 21.60 mm on the plasminogen-free fibrin plate. Nattokinase production by Bacillus subtilis MX-6 increased significantly after supplementation with supernatant I, supernatant II and soy peptone but decreased substantially after the addition of amino acids. This result indicated that the nattokinase production by B. subtilis MX-6 might be induced by soybean polypeptides. The addition of MgSO 4 and CaCl 2 increased B. subtilis MX-6 nattokinase production.

  9. Production of tea vinegar by batch and semicontinuous fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Pardeep; Kocher, G. S.; Phutela, R. P.

    2010-01-01

    The fermented tea vinegar combines the beneficial properties of tea and vinegar. The complete fermentation takes 4 to 5 weeks in a batch culture and thus can be shortened by semi continuous/ continuous fermentation using immobilized bacterial cells. In the present study, alcoholic fermentation of 1.0 and 1.5% tea infusions using Saccharomyces cerevisae G was carried out that resulted in 84.3 and 84.8% fermentation efficiency (FE) respectively. The batch vinegar fermentation of these wines wit...

  10. Prevalence of genetically modified rice, maize, and soy in Saudi food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsanhoty, Rafaat M; Al-Turki, A I; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2013-10-01

    Qualitative and quantitative DNA-based methods were applied to detect genetically modified foods in samples from markets in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Two hundred samples were collected from Al-Qassim, Riyadh, and Mahdina in 2009 and 2010. GMOScreen 35S and NOS test kits for the detection of genetically modified organism varieties in samples were used. The positive results obtained from GMOScreen 35S and NOS were identified using specific primer pairs. The results indicated that all rice samples gave negative results for the presence of 35S and NOS terminator. About 26 % of samples containing soybean were positive for 35S and NOS terminator and 44 % of samples containing maize were positive for the presence of 35S and/or NOS terminator. The results showed that 20.4 % of samples was positive for maize line Bt176, 8.8 % was positive for maize line Bt11, 8.8 % was positive for maize line T25, 5.9 % was positive for maize line MON 810, and 5.9 % was positive for StarLink maize. Twelve samples were shown to contain genetically modified (GM) soy and 6 samples >10 % of GM soy. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >5 % of GM maize MON 810. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >1 % of StarLink maize. Establishing strong regulations and certified laboratories to monitor GM foods or crops in Saudi market is recommended.

  11. Butanol production from wheat straw by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Clostridium beijerinckii: Part II-Fed-batch fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Nasib; Saha, Badal C.; Cotta, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    In these studies, Clostridium beijerinckii P260 was used to produce butanol (acetone-butanol-ethanol, or ABE) from wheat straw (WS) hydrolysate in a fed-batch reactor. It has been demonstrated that simultaneous hydrolysis of WS to achieve 100% hydrolysis to simple sugars (to the extent achievable under present conditions) and fermentation to butanol is possible. In addition to WS, the reactor was fed with a sugar solution containing glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose. The culture utilized all of the above sugars. It was noticed that near the end of fermentation (286-533 h), the culture had difficulties utilizing xylose. As a result of supplemental sugar feed to the reactor, ABE productivity was improved by 16% as compared with previous studies. In our previous experiment on simultaneous saccharification of WS and fermentation to butanol, a productivity of 0.31 g L -1 h -1 was observed, while in the present studies a productivity of 0.36 g L -1 h -1 was observed. It should be noted that a productivity of 0.77 g L -1 h -1 was observed when the culture was highly active. The fed-batch fermentation was operated for 533 h. It should be noted that C. beijerinckii P260 can be used to produce butanol from WS in integrated fermentations

  12. Bioethanol production: an integrated process of low substrate loading hydrolysis-high sugars liquid fermentation and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Ma, Bin; Xu, Yong; Ouyang, Jia; Zhu, Junjun; Yu, Shiyuan; Yong, Qiang

    2012-11-01

    An integrated process of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was investigated for high ethanol production. The combination of enzymatic hydrolysis at low substrate loading, liquid fermentation of high sugars concentration and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was beneficial for conversion of steam explosion pretreated corn stover to ethanol. The results suggested that low substrate loading hydrolysis caused a high enzymatic hydrolysis yield; the liquid fermentation of about 200g/L glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided a high ethanol concentration which could significantly decrease cost of the subsequent ethanol distillation. A solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was combined, which was available to enhance ethanol production and cellulose-to-ethanol conversion. The results of solid state fermentation demonstrated that the solid state fermentation process accompanied by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of casein phosphopeptides from fermented milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Takeshi; Aruga, Kaori; Otani, Hajime

    2005-10-01

    This study dealt with the potential of fermented milk products as a source of functional casein phosphopeptides (CPPs) using plain yogurts and Camembert cheeses. The CPPs were prepared by tryptic digestion from four commercially available plain yogurts (P1-P4), five Camembert cheeses (C1-C5), and raw milk. From portions with a 1-g protein content of the plain yogurts, the Camembert cheeses, and the raw milk, 171 mg, 139 mg, and 146 mg of CPPs were obtained, respectively. The Camembert cheeses retained high amounts of organic phosphorus (32 microg) per 1 mg CPPs compared to the raw milk (15 microg) and plain yogurts (16 microg). Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis showed that the elution patterns and retention times of the three major peaks of CPPs from P1 and C1 were similar to those from raw milk. Moreover, CPPs from P1 and C1 showed a mitogenic effect, while CPPs from C1 showed an IgA-enhancing effect in mouse spleen cell cultures. These results suggest that fermented milk products such as plain yogurts and Camembert cheeses generate functional CPPs in the body and exert beneficial effects on the immune system.

  14. Fermented Dairy Products in the Nutrition of Infants in the Russian Federation: Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana E. Borovik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products have a high nutritional and biological value and functional properties beneficial to human health; they are very diverse and have a long history. Fermentation of milk is a complex technological, physical and biochemical process that occurs under the influence of two enzymes of lactic acid bacteria — -galactosidase and lactate dehydrogenase. Requirements for biological properties of starter microorganisms and fermentation technology are strictly regulated. Based on the starter cultures used, we can single out fermented dairy products of lactic acid and mixed (lactic acid and alcohol fermentation. There are adapted, partially adapted and non-adapted cultured milk products for children, some of which are enriched with pro- and prebiotics to enhance functional properties. The article provides information about one of the first Russian non-adapted fermented milk products for infants enriched with inulin, fruit and cereals.

  15. Production of hydrogen from fermentation of pina agroindustrial waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya Perez, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    The performance of biohydrogen production was assesed a laboratory level, by anaerobic fermentation using agroindustrial residue of pineapple heart and employing microorganisms own of sludges from the bottom of an anaerobic digester belonging to a wastewater treatment plant from a seafood processor. Residue of pineapple heart was characterized physicochemically. The amounts were quantified: moisture, ashes, crude fiber, glucose, reducing sugars, hydrogen potential, soluble solids (Brix grades), boron, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sulfur, zinc, iron, copper and manganese. Per gram of pineapple heart is obtained 0,113 g of reducing sugars and 0,0114 g of glucose, which has made it a carbohydrate rich material that could ferment and produce hydrogen or other metabolites of commercial interest. A maximum yield was obtained of 0,0484 mol H 2 / mol of glucose consumed with a hydrogen maximum output of 1,260 mmol, at a maximum production rate of 0.070 mmol/h with a time lag in the production of hydrogen to 7,833 h under the following conditions: initial pH of 5,5, substrate initial concentration of 5 g/L and using a medium of mineral formulation based on sodium, calcium, iodine, zinc, nickel and molybdenum, in a container 125 mL where was consumed 88,4% of the initial glucose. A maximum yield of 1,541 mol H 2 / mol of consumed glucose was obtained, in a fermentation time of 30 h, with a maximum hydrogen production of 41,227 mmol, at a maximum production rate of 6,740 mmol/h with a lag time in the production of hydrogen for 16 h, under the following conditions: initial pH of 5,5, substrate initial concentration of 5 g/L and using a middle of mineral formulation based on sodium, calcium, iodine, zinc, nickel and molybdenum in a fermentor of 5 L where 96,39% was consumed of the initial glucose. The maximum yield from 1,541 mol H 2 / mol of glucose consumed has corresponded to 38% of the target value of the United States Department of Energy equivalent

  16. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Gang–Jin [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Bioprocess Control AB, Scheelevägen 22, 223 63 Lund (Sweden); Deng, Liang–Wei, E-mail: dengliangwei@caas.cn [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Laboratory of Development and Application of Rural Renewable Energy, Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Southwest Collaborative Innovation Center of Swine for Quality & Safety, Chengdu 611130 (China); Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan–Hui [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L{sup −1}. Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L{sup −1}. The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yield of 0.649 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s{sup −1} when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield.

  17. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang–Jin; Deng, Liang–Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan–Hui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d) −1 and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g −1 VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L −1 . Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L −1 . The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d) −1 and biogas yield of 0.649 L g −1 VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s −1 when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield

  18. Fermentation process for alcoholic beverage production from mahua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... Key words: Madhuca indica, ethanol, reducing sugar, fermentation. ... The mahua flowers obtained were cleaned and dried in hot air oven at 60°C ... methanol in the fermented sample was determined with the help of.

  19. Real-Time Monitoring of Chemical Changes in Three Kinds of Fermented Milk Products during Fermentation Using Quantitative Difference Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Kwon, Yeondae; Hu, Fangyu; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2018-02-14

    Fermented milk products are rising in popularity throughout the world as a result of their health benefits, including improving digestion, normalizing the function of the immune system, and aiding in weight management. This study applies an in situ quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance method to monitor chemical changes in three kinds of fermented milk products, Bulgarian yogurt, Caspian Sea yogurt, and kefir, during fermentation. As a result, the concentration changes in nine organic compounds, α/β-lactose, α/β-galactose, lactic acid, citrate, ethanol, lecithin, and creatine, were monitored in real time. This revealed three distinct metabolic processes in the three fermented milk products. Moreover, pH changes were also determined by variations in the chemical shift of citric acid during the fermentation processes. These results can be applied to estimate microbial metabolism in various flora and help guide the fermentation and storage of various fermented milk products to improve their quality, which may directly influence human health.

  20. Secondary Metabolites Production by Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrios-González, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial secondary metabolites are useful high value products with an enormous range of biological activities. Moreover, the past two decades have been a phase of rapid discovery of new activities and development of major compounds for use in different industrial fields, mainly pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food, agriculture and farming. Many of these metabolites could be produced advantageously in industry by solid–state fermentation (SSF. Two types of SSF can be distinguished, depending on the nature of the solid phase used: 1 Solid cultures of one support-substrate phase in which solid phase is constituted by a material that assumes, simultaneously, the functions of support and of nutrients source; and 2 Solid cultures of two substrate-support phases: solid phase is constituted by an inert support impregnated with a liquid medium. Besides good production performance, two phases systems have provided a convenient model for basic studies. Studies in our laboratory, as well as in others, have shown that physiology of idiophase (production phase in SSF share several similarities with the physiology in liquid medium, so similar strategies must be adapted for efficient production processes. However, our studies indicate the need to develop special strains for SSF since overproducing strains, generated for liquid fermentation, cannot be relied upon to perform well in SSF. On the other hand, there are important parameters, specific for SSF, that have to be optimized (pretreatment, initial moisture content, medium concentration and aeration. Respiration studies of secondary metabolites SSF, performed in our laboratory, have shown more subtle aspects of efficient production in SSF. This indicates that there are certain particularities of physiology in SSF that represent the point that needs a better understanding, and that promise to generate knowledge that will be the basis for efficient processes development and control strategies, as well as for

  1. Effects of carbon dioxide on metabolite production and bacterial communities during kimchi fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Doo Hyun

    2018-04-24

    Bacterial communities and metabolites in kimchi fermented under conventional conditions (CC) compared to CO 2 -rich environments (CO 2 ) were analyzed. After a 20-day fermentation, lactic and acetic acid productions were 54 and 69 mM under CC, and 19 and 12 mM under CO 2 , respectively. The final pH of kimchi fermented under CC (CC-fermenting) and CO 2 (CO 2 -fermenting) were 4.1 and 4.7, respectively. For bacterial communities, OTU and Chao1 indices were both 35 in fresh kimchi, 10 and 15 in CC-fermenting kimchi, and 8 and 24 in CO 2 -fermenting kimchi, respectively. Shannon and Simpson indices were 3.47 and 0.93 in fresh kimchi, 1.87-0.06 and 0.46-0.01 in CC-fermenting kimchi, and 1.65-0.44 and 0.63-0.12 in CO 2 -fermenting kimchi, respectively. Non-lactic acid bacteria were eliminated in fermenting kimchi after 12 days under CC and 6 days under CO 2 . I conclude that carbon dioxide can alter bacterial communities, reduce metabolite production, and improve fermented kimchi quality.

  2. Assessment of the probiotic potential of a dairy product fermented by Propionibacterium freudenreichii in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Fabien J; Foligné, Benoît; Deutsch, Stéphanie-Marie; Massart, Sébastien; Parayre, Sandrine; Le Loir, Yves; Boudry, Gaëlle; Jan, Gwénaël

    2012-08-15

    Dairy propionibacteria, including Propionibacterium freudenreichii , display promising probiotic properties, including immunomodulation. These properties are highly strain-dependent and rarely studied in a fermented dairy product. We screened 10 strains, grown in a newly developed fermented milk ultrafiltrate, for immunomodulatory properties in vitro. The most anti-inflammatory strain, P. freudenreichii BIA129, was further tested on piglets. P. freudenreichii -fermented product improved food intake and growth of piglets. Colonic mucosa explants of treated pigs secreted less interleukin 8 (-25%, P dairy propionibacteria-fermented products, which are promising for the prevention or healing of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  3. Biohydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation of waste. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakashev, D.; Angelidaki, I.

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this project was to investigate and increase dark fermentative hydrogen production from organic wastes by optimizing important process parameters (reactor type, pH, temperature, organic loading, retention time, inoculation strategy, microbial composition). Labscale experiments were carried out at the Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. A two steps process for hydrogen production in the first step and methane production in the second step in serial connected fully mixed reactors was developed and could successfully convert organic matter to approx. 20-25 % hydrogen and 15-80 % to methane. Sparging with methane produced in the second stage could significantly increase the hydrogen production. Additionally it was shown that upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor system was very promising for high effective biohydrogen production from glucose at 70 deg C. Glucose-fed biofilm reactors filled with plastic carriers demonstrated high efficient extreme thermophilic biohydrogen production with mixed cultures. Repeated batch cultivations via exposure of the cultures to increased concentrations of household solid waste was found to be most useful method to enhance hydrogen production rate and reduce lag phase of extreme thermophilic fermentation process. Low level of pH (5.5) at 3-day HRT was enough to inhibit completely the methanogenesis and resulted in stable extreme thermophilic hydrogen production. Homoacetogenisis was proven to be an alternative competitor to biohydrogen production from organic acids under thermophilic (55 deg. C) conditions. With respect to microbiology, 16S rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes were designed to monitor the spatial distribution of hydrogen producing bacteria in sludge and granules from anaerobic reactors. An extreme thermophilic (70 deg. C), strict anaerobic, mixed microbial culture with high hydrogen producing potential was enriched from digested household waste. Culture

  4. Traditional Turkish Fermented Cereal Based Products: Tarhana, Boza and Chickpea Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Tangüler

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented products are one of the important foodstuffs in many countries of the world. People have gradually recognized the nutritional, functional and therapeutic value of these products and this has made them even more popular. Today, almost all consumers have a significant portion of their nutritional requirements fulfilled through these products. Scientific and technological knowledge is quite well developed for some fermented products such as wine, beer, cheese, and bread. These products are produced universally. However, scientific knowledge for some traditional foods produced locally in Turkey is still poor and not thorough. Numerous traditional, cereal-based fermented foods are produced in Turkey. The aim of this paper is to provide knowledge regarding the characterization, raw materials used for production, production methods, fermentation conditions and microorganisms which are effective in the fermentation of traditional foods. The study will focus on Boza, Tarhana, and Chickpea bread which are foods widely produced in Turkey.

  5. Effect of pH fermentation on production bioethanol from jackfruit seeds (Artocarpus heterophyllus) through separate fermentation hydrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, A. R.; Natsir, H.; Rohani, H.; Karim, A.

    2018-03-01

    Bioethanol is one of the alternative energy sourced from natural products containing carbohydrates through hydrolysis and fermentation process. Jackfruit seeds is one of the feedstock that contain high carbohydrate content but less utilized. The aims of this study to determine the effect of pH hydrolysis in the process of production bioethanol from jackfruit seeds (Artocarpus heterophyllus) through separate fermentation hydrolysis (SHF) method. The hydrolysis process uses H2SO4 as a hydrolyzing agent. The fermentation process used Saccharomyces cereviceae as a fermentor with a variation of pH 2,3 4 and 5 for 70 hours. The results showed that glucose content of 75% and pH 3 was the optimum pH of fermentation with the content of bioethanol 57.94%. The fermentation stage has an important role in increasing the levels of glucose and bioethanol in linear. The content of glucose and bioethanol of jackfruit seeds showed a great potential for development as the feedstock in bioethanol production.

  6. Soy protein modification: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barać Miroljub B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soy protein products such as flour, concentrates and isolates are used in food formulation because of their functionality, nutritional value and low cost. To obtain their optimal nutritive and functional properties as well as desirable flavor different treatments are used. Soybean proteins can be modified by physical, chemical and enzymatic treatments. Different thermal treatments are most commonly used, while the most appropriate way of modifying soy proteins from the standpoint of safety is their limited proteolysis. These treatments cause physical and chemical changes that affect their functional properties. This review discusses three principal methods used for modification of soy protein products, their effects on dominant soy protein properties and some biologically active compounds.

  7. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2014-08-05

    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  8. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang-Jin; Deng, Liang-Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan-Hui

    2015-04-01

    A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644L · (Ld)(-1) and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g(-)(1)VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L(-1). Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L(-1). The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L ·(Ld)(-1) and biogas yield of 0.649 L g(-1)VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25°C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s(-1) when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Production of ethanol in batch and fed-batch fermentation of soluble sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, M.Y.; Shah, M.A.; Shah, F.H.

    1991-01-01

    Keeping in view of the demand and need for alternate energy source, especially liquid fuels and the availability of raw materials in Pakistan, we have carried out biochemical and technological studies for ethanol through fermentation of renewable substrates. Molasses and sugar cane have been used as substrate for yeast fermentation. Selected yeast were used in both batch and semi continuous fermentation of molasses. Clarified dilute molasses were fermented with different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ethanol concentration after 64 hours batch fermentation reached 9.4% with 90% yield based on sugar content. During feed batch system similar results were obtained after a fermentation cycle of 48 hours resulting in higher productivity. Similarly carbohydrates in fruit juices and hydro lysates of biomass can be economically fermented to ethanol to be used as feed stock for other chemicals. (author)

  10. Approach of describing dynamic production of volatile fatty acids from sludge alkaline fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongbo; Liu, Yiwen; Ngo, Huu Hao; Zhang, Chang; Yang, Qi; Peng, Lai; He, Dandan; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Xiaoming; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2017-08-01

    In this work, a mathematical model was developed to describe the dynamics of fermentation products in sludge alkaline fermentation systems for the first time. In this model, the impacts of alkaline fermentation on sludge disintegration, hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis, and methanogenesis processes are specifically considered for describing the high-level formation of fermentation products. The model proposed successfully reproduced the experimental data obtained from five independent sludge alkaline fermentation studies. The modeling results showed that alkaline fermentation largely facilitated the disintegration, acidogenesis, and acetogenesis processes and severely inhibited methanogenesis process. With the pH increase from 7.0 to 10.0, the disintegration, acidogenesis, and acetogenesis processes respectively increased by 53%, 1030%, and 30% while methane production decreased by 3800%. However, no substantial effect on hydrolysis process was found. The model also indicated that the pathway of acetoclastic methanogenesis was more severely inhibited by alkaline condition than that of hydrogentrophic methanogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Continuous fermentative hydrogen production in different process conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasirian, N. [Islamic Azad Univ., Shoushtar (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Agricultural Mechanization; Almassi, M.; Minaee, S. [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Agricultural Mechanization; Widmann, R. [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Waste and Water

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which hydrogen was produced by fermentation of biomass. A continuous process using a non-sterile substrate with a readily available mixed microflora was used on heat treated digested sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant. Hydrogen was produced from waste sugar at a pH of 5.2 and a temperature of 37 degrees C. An experimental setup of three 5.5 L working volume continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) in different stirring speeds were constructed and operated at 7 different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and different organic loading rates (OLR). Dissolved organic carbon was examined. The results showed that the stirring speed of 135 rpm had a beneficial effect on hydrogen fermentation. The best performance was obtained in 135 rpm and 8 h of HRT. The amount of gas varied with different OLRs, but could be stabilized on a high level. Methane was not detected when the HRT was less than 16 h. The study identified the reactor in which the highest specific rate of hydrogen production occurred.

  12. Effects of methanogenic effluent recycle on fermentative hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, J.T.; Bagley, D.M. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Most research on fermentative hydrogen production has focused on optimizing the process and not on the practicalities of pH control although active pH control in a hydrogen reactor is necessary for stable and efficient performance. Batch experiments have shown that hydrogen ceases to be produced when there is no pH control. This study determined if recycle effluent from the methane reactor of a two-phase hydrogen-producing system would reduce the external alkali needed for pH control in a hydrogen reactor. It also determined if recycle affected the performance of the hydrogen reactor and the overall two-phase system. This paper describes the experimental laboratory-scale, two-phase hydrogen producing system which was operated alternately with and without effluent recycle from a methane reactor to the hydrogen reactor. The two-phase hydrogen producing system yielded 5.7 times more energy recovery than that obtained by the fermentative hydrogen producing reactor alone. The use of effluent from the methane reactor can reduce the operational cost of external alkali for pH control. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  13. The influence of petroleum products on the methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choromański, Paweł; Karwowska, Ewa; Łebkowska, Maria

    2016-01-15

    In this study the influence of the petroleum products: diesel fuel and spent engine oil on the sewage sludge digestion process and biogas production efficiency was investigated. Microbiological, chemical and enzymatic analyses were applied in the survey. It was revealed that the influence of the petroleum derivatives on the effectiveness of the methane fermentation of sewage sludge depends on the type of the petroleum product. Diesel fuel did not limit the biogas production and the methane concentration in the biogas, while spent engine oil significantly reduced the process efficacy. The changes in physical-chemical parameters, excluding COD, did not reflect the effect of the tested substances. The negative influence of petroleum products on individual bacterial groups was observed after 7 days of the process, while after 14 days probably some adaptive mechanisms appeared. The dehydrogenase activity assessment was the most relevant parameter to evaluate the effect of petroleum products contamination. Diesel fuel was probably used as a source of carbon and energy in the process, while the toxic influence was observed in case of spent engine oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of Mode of Fermentation on Production of Polygalacturonase by a Novel Strain of Streptomyces lydicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicemol Jacob

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of different pectinolytic enzymes was attempted using the actinomycete strain Streptomyces lydicus in submerged fermentation. Polygalacturonase and pectin lyase activities were detected in the culture supernatant, but the strain was not able to produce pectin esterase. Polygalacturonase production was studied in submerged, slurry-state and solid-state fermentation systems. All the experiments were carried out under static and shaking conditions. Solid-state fermentation under static condition was found to be promising. Various agroindustrial residues were tried as substrates for solid-state fermentation. Wheat bran was proved to be the best substrate.

  15. Chemical properties and colors of fermenting materials in salmon fish sauce production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsutoshi Nakano

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This data article reports the chemical properties (moisture, pH, salinity, and soluble solid content and colors of fermenting materials in salmon fish sauce products. The fish sauce was produced by mixing salt with differing proportions of raw salmon materials and fermenting for three months; the salmon materials comprised flesh, viscera, an inedible portion, and soft roe. Chemical properties and colors of the unrefined fish sauce (moromi, and the refined fish sauce, were analyzed at one, two, and three months following the start of fermentation. Data determined for all products are provided in table format. Keywords: Fish sauce, Chum salmon, Fermentation, Chemical properties, Color

  16. The effect of fermentation temperature on the functional dairy product quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanurić Katarina G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of fermented dairy beverage production by the application of kombucha cultivated on thyme tea in combination with a probiotic starter and to evaluate the quality of the new functional product. Fermented dairy beverages are produced from milk with 1.6% milk fat at three fermentation temperatures: 37°C, 40ºC and 43ºC.Chemical quality, rheological properties and products of added starter cultures metabolism were determined in the fermented dairy beverages after production and after10 days of storage. Produced fermented dairy beverages have reduced milk fat content and good textural characteristics. Besides the highly valuable milk components, they contain numerous compounds which have pronounced therapeutic properties. These products could be used as functional food in the diet of different populations for health improvement.

  17. Citric acid production from whey by fermentation using Aspergillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Julián Sánchez Toro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Whey has become the main dairy-industry waste product, despite continuous efforts aimed at finding a way to use it. The aim of this research was to investigate citric acid production by submerged fermentation using Aspergillus genus fungi, using whey as substrate to take economical advantage of it and to reduce the environmental impact caused by discharging this by-product into nearby streams. The following three strains were used: A. carbonarius NRRL 368, A. carbonarius NRRL 67 and A. niger NRRL 3. The best adaptation medium for inoculum propagation was selected. Proposed experimental design for evaluating citric acid biosynthesis from whey modified through different treatments showed that the two A. carbonarius strains did not present significant differences in acid production whereas A. niger NRRL 3 reached higher concentration when evaporated, deproteinised and p-galactosidase lactose-hydrolysed whey was used. However, A. carbonarius gave higher average citric acid titres than those found for A. niger. This suggests the need for carrying out further research on it as a potential producing strain. Cell growth, substrate consumption and acid production kinetics in a 3-L stirred-tank bioreactor with aeration were developed in the case of A. niger; kinetics were simulated through non-structured mathematical models. Key words: Aspergilluscarbonarius, Aspergillus niger, bioreactor, simulation, p-galactosidase.

  18. Fermentative hydrogen production from anaerobic bacteria using a membrane bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi-Sun Kim; You-Kwan Oh; Young-Su Yun; Dong-Yeol Lee

    2006-01-01

    Continuous H 2 production from glucose was studied at short hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 4.69 - 0.79 h using a membrane bioreactor (MBR) with a hollow-fiber filtration unit and mixed cells as inoculum. The reactor was inoculated with sewage sludge, which were heat-treated at 90 C for harvesting spore-forming, H 2 -producing bacteria, and fed with synthetic wastewater containing 1% (w/v) glucose. With decreasing HRT, volumetric H 2 production rate increased but the H 2 production yield to glucose decreased gradually. The H 2 content in biogas was maintained at 50 - 70% (v/v) and no appreciable CH 4 was detected during the operation. The maximal volumetric H 2 production rate and H 2 yield to glucose were 1714 mmol H 2 /L.d and 1.1 mol H 2 /mol glucose, respectively. These results indicate that the MBR should be considered as one of the most promising systems for fermentative H 2 production. (authors)

  19. Stillage reflux in food waste ethanol fermentation and its by-product accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongzhi; Yang, Jian; Jia, Yan; Wang, Qunhui; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    Raw materials and pollution control are key issues for the ethanol fermentation industry. To address these concerns, food waste was selected as fermentation substrate, and stillage reflux was carried out in this study. Reflux was used seven times during fermentation. Corresponding ethanol and reducing sugar were detected. Accumulation of by-products, such as organic acid, sodium chloride, and glycerol, was investigated. Lactic acid was observed to accumulate up to 120g/L, and sodium chloride reached 0.14mol/L. Other by-products did not accumulate. The first five cycles of reflux increased ethanol concentration, which prolonged fermentation time. Further increases in reflux time negatively influenced ethanol fermentation. Single-factor analysis with lactic acid and sodium chloride demonstrated that both factors affected ethanol fermentation, but lactic acid induced more effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High cell density fed-batch fermentations for lipase production: feeding strategies and oxygen transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehmin, M N I; Annuar, M S M; Chisti, Y

    2013-11-01

    This review is focused on the production of microbial lipases by high cell density fermentation. Lipases are among the most widely used of the enzyme catalysts. Although lipases are produced by animals and plants, industrial lipases are sourced almost exclusively from microorganisms. Many of the commercial lipases are produced using recombinant species. Microbial lipases are mostly produced by batch and fed-batch fermentation. Lipases are generally secreted by the cell into the extracellular environment. Thus, a crude preparation of lipases can be obtained by removing the microbial cells from the fermentation broth. This crude cell-free broth may be further concentrated and used as is, or lipases may be purified from it to various levels. For many large volume applications, lipases must be produced at extremely low cost. High cell density fermentation is a promising method for low-cost production: it allows a high concentration of the biomass and the enzyme to be attained rapidly and this eases the downstream recovery of the enzyme. High density fermentation enhances enzyme productivity compared with the traditional submerged culture batch fermentation. In production of enzymes, a high cell density is generally achieved through fed-batch operation, not through perfusion culture which is cumbersome. The feeding strategies used in fed-batch fermentations for producing lipases and the implications of these strategies are discussed. Most lipase-producing microbial fermentations require oxygen. Oxygen transfer in such fermentations is discussed.

  1. Microbial production of four biodegradable siderophores under submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazary, Ahmed E; Al-Shihri, Ayed S; Alfaifi, Mohammad Y; Saleh, Kamel A; Alshehri, Mohammed A; Elbehairi, Serag Eldin I; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2016-07-01

    Four siderophore analogues were isolated and purified from Escherichia coli, Bacillus spp. ST13, and Streptomyces pilosus microorganisms under some specific submerged fermentation conditions. In order to evaluate the highest production of this siderophore analogues through the growth, a rapid spectrophotometric screening semi-quantitative method was used, in which interestingly the analogues were isolated in its own form not its iron chelate. After chromatographic separation, the chemical structures of the isolated and purified siderophores were illustrated using detailed spectroscopic techniques. The biodegradation studies were done on that four novel isolated and purified siderophores following OECD protocols. In addition, the bioactivities of these siderophores and their iron complexes were examined and evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibiotic susceptibility of enterococci isolated from traditional fermented meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, J; Ferreira, V; Teixeira, P

    2009-08-01

    Antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated for 182 Enterococcus spp. isolated from Alheira, Chouriça de Vinhais and Salpicão de Vinhais, fermented meat products produced in the North of Portugal. Previously, a choice was made from a group of 1060 isolates, using phenotypic and genotypic tests. From these, 76 were previously identified as Enterococcus faecalis, 44 as Enterococcus faecium, one as Enterococcus casseliflavus and 61 as Enteroccocus spp. In order to encompass several of the known chemical and functional classes of antibiotics, resistance to ampicillin, penicillin G, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, nitrofurantoin, rifampicin, tetracycline and vancomycin was evaluated. All the isolates were sensitive to antibiotics of clinical importance, such as penicillins and vancomycin. Some differences in Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics, could be associated with the enterococcal species.

  3. Fermentation Kinetic of Maize Straw-Gliricidia Feed Mixture Supplemented by Fermentable Carbohydrate Measured by In Vitro Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulistiani, D.; Nurhayati

    2018-02-01

    Utilization of crop by-products such as maize straw mixed with legume is expected to be able to overcome the limitation of forage availability during dry season and have similar nutritional value with grass. Addition of fermentable carbohydrate in this diet can be improved fermentability and reduced methane production. The objective of this study was to evaluate supplementation of ground corn grain or rice bran as fermentable carbohydrate in maize straw-gliricidiamixture. Treatment diets evaluated were: Maize straw + gliricidialeaf meal (Control/RO); Control + 10% ground maize grain (ROC); Control + 10% rice bran (RORB). Maize straw was chopped and ground then mixed with gliricidia leaf meal at ratio 60:40% DM. Maize straw-gliricidia mixture then supplemented either with ground corn grain or rice bran at 10% of DM basal diet (control). Sample was incubated for 48 hours, gas production was recorded at 4, 8,12, 16, 24, 36 and 48 hours. Study was conducted in randomized complete design. Results of the study showed that supplementation of fermentable carbohydrate from corn grain or rice bran was able to increased (Pfermentation and reduced methane production.

  4. Potential use and the energy conversion efficiency analysis of fermentation effluents from photo and dark fermentative bio-hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiping; Li, Yameng; Zhang, Huan; He, Chao; Zhang, Quanguo

    2017-12-01

    Effluent of bio-hydrogen production system also can be adopted to produce methane for further fermentation, cogeneration of hydrogen and methane will significantly improve the energy conversion efficiency. Platanus Orientalis leaves were taken as the raw material for photo- and dark-fermentation bio-hydrogen production. The resulting concentrations of acetic, butyric, and propionic acids and ethanol in the photo- and dark-fermentation effluents were 2966mg/L and 624mg/L, 422mg/L and 1624mg/L, 1365mg/L and 558mg/L, and 866mg/L and 1352mg/L, respectively. Subsequently, we calculated the energy conversion efficiency according to the organic contents of the effluents and their energy output when used as raw material for methane production. The overall energy conversion efficiencies increased by 15.17% and 22.28%, respectively, when using the effluents of photo and dark fermentation. This two-step bio-hydrogen and methane production system can significantly improve the energy conversion efficiency of anaerobic biological treatment plants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Combined effects of nutrients and temperature on the production of fermentative aromas by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollero, Stéphanie; Bloem, Audrey; Camarasa, Carole; Sanchez, Isabelle; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie; Dequin, Sylvie; Mouret, Jean-Roch

    2015-03-01

    Volatile compounds produced by yeast during fermentation greatly influence the organoleptic qualities of wine. We developed a model to predict the combined effects of initial nitrogen and phytosterol content and fermentation temperature on the production of volatile compounds. We used a Box-Behnken design and response surface modeling to study the response of Lalvin EC1118® to these environmental conditions. Initial nitrogen content had the greatest influence on most compounds; however, there were differences in the value of fermentation parameters required for the maximal production of the various compounds. Fermentation parameters affected differently the production of isobutanol and isoamyl alcohol, although their synthesis involve the same enzymes and intermediate. We found differences in regulation of the synthesis of acetates of higher alcohols and ethyl esters, suggesting that fatty acid availability is the main factor influencing the synthesis of ethyl esters whereas the production of acetates depends on the activity of alcohol acetyltransferases. We also evaluated the effect of temperature on the total production of three esters by determining gas-liquid balances. Evaporation largely accounted for the effect of temperature on the accumulation of esters in liquid. Nonetheless, the metabolism of isoamyl acetate and ethyl octanoate was significantly affected by this parameter. We extended this study to other strains. Environmental parameters had a similar effect on aroma production in most strains. Nevertheless, the regulation of the synthesis of fermentative aromas was atypical in two strains: Lalvin K1M® and Affinity™ ECA5, which produces a high amount of aromatic compounds and was obtained by experimental evolution.

  6. Microbiological Characteristics of Trachanas, a Traditional Fermented Dairy Product from Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Bozoudi, Despina; Agathokleous, Maria; Anastasiou, Iacovos; Papademas, Photis; Tsaltas, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the autochthonous microbiota of Cypriot Trachanas, a traditional fermented ewes’ milk product. For this reason, 12 samples of raw and fermented milk as well as natural starter culture were collected in order to count, isolate, and identify the main species present during Trachanas fermentation. In total, 198 colonies were retrieved and 163 were identified by sequencing analysis at species level. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were the predominant grou...

  7. Identification and quantitation of new glutamic acid derivatives in soy sauce by UPLC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerot, Eric; Chen, Ting

    2013-10-01

    Glutamic acid is an abundant amino acid that lends a characteristic umami taste to foods. In fermented foods, glutamic acid can be found as a free amino acid formed by proteolysis or as a non-proteolytic derivative formed by microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to identify different structures of glutamic acid derivatives in a typical fermented protein-based food product, soy sauce. An acidic fraction was prepared with anion-exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by UPLC/MS/MS and UPLC/TOF-MS. α-Glutamyl, γ-glutamyl, and pyroglutamyl dipeptides, as well as lactoyl amino acids, were identified in the acidic fraction of soy sauce. They were chemically synthesized for confirmation of their occurrence and quantified in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Pyroglutamyl dipeptides accounted for 770 mg/kg of soy sauce, followed by lactoyl amino acids (135 mg/kg) and γ-glutamyl dipeptides (70 mg/kg). In addition, N-succinoylglutamic acid was identified for the first time in food as a minor compound in soy sauce (5 mg/kg). Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  8. Hydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanisho, S.; Shimazaki, T. [Yokohama National Univ., Shigeharu TANISHO and Tsuruyo SHIMAZAKI, Yokohama (Japan)

    2003-09-01

    Hydrogen production by fermentation was examined by using palm oil mill effluent. Clostridium butyricum produced more than 2.2 NL of hydrogen from 1 L of raw POME at pH 5.0, and Enterobacter aerogenes produced ca. 1.9 NL at pH 6.0. While from the culture liquid added 1% of peptone on the raw POME, C. butyricum produced more than 3.3 NL and also E. aerogenes 3.4 NL at pH 6.0 and 5.0, respectively. In this manner, the addition of nitrogen source to the POME liquid exerted an influence on the volume of hydrogen production. Since Aspergillus niger has ability to produce cellulase, co-cultivation of C.butyricum with A. niger was tried to utilize celluloses in the POME. Against our expectations, however, the results were lower productivities than pure cultivation's. We analyzed the components of POME by liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis before and after cultivation. The main substrate for hydrogen production was found to be glycerol. (authors)

  9. Physical and textural characteristics of fermented milk products obtained by kombucha inoculums with herbal teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, kombucha fermented milk products were produced from milk with 1.6% milk fat using 10% (v/v kombucha inoculums cultivated on the extracts of peppermint and stinging nettle. The fermentation process was conducted at temperatures of 37, 40 and 43°C. Fermentation was stopped when the pH value of 4.5 was reached. The fermentation process was shortened with an increase of temperature. Physical characteristics of the fermented products were determined by using standard methods of analysis. Textural characteristics were determined by texture profile analysis. The obtained products showed good physical and textural characteristics, typical for the yoghurt-like products. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III-46009

  10. Simultaneous Quantitation of Advanced Glycation End Products in Soy Sauce and Beer by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry without Ion-Pair Reagents and Derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomi, Yuri; Annaka, Hironori; Sato, Shinji; Ueta, Etsuko; Ohkura, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Homma, Seiichi; Suzuki, Emiko; Otsuka, Yuzuru

    2016-11-09

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and sensitive method to analyze several advanced glycation end products (AGEs) simultaneously using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and to apply this method to the quantitation of AGEs in brown-colored foods. The developed method enabled to separate and quantitate simultaneously seven AGEs, and was applied to the determination of free AGEs contained in various kinds of soy sauce and beer. The major AGEs in soy sauce and beer were N ε -carboxymethyllysine (CML), N ε -carboxyethyllysine (CEL), and N δ -(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)ornithine (MG-H1). Using the developed LC-MS/MS method, recovery test on soy sauce and beer samples showed the recovery values of 85.3-103.9% for CML, 95.9-107.4% for CEL, and 69.5-123.2% for MG-H1. In particular, it is the first report that free CML, CEL, and MG-H1 were present in beer. Furthermore, long-term storage and heating process of soy sauce increased CML and MG-H1.

  11. Effects of soy-soluble fiber and flaxseed gum on the glycemic and insulinemic responses to glucose solutions and dairy products in healthy adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Marco M C; Goff, H Douglas; Kisch, Julie A; Coulson, Alex; Wright, Amanda J

    2013-01-01

    Soy-soluble polysaccharides and flaxseed gum are underutilized dietary fibers of interest to the food industry. However, because the ability of soluble fibers to modulate postprandial glucose and insulin metabolism has been related to their viscous effects, the utility of these and other low-viscosity soluble fibers remains unproven. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between soy-soluble polysaccharides and flaxseed gum concentration, product viscosity, and the postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses in the context of glucose solutions as well as fluid and gelled dairy products. Twelve healthy males participated in a randomized crossover postprandial study in which they visited the laboratory following overnight fasts on 11 occasions to consume one of 11 study treatments, each consisting of 50 g available carbohydrates. The study treatments included a glucose reference (in duplicate), glucose solutions containing soy-soluble polysaccharides (6%), flaxseed gum (0.7%), or guar gum (0.23%), all matched for an apparent viscosity of 61 mPa·s at 50 s⁻¹, as well as dairy-based beverages and puddings with 0% or 1% soluble fiber added. Blood samples were collected at fasting and up to 2 hours postprandially for determination of glucose and insulin concentrations. Area under the curve (AUC), peak concentration, and time-to-peak values as well as glycemic index (GI) and insulinemic index (II) were calculated. Fiber fortification of a 50 g glucose solution had no effect on postprandial blood glucose or insulin levels, even at a high concentration (i.e., 6% soy-soluble polysaccharides). Glucose AUC and GI values for the dairy-based beverage (p glucose reference. Glucose AUC and GI values for the soy-soluble polysaccharide-fortified dairy products (p glucose reference. No significant differences were observed between the fiber-fortified fluid and gelled dairy-based study treatments and no significant differences were observed in terms of the

  12. Survivability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus during the Preparation of Soy Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Mei Liu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a new probiotic soy cheese on the basis of chinese sufu. The soy cheese was made from soymilk fermented with soy cheese bacterial starter cultures (DH1 and GH4 and L. rhamnosus 6013. After ripening, probiotic soy cheese sensory scores (standard SB/T 10170-93 were compared to the control. The changes in pH, bacterial growth and the survivability of the potential probiotic L. rhamnosus 6013 during fermentation and storage at 10 °C were examined. After 6 h of fermentation, L. rhamnosus 6013 was capable of growing in soymilk as high as 108–109 CFU/mL. After being stored for 30 days at 10 °C, slight decrease in pH and the viable counts of the strain was noticed. The viable counts of L. rhamnosus 6013, DH1 and GH4 were 107, 106 and 106 CFU/g, respectively, after storage for 30 days. The levels of stachyose, raffinose and sucrose in soy cheese were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that L. rhamnosus 6013 could utilize the soybean oligosaccharides as carbon sources. In addition, 2–4 % of NaCl had little effect on the survivability of L. rhamnosus 6013. It indicated that L. rhamnosus 6013 could withstand the technological processing of soy cheese and had no negative effect on the fermentation and the sensory properties of the soy cheese.

  13. Microbiological detection of probiotic microorganisms in fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Burdychová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of health benefits have been claimed for probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Because of the potential health benefits, these organisms are increasingly incorporated into dairy foods. However, to reach health benefits, the concentration of probiotics have to be 106 CFU/g of a product. For assessing of required probiotic bacteria quantity, it is important to have a working method for selective enumeration of these probiotic bacteria. Five bacteriological media were evaluated to assess their suitability to selectively enumerate Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. Bacteriological media evaluated included Streptococcus thermophilus agar, pH modified MRS agar, MRS-vancomycine agar and BSM (Bifidus selective medium agar under different culture conditions.Seven selected fermented milk products with probiotic culture were analyzed for their bacterial populations using the described selective bacteriological media and culture conditions. All milk products contained probiotic microorganisms claimed to be present in declared quantity (106–107/g.

  14. COMPARATIVE EVALUTION OF CEPHALOSPORIN-C PRODUCTION IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION AND SUBMERGED LIQUID CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Rezazarandi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of solid state fermentation (SSF utilization in producing enzymes & secondary metabolites have been shown, whereas, submerged liquid fermentation (SLF condition has the major usage in industrial production of antibiotics. As an antibiotic of B-lactams group, cephalosporin-C (CPC is indicated due to its wide effect and broad convention in treatment of infectious diseases. Regarding industrial production of CPC regularly done in SLF condition, we compared CPC production sum in SLF and SSF conditions. In this analysis, A. chrysogenum was employed, which was inoculated to SLF and SSF, while internal fermenter conditions were totally under control. After extraction of CPC, productions in two states of SLF and SSF were compared using the cylinder plate method. According to Antibiotic assay and production amount comparison, results expressed a ratio of development of production in SSF conditions to SLF conditions. Regarding previous studies on a solid state fermenter and its advantages, in this study, convenience of SSF conditions compared to SLF conditions was experimented. Also mentioning that maintaining the condition of solid state fermenter is more comfortable and practical than liquid state fermenter, using a solid based fermenter to produce antibiotics, especially CPC, can be appropriate. Considering appropriate control conditions of SSF to produce secondary metabolites, decrease in expenses, and increase of production, taking advantage of it in order to increase production parallel to modern methods, such as genetically manipulating CPC producing microorganisms are recommended to pharmacological industries. Also, to make this method applicable, further studies in industrial criterion seem necessary.

  15. Remote Sensing Images to Detect Soy Plantations in the Amazon Biome—The Soy Moratorium Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fabiani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Soy Moratorium is an initiative to reduce deforestation rates in the Amazon biome based on the hypothesis that soy is a deforestation driver. Soy planted in opened areas after July 24th, 2006 cannot be commercialized by the associated companies to the Brazilian Association of Vegetable Oil Industries (ABIOVE and the National Association of Cereal Exporters (ANEC, which represent about 90% of the Brazilian soy market. The objective of this work is to present the evaluation of the fourth year of monitoring new soy plantations within the Soy Moratorium context. With the use of satellite images from the MODIS sensor, together with aerial survey, it was possible to identify 147 polygons with new soy plantations on 11,698 ha. This soy area represents 0.39% of the of the total deforested area during the moratorium, in the three soy producing states of the Amazon biome, and 0.6% of the cultivated soy area in the Amazon biome, indicating that soy is currently a minor deforestation driver. The quantitative geospatial information provided by an effective monitoring approach is paramount to the implementation of a governance process required to establish an equitable balance between environmental protection and agricultural production.

  16. Study on fermentation kinetics and extraction process of rhamnolipid production by papermaking wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Keer

    2018-01-01

    Paper mill wastewater (PMW) is the outlet water generated during pulp and papermaking process in the paper industry. Fermentation by wastewater can lower the cost of production as well as alleviate the pressure of wastewater treatment. Rhamnolipids find broad placations as natural surfactants. This paper studied the rhamnolipids fermentation by employing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated by the laboratory, and determined to use wastewater which filtered by medium speed filter paper and strain Z2, the culture conditions were optimized, based on the flask shaking fermentation. On the basis of 5L tank fermentation, batch fermentation was carried out, the yield of fermentation reached 7.067g/L and the fermentation kinetics model of cell growth, product formation and substrate consumption was established by using origin software, and the fermentation process could be simulated well. And studied on the extraction process of rhamnolipids, through fermentation dynamic equation analysis can predict the in fill material yield can be further improved. Research on the extraction process of rhamnolipid simplifies the operation of extraction, and lays the foundation for the industrial extraction.

  17. Indigenous and inoculated yeast fermentation of gabiroba (Campomanesia pubescens) pulp for fruit wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Whasley Ferreira; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinicius; Gervásio, Ivani Maria; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2009-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential of gabiroba Campomanesia pubescens (DC) O. Berg in the production of a beverage fermented using selected and wild yeasts from indigenous fermentation, analyze the volatile compounds profile present during the process of fermentation, and evaluate the sensory quality of the final beverage produced. Throughout the process of fermentation, when Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA CA 1162 was inoculated, there were stable viable populations around 9 log cells ml(-1). During indigenous fermentation, yeast population increased from 3.7 log CFU ml(-1) to 8.1 log CFU ml(-1) after 14 days. The diversity and dynamics of the yeast population during indigenous fermentation observed by PFGE analysis showed five different karyotyping profiles in the first days of fermentation. After the seventh day, there was a higher frequency of a similar S. cerevisiae profile. The yeast non-Saccharomyces were identified by sequencing of the ITS region as Candida quercitrusa and Issatchenkia terricola. Inoculated fermentations yielded a higher amount of alcohol than indigenous ones, indicating the efficiency of selected strains. There was also a greater concentration of higher alcohols, which are usually responsible for the flavor found in alcoholic beverages. Based on the characteristics of the pulp and acceptance in the sensory analysis, gabiroba fruits showed good potential for use in the production of fermented beverage.

  18. A review of conversion processes for bioethanol production with a focus on syngas fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatha Devarapalli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from corn is a well-established technology. However, emphasis on exploring non-food based feedstocks is intensified due to dispute over utilization of food based feedstocks to generate bioethanol. Chemical and biological conversion technologies for non-food based biomass feedstocks to biofuels have been developed. First generation bioethanol was produced from sugar based feedstocks such as corn and sugar cane. Availability of alternative feedstocks such as lignocellulosic and algal biomass and technology advancement led to the development of complex biological conversion processes, such as separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF, consolidated bioprocessing (CBP, and syngas fermentation. SHF, SSF, SSCF, and CBP are direct fermentation processes in which biomass feedstocks are pretreated, hydrolyzed and then fermented into ethanol. Conversely, ethanol from syngas fermentation is an indirect fermentation that utilizes gaseous substrates (mixture of CO, CO2 and H2 made from industrial flue gases or gasification of biomass, coal or municipal solid waste. This review article provides an overview of the various biological processes for ethanol production from sugar, lignocellulosic, and algal biomass. This paper also provides a detailed insight on process development, bioreactor design, and advances and future directions in syngas fermentation.

  19. Quality, functionality, and shelf life of fermented meat and meat products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pavan; Chatli, M K; Verma, Akhilesh K; Mehta, Nitin; Malav, O P; Kumar, Devendra; Sharma, Neelesh

    2017-09-02

    Fermentation of meat is a traditional preservation method used widely for improving quality and shelf life of fermented meat products. Fermentation of meat causes a number of physical, biochemical, and microbial changes, which eventually impart functional properties, sensory characteristics, and nutritional aspects to these products and inhibit the growth of various pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. These changes include acidification (carbohydrate catabolism), solubilization and gelation of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins of muscle, degradation of proteins and lipids, reduction of nitrate into nitrite, formation of nitrosomyoglobin, and dehydration. Dry-fermented sausages are increasingly being used as carrier of probiotics. The production of biogenic amines during fermentation can be controlled by selecting proper starter cultures and other preventive measures such as quality of raw materials, hygienic measures, temperature, etc.

  20. The Impact of Novel Fermented Products Containing Extruded Wheat Material on the Quality of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Vaiciulyte-Funk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sakei MI806, Pediococcus pentosaceus MI810 and Pediococcus acidilactici MI807, able to produce bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, were originally isolated from Lithuanian spontaneous rye sourdough and adapted in the novel fermentation medium containing extruded wheat material. The novel fermented products (50 and 65 % moisture content were stored at the temperatures used in bakeries (15 days at 30–35 °C in the summer period or 20 days under refrigeration conditions at 0–6 °C. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB was determined during the storage of fermented products for 15–20 days. Furthermore, the effect of novel fermented products stored under different conditions on wheat bread quality was examined. Extruded wheat material was found to have a higher positive effect on LAB growth compared to the control medium by lowering the reduction of LAB populations in fermented products with the extension of storage time and increase of temperature. During storage, lower variation and lower decrease in LAB count were measured in the novel fermented products with a moisture content of 65 % compared to those with 50 %. Furthermore, this humidity allows for the production of a product with higher moisture content in continuous production processes. The addition of the new fermented products with 65 % humidity to the wheat bread recipe (10 % of the quantity of flour had a significant effect on bread quality: it increased the acidity of the crumb and specific volume of the bread, and decreased the fractal dimension of the crumb pores and crumb firmness. Based on the microbiological investigations of fermented products during storage and baking tests, the conditions of LAB cultivation in novel fermentation media were optimized (time of cultivation approx. 20 days at 0–6 °C and approx. 10 days at 30–35 °C.

  1. Enhanced hydrogen and 1,3-propanediol production from glycerol by fermentation using mixed cultures

    KAUST Repository

    Selembo, Priscilla A.; Perez, Joe M.; Lloyd, Wallis A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2009-01-01

    The conversion of glycerol into high value products, such as hydrogen gas and 1,3-propanediol (PD), was examined using anaerobic fermentation with heat-treated mixed cultures. Glycerol fermentation produced 0.28 mol-H 2/mol-glycerol (72 mL-H2/g

  2. Fed-batch fermentation dealing with nitrogen limitation in microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinzema, A; Tramper, J; de Bruin, E; Bol, J

    In the later stages of a batch fermentation for microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense the availability of a nitrogen source accessible to the microorganism becomes critical. Fed-batch fermentation is investigated with the aim of avoiding this substrate limitation.

  3. Estimation of protein fermentation in the large intestine of pigs using a gas production technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Lange, L.

    2005-01-01

    Proteolytic fermentation in the colon of pigs and the caecum of poultry can have negative effects on their performance and health due to formation of harmful end products. To reduce this, rations can be formulated with expected carbohydrate fermentation being higher in level, and rate, than that of

  4. Enhanced production of dimethyl phthalate-degrading strain Bacillus sp. QD14 by optimizing fermentation medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixian Mo

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: In this work, the key factors affected by the fermentation of DMP-degrading strain Bacillus sp. QD14 were optimized by PBD, SAM and BBD (RSM; the yield was increased by 57,11% in the conditions in our study. We propose that the conditions optimized in the study can be applied to the fermentation for commercialization production.

  5. Characterization and product innovation of sufu - a Chinese fermented soybean food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.

    2003-01-01

     Over the centuries, Chinese people have consumed soybeans in various forms of traditional fermented soybean foods. Sufu ( Furu ), a cheese-like product originating in China, is one of the most popular fermented soybean foods in China, and is becoming popular

  6. Biotransformation of soy whey into soy alcoholic beverage by four commercial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Jian-Yong; Lu, Yuyun; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2017-12-04

    Soy whey is a liquid waste stream generated from tofu and soy protein manufacturing, and is commonly disposed of into the drainage system in food industry. Instead of disposing of soy whey as a waste, it could be used to produce alcoholic beverages. This study investigated the feasibility of converting soy whey into soy alcoholic beverage using four commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as a zero-waste approach to tackle the soy whey disposal issue. The four Saccharomyces yeasts grew by approximately 2logCFU/mL and produced approximately 7-8% (v/v) of ethanol. Isoflavone glucosides were hydrolyzed and transformed into isoflavone aglycones, increasing the antioxidant capacity. New aroma-active volatiles, especially esters and higher alcohols, were produced and imparted fruity and floral notes to the soy alcoholic beverage. Therefore, alcoholic fermentation would serve as a solution toward zero-waste manufacturing by biotransforming soy whey into a world's first novel functional alcoholic beverage naturally enriched with free isoflavones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of fermentation conditions on the production of 4-α ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-30

    Nov 30, 2011 ... studied the recombinant protein of human IGF-1 in rich and minimal ... recombinant protein A-β-lactamase compared to the medium pH at 7.0. ... shake flask fermentation and provided desired conditions for fermentation in 5 L ..... expression kinetics study in bioreactor, which would help to enhance cell ...

  8. High-rate fermentative hydrogen production from beverage wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Sen, Biswarup; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid immobilized-bacterial cells show stable operation over 175 days. • Low HRT of 1.5 h shows peak hydrogen production rate of 55 L/L-d. • Electricity generation is 9024 kW-d from 55 L/L-d hydrogen using beverage wastewater. • Granular sludge formed only at 2–3 h HRT with presence of Selenomonas sp. - Abstract: Hydrogen production from beverage industry wastewater (20 g/L hexose equivalent ) using an immobilized cell reactor with a continuous mode of operation was studied at various hydraulic retention times (HRT, 8–1.5 h). Maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 55 L/L-d was obtained at HRT 1.5 h (an organic loading of 320 g/L-d hexose equivalent ). This HPR value is much higher than those of other industrial wastewaters employed in fermentative hydrogen production. The cell biomass concentration peaked at 3 h HRT with a volatile suspended solids (VSS) concentration of 6.31 g/L (with presence of self-flocculating Selenomonas sp.), but it dropped to 3.54 gVSS/L at 1.5 h HRT. With the shortening of HRT, lactate concentration increased but the concentration of the dominant metabolite butyrate did not vary significantly. The Clostridium species dynamics was not significantly affected, but total microbial community structure changed with respect to HRT variation as evident from PCR–DGGE analyses. Analysis of energy production rate suggests that beverage wastewater is a high energy yielding feedstock, and can replace 24% of electricity consumption in a model beverage industry

  9. Sustainable fermentative hydrogen production: challenges for process optimisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, F.R.; Dinsdale, R. [University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd (United Kingdom). School of Applied Sciences; Hawkes, D.L.; Hussy, I. [University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd (United Kingdom). School of Technology

    2002-12-01

    This paper reviews information from continuous laboratory studies of fermentative hydrogen production useful when considering practical applications of the technology. Data from reactors operating with pure cultures and mixed microflora enriched from natural sources are considered. Inocula have been derived from heat-treated anaerobically digested sludge, activated sludge, aerobic compost and soil, and non-heat-treated aerobically composted activated sludge. Most studies are on soluble defined substrates, and there are few reports of continuous operation on complex substrates with mixed microflora to produce H{sub 2}. Methanogenesis which consumes H{sub 2} may be prevented by operation at short hydraulic retention times (around 8-12 h on simple substrates) and/or pH below 6. Although the reactor technology for anaerobic digestion and biohydrogen production from complex substrates may be similar, there are important microbiological differences, including the need to manage spore germination and oxygen toxicity on start-up and control sporulation in adverse circumstances during reactor operation. (Author)

  10. Genetic diversity for fermentable carbohydrates production in alfalfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castonguay, Y.; Bertrand, A.; Duceppe, M.O.; Dube, M.P.; Michaud, R. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Alfalfa has many attributes that renders it suitable for bioethanol production, including its adaptability to diverse environmental conditions without any need for nitrogen fertilizer. However research is needed to develop biofuel-type alfalfa with improved biomass production and standability, increased persistence, and better cell wall degradability. The ethanol conversion rates from alfalfa biomass could be increased by genetically improving the accumulation of readily fermentable non-structural carbohydrates (NSC). This presentation reported on a screening project where genotypes with superior cell wall degradability were identified. NSC accumulation within 300 genotypes was randomly selected within six genetic backgrounds from Europe and North America. Biochemical analyses of dried stems revealed a large genetic variability for NSC content, with concentrations ranging from 20 to 100 mg per g DW. NSC variability was considerably higher in a genetic background of European origin compared to the other populations, therefore emphasizing the potential for genetic improvement for that trait. A modified commercial enzymatic cocktail known as AcceleraseTM 1000 Genencor is being developed to optimize the degradation of alfalfa biomass. DNA extracted from genotypes with the highest and lowest cell wall degradability or NSC accumulation will be pooled and used for bulk segregant analysis of DNA polymorphisms using the PCR-based sequence-related amplified polymorphism technique. It was concluded that the commercial release of biofuel-type alfalfa can be accelerated if the genetic markers associated with these traits can be identified.

  11. Hydrogen production characteristics of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes by anaerobic mixed culture fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Li; Yu, Zhang [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)]|[Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhenhong, Yuan; Yongming, Sun; Xiaoying, Kong [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-01-15

    The hydrogen production from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) by anaerobic mixed culture fermentation was investigated using batch experiments at 37 C. Seven varieties of typical individual components of OFMSW including rice, potato, lettuce, lean meat, oil, fat and banyan leaves were selected to estimate the hydrogen production potential. Experimental results showed that the boiling treated anaerobic sludge was effective mixed inoculum for fermentative hydrogen production from OFMSW. Mechanism of fermentative hydrogen production indicates that, among the OFMSW, carbohydrates is the most optimal substrate for fermentative hydrogen production compared with proteins, lipids and lignocelluloses. This conclusion was also substantiated by experimental results of this study. The hydrogen production potentials of rice, potato and lettuce were 134 mL/g-VS, 106 mL/g-VS, and 50 mL/g-VS respectively. The hydrogen percentages of the total gas produced from rice, potato and lettuce were 57-70%, 41-55% and 37-67%. (author)

  12. Effect of production phase on bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Belinda; Alexandre, Hervé; Robillard, Bertrand; Marchal, Richard

    2015-01-14

    This review analyzes bottle-fermented sparkling wine research at each stage of production by evaluating existing knowledge to identify areas that require future investigation. With the growing importance of enological investigation being focused on the needs of the wine production industry, this review examines current research at each stage of bottle-fermented sparkling wine production. Production phases analyzed in this review include pressing, juice adjustments, malolactic fermentation (MLF), stabilization, clarification, tirage, lees aging, disgorging, and dosage. The aim of this review is to identify enological factors that affect bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality, predominantly aroma, flavor, and foaming quality. Future research topics identified include regional specific varieties, plant-based products from vines, grapes, and yeast that can be used in sparkling wine production, gushing at disgorging, and methods to increase the rate of yeast autolysis. An internationally accepted sensory analysis method specifically designed for sparkling wine is required.

  13. The antioxidant activity of kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle and winter savory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitas Jasmina S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antioxidant activity of fermented milk products obtained by kombucha fermentation. Two starter cultures were used as follows: starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened stinging nettle extract; as well as starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened winter savory extract. The starters were added to milk with 0.8, 1.6 and 2.8% milk fat. Fermentation was carried out at 37, 40 and 43oC and stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Antioxidant activity to hydroxyl and DPPH radicals was monitored using response surface methodology. Kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle (KSN and with winter savory (KWS showed the same antioxidant response to hydroxyl and different response to DPPH radicals. Synergetic effect of milk fat and fermentation temperature to antioxidant activity to hydroxyl radicals for both types of kombucha fermented milk products (KSN and KWS was established. Optimum processing conditions in term of antioxidant activity are: milk fat around 2.8% and process temperature around 41 and 43°C for KSN and KWS respectively.

  14. Continuous butyric acid fermentation coupled with REED technology for enhanced productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Skiadas, Ioannis; Westermann, Peter

    strains, C.tyrobutyricum seems the most promising for biological production of butyric acid as it is characterised by higher selectivity and higher tolerance to butyric acid. However, studies on fermentative butyric production from lignocellulosic biomasses are scarce in the international literature...... of continuous fermentation mode and in-situ acids removal by Reverse Enhanced Electro Dialysis (REED) resulted to enhanced sugars consumption rates when 60% PHWS was fermented. Specifically, glucose and xylose consumption rate increased by a factor of 6 and 39, respectively, while butyric acid productivity...

  15. Fermentative Succinate Production: An Emerging Technology to Replace the Traditional Petrochemical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujin Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Succinate is a valuable platform chemical for multiple applications. Confronted with the exhaustion of fossil energy resources, fermentative succinate production from renewable biomass to replace the traditional petrochemical process is receiving an increasing amount of attention. During the past few years, the succinate-producing process using microbial fermentation has been made commercially available by the joint efforts of researchers in different fields. In this review, recent attempts and experiences devoted to reduce the production cost of biobased succinate are summarized, including strain improvement, fermentation engineering, and downstream processing. The key limitations and challenges faced in current microbial production systems are also proposed.

  16. [Lactic acid bacteria proteinase and quality of fermented dairy products--A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Lanwei; Han, Xue

    2015-12-04

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) could synthesize cell envelope proteinase with weak activity, which primarily degrades casein. In addition to its crucial role in the rapid growth of LAB in milk, LAB proteinases are also of industrial importance due to their contribution to the formation of texture and flavor of many fermented dairy products. The proteolytic system, properties of proteinase, the degradation product of casein and its effect on the quality of fermented dairy products were reviewed in this manuscript.

  17. Methane Production of Different Forages in Ruminal Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Meale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro rumen batch culture study was completed to compare effects of common grasses, leguminous shrubs and non-leguminous shrubs used for livestock grazing in Australia and Ghana on CH4 production and fermentation characteristics. Grass species included Andropodon gayanus, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Pennisetum purpureum. Leguminous shrub species included Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Stylosanthes guianensis and non-leguminous shrub species included Annona senegalensis, Moringa oleifera, Securinega virosa and Vitellaria paradoxa. Leaves were harvested, dried at 55°C and ground through a 1 mm screen. Serum bottles containing 500 mg of forage, modified McDougall’s buffer and rumen fluid were incubated under anaerobic conditions at 39°C for 24 h. Samples of each forage type were removed after 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h of incubation for determination of cumulative gas production. Methane production, ammonia concentration and proportions of VFA were measured at 24 h. Concentration of aNDF (g/kg DM ranged from 671 to 713 (grasses, 377 to 590 (leguminous shrubs and 288 to 517 (non-leguminous shrubs. After 24 h of in vitro incubation, cumulative gas, CH4 production, ammonia concentration, proportion of propionate in VFA and IVDMD differed (p<0.05 within each forage type. B. ruziziensis and G. sepium produced the highest cumulative gas, IVDMD, total VFA, proportion of propionate in VFA and the lowest A:P ratios within their forage types. Consequently, these two species produced moderate CH4 emissions without compromising digestion. Grazing of these two species may be a strategy to reduce CH4 emissions however further assessment in in vivo trials and at different stages of maturity is recommended.

  18. Microbiological Characteristics of Trachanas, a Traditional Fermented Dairy Product from Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina Bozoudi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize the autochthonous microbiota of Cypriot Trachanas, a traditional fermented ewes’ milk product. For this reason, 12 samples of raw and fermented milk as well as natural starter culture were collected in order to count, isolate, and identify the main species present during Trachanas fermentation. In total, 198 colonies were retrieved and 163 were identified by sequencing analysis at species level. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB were the predominant group, followed by yeasts. Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, and Enterococcus were frequently isolated from raw milk, and Lactobacillus casei/paracasei predominated in the starter culture. Lactococcus lactis was isolated in high frequency (27.9% of the isolates at the beginning, while Lactobacillus spp. (20% and Saccharomyces unisporus (17.9% were isolated at the end of fermentation. After assessing their technological potential, selected strains could be used as starters to ferment milk for artisanal Trachanas production.

  19. Yeast dynamics during spontaneous fermentation of mawe and tchoukoutou, two traditional products from Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greppi, Anna; Rantisou, Kalliopi; Padonou, Wilfrid

    2013-01-01

    Mawe and tchoukoutou are two traditional fermented foods largely consumed in Benin, West Africa. Their preparations remain as a house art and they are the result of spontaneous fermentation processes. In this study, dynamics of the yeast populations occurring during spontaneous fermentations...... of mawe and tchoukoutou were investigated using both culture-dependent and -independent approaches. For each product, two productions were followed. Samples were taken at different fermentation times and yeasts were isolated, resulting in the collection of 177 isolates. They were identified by the PCR......-DGGE technique followed by the sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. The predominant yeast species identified were typed by rep-PCR. Candida krusei was the predominant yeast species in mawe fermentation followed by Candida glabrata and Kluyveromyces marxianus. Other yeast species were detected...

  20. Fermentation and microflora of plaa-som, a Thai fermented fish product prepared with different salt concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Madsen, M.; Sophanodora, P.

    2002-01-01

    % salt (w/w) as well as two high-salt batches, containing 9% and 11% salt. pH decreased rapidly from 6 to 4.5 in low-salt batches, whereas in high-salt batches, a slow or no decrease in pH was found. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts were isolated as the dominant microorganisms during fermentation....... LAB counts increased to 108-109 cfu g-1 and yeast counts to 107-5 x 107 cfu g-1 in all batches, except in the 11% salt batch, where counts were 1-2 log lower. Phenotypic tests, ITS-PCR, carbohydrate fermentations and 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified LAB isolates as Pediococcus pentosaceus......Plaa-som is a Thai fermented fish product prepared from snakehead fish, salt, palm syrup and sometimes roasted rice. We studied the effects of different salt concentrations on decrease in pH and on microflora composition during fermentation. Two low-salt batches were prepared, containing 6% and 7...

  1. The effect of microbial starter composition on cassava chips fermentation for the production of fermented cassava flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Listianingrum, Zaenudin, Ahmad; Trihatmoko, Kharisrama

    2015-12-01

    The processing of cassava into fermented cassava flour (fercaf) or the widely known as modified cassava flour (mocaf) presents an alternative solution to improve the competitiveness of local foods and to support national food security. However, the mass production of fercaf is being limited by several problems, among which is the availability of starter cultures. This paper presents the mapping of the effect of microbial starter compositions on the nutritional content of fercaf in order to obtain the suitable nutritional composition. Based on their enzymatic activities, the combination of Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus oryzae were tested during the study. In addition, commercial starter was also tested. During the fermentation, the dynamics in microbial population were measured as well as changes in cyanogenic glucoside content. The microbial starter composition was observed to affect the dynamics in microbial populationcynaogenic glucoside content of the produced fercaf. In general, steady state microbial population was reached within 12 hours of fermentation. Cyanogenic glucoside was observed to decrease along the fermentation.

  2. Economic and process optimization of ethanol production by extractive fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This report demonstrates by computer simulation the economic advantages of extractive fermentation on an industrial scale compared to the best alternative technology currently available. The simulations were based on a plant capacity of 100 x 10 6 L/y of azeotropic ethanol. The simulation results were verified with a fully integrated, computer controlled extractive fermentation process demonstration unit based around a 7 L fermentor operated with a synthetic glucose medium and using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The system was also operated with natural substrates (blackstrap molasses and grain hydrolyzate). Preliminary tests with the organism Zymomonas mobilis were also carried out under extractive fermentation conditions.

  3. Study of the optimal production process and application of apple fruit (malus domestica (l.) borkh) fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Shao, W.; Ziang, R.

    2015-01-01

    In orchard production, fruit abscission is common due to insect damage, disease, crop thinning and natural dropping. However, the utilization of these discarded plant resources has received little research attention. In this study, we used apple fruit from such plant resources, mainly young and mature dropped fruit, as materials and mixed them with a fermentation agent, brown sugar and water. The effects of the proportion of fermentation agent and the fermentation conditions (O2, temperature, fermenting time and fruit crushing degree) were studied using an orthogonal experimental design. We discovered a novel fermented fertilizer, apple fruit fermentation nutrient solution (AFF), for which the optimal fermentation formula and conditions were comminuted young apples: fermentation agent: brown sugar: water weight ratio of 5:0.1:1:4 and 45 days of aerobic fermentation. Analysis of the fermentation solutions showed that the supernatant obtained using these optimized parameters had the highest mineral element content among the fermentation formulas and conditions studied. The results of a spraying experiment with 200-, 500- and 800-fold dilutions showed that AFF significantly promoted the net photosynthetic rate, leaf area and thickness, specific leaf weight, and chlorophyll and mineral element content in the leaves of young apple trees relative to the control treatment. The effects of 200-fold diluted AFF on the photosynthetic rate, the developmental quality and mineral element contents were greater than those of the 500- and 800-fold dilutions. The results of the spraying of adult trees with 200-fold diluted AFF compared to a water control demonstrated that AFF significantly enhanced the average weight of a single fruit, the shape index, hardness, content of soluble solids, titratable acid content, vitamin C content, and aroma compound content of the fruit of the adult trees. This evidence suggests that the AFF obtained using the optimal production process could

  4. Soy, isoflavones, and prevalence of allergic rhinitis in Japanese women: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Ohya, Yukihiro; Miyamoto, Shoichi; Matsunaga, Ichiro; Yoshida, Toshiaki; Hirota, Yoshio; Oda, Hajime

    2005-06-01

    It has been hypothesized that isoflavones reduce the risk of many chronic diseases, but there are no data on the effects of dietary soy and isoflavone consumption on allergic disorders. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between dietary soy products and isoflavone intake and the prevalence of allergic rhinitis. Study subjects were 1002 Japanese pregnant women. Allergic rhinitis (including cedar pollinosis) was defined as present if subjects had received drug treatment at some point during the previous 12 months. Adjustment was made for age; gestation; parity; cigarette smoking; passive smoking at home and at work; indoor domestic pets; family history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis; family income; education; mite allergen level in house dust; changes in diet in the previous month; season when data were collected; and body mass index. Compared with dietary intake of total soy product, soy protein, daidzein, and genistein in the first quartile, consumption of these substances in the fourth quartile was independently associated with a reduced prevalence of allergic rhinitis, although no significant dose-response relationships were observed. A clear inverse linear trend for miso intake across quartiles was found, whereas the adjusted odds ratio for comparison of the highest with the lowest quartile was not statistically significant. Consumption of tofu, tofu products, fermented soybeans, boiled soybeans, and miso soup was not related to the prevalence of allergic rhinitis. A high intake of soy and isoflavones may be associated with a reduced prevalence of allergic rhinitis.

  5. Pharmaceutical protein production by yeast: towards production of human blood proteins by microbial fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Ruiz, José Luis; Liu, Lifang; Petranovic, Dina

    2012-01-01

    Since the approval of recombinant insulin from Escherichia coli for its clinical use in the early 1980s, the amount of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins obtained by microbial fermentations has significantly increased. The recent advances in genomics together with high throughput analysis...... of recombinant therapeutics using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model platform, and discusses the future potential of this platform for production of blood proteins and substitutes....

  6. Digestibility, Milk Production, and Udder Health of Etawah Goats Fed with Fermented Coffee Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Badarina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the utilization of coffee husk fermented by Pleurotus ostreatus as feed supplement by measuring the digestibility, milk production and udder health of Etawah goats suffered from subclinical mastitis (+1. There were three experimental diets consisted of T0 (control diet/basal diet without fermented coffee husk, T1 (basal diet with 6% fermented coffee husk and T2 (basal diet with 6% fermented coffee husk soaked in crude palm oil for an hour before using. Basal diet consisted of napier grass (60% and concentrate (40%. The results showed that supplementation of lactating Etawah does with fermented coffee husk did not affect the palatability of the diets, but increased the protein and crude fiber consumption (P<0.05. There was no significant effect on nutrient digestibility and milk production while milk composition (protein, fat, total solid increased in supplemented groups (P<0.05. The persistency of milk production and the somatic cells count were not different. There was an improvement of somatic cells count on supplemented groups. In conclusion, fermented coffee husk could be used as feed supplement without any negative effects on digestibility and milk production. The positive effects to udder health could be expected from including fermented coffee husk in diets.

  7. Process simulation of ethanol production from biomass gasification and syngas fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Planas, Oscar; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Phillips, John R; Aichele, Clint P; Mohammad, Sayeed

    2017-12-01

    The hybrid gasification-syngas fermentation platform can produce more bioethanol utilizing all biomass components compared to the biochemical conversion technology. Syngas fermentation operates at mild temperatures and pressures and avoids using expensive pretreatment processes and enzymes. This study presents a new process simulation model developed with Aspen Plus® of a biorefinery based on a hybrid conversion technology for the production of anhydrous ethanol using 1200tons per day (wb) of switchgrass. The simulation model consists of three modules: gasification, fermentation, and product recovery. The results revealed a potential production of about 36.5million gallons of anhydrous ethanol per year. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to investigate the effects of gasification and fermentation parameters that are keys for the development of an efficient process in terms of energy conservation and ethanol production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A REVIEW OF PERVAPORATION FOR PRODUCT RECOVERY FROM BIOMASS FERMENTATION PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although several separation technologies are technically capable of removing volatile products from fermentation broths, distillation remains the dominant technology. This is especially true for the recovery of biofuels such as ethanol. In this paper, the status of an emerging m...

  9. In vitro ruminal fermentation and methane production of different seaweed species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Alcaide, E.; Carro, M.D.; Roleda, M. Y.

    2017-01-01

    production kinetics and in vitro rumen fermentation in batch cultures of ruminal microorganisms. The seaweeds were three red species (Mastocarpus stellatus, Palmaria palmata and Porphyra sp.), three brown species (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata and Pelvetia canaliculata) and one green species...

  10. Chemical properties and colors of fermenting materials in salmon fish sauce production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Mitsutoshi; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Takano, Katsumi; Sato, Hiroaki

    2018-02-01

    This data article reports the chemical properties (moisture, pH, salinity, and soluble solid content) and colors of fermenting materials in salmon fish sauce products. The fish sauce was produced by mixing salt with differing proportions of raw salmon materials and fermenting for three months; the salmon materials comprised flesh, viscera, an inedible portion, and soft roe. Chemical properties and colors of the unrefined fish sauce ( moromi ), and the refined fish sauce, were analyzed at one, two, and three months following the start of fermentation. Data determined for all products are provided in table format.

  11. Formation by yeast of 2-furanmethanethiol and ethyl 2-mercaptopropionate aroma compounds in Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qi; Hatakeyama, Makoto; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2014-01-01

    Two aroma compounds of volatile thiols, 2-furanmethanethiol (2FM) and ethyl 2-mercaptopropionate (ET2MP), were formed in five types of Japanese soy sauce during fermentation by yeast. The concentrations of 2FM and ET2MP in the soy sauce samples increased during alcoholic fermentation. The concentrations of 2FM and ET2MP were higher in the soy sauce fermented by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii than in that fermented by Candida versatilis. The enantiomers of ET2MP were separated by gas chromatography in a capillary column. The average enantiomeric ratio of ET2MP in the soy sauce was approximately 1:1. 2FM was formed by yeast in a medium prepared from cysteine and furfural, and cysteine is considered the key precursor of 2FM by yeast in soy sauce.

  12. By-products from the biodiesel chain as a substrate to citric acid production by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Manuella; Zimmer, Gabriela F; Cremonese, Ezequiel B; de C de S Schneider, Rosana; Corbellini, Valeriano A

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we propose the use of tung cake for the production of organic acids, with an emphasis on citric acid by solid-state fermentation. We evaluated the conditions of production and the by-products from the biodiesel chain as raw materials involved in this bioprocess. First, we standardized the conditions of solid-state fermentation in tung cake with and without residual fat and with different concentrations of glycerine using the fungus Aspergillus niger The solid-state fermentation process was monitored for 7 days considering the biomass growth and pH level. Citric acid production was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Fungal development was better in the crude tung cake, consisting of 20% glycerine. The highest citric acid yield was 350 g kg(-1) of biomass. Therefore, the solid-state fermentation of the tung cake with glycerine led to citric acid production using the Aspergillus niger fungus. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Antigenic specificity of serum antibodies in mice fed soy protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Bruun, S.W.; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Background: Soybean protein is used in a number of food products but unfortunately is also a common cause of food allergy. Upon ingestion of soy protein, healthy mice like other animals and humans generate a soy-specific antibody response in the absence of signs of illness. Not much is known about...... the relationship between the immunogenic proteins involved in this nondeleterious antibody response and the pathological response associated with food allergy. The objective of the present study was to characterize the antigenic specificity of the soy protein-specific antibody response generated in healthy mice...... ingesting soy protein. Methods: Blood from mice fed a soy-containing diet was analyzed using ELISA and immunoblot for antibody reactivity towards various soy protein fractions and pure soy proteins/subunits. Mice bred on a soy-free diet were used as controls. Results: The detectable antigenic specificity...

  14. Synergistic effect of pretreatment and fermentation process on carbohydrate-rich Scenedesmus dimorphus for bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chng, Lee Muei; Lee, Keat Teong; Chan, Derek Juinn Chieh

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomass of Scenedesmus dimorphus is degradable to produce fermentable sugar. • Sugar yield improves with acidic, enzymatic and organosolv pretreatment. • Pretreatment strategies are positively correlated with fermentation process. • SSF with organosolv-treated biomass is promising for bioethanol production. - Abstract: Significant development in conversion technologies to produce bioethanol from microalgae biomass is causing paradigm-shift in energy management. In this study, carbohydrate-rich microalgae, Scenedesmus dimorphus (49% w/w of carbohydrate) is selected with the aim to obtain qualitative correlation between pretreatment and fermentation process. In view of this, separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were conducted experimentally. The fermentation behavior were investigated for microalgae biomass treated via organosolv, enzymatic and acidic pretreatment. Fermentation process was carried out by ethanologen microbe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From the result, it is observed that a combination of two treatment is found to be the most effective in producing fermentable sugar for the subsequent fermentation process. The organosolv treatment which is followed with the SSF process produced a theoretical yield of bioethanol that exceeded 90%. On the other hand, hydrothermal acid-hydrolyzed fermentation produced the bioethanol yield with 80% of its theoretical yield. Enzymatic-hydrolyzed SHF produced 84% of theoretical yield at longer reaction time compared with others. The results were obtained with constant fermentation parameters conducted at pH 5, temperature of 34 °C, and microalgae biomass loading at 18 g/L. Ultimately, the coupling of organosolv-treated biomass with SSF process is found to be the most cost-effective for S. dimorphus biomass as bioethanol feedstock.

  15. Solid-state fermentation: a continuous process for fungal tannase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Lagemaat, J; Pyle, D L

    2004-09-30

    Truly continuous solid-state fermentations with operating times of 2-3 weeks were conducted in a prototype bioreactor for the production of fungal (Penicillium glabrum) tannase from a tannin-containing model substrate. Substantial quantities of the enzyme were synthesized throughout the operating periods and (imperfect) steady-state conditions seemed to be achieved soon after start-up of the fermentations. This demonstrated for the first time the possibility of conducting solid-state fermentations in the continuous mode and with a constant noninoculated feed. The operating variables and fermentation conditions in the bioreactor were sufficiently well predicted for the basic reinoculation concept to succeed. However, an incomplete understanding of the microbial mechanisms, the experimental system, and their interaction indicated the need for more research in this novel area of solid-state fermentation. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Heat and Mass Transfer Measurements for Tray-Fermented Fungal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, R.-Y.; Lo, C.-T.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, heat and mass transfer in static tray fermentation, which is widely used in solid-state fermentation (SSF) to produce fungal products, such as enzymes or koji, is investigated. Specifically, kinetic models of transport phenomena in the whole-tray chamber are emphasized. The effects of temperature, moisture, and humidity on microbial growth in large-scale static tray fermentation are essential to scale-up SSF and achieve uniform fermentation. In addition, heat and mass transfer of static tray fermentation of Trichoderma fungi with two tray setups—traditional linen coverings and stacks in a temperature-humidity chamber is examined. In both these setups, the following factors of fermentation were measured: air velocity, air temperature, illumination, pH, carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, and substrate temperature, and the effects of bed height, moisture of substrate, and relative humidity of air are studied. A thin (1 cm) bed at 28 °C and 95 % relative humidity is found to be optimum. Furthermore, mixing was essential for achieving uniform fermentation of Trichoderma fungi. This study has important applications in large-scale static tray fermentation of fungi.

  17. Probiotic Delivery through Fermentation: Dairy vs. Non-Dairy Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaminda Senaka Ranadheera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, mainly through the process of replacing or including beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Fermented dairy foods such as yogurt, fermented milk and cheese are the major vehicle in delivering probiotics, and probiotic delivery have been traditionally associated with these fermented dairy foods. Additionally, many other non-dairy probiotic products and non-food form such as capsules, pills and tablets are also available and some of these non-food forms are highly popular among the consumers. Certain non-dairy probiotic foods, especially beverages that are non-fermented products, can also play an important role in probiotic delivery. There is an increasing demand for non-dairy probiotic foods (both fermented and non-fermented including fruit and vegetable juices, soy and certain cereal products due to vegetarianism, lactose intolerance and dairy allergies, as well as interest in low cholesterol foods. In this context, this review mainly focus on the different types of probiotic food products including beverages with special reference to their viability followed by a brief account on the applicability of using fermented and non-fermented beverage products in probiotic delivery.

  18. Immobilization of Cells and Enzymes for Fermented Dairy or Meat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Claude P.; Lee, Byong H.; Saucier, Linda

    Historically, we can find fermented products in almost all cultural backgrounds around the world. Notably, there are many different milk or meat-based foods and this chapter will focus on them (Kosikowski 1982; Wood 1998). Cheese, yoghurt, sour cream, kefir, or cultured butter are probably the most common fermented dairy products, but many regional varieties exist (Farnworth 2004). Fermented meats are typically found as dry sausages (Lüke 1998). Yeasts are mostly involved in the manufacture of bread and alcoholic beverages, which are basically cereal- or fruit-based products. In fermented meat and milk, the main microorganisms used are the lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Yeast and molds are rather involved in ripening. Therefore, the LAB will constitute the main focus of this chapter.

  19. Removal of the Fermentation Inhibitor, Furfural, Using Activated Carbon in Cellulosic-Ethanol Production

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Kuang

    2011-12-21

    Ethanol can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass through fermentation; however, some byproducts from lignocellulosics, such as furfural compounds, are highly inhibitory to the fermentation and can substantially reduce the efficiency of ethanol production. In this study, commercial and polymer-derived activated carbons were utilized to selectively remove the model fermentation inhibitor, furfural, from water solution during bioethanol production. The oxygen functional groups on the carbon surface were found to influence the selectivity of sorbents between inhibitors and sugars during the separation. After inhibitors were selectively removed from the broth, the cell growth and ethanol production efficiency was recovered noticeably in the fermentation. A sorption/desorption cycle was designed, and the sorbents were regenerated in a fixed-bed column system using ethanol-containing standard solution. Dynamic mass balance was obtained after running four or five cycles, and regeneration results were stable even after twenty cycles. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Production of citric acid from whey permeate by fermentation using Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, M; Brooks, J D

    1983-08-01

    The use of lactic casein whey permeate as a substrate for citric acid production by fermentation has been investigated. Using a mutant strain of Aspergillus niger IMI 41874 in fermenter culture, a citric acid concentration of 8.3 g/l, representing a yield of 19% (w/w) based on lactose utilized, has been observed. Supplementation of the permeate with lactose (final concentration 140 g/l) increased the production to 14.8 g/l (yield 23%). The natural pH of the permeate (pH 4.5) was the most suitable initial pH for the process, and pH control during the fermentation was unnecessary. The addition of methanol (final concentration 3% v/v) to the fermentation increased the citric acid production to 25 g/l (yield 33%, based on lactose utilized). 13 references.

  1. Omega-3 production by fermentation of Yarrowia lipolytica: From fed-batch to continuous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dongming; Miller, Edward; Sharpe, Pamela; Jackson, Ethel; Zhu, Quinn

    2017-04-01

    The omega-3 fatty acid, cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5; EPA) has wide-ranging benefits in improving heart health, immune function, and mental health. A sustainable source of EPA production through fermentation of metabolically engineered Yarrowia lipolytica has been developed. In this paper, key fed-batch fermentation conditions were identified to achieve 25% EPA in the yeast biomass, which is so far the highest EPA titer reported in the literature. Dynamic models of the EPA fermentation process were established for analyzing, optimizing, and scaling up the fermentation process. In addition, model simulations were used to develop a two-stage continuous process and compare to single-stage continuous and fed- batch processes. The two stage continuous process, which is equipped with a smaller growth fermentor (Stage 1) and a larger production fermentor (Stage 2), was found to be a superior process to achieve high titer, rate, and yield of EPA. A two-stage continuous fermentation experiment with Y. lipolytica strain Z7334 was designed using the model simulation and then tested in a 2 L and 5 L fermentation system for 1,008 h. Compared with the standard 2 L fed-batch process, the two-stage continuous fermentation process improved the overall EPA productivity by 80% and EPA concentration in the fermenter by 40% while achieving comparable EPA titer in biomass and similar conversion yield from glucose. During the long-term experiment it was also found that the Y. lipolytica strain evolved to reduce byproduct and increase lipid production. This is one of the few continuous fermentation examples that demonstrated improved productivity and concentration of a final product with similar conversion yield compared with a fed-batch process. This paper suggests the two-stage continuous fermentation could be an effective process to achieve improved production of omega-3 and other fermentation products where non-growth or partially growth associated kinetics

  2. Improving cellulase productivity of Penicillium oxalicum RE-10 by repeated fed-batch fermentation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaolong; Song, Wenxia; Liu, Guodong; Li, Zhonghai; Yang, Piao; Qu, Yinbo

    2017-03-01

    Medium optimization and repeated fed-batch fermentation were performed to improve the cellulase productivity by P. oxalicum RE-10 in submerged fermentation. First, Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and central composite design (CCD) were used to optimize the medium for cellulase production. PBD demonstrated wheat bran and NaNO 3 had significant influences on cellulase production. The CCD results showed the maximum filter paper activity (FPA) production of 8.61U/mL could be achieved in Erlenmeyer flasks. The maximal FPA reached 12.69U/mL by submerged batch fermentation in a 7.5-L stirred tank, 1.76-fold higher than that on the original medium. Then, the repeated fed-batch fermentation strategy was performed successfully for increasing the cellulase productivity from 105.75U/L/h in batch fermentation to 158.38U/L/h. The cellulase activity and the glucan conversion of delignined corn cob residue hydrolysis had no significant difference between the enzymes sampled from different cycles of the repeated fed-batch fermentation and that from batch culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Solid-state fermentation from dried sweet sorghum stalk for bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almodares, A.; Etemadifar, Z.; Omidi, A. [Univ. of Isfahan, Biology Dept., Univ. of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: aalmodares@yahoo.com

    2012-11-01

    Due to depletion of global crude oil, countries are interested to alternate fuel energy resources. Presently bioethanol as a source of energy has been a subject of great interest for the industrialized countries. Therefore, there is need for efficient bioethanol production with low cost raw material and production process. Among energy crops, sweet sorghum is the best candidate for bioethanol production. It has been identified as having higher drought tolerance, lower input cost and higher biomass yield than other energy crops. In addition it has wide adoptability and tolerance to abiotic stresses. Moreover due to the shortage of water in dry and hot countries there is a need to reduce water requirement for bioethanol production and solid state fermentation could be the best process for making bioethanol in these countries. The purpose of this study is to achieve the highest ethanol production with lowest amount of water in solid state fermentation using sweet sorghum stalk. In this study the sweet sorghum particles were used for solid state fermentation. Fermentation medium were: sweet sorghum particles with nutrient media, active yeast powder and different moisture contents. The fermentation medium was incubated for 2-3 days at 30 deg C temperature. The results showed sweet sorghum particles (15% w/w) fermented in medium containing 0.5% yeast inoculums, 73.5% moisture content and 3 days incubation period produced the highest amount of ethanol (13% w/w sorghum)

  4. Assessment of Monacolin in the Fermented Products Using Monascus purpureus FTC5391

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ajdari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Monacolins, as natural statins, form a class of fungal secondary metabolites and act as the specific inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase. The interest in using the fermented products as the natural source of monacolins, instead of statin drugs, is increasing enormously with its increasing demand. In this study, the fermented products were produced by Monascus purpureus FTC5391 using submerged and solid state fermentations. Two commercial Monascus-fermented products were also evaluated for comparison. Improved methods of monacolins extraction and identification were developed for the assessment of monacolins in the fermented products. Methanol and ethanol were found to be the most favorable solvents for monacolins extraction due to their ability to extract higher amount of monacolin K and higher numbers of monacolin derivatives. Problem related to false-positive results during monacolins identification was solved by adding monacolin lactonization step in the assessment method. Using this improved method, monacolin derivatives were not detected in all Monascus-fermented products tested in this study, suggesting that their hypocholesterolemic effects may be due to other compounds other than monacolins.

  5. Production of fungal antibiotics using polymeric solid supports in solid-state and liquid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelis, Ramunas; He, Haiyin; Yang, Hui Y; Chang, Li-Ping; Greenstein, Michael

    2006-10-01

    The use of inert absorbent polymeric supports for cellular attachment in solid-state fungal fermentation influenced growth, morphology, and production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Two filamentous fungi exemplified the utility of this approach to facilitate the discovery of new antimicrobial compounds. Cylindrocarpon sp. LL-Cyan426 produced pyrrocidines A and B and Acremonium sp. LL-Cyan416 produced acremonidins A-E when grown on agar bearing moist polyester-cellulose paper and generated distinctly different metabolite profiles than the conventional shaken or stationary liquid fermentations. Differences were also apparent when tenfold concentrated methanol extracts from these fermentations were tested against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, and zones of inhibition were compared. Shaken broth cultures of Acremonium sp. or Cylindrocarpon sp. showed complex HPLC patterns, lower levels of target compounds, and high levels of unwanted compounds and medium components, while agar/solid support cultures showed significantly increased yields of pyrrocidines A and B and acremonidins A-E, respectively. This method, mixed-phase fermentation (fermentation with an inert solid support bearing liquid medium), exploited the increase in surface area available for fungal growth on the supports and the tendency of some microorganisms to adhere to solid surfaces, possibly mimicking their natural growth habits. The production of dimeric anthraquinones by Penicillium sp. LL-WF159 was investigated in liquid fermentation using various inert polymeric immobilization supports composed of polypropylene, polypropylene cellulose, polyester-cellulose, or polyurethane. This culture produced rugulosin, skyrin, flavomannin, and a new bisanthracene, WF159-A, after fermentation in the presence and absence of polymeric supports for mycelial attachment. The physical nature of the different support systems influenced culture morphology and relative

  6. Improving lactic acid productivity from wheat straw hydrolysates by membrane integrated repeated batch fermentation under non-sterilized conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong; Qi, Benkun

    2014-01-01

    to eliminate the sequential utilization of mixed sugar and feedback inhibition during batch fermentation, membrane integrated repeated batch fermentation (MIRB) was used to improve LA productivity. With MIRB, a high cell density was obtained and the simultaneous fermentation of glucose, xylose and arabinose...

  7. Process optimization and analysis of product inhibition kinetics of crude glycerol fermentation for 1,3-Dihydroxyacetone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Pritam Kumar; Padhi, Susant Kumar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2017-11-01

    In present study, statistical optimization of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol fermentation to DHA by immobilized G. oxydans cells over polyurethane foam is reported. Effect of DHA (product) inhibition on crude glycerol fermentation was analyzed using conventional biokinetic models and new model that accounts for both substrate and product inhibition. Optimum values of fermentation parameters were: pH=4.7, temperature=31°C, initial substrate concentration=20g/L. At optimum conditions, DHA yield was 89% (17.83g/L). Effect of product inhibition on fermentation was trivial for DHA concentrations ≤30g/L. At higher concentrations (≥50g/L), kinetics and yield of fermentation showed marked reduction with sharp drop in V max and K S values. Inhibition effect was more pronounced for immobilized cells due to restricted transport of fermentation mixture across polyurethane foam. Retention of fermentation mixture in immobilized matrix resulted in higher localized DHA concentration that possibly enhanced inhibition effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pyrosequencing Analysis of the Microbial Diversity of Airag, Khoormog and Tarag, Traditional Fermented Dairy Products of Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    OKI, Kaihei; DUGERSUREN, Jamyan; DEMBEREL, Shirchin; WATANABE, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Here, we used pyrosequencing to obtain a detailed analysis of the microbial diversities of traditional fermented dairy products of Mongolia. From 22 Airag (fermented mare’s milk), 5 Khoormog (fermented camel’s milk) and 26 Tarag (fermented milk of cows, goats and yaks) samples collected in the Mongolian provinces of Arhangai, Bulgan, Dundgobi, Tov, Uburhangai and Umnugobi, we obtained a total of 81 operational taxonomic units, which were assigned to 15 families, 21 genera and 41 species in 3 ...

  9. Fermentation behaviour and volatile compound production by agave and grape must yeasts in high sugar Agave tequilana and grape must fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizon, Javier; Fiore, Concetta; Acosta, Guillermina; Romano, Patrizia; Gschaedler, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have been performed on the characterization of yeasts involved in the production of agave distilled beverages and their individual fermentation properties. In this study, a comparison and evaluation of yeasts of different origins in the tequila and wine industries were carried out for technological traits. Fermentations were carried out in high (300 g l(-1)) and low (30 g l(-1)) sugar concentrations of Agave tequilana juice, in musts obtained from Fiano (white) and Aglianico (red) grapes and in YPD medium (with 270 g l(-1) of glucose added) as a control. Grape yeasts exhibited a reduced performance in high-sugar agave fermentation, while both agave and grape yeasts showed similar fermentation behaviour in grape musts. Production levels of volatile compounds by grape and agave yeasts differed in both fermentations.

  10. Hydrogen production using Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP 3-5 with hydrogen fermentation reactor effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi-Mei Lee; Kuo-Tsang Hung

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of utilizing the dark hydrogen fermentation stage effluents for photo hydrogen production using purple non-sulfur bacteria should be elucidated. In the previous experiments, Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP3-5 was proven to efficiently produce hydrogen from the effluent of hydrogen fermentation reactors. The highest hydrogen production rate was obtained at a HRT value of 48 h when feeding a 5 fold effluent dilution from anaerobic hydrogen fermentation. Besides, hydrogen production occurred only when the NH 4 + concentration was below 17 mg-NH 4 + /l. Therefore, for successful fermentation effluent utilization, the most important things were to decrease the optimal HRT, increase the optimal substrate concentration and increase the tolerable ammonia concentration. In this study, a lab-scale serial photo-bioreactor was constructed. The reactor overall hydrogen production efficiency with synthetic wastewater exhibiting an organic acid profile identical to that of anaerobic hydrogen fermentation reactor effluent and with effluent from two anaerobic hydrogen fermentation reactors was evaluated. (authors)

  11. Production of lactic acid from sucrose: strain selection, fermentation, and kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunelli, Betânia H; Andrade, Rafael R; Atala, Daniel I P; Wolf Maciel, Maria Regina; Maugeri Filho, Francisco; Maciel Filho, Rubens

    2010-05-01

    Lactic acid is an important product arising from the anaerobic fermentation of sugars. It is used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, chemical, and food industries as well as for biodegradable polymer and green solvent production. In this work, several bacterial strains were isolated from industrial ethanol fermentation, and the most efficient strain for lactic acid production was selected. The fermentation was conducted in a batch system under anaerobic conditions for 50 h at a temperature of 34 degrees C, a pH value of 5.0, and an initial sucrose concentration of 12 g/L using diluted sugarcane molasses. Throughout the process, pulses of molasses were added in order to avoid the cell growth inhibition due to high sugar concentration as well as increased lactic acid concentrations. At the end of the fermentation, about 90% of sucrose was consumed to produce lactic acid and cells. A kinetic model has been developed to simulate the batch lactic acid fermentation results. The data obtained from the fermentation were used for determining the kinetic parameters of the model. The developed model for lactic acid production, growth cell, and sugar consumption simulates the experimental data well.

  12. Improvements in the Flavour of Soy Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of biochemical and technological similarities and dissimilarities between soy cheese and Cheddar cheese is presented to provide guidelines for the improvements in the flavour of soy cheese. Processing technology as well as the final product of soy cheese have many similarities with Cheddar in terms of appearance, texture, mouth feel, chemical nature, biochemical processes, etc. Soy protein has many useful amino acids like Asp, Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Trp, Tyr, Val, etc., which are precursors of flavouring compounds and the right choice of microbial cultures is necessary to benefit from them. Using low levels of sodium chloride, without the use of ethanol, and introducing new milk cheese starter and non-starter cultures like Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (formerly L. lactis ssp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus lactis var. maltigenes and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris that enhance flavour will be helpful to improve the flavour of soy cheese.

  13. Optimization of the liquid biofertilizer production in batch fermentation with by-product from MSG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namfon, Panjanapongchai; Ratchanok, Sahaworarak; Chalida, Daengbussade

    2017-03-01

    The long term use of chemical fertilizers destroyed the friability of soil which obviously decreased quantity and quality of crops and especially affect microorganisms living in soils. The bio-fertilizer with microbial consortium is an environmental friendly alternative to solve this bottleneck due to harboring soil microorganisms such as Bacillus sp., Micrococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Staphylococcus sp. and Deinococcus sp. produced with natural by-product or waste from industries that is alternative and sustainable such as nutrient-rich (by-product) from Mono Sodium Glutamate (MSG) for producing liquid biofertilizer by batch fermentation. In this work, the concentration of reducing sugar from substrate as main carbon source was evaluated in shake flask with mixed cultures. The optimal conditions were studied comparing with two levels of reducing sugar concentration (10, 20 g/L) and inoculums concentration (10, 20 %v/v) with using (2×2) full factorial design. The results indicated that the by-product from monosodium glutamate is feasible for fermentation and inoculums concentration is mainly influenced the batch fermentation process. Moreover, the combined 20 g/L and 10%v/v were considerably concluded as an optimal condition, of which the concentration of vegetative cells and spores attained at 8.29×109 CFU/mL and 1.97×105 CFU/mL, respectively. Their spores cell yields from reducing sugar (Yx/s) were obtained at 1.22×106 and 3.34×105 CFU/g were markedly different. In conclusion, the liquid Biofertilizer was produced satisfactorily at 20 g/L reducing sugar and 10% v/v inoculums in shake flask culture. Moreover, these results suggested that the by-product from monosodium glutamate is feasible for low-cost substrate in economical scale and environmental-friendly.

  14. Production of lactic acid from corn cobs through fermentation lactobacillus delbruekii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Z.; Anjum, M.; Zahoor, T.

    2007-01-01

    Corn cobs were used as the source of reducing sugars for conversion into lactic acid through fermentation by a local strain of Lactobacillus delbruekii, under varying parameters of time, temperature, pH and glucose concentration, The production of lactic acid significantly increased with increase in Ph, fermentation time and glucose concentration (1-5%) and was significantly high (8.40 g/1) at pH 6, while significantly low (7.67 g/1) at pH 5. (author)

  15. Monitoring of metabolites and by-products in a down-scaled industrial lager beer fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöström, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    The sugar composition of the wort and how these sugars are utilised by the yeast affects the organoleptic properties of the beer. To monitor the saccharides in the wort before inoculation and during fermentation is important in modern brewing industry. Reducing the duration of the brewing process is valuable and can be achieved by reducing the fermentation time by an increase in temperature. However, this must be done without changing the quality and characteristics of the end product, anothe...

  16. Submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9 for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production

    OpenAIRE

    Lin,Qian

    2013-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system, and its application in drugs and functional foods has attracted great attention. To enhance production of y-aminobutyric acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9, a strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food pickled vegetable, was grown under submerged fermentation. Its cultivation conditions were investigated. When culture pH condition was adjusted to the optimal pH of glutamate decarboxyl...

  17. Ethanol production in an integrated fermentation/membrane system. Process simulations and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, W J; Kraayenbrink, M R; Lans, R.G.J.M. van der; Luyben, K C.A.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Biochemical Engineering

    1993-01-01

    Four systems comprising of an ethanol fermentation integrated with microfiltration and/or pervaporation, and a conventional continuous culture, were compared with respect to the performance of the fermentation and economics. The processes are compared on the basis of the same kinetic model. It is found that cell retention by microfiltration leads to lower production costs, compared to a conventional continuous culture. Pervaporation becomes profitable at a high selectivity of ethanol/water separation and low membrane prices. (orig.).

  18. Aureobasidium pullulans Fermented Feruloyl Oligosaccharide: Optimization of Production, Preliminary Characterization, and Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohong Yu; Zhenxin Gu

    2013-01-01

    Wheat bran (WB) was subjected to processing with Aureobasidium pullulans (A. pullulans) under selected conditions to partially break down the xylan into soluble products (mainly feruloyl oligosaccharides, FOs). The objective of this study was to investigate the technology for one-step fermentation of WB by A. pullulans without melanin secretion to produce FOs as well as to determine their structural features and antioxidant activity. Initial pH, inoculation quantity, and fermentation temperat...

  19. Antigenotoxic activity of lactic acid bacteria, prebiotics, and products of their fermentation against selected mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Adriana; Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Otlewska, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Dietary components such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and prebiotics can modulate the intestinal microbiota and are thought to be involved in the reduction of colorectal cancer risk. The presented study measured, using the comet assay, the antigenotoxic activity of both probiotic and non-probiotic LAB, as well as some prebiotics and the end-products of their fermentation, against fecal water (FW). The production of short chain fatty acids by the bacteria was quantified using HPLC. Seven out of the ten tested viable strains significantly decreased DNA damage induced by FW. The most effective of them were Lactobacillus mucosae 0988 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb-12, leading to a 76% and 80% decrease in genotoxicity, respectively. The end-products of fermentation of seven prebiotics by Lactobacillus casei DN 114-001 exhibited the strongest antigenotoxic activity against FW, with fermented inulin reducing genotoxicity by 75%. Among the tested bacteria, this strain produced the highest amounts of butyrate in the process of prebiotic fermentation, and especially from resistant dextrin (4.09 μM/mL). Fermented resistant dextrin improved DNA repair by 78% in cells pre-treated with 6.8 μM methylnitronitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Fermented inulin induced stronger DNA repair in cells pre-treated with mutagens (FW, 25 μM hydrogen peroxide, or MNNG) than non-fermented inulin, and the efficiency of DNA repair after 120 min of incubation decreased by 71%, 50% and 70%, respectively. The different degrees of genotoxicity inhibition observed for the various combinations of bacteria and prebiotics suggest that this effect may be attributable to carbohydrate type, SCFA yield, and the ratio of the end-products of prebiotic fermentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fuel ethanol production from sweet sorghum using repeated-batch fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohnan, Shigeru; Nakane, Megumi; Rahman, M Habibur; Nitta, Youji; Yoshiura, Takanori; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Kurusu, Yasurou

    2011-04-01

    Ethanol was efficiently produced from three varieties of sweet sorghum using repeated-batch fermentation without pasteurization or acidification. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells could be recycled in 16 cycles of the fermentation process with good ethanol yields. This technique would make it possible to use a broader range of sweet sorghum varieties for ethanol production. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced hydrogen and 1,3-propanediol production from glycerol by fermentation using mixed cultures

    KAUST Repository

    Selembo, Priscilla A.

    2009-12-15

    The conversion of glycerol into high value products, such as hydrogen gas and 1,3-propanediol (PD), was examined using anaerobic fermentation with heat-treated mixed cultures. Glycerol fermentation produced 0.28 mol-H 2/mol-glycerol (72 mL-H2/g-COD) and 0.69 mol-PD/mol-glycerol. Glucose fermentation using the same mixed cultures produced more hydrogen gas (1.06 mol-H2/mol-glucose) but no PD. Changing the source of inoculum affected gas production likely due to prior acclimation of bacteria to this type of substrate. Fermentation of the glycerol produced from biodiesel fuel production (70% glycerol content) produced 0.31 mol-H 2/mol-glycerol (43 mL H2/g-COD) and 0.59 mol-PD/mol-glycerol. These are the highest yields yet reported for both hydrogen and 1,3-propanediol production from pure glycerol and the glycerol byproduct from biodiesel fuel production by fermentation using mixed cultures. These results demonstrate that production of biodiesel can be combined with production of hydrogen and 1,3-propanediol for maximum utilization of resources and minimization of waste. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Fermentative intensity of L-lactic acid production using self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-05-25

    May 25, 2016 ... Full Length Research Paper. Fermentative ... This study investigated the medium compositions for .... shaker for 12 or 24 h (12 h for stirred tank fermentor, 24 h for flask) at 32°C, with ..... was about 5% of relative error when compared with .... Rhizopus Oryzae in 3-L airlift bioreactor using response surface.

  3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Production of Fermented Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme M Walker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic beverages are produced following the fermentation of sugars by yeasts, mainly (but not exclusively strains of the species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The sugary starting materials may emanate from cereal starches (which require enzymatic pre-hydrolysis in the case of beers and whiskies, sucrose-rich plants (molasses or sugar juice from sugarcane in the case of rums, or from fruits (which do not require pre-hydrolysis in the case of wines and brandies. In the presence of sugars, together with other essential nutrients such as amino acids, minerals and vitamins, S. cerevisiae will conduct fermentative metabolism to ethanol and carbon dioxide (as the primary fermentation metabolites as the cells strive to make energy and regenerate the coenzyme NAD+ under anaerobic conditions. Yeasts will also produce numerous secondary metabolites which act as important beverage flavour congeners, including higher alcohols, esters, carbonyls and sulphur compounds. These are very important in dictating the final flavour and aroma characteristics of beverages such as beer and wine, but also in distilled beverages such as whisky, rum and brandy. Therefore, yeasts are of vital importance in providing the alcohol content and the sensory profiles of such beverages. This Introductory Chapter reviews, in general, the growth, physiology and metabolism of S. cerevisiae in alcoholic beverage fermentations.

  4. Processing and fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L.A.; Ziobro, G.

    1982-01-01

    Processing and fermentation trials on Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) tubers, and on pure inulin media were carried out. Acid and thermal treatments, pure and mixed cultures of yeast, and enzyme preparations were investigated. Best EtOH yields on either substrate were obtained with pH 2 thermal treatments, resulting in 131.6lEtOH/ton fresh tuber.

  5. Bioethanol production from date palm fruit waste fermentation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CDPW is a renewable and sustainable resource of energy that is not greatly used in industries. The date is rich in biodegradable sugars, providing bioethanol after fermentation during 72 h at 30°C in the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and the distillation of date's juice obtained. In the first experience, a solar ...

  6. Optimization of fermentation medium for enhanced production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... The Plackett-Burman design indicated that yeast extract, soybean flour, KH2PO4, FeSO4 .... Extraction and HPLC analysis of the milbemycin ... performed with an Agilent 1200 HPLC system and the elution was detected at ..... fermentation, isolation, structural elucidation and biological activities. J. Antibiot.

  7. Reported attitudes and beliefs toward soy food consumption of soy consumers versus nonconsumers in natural foods or mainstream grocery stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyver, Tamara; Smith, Chery

    2005-01-01

    To examine the attitudes and beliefs of soy foods consumers (SCs) versus nonconsumers (NCs). Seven focus groups were conducted. Mainstream or natural foods grocery stores. Fifty-three participants, ages 18 to 91 years. Focus groups included discussions on lifestyle practices, beliefs about soy, conversion to soy consumption, and suggestions on how to increase soy consumption. Common themes were identified, coded, and compared using NVivo computer software. Barriers to soy consumption included soy's image, a lack of familiarity with how to prepare soy foods, and a perception that soy foods were an inadequate flavor substitute for animal-based products. SCs' conversion to regular consumption was initiated by food intolerances, an increased interest in health, or an adoption of a vegetarian or natural foods lifestyle and was sustained because they enjoyed the flavor. Many participants did not know why soy was considered healthful, whereas others identified it as "heart healthy," a source of protein, and good for women's health. Some SCs had become concerned regarding the controversy surrounding breast cancer and soy consumption. Improving soy's image and educating consumers on its preparation could increase soy consumption.

  8. Food Grade Ehanol Production With Fermentation And Distillation Process Using Stem Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliana Setyowati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 10% -12% of sugar in its stem which is the optimum sugar concentration in fermentation process for bioethanol production. Sorghum has a high potential to be developed as a raw material for food-grade ethanol production which can be used to support food-grade ethanol demand in Indonesia through a fermentation process. This research focused on the effect of microorganism varieties in the fermentation process which are mutant Zymomonas mobilis (A3, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis mixture. The Research for purification process are separated into two parts, distillation with steel wool structured packing and dehydration process using molecular sieve and eliminating impurities using activated carbon. The research can be concluded that the best productivity shown in continuous fermentation in the amount of 84.049 (g / L.hr using the mixture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis. The highest percentage of ethanol yield produced in batch fermentation using the mixture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis that is equal to 51.269%. And for the adsorption, the best result shown in continuous fermentation by using Zymomonas Mobilis of 88.374%..

  9. Modeling of fermentative hydrogen production from sweet sorghum extract based on modified ADM1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    The Anaerobic digestion model 1 (ADM1) framework can be used to predict fermentative hydrogen production, since the latter is directly related to the acidogenic stage of the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the ADM1 model framework was used to simulate and predict the process...... used for kinetic parameter validation. Since the ADM1 does not account for metabolic products such as lactic acid and ethanol that are crucial during the fermentative hydrogen production process, the structure of the model was modified to include lactate and ethanol among the metabolites and to improve...... of fermentative hydrogen production from the extractable sugars of sweet sorghum biomass. Kinetic parameters for sugars’ consumption and yield coefficients of acetic, propionic and butyric acid production were estimated using the experimental data obtained from the steady states of a CSTR. Batch experiments were...

  10. Bio-hydrogen production from molasses by anaerobic fermentation in continuous stirred tank reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Li, Yong-feng; Chen, Hong; Deng, Jie-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

    2010-11-01

    A study of bio-hydrogen production was performed in a continuous flow anaerobic fermentation reactor (with an available volume of 5.4 L). The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for bio-hydrogen production was operated under the organic loading rates (OLR) of 8-32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d (COD: chemical oxygen demand) with molasses as the substrate. The maximum hydrogen production yield of 8.19 L/d was obtained in the reactor with the OLR increased from 8 kg COD/m3 reactor/d to 24 kg COD/m3 d. However, the hydrogen production and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) drastically decreased at an OLR of 32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d. Ethanoi, acetic, butyric and propionic were the main liquid fermentation products with the percentages of 31%, 24%, 20% and 18%, which formed the mixed-type fermentation.

  11. Oxidative Stability and Sensory Attributes of Fermented Milk Product Fortified with Fish Oil and Marine Phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Hyldig, Grethe

    2013-01-01

    Marine phospholipids (PL) are potential ingredients for food fortification due to its numerous advantages. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether a fermented milk product fortified with a mixture of marine PL and fish oil had better oxidative stability than a fermented milk...... product fortified with fish oil alone. Fortification of a fermented milk product with marine PL was performed by incorporating 1 % w/w lipids, either in the form of neat oil or in the form of a pre-emulsion. Lipid oxidation was investigated in the neat emulsions and fortified products by the measurements...... of primary, secondary volatile oxidation products and tocopherol content upon 32 days storage at 2 °C and 28 days storage at 5 °C, respectively. Analyses of particle size distribution, viscosity and microbial growth were also performed. In addition, sensory attributes such as sour, fishy and rancid flavor...

  12. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for production of mixed-acid fermentation end products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hartmut Förster

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mixed-acid fermentation end products have numerous applications in biotechnology. This is probably the main driving force for the development of multiple strains that are supposed to produce individual end products with high yields. The process of engineering Escherichia coli strains for applied production of ethanol, lactate, succinate, or acetate was initiated several decades ago and is still ongoing. This review follows the path of strain development from the general characteristics of aerobic versus anaerobic metabolism over the regulatory machinery that enables the different metabolic routes. Thereafter, major improvements for broadening the substrate spectrum of Escherichia coli towards cheap carbon sources like molasses or lignocellulose are highlighted before major routes of strain development for the production of ethanol, acetate, lactate and succinate are presented.

  13. Valorization of By-Products from Palm Oil Mills for the Production of Generic Fermentation Media for Microbial Oil Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kachrimanidou, Vasiliki; Dos Santos, Anderson Fragoso; do Nascimento Vitorino Lima, Maria Eduarda; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; de Castro, Aline Machado; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2017-04-01

    This study demonstrates the production of a generic nutrient-rich feedstock using by-product streams from palm oil production that could be used as a substitute for commercial fermentation supplements. Solid-state fermentations of palm kernel cake (PKC) and palm-pressed fiber (PPF) were conducted in tray bioreactors and a rotating drum bioreactor by the fungal strain Aspergillus oryzae for the production of crude enzymes. The production of protease was optimized (319.3 U/g) at an initial moisture content of 55 %, when PKC was used as the sole substrate. The highest free amino nitrogen (FAN) production (5.6 mg/g) obtained via PKC hydrolysis using the crude enzymes produced via solid-state fermentation was achieved at 50 °C. Three initial PKC concentrations (48.7, 73.7, and 98.7 g/L) were tested in hydrolysis experiments, leading to total Kjeldahl nitrogen to FAN conversion yields up to 27.9 %. Sequential solid-state fermentation followed by hydrolysis was carried out in the same rotating drum bioreactor, leading to the production of 136.7 U/g of protease activity during fermentation and 196.5 mg/L of FAN during hydrolysis. Microbial oil production was successfully achieved with the oleaginous yeast strain Lipomyces starkeyi DSM 70296 cultivated on the produced PKC hydrolysate mixed with commercial carbon sources, including glucose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and arabinose.

  14. Caffeic acid production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of kraft pulp using recombinant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Hideo; Katsuyama, Yohei; Danyao, Du; Kahar, Prihardi; Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Teramura, Hiroshi; Wakai, Keiko; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Minami, Hiromichi; Ogino, Chiaki; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Kondo, Ahikiko

    2017-07-01

    Caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) serves as a building block for thermoplastics and a precursor for biologically active compounds and was recently produced from glucose by microbial fermentation. To produce caffeic acid from inedible cellulose, separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) reactions were compared using kraft pulp as lignocellulosic feedstock. Here, a tyrosine-overproducing Escherichia coli strain was metabolically engineered to produce caffeic acid from glucose by introducing the genes encoding a 4-hydroxyphenyllactate 3-hydroxylase (hpaBC) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and tyrosine ammonia lyase (fevV) from Streptomyces sp. WK-5344. Using the resulting recombinant strain, the maximum yield of caffeic acid in SSF (233 mg/L) far exceeded that by SHF (37.9 mg/L). In the SSF with low cellulase loads (≤2.5 filter paper unit/g glucan), caffeic acid production was markedly increased, while almost no glucose accumulation was detected, indicating that the E. coli cells experienced glucose limitation in this culture condition. Caffeic acid yield was also negatively correlated with the glucose concentration in the fermentation medium. In SHF, the formation of by-product acetate and the accumulation of potential fermentation inhibitors increased significantly with kraft pulp hydrolysate than filter paper hydrolysate. The combination of these inhibitors had synergistic effects on caffeic acid fermentation at low concentrations. With lower loads of cellulase in SSF, less potential fermentation inhibitors (furfural, 5-hydroxymethyfurfural, and 4-hydroxylbenzoic acid) accumulated in the medium. These observations suggest that glucose limitation in SSF is crucial for improving caffeic acid yield, owing to reduced by-product formation and fermentation inhibitor accumulation.

  15. Effect of Natural Fermentation on the Chemical and Nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in the chemical and nutritional composition of naturally fermented soy nono were studied at ambient temperature (27 ± 2oC) for 72 h. The differently fermented soy nono samples were collected at 6 h intervals and analysed for chemical, proximate and mineral composition using standard laboratory procedures.

  16. Making soy sauce from defatted soybean meal without the mejus process by submerged cultivation using thermophilic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jeong Min; Park, Doo Hyun

    2015-08-01

    The diversity of thermophilic bacteria was not significantly altered while growing in a defatted soybean meal (DFSM) slurry at 60 °C for 10, 20, and 30 days. Five species of thermophilic bacteria, which belong to the genera Aeribacillus (temperature gradient gel electrophoresis [TGGE] band no. 1), Saccharococcus (TGGE band no. 2), Geobacillus (TGGE band no. 3), Bacillus (TGGE band no. 4), and Anoxybacillus (TGGE band no. 5), were detected in the fermenting DFSM slurry. The cell-free culture fluid obtained from the fermenting DFSM slurry on day 14 hydrolyzed starch and soy protein at 60 °C but not at 30 °C. Soy sauce (test soy sauce) was prepared from the fermented DFSM slurry after a 30 day cultivation at 60 °C and a 60 day ripening at 45 °C. Free amino acid (AA) and organic acid contents in the soy sauce increased in proportion to the fermentation period, whereas ammonium decreased proportionally. Mg and Ca contained in the soy sauce decreased proportionally during fermentation and were lower than those in the non-fermented DFSM extract (control). Spectral absorbance of soy sauce prepared from the fermented DFSM slurry was maximal at 430 nm and increased slightly in proportion to the fermentation period. The aroma and flavor of the test soy sauce were significantly different from those of traditional Korean soy sauce. Conclusively, soy sauce may be prepared directly from the fermented DFSM slurry without meju-preparing process and fermentation period may be a factor for control of soy sauce quality.

  17. Effect of some environmental parameters on fermentative hydrogen production by Enterobacter cloacae DM11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, K.; Kumar, A.; Das, D. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Biotechnology, Fermentation Technology Laboratory

    2006-06-15

    This study addressed the issue of using biological systems for hydrogen production as an environmentally sound alternative to conventional thermochemical and electrochemical processes. In particular, it examined the potential for anaerobic fermentation for biological hydrogen production and the possibility of coupling gaseous energy generation with simultaneous treatment of biodegradable waste materials. The study focused on hydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation using Enterobacter cloacae DM11, a Gram-negative, motile facultative anaerobe. Although hydrogen production by these bacteria depends on many environmental parameters, there is very little information on the effects of these factors in the hydrogen production potential of this organism. For that reason, this study examined the effect of initial medium pH, reaction temperature, initial glucose concentration, and iron (Fe2+) concentration on the fermentative production of hydrogen. Fermentative hydrogen production was carried out by Enterobacter cloacae DM11, using glucose as the substrate. Batch cultivations were performed in a 500 ml custom-designed vertical tubular bioreactor. The maximum molar yield of hydrogen was 3.31 mol (mol glucose){sub 1}. The rate and cumulative volume of hydrogen production decreased at higher initial glucose concentration. The pH of 6.5 at a temperature of 37 degrees C was most suitable for maximum rate of production of hydrogen in batch fermentation. The addition of Fe2+ on hydrogen production had a marginal enhancing effect on total hydrogen production. A simple model developed from the modified Gompertz equation was used to fit the cumulative hydrogen production curve and to estimate the hydrogen production potential, maximum production rate, and lag time. It was concluded that these study results could be used in the development of a high rate continuous hydrogen production process. 30 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  18. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of garlic-fermenting lactic acid bacteria isolated from som-fak, a Thai low-salt fermented fish product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Valyasevi, R.; Huss, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the importance of garlic for fermentation of a Thai fish product, and to differentiate among garlic-/inulin-fermenting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) at strain level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Som-fak was prepared by fermentation of a mixture of fish, salt, rice, sucrose and garlic. p......H decreased to 4.5 in 2 days, but omitting garlic resulted in a lack of acidification. LAB were predominant and approximately one third of 234 isolated strains fermented garlic and inulin (the carbohydrate reserve in garlic). These strains were identified as Lactobacillus pentosus and Lact. plantarum...... AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The present study indicates the role of fructans (garlic/inulin) as carbohydrate sources for LAB. Fructan fermenters may have several biotechnological applications, for example, as probiotics....

  19. Urinary Isoflavonoid Excretion is Similar after Consuming Soy Milk and Miso Soup in Japanese-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Watts, Kirsten; Kagihara, Jamie; Hebshi, Sandra M.; Franke, Adrian A.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that isoflavones are absorbed more efficiently from fermented than from non-fermented soy foods, we compared the urinary isoflavonoid excretion (UIE) after intake of miso soup or soy milk. We recruited 21 women with Japanese ancestry who consumed standardized soy portions containing 48 mg isoflavones. On day 1, half the women consumed soy milk, the other half started with miso soup. On day 3, the subjects ate the other soy food and on day 5, they repeated the first food. Each participant collected a spot urine sample before and an overnight urine sample after soy food intake. All urine samples were analyzed for the daidzein, genistein, and equol using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and were expressed as nmol per mg creatinine. We applied mixed models to evaluate the difference in UIE by food while including the baseline values and covariates. Relative to baseline, both groups experienced significantly higher UIE after consuming any of the soy foods. We observed no significant difference in UIE when soy milk was compared to miso soup (p = 0.87) among all women or in the seven equol producers (p = 0.88). Repeated intake of the same food on different days showed high reproducibility within subjects. These preliminary results indicate similar UIEs after consuming a fermented soy food (miso) as compared to a non-fermented soy food (soy milk). Therefore, recommendations favoring fermented soy foods are not justified as long as the intestinal microflora is capable of hydrolyzing the isoflavone glucosides from non-fermented soy foods. PMID:18275624

  20. Lactate production as representative of the fermentation potential of Corynebacterium glutamicum 2262 in a one-step process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuat, Hoang Bao Truc; Kaboré, Abdoul Karim; Olmos, Eric; Fick, Michel; Boudrant, Joseph; Goergen, Jean-Louis; Delaunay, Stéphane; Guedon, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The fermentative properties of thermo-sensitive strain Corynebacterium glutamicum 2262 were investigated in processes coupling aerobic cell growth and the anaerobic fermentation phase. In particular, the influence of two modes of fermentation on the production of lactate, the fermentation product model, was studied. In both processes, lactate was produced in significant amount, 27 g/L in batch culture, and up to 55.8 g/L in fed-batch culture, but the specific production rate in the fed-batch culture was four times lower than that in the batch culture. Compared to other investigated fermentation processes, our strategy resulted in the highest yield of lactic acid from biomass. Lactate production by C. glutamicum 2262 thus revealed the capability of the strain to produce various fermentation products from pyruvate.

  1. Procyanidin A2 and Its Degradation Products in Raw, Fermented, and Roasted Cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Taeye, Cédric; Caullet, Gilles; Eyamo Evina, Victor Jos; Collin, Sonia

    2017-03-01

    Cocoa is known as an important source of flavan-3-ols, but their fate "from the bean to the bar" is not yet clear. Here, procyanidin A2 found in native cocoa beans (9-13 mg/kg) appeared partially epimerized into A2 E1 through fermentation, whereas a second epimer (A2 E2 ) emerged after roasting. At m/z 575, dehydrodiepicatechin A was revealed to be the major HPLC peak before fermentation, whereas F1, a marker of well-conducted fermentations, becomes the most intense after roasting. RP-HPLC-ESI(-)-HRMS/MS analysis performed on a procyanidin A2 model medium after 12 h at 90 °C revealed many more degradation products than those identified in fermented cocoa, including the last epimer of A2, A2 open structure intermediates (m/z 577), and oxidized A-type dimers (m/z 573).

  2. The effect of fermentable carbohydrate on sporulation and butanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum P262

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awang, G.M.; Ingledew, W.M.; Jones, G.A. (Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Applied Microbiology and Food Science)

    1992-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether or not a variation in the type of carbohydrate fermented by Clostridium acetobutylicum could be exploited to inhibit sporulation during the butanol-producing phase of fermentation and thus enhance butanol production. C. acetobutylicum P262 was found to ferment a wide variety of carbohydrates, but butanol production was not necessarily enhanced when percentage sporulation was low. Butanol concentration was more related to the total amount of acidic end-products (acetic and butyric acid) reutilized by the microorganism for solvent production and to the type and amount of carbohydrate utilized. Fermentation of cellobiose led to conditions resulting in complete acid reutilization and the highest butanol concentration (10.4-10.6 g/l). In cultures containing a mixture of glucose and cellobiose, glucose repression of cellobiose utilization resulted in lower butanol concentrations (6.6-7.5 g/l). Sporulation was dependent on the type of carbohydrate utilized by the microorgamism. Glucose had a greater enhancing effect on the sporulation process (22-42%) than starch (9-12%) or cellobiose (22-34%). It was concluded that whereas the type of carbohydrate fermented has a specific effect on the extent of sporulation of a culture, conditions of low sporulation did not enhance butanol concentration unless carbohydrate utilization and the reutilization of acidic products were high. (orig.).

  3. Potential use of thermophilic dark fermentation effluents in photofermentative hydrogen production by Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgura, E.; Afsar, N.; Eroglu, I. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); De Vrije, T.; Claassen, P.A.M. [Wageningen UR, Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Yucel, M.; Gunduz, U. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Biology, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Biological hydrogen production by a sequential operation of dark and photofermentation is a promising route to produce hydrogen. The possibility of using renewable resources, like biomass and agro-industrial wastes, provides a dual effect of sustainability in biohydrogen production and simultaneous waste removal. In this study, photofermentative hydrogen production on effluents of thermophilic dark fermentations on glucose, potato steam peels (PSP) hydrolysate and molasses was investigated in indoor, batch operated bioreactors. An extreme thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus was used in the dark fermentation step, and Rhodobacter capsulatus (DSM1710) was used in the photofermentation step. Addition of buffer, Fe and Mo to dark fermentor effluents (DFEs) improved the overall efficiency of hydrogen production. The initial acetate concentration in the DFE needed to be adjusted to 30-40 mM by dilution to increase the yield of hydrogen in batch light-supported fermentations. The thermophilic DFEs are suitable for photofermentative hydrogen production, provided that they are supplemented with buffer and nutrients. The overall hydrogen yield of the two-step fermentations was higher than the yield of single step dark fermentations.

  4. Application of principal component analysis (PCA) as a sensory assessment tool for fermented food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debasree; Chattopadhyay, Parimal

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the work was to use the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) to describe the sensory attributes of the fermented food products prepared with the incorporation of lactic cultures. Panellists were selected and trained to evaluate various attributes specially color and appearance, body texture, flavor, overall acceptability and acidity of the fermented food products like cow milk curd and soymilk curd, idli, sauerkraut and probiotic ice cream. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified the six significant principal components that accounted for more than 90% of the variance in the sensory attribute data. Overall product quality was modelled as a function of principal components using multiple least squares regression (R (2) = 0.8). The result from PCA was statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). These findings demonstrate the utility of quantitative descriptive analysis for identifying and measuring the fermented food product attributes that are important for consumer acceptability.

  5. Improved bioethanol production using fusants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and xylose-fermenting yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rajni; Pramanik, K

    2012-06-01

    The present research deals with the development of a hybrid yeast strain with the aim of converting pentose and hexose sugar components of lignocellulosic substrate to bioethanol by fermentation. Different fusant strains were obtained by fusing protoplasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and xylose-fermenting yeasts such as Pachysolen tannophilus, Candida shehatae and Pichia stipitis. The fusants were sorted by fluorescent-activated cell sorter and further confirmed by molecular characterization. The fusants were evaluated by fermentation of glucose-xylose mixture and the highest ethanol producing fusant was used for further study to ferment hydrolysates produced by acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of cotton gin waste. Among the various fusant and parental strains used under present study, RPR39 was found to be stable and most efficient strain giving maximum ethanol concentration (76.8 ± 0.31 g L(-1)), ethanol productivity (1.06 g L(-1) h(-1)) and ethanol yield (0.458 g g(-1)) by fermentation of glucose-xylose mixture under test conditions. The fusant has also shown encouraging result in fermenting hydrolysates of cotton gin waste with ethanol concentration of 7.08 ± 0.142 g L(-1), ethanol yield of 0.44 g g(-1), productivity of 0.45 g L(-1) h(-1) and biomass yield of 0.40 g g(-1).

  6. Detoxification and fermentation of pyrolytic sugar for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Livingston, Darrell; Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Li, Qi; Steele, Philip; Yu, Fei

    2012-11-01

    The sugars present in bio-oil produced by fast pyrolysis can potentially be fermented by microbial organisms to produce cellulosic ethanol. This study shows the potential for microbial digestion of the aqueous fraction of bio-oil in an enrichment medium to consume glucose and produce ethanol. In addition to glucose, inhibitors such as furans and phenols are present in the bio-oil. A pure glucose enrichment medium of 20 g/l was used as a standard to compare with glucose and aqueous fraction mixtures for digestion. Thirty percent by volume of aqueous fraction in media was the maximum additive amount that could be consumed and converted to ethanol. Inhibitors were removed by extraction, activated carbon, air stripping, and microbial methods. After economic analysis, the cost of ethanol using an inexpensive fermentation medium in a large scale plant is approximately $14 per gallon.

  7. Development and sensory evaluation of soy milk based yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, C S; Terzi, S C; Trugo, L C; Della Modesta, R C; Couri, S

    2001-03-01

    Yoghurts were prepared by fermentation of soy milk using a mixed starter culture containing Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Soy milk at 9 degrees Brix was homogenised under pressure (17 MPa) and fermented with and without addition of sucrose (2.0 and 2.5 g per 100 g) for 4, 5, 6 and 7 hours. The yoghurts were evaluated in terms of sensory quality, pH, titrable acidity, phytic acid and oligosaccharides: A yoghurt with the best sensory quality was obtained using the homogenised soy milk with 2% sucrose addition and fermented for 6 h. Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus did not produce phytases and alpha-galactosidases at the experimental conditions, consequently, phytic acid and galactosides were not affected by the process.

  8. The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Culture in the Production of Nunu, a Spontaneously Fermented Milk Product in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortune Akabanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nunu, a spontaneously fermented yoghurt-like product, is produced and consumed in parts of West Africa. A total of 373 predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB previously isolated and identified from Nunu product were assessed in vitro for their technological properties (acidification, exopolysaccharides production, lipolysis, proteolysis and antimicrobial activities. Following the determination of technological properties, Lactobacillus fermentum 22-16, Lactobacillus plantarum 8-2, Lactobacillus helveticus 22-7, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides 14-11 were used as single and combined starter cultures for Nunu fermentation. Starter culture fermented Nunu samples were assessed for amino acids profile and rate of acidification and were subsequently evaluated for consumer acceptability. For acidification properties, 82%, 59%, 34%, and 20% of strains belonging to Lactobacillus helveticus, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and Leu. mesenteriodes, respectively, demonstrated fast acidification properties. High proteolytic activity (>100 to 150 μg/mL was observed for 50% Leu. mesenteroides, 40% L. fermentum, 41% L. helveticus, 27% L. plantarum, and 10% Ent. faecium species. In starter culture fermented Nunu samples, all amino acids determined were detected in Nunu fermented with single starters of L. plantarum and L. helveticus and combined starter of L. fermntum and L. helveticus. Consumer sensory analysis showed varying degrees of acceptability for Nunu fermented with the different starter cultures.

  9. Improving ethanol productivity through self-cycling fermentation of yeast: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Chae, Michael; Sauvageau, Dominic; Bressler, David C

    2017-01-01

    The cellulosic ethanol industry has developed efficient strategies for converting sugars obtained from various cellulosic feedstocks to bioethanol. However, any further major improvements in ethanol productivity will require development of novel and innovative fermentation strategies that enhance incumbent technologies in a cost-effective manner. The present study investigates the feasibility of applying self-cycling fermentation (SCF) to cellulosic ethanol production to elevate productivity. SCF is a semi-continuous cycling process that employs the following strategy: once the onset of stationary phase is detected, half of the broth volume is automatically harvested and replaced with fresh medium to initiate the next cycle. SCF has been shown to increase product yield and/or productivity in many types of microbial cultivation. To test whether this cycling process could increase productivity during ethanol fermentations, we mimicked the process by manually cycling the fermentation for five cycles in shake flasks, and then compared the results to batch operation. Mimicking SCF for five cycles resulted in regular patterns with regards to glucose consumption, ethanol titer, pH, and biomass production. Compared to batch fermentation, our cycling strategy displayed improved ethanol volumetric productivity (the titer of ethanol produced in a given cycle per corresponding cycle time) and specific productivity (the amount of ethanol produced per cellular biomass) by 43.1 ± 11.6 and 42.7 ± 9.8%, respectively. Five successive cycles contributed to an improvement of overall productivity (the aggregate amount of ethanol produced at the end of a given cycle per total processing time) and the estimated annual ethanol productivity (the amount of ethanol produced per year) by 64.4 ± 3.3 and 33.1 ± 7.2%, respectively. This study provides proof of concept that applying SCF to ethanol production could significantly increase productivities, which will help strengthen the

  10. Detection of genetically modified organisms in soy products sold in Turkish market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Mandaci

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PCR-based technique for GMO detection is the most reliable choice because of its high sensitivity and specificity. As a candidate of the European Union, Turkey must comply with the rules for launching into the market, traceability, and labeling of GMOs as established by EU legislation. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess soybean products in the Turkish market to verify compliance with legislation using qualitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR assay to detect the presence of GM soybean and to quantify its amount of GM soybean in the samples tested positive using real-time PCR. DNA extracted by the modified CTAB method was properly used for PCR amplification of food materials. The amplification of a 118 bp DNA fragment of the lectin gene from soybean by PCR was successfully achieved in all samples. The GMO screening was based on the detection of 35S promoter and NOS terminator sequences. The GM positive samples were subjected to detection of Roundup ReadyTM soybean (RR using quantitative real-time PCR. It was found that 100% of the tested food samples contained less than 0.1 per cent of EPSPS gene.

  11. Integration of Gas Enhanced Oil Recovery in Multiphase Fermentations for the Microbial Production of Fuels and Chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedraza de la Cuesta, S.; van der Wielen, L.A.M.; Cuellar Soares, M.C.

    2018-01-01

    In multiphase fermentations where the product forms a second liquid phase or where solvents are added for product extraction, turbulent conditions disperse the oil phase as droplets. Surface-active components (SACs) present in the fermentation broth can stabilize the product droplets thus forming

  12. Effect of submerged and solid-state fermentation on pigment and citrinin production by Monascus purpureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Li, Zhiqiang; Dai, Bing; Zhang, Wenxue; Yuan, Yongjun

    2013-09-01

    Monascus pigments, which are produced by various species of Monascus, often have been used as a natural colourant and as traditional natural food additives, especially in Southern China, Japan and Southeastern Asia. The limitation of wide using Monascus pigment is attributed to one of its secondary metabolites named citrinin. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pigment and citrinin production via submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SF) from rice (Oryza sativa L.) by Monascus purpureus AS3.531. The optimal fermentation temperature and pH were significantly different for pigment production through different fermentation mode (35 °C, pH 5.0 for SF and 32 °C, pH 5.5 for SmF, respectively). Adding 2% (w/v) of glycerol in the medium could enhance the pigment production. On the optimized condition, although the concentration of citrinin produced by SmF (19.02 ug/g) increased more than 100 times than that by SF (0.018 ug/g), the pigment yield by SmF (7.93 U/g/g) could be comparable to that by SF (6.63 U/g/g). Those indicate us that fermentation mode seems to be the primary factor which influence the citrinin yield and secondary factor for pigment production.

  13. Butanol production from wood pulping hydrolysate in an integrated fermentation-gas stripping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Congcong; Dong, Jie; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-09-01

    Wood pulping hydrolysate (WPH) containing mainly xylose and glucose as a potential substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied. Due to the inhibitors present in the hydrolysate, several dilution levels and detoxification treatments, including overliming, activated charcoal adsorption, and resin adsorption, were evaluated for their effectiveness in relieving the inhibition on fermentation. Detoxification using resin and evaporation was found to be the most effective method in reducing the toxicity of WPH. ABE production in batch fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii increased 68%, from 6.73 g/L in the non-treated and non-diluted WPH to 11.35 g/L in the resin treated WPH. With gas stripping for in situ product removal, ABE production from WPH increased to 17.73 g/L, demonstrating that gas stripping was effective in alleviating butanol toxicity by selectively separating butanol from the fermentation broth, which greatly improved solvents production and sugar conversion in the fermentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ethanol production by fermentation using immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in cashew apple bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Alexandre Monteiro; Gondim, Diego Romão; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha Barros

    2010-05-01

    In this work, cashew apple bagasse (CAB) was used for Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilization. The support was prepared through a treatment with a solution of 3% HCl, and delignification with 2% NaOH was also conducted. Optical micrographs showed that high populations of yeast cells adhered to pre-treated CAB surface. Ten consecutive fermentations of cashew apple juice for ethanol production were carried out using immobilized yeasts. High ethanol productivity was observed from the third fermentation assay until the tenth fermentation. Ethanol concentrations (about 19.82-37.83 g L(-1) in average value) and ethanol productivities (about 3.30-6.31 g L(-1) h(-1)) were high and stable, and residual sugar concentrations were low in almost all fermentations (around 3.00 g L(-1)) with conversions ranging from 44.80% to 96.50%, showing efficiency (85.30-98.52%) and operational stability of the biocatalyst for ethanol fermentation. Results showed that cashew apple bagasse is an efficient support for cell immobilization aiming at ethanol production.

  15. Bioethanol Production from Cachaza as Hydrogen Feedstock: Effect of Ammonium Sulfate during Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Sanchez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cachaza is a type of non-centrifugal sugarcane press-mud that, if it is not employed efficiently, generates water pollution, soil eutrophication, and the spread of possible pathogens. This biomass can be fermented to produce bioethanol. Our intention is to obtain bioethanol that can be catalytically reformed to produce hydrogen (H2 for further use in fuel cells for electricity production. However, some impurities could negatively affect the catalyst performance during the bioethanol reforming process. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the fermentation of Cachaza using ammonium sulfate ((NH42SO4 loadings and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain to produce the highest ethanol concentration with the minimum amount of impurities in anticipation of facilitating further bioethanol purification and reforming for H2 production. The results showed that ethanol production from Cachaza fermentation was about 50 g·L−1 and the (NH42SO4 addition did not affect its production. However, it significantly reduced the production of branched alcohols. When a 160 mg·L−1 (NH42SO4 was added to the fermentation culture, 2-methyl-1-propanol was reduced by 41% and 3-methyl-1-butanol was reduced by 6%, probably due to the repression of the catabolic nitrogen mechanism. Conversely, 1-propanol doubled its concentration likely due to the higher threonine synthesis promoted by the reducing sugar presence. Afterwards, we employed the modified Gompertz model to fit the ethanol, 2M1P, 3M1B, and 1-propanol production, which provided acceptable fits (R2 > 0.881 for the tested compounds during Cachaza fermentation. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of the modelling of aliphatic production during fermentation; this model will be employed to calculate yields with further scaling and for life cycle assessment.

  16. Defined media and inert supports : their potential as solid-state fermentation production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooijkaas, L.P.; Weber, F.J.; Buitelaar, R.M.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2000-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) using inert supports impregnated with chemically defined liquid media has several potential applications in both scientific studies and in the industrial production of high-value products, such as metabolites, biological control agents and enzymes. As a result of its

  17. Enteric methane production and ruminal fermentation from forage brassica diets fed in continuous culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassicas provide forage for livestock during the late fall when traditional perennial cool-season forages are not productive. However, little research exists on ruminal fermentation and methane(CH4) production of brassicas fed as forage. A continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess nutr...

  18. Mesophilic and thermophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge for hydrogen production: Focusing on homoacetogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Jingjing; Jing, Yuhang; Zhang, Shicheng

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the mesophilic and thermophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) for hydrogen production with focus on homoacetogenesis, which mediated the consumption of H2 and CO2 for acetate production. Batch experiments showed that hydrogen yield of WAS increased...

  19. Production of α-amylase by solid state fermentation by Rhizopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-18

    Feb 18, 2015 ... However, only a few strains of fungi and bacteria meet the criteria for production of ... amylase production, but solid-state fermentation (SSF) is emerging as a ..... synthesis of lactic acid in R. oryzae and Rhizopus arrhizus using ...

  20. Comparative genomics of xylose-fermenting fungi for enhanced biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana J. Wolbach; Alan Kuo; Trey K. Sato; Katlyn M. Potts; Asaf A. Salamov; Kurt M. LaButti; Hui Sun; Alicia Clum; Jasmyn L. Pangilinan; Erika A. Lindquist; Susan Lucas; Alla Lapidus; Mingjie Jin; Christa Gunawan; Venkatesh Balan; Bruce E. Dale; Thomas W. Jeffries; Robert Zinkel; Kerrie W. Barry; Igor V. Grigoriev; Audrey P. Gasch

    2011-01-01

    Cellulosic biomass is an abundant and underused substrate for biofuel production. The inability of many microbes to metabolize the pentose sugars abundant within hemicellulose creates specific challenges for microbial biofuel production from cellulosic material. Although engineered strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can use the pentose xylose, the fermentative...

  1. Design of an integrated fermentation-crystallization process applied to the production of DOIP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokker, S.; Dabkowski, M.; Groendijk, W.; Renckens, D.; De Rond, J.

    2004-01-01

    The design problem of CPD3312 was the comparison of the conventional batch (Base case) and the new integrated fermentation-crystallization process (In Situ Product Removal or ISPR case) in particular for the production of 2 tonnes 6R-dihydrooxoisophorone (DOIP) from 4-oxo-isophorone (OIP) per year.

  2. The effects of soy isoflavones on obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørgaard, Anne; Jensen, Lotte

    2008-01-01

    factors in the development of Type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and certain cancers. Because of the lower frequency of these diseases in Asian countries, attention has been turned toward the Asian diet, which consists highly of soy and soy-based products. The health benefits...... associated with soy consumption have been linked to the content of isoflavones, the main class of the phytoestrogens. As a result of their structural similarities to endogenous estrogens, isoflavones elicit weak estrogenic effects by competing with 17beta-estradiol (E2) for binding to the intranuclear...

  3. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Sugar Beet Pulp for Efficient Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berłowska, Joanna; Balcerek, Maria; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr; Dziugan, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp, a byproduct of sugar beet processing, can be used as a feedstock in second-generation ethanol production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment, of the dosage of cellulase and hemicellulase enzyme preparations used, and of aeration on the release of fermentable sugars and ethanol yield during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar beet pulp-based worts. Pressure-thermal pretreatment was applied to sugar beet pulp suspended in 2% w/w sulphuric acid solution at a ratio providing 12% dry matter. Enzymatic hydrolysis was conducted using Viscozyme and Ultraflo Max (Novozymes) enzyme preparations (0.015–0.02 mL/g dry matter). Two yeast strains were used for fermentation: Ethanol Red (S. cerevisiae) (1 g/L) and Pichia stipitis (0.5 g/L), applied sequentially. The results show that efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sugar beet pulp was achieved. A 6 h interval for enzymatic activation between the application of enzyme preparations and inoculation with Ethanol Red further improved the fermentation performance, with the highest ethanol concentration reaching 26.9 ± 1.2 g/L and 86.5 ± 2.1% fermentation efficiency relative to the theoretical yield. PMID:27722169

  4. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Sugar Beet Pulp for Efficient Bioethanol Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berłowska, Joanna; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Balcerek, Maria; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr; Dziugan, Piotr; Kręgiel, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp, a byproduct of sugar beet processing, can be used as a feedstock in second-generation ethanol production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment, of the dosage of cellulase and hemicellulase enzyme preparations used, and of aeration on the release of fermentable sugars and ethanol yield during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar beet pulp-based worts. Pressure-thermal pretreatment was applied to sugar beet pulp suspended in 2% w/w sulphuric acid solution at a ratio providing 12% dry matter. Enzymatic hydrolysis was conducted using Viscozyme and Ultraflo Max (Novozymes) enzyme preparations (0.015-0.02 mL/g dry matter). Two yeast strains were used for fermentation: Ethanol Red ( S. cerevisiae ) (1 g/L) and Pichia stipitis (0.5 g/L), applied sequentially. The results show that efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sugar beet pulp was achieved. A 6 h interval for enzymatic activation between the application of enzyme preparations and inoculation with Ethanol Red further improved the fermentation performance, with the highest ethanol concentration reaching 26.9 ± 1.2 g/L and 86.5 ± 2.1% fermentation efficiency relative to the theoretical yield.

  5. Immobilized anaerobic fermentation for bio-fuel production by Clostridium co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Tschirner, Ulrike

    2014-08-01

    Clostridium thermocellum/Clostridium thermolacticum co-culture fermentation has been shown to be a promising way of producing ethanol from several carbohydrates. In this research, immobilization techniques using sodium alginate and alkali pretreatment were successfully applied on this co-culture to improve the bio-ethanol fermentation performance during consolidated bio-processing (CBP). The ethanol yield obtained increased by over 60 % (as a percentage of the theoretical maximum) as compared to free cell fermentation. For cellobiose under optimized conditions, the ethanol yields were approaching about 85 % of the theoretical efficiency. To examine the feasibility of this immobilization co-culture on lignocellulosic biomass conversion, untreated and pretreated aspen biomasses were also used for fermentation experiments. The immobilized co-culture shows clear benefits in bio-ethanol production in the CBP process using pretreated aspen. With a 3-h, 9 % NaOH pretreatment, the aspen powder fermentation yields approached 78 % of the maximum theoretical efficiency, which is almost twice the yield of the untreated aspen fermentation.

  6. Xylose-fermenting Pichia stipitis by genome shuffling for improved ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Libin; Wang, Pin; Jiang, Li; Deng, Huiping

    2014-03-01

    Xylose fermentation is necessary for the bioconversion of lignocellulose to ethanol as fuel, but wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains cannot fully metabolize xylose. Several efforts have been made to obtain microbial strains with enhanced xylose fermentation. However, xylose fermentation remains a serious challenge because of the complexity of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates. Genome shuffling has been widely used for the rapid improvement of industrially important microbial strains. After two rounds of genome shuffling, a genetically stable, high-ethanol-producing strain was obtained. Designated as TJ2-3, this strain could ferment xylose and produce 1.5 times more ethanol than wild-type Pichia stipitis after fermentation for 96 h. The acridine orange and propidium iodide uptake assays showed that the maintenance of yeast cell membrane integrity is important for ethanol fermentation. This study highlights the importance of genome shuffling in P. stipitis as an effective method for enhancing the productivity of industrial strains. © 2013 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Solid state fermentation and production of rifamycin SV using Amycolatopsis mediterranei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagavalli, M; Ponamgi, S P D; Girijashankar, V; Venkateswar Rao, L

    2015-01-01

    Production of Rifamycin SV from cheaper agro-industrial by-products using mutant strain of Amycolatopsis mediterranei OVA5-E7 in solid state fermentation (SSF) was optimized. Among the agro-based substrates used, ragi bran was found suitable for maximizing the yield of Rifamycin SV (1310 mg 100 g(-1) ds). The yield can be further enhanced to 19·7 g Kg(-1) of dry substrate by supplementing the substrate with deoiled cotton cake (10% w/w) using optimized fermentation parameters such as maintaining 80% moisture, pH 7·0, 30°C incubation temperature, inoculum 25% v/w and carrying the solid state fermenting for 9 days. Manipulating these seven specifications, the end product yield achieved in our experimentation was 20 g of Rifamycin SV Kg(-1) ds. Eventually, an overall 5-fold improvement in Rifamycin SV production was achieved. Antibiotics such as rifamycin are broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs used in large-scale worldwide as human medicine towards controlling diseases. Amycolatopsis mediterranei strain which produces this antibiotic was earlier used in submerged fermentation yielded lower amounts of rifamycin. By employing cheaper agro-industrial by-products, we produced upto 20 g rifamycin SV per Kg dry substrate used under optimized solid state fermentation conditions. Keeping in view, the role of rifamycin in meeting the medical demands of world's increasing population; we successfully used an improved strain on cheaper substrates with optimized fermentation parameters and achieved a 5-fold improvement in rifamycin SV production. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Utility of Milk Coagulant Enzyme of Moringa oleifera Seed in Cheese Production from Soy and Skim Milks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Sánchez-Muñoz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential use of Moringa oleifera as a clotting agent of different types of milk (whole, skim, and soy milk was investigated. M. oleifera seed extract showed high milk-clotting activity followed by flower extract. Specific clotting activity of seed extract was 200 times higher than that of flower extract. Seed extract is composed by four main protein bands (43.6, 32.2, 19.4, and 16.3 kDa. Caseinolytic activity assessed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and tyrosine quantification, showed a high extent of casein degradation using M. oleifera seed extract. Milk soy cheese was soft and creamy, while skim milk cheese was hard and crumbly. According to these results, it is concluded that seed extract of M. oleifera generates suitable milk clotting activity for cheesemaking. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report comparative data of M. oleifera milk clotting activity between different types of soy milk.

  9. Utility of Milk Coagulant Enzyme of Moringa oleifera Seed in Cheese Production from Soy and Skim Milks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Muñoz, María Alejandra; Valdez-Solana, Mónica Andrea; Avitia-Domínguez, Claudia; Ramírez-Baca, Patricia; Candelas-Cadillo, María Guadalupe; Aguilera-Ortíz, Miguel; Meza-Velázquez, Jorge Armando; Téllez-Valencia, Alfredo; Sierra-Campos, Erick

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the potential use of Moringa oleifera as a clotting agent of different types of milk (whole, skim, and soy milk) was investigated. M. oleifera seed extract showed high milk-clotting activity followed by flower extract. Specific clotting activity of seed extract was 200 times higher than that of flower extract. Seed extract is composed by four main protein bands (43.6, 32.2, 19.4, and 16.3 kDa). Caseinolytic activity assessed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and tyrosine quantification, showed a high extent of casein degradation using M. oleifera seed extract. Milk soy cheese was soft and creamy, while skim milk cheese was hard and crumbly. According to these results, it is concluded that seed extract of M. oleifera generates suitable milk clotting activity for cheesemaking. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report comparative data of M. oleifera milk clotting activity between different types of soy milk. PMID:28783066

  10. Production and Partial Purification of Alpha Amylase from Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 121 Using Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyangana Raul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of starch into sugars and plays a pivotal role in a variety of areas like use as digestives, for the production of ethanol and high fructose corn syrup, detergents, desiring of textiles, modified starches, hydrolysis of oil-field drilling fluids, and paper recycling. In the present work, solid state fermentation (SSF for α-amylase production has been used in lieu of submerged fermentation (SmF due to its simple technique, low capital investment, lower levels of catabolite repression, and better product recovery. Bacillus subtilis has been well known as producer of alpha amylase and was tested using solid state fermentation for 48 hours at 37°C with wheat bran as substrate. Comparison between different fermentation hours demonstrated high yield of alpha amylase after 48 hours. This alpha amylase has optimum pH and temperature at 7.1 and 40°C, respectively. With the goal to purify alpha amylase, 30–70% (NH42SO4 cut concentrated the amylase activity threefold with respect to crude fermented extract. This was verified in quantitative DNS assay method as well as in zymogram gel profile. The exact molecular weight of the amylase is yet to be determined with the aid of other protein purification techniques.

  11. Utilization of agroindustrial residues for lipase production by solid-state fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Damaso, M?nica Caramez Triches; Passianoto, Mois?s Augusto; de Freitas, Sidin?a Cordeiro; Freire, Denise Maria Guimar?es; Lago, Regina Celi Araujo; Couri, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to produce lipases by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using, as substrate, agroindustrial residue supplemented with by-products from corn oil refining process or olive oil. For a group of ten fungi strains selected in the first steps, the lipase activity obtained by SSF varied from 7.7 to 58.6 U/g of dry substrate (gds). Among the evaluated strains, the Aspergillus niger mutant 11T53A14 was selected by presenting the best enzymatic production. For the fermentation test...

  12. Effects of fermentation conditions on valuable products of ethanolic fungus Mucor indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Sharifyazd

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: It is not possible to have the maximum amounts of the products simultaneously. The fermentation conditions and composition of culture media determine the product yields. Carbon source type and the addition of nitrogen source are among the most influencing factors on the product yields. Moreover, all measured products were made with higher yields in cultivation on glucose, except glucosamine, which was produced with higher yields on xylose.

  13. Effects of preservation conditions of canine feces on in vitro gas production kinetics and fermentation end-products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Wrigglesworth, D.J.; Cone, J.W.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of chilling and freezing (for 24 h) canine feces on in vitro gas production kinetics and fermentation end-product profiles from carbohydrate-rich (in vitro run 1) and protein-rich substrates (in vitro run 2). Feces were collected from 3 adult Retriever-type dogs

  14. Optimization of fed-batch fermentation for xylitol production by Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J-H; Han, K-C; Koh, Y-H; Ryu, Y-W; Seo, J-H

    2002-07-01

    Xylitol, a functional sweetener, was produced from xylose by biological conversion using Candida tropicalis ATCC 13803. Based on a two-substrate fermentation using glucose for cell growth and xylose for xylitol production, fed-batch fermentations were undertaken to increase the final xylitol concentration. The effects of xylose and xylitol on xylitol production rate were studied to determine the optimum concentrations for fed-batch fermentation. Xylose concentration in the medium (100 g l(-1)) and less than 200 g l(-1) total xylose plus xylitol concentration were determined as optimum for maximum xylitol production rate and xylitol yield. Increasing the concentrations of xylose and xylitol decreased the rate and yield of xylitol production and the specific cell growth rate, probably because of an increase in osmotic stress that would interfere with xylose transport, xylitol flux to secretion to cell metabolism. The feeding rate of xylose solution during the fed-batch mode of operation was determined by using the mass balance equations and kinetic parameters involved in the equations in order to increase final xylitol concentration without affecting xylitol and productivity. The optimized fed-batch fermentation resulted in 187 g l(-1) xylitol concentration, 0.75 g xylitol g xylose(-1) xylitol yield and 3.9 g xylitol l(-1) h(-1) volumetric productivity.

  15. Impact on Human Health of Microorganisms Present in Fermented Dairy Products: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products provide nutrients in our diet, some of which are produced by the action of microorganisms during fermentation. These products can be populated by a diverse microbiota that impacts the organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics foods as well as human health. Acidification is carried out by starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB whereas other LAB, moulds, and yeasts become dominant during ripening and contribute to the development of aroma and texture in dairy products. Probiotics are generally part of the nonstarter microbiota, and their use has been extended in recent years. Fermented dairy products can contain beneficial compounds, which are produced by the metabolic activity of their microbiota (vitamins, conjugated linoleic acid, bioactive peptides, and gamma-aminobutyric acid, among others. Some microorganisms can also release toxic compounds, the most notorious being biogenic amines and aflatoxins. Though generally considered safe, fermented dairy products can be contaminated by pathogens. If proliferation occurs during manufacture or storage, they can cause sporadic cases or outbreaks of disease. This paper provides an overview on the current state of different aspects of the research on microorganisms present in dairy products in the light of their positive or negative impact on human health.

  16. Impact on human health of microorganisms present in fermented dairy products: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María; Hudson, John Andrew; Korpela, Riitta; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G

    2015-01-01

    Fermented dairy products provide nutrients in our diet, some of which are produced by the action of microorganisms during fermentation. These products can be populated by a diverse microbiota that impacts the organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics foods as well as human health. Acidification is carried out by starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB) whereas other LAB, moulds, and yeasts become dominant during ripening and contribute to the development of aroma and texture in dairy products. Probiotics are generally part of the nonstarter microbiota, and their use has been extended in recent years. Fermented dairy products can contain beneficial compounds, which are produced by the metabolic activity of their microbiota (vitamins, conjugated linoleic acid, bioactive peptides, and gamma-aminobutyric acid, among others). Some microorganisms can also release toxic compounds, the most notorious being biogenic amines and aflatoxins. Though generally considered safe, fermented dairy products can be contaminated by pathogens. If proliferation occurs during manufacture or storage, they can cause sporadic cases or outbreaks of disease. This paper provides an overview on the current state of different aspects of the research on microorganisms present in dairy products in the light of their positive or negative impact on human health.

  17. Residual Effect Of Organic Fertilizer And Addition Inorganik Fertilizer To Nutrient Uptake Growth And Productions Of Black Soy Bean Glycine Max L. Merr At Rainfed Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elli Afrida

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research that have theme Residual Effect of Organic Fertilizer and Addition Anorganik Fertilizer to Nutrient Uptake Growth and pruductions of Black Soy Bean Glycine max L. Merr at Rainfed Wetland. Research was conducted at Suka Makmur village sub-distric Binjai Distric Langkat. Research was arranged in split plot design main plot is applications of phonska fertilizerwith 4 level i.e 0 t ha-1 A0 0.20 t ha-1 A1 0.25 t ha-1 A2 dan 0.30 t ha-1 A3 and sub plot is residual effect from first research with 16 combinations. Research was replicated 3 times. Result of research was showed application organic fertilizer that was combinated with anorganic fertilizer can increased N and K uptake. Application organic and anorganic fertilizer as single factor showed significantly effect of number of pods and soy bean productions but at interaction treatment not significantly effect however generally occurs increased production at O33A3 tratment until 80 comparison with control.

  18. Effects of restriction of silage fermentation with formic acid on milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. JAAKKOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of silage fermentation quality and type of supplementation on milk production. Thirty two Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with four 21-day experimental periods and 4 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Silage fermentation was modified with formic acid (FA, which was applied at the rates equivalent to 0 (FA0, 2 (FA2, 4 (FA4 or 6 (FA6 litres t-1 grass of pure formic acid (as 100% FA. Dietary treatments consisted of four silages, a protein supplementation (no supplement or rapeseed meal 1.8 kg d-1 and a glucogenic substrate (no supplement or propylene glycol 225 g d-1. Increasing the application rate of FA restricted silage fermentation curvilinearly, as evidenced by higher concentrations of ammonia N and butyric acid in FA4 than FA2 silage. Similarly the use of FA resulted in curvilinear changes in the silage dry matter intake and milk yield. The highest milk and protein yields were achieved with FA6, while the milk yield with FA2 was higher than with FA4. Interactions were observed between silage type and supplementation. Rapeseed meal increased milk yield irrespective of the extent of silage fermentation, but the magnitude of response was variable. Propylene glycol was most beneficial with restrictively fermented silages FA4 and FA6. In conclusion, restriction of silage fermentation with a high rate of formic acid is beneficial in milk production. Interactions between silage composition and concentrate types suggest that the responses to supplementary feeding depend on silage fermentation characteristics.;

  19. Evaluation of Ethanol Production Activity by Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermenting Cellobiose through the Phosphorolytic Pathway in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Heong; Jin, Yong-Su

    2017-09-28

    In simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for production of cellulosic biofuels, engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of fermenting cellobiose has provided several benefits, such as lower enzyme costs and faster fermentation rate compared with wild-type S. cerevisiae fermenting glucose. In this study, the effects of an alternative intracellular cellobiose utilization pathway-a phosphorolytic pathway based on a mutant cellodextrin transporter (CDT-1 (F213L)) and cellobiose phosphorylase (SdCBP)-was investigated by comparing with a hydrolytic pathway based on the same transporter and an intracellular β-glucosidase (GH1-1) for their SSF performances under various conditions. Whereas the phosphorolytic and hydrolytic cellobiose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strains performed similarly under the anoxic SSF conditions, the hydrolytic S. cerevisiae performed slightly better than the phosphorolytic S. cerevisiae under the microaerobic SSF conditions. Nonetheless, the phosphorolytic S. cerevisiae expressing the mutant CDT-1 showed better ethanol production than the glucose-fermenting S. cerevisiae with an extracellular β-glucosidase, regardless of SSF conditions. These results clearly prove that introduction of the intracellular cellobiose metabolic pathway into yeast can be effective on cellulosic ethanol production in SSF. They also demonstrate that enhancement of cellobiose transport activity in engineered yeast is the most important factor affecting the efficiency of SSF of cellulose.

  20. Cellulase production through solid-state tray fermentation, and its use for bioethanol from sorghum stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Ayman Salih Omer; Pandey, Ashok; Rao, S S; Sukumaran, Rajeev K

    2017-10-01

    The production of cellulase by Trichoderma reesei RUT C-30 under solid-state fermentation (SSF) on wheat bran and cellulose was optimized employing a two stage statistical design of experiments. Optimization of process parameters resulted in a 3.2-fold increase in CMCase production to 959.53IU/gDS. The process was evaluated at pilot scale in tray fermenters and yielded 457IU/gDS using the lab conditions and indicating possibility for further improvement. The cellulase could effectively hydrolyze alkali pretreated sorghum stover and addition of Aspergillus niger β-glucosidase improved the hydrolytic efficiency 174%, indicating the potential to use this blend for effective saccharification of sorghum stover biomass. The enzymatic hydrolysate of sorghum stover was fermented to ethanol with ∼80% efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Modelling of different enzyme productions by solid-state fermentation on several agro-industrial residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ana Belen; Blandino, Ana; Webb, Colin; Caro, Ildefonso

    2016-11-01

    A simple kinetic model, with only three fitting parameters, for several enzyme productions in Petri dishes by solid-state fermentation is proposed in this paper, which may be a valuable tool for simulation of this type of processes. Basically, the model is able to predict temporal fungal enzyme production by solid-state fermentation on complex substrates, maximum enzyme activity expected and time at which these maxima are reached. In this work, several fermentations in solid state were performed in Petri dishes, using four filamentous fungi grown on different agro-industrial residues, measuring xylanase, exo-polygalacturonase, cellulose and laccase activities over time. Regression coefficients after fitting experimental data to the proposed model turned out to be quite high in all cases. In fact, these results are very interesting considering, on the one hand, the simplicity of the model and, on the other hand, that enzyme activities correspond to different enzymes, produced by different fungi on different substrates.

  2. Lactic acid production from acidogenic fermentation of fruit and vegetable wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Hailing; Zheng, Mingyue; Wang, Kaijun

    2015-09-01

    This work focused on the lactic acid production from acidogenic fermentation of fruit and vegetable wastes treatment. A long term completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) lasting for 50 days was operated at organic loading rate (OLR) of 11 gVS/(L d) and sludge retention time (SRT) of 3 days with pH controlled at 4.0 (1-24 day) and 5.0 (25-50 day). The results indicated that high amount of approximately 10-20 g/L lactic acid was produced at pH of 4.0 and the fermentation type converted from coexistence of homofermentation and heterofermentation into heterofermentation. At pH of 5.0, the hydrolysis reaction was improved and the total concentration of fermentation products increased up to 29.5 g COD/L. The heterofermentation was maintained, however, bifidus pathway by Bifidobacterium played an important role. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cross-cultural acceptance of a traditional yoghurt-like product made from fermented cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akissoé, Noël H; Sacca, Carole; Declemy, Anne-Laure; Bechoff, Aurelie; Anihouvi, Victor B; Dalodé, Générose; Pallet, Dominique; Fliedel, Géneviève; Mestres, Christian; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Tomlins, Keith I

    2015-07-01

    Akpan is a traditional ready-to-drink fermented yoghurt-like cereal beverage consumed in urban and rural areas in Benin. With the aim of adapting the product to new local and export markets, this work maps African and European consumer preferences for different types of Akpan. A sensory profile of Akpan was created and consumer tests were conducted with 103 consumers of African origin and 74 consumers of European origin. Consumer acceptance was significantly correlated with fermented odour (r = -0.94) and milky taste (r = 0.92-0.97) attributes. Cluster analysis revealed different behaviour by African and European consumers with respect to acceptability of Akpan; European consumers did not like the sour taste and African consumers liked an intense sweet milky taste. This study provides information on how Akpan, and other fermented yoghurt-type cereal products, could be adapted to African and European consumer preferences. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Enhancement of L-Threonine Production by Controlling Sequential Carbon-Nitrogen Ratios during Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeok-Won; Lee, Hee-Suk; Kim, Chun-Suk; Lee, Jin-Gyeom; Kim, Won-Kyo; Lee, Eun-Gyo; Lee, Hong-Weon

    2018-02-28

    Controlling the residual glucose concentration is important for improving productivity in L-threonine fermentation. In this study, we developed a procedure to automatically control the feeding quantity of glucose solution as a function of ammonia-water consumption rate. The feeding ratio (R C/N ) of glucose and ammonia water was predetermined via a stoichiometric approach, on the basis of glucose-ammonia water consumption rates. In a 5-L fermenter, 102 g/l L -threonine was obtained using our glucose-ammonia water combined feeding strategy, which was then successfully applied in a 500-L fermenter (89 g/l). Therefore, we conclude that an automatic combination feeding strategy is suitable for improving L-threonine production.

  5. Cow dung is an ideal fermentation medium for amylase production in solid-state fermentation by Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnuswamy Vijayaraghavan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Amylase production by Bacillus cereus IND4 was investigated by solid state fermentation (SSF using cow dung substrate. The SSF conditions were optimized by using one-variable-at-a-time approach and two level full factorial design. Two level full factorial design demonstrated that moisture, pH, fructose, yeast extract and ammonium sulphate have significantly influenced enzyme production (p < 0.05. A central composite design was employed to investigate the optimum concentration of these variables affecting amylase production. Maximal amylase production of 464 units/ml of enzyme was observed in the presence of 100% moisture, 0.1% fructose and 0.01% ammonium sulphate. The enzyme production increased three fold compared to the original medium. The optimum pH and temperature for the activity of amylase were found to be 8.0 and 50 °C, respectively. This enzyme was highly stable at wide pH range (7.0–9.0 and showed 32% enzyme activity after initial denaturation at 50 °C for 1 h. This is the first detailed report on the production of amylase by microorganisms using cow dung as the low cost medium.

  6. Comparative proteome analysis of Aspergillus oryzae 3.042 and A. oryzae 100-8 strains: Towards the production of different soy sauce flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guozhong; Hou, Lihua; Yao, Yunping; Wang, Chunling; Cao, Xiaohong

    2012-07-16

    Aspergillus oryzae plays a central role in soybean fermentation, particularly in its contribution to the flavor of soy sauce. We present a comparative assessment of the intracellular differences between wild-type strain 3.042 and mutant strain A100-8, at the proteome level. 522 different protein spots were identified by MALDI-TOF MS, with 134 spots being confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS/MS. Of these, 451 were differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). There was at least a two-fold increase for 288 spots, and at least a two-fold decrease for 163 spots, in strain A100-8 when compared to 3.042. Further analysis showed that 63 of the more abundant proteins were involved in glycolysis and the citrate cycle; 43 more abundant proteins and 10 less abundant proteins were related to amino acid biosynthesis and metabolism; two of the more abundant proteins were involved in vitamin biosynthesis; and five of the more abundant proteins and four of the less abundant proteins were related to secondary metabolites. Moreover, quantitative real time PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of six typical genes we selected were consistent with changes in protein expression. We postulate that there may be a relationship between DEPs and the flavor formation mechanism in A. oryzae. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrogen and methane production from condensed molasses fermentation soluble by a two-stage anaerobic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chiu-Yue; Liang, You-Chyuan; Lay, Chyi-How [Feng Chia Univ., Taichung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering and Science; Chen, Chin-Chao [Chungchou Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China). Environmental Resources Lab.; Chang, Feng-Yuan [Feng Chia Univ., Taichung, Taiwan (China). Research Center for Energy and Resources

    2010-07-01

    The treatment of condensed molasses fermentation soluble (CMS) is a troublesome problem for glutamate manufacturing factory. However, CMS contains high carbohydrate and nutrient contents and is an attractive and commercially potential feedstock for bioenergy production. The aim of this paper is to produce hydrogen and methane by two-stage anaerobic fermentation process. The fermentative hydrogen production from CMS was conducted in a continuously-stirred tank bioreactor (working volume 4 L) which was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h, organic loading rate (OLR) of 120 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, temperature of 35 C, pH 5.5 and sewage sludge as seed. The anaerobic methane production was conducted in an up-flow bioreactor (working volume 11 L) which was operated at a HRT of 24 -60 hrs, OLR of 4.0-10 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, temperature of 35 C, pH 7.0 with using anaerobic granule sludge from fructose manufacturing factory as the seed and the effluent from hydrogen production process as the substrate. These two reactors have been operated successfully for more than 400 days. The steady-state hydrogen content, hydrogen production rate and hydrogen production yield in the hydrogen fermentation system were 37%, 169 mmol-H{sub 2}/L-d and 93 mmol-H{sub 2}/g carbohydrate{sub removed}, respectively. In the methane fermentation system, the peak methane content and methane production rate were 66.5 and 86.8 mmol-CH{sub 4}/L-d with methane production yield of 189.3 mmol-CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub removed} at an OLR 10 kg/m{sup 3}-d. The energy production rate was used to elucidate the energy efficiency for this two-stage process. The total energy production rate of 133.3 kJ/L/d was obtained with 5.5 kJ/L/d from hydrogen fermentation and 127.8 kJ/L/d from methane fermentation. (orig.)

  8. Enhancing Ethanol Production by Fermentation Using Saccharomyces cereviseae under Vacuum Condition in Batch Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abdullah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is one of renewable energy, which considered being an excellent alternative clean-burning fuel to replaced gasoline. In fact, the application of ethanol as fuel still blended with gasoline. The advantages of using ethanol as fuel are that the raw material mostly from renewable resources and the product has low emission which means environmental friendly. Ethanol can be produced by fermentation of sugars (glucose/fructose. The constraint in the ethanol fermentation batch or continuous process is the ethanol product inhibition. Inhibition in ethanol productivity and cell growth can be overcome by taking the product continuously from the fermentor. The process can be done by using a vacuum fermentation. The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of pressure and glucose concentration in ethanol fermentation. The research was conducted in laboratory scale and batch process. Equipment consists of fermentor with vacuum system. The observed responses were dried cells of yeast, concentration of glucose, and concentration of ethanol. Observations were made every 4 hours during a day of experiment. The results show that the formation of ethanol has a growth-associated product characteristic under vacuum operation. Vacuum condition can increase the cell formation productivity and the ethanol formation, as it is compared with fermentation under atmospheric condition. The maximum cells productivity and ethanol formation in batch operation under vacuum condition was reached at 166.6 mmHg of pressure. The maximum numbers of cells and ethanol formation was reached at 141.2 mm Hg of pressure. High initial glucose concentration significantly can affect the productivity and the yield of ethanol.

  9. The role of Staphylococcus species in the production of iru during the fermentation of African locust beans (Parkia biglobosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amao, J.A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus spp. are regularly isolated from iru, but the role(s they play in the fermentation process has not yet been determined; this work thus seeks to determine if Staphylococcus spp. isolated from iru play any role in the fermentation of African locust bean. Bacillus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. isolated from spontaneously fermented African locust bean (iru were used to ferment African locust beans. The temperature, pH and moisture content were determined as fermentation progress while the total soluble sugar and total free amino acid were determined after fermentation. The microbial load for the three iru products increased gradually until the end of fermentation. The total free amino acids increased in all three iru (1.10, 1.51 and 2.35 mg leucine ml-1 for Staphylococcus spp. iru, Bacillus spp. iru and iru produced with combination of the two species of bacteria when compared with that of the unfermented bean, while the total soluble sugars reduced after fermentation with Staphylococcus spp. iru having 3.84, Bacillus spp. iru has 3.60, and the unfermented bean has 5.30 mg glucose ml-1 total soluble sugar. The increased free amino acids in the iru fermented with Staphylococcus spp. and the ability of the Staphylococcus spp. to produce lipase showed that Staphylococcus spp. isolated from iru has the ability to ferment African locust bean and carry out the lipolytic activity during the fermentation.

  10. Evaluation of Fermentative Hydrogen Production from Single and Mixed Fruit Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Akinbomi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The economic viability of employing dark fermentative hydrogen from whole fruit wastes as a green alternative to fossil fuels is limited by low hydrogen yield due to the inhibitory effect of some metabolites in the fermentation medium. In exploring means of increasing hydrogen production from fruit wastes, including orange, apple, banana, grape and melon, the present study assessed the hydrogen production potential of singly-fermented fruits as compared to the fermentation of mixed fruits. The fruit feedstock was subjected to varying hydraulic retention times (HRTs in a continuous fermentation process at 55 °C for 47 days. The weight distributions of the first, second and third fruit mixtures were 70%, 50% and 20% orange share, respectively, while the residual weight was shared equally by the other fruits. The results indicated that there was an improvement in cumulative hydrogen yield from all of the feedstock when the HRT was five days. Based on the results obtained, apple as a single fruit and a fruit mixture with 20% orange share have the most improved cumulative hydrogen yields of 504 (29.5% of theoretical yield and 513 mL/g volatile solid (VS (30% of theoretical yield , respectively, when compared to other fruits.

  11. Acetate adaptation of clostridia tyrobutyricum for improved fermentation production of butyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaros, Adam M; Rova, Ulrika; Berglund, Kris A

    2013-12-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 is an acidogenic bacterium capable of utilizing xylose for the fermentation production of butyrate. Hot water extraction of hardwood lingocellulose is an efficient method of producing xylose where autohydrolysis of xylan is catalysed by acetate originating from acetyl groups present in hemicellulose. The presence of acetic acid in the hydrolysate might have a severe impact on the subsequent fermentations. In this study the fermentation kinetics of C. tyrobutyricum cultures after being classically adapted for growth at 26.3 g/L acetate equivalents were studied. Analysis of xylose batch fermentations found that even in the presence of high levels of acetate, acetate adapted strains had similar fermentation kinetics as the parental strain cultivated without acetate. The parental strain exposed to acetate at inhibitory conditions demonstrated a pronounced lag phase (over 100 hours) in growth and butyrate production as compared to the adapted strain (25 hour lag) or non-inhibited controls (0 lag). Additional insight into the metabolic pathway of xylose consumption was gained by determining the specific activity of the acetate kinase (AK) enzyme in adapted versus control batches. AK activity was reduced by 63% in the presence of inhibitory levels of acetate, whether or not the culture had been adapted.

  12. Use of whey powder and skim milk powder for the production of fermented cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren AKAL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study is about the production of fermented cream samples having 18% fat by addition of starter cultures. In order to partialy increase non-fat solid content of fermented cream samples, skim milk powder and demineralized whey powder in two different rates (50% and 70% were used. Samples were analyzed for changes in their biochemical and physicochemical properties (total solid, ash, fat, titratable acidity, pH value, total nitrogen, viscosity, tyrosine, acid number, peroxide and diacetyl values during 29-day of storage period. Samples tested consisted of 7 different groups; control group (without adding any powder, skim milk powder, 50% demineralized whey powder and 70% demineralized whey powder samples were in two different addition rate (2% and 4%. Also samples were analyzed for sensory properties. According to the results obtained, the addition of milk powder products affected titratable acidity and tyrosine values of fermented cream samples. Although powder addition and/or storage period didn’t cause significant variations in total solid, ash, fat, pH value, viscosity, acid number, peroxide, tyrosine and diacetyl values; sensory properties of fermented cream samples were influenced by both powder addition and storage period. Fermented cream containing 2% skim milk powder gets the top score of sensory evaluation among the samples.

  13. 40 CFR 180.522 - Fumigants for processed grains used in production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. 180.522 Section 180.522 Protection of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.522 Fumigants for processed grains used in production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants for processed grain...

  14. Corncob hydrolysate, an efficient substrate for Monascus pigment production through submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongxin; Yin, Zheng; Hu, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-01

    Monascus pigment has traditionally been produced by the fermentation of Monascus using rice powder or glucose as a culture substrate. Submerged fermentation can produce stable Monascus pigment yield and control the accumulation of the by-product, citrinin, which can then be more easily removed. To reduce the cost of Monascus submerged fermentation, the feasibility of corncob hydrolysate as an alternative substrate was investigated. Results showed that, when compared with a conventional glucose medium, the corncob hydrolysate medium produced an equivalent pigment yield without stimulating citrinin accumulation. Furthermore, the corncob hydrolysate medium and cultivation conditions were optimized to enhance pigment production and decrease citrinin synthesis. When Monascus sp. was cultured under dark conditions in the presence of caprylic acid, pigment production was increased to 25.8 ± 0.8 UA500 /mL, which was higher than that achieved in a glucose medium (24.0 ± 0.9 UA500 /mL), and those obtained in previously reported Monascus submerged fermentations using the same yield unit; on the other hand, citrinin accumulation was decreased to 26.2 ± 1.9 µg/L, which was significantly lower than that generated in the glucose control (44.3 ± 2.2 µg/L) and in those previously reported fermentations. Thus, corncob hydrolysate was proved to be an efficient alternative substrate for Monascus pigment production through submerged fermentation, which showed significant advantages over a conventional glucose substrate. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. [Baked product development based fermented legumes and cereals for schoolchildren snack].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar; Zambrano, Rosaura

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this work was to develop three foodstuffs based on mixes of wheat and fermented and non-fermented legumes, for the purpose of contributing with a healthy alternative for school snacks. To this aim, refined wheat flour was partially substituted with whole legume flours for the preparation of cakes, brownies and cookies, foodstuffs traditionally consumed by school age children. Cakes were formulated substituting 20% of wheat flour with Phaseolus vulgaris flour, brownies with 30% of Cajanus cajan flour and cookies with 30% of Vigna sinensis flour, using fermented and non-fermented legumes in the three products. When these products were subjected to sensorial evaluation through a test of degree of acceptability and using a hedonic scale of 7 points, values higher than 5 in the attributes taste, color and overall appraisal were found for all the products. In addition, the preference was measured with a group of 90 school children, corroborating the results obtained at laboratory level. Chemical characterization showed protein contents between 12 and 13% for the cake, 10 and 11% for the brownies and 10% for the cookies and protein digestibilities in vitro of 91%, 87% and 93%, respectively. The calorie supply, calculated per portion was of 199 kcal, 246 kcal and 237 kcal, for cakes, brownies and cookies, respectively. It was concluded that it is technically possible to incorporate fermented and non-fermented Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna sinensis and Cajanus cajan, to highly consumed products such as cakes, brownies and cookies with a higher nutritional content and well-accepted by school-age children.

  16. Ethanol production from banana peels using statistically optimized simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Vadlani, Praveen V; Saida, Lavudi; Bansal, Sunil; Hughes, Joshua D

    2011-07-01

    Dried and ground banana peel biomass (BP) after hydrothermal sterilization pretreatment was used for ethanol production using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize concentrations of cellulase and pectinase, temperature and time for ethanol production from BP using SSF. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination (R(2)) value of 0.92 for ethanol production. On the basis of model graphs and numerical optimization, the validation was done in a laboratory batch fermenter with cellulase, pectinase, temperature and time of nine cellulase filter paper unit/gram cellulose (FPU/g-cellulose), 72 international units/gram pectin (IU/g-pectin), 37 °C and 15 h, respectively. The experiment using optimized parameters in batch fermenter not only resulted in higher ethanol concentration than the one predicted by the model equation, but also saved fermentation time. This study demonstrated that both hydrothermal pretreatment and SSF could be successfully carried out in a single vessel, and use of optimized process parameters helped achieve significant ethanol productivity, indicating commercial potential for the process. To the best of our knowledge, ethanol concentration and ethanol productivity of 28.2 g/l and 2.3 g/l/h, respectively from banana peels have not been reported to date. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancing Ethanol Production by Fermentation Using Saccharomyces cereviseae under Vacuum Condition in Batch Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abdullah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is one of renewable energy, which considered being an excellent alternativeclean-burning fuel to replaced gasoline. In fact, the application of ethanol as fuel still blended withgasoline. The advantages of using ethanol as fuel are that the raw material mostly from renewableresources and the product has low emission which means environmental friendly. Ethanol can beproduced by fermentation of sugars (glucose/fructose. The constraint in the ethanol fermentationbatch or continuous process is the ethanol product inhibition. Inhibition in ethanol productivityand cell growth can be overcome by taking the product continuously from the fermentor. Theprocess can be done by using a vacuum fermentation. The objective of this research is toinvestigate the effect of pressure and glucose concentration in ethanol fermentation. The researchwas conducted in laboratory scale and batch process. Equipment consists of fermentor withvacuum system. The observed responses were dried cells of yeast, concentration of glucose, andconcentration of ethanol. Observations were made every 4 hours during a day of experiment. Theresults show that the formation of ethanol has a growth-associated product characteristic undervacuum operation. Vacuum condition can increase the cell formation productivity and the ethanolformation, as it is compared with fermentation under atmospheric condition. The maximum cellsproductivity and ethanol formation in batch operation under vacuum condition was reached at166.6 mmHg of pressure. The maximum numbers of cells and ethanol formation was reached at141.2 mm Hg of pressure. High initial glucose concentration significantly can affect the productivityand the yield of ethanol.

  18. Molecular characterization, technological properties and safety aspects of enterococci from 'Hussuwa', an African fermented sorghum product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, N M K; Dawyndt, P; Abriouel, H; Wijaya, A; Schillinger, U; Vancanneyt, M; Swings, J; Dirar, H A; Holzapfel, W H; Franz, C M A P

    2005-01-01

    To identify enterococci from Hussuwa, a Sudanese fermented sorghum product, and determine their technological properties and safety for possible inclusion in a starter culture preparation. Twenty-two Enterococcus isolates from Hussuwa were identified as Enterococcus faecium by using phenotypic and genotypic tests such as 16S rDNA gene sequencing, RAPD-PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S/23S intergenic spacer region fingerprinting. Genotyping revealed that strains were not clonally related and exhibited a considerable degree of genomic diversity. Some strains possessed useful technological properties such as production of bacteriocins and H2O2 or utilization of raffinose and stachyose. None produced alpha-amylase or tannase. A safety investigation revealed that all strains were susceptible to the antibiotics ampicillin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and streptomycin, but some were resistant to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, penicillin and vancomycin. Production of biogenic amines or presence of genes encoding virulence determinants occurred in some strains. Enterococcus faecium strains are associated with fermentation of Sudanese Hussuwa. Some strains exhibited useful technological properties such as production of antimicrobial agents and fermentation of indigestible sugars, which may aid in stabilizing and improving the digestibility of the product respectively. Enterococci were shown to play a role in the fermentation of African foods. While beneficial properties of these bacteria are indicated, their presence in this food may also imply a hygienic risk as a result of antimicrobial resistances or presence of virulence determinants.

  19. Hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste in the two-stage fermentation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lui, D.; Liu, D.; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong

    2006-01-01

    A two-stage process combined hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste was demonstrated working successfully. The yield of 43 mL H-2/g volatile solid (VS) added was generated in the first hydrogen production stage and the methane production in the second stage was 500 mL CH4/g VS...... added. This figure was 21% higher than the methane yield from the one-stage process, which was run as control. Sparging of the hydrogen reactor with methane gas resulted in doubling of the hydrogen production. PH was observed as a key factor affecting fermentation pathway in hydrogen production stage....... Furthermore, this study also provided direct evidence in the dynamic fermentation process that, hydrogen production increase was reflected by acetate to butyrate ratio increase in liquid phase. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Biotechnological process for obtaining new fermented products from cashew apple fruit by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Suzane Macêdo; Silva, Cristina Ferraz; Moreira, Jane Jesus Silveira; Narain, Narendra; Souza, Roberto Rodrigues

    2011-09-01

    In Brazil, the use of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) to obtain new products by biotechnological process represents an important alternative to avoid wastage of a large quantity of this fruit, which reaches about 85% of the annual production of 1 million tons. This work focuses on the development of an alcoholic product obtained by the fermentation of cashew apple juice. The inoculation with two different strains of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae viz. SCP and SCT, were standardized to a concentration of 10(7 )cells ml(-1). Each inoculum was added to 1,500 ml of cashew must. Fermentation was performed at 28 ± 3°C and aliquots were withdrawn every 24 h to monitor soluble sugar concentrations, pH, and dry matter contents. The volatile compounds in fermented products were analyzed using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system. After 6 days, the fermentation process was completed, cells removed by filtration and centrifugation, and the products were stabilized under refrigeration for a period of 20 days. The stabilized products were stored in glass bottles and pasteurized at 60 ± 5°C/30 min. Both fermented products contained ethanol concentration above 6% (v v(-1)) while methanol was not detected and total acidity was below 90 mEq l(-1), representing a pH of 3.8-3.9. The volatile compounds were characterized by the presence of aldehyde (butyl aldehyde diethyl acetal, 2,4-dimethyl-hepta-2,4-dienal, and 2-methyl-2-pentenal) and ester (ethyl α-methylbutyrate) representing fruity aroma. The strain SCT was found to be better and efficient and this produced 10% more alcohol over that of strain SCP.

  1. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria associated with traditional fermented dairy products in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J; Wang, W H; Menghe, B L G; Jiri, M T; Wang, H M; Liu, W J; Bao, Q H; Lu, Q; Zhang, J C; Wang, F; Xu, H Y; Sun, T S; Zhang, H P

    2011-07-01

    Spontaneous milk fermentation has a long history in Mongolia, and beneficial microorganisms have been handed down from one generation to the next for use in fermented dairy products. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) communities in fermented yak, mare, goat, and cow milk products by analyzing 189 samples collected from 13 different regions in Mongolia. The LAB counts in these samples varied from 3.41 to 9.03 log cfu/mL. Fermented yak and mare milks had almost identical mean numbers of LAB, which were significantly higher than those in fermented goat milk but slightly lower than those in fermented cow milk. In total, 668 isolates were obtained from these samples using de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe agar and M17 agar. Each isolate was considered to be presumptive LAB based on gram-positive and catalase-negative properties, and was identified at the species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, multiplex PCR assay, and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. All isolates from Mongolian dairy products were accurately identified as Enterococcus faecalis (1 strain), Enterococcus durans (3 strains), Lactobacillus brevis (3 strains), Lactobacillus buchneri (2 strains), Lactobacillus casei (16 strains), Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (142 strains), Lactobacillus diolivorans (17 strains), Lactobacillus fermentum (42 strains), Lactobacillus helveticus (183 strains), Lactobacillus kefiri (6 strains), Lactobacillus plantarum ssp. plantarum (7 strains), Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (7 strains), Leuconostoc lactis (22 strains), Leuconostoc mesenteroides (21 strains), Streptococcus thermophilus (195 strains), and Weissella cibaria (1 strain). The predominant LAB were Strep. thermophilus and Lb. helveticus, which were isolated from all sampling sites. The results demonstrate that traditional fermented dairy products from different regions of Mongolia have complex compositions of LAB species. Such diversity of

  2. Enzymatic saccharification of brown seaweed for production of fermentable sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Horn, Svein Jarle

    2016-08-01

    This study shows that high drying temperatures negatively affect the enzymatic saccharification yield of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima. The optimal drying temperature of the seaweed in terms of enzymatic sugar release was found to be 30°C. The enzymatic saccharification process was optimized by investigating factors such as kinetics of sugar release, enzyme dose, solid loading and different blend ratios of cellulases and an alginate lyase. It was found that the seaweed biomass could be efficiently hydrolysed to fermentable sugars using a commercial cellulase cocktail. The inclusion of a mono-component alginate lyase was shown to improve the performance of the enzyme blend, in particular at high solid loadings. At 25% dry matter loading a combined glucose and mannitol concentration of 74g/L was achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Change in enzyme production by gradually drying culture substrate during solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kazunari; Gomi, Katsuya; Kariyama, Masahiro; Miyake, Tsuyoshi

    2015-06-01

    The influence of drying the culture substrate during solid-state fermentation on enzyme production was investigated using a non-airflow box. The drying caused a significant increase in enzyme production, while the mycelium content decreased slightly. This suggests that changes in the water content in the substrate during culture affect enzyme production in fungi. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biological Hydrogen Production: Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation with Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal from Wastewater Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    process.7 The reaction is of great economic importance given that the world’s industrial production of nitrogenous fertilizer increased 27-fold between... Enzymatic Saccharification and Fermentation of Paper and Pulp Industry Effluent for Biohydrogen Production . Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2010, 35, pp...Reactor Setup and Operation 11 4.2 Operational Comparison: SBR and CBR 12 4.3 Effect of pH and Loading on Hydrogen Production 13 4.4 Enzymatic Source

  5. Optimization of culture conditions for tannase production by Aspergillus sp. gm4 in solid state fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Patrícia Nirlane da Costa; Universidade Federal de Lavras; Maia, Natália da Costa; Universidade Federal de Lavras; Guimarães, Luís Henrique Souza; Universidade de São Paulo; Resende, Mário Lúcio Vilela de; Universidade Federal de Lavras; Cardoso, Patrícia Gomes; Universidade Federal de Lavras

    2015-01-01

    The production of tannase by Aspergillus sp. GM4 under solid-state fermentation (SSF)  was investigated using different vegetables leaves such as mango, jamun, coffee and agricultural residues such as coffee husks, rice husks and wheat bran. Among substrates used jamun leaves yielded high tannase production. The Plackett-Burman design was conducted to evaluate the effects of 12 independent variables on the production of tannase under SSF using jamun leaves as substrate. Among these variables,...

  6. Preventive effect of fermented Maillard reaction products from milk proteins in cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, N S; Kwon, H S; Lee, H A; Joung, J Y; Lee, J Y; Lee, K B; Shin, Y K; Baick, S C; Park, M R; Kim, Y; Lee, K W; Kim, S H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dual effect of Maillard reaction and fermentation on the preventive cardiovascular effects of milk proteins. Maillard reaction products (MRP) were prepared from the reaction between milk proteins, such as whey protein concentrates (WPC) and sodium caseinate (SC), and lactose. The hydrolysates of MRP were obtained from fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB; i.e., Lactobacillus gasseri H10, L. gasseri H11, Lactobacillus fermentum H4, and L. fermentum H9, where human-isolated strains were designated H1 to H15), which had excellent proteolytic and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities (>20%). The antioxidant activity of MRP was greater than that of intact proteins in assays of the reaction with 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and trivalent ferric ions; moreover, the effect of MRP was synergistically improved by fermentation. The Maillard reaction dramatically increased the level of antithrombotic activity and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) inhibitory effect of milk proteins, but did not change the level of activity for micellar cholesterol solubility. Furthermore, specific biological properties were enhanced by fermentation. Lactobacillus gasseri H11 demonstrated the greatest activity for thrombin and HMGR inhibition in Maillard-reacted WPC, by 42 and 33%, respectively, whereas hydrolysates of Maillard-reacted SC fermented by L. fermentum H9 demonstrated the highest reduction rate for micellar cholesterol solubility, at 52%. In addition, the small compounds that were likely released by fermentation of MRP were identified by size-exclusion chromatography. Therefore, MRP and hydrolysates of fermented MRP could be used to reduce cardiovascular risks. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Production of xylose, furfural, fermentable sugars and ethanol from agricultural residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Das, K.; Sharma, D.K.

    1984-02-01

    With the developing shortage of petroleum, reliance on biomass as a source of chemicals and fuels will increase. In the present work, bagasse and rice husk were subjected to dilute acid (H2SO4) hydrolysis using pressurised water to obtain furfural and fermentable sugars. Various process conditions such as particle size, solid-liquid ratio, acid concentration, reaction time and temperature have been studied to optimise yields of furfural, xylose and other fermentable sugars. The use of particle sizes smaller than 495 mu m did not further increase the yield of reducing sugars. A solid-liquid ratio of 1:15 was found to be the most suitable for production of reducing sugars. Hydrolysis using 0.4% H2SO4 at 453 K resulted in selective yields (g per 100 g of dried agricultural residues) of xylose from bagasse (22.5%) and rice husk (21.5%). A maximum yield of furfural was obtained using 0.4% H2SO4 at 473 K from bagasse (11.5%) and rice husk (10.9%). It was also found that hydrolysis using 1% H2SO4 at 493 K resulted in maximum yields of total reducing sugar from bagasse (53.5%) and rice husk (50%). The reducing sugars obtained were fermented to ethanol after removal of furfural. The effect of furfural on the fermentation of sugars to ethanol was also studied. Based on these studies, an integrated two-step process for the production of furfural and fermentable sugars could be envisaged. In the first step, using 0.4% H2SO4 at 473 K, furfural could be obtained, while in the second step, the use of 1% H2SO4 at 493 K should result in the production of fermentable sugars. (Refs. 22).

  8. Improving hydrogen production from cassava starch by combination of dark and photo fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Huibo; Cheng, Jun; Zhou, Junhu; Song, Wenlu; Cen, Kefa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2009-02-15

    The combination of dark and photo fermentation was studied with cassava starch as the substrate to increase the hydrogen yield and alleviate the environmental pollution. The different raw cassava starch concentrations of 10-25 g/l give different hydrogen yields in the dark fermentation inoculated with the mixed hydrogen-producing bacteria derived from the preheated activated sludge. The maximum hydrogen yield (HY) of 240.4 ml H{sub 2}/g starch is obtained at the starch concentration of 10 g/l and the maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 84.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h is obtained at the starch concentration of 25 g/l. When the cassava starch, which is gelatinized by heating or hydrolyzed with {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase, is used as the substrate to produce hydrogen, the maximum HY respectively increases to 258.5 and 276.1 ml H{sub 2}/g starch, and the maximum HPR respectively increases to 172 and 262.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h. Meanwhile, the lag time ({lambda}) for hydrogen production decreases from 11 h to 8 h and 5 h respectively, and the fermentation duration decreases from 75-110 h to 44-68 h. The metabolite byproducts in the dark fermentation, which are mainly acetate and butyrate, are reused as the substrates in the photo fermentation inoculated with the Rhodopseudomonas palustris bacteria. The maximum HY and HPR are respectively 131.9 ml H{sub 2}/g starch and 16.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h in the photo fermentation, and the highest utilization ratios of acetate and butyrate are respectively 89.3% and 98.5%. The maximum HY dramatically increases from 240.4 ml H{sub 2}/g starch only in the dark fermentation to 402.3 ml H{sub 2}/g starch in the combined dark and photo fermentation, while the energy conversion efficiency increases from 17.5-18.6% to 26.4-27.1% if only the heat value of cassava starch is considered as the input energy. When the input light energy in the photo fermentation is also taken into account, the whole energy conversion efficiency is 4.46-6.04%. (author)

  9. Production of rennin-like acid protease by Mucor pusillus through submerged fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daudi, S.; Mukhtar, H.; Rehman, A.U.; Haq, I.U.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the isolation and screening of Mucor species for the production of acid protease in shake flasks. Out of eight mould cultures evaluated, five were isolated from soil and three were provided from the Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Government College University, Lahore. Of all the isolates tested, Mucor pusillus IHS6 was found to be the best producer of rennin-like acid protease producing 75 U/ml of the enzyme. Different agricultural byproducts were evaluated as fermentation substrates and maximum enzyme synthesis (61 U/ml) was obtained when rapeseed meal was used as a substrate. Optimum pH and fermentation period for the production of protease were 5.5 (56U/ml) and 72 hrs (55U/ml), respectively. The production of protease by Mucor pusillus IHS6 was also studied by adding different carbon and nitrogen sources to the fermentation medium. Fructose at a concentration of 1.5% (66 U/ml) and yeast extract at a concentration of 2% (68.2 U/ml) and ammonium chloride at a concentration of 0.1% (67U/ml) were found to be the best carbon and nitrogen (organic and inorganic) sources respectively. Spore inoculum at a concentration of 1% (68.4 U/ml) was found to be the best for protease production by Mucor pusillus. The fermentation broth was found to have strong milk clotting activity with 200 RU. (author)

  10. Batch fermentation of whey ultra filtrate by Lactobacillus helveticus for lactic acid production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, D; Goulet, J; Le Duy, Q

    1986-06-01

    Cheese whey ultrafiltrate (WU) was used as the carbon source for the production of lactic acid by batch fermentation with Lactobacillus helveticus strain milano. The fermentation was conducted in a 400 ml fermentor at an agitation rate of 200 revolutions per minute and under conditions of controlled temperature (42 degrees C) and pH. In the whey ultrafiltrate-corn steep liquor (WU-CSL) medium, the optimal pH for fermentation was 5.9. Inoculum propagated in skim milk (SM) medium or in lactose synthetic (LS) medium resulted in the best performance in fermentation (in terms of growth, lactic acid production, lactic acid yield and maximum productivity of lactic acid), as compared to that propagated in glucose synthetic (GS) medium. The yeast extract ultrafiltrate (YEU) used as the nitrogen/growth factor source in the WU medium at 1.5% (w/v) gave the highest maximum productivity of lactic acid of 2.70 g/l-h, as compared to the CSL and the tryptone ultrafiltrate (TU). 27 references.

  11. A review of dark fermentative hydrogen production from biodegradable municipal waste fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gioannis, G; Muntoni, A; Polettini, A; Pomi, R

    2013-06-01

    Hydrogen is believed to play a potentially key role in the implementation of sustainable energy production, particularly when it is produced from renewable sources and low energy-demanding processes. In the present paper an attempt was made at critically reviewing more than 80 recent publications, in order to harmonize and compare the available results from different studies on hydrogen production from FW and OFMSW through dark fermentation, and derive reliable information about process yield and stability in view of building related predictive models. The review was focused on the effect of factors, recognized as potentially affecting process evolution (including type of substrate and co-substrate and relative ratio, type of inoculum, food/microorganisms [F/M] ratio, applied pre-treatment, reactor configuration, temperature and pH), on the fermentation yield and kinetics. Statistical analysis of literature data from batch experiments was also conducted, showing that the variables affecting the H2 production yield were ranked in the order: type of co-substrate, type of pre-treatment, operating pH, control of initial pH and fermentation temperature. However, due to the dispersion of data observed in some instances, the ambiguity about the presence of additional hidden variables cannot be resolved. The results from the analysis thus suggest that, for reliable predictive models of fermentative hydrogen production to be derived, a high level of consistency between data is strictly required, claiming for more systematic and comprehensive studies on the subject. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro fermentation of alternansucrase raffinose acceptor products by human gut bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, in vitro fermentation of alternansucrase raffinose acceptor products, previously fractionated according to their degree of polymerization (DP; from DP4 to DP10) was carried out using pH-controlled small scale batch cultures at 37ºC under anaerobic conditions with human faeces. Bifidog...

  13. Bifurcation analysis of a product inhibition model of a continuous fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenbury, Y; Chiaranai, C

    1987-03-01

    A product inhibition model of a continuous fermentation process is considered. If the yield term is a variable function of ethanol concentration, oscillation in the cell and ethanol concentrations is shown to be a Hopf bifurcation in the underlying system of nonlinear, ordinary differential equations which comprises the model.

  14. Dominant lactic acid bacteria and their technological properties isolated from the Himalayan ethnic fermented milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Sailendra; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

    2007-10-01

    Ethnic people of the Himalayan regions of India, Nepal, Bhutan and China consume a variety of indigenous fermented milk products made from cows milk as well as yaks milk. These lesser-known ethnic fermented foods are dahi, mohi, chhurpi, somar, philu and shyow. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) ranged from 10(7) to 10(8) cfu/g in these Himalayan milk products. A total of 128 isolates of LAB were isolated from 58 samples of ethnic fermented milk products collected from different places of India, Nepal and Bhutan. Based on phenotypic characterization including API sugar test, the dominant lactic acid bacteria were identified as Lactobacillus bifermentans, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. pseudoplantarum, Lactobacillus kefir, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Lactobacillus alimentarius, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and Enterococcus faecium. LAB produced a wide spectrum of enzymes and showed high galactosidase, leucine-arylamidase and phosphatase activities. They showed antagonistic properties against selected Gram-negative bacteria. None of the strains produced bacteriocin and biogenic amines under the test conditions used. Most strains of LAB coagulated skim milk with a moderate drop in pH. Some strains of LAB showed a high degree of hydrophobicity, suggesting these strains may have useful adhesive potential. This paper is the first report on functional lactic acid bacterial composition in some lesser-known ethnic fermented milk products of the Himalayas.

  15. Structural features of condensed tannins affect in vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HUYEN, N. T.; FRYGANAS, C.; UITTENBOGAARD, G.; MUELLER-HARVEY, I.; VERSTEGEN, M. W. A.; HENDRIKS, W. H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298620936; PELLIKAAN, W. F.

    2016-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to investigate the effects of condensed tannin (CT) structural properties, i.e. average polymer size (or mean degree of polymerization), percentage of cis flavan-3-ols and percentage of prodelphinidins in CT extracts on methane (CH 4 ) production and fermentation

  16. Improved process for producing a fermentation product from a lignocellulose-containing material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to the production of hydrolyzates from a lignocellulose-containing material, and to fermentation of the hydrolyzates. More specifically, the present invention relates to the detoxification of phenolic inhibitors and toxins formed during the processing of lignocellulose...

  17. A process for producing a fermentation product from a lignocellulose-containing material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to the production of hydrolyzates from a lignocellulose-containing material, and to fermentation of the hydrolyzates. More specifically, the present invention relates to the detoxification of phenolic inhibitors and toxins formed during the processing of lignocellulose...

  18. Chemometric approach to texture profile analysis of kombucha fermented milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbaša, Radomir; Jevrić, Lidija; Lončar, Eva; Vitas, Jasmina; Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Sanja; Milanović, Spasenija; Kovačević, Strahinja

    2015-09-01

    In the present work, relationships between the textural characteristics of fermented milk products obtained by kombucha inoculums with various teas were investigated by using chemometric analysis. The presented data which describe numerically the textural characteristics (firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and index of viscosity) were analysed. The quadratic correlation was determined between the textural characteristics of fermented milk products obtained at fermentation temperatures of 40 and 43 °C, using milk with 0.8, 1.6 and 2.8% milk fat and kombucha inoculums cultivated on the extracts of peppermint, stinging nettle, wild thyme and winter savory. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was performed to identify the similarities among the fermented products. The best mathematical models predicting the textural characteristics of investigated samples were developed. The results of this study indicate that textural characteristics of sample based on winter savory have a significant effect on textural characteristics of samples based on peppermint, stinging nettle and wild thyme, which can be very useful in the determination of products texture profile.

  19. Characterization of anti-listerial lactic acid bacteria isolated from Thai fermented fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Anya; Embarek, Peter Karim Ben; Wedell-Neergaard, C.

    1998-01-01

    Thai fermented fish products were screened for lactic acid bacteria capable of inhibiting Listeria sp. (Listeria innocua). Of 4150 assumed lactic acid bacteria colonies from MRS agar plates that were screened by an agar-overlay method 58 (1.4%) were positive. Forty four of these strains were...

  20. Production and partial characterisation of feruloyl esterase by Sporotrichum thermophile in solid-state fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topakas, E.; Kalogeris, E.; Kekos, D.

    2003-01-01

    A number of factors affecting production of feruloyl esterase an enzyme that hydrolyse ester linkages of ferulic acid (FA) in plant cell walls, by the thermophylic fungus Sporotrichum thermophile under solid state fermentation (SSF) were investigated. Initial moisture content and type of carbon...

  1. Efficient production of succinic acid in immobilized fermentation with crude glycerol from Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Nor Aziati, A.A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the price of commercial succinic acid has necessitated the need for its synthesis from waste materials such as glycerol. Glycerol residue is a waste product of Oleochemical production which is cheaply available and a very good source of carbon. The use of immobilized cells can further reduce the overall cost of the production process. This study primarily aims to produce succinic acid from glycerol residue through the use of immobilized Escherichia coli in a batch fermentation process. The parameters which affect bacterial fermentation process such as the mass substrate, temperature, inoculum size and duration of fermentation were screened using One-Factor-At-a-Time (OFAT method. The result of the screening process shows that a substrate (glycerol concentration of 30 g, inoculum size 20% v/v, and time 4 h produced the maximum succinic acid concentration of 117.99 g/L. The immobilized cells were found to be stable as well as retain their fermentative ability up to the 6th cycle of recycling, thereby presenting as an advantage over the free cell system. Therefore, conclude that using immobilized cells can contribute immensely to the cost-effective production of succinic acid from glycerol residue.

  2. Measuring and modelling in-vitro gas production kinetics to evaluate ruminal fermentation of feedstuffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuvink, J.M.W.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis, the possibilities of kinetic gas production measurements for the evaluation of ruminant feedstuffs have been examined. Present in-vitro methods were mostly end- point methods. There was a need for a kinetic in-vitro method that described ruminal fermentation, due to new

  3. Integration of first and second generation biofuels: Fermentative hydrogen production from wheat grain and straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Integrating of lignocellulose-based and starch-rich biomass-based hydrogen production was investigated by mixing wheat straw hydrolysate with a wheat grain hydrolysate for improved fermentation. Enzymatic pretreatment and hydrolysis of wheat grains led to a hydrolysate with a sugar concentration of

  4. Effect of food to microorganism ratio on biohydrogen production from food waste via anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Jinming [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Zhang, Ruihong; Sun, Huawei [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); El-Mashad, Hamed M. [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Agricultural Engineering, Mansoura University, El-Mansoura (Egypt); Ying, Yibin [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The effect of different food to microorganism ratios (F/M) (1-10) on the hydrogen production from the anaerobic batch fermentation of mixed food waste was studied at two temperatures, 35 {+-} 2 C and 50 {+-} 2 C. Anaerobic sludge taken from anaerobic reactors was used as inoculum. It was found that hydrogen was produced mainly during the first 44 h of fermentation. The F/M between 7 and 10 was found to be appropriate for hydrogen production via thermophilic fermentation with the highest yield of 57 ml-H{sub 2}/g VS at an F/M of 7. Under mesophilic conditions, hydrogen was produced at a lower level and in a narrower range of F/Ms, with the highest yield of 39 ml-H{sub 2}/g VS at the F/M of 6. A modified Gompertz equation adequately (R{sup 2} > 0.946) described the cumulative hydrogen production yields. This study provides a novel strategy for controlling the conditions for production of hydrogen from food waste via anaerobic fermentation. (author)

  5. Use of magnetic nanoparticles to enhance bioethanol production in syngas fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kee; Lee, Haryeong

    2016-03-01

    The effect of two types of nanoparticles on the enhancement of bioethanol production in syngas fermentation by Clostridium ljungdahlii was examined. Methyl-functionalized silica and methyl-functionalized cobalt ferrite-silica (CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3) nanoparticles were used to improve syngas-water mass transfer. Of these, CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3 nanoparticles showed better enhancement of syngas mass transfer. The nanoparticles were recovered using a magnet and reused five times to evaluate reusability, and it was confirmed that their capability for mass transfer enhancement was maintained. Both types of nanoparticles were applied to syngas fermentation, and production of biomass, ethanol, and acetic acid was enhanced. CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3 nanoparticles were more efficient for the productivity of syngas fermentation due to improved syngas mass transfer. The biomass, ethanol, and acetic acid production compared to a control were increased by 227.6%, 213.5%, and 59.6%, respectively by addition of CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3 nanoparticles. The reusability of the nanoparticles was confirmed by reuse of recovered nanoparticles for fermentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of Lactobacillus Acidophilus fermentation products as an alternative to antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment compared the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation products (LAFP) to carbadox and copper sulfate on growth performance and complete blood counts (CBC). Eight hundred pigs were weaned at 24 d of age and utilized in a randomized block design (4 farrowing groups, blocked by...

  7. Redox mediators modify end product distribution in biomass fermentations by mixed ruminal microbes in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fermentation system of mixed ruminal bacteria is capable of generating large amounts of short-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA) via the carboxylate platform in vitro. These VFAs are subject to elongation to larger, more energy-dense products through reverse beta-oxidation. This study examined the...

  8. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria with High Biological Activity from Local Fermented Dairy Products

    OpenAIRE

    B. Munkhtsetseg; M. Margad-Erdene; B. Batjargal

    2009-01-01

    The thirty-two strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from the Mongolian traditional fermented dairy products, among them 25 strains show antimicrobial activity against test microorganisms including Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Enterococcus faecalis , Pseudom о nas aeruginosa . Protease sensitivity assay demonstrated that the antimicrobial substances produced by isolates А 23, Т 2 are bacterio...

  9. A review of dark fermentative hydrogen production from biodegradable municipal waste fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Gioannis, G., E-mail: degioan@unica.it [DICAAR – Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture, University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); IGAG-CNR, Environmental Geology and Geoengineering Institute of the National Research Council (Italy); Muntoni, A. [DICAAR – Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture, University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); IGAG-CNR, Environmental Geology and Geoengineering Institute of the National Research Council (Italy); Polettini, A.; Pomi, R. [Department of Hydraulics, Transportation and Roads, University of Rome “La Sapienza” (Italy)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► A large number of factors affect fermentative hydrogen production. ► Harmonization and systematic comparison of results from different literature sources are needed. ► More than 80 publications on H{sub 2} production from food waste and OFMSW have been examined. ► Experimental data from the reviewed literature were analyzed using statistical tools. ► For a reliable assessment of the process performance, the use of multiple parameters appears to be recommended. - Abstract: Hydrogen is believed to play a potentially key role in the implementation of sustainable energy production, particularly when it is produced from renewable sources and low energy-demanding processes. In the present paper an attempt was made at critically reviewing more than 80 recent publications, in order to harmonize and compare the available results from different studies on hydrogen production from FW and OFMSW through dark fermentation, and derive reliable information about process yield and stability in view of building related predictive models. The review was focused on the effect of factors, recognized as potentially affecting process evolution (including type of substrate and co-substrate and relative ratio, type of inoculum, food/microorganisms [F/M] ratio, applied pre-treatment, reactor configuration, temperature and pH), on the fermentation yield and kinetics. Statistical analysis of literature data from batch experiments was also conducted, showing that the variables affecting the H{sub 2} production yield were ranked in the order: type of co-substrate, type of pre-treatment, operating pH, control of initial pH and fermentation temperature. However, due to the dispersion of data observed in some instances, the ambiguity about the presence of additional hidden variables cannot be resolved. The results from the analysis thus suggest that, for reliable predictive models of fermentative hydrogen production to be derived, a high level of consistency between data is

  10. A review of dark fermentative hydrogen production from biodegradable municipal waste fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Gioannis, G.; Muntoni, A.; Polettini, A.; Pomi, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A large number of factors affect fermentative hydrogen production. ► Harmonization and systematic comparison of results from different literature sources are needed. ► More than 80 publications on H 2 production from food waste and OFMSW have been examined. ► Experimental data from the reviewed literature were analyzed using statistical tools. ► For a reliable assessment of the process performance, the use of multiple parameters appears to be recommended. - Abstract: Hydrogen is believed to play a potentially key role in the implementation of sustainable energy production, particularly when it is produced from renewable sources and low energy-demanding processes. In the present paper an attempt was made at critically reviewing more than 80 recent publications, in order to harmonize and compare the available results from different studies on hydrogen production from FW and OFMSW through dark fermentation, and derive reliable information about process yield and stability in view of building related predictive models. The review was focused on the effect of factors, recognized as potentially affecting process evolution (including type of substrate and co-substrate and relative ratio, type of inoculum, food/microorganisms [F/M] ratio, applied pre-treatment, reactor configuration, temperature and pH), on the fermentation yield and kinetics. Statistical analysis of literature data from batch experiments was also conducted, showing that the variables affecting the H 2 production yield were ranked in the order: type of co-substrate, type of pre-treatment, operating pH, control of initial pH and fermentation temperature. However, due to the dispersion of data observed in some instances, the ambiguity about the presence of additional hidden variables cannot be resolved. The results from the analysis thus suggest that, for reliable predictive models of fermentative hydrogen production to be derived, a high level of consistency between data is strictly

  11. Submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9 for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system, and its application in drugs and functional foods has attracted great attention. To enhance production of y-aminobutyric acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9, a strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food pickled vegetable, was grown under submerged fermentation. Its cultivation conditions were investigated. When culture pH condition was adjusted to the optimal pH of glutamate decarboxylase activity, culture of Lb. rhamnosus YS9 in medium supplemented with 200 mM of monosodium glutamate and 200 µM of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, produced 187 mM of GABA.

  12. Submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9 for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qian

    2013-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system, and its application in drugs and functional foods has attracted great attention. To enhance production of γ-aminobutyric acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9, a strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food pickled vegetable, was grown under submerged fermentation. Its cultivation conditions were investigated. When culture pH condition was adjusted to the optimal pH of glutamate decarboxylase activity, culture of Lb. rhamnosus YS9 in medium supplemented with 200 mM of monosodium glutamate and 200 μM of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), produced 187 mM of GABA. PMID:24159304

  13. Modeling of the substrate and product transfer coefficients for ethanol fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerajic, S.; Grbavcic, Z.; Savkovic-Stevanovic, J.

    2008-01-01

    The transfer phenomena of the substrate and product for ethanol fermentation with immobilized biocatalyst were investigated. Fermentation was carried out with a biocatalyst consisting of Ca-alginate gel in the form of two-layer spherical beads in anaerobic conditions. The determination of kinetic parameters was achieved by fitting bioreaction progress curves to the experimental data. The calculation of the diffusion coefficients was performed by numerical methods for experimental conditions. Finally, the glucose and ethanol transfer coefficients are defined and determined, using the effective diffusion coefficients. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Effect of Fermentation Parameters on Extra Cellular Tannase Production by Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1407

    OpenAIRE

    Kannan Natarajan; Aravindan Rajendran

    2009-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1407 represents a valuable source of an economically attractive stable long-life tannase with potential for application in various industries. The effect of fermentation parameters such as pH, temperature and agitation speed on the growth of biomass and production of tannase using liquid medium were determined at the end of fermentation period. The optimum values of pH, reaction temperature and agitation speed for tannase activity were 6.0, 30 °C and 125 rpm respe...

  15. Effect of Fermentation Parameters on Extra Cellular Tannase Production by Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1407

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Natarajan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1407 represents a valuable source of an economically attractive stable long-life tannase with potential for application in various industries. The effect of fermentation parameters such as pH, temperature and agitation speed on the growth of biomass and production of tannase using liquid medium were determined at the end of fermentation period. The optimum values of pH, reaction temperature and agitation speed for tannase activity were 6.0, 30 °C and 125 rpm respectively. The maximum tannase activity was found to be 9.29 U/mL.

  16. Modeling of rheological characteristics of the fermented dairy products obtained by novel and traditional starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukić, Dajana V; Vukić, Vladimir R; Milanović, Spasenija D; Ilicić, Mirela D; Kanurić, Katarina G

    2018-06-01

    Tree different fermented dairy products obtained by conventional and non-conventional starter cultures were investigated in this paper. Textural and rheological characteristics as well as chemical composition during 21 days of storage were analysed and subsequent data processing was performed by principal component analysis. The analysis of samples` flow behaviour was focused on their time dependent properties. Parameters of Power law model described flow behaviour of samples depended on used starter culture and days of storage. The Power law model was applied successfully to describe the flow of the fermented milk, which had characteristics of shear thinning and non-Newtonian fluid behaviour.

  17. Soy and phytoestrogens: possible side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jargin, Sergei V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] Phytoestrogens are present in certain edible plants being most abundant in soy; they are structurally and functionally analogous to the estrogens. Phytoestrogens have been applied for compensation of hormone deficiency in the menopause. At the same time, soy products are used in infant food and other foodstuffs. Furthermore, soy is applied as animal fodder, so that residual phytoestrogens and their active metabolites such as equol can remain in meat and influence the hormonal balance of the consumers. There have been only singular reports on modified gender-related behavior or feminization in humans in consequence of soy consumption. In animals, the intake of phytoestrogens was reported to impact fertility, sexual development and behavior. Feminizing effects in humans can be subtle and identifiable only statistically in large populations.

  18. Anaerobic Fermentation for Production of Carboxylic Acids as Bulk Chemicals from Renewable Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jufang; Lin, Meng; Xu, Mengmeng; Yang, Shang-Tian

    Biomass represents an abundant carbon-neutral renewable resource which can be converted to bulk chemicals to replace petrochemicals. Carboxylic acids have wide applications in the chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. This chapter provides an overview of recent advances and challenges in the industrial production of various types of carboxylic acids, including short-chain fatty acids (acetic, propionic, butyric), hydroxy acids (lactic, 3-hydroxypropionic), dicarboxylic acids (succinic, malic, fumaric, itaconic, adipic, muconic, glucaric), and others (acrylic, citric, gluconic, pyruvic) by anaerobic fermentation. For economic production of these carboxylic acids as bulk chemicals, the fermentation process must have a sufficiently high product titer, productivity and yield, and low impurity acid byproducts to compete with their petrochemical counterparts. System metabolic engineering offers the tools needed to develop novel strains that can meet these process requirements for converting biomass feedstock to the desirable product.

  19. Production of Protein Concentrate and 1,3-Propanediol by Wheat-Based Thin Stillage Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Shim, Youn Young; Emami, Shahram; Reaney, Martin J T

    2017-05-17

    Fermentation of wheat with yeast produces thin stillage (W-TS) and distiller's wet grains. A subsequent fermentation of W-TS (two-stage fermentation, TSF) with endemic bacteria at 25 and 37 °C decreased glycerol and lactic acid concentrations, while 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) and acetic acid accumulated with greater 1,3-PD and acetic acid produced at 37 °C. During TSF, W-TS colloids coagulated and floated in the fermentation medium producing separable liquid and slurry fractions. The predominant endemic bacteria in W-TS were Lactobacillus panis, L. gallinarum, and L. helveticus, and this makeup did not change substantially as fermentation progressed. As nutrients were exhausted, floating particles precipitated. Protein contents of slurry and clarified liquid increased and decreased, respectively, as TSF progressed. The liquid was easily filtered through an ultrafiltration membrane. These results suggested that TSF is a novel method for W-TS clarification and production of protein concentrates and 1,3-PD from W-TS.

  20. Development of a simple bio-hydrogen production system through dark fermentation by using unique microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Akihiro; Bando, Yukiko; Fujimoto, Naoshi; Suzuki, Masaharu [Department of Fermentation Science, Faculty of Applied Bio-Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1 Sakuragaoka 1-chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    In order to ensure efficient functioning of hydrogen fermentation systems that use Clostridium as the dominant hydrogen producer, energy-intensive process such as heat pretreatment of inoculum and/or substrate, continuous injection, and control of anaerobic conditions are required. Here, we describe a simple hydrogen fermentation system designed using microflora from leaf-litter cattle-waste compost. Hydrogen and volatile fatty acid production was measured at various hydraulic retention times, and bacterial genera were determined by PCR amplification and sequencing. Although hydrogen fermentation yield was approximately one-third of values reported in previous studies, this system requires no additional treatment and thus may be advantageous in terms of cost and operational control. Interestingly, Clostridium was absent from this system. Instead, Megasphaera elsdenii was the dominant hydrogen-producing bacterium, and lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) were prevalent. This study is the first to characterize M. elsdenii as a useful hydrogen producer in hydrogen fermentation systems. These results demonstrate that pretreatment is not necessary for stable hydrogen fermentation using food waste. (author)