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Sample records for fenugreek seeds trigonella

  1. Antioxidative activity of extracts from fenugreek seeds (trigonella foenum-graecum)

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    Bukhari, S B; Bhanger, M I; Memon, S [University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan). Dept. of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry

    2008-12-15

    Spices and herbs possess antioxidant activity and can be applied for preservation of lipid peroxidation in biological systems. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an important spice; its dried seeds have wide application in food and beverages as a flavoring additive as well as in medicines. Crude extracts of fenugreek were prepared by soxhelt extraction method with different solvents such as methanol, ethanol, dichloromethane, acetone, hexane and ethyl acetate. Extracts were subjected for the measurement of total phenolic content (TPC) by Folin-Ciocalteu method as well as flavonoid content, chelating activity, reducing power and antioxidant/radical scavenging activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH degree) free radical scavenging activity). Results from different parameters were in agreement with each other. The results reveal that all extracts of the fenugreek exhibit antioxidant activity. These findings suggest that the fenugreek extracts could act as potent source of antioxidants. (author)

  2. Antioxidative activity of extracts from fenugreek seeds (trigonella foenum-graecum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhari, S.B.; Bhanger, M.I.; Memon, S.

    2008-01-01

    Spices and herbs possess antioxidant activity and can be applied for preservation of lipid peroxidation in biological systems. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an important spice; its dried seeds have wide application in food and beverages as a flavoring additive as well as in medicines. Crude extracts of fenugreek were prepared by soxhelt extraction method with different solvents such as methanol, ethanol, dichloromethane, acetone, hexane and ethyl acetate. Extracts were subjected for the measurement of total phenolic content (TPC) by Folin-Ciocalteu method as well as flavonoid content, chelating activity, reducing power and antioxidant/radical scavenging activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH degree) free radical scavenging activity). Results from different parameters were in agreement with each other. The results reveal that all extracts of the fenugreek exhibit antioxidant activity. These findings suggest that the fenugreek extracts could act as potent source of antioxidants. (author)

  3. Dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds and garlic (Allium sativum alleviates oxidative stress in experimental myocardial infarction

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    P. Mukthamba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soluble fiber-rich fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum and garlic (Allium sativum are understood to exert cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects. The cardioprotective influence of a combination of fenugreek seeds and garlic by their antioxidant influence was evaluated in hypercholesterolemic rats administered isoproterenol. Wistar rats were maintained on high-cholesterol diet for 8 weeks along with dietary interventions of fenugreek (10%, garlic (2% and their combination. Myocardial infarction was induced with isoproterenol injection. Increased circulatory troponin, disturbed activities of cardiac ATPases, increased serum iron and decreased ceruloplasmin confirmed myocardial infarction. Elevated lipid peroxides accompanied with reduced antioxidant molecules caused by isoproterenol and altered activities of antioxidant enzymes in serum and heart in induced myocardial necrosis were countered by dietary fenugreek, garlic, and fenugreek + garlic. Dietary fenugreek seeds and garlic ameliorated isoproterenol-induced compromised antioxidant status, the cardioprotective effect being higher by the combination of fenugreek seeds and garlic.

  4. Effect of processing techniques on nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seed flour

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    Pandey, Hemlata; Awasthi, Pratima

    2013-01-01

    Fenugreek (Pusa Early Bunching) seeds were processed by using different processing methods viz. soaking, germination and roasting. Raw and processed fenugreek seed flours were analyzed for nutritional composition, anti- nutritional, and antioxidant activity. Raw fenugreek seed flour contained higher amount of dietary fiber (45.4 %) followed by 41.7 % in soaked seed flour, 40.9 % in roasted fenugreek seed flour and 31.3 % in germinated fenugreek seed flour. Processing of fenugreek seeds improv...

  5. A methanolic extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek seeds regulates markers of macrophage polarization.

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    Nurudeen Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Macrophages are key cellular mediators in diabetes-related inflammation. Molecular cues such as cytokines found in the tissue microenvironment regulates the polarization of macrophages into an M1 (pro-inflammatory or M2 (immunoregulatory phenotype. Recent evidence suggests that M1 macrophages in diabetic patients may contribute to the complications associated with the disease such as atherosclerosis. Trigonella foenum- graecum (Tfg: fenugreek seeds have been used in traditional medicine in Asia, Africa and the Middle-East for their alleged anti-diabetic properties. Objective: To identify the molecular mechanism(s through which Tfg seeds exert their effects, we investigated the role of a crude methanolic extract of Tfg (FME seeds on macrophage polarization in vitro. Method: THP-1 macrophages (Mϕ were treated with gBSA in the presence/absence of FME and the release and expression of M1 and M2 markers/cytokines were analysed. The role of FME on NF-κB activity was also explored using transfected HEK-293T cells. Results: This study found that the FME significantly (P<0.05 decreased gBSA-induced secretion of M1 cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in THP-1 Mϕ cells. In the presence of gBSA, FME also significantly increased the gene expression of the M2 marker Dectin-1, but had no effect on IL-10, IL-1Ra. FME also significantly decreased TNF-α induced NF-kB reporter activity. Conclusion: These results suggest that FME can regulate the expression of M1 and M2 markers in THP-1 Mϕ cells. This may be potentially through the modulation of NF-kB activity. Further work should be carried out to identify precise mechanism(s involved in the effects of FME and Tfg seeds.

  6. Characterization of Flavonoid Glycosides from Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum Crude Seeds by HPLC–DAD–ESI/MS Analysis

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    Zakia Benayad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum is a medicinal plant which is widely used for its pharmacological properties. In this study the phenolic composition of fenugreek crude seeds originating from Morocco has been investigated. Extraction was performed from defatted seeds by a hydromethanolic solution using an Accelerated Solvent Extractor. HPLC technique coupled to negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and diode array detection was employed to identify the polyphenol in the obtained extract. The obtained results allowed the detection of 32 phenolic compounds among which various flavonoid glycosides and phenolic acids have been tentatively identified on the basis of their UV and MS spectra, and comparisons with standards when available, as well as with literature data. A systematic study of the obtained MS spectra and the observed fragmentation showed that most of the identified compounds were acylated and non-acylated flavonoids with apigenin, luteolin and kaempferol as aglycons. Hydroxycinnamic acids mostly dominated by caffeic acid derivatives were also detected. The quantitative analysis of the identified compounds showed that the phenolic composition of the studied crude fenugreek seeds was predominantly acylated and non-acylated flavone derivatives with apigenin as the main aglycon.

  7. Characterization of Flavonoid Glycosides from Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Crude Seeds by HPLC–DAD–ESI/MS Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benayad, Zakia; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Es-Safi, Nour Eddine

    2014-01-01

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is a medicinal plant which is widely used for its pharmacological properties. In this study the phenolic composition of fenugreek crude seeds originating from Morocco has been investigated. Extraction was performed from defatted seeds by a hydromethanolic solution using an Accelerated Solvent Extractor. HPLC technique coupled to negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and diode array detection was employed to identify the polyphenol in the obtained extract. The obtained results allowed the detection of 32 phenolic compounds among which various flavonoid glycosides and phenolic acids have been tentatively identified on the basis of their UV and MS spectra, and comparisons with standards when available, as well as with literature data. A systematic study of the obtained MS spectra and the observed fragmentation showed that most of the identified compounds were acylated and non-acylated flavonoids with apigenin, luteolin and kaempferol as aglycons. Hydroxycinnamic acids mostly dominated by caffeic acid derivatives were also detected. The quantitative analysis of the identified compounds showed that the phenolic composition of the studied crude fenugreek seeds was predominantly acylated and non-acylated flavone derivatives with apigenin as the main aglycon. PMID:25393509

  8. Fatty acid and sterol composition of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

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    Mustafa Kıralan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil content, fatty acid and sterol composition of fenugreek seeds obtained from three different provinces were investigated. Oil was obtained from fenugreek seeds by solvent extraction and oil content was determined between 7.01-8.82%. Fenugreek seed oils were determined to be rich of unsaturated fatty acids according to gas chromatography results. Especially, linoleic acid was the most important of the fatty acids and varied between 45.10-46.19%. Total sterol content of oils varied from 8 681.54 to 9 591.70 ppm. The major sterol was β- sitosterol, and it was found to be between 59.94-68.24% of the total sterols.

  9. Effect of NaCl Priming on Seed Germination of Tunisian Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Under Salinity Conditions

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    Souguir, Maher

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one major problem of increasing production in crop growing areas throughout the world. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of NaCl priming on seed germination of Tunisian fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. under salinity conditions. Seeds of fenugreek were primed with NaCl (4g/l for 36 h in continuous 25°C. Experimental factors were included 2 priming treatments (NaCl and non-priming as control and five salinity solution (4,6,8,10 and 12 gl-1. Results showed that seed priming increased final germination percentage, germination speed and radicle length over the non-primed treatment. At the lowest levels of salinity, there were no notable differences between primed and non-primed seeds, but with increasing salinity levels, primed seeds showed the better performance than non-primed seeds. These results indicated that NaCl priming significantly improved seed performance under salinity conditions.

  10. Effect of processing techniques on nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Hemlata; Awasthi, Pratima

    2015-02-01

    Fenugreek (Pusa Early Bunching) seeds were processed by using different processing methods viz. soaking, germination and roasting. Raw and processed fenugreek seed flours were analyzed for nutritional composition, anti- nutritional, and antioxidant activity. Raw fenugreek seed flour contained higher amount of dietary fiber (45.4 %) followed by 41.7 % in soaked seed flour, 40.9 % in roasted fenugreek seed flour and 31.3 % in germinated fenugreek seed flour. Processing of fenugreek seeds improved in vitro starch digestibility and in vitro protein digestibility. Soaking, germination and roasting enhanced total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity of fenugreek seed flour as compared to raw fenugreek seed flour. The phenolic content of soaked, germinated and roasted fenugreek seed flours was 54.4, 80.8 and 48.5 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of sample in contrast to raw fenugreek seed flour (45.4 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of sample). The antioxidant activity of the extracts of soaked, germinated and roasted fenugreek seed flours was 60.7 %, 73.9 % and 32.0 % whereas as the raw fenugreek seed flour exhibited 18.1 % antioxidant activity. Processing of fenugreek seeds also decreased phytic acid content significantly (P seeds.

  11. Protective effect of dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and garlic (Allium sativum) on induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein in rats.

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    Mukthamba, Puttaswamy; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and garlic (Allium sativum) have been previously observed to have cardioprotective influence in experimentally induced myocardial infarction in rats. Since low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is a key factor in the arteriosclerotic process, we evaluated their potential in minimizing the LDL oxidation in rats. Fenugreek seeds, garlic, and their combination were included along with a high-cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Iron-induced oxidation of LDL in vivo was considerably lowered by dietary fenugreek and garlic. The extent of copper-induced oxidation of isolated LDL in vitro was also significantly lesser in fenugreek-fed or fenugreek+garlic-fed rats. Anodic electrophoretic mobility of the oxidized LDL on agarose gel in case of spice-fed animals was decreased and hence consistent with the observed protective influence on LDL oxidation. Dietary fenugreek, garlic, and their combination significantly lowered lipid peroxide levels in plasma, liver, and heart in iron (II)-administered rats. The results suggest that these two dietary spices have protective effect on LDL oxidation under normal situation as well as in hypercholesterolemic situation. The protective effect of the combination of dietary fenugreek and garlic on LDL oxidation both in vivo and in vitro was greater than that of the individual spices. The protective effect of dietary fenugreek and garlic on LDL oxidation both in vivo and in vitro as evidenced in the present study is suggestive of their cardioprotective potential since LDL oxidation is a key factor in the arteriosclerotic process.

  12. Fenugreek

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Grants and Contracts General Award Mechanisms Small Business Research Grant Program (SBIR) Funding for: Natural Product Research ... activities of fenugreek Trigonella foenum graecum seeds . Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2010;131:814-819. Suksomboon N, Poolsup N, ...

  13. Efficacy of a Novel Fenugreek Seed Extract (Trigonella foenum-graecum, Furocyst) in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).

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    Swaroop, Anand; Jaipuriar, Amrita Sarkari; Gupta, Sushil Kumar; Bagchi, Manashi; Kumar, Pawan; Preuss, Harry G; Bagchi, Debasis

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most prevalent hormonal disorders among women of reproductive age causing irregular menstrual cycles, excessive body or facial hair, miscarriage and infertility. The latter being a most common PCOS symptoms. Because the symptoms are seemingly unrelated to one another, PCOS is often overlooked and undiagnosed. The present study is an open label, one-arm, non-randomized, post-marketing surveillance study in 50 premenopausal women (18-45 years, BMIPCOS using a novel Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract (fenugreek seed extract, Furocyst, 2 capsules of 500 mg each/day) extract, enriched in approximately 40% furostanolic saponins, over a period of 90 consecutive days. The study was conducted to determine its efficacy on the reduction of ovarian volume and the number of ovarian cysts. Ethical committee approval was obtained for this study. Furocyst treatment caused significant reduction in ovary volume. Approximately 46% of study population showed reduction in cyst size, while 36% of subjects showed complete dissolution of cyst. It is important to mention that 71% of subjects reported the return of regular menstrual cycle on completion of the treatment and 12% of subjects subsequently became pregnant. Overall, 94% of patients benefitted from the regimen. Significant increases in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were observed compared to the baseline values. Extensive blood chemistry, hematological and biochemical assays demonstrated the broad-spectrum safety. Furocyst caused significant decrease in both ovarian volume and the number of ovarian cysts. Serum ALT, BUN and CK were assessed to demonstrate the broad-spectrum safety of Furocyst. No significant adverse effects were observed. In summary, Furocyst was efficacious in ameliorating the symptoms of PCOS.

  14. The Effect of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed and 17-β Estradiol on Serum Apelin, Glucose, Lipids, and Insulin in Ovariectomized Rats

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    Abedinzade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Menopause, a natural phenomenon, is defined by the fall of ovarian hormones mainly estrogens causing major problems such as insulin resistance. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum is known to have some useful properties such as insulin sensitizing effect. Apelin is an adipokine, which has several roles such as regulation of insulin secretion. Objectives The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed and 17-β estradiol on serum Apelin along with glucose, lipids and insulin in ovariectomized rats. Materials and Methods Forty-nine adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided to seven groups: normal control, ovariectomized control, ovariectomized treated with ethanolic and hexanic extract of fenugreek seed (50 and 150 mg/kg/daily for each, and ovariectomized treated with 17-β estradiol (10 µg/kg/daily for 42 days. Serum Apelin, glucose, lipids and insulin were measured. Results Serum Apelin, glucose, lipids and insulin significantly increased in ovariectomized controls in comparison with normal controls (P < 0.05. Serum glucose, lipids and insulin in ovariectomized rats treated with fenugreek seed extract and 17-β estradiol were remarkably lower than ovariectomized controls (P < 0.05. Furthermore, 17-β estradiol caused a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in serum Apelin in ovariectomized rats. Conclusions It appears that fenugreek seed might be effective against hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in ovariectomized rats without impact on serum Apelin. Furthermore, 17-β estradiol could have similar effects along with possible inhibitory effects on serum Apelin. The complicated role of Apelin in menopause needs to be further explored.

  15. Effect of Fenugreek seed Extract (Trigonella Foenum-graecum on testicular tissue in the embryos of Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

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    M beyzaei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Diabetes mellitus is associated with some of the metabolic dysfunctions represented with chronic hyperglycemia.  This disease can disrupt the function of testicular tissue and decline male sexual ability. Some of the medicinal herbs such as fenugreeks have protective effects on tissues via hypoglycemic and anti-oxidative properties. In the present paper,  the effects of fenugreek seed extract was evaluated on testicular tissue of 20 day-old embryos from diabetic rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, sixty normal female rats were divided into three normal groups: non-diabetic control, glibenclamide and fenugreek groups and three diabetic groups: diabetic control, glibenclamide treatment and fenugreek treatment groups. Single injection of streptozotocin was used for induction of diabetes in these female rats. After detection of pregnancy, 1000 mg/kg fenugreek seed extract was fed to non-diabetic and diabetic fenugreek groups and 5 mg/kg glibenclamide was fed to non-diabetic and diabetic glibenclamide groups. Non-diabetic and diabetic control group was fed with distilled water as the same volume as the fenugreek extract. After 20 days, their embryos were pulled out and fixed at 10% formalin. After tissue processing, five micron sections were stained with Hematoxylin- eosin and evaluated for morphometric changes of testicular tissue. Data were evaluated with One-Way ANOVA test and Duncan post-hoc test. Results: The mean diameter of seminiferous tubules and testis capsule thickness indicated no significant differences between fenugreek treatment and diabetic control groups (P> 0.05. Mean body weight of male embryos was significantly lower in fenugreek treatment group in comparison with the diabetic control group (P&le 0.05. The leydig, sertoli and spermatogonial cells number was significantly higher in fenugreek treatment group in compression with diabetic control group                      (P

  16. Hypolipidemic effects of fenugreek seed powder

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    Abu Saleh M. Moosa, Mamun Ur Rashid, A.Z.S. Asadi, Nazma Ara, M. Mojib Uddin and A. Ferdaus

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenugraecum Linn on serum lipid profile in hypercholesteremic type 2 diabetic patients were studied. Administration of fenugreek seed powder of 25 gm orally twice daily for 3 weeks and 6 weeks produces significant (P<0.001 reduction of serum total cholesterol, triacylglyceride and LDL-cholesterol in hypercholesteremic group but the change of serum HDL-cholesterol was not significant. On other hand, changes of lipid profile in hypercholesteremic type 2 diabetic patients without fenugreek were not significant (P<0.001. The present study suggests that fenugreek seed powder would be considered as effective agent for lipid lowering purposes.

  17. Effect of Fenugreek Seed Extract (Trigonella Foenum-graecum on Brachial Region of the Spinal Cord of an 18-Day Old Rat Offspring with Diabetes

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    Z Khaksar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Diabetes can affect the spinal cord, an important part of the central nervous system. Fenugreek seed has been suggested to have potential antidiabetic effects. This study was conducted to assess the effects of Fenugreek seed extract (trigonella foenum-graecum on fetal spinal cord structure, specifically in the brachial enlargement cord in an 18-day old fetus of diabetic mothers treated with extracts in comparison with the control groups' mothers. Methods: In the present cross-sectional study, sixteen healthy female rats were randomly divided into four equal groups: Healthy control, Diabetes control, Fenugreek control, Fenugreek treatment. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotcin (50 mg/kg. All four groups became pregnant by natural mating. After formation of the nervous system, two fetuses from each group were expelled by cesarean after performing anesthesia on the animals on 18th day of pregnancy furthermore their brachial enlargement spinal cord samples were taken. Finally, the tissue sections were prepared by routine procedures and diverse histological parameters were examined. The collected data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: results showed that fetal body weight on the diabetic control group was significantly higher compared to the other groups (P≤ 0/05. Moreover, significant reductions in the transvers and vertical diameters in central channel of the spinal cord and as well in the number of neurons of the spinal cord gray matter in the diabetic control groups in comparison with the other groups were observed (P≤0/05. Conclusion: The hyperglycemic effect of maternal diabetes during fetal period causes abnormalities, especially in the brachial enlargement of spinal cord, including changes in the spinal cord and neurons number in the gray matter. Disorders occurring in the prenatal remains and may perhaps cause lack of ability to perform certain physical activities. Key words

  18. Polyphenol Stilbenes from Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Seeds Improve Insulin Sensitivity and Mitochondrial Function in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

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    Gang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. is a well-known annual plant that is widely distributed worldwide and has possessed obvious hypoglycemic and hypercholesterolemia characteristics. In our previous study, three polyphenol stilbenes were separated from fenugreek seeds. Here, we investigated the effect of polyphenol stilbenes on adipogenesis and insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Oil Red O staining and triglyceride assays showed that polyphenol stilbenes differently reduced lipid accumulation by suppressing the expression of adipocyte-specific proteins. In addition, polyphenol stilbenes improved the uptake of 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-ylamino-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG by promoting the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. In present studies, it was found that polyphenol stilbenes had the ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS. Results from adenosine triphosphate (ATP production and mitochondrial membrane potentials suggested that mitochondria play a critical role in insulin resistance and related signaling activation, such as AKT and AMPK. Rhaponticin, one of the stilbenes from fenugreek, had the strongest activity among the three compounds in vitro. Future studies will focus on mitochondrial biogenesis and function.

  19. Levels of essential and toxic metals in fenugreek seeds (Trigonella Foenum-Graecum L. cultivated in different parts of Ethiopia

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    Mebrahtu Hagos

    Full Text Available Summary The levels of the major (Ca, K, Na, Mg, trace (Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cu, Co, and toxic (Pb, Cd metals in the seeds of fenugreek cultivated in different regions of Ethiopia were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS. Wet ashing was used to digest 0.5 g of fenugreek seed flour using 1.5 mL of HNO3 and HClO4 acid mixtures (5:1 ratio, 30 min pre-digestion time, 45 min total digestion time and a temperature of 150 °C. Thirteen elements were determined, obtaining concentrations in the following ranges: Ca (15353-36771 mg kg-1 > Fe (6041-18584 mg kg-1 ≈ K (6789-11517 mg kg-1 > Pb (615-2624 mg kg-1 > Na (201-1559 mg kg-1 > Cd (285-464 mg kg-1 > Cr (3-552 mg kg-1 > Ni (31-108 mg kg-1 > Mg (31-102 mg kg-1 > Zn (15-33 mg kg-1 > Mn (16-28 mg kg-1 > Cu (ND-35 mg kg-1 > Co (4-15 mg kg-1. A statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA at the 95% confidence level revealed there were significant differences between the mean metal contents of fourteen sample means, except for Zn. Pearson’s correlation revealed weak positive or negative linear relationships, which implies that the presence of one metal did not affect the presence of the other metals within the plant, except for a few metals. The study showed that fenugreek seeds were a good source of essential metals. However, they also contained large amounts of the toxic metals Cd and Pb and therefore should not be consumed daily.

  20. Assessment of in vitro digestibility and fermentation parameters of alfalfa hay-based diet following direct incorporation of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis).

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    Naseri, V; Hozhabri, F; Kafilzadeh, F

    2013-08-01

    This study was completed to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum; FS) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis; AR) on in vitro nutrient digestibility and fermentation patterns. Different levels [0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of dry matter (DM)] of the medicinal plants were included using alfalfa hay (AH) as a basal substrate at different incubation times (12, 18, 24 and 48 h). Total phenolic components of AH, FS and AR were 5.9, 10 and 8.3 g/kg DM, whereas total tannins were 0.4, 3.8 and 1.5 g/kg DM, respectively. Corresponding values for saponins were 10.4, 27.3 and 40.3 g/kg DM. Fenugreek seed increased (pAsparagus root also increased (p<0.05) in vitro OM digestibility and decreased (p<0.05) CP digestibility at different incubation times. Neutral detergent fibre digestibility was increased (p<0.05) by the addition of AR or FS at low levels, but decreased (p<0.05) noticeably by increasing level of two plants in the basal substrate. Ammonia-N concentration was markedly reduced (p<0.05) by the addition of AR at different incubation times, and this reduction was accompanied by the decrease in CP digestibility. True DM degradability and partitioning factor (ratio of substrate DM truly degraded to gas volume produced at different times of incubation) were increased, and total volatile fatty acid concentration and total gas production were decreased (p<0.05) with the addition of FS (at 10% and 15% DM levels) or AR (at 5%, 10% and 15% DM levels) at different incubation times. Results suggest that FS and AR may have potential as feed additives to increase the efficiency of nutrients' utilization, particularly of nitrogen in ruminant diets. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Improvement in the nutraceutical properties of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

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    Saikat Basu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. leaves and seeds have been used extensively for medicinal purposes. Fenugreek seed is known to exhibit anti-diabetic and anti-nociceptive properties and effects such as hypocholesterolaemic, anti-cancer and thyroxine-induced hyperglycaemia. Our research objectives have been to identify the chemical constituent(s responsible for the health effects in human and to develop a strategy for improving these constituents in fenugreek plants. We have observed considerable variability among fenugreek genotypes. They differ in morphology, growth habit, biomass and seed production capability. Chemical constituents of the seed, e.g. saponins, fibre, protein, amino acids and fatty acid contents also differ markedly. This variability is most often overlooked or underestimated in clinical trials. Our research suggests that the genetic variability and the genotype by environmental interaction will play a significant role when the crop is used by the nutraceutical industry in Canada where high quality seed production is at present difficult. Our multi-disciplinary approach aims at understanding the processes involved in the genetic improvement of fenugreek and use the new knowledge to improve the crop. We have developed a fenugreek cultivar "Tristar" for western Canada that can produce very high quality forage and will now concentrate on producing cultivars having improved nutraceutical value. Our research results indicate that the variability for important traits in fenugreek have a genetic base, making selection for improved levels of these traits possible.

  2. Valuable fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) mutants induced by gamma rays and alkylating agents

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    Floria, F [Biotechnology and Molecular Genetics Group, ' Stejarul' Research Centre for Biological Sciences, Piatra Neamt (Romania); Ichim, M C [Biotechnology and Molecular Genetics Group, ' Stejarul' Research Centre for Biological Sciences, Piatra Neamt (Romania)

    2006-12-15

    Seeds of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) were treated with either gamma rays (25-15 kR) or ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS 0.1-0.5%, 2h) or ethylene imine (EI, 0.01- 0.1%, 2h). After repeated selection for better morphological performance from M{sub 2} to M{sub 4} generation, 11 mutant lines were identified with better yield potential and higher diosgenin content than their parent. (author)

  3. A multicenter clinical study to determine the efficacy of a novel fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum extract (Fenfuro™ in patients with type 2 diabetes

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    Narsingh Verma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek seeds are known to exhibit potent antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and nephroprotective activities, as well as serve as excellent membrane stabilizers especially because of their content of novel furostanolic saponins. Our previous studies exhibited the broad spectrum safety and efficacy of Fenfuro, a novel T. foenum-graecum seed extract enriched in furostanolic saponins, in type 2 diabetes (T2D in rats. Design: This multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, add-on clinical study evaluated over a period of 90 consecutive days the efficacy of Fenfuro (daily dosage: 500 mg bid in 154 subjects (male: 108; female: 46; age: 25–60 years with T2D. Methods: This study examined the body weight, blood pressure, and pulse rate, as well as the efficacy of Fenfuro on fasting and post-prandial plasma sugar (mg/dL, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, and fasting and post-prandial C-peptide levels. Results: Fenfuro caused significant reduction in both fasting plasma and post-prandial blood sugar levels. Approximately 83% of the subjects reported decreases in fasting plasma sugar levels in the Fenfuro-treated group as compared to 62% in the placebo group, while 89% of the subjects demonstrated reduction in post-prandial plasma sugar levels in the Fenfuro-treated group as compared to 72% in the placebo group. HbA1c levels were reduced in both placebo and treatment groups. The decrease in HbA1c levels was significant in both groups as compared to respective baseline values. A significant increase in fasting and post-prandial C-peptide levels compared to the respective baseline values was observed, while no significant changes in fasting and post-prandial C-peptide levels were observed between the two groups. No significant adverse effects were observed by blood chemistry analyses. Furthermore, 48.8% of the subjects reported reduced dosage of anti-diabetic therapy in the Fenfuro-treated group, whereas 18

  4. Haemato-protective influence of dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds is potentiated by onion (Allium cepa L.) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Seetur R; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2018-02-01

    We have recently reported the beneficial modulation of metabolic abnormalities and oxidative stress in diabetic rats by dietary fenugreek seeds and onion. This investigation evaluated the protective influence of dietary fenugreek seeds (100 g kg -1 ) and onion (30 g kg -1 ) on erythrocytes of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, through modulation of reduced haematological indices and antisickling potency. This study also evaluated the altered erythrocyte membrane lipid profile and beneficial countering of increased lipid peroxidation, osmotic fragility, along with reduced membrane fluidity and deformability, nitric oxide production and echinocyte formation. Dietary fenugreek seeds and onion appeared to counter the deformity and fragility of erythrocytes partially in diabetic rats by their antioxidant potential and hypocholesterolemic property. The antisickling potency of these spices was accomplished by a substantial decrease in echinocyte population and AGEs in diabetic rats. Further insight into the factors that might have reduced the fluidity of erythrocytes in diabetic rats revealed changes in the cholesterol: phospholipid ratio, fatty acid profile, and activities of membrane-bound enzymes. Dietary fenugreek seeds and onion offered a beneficial protective effect to the red blood cells, the effect being higher with fenugreek + onion. This is the first report on the hemato-protective influence of a nutraceutical food component in diabetic situation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel protodioscin-enriched fenugreek seed extract (Trigonella foenum-graecum, family Fabaceae improves free testosterone level and sperm profile in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Bagchi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A novel, patent-pending 20% protodioscin-enriched extract has been developed in our laboratories from fenugreek seeds(Furosap®. We assessed the efficacy of Furosap®in 50 male volunteers (age: 35-65 yearson free and total increased testosterone levels, sperm profile, mental alertness, cardiovascular health, mood, libido,and quality of life. Methods: Furosap®(500 mg/day/subjectwas administered to the 50 male volunteers over a period of 12 weeks in aone-arm, open-labelled study, to determine the efficacy on free and total testosterone levels, sperm profile andsperm morphology, libido and erectile dysfunction, mood and mental alertness and broad spectrum safety parameters. Institution Review Board approval was obtained for this study and the study was registered at the clinicaltrials.gov(NCT02702882.Results: A statistically significant increase in freetestosterone levels were observed in these volunteers following supplementation of Furosap®. Sperm morphology, sperm counts, mental alertness, mood, cardiovascular health,and libidoperformancewere significantly improved. Extensive blood chemistry analyses revealed broad spectrum safety. No significant changes were observed in serum lipid function, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDLlevels,andhemogram.Conclusions: Results confirmedthat this protodioscin-enriched extract from fenugreek seeds (Furosapis safe and efficacious in boosting serum free testosterone levels, healthy sperm profile, mental alertness, cardiovascular health,and overall performance in male volunteers

  6. Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek-mediated suppression of Meloidogyne javanica in mungbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyaba Zia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil amendments with powdered seeds of Trigonella foenum - graecum (fenugreek caused soil suppressiveness against Meloidogyne javanica. Decomposed seeds of fenugreek caused marked reduction in nematode population densities and subsequent root-knot development as compared to the aqueous extract of the seeds indicating that some indirect factors are involved in the suppression of root-knot nematode. Both decomposed seeds and aqueous extracts enhanced plant height and fresh weights of shoot whereas root growth remained uninfluenced. Changes in fungal communities associated with nematode control were studied by comparing population numbers of fungi in the soil and in internal root tissues (endorhiza in non-amended and fenugreekamended soils. Acremonium sp., Chaetomium globosum, Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani were found to colonize inner root tissues of mungbean. Acremonium sp., C. globosum and F.solani were isolated in a relatively higher frequency from roots growing in the amended soils while M. phaseolina and R. solani colonized greatly in roots growing in non-amended soil. Of the fungi isolated from soils, Penicillium brefaldianum caused maximum juvenile mortality of M.javanica whereas F.solani caused greatest inhibition of egg hatch.

  7. Effect of Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum-Graecum) Supplementation on Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Liver and Kidney of Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EI-Tawil, G A [Radiation Biology Department, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-07-01

    Whole body exposure to ionizing radiation provokes oxidative damage, organ dysfunction and metabolic disturbances. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L. Leguminosae), one of the oldest medicinal plants rich in polyphenolic compounds is known to possess antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of fenugreek, against {gamma}-radiation-induced oxidative stress in liver and kidney tissues of rats. In parallel, the alteration in the activity of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as markers of liver function, creatinine and urea levels as markers of kidney function. In addition, serum glucose and insulin levels were determined as markers for carbohydrate metabolism. Irradiated rats were whole body exposed to 3.5 Gy (Acute dose) {gamma}-radiations. Fenugreek-treated irradiated rats received 1g fenugreek seed powder/kg body weight/day, by gavages, during 7 days before irradiation. Animals were sacrificed on the 1 sl day after irradiation. The results obtained demonstrated that exposure to ionizing radiation induced significant decreases in SOD and CAT activities and GSH content associated to significant increase of TBARS levels in liver and kidney. Fenugreek treatment has significantly attenuated radiation-induced oxidative stress in both tissues, which was substantiated by the significant amelioration of serum ALP, AST and ALT activities, creatinine, urea, glucose, and insulin levels. It could be concluded that fenugreek would protect from oxidative damage and metabolic disturbances induced by ionizing irradiation.

  8. Effect of Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum-Graecum) Supplementation on Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Liver and Kidney of Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Tawil, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Whole body exposure to ionizing radiation provokes oxidative damage, organ dysfunction and metabolic disturbances. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L. Leguminosae), one of the oldest medicinal plants rich in polyphenolic compounds is known to possess antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of fenugreek, against γ-radiation-induced oxidative stress in liver and kidney tissues of rats. In parallel, the alteration in the activity of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as markers of liver function, creatinine and urea levels as markers of kidney function. In addition, serum glucose and insulin levels were determined as markers for carbohydrate metabolism. Irradiated rats were whole body exposed to 3.5 Gy (Acute dose) γ-radiations. Fenugreek-treated irradiated rats received 1g fenugreek seed powder/kg body weight/day, by gavages, during 7 days before irradiation. Animals were sacrificed on the 1 sl day after irradiation. The results obtained demonstrated that exposure to ionizing radiation induced significant decreases in SOD and CAT activities and GSH content associated to significant increase of TBARS levels in liver and kidney. Fenugreek treatment has significantly attenuated radiation-induced oxidative stress in both tissues, which was substantiated by the significant amelioration of serum ALP, AST and ALT activities, creatinine, urea, glucose, and insulin levels. It could be concluded that fenugreek would protect from oxidative damage and metabolic disturbances induced by ionizing irradiation

  9. Effect of sowing time on productivity of fenugreek varieties (Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Trigonella coerulea (Desr. Ser.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. М. Бобось

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Determination of sowing time effect on productivity of various fenugreek species in the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine. Methods. Field study, laboratory test, analytical approach and statistical evaluation. Results. Effect of sowing time on economic characters of common fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L. and blue fenugreek (Trigonella coerulea (Desr. Ser. was investigated. It was found that sowing time significantly influenced the individual productivity of plants and average yield of their fresh and dry matter. In particular, common and blue fenugreek plants formed not only the most developed vegetation but also higher productivity and fresh and dry matter yield, respectively, due to early-spring sowing. In case of summer sowing, the poorest yield of dry matter per unit was obtained for these species caused by a low fresh yield, though the moisture loss index was lower. Conclusions. Common fenugreek is promising for producing “mushroom grass” spices, and the conveyor supply of production in the Forest-Steep zone of Ukraine can be ensured by the first sowing time (the first or the second decades of April and the se­cond sowing time (the third decade of April as during this period more developed vegetation is formed that favored the higher yield of dry matter (1,3–1,5 t/ha.

  10. Trigoxazonane, a monosubstituted trioxazonane from Trigonella foenum-graecum root exudate, inhibits Orobanche crenata seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Andolfi, Anna; Rubiales, Diego; Motta, Andrea

    2007-10-01

    Orobanche crenata is a major threat to grain legume production. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual legume that has been shown to effectively reduce O. crenata infection when intercropped with grain legumes. In this paper, we point that this can be attributed to allelopathy, through inhibition of the germination of O. crenata by fenugreek root exudates. The main inhibitory metabolite was isolated and characterized. Allelopathy was demonstrated in different bioassays, by inhibition of O. crenata seeds germination both by growing fenugreek and pea plants together (intercropped), and by application of fenugreek root exudates. Fenugreek root exudates were extracted with organic solvent and fractionated giving several fractions, two of which showed moderate (27%) and strong (54%) inhibition of O. crenata seed germination, respectively. The most active metabolite is a new monosubstituted trioxazonane, characterized by spectroscopic methods as the 2-butyl-[1,4,7,2]trioxazonane and named trigoxazonane.

  11. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic effect of trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and lupinus albus (lupine) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noaman, E; Mansour, S Z; Ibrahim, N K [Radiation Biology Dept., National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-07-01

    Alloxan induced diabetic rats were used to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of Trigonella Foenum graecum (Fenugreek) and Lupinus Albus (Lupine). The parameters measured during the 45 days oral administration of seeds powder suspension of either Fenugreek or Lupine (1 g/ kg body wt) included: blood glucose, body wt, reduced glutathione content, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TEARS), and percentage of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA), plasma insulin and liver free fatty acids. Fenugreek and Lupine resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose and HbA; restored insulin normal range, ameliorated the contents of glutathione and reduced the increase in the content of plasma TBARS. Lupine at dose of 1 g/ kg body wt exhibited better glucose reduction, restored body wt and free fatty acids concentration than Fenugreek. Diabetes mellitus is the most common disease associated with carbohydrate metabolism, affecting about 200 million people worldwide. Extracts of various plant materials capable of decreasing blood sugar have been tested in experimental animal models (Bopanna and Rathod, 1997). Many unknown and lesser known plants are used in traditional medicinal practices in Egypt. The medicinal values of these plants are not much known to the scientific world. Although herbal medicines have long been used effectively in treating many diseases throughout the world, the mechanism of most of the herbals used has not been defined. Many traditional plant treatments for diabetes are also used, but most of the evidence for their beneficial effects is anecdotal (Jelodar et al., 2005)

  12. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic effect of trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and lupinus albus (lupine) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noaman, E.; Mansour, S.Z.; Ibrahim, N.K.

    2007-01-01

    Alloxan induced diabetic rats were used to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of Trigonella Foenum graecum (Fenugreek) and Lupinus Albus (Lupine). The parameters measured during the 45 days oral administration of seeds powder suspension of either Fenugreek or Lupine (1 g/ kg body wt) included: blood glucose, body wt, reduced glutathione content, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TEARS), and percentage of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA), plasma insulin and liver free fatty acids. Fenugreek and Lupine resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose and HbA; restored insulin normal range, ameliorated the contents of glutathione and reduced the increase in the content of plasma TBARS. Lupine at dose of 1 g/ kg body wt exhibited better glucose reduction, restored body wt and free fatty acids concentration than Fenugreek. Diabetes mellitus is the most common disease associated with carbohydrate metabolism, affecting about 200 million people worldwide. Extracts of various plant materials capable of decreasing blood sugar have been tested in experimental animal models (Bopanna and Rathod, 1997). Many unknown and lesser known plants are used in traditional medicinal practices in Egypt. The medicinal values of these plants are not much known to the scientific world. Although herbal medicines have long been used effectively in treating many diseases throughout the world, the mechanism of most of the herbals used has not been defined. Many traditional plant treatments for diabetes are also used, but most of the evidence for their beneficial effects is anecdotal (Jelodar et al., 2005)

  13. Response of fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, the impact of drought and heavy metal in fenugreek was critically monitored. Fenugreek seedlings were exposed to 1- bar polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution (osmotic stress) and 10 ppm solution of HgCl2 (heavy metal). Within 3 days of seedling growth, mercury exposure induced relatively high ...

  14. Screening of polysaccharides from tamarind, fenugreek and jackfruit seeds as pharmaceutical excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2015-08-01

    The paper describes the isolation and screening of plant polysaccharides namely tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP), fenugreek seed mucilage (FSM) and jackfruit seed starch (JFSS) from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds and jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) seeds, respectively. The yields of isolated dried TSP, FSM and JFSS were 47.00%, 17.36% and 18.86%, respectively. Various physicochemical properties like colour, odour, taste, solubility in water, pH and viscosity of these isolated plant polysaccharides were assessed. Isolated polysaccharide samples were subjected to some phytochemical identification tests. FTIR and (1)H NMR analyses of isolated polysaccharides were performed, which suggest the presence of sugar residues. Isolated TSP, FSM and JFSS can be used as pharmaceutical excipients in various pharmaceutical formulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Growth Analysis of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum- graecum L. under Various Levels of Nitrogen and Plant Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Bazrkar-Khatibani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. is a specific condiment crop mostly grown for its edible parts, and is used as a green fodder and fresh vegetable. The seeds have medicinal value solely against digestive disorders, whereas its leaves are rich source of minerals and nutrients. The growth and yield of fenugreek is particularly affected by the application of nitrogen fertilizer and planting arrangement. Plant growth is a process of biomass accumulation which in turn is derived out of the interaction of the respiration, photosynthesis, water relations, long-distance transport, and mineral nutrition processes. Growth is the most important process in predicting plant reactions to environment. Irradiance, temperature, soil-water potential, nutrient supply and enhanced concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide are among some external components influencing crop growth and development. Growth analysis is a useful tool in studying the complex interactions between plant growth and the environment, clarifying and interpreting physiological responses. Plants total dry matter (TDM production and accumulation can be appraised via relative growth rate (RGR and crop growth rate (CGR which are the most important growth indices. Leaf area index (LAI is a factor of crop growth analysis that accounts for the potential of the crop to assimilate light energy and is a determinant component in understanding the function of many crop management practices. Materials and Methods A field investigation was conducted in a paddy field at Shaft County (Guilan Province for eight consecutive months (from November 2009 to June 2010, to study the effect of four levels of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 25, 50 and 75 Kg N ha-1 and four levels of planting density (60, 80,100, and 120 plants m-2 on the growth indices of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L. crop. The soil for the experiment was loam in texture and strongly acidic in reaction (pH 4.5. Sixteen treatment

  16. Possible Outcome of Fenugreek Seeds Powder Administration on the Fertility of Female and Male Albino Rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, M F; El-Tawill, G.A., E-mail: gkyrillos@hotmail.co [Radiation Biology Department, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-07-01

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant from the family of Papilionaceae-Leguminosae that has been credited with many medicinal properties. The current study aims to evaluate the possible fertility activity of fenugreek seeds powder on female and male albino rats. To achieve the theme, fenugreek seeds powder (200 mg/rat) were daily administered orally to both female and male Wistar rats for 15 and 30 consecutive days, after which the rats were sacrificed for both biochemical and histopathological observations. Fenugreek treatment significantly decreased the serum cholesterol levels in both female and male rats with a marked increase in the ovary and testis cholesterol levels following 30 days of consecutive administration. The circulating serum female hormones showed an initial elevation at the end of 15 days of fenugreek intake followed by a significant drop in the group of rats that continued to receive the daily fenugreek dose for 30 days. These observations were supported by the notable decline in the ovarian weights further validated by their ovarian histological sections revealing remarkable dissolution of some follicles and prominent abundance of inflammatory cells. In the 30 days interval treated males, the serum testosterone hormone concentrations significantly declined and the testis weights were reduced with evident damage to the seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues as shown by the histopathological picture of testis tissue sections. Accordingly, it can be deduced that fenugreek seeds powder exert a significant antifertility adverse effect on the female and male rats when supplemented at a considerable dose for an extended time interval

  17. HPTLC determination of diosgenin in fenugreek seeds

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    Król-Kogus Barbara

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A new HPTLC-densitometric method for diosgenin determination in fenugreek seeds was established after optimization of the conditions for efficient saponin extraction and acid hydrolysis. Several procedures were tested, the best of which was a three-step Soxhlet extraction, followed by hydrolysis of the obtained methanolic extract with 2 mol L-1 H2SO4. Best diosgenin separation from other hydrolysis products was obtained on HPTLC Si60F254 plates u sing a mixture of n-heptane/ethyl acetate (7:3, V/V and modified anisaldehyde as a spraying reagent. The method was preliminarily validated and the determined amounts of diosgenin in fenugreek seeds of Polish and African origin were found to be similar and ranged from 0.12-0.18 %.

  18. Effect of Biofertilizers and Irrigation Intervals on Yield Component and Yield of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum- graecum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jaberi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought is one of the most important factors whichdecrease crop production in arid and semi-arid regions of the world (1, 20. Appropriate nutritional management has an effective role in the resistance to environmental stresses on crops (7. An important issue about sustainability of food production is the maintenance of soil fertility through the use of organic matter and biofertilizers. One option to increase agricultural production is the use of beneficial soil microorganisms such as PGPR and fungi (45. This group of bacteria through biological fixation of nitrogen, increase phosphorus and potassium solubility, an increasethe availability of mineral elements in the soil, inhibits pathogen appearance and producehormones that regulate the growth of plants to affect crop yield (18, 47. Mycorrhiza enablesymbiosis with the roots of most crop plants, through the availability of phosphorus, nitrogen and other nutrients and thus increases water absorption and produces plant hormones, increases resistance to pathogens and environmental stresses, strengthens the soil microbial community and induces improving the growth and performance of plants in agricultural systems (5, 32, 37, 40.Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum- graecum L.is an annual herbaceous plant that reaches a height of 50 cm (14. Since limited water is at very critical level now, the importance of further research in this area is felt. So, the study of medicinal plants considring water management and organic food is very important. Therefore, the aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of organic and biofertilizers and irrigation on yield and yield components of fenugreek in Birjand. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of irrigation intervals and biofertilizers on quantitative traits and yield of fenugreek, an experiment was carried out in a split plot based on a complete randomized block design with 3replications at the research station, Faculty of Agriculture

  19. The Effect of Halopriming and Salicylic Acid on the Germination of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum under Different Cadmium Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo ESPANANY

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The hereby study was based on a factorial experiment conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications, at Agriculture College, Shahrekord University, Iran, in 2014. The role of salicylic acid (SA, potassium nitrate (KNO3 and potassium chloride (KCl was evaluated on seed germination of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. under different cadmium concentrations. Treatments included four levels of seed priming (no priming, potassium chloride, potassium nitrate, salicylic acid and four levels of cadmium concentration (0, 10, 20, 30 mg/L. Cadmium chloride caused a significant inhibition in germination percentage, root elongation, shoot elongation and seedling dry weight. The shoot length was more sensitive to cadmium concentrations than the root length. Primed seeds with SA (100 mg/L proved protection against Cd stress and increased the germination percentage, root elongation, shoot elongation and dry weight of seedlings compared to the control treatment. Seeds treated with SA alleviated the Cd negative effect on germination parameters. In conclusion, using seed priming with salicylic acid can be recommended as a good technique for fenugreek crop on fields exposed to high cadmium toxicity.

  20. Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Analysis of Trigonella Foenum-Graecum l. Seeds cultivated in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel KAN

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek is a well-known leguminous herb grown extensively in Turkey and has been used as a cooking spice, for preparing “Çemen” and folk remedy for thousand of years. The seeds are reported to have nutritive properties and to stimulate digestive process.\tIn this study, several nutritionally important minerals (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured by AAS in the different seeds of Trigonella foenum- graecum which are cultivated in different conditions.\tÖzet\tTrigonella foenum-graecum L. (Çemen bitkisi Türkiye’de yaygin olarak yetisen iyi bilinen bir Leguminosae familyasi bitkisidir ve bin yildir baharat olarak, Çemen hazirlamada ve halk ilaci olarak kullanilmaktadir. Tohumlarin besleyici özelliklerinin oldugu ve sindirimi kolaylastirdigi rapor edilmistir.\tBu çalismada, farkli sartlarda kültüre alinmis Trigonella foenum- graecum bitkisinin tohumlarinda bazi önemli mineraller (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn Atomik Absorbsiyon Spektrometri yöntemi ile ölçülmüstür.

  1. Evaluation and Selection for Drought Tolerance in Iranian Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum Landraces at Germination and Seedling Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sadeghzadeh Ahari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fenugreek (Trigonella foneum-graecum L. has been cultivated in vegetable farms at the most parts of Iran. It is an annual crop belonging to the Leguminosae family. It originated from west Asia and Iran and cultivated at mostly in European, Asian and African countries, presently. With distinguished of feeding and medicinal values, low needs to soil conditions and its width adaptability to cultivation in different regions, the range of fenugreek cultivation areas have been extended from America to India. In most parts of Iran there is limiting possibilities for cultivation of horticultural and agricultural crops for the reason of limiting water harvesting and unsuitable rainfall distributions. There is no doubt that introduction of new crops for such conditions could increase variation of crops production and stability of farming systems. Plants landraces have been created in thousands of cultivation years under different climatologically and local cropping systems. They are evolved by natural and artificial selection under environmental conditions where they were grown and there have accumulative adaptive genes for tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses and are the most precious materials in starting of breeding programs. Germination phase is the most important period that guaranties the growth and establishments of crops. One of the basic activators of germination starters is water and limiting of it (drought is the most important retardant of seed growth during germination period under field condition. Fast germination and emergence of seedling from soil and high preliminary growth rate has been known for one of the drought escape mechanisms for most crops such as chickpea, lentil and bean. In breeding programs of crops, using in vitro method is one of the most used methods in germplasm selection for drought tolerance. This study carried out under laboratory condition in order to evaluate some Iranian fenugreek landraces

  2. Effect of Cream Formulation of Fenugreek Seed Extract on Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: A water-in-oil emulsion cream base without fenugreek seed extract which served as control, ... Results: The results indicate that the effects of the creams on skin mechanical ..... Dreher F, Maibach H. Protective effects of topical.

  3. The developmental neurobehavioral effects of fenugreek seeds on prenatally exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalki, Loubna; Bennis, Mohamed; Sokar, Zahra; Ba-M'hamed, Saâdia

    2012-01-31

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum (L.)), is a medicinal plant whose seeds and leaves are widely used in Moroccan traditional medicine. Consumption of fenugreek seeds during pregnancy has been associated with a range of congenital malformations, including hydrocephalus, anencephaly and spina bifida. In previous work we have shown that exposure of pregnant mice to aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds (AEFS) leads to reduced litter size, intrauterine growth retardation, and malformations. However, there have been no studies to date of its longer-term neurobehavioral effects. We investigated these effects in prenatally exposed mice. Pregnant females were exposed to 0, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day AEFS, by gavage, for the whole period of gestation. Pups body weight was measured at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 day of age. Behavior of progeny was evaluated three weeks after birth using the open field, the rotarod test and the continuous alternation task by the T-maze. At 28 postnatal day age, brain of progeny was removed and cut for histological evaluation. The progeny of exposed mice displayed reduced body weight at birth (1000 mg/kg group: 27%; 500 mg/kg group: 32%) and reduced brain weight (10% in both treated groups). Both males and females mice prenatally exposed to AEFS displayed a significant decrease in the locomotor activity, in the boli deposits during the open field test and in motor coordination. These results seem to show that exposure to AEFS induces a depressive effect in the offspring. Assessment on a continuous alternation T-maze test showed a significant reduction in successful spontaneous alternations in males and females but only in the 1000 mg/kg group. These results suggest that prenatal exposure of mice to high dose of fenugreek seeds causes growth retardation and altered neurobehavioral performance in the post-weaning period in both male and female. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical efficacy of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek) and dry cupping therapy on intensity of pain in patients with primary dysmenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inanmdar, Wajida; Sultana, Arshiya; Mubeen, Umraz; Rahman, Khaleequr

    2016-05-25

    To determine the effificacy and safety of fenugreek seed and dry cupping on intensity of pain in primary dysmenorrhea. Sixty patients with primary dysmenorrhea were enrolled in this prospective, open-labeled, randomized, standard-controlled study, conducted in the National Institute of Unani Medicine Hospital between February 2010 and April 2011. In group A (20 cases), 3 g powder of fenugreek seed (3 capsules, 1 g each) was given orally twice daily from day 1 to 3 of menstrual cycle. Group B (20 cases) received the same dose of fenugreek seed as group A along with dry cupping therapy [two 4.2-cm and one 2.5-cm cups (internal diameter)], which was applied below the umbilicus for 15 min on day 1 and day 3 of menstrual cycle for 3 consecutive months. The control group C (20 cases) was given mefenamic acid, 500 mg twice daily, on the same protocol. The reduction in menstrual pain intensity was measured with well validated Visual Analogue Scale and safety of fenugreek seed was evaluated by clinical examination and laboratory investigations. Baseline characteristics and biochemical parameters were comparable and homogenous among all groups (P>0.05). The percentage reduction in lower abdominal pain was 66.89%, 66.49%, and 62.88% in A, B and C groups respectively at the end of the treatment. No adverse drug effects were noticed. The fenugreek seed and dry cupping are effificacious, safe, cost effective, and well tolerated.

  5. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) as an alternative forage for dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, A W; Doepel, L

    2011-08-01

    Fenugreek is a novel forage crop in Canada that is generating interest as an alternative to alfalfa for dairy cows. To evaluate the value of fenugreek haylage relative to alfalfa haylage, six, second lactation Holstein cows (56 ± 8 days in milk), which were fitted with rumen cannulas (10 cm i.d., Bar Diamond Inc., Parma, ID, USA) were used in a replicated three × three Latin square design with 18-day periods. Diets consisting of 400 g/kg haylage, 100 g/kg barley silage and 500 g/kg concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis were fed once daily for ad libitum intake. The haylage component constituted the dietary treatments: (i) Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada F70 fenugreek (F70), (ii) Crop Development Center Quatro fenugreek (QUAT) and (iii) alfalfa (ALF). DM intake (DMI), milk yield and milk protein and lactose yields were higher (P haylage has a lower feeding value than ALF for lactating dairy cows due in part to lower DMI and subsequently lower milk yield.

  6. Biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in hypocotyl callus cultures of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhandapani, M; Antony, A; Subba Rao, P V [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore. Dept. of Biochemistry

    1977-03-01

    Hypocotyl callus cultures of fenugreek were studied to determine their potential for synthesizing phenolics, particularly those which are intermediates in lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis. The cultures were found to be capable of synthesizing an array of phenolic compounds characteristic of higher plants. Both phenylalanine-U-/sup 14/C and cinnamic acid-U-/sup 14/C were found to be efficient precursors of these phenolics.

  7. Fenugreek Seed Powder Nullified Aluminium Chloride Induced Memory Loss, Biochemical Changes, Aβ Burden and Apoptosis via Regulating Akt/GSK3β Signaling Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asokan Prema

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common form of dementia that mainly affects the cognitive functions of the aged populations. Trigonella foenum-graecum (L. (fenugreek, a traditionally well utilized medicinal plant ubiquitously used as one of the main food additive worldwide, is known to have numerous beneficial health effects. Fenugreek seed extract could be able to inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, a key enzyme involved in the pathogenesis of AD, and further shown to have anti-parkinsonic effect. The present study was aimed to explore the neuroprotective effect of fenugreek seed powder (FSP against aluminium chloride (AlCl3 induced experimental AD model. Administration of germinated FSP (2.5, 5 and 10% mixed with ground standard rat feed protected AlCl3 induced memory and learning impairments, Al overload, AChE hyperactivity, amyloid β (Aβ burden and apoptosis via activating Akt/GSK3β pathway. Our present data could confirm the neuroprotective effect of fenugreek seeds. Further these results could lead a possible therapeutics for the management of neurodegenerative diseases including AD in future.

  8. Effects of Saponin from Trigonella Foenum-Graecum Seeds on Dyslipidemia

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    Zhi Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saponins identified from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds are reported effective on dyslipidemia. However, the definite mechanism is still not elucidated systematically. In this study, we evaluate the effects of saponin extract on cholesterol absorption, metabolism, synthesis, and reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. Methods: Saponin extract was prepared according to a craft established in our previous study. After the establishment of dyslipidemia model, 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups, namely the control group (normal diet plus normal saline, HFD group (high fat diet plus normal saline, Lipitor group (high fat diet plus Lipitor (2 mg/kg, and L, M, and H-saponin groups (high fat diet plus saponin in dosages of 6, 12, and 24 mg/kg, respectively. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the 9th week after treatment. Biochemical characteristics of rats were tested, histopathological sections of liver tissue were observed, and the protein and mRNA expression of related factors of cholesterol in the intestine and liver were determined. One-way ANOVA test (SPSS software version 11.5, Chicago, IL, USA was used to determine statistically significant differences between the HFD and other groups. Results: In saponin groups, the serum lipid, bile acid efflux, anti-peroxide activities, and lipid area of liver tissue improved. Cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase and scavenger receptor class B type I elevated in the liver. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase levels were suppressed in both the serum and liver. However, significant cholesterol efflux was not found and Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 levels elevated in the intestine. Conclusion: The mechanisms of saponin in Fenugreek effect on ameliorating dyslipidemia are probably related to accelerated cholesterol metabolism, inhibited cholesterol synthesis, and facilitated reverse cholesterol transport, but not cholesterol absorption.

  9. Effect of Weed Interference on Yield and Agronomical Characteristics of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum gracum in Different Plant Density under Birjand Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Baradaran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Iran is among the countries with a climate appropriate for growing a wide range of herbs, and can be a great source of producing and exporting plants. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum gracum is one of the oldest plant and it is an annual herbaceous plant of the Fabaceae family (Fabaceae which are dry, brown or reddish-yellow to gray to over 5.3 mm. Seeds of this plant are used as a spice and its leaves are used as a vegetable. Among the most important factors in farming, it is important to use appropriate planting density. Therefore, if all the necessary conditions, including the right, but density is inappropriate, it will not get the optimum yield per unit area. The effective management of weeds increase the performance of weed management practices, reduce weed population and the costs associated with it over time. Weeds compete with crops for a variety of sources such as light, water and minerals. Given that the best time weeding the weeds and the most appropriate density of fenugreek is not much information available, this study aimed to determine the appropriate density of weed infested and fenugreek was used. Materials and Methods In order to determine the effects of weed interference and appropriate density of fenugreek, a field trial was conducted in research farm of Birjand Islamic Azad University during the spring of year 2011. The experiment was a factorial based on randomized complete block design. The treatments were fenugreek density at 10, 20 and 40 plants m-2 and weed interference in five levels included weed-free to maturity, 20, 40 and 60 days after emergence, and no weeding. Fenugreek seeds (spherical, brown of pure seed before planting desert of preparation and sterilization by benomyl and then do planting trees and irrigation was done immediately. Irrigation was applied every seven days. During the study, pests and diseases were completely controlled. Weed control was done manually in three stages. Traits such as

  10. Fenugreek: Potential Applications as a Functional Food and Nutraceutical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Khorshidian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fenugreek (Trigonella  foenum graecum, native to southern Europe and Asia, is an annual herb with white flowers and hard, yellowish brown and angular seeds, known from ancient times, for nutritional value beside of its medicinal effects. Fenugreek seeds are rich source of gum, fiber, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and volatile content. Due to its high content of fiber, fenugreek could be used as food stabilizer, adhesive and emulsifying agent to change food texture for some special purposes. Some evidence suggests that fenugreek may also be regarded as antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial agent, antianorexia agent, and gastric stimulant, as well as remedy for hypocholesterolemia and hypoglycemia. The present article is aimed to review the potential applications of fenugreek as a functional food and nutraceutical agent.

  11. Study of Germination Characteristics of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. population under Salinity and Drought Stress

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    hassan Farhadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fenugreek (Trigonalla foenum-graecum L., an annual herbaceous plant belonging to the Coleoidea (Fabaceae family, has numerous medicinal properties such as decreasing blood glucose, laxative, appetizer, mucus, antipyretic and increasing the amount of milk during lactation . Among the most important problems in arid and semi-arid regions, drought stress or water shortage will have negative effects on plant growth. Drought stress occurs mostly because of reducing water availability in the soil. This may be due to excessive water loss or absorption problems, or both of them. One of the major factors limiting germination, which occurs in more arid and semi-arid regions, is salt stress. The study was done to evaluate germination of four Iranian population of fenugreek (Amol, Tabriz, Sari and Mashhad under drought and salinity stresses. Materials and methods: To investigate the effect of salinity and drought stresses on germination and seedling growth characteristics of native landrace fenugreek, two separate experiments were conducted in a Completely Randomized Design with three replications in Seed Laboratory of University of Mashhad in 2014. The experiment treatments consisted of four levels of salinity (0, 60, 120, 180 mM that was induced by different concentrations of sodium chloride and drought stress induced by polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000 at four levels (0, -3, -6 and -9 Bar with three replications. The drought stress levels were simulation by polyethylene glycol 6000 and using the Michel and Kaufmann formula. Distilled water was applied as control. Iranian seed population of fenugreek were purchased from the city of Amol, Tabriz, Sari and Mashhad then the seeds were washed with sodium hypochlorite (3 % v/v for two minutes for disinfestation and washed three times with distilled water. On the twelfth day of experiment, seedling traits such as plumule and root length and weight in Petri dishes were measured. Results and

  12. Evaluation of radiation interception and use by fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. and dill (Anethum graveolens L. intercropping canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi myousefnia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that legumes give benefits to the soil such as improved nutrient availability, improved structure, reduced pest and disease incidence, and hormonal effects (Wani et al., 1995. The major benefit of legume crops comes from biologically nitrogen fixation, deriving from the symbiosis involving leguminous plants and rhizobium bacteria (Vance, 1998. Based on this purpose, a field study was conducted to evaluate radiation absorption and use efficiency in fenugreek and dill in row intercropping as replacement series at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during growing season of 2013-2014. Treatments included 20% fenugreek+ 80% dill, 40% fenugreek+ 60% dill, 60% fenugreek+ 40% dill, 80% fenugreek+ 20% dill and their monoculture. For statistical analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT were performed using SAS version 9.3 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA. Results indicated that leaf area index, light absorption, total dry matter accumulation and radiation use efficiency (RUE of fenugreek and dill increased in all intercropping ratios compared to monoculture. RUE range for fenugreek was from 0.95 g.MJ-1 in monoculture to 1.24 g.MJ-1 in 40% fenugreek+ 60% dill. RUE range for dill was from 0.64 g.MJ-1 in monoculture to 1.02 g.MJ-1 in 40% fenugreek+ 60% dill.

  13. Evaluation of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L. and Florists Daisy (Chrysanthemum morifolium L. Intercropping and Its Effects on Insect Population

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    Lamia Vojodi Mehrabani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping is a common method of crop production in many regions of the world mainly due to the resources efficiency and yeid promotion. To study the agronomic traits of Chrysanthemum morifolium intercropped with fenugreek, an experiment was conducted as RCBD with seven treatments; (T1: fenugreek sole cropping (T2: Chrysanthemum sole cropping  (T3: 50 percentage Chrysanthemum and 50 percentage fenugreek intercropping,  (T4: 35 percentage Chrysanthemum and 65 percentage fenugreek, (T5: 35 percentage fenugreek and 75 percentage intercropping Chrysanthemum, (T6 25 percentage Chrysanthemum and 75 percentage fenugreek intercropping and  (T7 75 percentage Chrysanthemum and 25 percentage fenugreek. The results revealed the positive effects of intercropping on flower and shoot number, fresh weight of the plant and root and flower dry weight in Chrysanthemum. The greatest plant fresh weight (289.1 g and root fresh weight (41.3 g was belonged to T7 treatment. The highest shoot number was recorded in T5, T6 and T7 treatments. For the flower dry weight, T5 (31.03 g and T7 (30.9 g hold the greatest data. The highest recorded flower number in Chrysanthemum was attained by T5 treatment. The highest data for fenugreek growth characteristic was belonged to fenugreek monocropping (pod number per plants, plant fresh and dry weight and root fresh and dry weight. Land Equality Ratio for all the intercropping patterns was greater than 1, showing the higher effecincy and profitability of intercropping compared to sole cropping. The results as well indicated that the most number of pests and natural enemies were shown in sole and inter-cropping treatments, respectively.

  14. The Effect of Mycorrhizal Inoculation of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. on its Yield and Some Physiological Characteristics Under Drought Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madineh Bijhani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. plants and on its growth and yield under drought stress conditions a greenhouse experiment was carried out in split plot using a randomized complete block design at Zabol University green house in 2013. Treatments were three drought stresses: control, mild stress and severe stress (70, 50 and 30% FC assigned to main plots, and three species of mycorrhizal treatments (Glomus intraradices, G. versiform, G. mosseae and non-inoculation as control to sub-plots. The effects of drought on all traits under study were significant, and reduced number of leaves per plant, plant height, root length, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll by 15.6, 7.6, 10.7, 2.5 and 8.4 % and increased proline and carbohydrates by 38.6 and 17.7 % as compared with the control. Mycorrhizal treatments did not affect the amount of carbohydrates and proline content significantly. Interaction of mycorrhiza and drought stress was significant on grain yield, chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll. Among the mycorrhizal strains G. mosseae affected the traits significantly under drought conditions. The results suggested that mycorrhizal treatments of plants at different drought stresses could improve grain yield of fenugreek and reduce the negative effects of drought by increasing photosynthetic pigments and other quantitative and qualitative traits.

  15. Effect of drying methods on the structure, thermo and functional properties of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyzi, Samira; Varidi, Mehdi; Zare, Fatemeh; Varidi, Mohammad Javad

    2018-03-01

    Different drying methods due to protein denaturation could alter the functional properties of proteins, as well as their structure. So, this study focused on the effect of different drying methods on amino acid content, thermo and functional properties, and protein structure of fenugreek protein isolate. Freeze and spray drying methods resulted in comparable protein solubility, dynamic surface and interfacial tensions, foaming and emulsifying properties except for emulsion stability. Vacuum oven drying promoted emulsion stability, surface hydrophobicity and viscosity of fenugreek protein isolate at the expanse of its protein solubility. Vacuum oven process caused a higher level of Maillard reaction followed by the spray drying process, which was confirmed by the lower amount of lysine content and less lightness, also more browning intensity. ΔH of fenugreek protein isolates was higher than soy protein isolate, which confirmed the presence of more ordered structures. Also, the bands which are attributed to the α-helix structures in the FTIR spectrum were in the shorter wave number region for freeze and spray dried fenugreek protein isolates that show more possibility of such structures. This research suggests that any drying method must be conducted in its gentle state in order to sustain native structure of proteins and promote their functionalities. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Influence of gamma radiation on the activities of some carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in the cotyledons and the leaves of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) bean seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahanotu, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Studies indicated that 21-day old cotyledons from gamma irradiated seeds of fenugreek beans were heavier and had more starch and sugar than their non-irradiated controls. To test whether these effects occurred in the leaves and to seek a possible biochemical explanation for these results, the activities of five enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were studied. Three groups of fenugreek bean seeds were irradiated (100-300 Gy) and then allowed to grow for 21 days. On harvest, wet and dry weights of both cotyledons and leaves were determined. Starch and sugar contents in cotyledons and leaves were measured. The five enzymes α-amylase, β-amylase, starch phosphorylase, ADPG-pyrophosphorylase and ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase were extracted from cotyledons and leaves, respectively. The protein contents and activities of the enzyme extracts were determined. The results suggest an increase in carbohydrate metabolism in cotyldeons and a decrease in leaves due to the radiation treatment of the seeds before germination. Thus, increased amounts of starch and sugars are observed in the cotyledons, and decreased amounts in the leaves. Radiation damage to the translocatory system of the plant may retard the movement of sugars from the cotyledons to the other parts of the plant. This may cause accumulation of sugars and starch in the cotyledons, leading to an increase in their size and weight

  17. Effect of Salinity Stress on Morphological and Proline Content of Eight Landraces Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum - graecum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Farhadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of salinity on some morphological characteristics and proline content of eight fenugreek landraces and identification of the best landrace, a factorial experiment was conducted on the basis of complete randomized design with three replicates in the research field of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2013. Experimental treatments were combination of eight fenugreek landrace (Isfahan, Tabriz, Hamedan, Sari, Challous, Amol, Mashhad and Yasooj and four levels of salinity stress (0, 60, 120 and 180 Mm NaCl. The ANOVA results revealed the significant effect of salinity on plant height, number of branches/plant, number of nodes, inter nodal distance, root length, shoot length, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, fresh weight of fruit, nut and proline content. The highest level of salinity (180 mM NaCl significantly decreased the mentioned plant characters by 16.72%, 30.44%, 18.22%, 49.45%, 11.95%, 13%, 48.44%, 57.90%, 59.56%, 54.11% compared to control respectively. Proline content in the highest salinity level (180 mM NaCl was increased by 44.57% compared to control. The greatest amount of shoot vegetative yield was obtained from control (without salinity and the highest rate of proline was achieved from 180 Mm treatment.

  18. Effect Of Fenugreek Seed Powder In Toxicity Induced By MALAPHOS And METHAVINE Pesticides In Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AFIFI, E.A.A.; ALI, S.E; HAFEZ, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides administration to rats led to an enhancement in oxidative stress and generation of free radicals. These free radicals may be involved in the toxicity of some pesticides. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess the effect of pre-treatment of rats with fenugreek seed powder at the dose level of 250 mg/kg b.wt in inhibiting the oxidative damage induced by administration malaphos (organophosphorus) at the dose level of 343.75 mg/kg b.wt and methavine (carbamate) at the dose level of 4 mg/kg b.wt for 6 weeks. Also the present study was carried out to evaluate the strength of fenugreek seed powder and the influence of both pesticides, malaphos and methovine on serum glucose, insuline, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase (γGT), calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorus and iron (Fe) contents. The metabolism of 14 C-glucose injected 24 hours post-treatments with the two pesticides and fenugreek seed powder were studied. The results obtained demonstrated that the deleterious damage due to malaphos and methavine administration was manifested by the significant elevation in serum glucose, gamma glutamyl transferase (γ -GT), calcium (Ca), and iron content. Also, there was significant decrease in insulin level, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin and inorganic phosphorus. On the other hand, the data recorded a reduction in the tracing of metabolizable of 14 C- glucose which was more pronounced in urine of rats administrated malaphos compared to those received methavine pesticide. It could be concluded that administration of fenugreek seed powder (FSP) to rats during the treatment with malaphos or methavine pesticide attenuated to a great extent the damaging effects of both pesticides on the here in assayed parameters. According, by fenugreek administration at the used dose may have an indirect physiological effect on the metabolism of 14 C- glucose.

  19. Radio protective potential of Trigonella Foenum-Graecum seeds extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, P K; Chaudhary, Ranu; Jahan, Swafiya; Gupta, Uma [Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur (India)

    2007-07-01

    Ever since the discovery of X-ray and radioactivity at the end of the 19th century, cellular and molecular responses to ionizing radiation exposures have been the central research endeavors in radiation biology. The most striking aspect of the action of the ionizing radiation on biological material of all kinds is the grave damage produced by relatively trivial amounts of absorbed energy. Radiation damage occurs through the formation of free radical and reactive oxygen species in living organisms and these radicals are highly reactive and cause alterations in DNA, membrane and proteins by reacting with nucleotides, lipids and amino acids which is eventually reflected in cellular dysfunctions. The study of plants as modifiers of radiation effects is a relatively new area of research. There are various adaptive changes which a cell invokes to protect itself from radiation induced unhealthy biochemical changes and this can be supported by food supplements such phytochemical rich diets. Herbal medicines i.e. plant products have been considered as an alternative to synthetic compounds due to their better cultural acceptability, better efficacy, less toxicity and better compatibility with human body. Research has proved that the Trigonella foenum-graecum can inhibit the cancer of liver, lower blood cholesterol levels and also have an anti-diabetic effect. The whole extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum has been reported to contain several bioactive components such as glucoside, alkaloids, bitter principle crystalline compounds which elicit protection against several stress and pathological conditions by acting through different mechanisms such as antioxidant, stimulation of cell proliferation immunomodulational and anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, the present study has been undertaken to screen possible radioprotective potential of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract (TFE) against irradiation.

  20. Radio protective potential of Trigonella Foenum-Graecum seeds extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, P.K.; Chaudhary, Ranu; Jahan, Swafiya; Gupta, Uma

    2007-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of X-ray and radioactivity at the end of the 19th century, cellular and molecular responses to ionizing radiation exposures have been the central research endeavors in radiation biology. The most striking aspect of the action of the ionizing radiation on biological material of all kinds is the grave damage produced by relatively trivial amounts of absorbed energy. Radiation damage occurs through the formation of free radical and reactive oxygen species in living organisms and these radicals are highly reactive and cause alterations in DNA, membrane and proteins by reacting with nucleotides, lipids and amino acids which is eventually reflected in cellular dysfunctions. The study of plants as modifiers of radiation effects is a relatively new area of research. There are various adaptive changes which a cell invokes to protect itself from radiation induced unhealthy biochemical changes and this can be supported by food supplements such phytochemical rich diets. Herbal medicines i.e. plant products have been considered as an alternative to synthetic compounds due to their better cultural acceptability, better efficacy, less toxicity and better compatibility with human body. Research has proved that the Trigonella foenum-graecum can inhibit the cancer of liver, lower blood cholesterol levels and also have an anti-diabetic effect. The whole extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum has been reported to contain several bioactive components such as glucoside, alkaloids, bitter principle crystalline compounds which elicit protection against several stress and pathological conditions by acting through different mechanisms such as antioxidant, stimulation of cell proliferation immunomodulational and anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, the present study has been undertaken to screen possible radioprotective potential of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract (TFE) against irradiation

  1. Modulatory effect of fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric on intestinal and renal disaccharidases in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G Suresh; Shetty, A K; Salimath, P V

    2005-06-01

    To elucidate the effect of feeding fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric (10%) on disaccharidases activities, the specific activities of intestinal and renal disaccharidases viz., sucrase, maltase and lactase were measured in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Specific activities of intestinal disaccharidases were increased significantly during diabetes and amelioration of these activities during diabetes was clearly visible by supplementing fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric in the diet. However during diabetes renal disaccharidases activities were significantly lower than those in the control rats. Fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric supplementations were beneficial in alleviating the reduction in maltase activity during diabetes, however not much change in the activities of sucrase and lactase was observed upon feeding. This positive influence of feeding fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric on intestinal and renal disaccharidases clearly indicates their beneficial role in the management of diabetes.

  2. Hypolipidemic Effect of Fenugreek Seeds and its Comparison with Atorvastatin on Experimentally Induced Hyperlipidemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, M. S. [R.N.T. Medical College, Udaipur (India). Dept. of Physiology; Choudhary, P. R. [C.U. Shah Medical College, Surendranagr (India). Dept. of Physiology

    2014-08-15

    Objective: To determine the hypolipidemic effect of fenugreek (Methi) seeds and its comparison with atorvastatin on experimentally induced hyperlipidemia in rabbits. Study Design: Experimental interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology, Dr. S. N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India, from April 2012 to March 2013. Methodology: Twenty, 1 - 2 years old albino rabbits of European Strains were randomly divided into two groups of 10 rabbits each. All were fed pure cholesterol (0.5 g/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Group-I comprised of 10 hyperlipidemic rabbits which were fed normal (regular) diet supplemented with 2 ml aqueous emulsified fenugreek seeds powder (500 mg/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks. Group-II comprised of 10 hyperlipidemic rabbits, which were fed normal (regular) diet supplemented with 2 ml aqueous emulsion of atorvastatin (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected two times during experimental period at weeks (4 and 8) and analyzed for serum total cholesterol and triglycerides, using semi-automated chemistry analyzer. HDL-C was determined by precipitation method and LDL-C and VLDL-C were estimated by Friedewalds formula. LDL/HDL ratio and TG/HDL ratios were also calculated. The significance of difference in mean values of both groups (lipid profile) was assessed by independent student's t-test. Results: Atorvastatin showed a more potent hypolipidemic activity. It reduced serum total cholesterol, TG, LDL and VLDLcholesterol, and the atherogenic index (LDL-C/HDL-C; p < 0.001) highly significantly as compared to fenugreek. There was a significant increase of HDL-C (p < 0.01) in group-I as compared to group-II. Conclusion: Fenugreek and atorvastatin both have hypolipidemic activity in rabbits but atorvastatin is more potent than fenugreek seeds powder. (author)

  3. Hypolipidemic Effect of Fenugreek Seeds and its Comparison with Atorvastatin on Experimentally Induced Hyperlipidemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, M. S.; Choudhary, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the hypolipidemic effect of fenugreek (Methi) seeds and its comparison with atorvastatin on experimentally induced hyperlipidemia in rabbits. Study Design: Experimental interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology, Dr. S. N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India, from April 2012 to March 2013. Methodology: Twenty, 1 - 2 years old albino rabbits of European Strains were randomly divided into two groups of 10 rabbits each. All were fed pure cholesterol (0.5 g/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Group-I comprised of 10 hyperlipidemic rabbits which were fed normal (regular) diet supplemented with 2 ml aqueous emulsified fenugreek seeds powder (500 mg/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks. Group-II comprised of 10 hyperlipidemic rabbits, which were fed normal (regular) diet supplemented with 2 ml aqueous emulsion of atorvastatin (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected two times during experimental period at weeks (4 and 8) and analyzed for serum total cholesterol and triglycerides, using semi-automated chemistry analyzer. HDL-C was determined by precipitation method and LDL-C and VLDL-C were estimated by Friedewalds formula. LDL/HDL ratio and TG/HDL ratios were also calculated. The significance of difference in mean values of both groups (lipid profile) was assessed by independent student's t-test. Results: Atorvastatin showed a more potent hypolipidemic activity. It reduced serum total cholesterol, TG, LDL and VLDLcholesterol, and the atherogenic index (LDL-C/HDL-C; p < 0.001) highly significantly as compared to fenugreek. There was a significant increase of HDL-C (p < 0.01) in group-I as compared to group-II. Conclusion: Fenugreek and atorvastatin both have hypolipidemic activity in rabbits but atorvastatin is more potent than fenugreek seeds powder. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the Effects of Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Some Physiological and Growth Characteristics of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Menbari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the use of soil-born microorganisms as biological fertilizers is considered to be a natural and most desirable solution to maintain sustainability of agricultural soil system. Potassium releasing bacteria, nitrogen fixing and phosphorus dissolving bacteria make mentioned elements available to plants. In order to evaluate the effects of bio-fertilizers Potabarvar 2, Sinorhizobium meliloti, as well as urea fertilizer on physiological properties and yield of Fenugreek, an experiment as complete randomized block design was conducted with five treatments and three replications. Treatments included biofertilizer Potabarvar 2, S. meliloti, inoculation with a mixture of Sinorhizobium+Potabarvar 2, positive control (based on soil analysis and negative control (no fertilization and inoculation.The results showed that all morphological traits were significant at 1%. Most physiological traits except for carotenoid were significantly affected by S. meliloti, and a mixture of Sinorhizobium+Potabarvar 2. Seed inoculation with biofertilizer Sinorhizobium meliloti and Potabarvar 2 lead to increase in growth and eventually shoot yield. Separate application of these biofertilizers led to better results than the integrated application. Symbiotic relationship of Sinorhizobium with Fenugreek increased physiological indices data, especially the absorption of nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as the amount of phenolic antioxidant have been significantly affected. In general, application of S. meliloti resulted in better and more effective increase in yield, quality and plant growth than fertilizer Potabarvar 2 and a mixture of Sinorhizobium+Potabarvar 2.

  5. Phyto chemical Protection against Diethylnitrosoamine Induced Hepato carcinogenesis by Trigonella foenum graecum in Female Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelgawad, M R; Mustafa, M M.M.; Kottb, M K.I. [Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Research Center, Biological Applications Department, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-05-15

    Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) is traditionally used to treat. Recent studies suggest that fenugreek and its active constituents may possess anti carcinogenic potential. The preventive efficacy of dietary fenugreek seed 2% and 4% (w/w feed) on diethylnitrosamine-induced rat liver carcinogenesis were evaluated. Rats were sacrificed when rats became very weak with unstable shelf live were chosen as an end point. Egypt is an Islamic country alcoholic prohibition so the possible use of ethanol extraction may be accepted with high restriction towards its applications in human, that it may affect the active constituents of fenugreek seeds. Whereby, fenugreek seeds contain >8% oil, many valuable phenolic compounds, protein and amino acids, etc ... with different concentrations according to the extraction method. So, the present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of fenugreek powder on adult female rats fed experimental diets containing 2% or 4% (w/w) fenugreek seed powder (FSP) for 2 weeks and have phenobarbital in a dose of 200 mg/L ad lib. before and after a single injection with diethylnitrosamine (200 mg/kg body weight). Rats were sacrificed 20 weeks after intra-peritoneal (i.p) diethylnitrosamine injection and their livers, spleens, kidneys and lungs were excised washed well with cold saline, weighted and processed through paraffin wax preparation, staining and pathological changes were examined. It was found that, by comparison with control, continuous feeding of FSP 2% and 4% suppressed hepatocarcinogensity up to 20% and 50%, respectively. In addition, on the basis of these findings, the invaluable and precious fenugreek constituents are diosgenin [(25 R)-5-spirosten-3h-ol] and [5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-6-(3,4,5-trihydroxy-6(hydroxymethyl) tetra- hydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)chroman-4-one] besides, others. Finally, fenugreek seeds seem to have potential role as a novel cancer preventive agent and that needs further investigations

  6. Trigonella foenum-graceum (Seed Extract Interferes with Quorum Sensing Regulated Traits and Biofilm Formation in the Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fohad Mabood Husain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek is an important plant of the Leguminosae family known to have medicinal properties. However, fraction based antiquorum sensing and antibiofilm activities have not been reported from this plant. In the present study T. foenum-graecum seed extract was sequentially fractionated and sub-MICs were tested for above activities. The methanol fraction of the extract demonstrated significant inhibition of AHL regulated virulence factors: protease, LasB elastase, pyocyanin production, chitinase, EPS, and swarming motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAF79. Further, QS dependent virulence factor in the aquatic pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila WAF38 was also reduced. Application of T. foenum-graecum seed extract to PAO1, PAF79, and WAF38 decreased the biofilm forming abilities of the pathogens by significant levels. The extract also exhibited reduced AHL levels and subsequent downregulation of lasB gene. In vivo study showed an enhanced survival of PAO1-preinfected C. elegans after treatment with extract at 1 mg/mL. Further, the major compound detected by GC-MS, caffeine, reduced the production of QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm at 200 µg/mL concentration indicating its role in the activity of the methanol extract. The results of the present study reveal the potential anti-QS and antibiofilm property of T. foenum-graceum extract and caffeine.

  7. Effect of gamma radiation on the activity of alpha and beta amylases in germinating fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-Graceum, L.) beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacoub, N.J.

    1978-01-01

    In previous experiments, three weeks old cotyledons from gamma irradiated seeds of fenugreek beans were observed to be healthier and heavier than their non-irradiated controls. A hypothesis was set that this phenomenon was due to the accumulation of carbohydrate in the cotyledons. To test this hypothesis an experiment was designed to determine the sugars and starch contents in the cotyledons of an irradiated and nonirradiated groups at different stages of development. At the same time the amylases activities in the same groups were assayed. Results indicated that there was actually increased amount of sugars ad starch in the two and three week old cotyledons of the irradiated as compared to their controls group. These findings support the above hypothesis. The amylase activities were also higher in the irradiated groups as compared to their non-irradiated controls. These results suggest that irradiation induced stimulation of the photosynthetic rate, and amylases' activities, meanwhile, slowed the translocation of carbohydrate nutrients from the cotyledons into the growing seedlings

  8. Break-through in seed fertility of autotetraploid Trigonella foenum graecum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghuvanshi, S.S.; Agrawal, Poonam; Singh, Jaya; Singh, Anil K.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Fenugreek is an important legume crop in tropical and subtropical zones of India, used as green vegetable, cattle fodder, food flavourant and for pharmaceutical purposes. The seeds are a source of diosgenin, a steroid sapogenin used for synthesis of steroidal drugs like corticosteroide sex hormone and oral contraceptives. Seeds valuing 15-20 million rupees are exported annually. Polyploids are vegetatively superior but have poorer seed fertility. Cross breeding among locally collected germplasm and autopolyploidisation did not give satisfactory results. Mutation induction using gamma rays or EMS alone and in combination was undertaken to broaden the variability for increased grain yield. In M 3 , mutants were selected with up to 143 pods per plant, compared to 80 in the diploid progenitors and up to 123 In advanced hybrids. 11 promising high yielding lines will be further evaluated. (author)

  9. Break-through in seed fertility of autotetraploid Trigonella foenum graecum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghuvanshi, S S; Agrawal, Poonam; Singh, Jaya; Singh, Anil K [Plant Genetics Unit, Botany Department, Lucknow University, Lucknow (India)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Fenugreek is an important legume crop in tropical and subtropical zones of India, used as green vegetable, cattle fodder, food flavourant and for pharmaceutical purposes. The seeds are a source of diosgenin, a steroid sapogenin used for synthesis of steroidal drugs like corticosteroide sex hormone and oral contraceptives. Seeds valuing 15-20 million rupees are exported annually. Polyploids are vegetatively superior but have poorer seed fertility. Cross breeding among locally collected germplasm and autopolyploidisation did not give satisfactory results. Mutation induction using gamma rays or EMS alone and in combination was undertaken to broaden the variability for increased grain yield. In M{sub 3}, mutants were selected with up to 143 pods per plant, compared to 80 in the diploid progenitors and up to 123 In advanced hybrids. 11 promising high yielding lines will be further evaluated. (author)

  10. Alterations in Plasma Glucose and Cardiac Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: Effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum Extract and Swimming Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghani, Karimeh; Bakhtiyari, Salar; Doost Mohammadpour, Jafar

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and swimming training have previously been reported to have hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects. We aimed to evaluate the effects of swimming training and fenugreek aqueous extract, alone and in combination, on plasma glucose and cardiac antioxidant enzymes activity of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. We divided 70 male Wistar rats equally into 7 groups: diabetic control (DC), healthy control (HC), swimming (S), fenugreek seed extract (1.74 g/kg) (F1), fenugreek seed extract (0.87 g/kg) (F2), swimming + fenugreek seed extract (1.74 g/kg) (SF1), and swimming + fenugreek seed extract (0.87 g/kg) (SF2). We used streptozotocin for the induction of diabetes. Statistical analyses were performed using the statistical program SPSS. We did not detect any significant differences in body weight in the F1, F2, S, SF1 and SF2 groups compared with the DC group (p>0.05). The results also revealed that the hypoglycemic effect of combined swimming and fenugreek was significantly stronger (pswimming could be useful for the treatment of hyperglycemia and cardiac oxidative stress induced by type 1 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of Choline-Docosahexaenoic acid and Trigonella foenum graecum Seed Extract on Ovariectomy Induced Dyslipidemia and Oxidative Stress in Rat Model

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    Nagamma Takkella

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menopause is characterized by the deficiency of ovarian hormones, mainly estrogen. The decline in estrogen hormone is contributing the cardiovascular disorders in women. Hormone replacement therapy has disadvantages especially a higher risk of breast, ovarian and endometrial cancers upon chronic use. Phytoestrogens may be used as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy. Aim and Objectives: This study was designed to scientifically evaluate the role of Choline- Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA and Trigonella foenum graecum (TFG seed extract on Ovariectomy (OVX induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in rat model. Material and Methods: Female Wistar rats were allocated into four groups (n=6:1 Sham control, 2 ovariectomized, 3 ovariectomized+ choline-DHA and 4 ovariectomized + choline-DHA+TFG. After 30 days of treatment, fasting blood samples and liver tissues were collected. Serum was analyzed for lipid profile and liver homogenates were used for assessment of oxidative stress and antioxidant activity. Results: Ovariectomized rats showed significantly increased (P<0.05 Total Cholesterol (TC, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL levels and decreased High Density Lipoprotein (HDL levels. Treating ovariectomized rats with choline-DHA and TFG seed extract significantly lowered (P<0.05 total cholesterol, LDL and markedly increased the HDL. Significantly increased (P≤0.01 Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS and reduced (P<0.05 glutathione levels were observed in OVX group. The synergetic effect of choline-DHA and fenugreek showed a significant reduction ((P≤0.01 in TBARS levels. Conclusion: These results showed that choline-DHA with TFG supplementation have a favorable effect on OVX induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress. Therefore, these components may be a therapeutic agent for treating the menopause induced hyperlipidemia or oxidative stress.

  12. Comparison of Analgesic and Hypoglycemic Effect of Hexanic and Alcohlic Extract of Fenugreek Seed in Male Diabetic Rats

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    Sima Nasri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Diabetes mellitus is recognized with severe metabolic complications. Many herbal medicines have been recommended for treatment of diabetes. In this study, the antidiabetic and analgesic effect of hexanic and alcohlic extract Trigonella-foenum graecum was investigated in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  Methods: Present study was carried out in 2011 at Guilan University of Medical Sciences, 48 male Sprague Dawley rats (230-300 gr were divided into six groups: control, type 1 diabetic, and 4 treat ed groups that received intraperitonealy hexanic and alcoholic extract of fenugreek (100, 200 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Two experimental models were used (acetic acid, and hot-plate tests in order to characterize the analgesic effect. Blood glucose was measured with glucometer. Data analyzed with spss software 16 and one way ANOVA and Tukey tests. P<0.05 was statistically significant.  Results: Compared to control rats, both of the aqueous - alcoholic and Hexan ic extract significantly reduced blood glucose level in all diabetics groups. This effect was stronger in groups that received Hexanic extract (p<0.05 . All groups received the aqueous - alcoholic and Hexan ic extract showed analgesic effect but this effect was more clear in the Hexanic 200 mg/kg group (p<0.05.  Conclusion: Fenugreek extract possesses hypoglycemic , and analgesic effects .

  13. The effect of germinated fenugreek seeds and clofibrat on blood cholesterol level and aortic fatty streak in rabbit.

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    bahram delfan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is the excess of fat and stiffness of arteries sidewalls in which specific areas of the circulatory system are involved, causing specific signs based on the involved area, the characteristics of the lesion, and the severity of involvement. The only factor necessary to cause atherosclerosis is the high level of LDL cholesterol. Today, drugs such as lovastatin, clofibrate, and Klystramyn are applied to reduce LDL and increase HDL levels. Material and methods: The effect of fenugreek seeds without any drugs or with clofibrat on blood lipids profile and fatty streak forming were evaluated in 25 male healthy rabbits. The rabbits were divided into 5 group of 5 and received the following diets and drugs for 45 days: Group Ι, normal diet without any drugs Group Π, high cholesterol diet without any drugs Group ΙΙΙ, high cholesterol diet in addition to germinated fenugreek seeds powder (600 mg bid Group ΙV, high cholesterol diet in addition to clofibrat (50 mg bid and GroupV, high cholesterol diet in addition to clofibrat (50 mg bid and germinated fenugreek seeds powder (600 mg bid. The blood samples were collected after overnight fasting at the beginning and at the end of the test period and were estimated for lipids profile. Also autopsy and aortic cross-sectional sampling was conducted for microscopic study after the experiment. Result: The serum total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride levels of groups ΙΙΙ, ΙV,V increased less than those in group Π but HDL levels in groups ΙΙΙ, ΙV and V increased more than that in group Π (P<0.001. Furthermore, the intensity of fatty streak was less in group V. Conclusion: This result indicates the usefulness of fenugreek seeds in the management of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis (P<0.05

  14. Antidiabetic and Neuroprotective Effects of Trigonella Foenum-graecum Seed Powder in Diabetic Rat Brain

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    P. Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trigonella foenum-graecum seed powder (TSP has been reported to have hypoglycemic and hyperinsulinemic action. The objective of the study was to examine the antidiabetic and neuroprotective role of TSP in hyperglycemiainduced alterations in blood glucose, insulin levels and activities of membrane linked enzymes (Na+K+ATPase, Ca2+ATPase, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, calcium (Ca2+ levels, lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity and neurolipofuscin accumulation in the diabetic rat brain. Female Wistar rats weighing between 180 and 220 g were made diabetic by a single injection of alloxan monohydrate (15 mg/100 g body weight, diabetic rats were given 2 IU insulin, per day with 5% TSP in the diet for three weeks. A significant increase in lipid peroxidation was observed in diabetic brain. The increased lipid peroxidation following chronic hyperglycemia was accompanied with a significant increase in the neurolipofuscin deposition and Ca2+ levels with decreased activities of membrane linked ATPases and antioxidant enzymes in diabetic brain. A decrease in synaptosomal membrane fluidity may influence the activity of membrane linked enzymes in diabetes. The present study showed that TSP treatment can reverse the hyperglycemia induced changes to normal levels in diabetic rat brain. TSP administration amended effect of hyperglycemia on alterations in lipid peroxidation, restoring membrane fluidity, activities of membrane bound and antioxidant enzymes, thereby ameliorating the diabetic complications.

  15. Influence of seeds extract of Trigonella foenum graecum (Methi) on mice exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, R; Gupta, U; Goyal, P.K., E-mail: pkgoyal2002@gmail.co [Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, (India)

    2010-07-01

    The present study has been carried out to evaluate the radioprotective effect of Trigonella foenum seeds extract (TFE) on peripheral blood of mice. For this purpose, mice were orally given double distilled water (control) or optimum dose (100 mg/kg of body weight per day) of TFE for five consecutive days (experimental). Thirty minutes after the last administration of double distilled water or TFE, these were exposed whole-body to 5 Gy gamma radiation and autopsied between 12 hours to 30 days for hematological and biochemical estimation. Total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin level, and hematocrit percentage were decreased from normal in both the groups. A significant increase in these parameters was observed in TFE administered irradiated group, in contrast to without TFE irradiated one, by restoring towards normal values at the end of the experiment. From the results, it is evident that TFE may be responsible for the protection of stem cells in bone marrow which subsequently resulted in higher hematological constituents in peripheral blood. The study concludes the prophylactic use of such plant extract against radiation induced hematological alterations. (author)

  16. Insulin-Sensitizer Effects of Fenugreek Seeds in Parallel with Changes in Plasma MCH Levels in Healthy Volunteers

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    Rita Kiss

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In developed, developing and low-income countries alike, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is one of the most common chronic diseases, the severity of which is substantially a consequence of multiple organ complications that occur due to long-term progression of the disease before diagnosis and treatment. Despite enormous investment into the characterization of the disease, its long-term management remains problematic, with those afflicted enduring significant degradation in quality-of-life. Current research efforts into the etiology and pathogenesis of T2DM, are focused on defining aberrations in cellular physiology that result in development of insulin resistance and strategies for increasing insulin sensitivity, along with downstream effects on T2DM pathogenesis. Ongoing use of plant-derived naturally occurring materials to delay the onset of the disease or alleviate symptoms is viewed by clinicians as particularly desirable due to well-established efficacy and minimal toxicity of such preparations, along with generally lower per-patient costs, in comparison to many modern pharmaceuticals. A particularly attractive candidate in this respect, is fenugreek, a plant that has been used as a flavouring in human diet through recorded history. The present study assessed the insulin-sensitizing effect of fenugreek seeds in a cohort of human volunteers, and tested a hypothesis that melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH acts as a critical determinant of this effect. A test of the hypothesis was undertaken using a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp approach to assess insulin sensitivity in response to oral administration of a fenugreek seed preparation to healthy subjects. Outcomes of these evaluations demonstrated significant improvement in glucose tolerance, especially in patients with impaired glucose responses. Outcome data further suggested that fenugreek seed intake-mediated improvement in insulin sensitivity correlated with reduction in MCH

  17. Trigonella Foenum-Graecum Seeds Lowers Postprandial Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Individuals

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    Sathyasurya Daniel Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of fenugreek on postprandial plasma glucose (PPG and satiety among overweight and obese individuals. Fourteen subjects were studied in the morning after overnight fasts on four separate occasions. Glycaemic responses elicited by 50 g carbohydrate portions of white bread and jam with or without 5.5 g of fenugreek and fried rice with or without 5.5 g fenugreek were determined over 2 h. The primary endpoint was the incremental area under the plasma glucose response curve (IAUC. Adding fenugreek to both foods significantly reduced the IAUC compared to the food alone: white bread and jam, 180 ± 22 versus 271 ± 23 mmol × min/L (P = 0.001; fried rice, 176 ± 20 versus 249 ± 25 mmol × min/L (P = 0.001. Fenugreek also significantly reduced the area under the satiety curve for white bread with jam (134 ± 27 versus 232 ± 33 mm × hr, P = 0.01 and fried rice (280 ± 37 versus 379 ± 36 mm × hr, P = 0.01. It is concluded that fenugreek significantly decreased the PPG response and increased satiety among overweight and obese individuals.

  18. Assessment of genetic variability in Trigonella foenum-graecum L. germplasm by SDS-page analysis

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    Qadir Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 96 genotypes of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek were estimated by using Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The accessions were maintained from diverse ecological areas of the world. Total seed storage proteins were electrophoresis on 12.5% polyacrylamide gels. A total of 17 protein bands were detected, of which seven were highly polymorphic and six were moderate polymorphic and four were low polymorphic with molecular weight extending from of ~15 to ~180 kDa. The dendrogram based on similarity matrix using Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA divided all the genotypes into four major clusters i.e., I, II, III and IV comprising 51, 24, 10 and 11 accessions, respectively. Although limited genetic diversity was detected amongst known germplasm but the presence/absence of polymorphic bands revealed a significant variances among different Trigonella genotypes. The differences exposed in this project work should be oppressed for the future breeding prospective of Trigonella genotypes by using other advanced molecular techniques. The SDS-PAGE per se seems inadequate tool for such kind of analysis, and may be integrated with other genetic and sequence based approaches for more precise estimation of the genetic variability within closely related accessions. Our results provide baseline for obtaining locally adapted and improved cultivars of fenugreek in Pakistan.

  19. Effects of organic fertilizers on growth and biochemical characteristics of Fenugreek

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    Mohammad Saadatian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. is an annual herb used as organic (green manure and has medicinal applications. Organic fertilizers are used in sustainable agriculture of vegetables. Sources of organic manure and their effects on growth and yield characteristics of plants need to be determined. Effects of vermicompost and vermiwash were determined on qualitative and quantitative factors of chemical content, development and yield of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-gaecum L. from May to July 2012 at Agriculture College of University Guilan. A completely randomized block design with 3 replications was used. Treatments included 7 t/ha of cow manure, vermicompost, vermiwash (obtained from 7 t/ha vermicompost; 7 t/ha of leachate vermicompost + vermiwash and a control (no fertilization. Use of organic fertilizers beneficially affected plant height, pod length, pod fresh and dry mass, 1000-seed mass, plant fresh and dry mass, internode length and percents of leaves protein and nitrogen. Use of organic fertilizers may increase yield and yield components of fenugreek and its yield efficiency.

  20. Effect of domestic processing on total and extractable calcium and zinc content of bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, S K; Sehgal, S

    1999-01-01

    Bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum graecum) stored in polyethylene bags and without packaging for 24 or 48 hours in a refrigerator at 5 or 30 degrees C in polyethylene bags. The fresh leaves were also dried (oven and sun); blanched (5, 10 or 15 min) and cooked in an open pan and a pressure cooker. The processed leaves were analyzed for total and extractable calcium and zinc content. The Ca and Zn content of these leaves varied from 970 to 2230 and 10.50 to 12.30 mg/100 g DM and the percentage HCl-extractability was 80.34 to 83.04 and 82.43 to 83.90, respectively. Non significant effects of drying and storage were observed on total Ca and Zn content and HCl-extractability while blanching and cooking resulted in significant improvement of HCl-extractability of these two minerals. Thus, cooking and blanching are good ways to improve the HCl-extractability of Ca and Zn.

  1. Effect of home processing and storage on ascorbic acid and beta-carotene content of Bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, S K; Sehgal, S

    1997-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to study the effect of selected processing and storage methods on the concentration of ascorbic acid and beta-carotene in Bathua and fenugreek leaves. Methods included storage of leaves with or without polythene bags for 24 and 48 h in a refrigerator at 5 degrees C; at 30 degrees C in polythene bags; drying (sun and oven); blanching (5, 10, 15 min); open pan and pressure cooking. Ascorbic acid content of fresh leaves was 220.97 to 377.65 mg and beta-carotene content was 19.00 to 24.64 mg/100 g, DW. The percent loss of ascorbic acid ranged from 2.03 to 8.77 and 45.15 to 66.9 while lower losses (0.0 to 1.75 and 1.63 to 2.84) of beta-carotene were observed in leaves stored in the refrigerator and at 30 degrees C, respectively. A markedly greater reduction in ascorbic acid and beta-carotene was observed in dried, blanched and cooked leaves. The study data suggest that storage of leaves in refrigeration, drying in oven, blanching for a short time and cooking in a pressure cooker results in better retention of these two vitamins.

  2. Effect of different intercropping patterns on yield and yield components of dill and fenugreek

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    Behzad Shokati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted based on randomized complete blocks design (RCBD in three replications during 2011 at the research farm of university of Tabriz, Iran. In this study two medicinal plants, dill (Anethum graveolens L. and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum intercropped at different additive (1:20, 1:40 and 1:60 and different replacement (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 series. Results showed that dill plant at additive treatment especially in 1:20 and 1:60 series had maximum plant fresh and dry weights, umbels per plant, 1000 seed weight, seeds per plant, biological yield and harvest index. However, fenugreek plant at replacement treatment especially in 1:3 and 1:2 series had maximum biological yield, pod in main stem, pod in branches, seeds per pod, seed weights and grain yield. Fenugreek as a medicinal, forage and legume crop promote dill grows characters and could be an effective plant in intercropping systems.

  3. Study of lipid profile and parieto-temporal lipid peroxidation in AlCl3 mediated neurotoxicity. modulatory effect of fenugreek seeds

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    Belaïd-Nouira Yosra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroxidation of lipid (LPO membrane and cholesterol metabolism have been involved in the physiopathology of many diseases of aging brain. Therefore, this prospective animal study was carried firstly to find out the correlation between LPO in posterior brain and plasmatic cholesterol along with lipoprotein levels after chronic intoxication by aluminium chloride (AlCl3. Chronic aluminum-induced neurotoxicity has been in fact related to enhanced brain lipid peroxidation together with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, despite its controversial etiological role in neurodegenerative diseases. Secondly an evaluation of the effectiveness of fenugreek seeds in alleviating the engendered toxicity through these biochemical parameters was made. Results Oral administration of AlCl3 to rats during 5 months (500 mg/kg bw i.g for one month then 1600 ppm via the drinking water enhanced the levels of LPO in posterior brain, liver and plasma together with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG and LDL-C (Low Density Lipoproteins levels. All these parameters were decreased following fenugreek seeds supplementation either as fenugreek seed powder (FSP or fenugreek seed extract (FSE. A notable significant correlation was observed between LPObrain and LDL-C on one hand and LDHliver on the other hand. This latter was found to correlate positively with TC, TG and LDL-C. Furthermore, high significant correlations were observed between LDHbrain and TC, TG, LDL-C, LPObrain as well as LDHliver. Conclusion Aluminium-induced LPO in brain could arise from alteration of lipid metabolism particularly altered lipoprotein metabolism rather than a direct effect of cholesterol oxidation. Fenugreek seeds could play an anti-peroxidative role in brain which may be attributed in part to its modulatory effect on plasmatic lipid metabolism.

  4. Effects of Intercropping on Biological Yield, Percentage of Nitrogen and Morphological Characteristics of Coriander and Fenugreek

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    R. Bigonah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the intercropping arrangements of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L., a field experiment was conducted during growing season of 2010 at Agriculture Research Station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments included: mono-crop of fenugreek (A, %25 of optimum density of coriander + %175 of optimum density of fenugreek (B, %50 of optimum density of coriander + %150 of optimum density of fenugreek (C, %75 of optimum density of coriander + %125 of optimum density of fenugreek (D, %100 of optimum density of coriander + %100 of optimum density of fenugreek (E, mono-crop of coriander (F, %125 of optimum density of coriander + %75 of optimum density of fenugreek (G, %150 of optimum density of coriander + %50 of optimum density of fenugreek (H, %175 of optimum density of coriander + %25 of optimum density of fenugreek (I. Biological yield harvested in coriander at %5 flowering stage and in fenugreek at %20 flowering stage. The result showed that B treatment had highest plant height and biological yield of fenugreek, highest total land equivalent ratio and also B treatment had lowest essential oil contents of leaf, essential oil yield and biological yield of coriander. I treatment had lowest biological yield of fenugreek and it had highest essential oil contents of leaf, essential oil yield and plant height in coriander. Also A and E treatments had highest percent of nitrogen of biomass in fenugreek and coriander, respectively.

  5. Comparison between Fenugreek and Lovastatin in restoration of endothelial function in an experimental old rat model

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    "Pipelzadeh MH

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum with that of lovastatin in restoration of endothelia function in the aorta taken form aged N-Mair rats. For this purpose, 4 groups of old N-Mari rats were used (n=6, normal saline treated control group, lovastatin (10 mg/kg, orally and fengreek seed powder in normal saline suspension (100 or 500 mg/kg were administered orally daily for 8 weeks. The rate of relaxation of ephedrine- precontracted aorta to acetycholine, the lipid profiles, and histological examinations of the aorta were compared between these two groups and with a control non-treated normal saline treated group. The results showed that treatment with lovastatin and fenugreek produced significant reduction in IDL, VLDL triglyceride and total cholesterol, while HDL was increased as compared to control non-treated group. Lovastatin induced an increase in contraction/mg tissue weight. However, improvement in endothelial function was significantly increased in all treatment groups. The histological findings showed significant reduction in thickness and lipid deposits in the aorta in all treatment groups. The improvement in the epithelial function was correlated with LDL-cholesterol lowering and partly with the reduction in the thickness of the aortic intimal layer. This study demonstrated that fenugreek is as effective as lovastatin in reducing the features associated with atherosclerosis.

  6. Biological effects of space flight on SP{sub 1} traits of fenugreek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, Xu; Jing, Yu; Jiang, Xu; Feng, Zhou; Jun, Chen [The Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Beijing Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Yougang, Liu [Tianjin Univ. of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin (China); Suqin, Sun [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2009-04-15

    Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum-graecum L.) seeds introduced from United Arab Emirates (UAE) were carried to the space by the recoverable satellite 'Shi Jian 8'. After space loading, the seeds were planted to be observed and investigated compared to the control group. The results showed that the germination rate declined after space loading compared to the control group. SP{sub 1} plants grew inhibited first, and then vigorously later at the seedling stage. The branch number, pods and plant weight of SP{sub 1} plants' increased. More important, single pod was changed to dual pod. At the same time, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to analyze and appraise the fenugreek SP{sub 1} seeds. The results indicated that the major components and the structures remained intact, in another word, space mutation had no obvious effect on the quality of SP{sub 1} seeds. Based on the results, some variations mutated by space flight could appear at the present generation. These variations were important to gain high yield. (authors)

  7. Fenugreek Seed Extract Inhibit Fat Accumulation and Ameliorates Dyslipidemia in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

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    Parveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds (AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high fat diet- (HFD- induced obese rats. Female Wistar rats were fed with HFD ad libitum, and the rats on HFD were treated orally with AqE-TFG or orlistat ((HFD for 28 days + AqE-TFG (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg or orlistat (10 mg/kg from day 8 to 28, respectively. Treatment with AqE-TFG produced significant reduction in body weight gain, body mass index (BMI, white adipose tissue (WAT weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, lipids, leptin, lipase, and apolipoprotein-B levels and elevation in adiponectin levels. AqE-TFG improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels. AqE-TFG treatment reduced the hepatic and cardiac thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and elevated the antioxidant enzyme (glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT levels. In addition, liver and uterine WAT lipogenic enzyme (fatty acid synthetase (FAS and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activities were restored towards normal levels. These findings demonstrated the preventive effect of AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia, due to inhibition of impaired lipid digestion and absorption, in addition to improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism, enhancement of insulin sensitivity, increased antioxidant defense, and downregulation of lipogenic enzymes.

  8. Radiation Absorption and Use Efficiency of Common Mallow (Malva sylvestris L. Affected by Different Sources of Organic, Biological and Chemical Fertilizers and Intercropping with Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. R Razavi

    2017-06-01

    -Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB, 4- Nitroxin + SSB + PSB, 5- Chemical fertilizer, 6-Row intercropping with Fenugreek, and 7- Control. Inoculation of seeds with boifertilizers done in standard situation recommended by their producers and the CFU of all biofertilizers were more than 108. On 25 of March, 25 ton.ha-1 of cattle manure distributed by hand in needed plots. The sowing operation was done on March 30.The total area of a plot was 12 square meters and the distance between and on the rows were 50 and 20 cm, respectively. Leaf area index, dry matter and the radiation above, and transmitted through, the canopy measured each 14 days (with a Linear Septometer, SunScan, Delta T Co., UK. Then the total radiation absorption for each plot was calculated by the relevant equations. Finally, radiation use efficiency is estimated with measuring the slope of the regression line between cumulative absorbed radiation and dry matter of the plant. Results and Discussion The results showed that application of cattle manure increased LAI, particularly in the early stages of Common Mallow growth, and the highest level of LAI was on the treatment of “Nitroxin + SSB + PSB + Cattle manure” and “Chemical fertilizer + cattle manure” with 2.49 and 2.37, respectively. This is while, in the absence of cattle manure, chemical fertilizer had more effect on increasing LAI compared to the biofretilizers. Application of cattle manure also reduced the light extinction coefficient (K of the plant, while “Nitroxin + SSB + PSB + Cattle manure” treatment had the least K value (K=0.47, R2=0.98. ANOVA results showed all experimental treatments had a significant effect (P≤ 0.001 on the cumulative absorbed radiation of Mallow during the growing season. The most accumulated absorbed radiation occurred under Nitroxin + SSB + PSB treatment (by mean of 986.6 MJ.m-2, while application and no-application of cattle manure had no significant effect on radiation absorption. The total calculated mean

  9. Fenugreek: A review on its nutraceutical properties and utilization in various food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Ahmad Wani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum is a legume and it has been used as a spice throughout the world to enhance the sensory quality of foods. It is known for its medicinal qualities such as antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, and immunological activities. Beside its medicinal value, it is also used as a part of various food product developments as food stabilizer, adhesive, and emulsifying agent. More importantly it is used for the development of healthy and nutritious extruded and bakery product. The present paper reviews about nutraceutical properties of fenugreek and its utilization in various product developments. Keywords: Fenugreek, Nutraceutical, Hypoglycemic, Antioxidant, Extruded product

  10. The Effect of Drought Stress on Morphological Characteristics and Yield Components of Medicinal Plant Fenugreek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bazzazi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. is one of the oldest medicinal plants. In order to study water-stress effects on some morphological characteristics of fenugreek, an experiment was carried out in a strip plots based on randomized complete blocks design with three replicates, at Research Farm of Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran, in 2010. The first factor was allocated to four water stress levels (irrigation after depletion of 20 (as control, 40, 60 and 80% of available soil moisture and the second factor was six fenugreek landraces (Shiraz, Ardestan, Tirancheh, Yazd, Jahrom and Hindi. The results of ANOVA and comparison of means indicated that the effect of water stress was significant for all traits and variation was observed among landraces for all the studied characteristics. Mean comparison showed that drought stress reduced days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height and yield components (number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-kernel weight. It was also revealed that water stress caused reduction in biological yield (43% and grain yield (42.3% of all genotypes. Comparison between landraces indicated that maximum biological and grain yield belonged to Ardestan landrace. Assessment of cluster analysis showed that it was possible to classify Ardestan, Shiraz and Tirancheh as a single group having tolerance to water stress. In general, based on obtained results, the Ardestan landrace, with 22.37 g/plant, had the highest biological yield and Hindi landrace, with 73.83 days to maturity, was the most early-maturing one.

  11. Fenugreek, A Potent Hypoglycaemic Herb Can Cause Central Hypothyroidism Via Leptin - A Threat To Diabetes Phytotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Jayjeet; Chakraborty, Pratip; Mitra, Analava; Sarkar, Nirmal Kumar; Sarkar, Supriti

    2017-07-01

    Fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum graecum) , a medicinal herb with potent antihyperglycaemic and hypoglycaemic effects, is used to treat diabetes. This study is aimed to explore the interaction of fenugreek seed extract (FSE) and HPT (hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid) axis in context of leptin secretion which have important role in normal and type-1 diabetic subjects. FSE (confirmed to contain trigonelline, diosgenin, 4 hydroxyisoleucine) was gavaged (0.25 gm/kg body weight/day) to normal and alloxan-induced type-1 diabetic rats for 4 weeks. Expression of hypothalamic prepro-TRH (Thyrotropin releasing hormone) mRNA, serum levels of TRH, TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone), fT 3 , fT 4 , insulin, leptin, glucose; thyroperoxidase activity and growth of thyroid gland, food intake, adiposity index were also studied FSE significantly down regulated prepro-TRH mRNA expression; decreased serum TRH, TSH, fT 3 , fT 4 levels, and regressed thyroid gland in FSE-fed normal and diabetic rats than those observed in normal diet-fed control and diabetic rats. FSE decreased (psecretion, increased food intake and body weight in all FSE-fed rats. FSE improved insulin secretion, decreased glucose level but impaired HPT axis in diabetic rats, indicating insulin-independent central hypothyroidism. Results suggested that the dominant signal to hypothalamus suppressing HPT axis is the fall in leptin level which i resulted from decreased adiposity index following FSE feeding. Fenugreek simultaneously having hypoglycaemic and hypothyroidal actions raises questions whether it can be safely used to treat diabetes and/or hyperthyroidism as was suggested by many workers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract reduces age-related symptoms of androgen decrease, increases testosterone levels and improves sexual function in healthy aging males in a double-blind randomised clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Amanda; Steels, Elizabeth; Inder, Warrick J; Abraham, Suzanne; Vitetta, Luis

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effect of Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract on the symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, sexual function and serum androgen concentrations in healthy aging males. This was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial involving 120 healthy men aged between 43 and 70 years of age. The active treatment was standardised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at a dose of 600 mg/day for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the change in the Aging Male Symptom questionnaire (AMS), a measure of possible androgen deficiency symptoms; secondary outcome measures were sexual function and serum testosterone. There was a significant decrease in AMS score over time and between the active and placebo groups. Sexual function improved, including number of morning erections and frequency of sexual activity. Both total serum testosterone and free testosterone increased compared to placebo after 12 weeks of active treatment. Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract is a safe and effective treatment for reducing symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, improves sexual function and increases serum testosterone in healthy middle-aged and older men.

  13. Effects of sodium-orthovanadate and Trigonella foenum-graecum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    81. Keywords. Alloxan diabetes; lipogenic enzymes; sodium-orthovanadate; total lipid; Trigonella seed powder ... such as nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and car- diac problem .... using urine glucose detection strips (Diastix, Bayer Dia-.

  14. Germination, growth and nodulation of Trigonella foenum graecum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... In this work, we analyzed the effects of salinity on seed germination, growth and nodulation of fenugreek ..... metabolic activities in function, such as the accumulation .... stress: possible role of trehalose in osmoregulation. Lett.

  15. Cumulative effect of gibberellic acid and phosphorus on crop productivity, biochemical activities and trigonelline production in Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Ahmad Dar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. is an antidiabetic plant. Its bioactive compound, trigonelline, is known to counter diabetes through insulin secretion, modulation of β cell regeneration and quick activity of glucose metabolism related enzymes. A pot experiment was conducted in the natural conditions of net house of the Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (UP, India, to evaluate the effect of four concentrations of GA3 (0, 10−7 M, 10−6 M and 10−5 M, alone and in combination with phosphorus (40 kg P ha−1, on growth, biochemical and yield attributes of fenugreek. Compared to control, the combination of GA3 and phosphorus (P40 + 10−6 M GA3 significantly increased the activities of nitrate reductase (30.8% and carbonic anhydrase (30.7% enzymes; it also enhanced the seed yield (140.6% and the content of total chlorophyll (28.5% and carotenoids (26%. There was also significant increase (19.51% in the content of seed trigonelline.

  16. Effect of methanol extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seeds on anxiety, sedation and motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assad, Tahira; Khan, Rafeeq Alam

    2017-04-01

    Currently available anxiolytics cause numerous adverse effects and show craving and tolerance during long term treatment. Currently traditional medicines have been re-evaluated widely through work on various plant species. Numerous plants in traditional system show pharmacological activity with unlimited prospective for therapeutic use. Hence we planned to evaluate the effect of methanol extract of T. foenum-graecum L. seeds on anxiety, sedation and motor coordination in mice at different doses following 15 days of oral feeding. Effect on anxiety was assessed by Hole board test and Light and Dark transition models.Phenobarbitone induced sleeping time and Rota rod test were performed to assess effect on sedation and motor coordination. In Hole board test, T. foenum-graecum L. seeds decreased the number of head dips in mice at all the three doses. In Light and Dark transition model, T. foenum-graecum L. seeds increased the period spent in the light box and the number of moves among the two compartments at 100 and 200 mg/kg as compared to control animals. In phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, T. foenum-graecum L. seeds did not reveal any sedative effect. In Rota rod test, extract exhibited significant skeletal muscle relaxant effect at 200 mg/kg (at 90 min) as compared to the control animals. Results of our study shows significant antianxiety effects of T. foenum-graecum L. seeds and may also recommend improved adverse effect profile as compared to diazepam.

  17. Response of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2014-01-15

    Jan 15, 2014 ... and mercury stress showed simultaneous and lower antioxidant activity compared to osmotic stress increased activity in super oxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) indicates that mercury pollution leads to serious ... in drinking water and soil is 0.001 mg/lit and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. But most of the ...

  18. In vitro shoot regeneration of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-18

    Oct 18, 2010 ... sprouts are good source of protein, mineral and vitamin C. (Khan et al. ... hypocotyl explants were isolated from 8 - 10 days old germinated seedlings and ..... TJV (1993). Transformation and regeneration of two cultivars of pea.

  19. Effect of Co-60 gamma irradiated chitosan and phosphorus fertilizer on growth, yield and trigonelline content of Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Ahmad Dar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural marine polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate and carrageenan; after depolymerization by different techniques, have shown promising plant growth promoting and other biological activities. Chitosan after irradiation with Co-60 gamma-rays have proven to be a miraculous plant growth promoter in different plants. Trigonelline; an anti-diabetic compound is obtained mainly from the seeds of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.. Trigonelline counteracts diabetes mellitus (DM through the operation of the mechanisms of insulin secretion, modulation of β-cell regeneration and stimulation of activity of glucose metabolism related enzymes. Considering the medicinal importance a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of foliar application of Co-60 gamma irradiated chitosan (IC with soil applied phosphorus supplement on growth, biochemical and quality attributes of fenugreek. Four concentrations of irradiated chitosan were used (0, 40, 80 and 120 mg L−1 individually as well as in combination with single dose of phosphorus 40 kg ha−1. Un-irradiated chitosan (UN 40 mg L−1 and de-ionized water were used as control. IC significantly affected almost all the parameters including seed yield, trigonelline content and trigonelline yield. There were 10 treatments and among all, P40 + IC 40 mg L−1 proved to be the best, which increased total alkaloid content by 34.9%, seed yield by 125.4%, and trigonelline content by 17.8%. Contents of photosynthetic pigments and activity of nitrate reductase, carbonic anhydrase enzymes were also significantly enhanced.

  20. Diosgenin, 4-hydroxyisoleucine, and fiber from fenugreek: mechanisms of actions and potential effects on metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Scott; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2015-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome and its complications continue to rise in prevalence and show no signs of abating in the immediate future. Therefore, the search for effective treatments is a high priority in biomedical research. Products derived from botanicals have a time-honored history of use in the treatment of metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes. Trigonella foenum-graecum, commonly known as fenugreek, is an annual herbaceous plant that has been a staple of traditional herbal medicine in many cultures. Although fenugreek has been studied in both clinical and basic research settings, questions remain about its efficacy and biologic mechanisms of action. Diosgenin, 4-hydroxyisoleucine, and the fiber component of the plant are the most intensively studied bioactive constituents present in fenugreek. These compounds have been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects on several physiologic markers including glucose tolerance, inflammation, insulin action, liver function, blood lipids, and cardiovascular health. Although insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the favorable effects of fenugreek have been gained, we still do not have definitive evidence establishing its role as a therapeutic agent in metabolic disease. This review aims to summarize the currently available evidence on the physiologic effects of the 3 best-characterized bioactive compounds of fenugreek, with particular emphasis on biologic mechanisms of action relevant in the context of metabolic syndrome. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Fenugreek with reduced bitterness prevents diet-induced metabolic disorders in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muraki Etsuko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various therapeutic effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. on metabolic disorders have been reported. However, the bitterness of fenugreek makes it hard for humans to eat sufficient doses of it for achieving therapeutic effects. Fenugreek contains bitter saponins such as protodioscin. Fenugreek with reduced bitterness (FRB is prepared by treating fenugreek with beta-glucosidase. This study has been undertaken to evaluate the effects of FRB on metabolic disorders in rats. Methods Forty Sprague–Dawley rats were fed with high-fat high-sucrose (HFS diet for 12 week to induce mild glucose and lipid disorders. Afterwards, the rats were divided into 5 groups. In the experiment 1, each group (n = 8 was fed with HFS, or HFS containing 2.4% fenugreek, or HFS containing 1.2%, 2.4% and 4.8% FRB, respectively, for 12 week. In the experiment 2, we examined the effects of lower doses of FRB (0.12%, 0.24% and 1.2% under the same protocol (n = 7 in each groups. Results In the experiment 1, FRB dose-dependently reduced food intake, body weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT and soleus muscle weight. FRB also lowered plasma and hepatic lipid levels and increased fecal lipid levels, both dose-dependently. The Plasma total cholesterol levels (mmol/L in the three FRB and Ctrl groups were 1.58 ± 0.09, 1.45 ± 0.05*, 1.29 ± 0.07* and 2.00 ± 0.18, respectively (*; P P P  Conclusions Thus we have demonstrated that FRB (1.2 ~ 4.8% prevents diet-induced metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and fatty liver.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation in Trigonella foenum-graceum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanjari, K B [Punjab Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (India)

    1976-12-01

    The R/sub 1/ parameters germination, mortality, plant height and morphological irregularities induced by gamma ray treatments were studied to evaluate the effect of different doses in Trigonella foenum-graecum L. The dry seeds were treated with 20,30 and 35 kR gamma rays. Although germination was not affected much, mortality was about 50 percent under 30 kR and 35 kR doses. All the gamma rays treatments affected height due to the treatments.

  3. Ameliorative properties of Iranian Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seeds and Punica granatum L. peel extracts in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetic guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Abdel Salam Ahmed Hasona

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: The Iranian T. foenum-graecum seeds and P. granatum peel extracts are significantly potent in ameliorating diabetic condition induced by streptozotocin and improving various biochemical parameters in serum and liver of guinea pigs.

  4. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kirubakaran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L., garlic (Allium sativum, and black pepper (Piper nigrum powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR. Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01. Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01. Conclusion: The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR.

  5. Laboratory evaluation of interception and translocation of 131I in fenugreek and Okra plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, R.K.; Narayanan, U.; Bhat, I.S.

    1994-01-01

    The work reported here deals with the study of interception and translocation of airborne 131 I in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and okra (Hibiscus esculentus), two very common vegetables in India. Activity was injected into the experimental chamber in the form of iodide aerosols having a size distribution of 0.3 to 5.0 μm (AMAD). Samples of plants were collected over a period of a few days at different time intervals after injection of the aerosols. Evaluation of interception with deposition and translocation of 131 I was done from the activity measured in air and in plant parts. For the deposition factor, the values are 1.22 m 3 kg -1 for fenugreek leaves, and 1.49 m 3 kg -1 for the plant as a whole. For okra plants these values are 0.02 and 0.16 m 3 kg -1 in edible okra and leaves, respectively. For the okra plant as a whole, the value is 0.19 m 3 kg -1 . The translocation factors vary from 0.62 to 0.86 and 0.47 to 0.87 for leaves and stem, respectively, in the case of fenugreek plants. For okra plants, the translocation factor varies from 0.21 to 0.82, 0.53 to 0.93, and 0.42 to 0.81 in edible okra, leaves, and stems, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirubakaran, A.; Moorthy, M.; Chitra, R.; Prabakar, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), garlic (Allium sativum), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (ppepper powder combinations (ppepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR. PMID:27284222

  7. Effect of dietary supplementation of herbal seeds on carcass traits of turkey poults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana B. Bhaisare

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to find the effect of four herbal seeds on carcass traits of turkey poults. Materials and Methods: A biological study using Nandanam turkey poults (Meleagris gallapavo for 8 weeks duration was carried out to evaluate the effect of phytobiotics-containing four herbal seeds influence on production performances like biweekly body weight and on carcass traits. 150 poults were randomly subjected to five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with basal diet (T1, 0.5% (5 g/kg level of each seeds thyme (Thymus vulgaris (T2, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum (T3, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare (T4 and cumin (Cuminum cyminum (T5. Carcass traits like blood loss, feather loss, dressed weight, New York dressed weight, ready to cook yield and cut-up parts yield were studied. Results: The body weight at 8th week was higher (p<0.05 in poults fed with thyme; whereas at 6th week, fennel and cumin fed birds had better (p<0.05 body weight. Inclusion of herbal seeds did not affect the blood loss, dressed weight and ready to cook yield but it significantly (p<0.05 affected the feathered loss, New York dressed weight and giblet percentages. Feeding of fenugreek has improved New York dressed weight of poults. Feeding of fennel had depressive (p<0.05 effect on liver and gizzard weights. All the four phytobiotic seeds in feed had significant (p<0.05 reduction in breast weight with a compensatory improvement in drumstick and neck weights. Conclusion: The present study revealed that supplementation of phytobiotic herbal seeds has resulted in numerical improvement of body weight of poults throughout the study period whereas these seeds had negative effect on the yield of breast, with increased proportion of drumstick and neck.

  8. Effect of seed mixture composition and management on competitiveness of herbs in temporary grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Tine Bloch; Søegaard, Karen; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and white clover (Trifolium repens), 2) cutting frequency, and 3) slurry application. The experiment was carried out over three years. The herb mixture contained salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), chicory (Cichcorium intybus), caraway...

  9. Evaluation of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract in combination with swimming exercise compared to glibenclamide consumption on type 2 Diabetic rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Arshadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed extract in combination with swimming exercise compared to glibenclamide consumption on type 2 diabetic rats. Design: The acute toxicity test was carried out to choose the safe doses and identify the toxicity effects of the fenugreek seed extract. To investigate the hypoglycemic effect of the extract and its effect in combination with swimming training, 80 Wistar Kyoto male streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were divided randomly into eight groups: diabetic control (C; fenugreek seed extract 0.8 g/kg (F1; fenugreek extract 1.6 g/kg (F2; swimming training (S; swimming training plus fenugreek extract 0.8 g/kg (SF1; swimming training plus fenugreek extract 1.6 g/kg (SF2; glibenclamide (G and swimming training plus glibenclamide (SG. The rats were orally administrated with the treatments once a day with the respective treatment, and the training groups were subjected to swimming training every day for 60 min. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, adiponectin, leptin, and insulin concentrations. Results: The results obtained from acute toxicity study showed no toxicity effect of fenugreek seed extract on the tested dose. Biochemical analysis showed significant improvements in all of the groups compared to the control group (p<0.05. Plasma insulin concentration and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was significantly reduced in treated groups compared with the diabetic control group. Plasma leptin were significantly decreased in treated groups compared with the control group; while adiponectin had markedly increased (p<0.05. Conclusion: The findings suggest that fenugreek seed consuming, alongside swimming exercise, has a strong therapeutic effect on the improvement of diabetic parameters.

  10. New chromosome numbers in the genus Trigonella L. ( Fabaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic chromosome numbers of 45 Trigonella L. (Fabaceae), collected from different localities in Turkey was examined. Chromosome numbers were determined as 2n = 14, 16, 30 and 46. B chromosome was also observed in somatic cells of some taxa (Trigonella arcuata C.A. Meyer and Trigonella procumbens (Besser) ...

  11. Optimization of Callus Induction and Regeneration in Two Fenugreek Landraces as a Medicinal Plant during in vitro Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Hasani Jifroudi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum- graecum is a medicinal plant extensively distributed in most regions of the world. Fenugreek is an annual plant from the family of papilionaceae, leguminosae. Fenugreek leaves and seeds have been used extensively to prepare extracts and powders for medicinal uses. Its root, leaf and seed contain a number of important medicinal compounds such as polysaccharide, galactomannan, different saponins such as diosgenin, yamogenin, mucilage, volatile oil and alkaloids such as choline and trigonelline. Plant tissue culture is fundamental to most aspects of biotechnology of plants. Establishment of an efficient callus induction and direct regeneration protocol is an essential prerequisite in harnessing the advantage of cell and tissue culture for genetic improvement. For the successful application of the tissue culture technique in plant breeding, callus induction and plant regeneration potential of each plant must be determined. The present study was performed in order to determine the optimum concentration of plant growth regulators (IBA + TDZ for producing of in vitro plantlet using cotyledon and hypocotyl as an explant for two different Iranian genotypes (Ardestani and Neyshabouri. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, Ardestani and Neyshabouri genotypes were used for callus induction and direct shoot regeneration. The medium used in this investigation was MS (Murashige and Skoog basal medium. Then seeds were germinated on MS medium. For callus induction and direct shoot regeneration, cotyledon and hypocotyl explants were excised from 8-day-old sterile seedlings and cultured on MS medium containing various concentrations of IBA and TDZ. In this experiment, two combinations (TDZ + IBA were used. In the first composition, IBA had four levels (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 mg l-1 and TDZ had five levels (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mg l-1 and in the second composition, IBA had four levels (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 mg l-1 and TDZ

  12. Comparison of silicon nanoparticles and silicate treatments in fenugreek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaralian, Sanam; Majd, Ahmad; Irian, Saeed; Najafi, Farzaneh; Ghahremaninejad, Farrokh; Landberg, Tommy; Greger, Maria

    2017-06-01

    Silicon (Si) fertilization improves crop cultivation and is commonly added in the form of soluble silicates. However, most natural plant-available Si originates from plant formed amorphous SiO 2 particles, phytoliths, similar to SiO 2 -nanoparticles (SiNP). In this work we, therefore, compared the effect by sodium silicate and that of SiNP on Si accumulation, activity of antioxidative stress enzymes catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, lignification of xylem cell walls and activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) as well as expression of genes for the putative silicon transporter (PST), defensive (Tfgd 1) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and protein in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) grown in hydroponics. The results showed that Si was taken up from both silicate and SiNP treatments and increasing sodium silicate addition increased the translocation of Si to the shoot, while this was not shown with increasing SiNP addition. The silicon transporter PST was upregulated at a greater level when sodium silicate was added compared with SiNP addition. There were no differences in effects between sodium silicate and SiNP treatments on the other parameters measured. Both treatments increased the uptake and accumulation of Si, xylem cell wall lignification, cell wall thickness, PAL activity and protein concentration in seedlings, while there was no effect on antioxidative enzyme activity. Tfgd 1 expression was strongly downregulated in leaves at Si addition. The similarity in effects by silicate and SiNP would be due to that SiNP releases silicate, which may be taken up, shown by a decrease in SiNP particle size with time in the medium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Cytotoxic action of lead nitrate on cytomorphology of Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

    OpenAIRE

    CHOUDHARY, Sana; ANSARI, Mohammad Yunus Khalil; KHAN, Zeba; GUPTA, Honey

    2012-01-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the mutagenic potential of lead on the cytomorphology of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. and to determine the maximum concentration of lead nitrate that induces maximum genetic variability. The seeds were treated with 6 different concentrations (10, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 ppm) of lead nitrate. The higher concentrations of lead nitrate significantly reduced plant height, number of branches per plant, pollen fertility, and yield; higher concent...

  14. A study on rheological characteristics of roller milled fenugreek fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhare, Suresh D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A; Prabhasankar, P

    2016-01-01

    Fenugreek seeds were fractionated by roller milling to get various fractions. The roller milled fractions and whole fenugreek flour (WFF) were evaluated for the flow behavior and time-dependent flow properties using a rotational viscometer at the temperatures of 10-60 (0)C. The samples subjected to a programmed shear rate increase linearly from 0 to 300 s(-1) in 3 min and successive decrease linearly shear rate from 300 s(-1) to 0 in 3 min. The roller milled fractions and WFF paste exhibited non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior. Difference in hysteresis loop area was observed among the roller milled fractions and WFF, being more noticeable at lower temperatures. Power law and Casson models were used to predict flow properties of samples. The power law model described well the flow behavior of the roller milled fractions and WFF at temperatures tested. Except flour (FL) fraction, consistency coefficient, m, increased with the temperature both in the forward and backward measurements. The roller milled fractions and WFF exhibited rheopectic behavior that increased viscosity with increasing the shear speed and the temperature. For all the sample tested, initial shear stress increased with increase in shear rate and temperature.

  15. Prenatal exposure to fenugreek impairs sensorimotor development and the operation of spinal cord networks in mice.

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    Loubna Khalki

    Full Text Available Fenugreek is a medicinal plant whose seeds are widely used in traditional medicine, mainly for its laxative, galactagogue and antidiabetic effects. However, consumption of fenugreek seeds during pregnancy has been associated with a range of congenital malformations, including hydrocephalus, anencephaly and spina bifida in humans. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of prenatal treatment of fenugreek seeds on the development of sensorimotor functions from birth to young adults. Pregnant mice were treated by gavage with 1 g/kg/day of lyophilized fenugreek seeds aqueous extract (FSAE or distilled water during the gestational period. Behavioral tests revealed in prenatally treated mice a significant delay in righting, cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis responses and the swimming development. In addition, extracellular recording of motor output in spinal cord isolated from neonatal mice showed that the frequency of spontaneous activity and fictive locomotion was reduced in FSAE-exposed mice. On the other hand, the cross-correlation coefficient in control mice was significantly more negative than in treated animals indicating that alternating patterns are deteriorated in FSAE-treated animals. At advanced age, prenatally treated mice displayed altered locomotor coordination in the rotarod test and also changes in static and dynamic parameters assessed by the CatWalk automated gait analysis system. We conclude that FSAE impairs sensorimotor and coordination functions not only in neonates but also in adult mice. Moreover, spinal neuronal networks are less excitable in prenatally FSAE-exposed mice suggesting that modifications within the central nervous system are responsible, at least in part, for the motor impairments.

  16. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. varied with plant ploidy level and developmental stage

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    Faten Omezzine

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of aerial parts’ organic extracts of diploid and mixoploid Trigonella foenum-graecum L. plants, harvested at three developmental stages (vegetative, flowering and fruiting was evaluated for their antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL. All tested extracts inhibited FORL and FOL mycelial growth. The organic extracts of diploid plants were found to be less toxic than mixoploid ones and this toxicity varied with the plant developmental stages. The diploids were most toxic, for the two strains, at the fruiting stage; however, mixoploids were more toxic at the vegetative stage for FOL and at flowering one for FORL. FOL was found to be more sensitive to fenugreek extracts when compared to FORL. LC–MS/MS analysis of methanolic extract of fenugreek aerial parts showed eleven different flavonol glycosides (quercetin, kaempferol and vitexin. Five novel components were identified, for the first time in fenugreek aerial parts, as kaempferol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-α-l-rhamnosyl (1→2 β-d-xyloside, kaempferol 7-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl (1–4 β-d-glucopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-β-glucosyl (1→2 (6′-O-acetyl-β-d-galactoside, along with other known compounds of this species. To operate with the maximum efficiency, the allelopathic potential of a given plant, our study showed that it would be advisable to identify the most productive developmental stage of allelochemicals. Similarly, it seems that mixoploidy would be a simple and effective biotechnology tool to improve (in quantity and quality the allelochemicals’ production, since the extracts’ toxicity of diploid and mixoploid plants, was different.

  17. Assessment of genetic diversity in Trigonella foenum-graecum and Trigonella caerulea using ISSR and RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjekar Prabhakar K

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various species of genus Trigonella are important from medical and culinary aspect. Among these, Trigonella foenum-graecum is commonly grown as a vegetable. This anti-diabetic herb can lower blood glucose and cholesterol levels. Another species, Trigonella caerulea is used as food in the form of young seedlings. This herb is also used in cheese making. However, little is known about the genetic variation present in these species. In this report we describe the use of ISSR and RAPD markers to study genetic diversity in both, Trigonella foenum-graecum and Trigonella caerulea. Results Seventeen accessions of Trigonella foenum-graecum and nine accessions of Trigonella caerulea representing various countries were analyzed using ISSR and RAPD markers. Genetic diversity parameters (average number of alleles per polymorphic locus, percent polymorphism, average heterozygosity and marker index were calculated for ISSR, RAPD and ISSR+RAPD approaches in both the species. Dendrograms were constructed using UPGMA algorithm based on the similarity index values for both Trigonella foenum-graecum and Trigonella caerulea. The UPGMA analysis showed that plants from different geographical regions were distributed in different groups in both the species. In Trigonella foenum-graecum accessions from Pakistan and Afghanistan were grouped together in one cluster but accessions from India and Nepal were grouped together in another cluster. However, in both the species accessions from Turkey did not group together and fell in different clusters. Conclusions Based on genetic similarity indices, higher diversity was observed in Trigonella caerulea as compared to Trigonella foenum-graecum. The genetic similarity matrices generated by ISSR and RAPD markers in both species were highly correlated (r = 0.78 at p = 0.001 for Trigonella foenum-graecum and r = 0.98 at p = 0.001 for Trigonella caerulea indicating congruence between these two systems

  18. Bioremediation of copper stressed Trigonella foenum graecum

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    Awatif A. Mohsen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Copper is one of the heavy metals, although it is an essential microelement through interference with numerous physiological processes, when it absorbed in excess amounts, it can be toxic and induce a number of deleterious effects. A pot experiment was conducted in order to assess the possible effects of Nostoc muscorum (2 g/ kg soil fresh pellets on the growth and some metabolic activities of Trigonella foenum gracum at 30 and 60 days of growth growing under copper stress. This experimental plant was grown in clay-sandy soil (2:1 W/W amended either with different concentrations of CuSO4 (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 g/kg soil or Nostoc mixed with Cu (0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 g/kg soil. Application of Nostoc in a mixture with Cu significantly increased fresh and dry weight of root and shoot, photosynthetic pigments and ctivity at 30 and 60 days of growth when compared with their counterparts of Cu treatment. In addition, the content of K+, Ca2+, P3+ and iron were increased with the exception of a decrease in Cu level at 60 days of growth. On the other hand, the content of starch was significantly decreased at 30 and 60 days of growth. Moreover, the activity of both peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD were reduced by applying Nostoc to the soil having different concentrations of Cu.

  19. Effect of gamma rays on growth and karyokinetic activity in Trigonella foenum-graecum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghuvanshi, S S; Singh, A K [Lucknow Univ. (India)

    1976-04-01

    Dry seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum were exposed to 10, 30 and 60 KR of gamma rays. Germination was observed first in 60 KR followed by 30 KR while in 10 KR and control germination was simultaneous. There was initial stimulating effect of higher doses on root growth and division frequency but after few days both these were negatively correlated with dose. Frequency of abnormal cells increased with dose. Appearance of chromosomal rings is explained on the basis of telomeric losses and intra arm exchange type. At 60 KR there was no growth beyond 2 cotyledonary stage due to adverse effect on cell nuclei in growing region. Differential response of roots, shoots to radiation has been discussed.

  20. Genotype dependent radiosensitivity of autotetraploids in Trigonella foenum-graecum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghuvanshi, S S; Singh, A K

    1980-01-01

    Different diploids of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. and their corresponding autotetraploids were seedtreated with 40 krad of ..gamma..-rays, and parameters such as germination, survival, growth reduction, pollen fertility, pod setting, etc. were recorded. A stimulation of seed germination due to the irradiation could be observed. Contrary to the general rule that polyploids are more radioresistant than their corresponding diploids, one 4x strain was completely killed while the 2x version survived comparatively well. Apparently gene reduplication is not the overall protective mechanism as was once earlier believed. The importance of genotypic influence on radiosensitivity was demonstrated at both the 2x and 4x level. The limitation of interphase chromosome volume and degree of ploidy in predicting radiosensitivity is discussed.

  1. New chromosome numbers in the genus Trigonella L. (Fabaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    10 Jan 2011 ... b: Subgenus Trifoliastrum: Calyx campanulate and pod inflated. c: Subgenus Foenum-graecum: Calyx tubular and pod not inflated. Several investigators have attempted to employ the taxonomy of the genus Trigonella; Sirjaev (1935) has given in Latin an elaborate and systematic account of its taxonomy.

  2. Physical and functional characteristics of extrudates prepared from fenugreek and oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Ahmad Wani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of fenugreek seed powder (FSP and oat flour (OF on the physical and functional properties of extruded snack product such as bulk density (BD, hardness (HD, lateral expansion (LE, water absorption index (WAI and water solubility index (WSI using response surface methodology. All the properties were found to be significantly (p < 0.05 affected by proportion of FSP and OF. Results indicated that with the increase in the FSP content, an increase in the values of BD, HD, WAI and WSI was noticed, whereas negative effect of FSP on LE was observed. Results showed negative effect of OF on HD and WSI and an increased effect on BD, LE and WAI of the extruded product. Numerical optimization results showed that a mixture of 2% FSP and 6% OF had higher preference levels for parameters of physical and functional characteristics and could be extruded to produce acceptable quality extrudates.

  3. Effects of Fermented Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale) and Fenu Greek (Trigonella foenum-graceum) Supplements on Oxidative stress and Lipid Peroxidation Biomarkers in Poloxamer-407 Induced -Hyperlipidemic Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanko, Y; Kabiru, A; Abdulrasak, A; Mohammed, K A; Salisu, A I; Jimoh, A; Gidado, N M; Sada, N M

    2017-12-30

    This research was aimed at investigating the Effects of Fermented Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale) and Fenu Greek (Trigonella foenum-graceum) on Oxidative stress and Lipid Peroxidation Biomarkers in Poloxamer 407Induced-Hyperlipidemic Wistar Rats. Hyperlipidaemia was induced with poloxamer P407 (1.5 g/kg   b.w. i.p.) The Animals were grouped into six of five animals each group. Group 1 normal control, Group 2 served as the hyperlipidemic control, Group 3 administered 0.26 g/kg cholestyramine, Group 4 fed on Fenugreek 25% supplement. Group 5 fed on 25% fermented ginger supplement, while group 6 were fed on 25% ginger and fenu greek combined   respectively. All treatments were given for a period of four week. Serum antioxidant activities such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Malondialdehyde were evaluated.  As regards to the catalase activity there was a significant decrease in the groups' fed on 25% fenugreek and 25% fermented ginger supplements respectively. However, co-fed with both supplements significantly increase the catalase activity as compared with the hyperlipidaemic control untreated. Comparism with the positive control cholestyramine, there was also a significant increase. Also in relation to the SOD activity there was a significant increase in the activity as compared with the hyperlipidemic control. Furthermore, the Gpx activity there was a significant increase in the as compared with the hyperlipidemic control. oxidative stress biomarker activities SOD) there was significant increase (p<0.05) when compared with hyperlipidemic control. There was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the Malondialdehyde levels in the groups fed with the supplement when compared with hyperlipidemic control. In conclusion supplements of Fenugreek and Ginger improved antioxidant status and reduced Malondialdehyde in Poloxamer-407 Induced-Hyperlipidemic Wistar Rats.

  4. Genetic and histopathology studies on mice: Effect of fenugreek oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a growing interest in understanding the biological effect of medicinal plants. In the present investigation, the effects of fenugreek oil administration on the liver and ovarian activity genetically (i.e., meiotic progression in collected oocytes as well as changes in DNA and RNA content in the liver and ovarian tissues) ...

  5. Experimental Investigations on Thermal Conductivity of Fenugreek and Banana Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Satish; Venkatesh, Talari; Seeli, Hepsiba

    2018-04-01

    The use of composite materials in manufacturing has significantly increased in the past decade. Research is being done to identify natural fibers that can be used as composites. Several natural fibers are already being used in the industry as composites. The appealing advantages of using natural fibers are reflected in lower density when compared to synthetic fibers and also in saving costs. This research paper highlights the experiment that analyses the use of biodegradable fenugreek composite as natural fiber and concludes that fenugreek natural fibers are an excellent substitute to the synthetic fibers in terms of reinforcement properties for the polymers. These fenugreek fibers are naturally sourced, renewable, cost effective and bio-friendly. In thermal energy storage systems as well as in air conditioning systems, thermal insulators are predominantly used to enhance the storage properties. An experiment was created to investigate the thermal properties of fenugreek banana composites for different fiber concentrations. The experimental results showed that the thermal conductivity of the composites decrease with an increase in the fiber content. The experimental results were compared with the theoretical models to describe the variation of thermal conductivity with the volume fraction of the fiber. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results was observed.

  6. Improvement of Salt Tolerance in Trigonella foenum-graecum L. var. PEB by Plant Growth Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Ratnakar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The crop yield is reduced under saline conditions and this hampers agricultural productivity. The incorporation of plant growth regulators (PGRs during presoaking treatments in many crops has improved seed performance under saline conditions. In order to study the ameliorative effect of plant growth regulators, experiments were conducted to study the variation in organic constituents in the leaves of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. var.PEB, where the seeds were primed with different plant growth regulators and grown under NaCl salinity. After a pre-soaking treatment of six hours in 20 mg L-1 solutions of gibberllic acid (GA3, 6-furfuryladenine (Kinetin and benzyl adenine (BA, the seeds were allowed to germinate and grow for forty-five days under saline conditions. On the analysis of mature leaves, it was observed that chlorophyll a and b, total chlorophyll and protein showed an increase in PGR-treated plants compared to the untreated set. The accumulation of the stress metabolite such as proline and sugars, which increase under saline conditions, showed a significant decrease in the plants pretreated with PGRs.

  7. Variability in uptake of Cs isotopes by fenugreek plant from three soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulhani, V; Dafauti, S; Dahiya, S; Hedge, A G [Environmental Studies Section, Health Physics Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2008-07-01

    Soil to plant transfer via root uptake is one of the major compartments in the radionuclide transfer pathways to man and can be used to assess the internal radiation dose via ingestion. The variability in the Transfer Factor (TF) of Cs isotopes was investigated in three different soils from nuclear power plant sites at Rajasthan and Narora with alkaline sandy loam alluvial and Madras with acidic coastal sandy loam alluvial soil. The soils were characterized for soil properties like texture, pH, EC, organic carbon, CaCO{sub 3} (%), CEC, silt, clay sand etc. and spiked with a mixture of 800 Bq {sup 137}Cs, 300 Bq {sup 134}Cs and 10mg of {sup 133}Cs (stable). Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) from Leguminosae family an annual plant commonly used as a vegetable was grown in these soils to study the uptake of Cs. The uptake of heavy toxic elements like Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr etc. and nutrients Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Mn, Ca, Mg, Na and K was also studied. The uptake of heavy toxic elements like Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr etc. and nutrients Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Mn, Ca, Mg, Na and K was also studied. {sup 137}Cs and{sup 134}Cs was estimated using HPGe detector (15% Relative Efficiency, 54cc-coaxial, 2keV resolution at 1332keV of {sup 60}Co). Stable Cs, K and Na were determined by the Atomic Emission Spectrophotometry and Pb, Cd, Cr etc. by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Among the three soils the transfer factor for all the elements and Cs was highest for MAPS due to higher organic matter content and acidic pH followed by NAPS and RAPS. The {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs isotopes have been taken up to the same extent from soil and transfer factors are similar to each other. But the stable Cs uptake appears to be slightly high, probably because of excess of {sup 133}Cs (mg level) added as compared to the radioactive isotopes. In spite of this high difference in the soil concentrations of Cs isotopes, uptake of {sup 133}Cs is not very high indicating to a physiological limiting process for uptake

  8. The role of L-type calcium channels in the vascular effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Roghani

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Some ion channels like voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCC within the plasma membrane of vascular muscle cells from the walls of resistance arteries and arterioles play a central role in the regulation of vascular tone. On the basis of reports about the beneficial attenuating effect of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.; TFG on the contractile reactivity of aortic rings of diabetic rats, this study was carried out to evaluate the possible involvement of L-type voltage-operated calcium channels in the vascular effect of this medicinal plant. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were made diabetic using streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/Kg, i.p. The extract-treated control and diabetic rats received aqueous leaf extract of TFG (200 mg/Kg, i.p. every other day for two months. At the end of the study, contractile response of isolated aortic rings to KCl and noreadrenaline (NA was determined in the absence and presence of the calcium channel blocker nifedipine. The results showed that aortic rings from diabetic rats are more responsive to the effect of KCl and NA than those of controls, TFG extract treatment could attenuate the enhanced contractile response of aortic rings of diabetic rats, and nifedipine pretreatment could partially neutralize the beneficial effect of this extract. It is concluded that TFG extract attenuates the enhanced vascular reactivity in chronic diabetic rats and voltage-operated calcium channels are in part responsible for this effect of TFG extract.

  9. PENGARUH EKSTRAK ETANOL BIJI KLABET (Trigonella foenum- graecum L. TERHADAP KADAR GULA DARAH TIKUS NIDDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Widowati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (klabet is one of the Indonesian medicinal plants and can be used to decrease glucose blood level on sufferer of diabetic. The effect of hypoglycemic of klabet seed extract on albino male rats has been investigated. Hyper­glycemic was induced by alloxan tetrahydrate 125 mg/kg body weight. The doses of the klabet extract were administered orally during 3 days and 7 days. Plasma glucose level was measured by Tinder method. Decrease percentage of plasma glucose level in gliclazide 1.4 mg/200g body weight, klabet seed extract 140 (DI, 280 (DII and 560 (DIII mg/200g body weight after 3 days of administration were 26.2, 17.97, 17.21, 14.17 respectively and decrease percentage after 7 days of administration were 42.74, 41.22, 42.86, 34.77 res­pectively. The effect of hypoglycemic was observed on 140 mg/200g body weight and 280 mg/200g body weight (p>0.05.

  10. Effect of Row Intercropping Patterns on Yield, Yield Components, and Weed Control of Fenugreek (Trigonellafoenumgreacum L. and Anise (Pimpinellaanisum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Mardani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Due to population growth and food shortage agricultural production is on increasing demand. In this order increasing cultivation area and yield per unit area are two ways of obtaining higheragricultural production (20. There is another important way that without incurring additional costs and use of water and fertilizer could result in higher production. This approach is increasing agricultural production per unit area by growing more than one crop in a year. Intercropping will be successful when competition for sources issless than competition within a species. Plants in the mixture can be chosen in a way that a species benefits from environmental changes caused by other species in mixed cultures directly (7, 15. Intercropping inhibits the growth and development of weeds and leads to increased production. Since the system will reduce the pesticide use, environmental pollution will be also less proportionally (37. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the yield, yield components and potential weeds control under intercropping fenugreek and anise, an experiment was carried out based on a randomized complete block design with three replicationsat the Agricultural Research Field of Yasouj University during growing season of 2012-2013. Treatments included pure cultures of fenugreek and anise, single-row, double-row and three-tier intercropping of fenugreek and anise at no weed control and weed control conditions. Results and Discussion The results showed that different intercropping treatments had significant effects on pod number per plant, grain weight and grain and biological yield of fenugreek and also, on number of lateral branches, number of grains per plant and grain and biological yield of anise. There were nosignificant effects on plant height, number of lateral branches, number of grain per pod, harvest index of fenugreek, as well as plant height, number of umbel let per plant, seed weight and harvest index of anise. The

  11. seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    peptidohydrolase (8.0%) from mung bean seedlings. (Baumgartner and Chrispeels, 1977), EP-HG (4.5%) from horse gram seedlings ( Rajeswari, 1997), acidic protease (15%) from germinating winged-bean seeds. (Usha and Singh, 1996) and EP-1 (1.6%) from barley seedlings and GA3-induced cysteine protease (3.38%).

  12. The plant Extracts of Momordica Charantia and Trigonella Foenum Graecum Have Antioxidant and Anti-Hyperglycemic Properties for Cardiac Tissue During Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Nath Tripathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is currently suggested to play a major role in the development of diabetes mellitus. There is an increasing demand of natural anti-diabetic agents, as continuous administration of existing drugs and insulin are associated with many side effects and toxicity. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of Momordica charantia (MC and Trigonella foenum graecum (TFG extracts (aqueous on antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in heart tissue of normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. In a 30 days treatment, rats were divided into six groups (I-VI of five animals in each, experiments were repeated thrice. Administration of MC (13.33 g pulp/kg body weight/day and TFG (9 g seeds powder/kg body weight/day extracts in diabetic rats has remarkably improved the elevated levels of fasting blood glucose. A significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (p<0.001 and significant increase in the activities of key antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione-s-transferase (GST and reduced glutathione (GSH contents in heart tissue of diabetic rats were observed (group V and VI upon MC and TFG treatment. Our studies demonstrate the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidative potential of Momordica charantia and Trigonella foenum graecum, which could exert beneficial effects against the diabetes and associated free radicals complications in heart tissue.

  13. The plant extracts of Momordica charantia and Trigonella foenum graecum have antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic properties for cardiac tissue during diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Uma Nath

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress is currently suggested to play a major role in the development of diabetes mellitus. There is an increasing demand of natural anti-diabetic agents, as continuous administration of existing drugs and insulin are associated with many side effects and toxicity. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of Momordica charantia (MC) and Trigonella foenum graecum (TFG) extracts (aqueous) on antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in heart tissue of normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. In a 30 days treatment, rats were divided into six groups (I-VI) of five animals in each, experiments were repeated thrice. Administration of MC (13.33 g pulp/kg body weight/day) and TFG (9 g seeds powder/kg body weight/day) extracts in diabetic rats has remarkably improved the elevated levels of fasting blood glucose. A significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (pMomordica charantia and Trigonella foenum graecum, which could exert beneficial effects against the diabetes and associated free radicals complications in heart tissue. PMID:20716916

  14. Therapeutic Efficacy of Fenugreek Extract or/and Choline with Docosahexaenoic Acid in Attenuating Learning and Memory Deficits in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjaneyulu K

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated that estradiol influences cognitive functions. Phytoestrogens and many other estrogen-like compounds in plants have beneficial effects on cognitive performance in postmenopausal women. However, there is no evident report of fenugreek and choline-Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA on cognition in ovariectomized rats. Aim and Objectives: The present study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of fenugreek extract or/and choline- DHA in attenuating ovariectomy-induced memory impairment, brain antioxidant status and hippocampal neural cell deficits in the rat model. Material and Methods: Female Wistar 9-10 months old rats were grouped (n=12/group as - (1 Normal Control (NC, (2 Ovariectomized (OVX, (3 OVX+FG (hydroalcoholic seed extract of fenugreek, (4 OVX+C-DHA,(5 OVX+FG+C-DHA and (6 OVX+Estradiol. Groups 2- 6 were bilaterally OVX. FG, C-DHA was supplemented orally for 30 days, 14 days after ovariectomy. Assessment of learning and memory was performed by passive avoidance test. Oxidative stress and antioxidant markers were assessed by standard methods. Nissl stained hippocampal sections were analyzed to determine alterations in neural cell numbers in CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus. Results: Supplementation of FG or/and choline with DHA to OVX rats, caused significant improvement in learning and memory as well as decreased neural cell deficits compared to the same in OVX rats. Further, significantly reduced levels of brain Malondialdehyde (MDA and increased levels of Glutathione (GSH were observed. Conclusion: Therapeutic supplementation of FG with choline-DHA significantly attenuates ovariectomy-induced neurocognitive deficits in rats.

  15. Supplementation of fenugreek leaves lower lipid profile in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annida, B; Stanely Mainzen Prince, P

    2004-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the lipid-lowering effect of fenugreek leaves in diabetes mellitus. Albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal untreated rats; streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats; STZ-induced rats + fenugreek leaves (0.5 g/kg of body weight); STZ-induced rats + fenugreek leaves (1 g/kg of body weight); STZ-induced rats + glibenclamide (600 microg/kg of body weight); and STZ-induced rats + insulin (6 units/kg of body weight). Rats were made diabetic by STZ (40 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally. Fenugreek leaves were supplemented in the diet daily to diabetic rats for 45 days, and food intake was recorded daily. Blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids were determined in serum, liver, heart, and kidney. Our results show that blood glucose and serum and tissue lipids were elevated in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Supplementation of fenugreek leaves lowered the lipid profile in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  16. Effectiveness of fenugreek as a galactagogue: A network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Wu, David Bin-Chia; Dolzhenko, Anton V

    2018-03-01

    A systematic review and network-meta analysis (NMA) were performed to test significance of the galactagogue effect of fenugreek administrated to lactating women versus other comparators (i.e., placebo/control/other galactagogues). A pairwise comparison for the treatment effect was carried out to generate the forest plot for the NMA. League tables were generated using treatment effect, weighted mean difference (WMD; 95% confidence interval, CI) for all pairwise comparisons, where WMD > 0 favors the column-defining treatment. Five studies were identified with 122 participants receiving treatment with fenugreek. The NMA results of 4 studies indicated that consumption of fenugreek significantly increased amount of the produced breast milk [11.11, CI 95% 6.77, 15.46] versus placebo. The pairwise comparison revealed that fenugreek was effective as a galactagogue compared to placebo, control, and reference groups WMD 17.79 [CI 11.71, 23.88]. However, the effect of fenugreek was substantially inferior to Coleus amboinicus Lour and palm date. The NMA using pairwise comparison demonstrated the effect of C. amboinicus and palm date in the stimulation of the breast milk production was comparable and superior to all comparators. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. PIXE and ICP-MS analysis of fenugreek medicinal plant from different regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar Rao, J.; Naidu, B.G.; Sarita, P.; Naga Raju, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Elemental analysis of Fenugreek medicinal plant collected from different regions was carried out by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) techniques. The elements Li, Be, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Ba, Pb and U were identified and their concentrations were estimated. These elements were found to be in widely varying concentrations in the analyzed Fenugreek medicinal plant collected from different regions. of the. The results of the present study provide a better understanding of the pharmacological action of Fenugreek medicinal plant and it can also be used to set new standards for prescribing the dosage of herbal drugs. (author)

  18. INFLUENCE OF SUMIDAN ON MITOTIC DIVISION IN TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRAECUM L. SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Mihaela Axente

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available : This paper includes the cytogenetic effects induced by sumidan insectofungicide in meristematic cells of Trigonella foenum graecum L. root tips. The increase of pesticide concentration determined the decrease of mitotic index, while the frequency and the type of chromosome aberrations are much greater in treated variants, comparatively with control.

  19. Bio-activity of oils of Trigonella foenum-graecum and Pongamia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different concentration of oils obtained from two plants species belonging to family Fabaceae i.e. Trigonella foenum-graecum and Pongamia pinnata were evaluated for their antifungal and antibacterial activity against Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by MIC ...

  20. The Effect of Salinity on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Four Medicinal Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Javadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of salinity stress on seed germination and seedling growth of four medicinal plants, Nigella sativa L., Cannabis sativa L., Trigonella foenum graecum and Cynara scolymus L. an experiment was conducted in the botany laboratory of Islamic Azad University, Birjand branch. A completely randomized design (CRD with 3 replications was used as separately for each species. Treatments were consisted of six salinity (NaCl concentrations (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 dS m-1. The measured traits were root, shoot and seedling length, dry and fresh weight of seedling, germination rate and percent, seed vigor index, seedling water content and root/ shoot ratio. Salinity stress reduced significantly shoot, root and seedling length of the species. Increasing of salinity stress declined dry and fresh weight of Trigonella foenum and Nigella sativa L. and dry weight of Cannabis sativa L.. Seedling water content and root/ shoot ratio of Nigella sativa L. increased in salinity treatments. Increasing of salinity stress declined germination rate and percent in Nigella sativa L., but in other species (Cannabis sativa L., Trigonella foenum graecum and Cynara scolymus only germination rate decreased. Trigonella foenum graecum germinated completely (%100 in all salinity treatments. Increasing of salinity until 16 dS m-1 reduced seed germination of Nigella sativa. Seed germination of Nigella sativa did not occurred in the highest salinity stress (20 dS m-1. Totally the results showed that in the germination stage, Trigonella foenum graecum and Cannabis sativa were relatively tolerate to salinity stress but Nigella sativa L. was the most sensitive one

  1. Ekstrak Biji Klabet Menurunkan Jumlah Sel Spermatozoa pada Kelinci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Nyoman Sri Wiryawan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum contains saponin diosgenin, wich has an antifertility effect on spermatozoa so it can be used as an oral contraceptive drug. This study was aimedto investigate the effect of fenugreek seed extract to spermatogenic process of rabbit, especially onviability spermatozoa. “Completely randomized control group post-test only design” was used inthis study. The animals were divided into four groups; one control group and three treatmentgroups with six replicates (P0 = control group; P1 = group were given 10 % fenugreek seed extract,1 cc/day; P2 = group were given 20 % fenugreek seed extract, 1 cc/day; P3 = group were given 30 %fenugreek seed extract, 1 cc/day. The extract was given orally once a day in 50 days. After treatment,testicles were sectioned and stained with Hematoxylin Eosin; for qualitative and quantitativemicroscopic analysis. The result of this study showed that the number of spermatozoa were decreasedsignificantly (p<0,05 after receiving 10% fenugreek seed extract 1 cc per day. In conclusion,fenugreek seed extract could reduce the number of spermatozoa.

  2. Fenugreek hydrogel–agarose composite entrapped gold nanoparticles for acetylcholinesterase based biosensor for carbamates detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kestwal, Rakesh Mohan; Bagal-Kestwal, Dipali; Chiang, Been-Huang, E-mail: bhchiang@ntu.edu.tw

    2015-07-30

    A biosensor was fabricated to detect pesticides in food samples. Acetylcholinesterase was immobilized in a novel fenugreek hydrogel–agarose matrix with gold nanoparticles. Transparent thin films with superior mechanical strength and stability were obtained with 2% fenugreek hydrogel and 2% agarose. Immobilization of acetylcholinesterase on the membrane resulted in high enzyme retention efficiency (92%) and a significantly prolonged shelf life of the enzyme (half-life, 55 days). Transmission electron microscopy revealed that, gold nanoparticles (10–20 nm in diameter) were uniformly dispersed in the fenugreek hydrogel–agarose–acetylcholinesterase membrane. This immobilized enzyme-gold nanoparticle dip-strip system detected various carbamates, including carbofuran, oxamyl, methomyl, and carbaryl, with limits of detection of 2, 21, 113, and 236 nM (S/N = 3), respectively. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensor exhibited good testing capabilities when used to detect carbamates added to various fruit and vegetable samples. - Highlights: • Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) dip-strip biosensor fabricated to detect carbamates. • AChE entrapped in fenugreek hydrogel–agarose matrix with gold nanoparticles (GNPs). • High enzyme retention efficiency (92%) and shelf life (half-life, 55 days). • Detection limits of carbofuran, oxamyl and methomyl: 2, 21 and 113 nM. • The biosensor had good testing capabilities to detect carbamates in food samples.

  3. EFFECT OF ORGANIC AND CHEMICAL SOIL FERTILIZERS AND THEIR INTERACTIONS WITH FOLIAR FERTILIZER ON SOME VEGETATIVE GROWTH OF FENUGREEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H. JASIM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted on the extension experiments farm in Babylon during the growing season 2013 - 2014 to study the effect of 5 soil fertilization treatments [control, 200 kg.ha-1 of NPK (18-18-0 , 4 and 8 t.ha-1 of compost of poultry], and its interaction with 4 treatments of foliar fertilizers [control, spray urea 1 g / liter, spraying humic acid 2 ml.l-1 and spray polimet 2 ml.l-1] on growth and yield of fenugreek. Randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications was used. Seeds are sown on lines (30 cm apart in 21.10.2013 and the experimental unit contained 6 lines. After a week of germination the seedlings were thinned to 10 cm apart. Soil fertilizers were added as side dressing and the foliar fertilizers were added twice in 15/1 and 01/02/2014. The results showed that chemical fertilizer was superior significantly compared to other treatment in plant height, number of leaves, leaf area and wet and dry weight, while poultry (8 t.ha-1 was superior compared to control in branches number and wet weight. Urea spray was superior in plant height, leaves no. and soft weight. Polimet spray was superior compared to control in branches.plant-1. The interaction between the soil and spraying fertilizers had a significant effect in increasing plant height, branches no., leaves no., leaf area and wet and dry weight.

  4. Effects of Combined Creatine Plus Fenugreek Extract vs. Creatine Plus Carbohydrate Supplementation on Resistance Training Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lem; Poole, Chris; Pena, Earnest; Lewing, Morgan; Kreider, Richard; Foster, Cliffa; Wilborn, Colin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of combined creatine and fenugreek extract supplementation on strength and body composition. Forty- seven resistance trained men were matched according to body weight to ingest either 70 g of a dextrose placebo (PL), 5 g creatine/70 g of dextrose (CRD) or 3.5 g creatine/900 mg fenugreek extract (CRF) and participate in a 4-d/wk periodized resistance-training program for 8-weeks. At 0, 4, and 8-weeks, subjects were tested on body composition, muscular strength and endurance, and anaerobic capacity. Statistical analyses utilized a separate 3X3 (condition [PL vs. CRD vs. CRF] x time [T1 vs. T2 vs. T3]) ANOVAs with repeated measures for all criterion variables (p ≤ 0.05). No group x time interaction effects or main effects (p > 0.05) were observed for any measures of body composition. CRF group showed significant increases in lean mass at T2 (p = 0.001) and T3 (p = 0.001). Bench press 1RM increased in PL group (p = 0.050) from T1-T3 and in CRD from T1-T2 (p = 0. 001) while remaining significant at T3 (p 0.05). In conclusion, creatine plus fenugreek extract supplementation had a significant impact on upper body strength and body composition as effectively as the combination of 5g of creatine with 70g of dextrose. Thus, the use of fenugreek with creatine supplementation may be an effective means for enhancing creatine uptake while eliminating the need for excessive amounts of simple carbohydrates. Key points Fenugreek plus creatine supplementation may be a new means of increasing creatine uptake. Creatine plus fenugreek seems to be just as effective as the classic creatine plus carbohydrate ingestion in terms of stimulating training adaptations. This is the first study to our knowledge that has combined fenugreek with creatine supplementation in conjunction with a resistance training program. PMID:24149869

  5. Phytochemical screening and biological activities of trigonella incisa and nonea edgeworthii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.; Ahmad, N.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Ahmad, I.

    2017-01-01

    The extracts and its derived fractions from two important medicinal plants species Trigonella incisa and Nonea edgeworthii were tested for biochemical potential. The aim of our research was to encourage drug finding work with plants. The crude extract and fractions from Trigonella incisa plant were found to be most potent against Pseudomonas aeuriginosa as compared to Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. The Chloroform fraction showed outstanding inhibition 11 mm against Pseudomonas aeuriginosa followed by crude extract, n-butanol and aqueous fractions each giving 9 mm inhibition. The n-butanol fraction of Trigonella incisa revealed 8 mm inhibition against Escherichia coli second by aqueous fraction with 7 mm inhibition. Moderate inhibition (8 mm) was showed by crude extract and chloroform fraction against Salmonella typhi. In case of Nonea edgeworthii plant aqueous and ethyl acetate fraction were found to be most active against Pseudomonas aeuriginosa and Escherichia coli giving inhibition of 14 mm each which is found to be best inhibition even more than the inhibition showed by antibiotic used. Crude extract and chloroform fraction of the plant showed 12 mm and 10 mm inhibition against Salmonella typhi. Both the selected plants were found equally potential against the tested fungi. n-hexane and chloroform fractions of Trigonella incisa give 10 mm inhibition against Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria alternata respectively while crude extract from Nonea edgeworthii give 11 mm inhibition against Alternaria alternata. Over all poor scavenging activity was showed by selected plants. Ethyl acetate fraction of both plants was found to be reasonably good when compared with standard. The low antioxidant profile of the plants may be due to the absence of flavonoids in plants .In preliminary phytochemical screening alkaloid, phenol and saponins were reported in both plants. (author)

  6. Metabonomics study of the therapeutic mechanism of fenugreek galactomannan on diabetic hyperglycemia in rats, by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenyue; Gao, Lu; Li, Pengdong; Kan, Hong; Qu, Jiale; Men, Lihui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhongying

    2017-02-15

    Fenugreek is a traditional plant for the treatment of diabetes. Galactomannan, an active major component in fenugreek seeds, has shown hypoglycemic activity. The present study was performed to investigate the therapeutic mechanism underlying fenugreek galactomannan (F-GAL) in treating diabetes, using a metabonomics approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS). The F-GAL used for study was highly purified, and its yield, purity, and galactose/mannose ratio were characterized by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and a modified phenol-sulfuric acid method. After treatment of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats with F-GAL for 28days, urine and serum samples were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF/MS. Multivariate statistical approaches such as principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were applied to distinguish the non-diabetic/untreated, diabetic/untreated, and diabetic/F-GAL-treated groups. Then, potential biomarkers were identified that may help elucidate the underlying therapeutic mechanism of F-GAL in diabetes. The results demonstrated that there was a clear separation among the three groups in the PCA model. Fourteen potential biomarkers were identified by OPLS-DA, and they were determined to be produced in response to the therapeutic effects of F-GAL. These biomarkers were involved in histidine metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, energy metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and arachidonic acid metabolism. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that a metabonomics approach is a powerful, novel tool that can be used to evaluate the underlying therapeutic mechanisms of herb extracts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sodium Orthovanadate and Trigonella Foenum Graecum Prevents Neuronal Parameters Decline and Impaired Glucose Homeostasis in Alloxan Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia is the most important contributor in the onset and progress of diabetic complications mainly by producing oxidative stress. The present study was carried out to observe, the antihyperglycemic effect of sodium orthovanadate (SOV and Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder (TSP administration on blood glucose and insulin levels, membrane linked enzymes (monoamine oxidase, acetylcholinesterase, Ca2+ATPase, intracellular calcium (Ca2+ levels, lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity and neurolipofuscin accumulation in brain of the alloxan induced diabetic rats and to see whether the treatment with SOV and TSP was capable of reversing the diabetic effects. Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate (15 mg/100 g body weight and rats were treated with 2 IU insulin, 0.6 mg/ml SOV, 5% TSP in the diet and a combination of 0.2 mg/ml SOV and 5% TSP separately for three weeks. Diabetic rats showed hyperglycemia with almost four fold high blood glucose levels. Activities of acetylcholinesterase and Ca2+ATPase decreased in diabetic rat brain. Diabetic rats exhibited an increased level of intracellular Ca2+ levels, lipid peroxidation, neurolipofuscin accumulations and monoamine oxidase activity. Treatment of diabetic rats with insulin, TSP, SOV and a combined therapy of lower dose of SOV with TSP revived normoglycemia and restored the altered level of membrane bound enzymes, lipid peroxidation and neurolipofuscin accumulation. Our results showed that lower doses of SOV (0.2 mg/ml could be used in combination with TSP in normalization of altered metabolic parameters and membrane linked enzymes without any harmful side effect.

  8. Sodium Orthovanadate and Trigonella Foenum Graecum Prevents Neuronal Parameters Decline and Impaired Glucose Homeostasis in Alloxan Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Taha, Asia; Kumar, Nitin; Kumar, Vinod; Baquer, Najma Zaheer

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is the most important contributor in the onset and progress of diabetic complications mainly by producing oxidative stress. The present study was carried out to observe, the antihyperglycemic effect of sodium orthovanadate (SOV) and Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder (TSP) administration on blood glucose and insulin levels, membrane linked enzymes (monoamine oxidase, acetylcholinesterase, Ca2+ATPase), intracellular calcium (Ca2+) levels, lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity and neurolipofuscin accumulation in brain of the alloxan induced diabetic rats and to see whether the treatment with SOV and TSP was capable of reversing the diabetic effects. Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate (15 mg/100 g body weight) and rats were treated with 2 IU insulin, 0.6 mg/ml SOV, 5% TSP in the diet and a combination of 0.2 mg/ml SOV and 5% TSP separately for three weeks. Diabetic rats showed hyperglycemia with almost four fold high blood glucose levels. Activities of acetylcholinesterase and Ca2+ATPase decreased in diabetic rat brain. Diabetic rats exhibited an increased level of intracellular Ca2+ levels, lipid peroxidation, neurolipofuscin accumulations and monoamine oxidase activity. Treatment of diabetic rats with insulin, TSP, SOV and a combined therapy of lower dose of SOV with TSP revived normoglycemia and restored the altered level of membrane bound enzymes, lipid peroxidation and neurolipofuscin accumulation. Our results showed that lower doses of SOV (0.2 mg/ml) could be used in combination with TSP in normalization of altered metabolic parameters and membrane linked enzymes without any harmful side effect.

  9. O–αα–D-xylopyranoside from the seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    been found to possess significant medicinal value. ... duce swelling, prevent falling of hair and in treating burns. ... and are also useful in treatment of dropsy, chronic cough, heart diseases, ... This plant also possesses antidiabetic property.

  10. Effect of Fenugreek Supplementation on Physiological Functions and Milk Traits o f Heat Stressed Lactating Baladi Goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tarabany, A.A.; Teama, F.E.I.; Atta, M.A.A.

    2017-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the importance of supplementary fenugreek to the diet of lactating local goats in Egypt for ameliorative their some blood biochemical components, milk production and some milk components. Forty two lactating goats were used in the present study which lasted 5 months. The animals were divided randomly into three equal groups, the 1st group was fed basic ration without supplement (control), while the 2nd and the 3rd groups of animals were fed on the same basic ration with supplemented fenugreek at the rate of 50 and 100 g/head/day. Blood samples were withdrawn at the end of experiment to assess blood concentrations. Also, milk yield and some milk components were determined. The results showed that the addition of fenugreek at the rate of 100 g/ head/ day to the diet of lactating goats significantly increased the concentrations of total proteins, albumin, globulin , T4 hormone, total antioxidants and hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC) and led to a significant decrease in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, wight blood cells (WBC) and T3 hormone in blood, while significantly increased milk yield and some milk components. It can be concluded that the addition of fenugreek at the rat of (100 g/ h/day) to heat stressed lactating Baladi goats led to modification of all blood components studied here in and led to amending the setraits, milk production and some milk components. Therefore, the use of the fenugreek in lactating stages can be recommended

  11. Variations in Enzymatic Activities of Shoots and Roots as an Indicator for Irradiated Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelbbaary, N.A.; Elagamay, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    Germinated seedlings from oil seeds (sesame and sunflower) and legumes (Trigonella, Haricot, broad bean and cow pea) were irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1 kGy and the data were collected from shoots and roots. Enzymatic activities appeared to be correlated with gamma irradiation dose. The enzymatic activities of irradiated seeds understudy were significantly higher than controls. The peroxidase activities were nearly similar in both roots and shoots, while acid phosphatase activities in roots were higher than in shoots. Also protein contents were higher in roots. The peroxidase and acid phosphatase specific activities in roots were similar. Shoots peroxidase enzymatic activity increased with increased gamma doses. The seedling under study showed two different levels of peroxidase activity, higher as sesame, Trigonella and Sunflower, and lower such as all other legumes understudy. Similar tendency have been also noticed in roots-enzymatic activity, positive correlation between gamma doses treatment and peroxidase enzymatic activity, again two groups higher activity cow pea, broad bean, bean and Trigonella lower such as sesame, such as sesame, sunflower and haircut

  12. The constituents of essential oil in leaves of Karaj accession of Trigonella foenum graecum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riasat, Mehrnaz; Jafari, Ali Ashraf; Bahmanzadegan, Atefeh; Hatami, Ahmad; Zareiyan, Faraneh

    2017-07-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of Karaj accession of Trigonella foenum graecum leaves was detected by hydro-distillation and analysed by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) apparatuses for first time. Thirty-six compounds representing 95.3% of the total components were identified. The patterns of the main compounds were (2E)-Hexenal (26.61%), n-Hexadecanoic acid (10.14%) and (E)-b-Ionone (7.99%). Other notable constituents were Thymol (4.79%), 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-Pentadecanone (4.59%), Carvacrol (3.40%), (E)-Nerolidol (3.32%) and (2E,6Z)-Nonadienal (3.30%). (2E)-Hexenal was found as the most dominant component in this study.

  13. Enhancement of root growth and nitrogen fixation in Trigonella by UV-exclusion from solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sonika; Guruprasad, K N

    2012-12-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the impact of solar UV on root growth and nitrogen fixation in Trigonella foenum-graecum. Plants were grown in iron mesh cages covered with polyester filters that could specifically cut off UV-B (280-315 nm) or UV-A + B (280-400 nm) part of the solar spectrum. The control plants were grown under a polythene filter transmissible to UV. Root biomass, number of nodules and nodule fresh weight were enhanced after exclusion of solar UV. Nitrogenase activity was significantly enhanced by 120% and 80% in the UV-B and UV-A + B excluded plants respectively. Along with nitrogenase there was concomitant increase in leghemoglobin and hemechrome content in the nodules after exclusion of solar UV. These components of sunlight limits nitrogen fixation and their elimination can enhance nitrogen fixation with agricultural advantages like reduction in the use of fertilizers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Antioxidant, phytotoxic and cytotoxic activity of methanolic extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ullah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the methanol extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum (T. foenumgraecum for antioxidant, phytotoxic and cytotoxic activity. Methods: The powder of T. foenum-graecum was extracted in diluted methanol with the help of random shaking method. All extracts of the plant were measured for cytotoxic activity (beside brine shrimp and antioxidant activity vs. 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical. Results: Various concentrations of methanolic extract of T. foenum-graecum were observed as 36.16% to 54.12% with rising concentrations of 50 to 1000 μg/mL. Significantly phytotoxic activity (100 and 1000 μg/mL reduced the growth of roots (radicals and shoots (hypocotyls of rice when compared to control after 3 and 7 days’ treatment. At a concentration of 10 μg/ mL, the survival rate of cytotoxic activity of brine shrimp was maximum and at a concentration of 250 μg/mL, the death rate of brine shrimp was maximum. Conclusions: T. foenum-graecum has potential activity against free radical mediated sickness and thus it is possible to treat cancer.

  15. Fate of Salmonella enterica and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Cells Artificially Internalized into Vegetable Seeds during Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da; Cui, Yue; Walcott, Ronald; Chen, Jinru

    2018-01-01

    Vegetable seeds contaminated with bacterial pathogens have been linked to fresh-produce-associated outbreaks of gastrointestinal infections. This study was undertaken to observe the physiological behavior of Salmonella enterica and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) cells artificially internalized into vegetable seeds during the germination process. Surface-decontaminated seeds of alfalfa, fenugreek, lettuce, and tomato were vacuum-infiltrated with four individual strains of Salmonella or EHEC. Contaminated seeds were germinated at 25°C for 9 days, and different sprout/seedling tissues were microbiologically analyzed every other day. The internalization of Salmonella and EHEC cells into vegetable seeds was confirmed by the absence of pathogens in seed-rinsing water and the presence of pathogens in seed homogenates after postinternalization seed surface decontamination. Results show that 317 (62%) and 343 (67%) of the 512 collected sprout/seedling tissue samples were positive for Salmonella and EHEC, respectively. The average Salmonella populations were significantly larger ( P seed coat tissues, followed by the root tissues, but the mean EHEC populations from all sampled tissue sections were statistically similar, except in pregerminated seeds. Three Salmonella and two EHEC strains had significantly larger cell populations on sprout/seedling tissues than other strains used in the study. Salmonella and EHEC populations from fenugreek and alfalfa tissues were significantly larger than those from tomato and lettuce tissues. The study showed the fate of internalized human pathogens on germinating vegetable seeds and sprout/seedling tissues and emphasized the importance of using pathogen-free seeds for sprout production. IMPORTANCE The internalization of microorganisms into vegetable seeds could occur naturally and represents a possible pathway of vegetable seed contamination by human pathogens. The present study investigated the ability of two important

  16. Postharvest Processing and Benefits of Black Pepper, Coriander, Cinnamon, Fenugreek, and Turmeric Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S; Roselin, P; Singh, K K; Zachariah, John; Saxena, S N

    2016-07-26

    Spices are prime source for flavor, aroma, and taste in cuisines and play an active role as medicines due to their high antioxidant properties. As medicine or food, the importance of spices cannot be overemphasized. The medicinal values of spices are very well established in treating various ailments like cancer, fever, malaria, stomach offset, nausea, and many more. A spice may be available in several forms: fresh, whole dried, or pre-ground dried which requires further processing to be utilized in the form of value-added product. This review paper deals with the cultivation, postharvesting, chemical composition, uses, health, and medicinal benefits of the selected spice viz., black pepper, coriander, cinnamon, fenugreek, turmeric, and technological advances in processing of spices viz., super critical fluid extraction, cryogenic grinding, and microencapsulation etc. This paper also focuses on issues related to utilization of spices toward its high end-product development and characterization in pharmaceuticals and other medicinal purposes. The availability of different spices and their varietal differences and location have their pertinent characters, which are much demanding to refine postharvest and processing to assure its quality in the international market.

  17. Phytochemicals and antimicrobial activities of aerial parts and roots of Trigonella tehranica L. essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kiashi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Trigonella tehranica (Leguminosae is an indigenous plant in northern regions of Iran. There were many reports about antimicrobial activity of other specious of this genus; therefore, the aim of present study was investigation of chemical compounds and antimicrobial activities of T. tehranica essential oils for the first time. Methods: The essential oils of aerial parts and roots of T. tehranica from Taleqan, Alborz Province, Iran were obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Antimicrobial activities of essential oils were tested against some Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella paratyphi-A, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Shigella dysenteriae and Proteus vulgarisis and fungi (Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus niger and Candidia albicans via disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs were reporte. Results: The abundant compounds of aerial parts essential oil were n-hexadecanoic acid (20.84%, camphane (11.45% and neo-menthol (5.05%. The major volatiles of roots essential oil were hexanal (14.83%, butane, 2-methyl (13.39% and 1-pentene (12.80%. The roots essential oil showed the most antimicrobial activitiy on Bacillus stubtilis (inhibition zone (IZ equal to 21 mm and the aerial parts essential oil demonstrated the most effects on Bacillus stubtilis (IZ as16 mm and Candida albicans (IZ as 20 mm. Conclusion: Although essential oils of T. tehranica were effective on many examined microorganisms, their antifungal activity was higher significantly.

  18. Trigonella foenum-graecum water extract improves insulin sensitivity and stimulates PPAR and γ gene expression in high fructose-fed insulin-resistant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates the beneficial effects of trigonella foenum-graecum extract on insulin resistance in rats fed on a high-fructose diet. At least three mechanisms are involved, including direct insulin-like effect, increase in adiponectin levels, and PPARγ protein expression.

  19. Investigating Therapeutic Potential of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. as Our Defense Mechanism against Several Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivangi Goyal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current lifestyle, stress, and pollution have dramatically enhanced the progression of several diseases in human. Globally, scientists are looking for therapeutic agents that can either cure or delay the onset of diseases. Medicinal plants from time immemorial have been used frequently in therapeutics. Of many such plants, fenugreek is one of the oldest herbs which have been identified as an important medicinal plant by the researchers around the world. It is potentially beneficial in a number of diseases such as diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and inflammation and probably in several kinds of cancers. It has industrial applications such as synthesis of steroidal hormones. Its medicinal properties and their role in clinical domain can be attributed to its chemical constituents. The 3 major chemical constituents which have been identified as responsible for principle health effects are galactomannan, 4-OH isoleucine, and steroidal saponin. Numerous experiments have been carried out in vivo and in vitro for beneficial effects of both the crude chemical and of its active constituent. Due to its role in health care, the functional food industry has referred to it as a potential nutraceutical. This paper is about various medicinal benefits of fenugreek and its potential application as therapeutic agent against several diseases.

  20. (Heckel) seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UTILISATEUR

    Garcinia kola seeds to six different hormonal pre-germination treatments. This consisted of ... Thus, seed dormancy in this case is not a coat- imposed .... development of the cultivation of the species. The cause .... Hormonal regulation of seed ...

  1. Comparative effect of ethylene oxide and gamma irradiation on the chemical sensory and microbial quality of ginger, cinnamon, fennel and fenugreek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toofanian, F.; Stegeman

    1986-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide fumigation on the microbiological and sensory properties of ground cinnamon, ginger, fennel and fenugreek, and on the volatile oil content of ground cinnamon, ginger and fennel was investigated. Ground ginger, cinnamon, fennel and fenugreek were obtained from a Dutch trade company. Ginger originated from China, cinnamon was produced in Indonesia and fennel and fenugreek were produced in India. The samples were ground by the trade companies and divided in three parts. One part was fumigated by the trade companies at ambient temperatures during eight hours with ethylene oxide (EO) at a concentration of 1500/m 3 . The second part was gamma irradiated at room temperature in aluminium/polyethylene bags at the 40 KCi cobalt-60 research source of the pilot plant for food irradiation in Wageningen. The untreated, fumigated and irradiated samples were stored in gas-impermeable packages. It was found that for cinnamon and ginger a 6 KGy dose, for fennel, 6-10 KGy and for fenugreek 6-8 KGy dose were equal in microbial effects to the commercial established fumigation process. No significant change in the volatile oil content of the fumigated or irradiated cinnamon and fennel has been observed. Irradiation of ginger with a dose of 5 KGy resulted in a slight decrease of 14% while fumigated ginger showed no significant loss in volatile oil content. Between the untreated irradiated or fumigated spices no major differences in sensory properties were found

  2. Matrix effects for calcium and potassium K-X-rays, in fenugreek plants grown in iron rich soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep, Kanan; Rao, Preeti; Bansal, Himani; Mittal, Raj

    2014-01-01

    The present work comprises the matrix effects study of the plant system (plant and soil) for macronutrients Ca and K with elevated levels of iron in the soil. The earlier derived matrix effect terms from fundamental relations of intensities of analyte and substrate elements with basic atomic and experimental setup parameters had led to iterative determination of enhanced elements rather than avoiding their enhancement. The relations also facilitated the evaluations of absorption for close Z interfering constituents (like Ca and K) in samples of a lot of particular category with interpolation of matrix terms with elemental amounts. The process has already been employed successfully for potato, radish, rice and maize plants. On similar lines, the observed prominent change in interpolation parameters for the plants in the present experiment serves as a tool to check the toxicity/contamination of the growing medium. - Highlights: • Matrix effects for Ca and K in Fenugreek plant and its soil with elevated iron level. • Fenugreek plants grown in iron rich soil and treated with K/Ca fertilizers. • The matrix terms correlated to analyte and enhancer element amounts. • Interpolation of matrix terms with elemental amounts points to Fe toxicity of soil

  3. A fibre cocktail of fenugreek, guar gum and wheat bran reduces oxidative modification of LDL induced by an atherogenic diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Nandini; Devaraj, S Niranjali; Devaraj, H

    2007-01-01

    LDL (low-density lipoprotein) oxidation is a key trigger factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Relatively few studies exist on the impact of dietary fibre on LDL oxidation. This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of a novel fibre mix of fenugreek seed powder, guar gum and wheat bran (Fibernat) on LDL oxidation induced by an atherogenic diet. Male Wistar albino rats were administered one of the following diets: (1) a control diet that was fibre-free (Group I); (2) an atherogenic diet containing 1.5% cholesterol and 0.1% cholic acid (Group II) or (3) an atherogenic diet supplemented with Fibernat (Group III). Peroxidative changes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and the oxidative susceptibility of LDL and the LDL + VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) fraction were determined. As a corollary to the oxidative modification theory, the titer of autoantibodies to oxidised LDL (oxLDL) was determined at various time points of the study. In addition, plasma homocysteine (tHcy) and lipoprotein (Lp (a)), apolipoprotein (apoB), cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid and alpha-tocopherol content of LDL were determined. A decrease in malonaldehyde (MDA) content (p<0.05) and relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) of LDL was observed in the group III rats as compared to the group II rats. An increase in lag time to oxidation (p<0.01) and decrease in maximum oxidation (p<0.01) and oxidation rate (p<0.01) were observed in the LDL + VLDL fraction of group III rats. In group II rats, formation of autoantibodies to oxLDL occurred at an earlier time point and at levels greater than in the group III rats. Fibernat, had a sparing effect on LDL alpha-tocopherol, which was about 51% higher in the group III rats than in the group II rats; apo B content of LDL was reduced by 37.6% in group III rats. LDL of group III rats displayed a decrease in free and ester cholesterol (p<0.01) as compared to that of group II. A decrease in plasma homocysteine (p<0.01) and an increase

  4. Assessment of Phytoextraction Potential of Fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum-graecum L. to Remove Heavy Metals (Pb and Ni from Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Kaur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of metal mobilizing agents, ethelynediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA and salicylic acid (SA, on the accumulation and translocation of lead (Pb and nickel (Ni by fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum-graecumL. plants in contaminated soil. EDTA and SA were amended at 100 mM and 1.0 mM respectively. Pb and Ni content were estimated using ICP-OES. Plant samples were prepared for scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis to investigate metals distribution in different tissues (root, stem and leaf of plant. The results showed that EDTA increased Pb and Ni uptake as compared to SA. SEM analysis revealed that in the presence of EDTA, the deposition of Pb particles was predominantly in vascular tissues of the stem and leaf.    

  5. Comparative effect of ethylene oxide and gamma irradiation on the chemical, sensory and microbial quality of ginger, cinnamon, fennel and fenugreek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toofanian, F.; Stegeman, H.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide fumigation on the microbiological and sensory properties and on the volatile oil content of ground cinnamon, ginger and fennel as well as on the sensory properties of fenugreek were investigated. It was found that for cinnamon and ginger a 6 kGy dose, for fennel 6-10 kGy and for fenugreek 6-8 kGy dose were equal in microbial effects to the commercially established fumigation process. No significant change in the volatile oil contents of the fumigated or irradiated cinnamon and fennel has been observed. Between the untreated, irradiated or fumigated spices no major differences in sensory properties were found. (author) 13 refs.; 1 fig.; 5 tabs

  6. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Trigonella foenum-graecum L, Murraya koenigii , Coriandrum sativum and Centella asiatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghamitra Dutta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are naturally occurring substances that combat oxidative damage in biological entities. An antioxidant achieves this by slowing or preventing the oxidation process that can damage cells in the body. It does this by getting oxidized itself in place of the cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of aqueous and 95% methanol leaf extracts of four herbs viz. Trigonella foenum-graecum L, Murraya koenigii, Coriandrum sativum and Centella asiatica which have frequent use in Indian cuisine. Both aqueous and 95% methanol leaf extracts have shown significant amount reducing power. Both aqueous and 95% methanol leaf extracts of Coriandrum sativum had significant DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 0.21± 0.3 mg/L and 0.176 ± 0.008 mg/L respectively. The aqueous leaf extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L showed low scavenging activity. Among all the leaf extracts, the aqueous leaf extract of Centella asiatica has exhibited significantly high NO radical scavenging activity (80% with IC50 value of 0.11 ± 0.17 mg/L. The aqueous leaf extracts of the samples have showed significantly high superoxide radical scavenging activity. The activity was maximum for the aqueous leaf extract of Centella asiatica, IC50 value is 4.36 ± 0.41 mg/L. anti lipid peroxide activities were very high ( 90 % for aqueous leaf extracts of Coriandrum sativum (IC50 = 0.064 ± 0.85 mg/L and Centella asiatica (IC50 = 0.066 ± 0.9mg/L at a concentration of 0.16 mg/L. The aqueous leaf extracts of the samples were found to contain large amounts of flavonoids and phenolic compounds and exhibited high antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. These in vitro assays indicate that these plant extracts are significant source of natural antioxidants which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses.

  7. Effect of addition of inulin and fenugreek on the survival of microencapsulated Enterococcus durans 39C in alginate-psyllium polymeric blends in simulated digestive system and yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Haghshenas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of biopolymers for probiotic microencapsulation has been investigated in this paper. The objectives are to enhance its survival rate, colonic release, and stability of these probiotic cultures in digestive condition during storage time. Nine types of biopolymers (alginate-psyllium blend with different concentration of prebiotic; (inulin or fenugreek were used as candidate for microencapsulation matrix. One strain of probiotic candidates, namely; Enterococcus durans 39C was used in this study. The microencapsulation of this strain with the respective polymer blend was performed by using a simple extrusion method. All blend of formulations have recorded high encapsulation efficiency at value >98%. The survival rate of viable probiotic cells under simulated digestive conditions was also high with value above 47% as compared to non-microencapsulated cells. These nine gel formulations also displayed the high survival rate of viable probiotic cells during storage time (28 d. Their release occurred after 2 h in colonic condition and sustained until 12th h of incubation period. An increase of prebiotic effect value added was observed in incorporated inulin and fenugreek formulations. In short, this study revealed that a new herbal-based psyllium and fenugreek polymers have suitable potential as a matrix for probiotic microencapsulation.

  8. Trigonellae Semen Enhances Sperm Motility and the Expression of the Cation Sperm Channel Proteins in Mouse Testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Rim Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic defects during spermatogenesis can lead to a reduction in sperm motility and cause male infertility. The cation channels of sperm (CatSper play a role in the regulation of hyperactivated sperm motility in mouse testes. The effect of Trigonellae Semen (TS on the male reproductive system and CatSper protein in mouse testes during spermatogenesis was examined. C57BL/c mice were divided into the following five groups: normal, cyclophosphamide- (CP- only treated (control group, and three groups treated with varying concentrations of TS with CP (100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg TS and 100 mg/kg CP. Real-time PCR, western blot analysis, and a testosterone immunoassay were performed to assess CatSper protein levels in the five groups. Additionally, sperm cell counts and motility were examined. Results indicate that sperm motility and sperm counts increased in the TS treated groups in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.01. CatSper levels were also significantly higher in the TS treated groups compared to that of the control group (p<0.001. Therefore, TS treatment could enhance sperm function by promoting spermatogenesis and the expression of CatSper proteins in mouse testes.

  9. Which Benefits and Harms of Using Fenugreek as a Galactogogue Need to Be Discussed during Clinical Consultations? A Delphi Study among Breastfeeding Women, Gynecologists, Pediatricians, Family Physicians, Lactation Consultants, and Pharmacists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiblawi, Sara; Ghanayem, Haifa

    2018-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding women with hypogalactia are commonly recommended to use fenugreek as a galactogogue. This study aimed to achieve formal consensus among breastfeeding women and healthcare providers on which potential harms and benefits of using fenugreek need to be communicated and discussed during clinical consultations. Methods A two-iterative round Delphi technique was used in two separate panels of breastfeeding women (n = 65) and healthcare providers (n = 56) to achieve formal consensus on a list of 24 and 16 items related to potential harms and benefits of fenugreek. Results About 70% of the healthcare providers recommended quite often herbal remedies for breastfeeding women and about 68% of the women had been recommended to use herbal remedies many times by their healthcare providers. Consensus was achieved on 21 potential harms and 14 potential benefits of using fenugreek to enhance human milk supply that need to be discussed with breastfeeding women during consultations. Conclusion Probably, potential harms and benefits of recommending fenugreek as herbal galactogogue for breastfeeding women seeking recommendations to increase their human milk supply need to be discussed during clinical consultations. Further observational studies are needed to assess what is being discussed in daily consultations when herbal remedies are recommended. PMID:29849697

  10. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.

    Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production.

  11. seed oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    processes, production of biodiesel, as lubricant and in deep-frying purposes. They could ... for its juice, nectars and fruit while its seeds are ... Malaysia. The fine seed powder was stored in a plastic container inside a refrigerator at between 4 o.

  12. seed flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... and with a nice taste, used for cooking or as lamp oil. The fatty acid ... Pra seeds were obtained from a local market in Nakhon Si Thammarat. Page 2. Table 1. Proximate composition of pra seed flour. Constituent. Percentage ...

  13. Robotic seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Fountas, Spyros; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural robotics has received attention for approximately 20 years, but today there are only a few examples of the application of robots in agricultural practice. The lack of uptake may be (at least partly) because in many cases there is either no compelling economic benefit......, or there is a benefit but it is not recognized. The aim of this chapter is to quantify the economic benefits from the application of agricultural robots under a specific condition where such a benefit is assumed to exist, namely the case of early seeding and re-seeding in sugar beet. With some predefined assumptions...... with regard to speed, capacity and seed mapping, we found that among these two technical systems both early seeding with a small robot and re-seeding using a robot for a smaller part of the field appear to be financially viable solutions in sugar beet production....

  14. Functional foods in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: olive leaf extract, turmeric and fenugreek, a qualitative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Wainstein

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAlmost 30% of US residents ages 65 and older have diabetes. The cost of diabetes care was estimated at $174 billion in 2007, including $116 billion in additional medical costs, and $58 billion in reduced productivity. Globally, the estimated cost of diabetes care was $376 billion in 2010, representing 12% of health expenditures. Many individuals with diabetes make use of functional foods, nutritional supplements, and/or herbal remedies to manage their disease. The functional foods olive leaf extract, turmeric, and fenugreek are commonly used in traditional medicine systems to manage diabetes. All three of these functional foods have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as well as specific insulin sensitizing qualities. In vitro studies offer proof of mechanism, and animal studies consistently show treatment efficacy for all three foods. The few human studies that have been conducted, however, use surrogate rather than clinical endpoints. The establishment of these and other functional foods as evidence based interventions for diabetes requires well designed, adequately powered, and randomized controlled pivotal trials with clinical endpoints.

  15. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.

    2000-01-01

    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  16. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly .... obtained which is higher than that of olive oil 17. mgKOH/g (Davine ... The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as ...

  17. Antibacterial Activity of the Extracts Obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum majorana, and Trigonella foenum-graecum on Highly Drug-Resistant Gram Negative Bacilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roula Abdel-Massih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to determine the antimicrobial activity of three selected plants (Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum majorana, and Trigonella foenum-graecum against Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL—producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae— and to identify the specific plant fraction responsible for the antimicrobial activity. The plants were extracted with ethanol to yield the crude extract which was further subfractionated by different solvents to obtain the petroleum ether, the dichloromethane, the ethyl acetate, and the aqueous fractions. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC were determined using broth microdilution. The MICs ranged between 1.25 and 80 g/l. The majority of these microorganisms were inhibited by 80 and 40 g/l of the crude extracts. The petroleum ether fraction of Origanum majorana significantly inhibited 94% of the tested strains. Ethyl acetate extracts of all selected plants exhibited relatively low MICs and could be therefore described as strong antibacterial.

  18. The pharmaceutical applications of a biopolymer isolated from Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds: Focus on the freeze-dried matrix forming capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Iurian

    2017-12-01

    The FSM dispersions revealed shear thinning flow type. Based on colloidal dispersions' rheological properties, five FSM concentrations were taken forward to the lyophilization step. Completely dry and elegant tablets were obtained. Texture analysis indicated highly porous structures, confirmed by SEM analysis, which explain the fast disintegration properties. All the prepared tablets disintegrated in less than 47 s. The disintegration process was prolonged by the increase in FSM content, due to the high viscosity the polymer creates in aqueous media. FSM tablets presented longer disintegration times, as compared to gelatin tablets, but also higher crushing strength. Considering the fast disintegration and the high crushing strength, FSM is a good candidate as matrix forming agent for fast disintegrating dosage forms or other freeze-dried preparations.

  19. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  20. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  1. Toksisitas Akut dan Subkronis Ramuan Ekstrak Kelor dan Klabet sebagai Pelancar ASI dan Penambah Gizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Widowati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient breast milk intake from a mother to their babies may cause a poor infant growth. We have conducted a research on mixture of klabet seed extracts (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. and kelor leaf extract (Moringa oleifera Lamk. (1:1 for increasing breast milk production in nursing mothers and nutritional supplement for infants. The study is a completely randomized design. We used white rats (Rattus novergicus, Wistar strain, as many as 50, that were divided into 5 dose groups for the acute toxicity testing and 40 rats in 4 dose groups for the sub-chronic toxicity testing.The acute toxicity testing of fenugreek seed extracts and moringa leaf extracts (1:1 results in a pseudo value LD50 >4,000 mg/200g bw, therefore we classified the materials to practically non-toxic (PNT. For the subchronic toxicity testing, the result showed a normal state on liver and kidney function.

  2. Plant foods in the management of diabetes mellitus: spices as beneficial antidiabetic food adjuncts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, K

    2005-09-01

    Diet has been recognized as a corner stone in the management of diabetes mellitus. Spices are the common dietary adjuncts that contribute to the taste and flavour of foods. Besides, spices are also known to exert several beneficial physiological effects including the antidiabetic influence. This review considers all the available information from animal experimentation as well as clinical trials where spices, their extracts or their active principles were examined for treatment of diabetes. Among the spices, fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenumgraecum), garlic (Allium sativum), onion (Allium cepa), and turmeric (Curcuma longa) have been experimentally documented to possess antidiabetic potential. In a limited number of studies, cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), mustard (Brassica nigra), curry leaves (Murraya koenigii) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) have been reported to be hypoglycaemic.

  3. Invitro Anti-mycotic Activity of Hydro Alcoholic Extracts of Some Indian Medicinal Plants against Fluconazole Resistant Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadarajan, Saranya; Narasimhan, Malathi; Malaisamy, Malaiyandi; Duraipandian, Chamundeeswari

    2015-08-01

    Candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic infections caused by Candida albicans. Fluconazole is the drug of choice for prevention and management of this condition. However, the emergence of fluconazole resistant candidal strains has become a major concern. Many herbs like fenugreek, cinnamon, papaya, oregano, garlic are rich in phytochemical constituents known to express antimycotic activity. With the available information, the present research study was carried out to assess the invitro anti-mycotic activity of hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds, Cinnamomum verum bark and Carica papaya leaves and seeds against fluconazole resistant Candida albicans. Hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum (seeds), Cinnamomum verum (bark), Carica papaya CO.2 strain (male and female leaves) and Carica papaya CO.2 strain (seeds) were prepared by maceration. The anti-mycotic activity of the prepared extracts against Candida albicans was assessed by agar well diffusion method. Three independent experiments were performed in triplicates and the mean and standard deviation were calculated. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined. The results of the present study revealed that all the extracts exhibited anti-mycotic activity in a dose dependent manner and minimum inhibitory concentration of all the extracts was found to be 15.62 μg/ml. The results of the present study shed light on the fact that plant extracts could be used not only as an alternate drug for management of fluconazole resistant candidiasis but also explored further for oral cancer prevention as a therapeutic adjunct.

  4. Perspectives of recycling gamma irradiated sewage-sludge in agricultural applications: a study on methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. :leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, G A; Banerjee, S; Modi, V V [Baroda Univ. (India). Faculty of Science

    1991-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiated sludge on the growth and yield of methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) in pot cultures have been studied. The gamma-irradiated sludge appeared to negatively affect the physical growth parameters of the plant. The significant positive effect of gamma-irradiated sludge was observed on the biochemical growth parameters and yield of methi plants. There was a 3.5-, 1.7- and 2-fold increase in the total protein content, total soluble sugars and starch content, respectively, of plants grown in soil supplemented with gamma-irradiated sludge after 45 days of growth. The gamma-irradiated sludge did not show any detrimental effect on any of the three biochemical parameters studied, even after 90 days of plant growth. The sludge obtained from the conventional treatment process was found to be inhibitory to the protein and starch content of plants in the latter stages of plant growth. A significant increase in the yield of methi plants, after 45 as well as 90 days, grown in the presence of gamma-irradiated sludge indicates a beneficial effect of recycling of irradiated sludge for agricultural applications. (author).

  5. Perspectives of recycling gamma irradiated sewage-sludge in agricultural applications: a study on methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.:leguminosae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandya, G.A.; Banerjee, S.; Modi, V.V.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiated sludge on the growth and yield of methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) in pot cultures have been studied. The gamma-irradiated sludge appeared to negatively affect the physical growth parameters of the plant. The significant positive effect of gamma-irradiated sludge was observed on the biochemical growth parameters and yield of methi plants. There was a 3.5-, 1.7- and 2-fold increase in the total protein content, total soluble sugars and starch content, respectively, of plants grown in soil supplemented with gamma-irradiated sludge after 45 days of growth. The gamma-irradiated sludge did not show any detrimental effect on any of the three biochemical parameters studied, even after 90 days of plant growth. The sludge obtained from the conventional treatment process was found to be inhibitory to the protein and starch content of plants in the latter stages of plant growth. A significant increase in the yield of methi plants, after 45 as well as 90 days, grown in the presence of gamma-irradiated sludge indicates a beneficial effect of recycling of irradiated sludge for agricultural applications. (author)

  6. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your diet? Chia seeds come from the desert plant Salvia hispanica , a member of the mint family. ... ancient Aztec diet. The seeds of a related plant, Salvia columbariae (golden chia), were used primarily by ...

  7. Seeds and Synergies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    'Seeds and Synergies presents inspiring evidence of change in practice and policy ... Seeds of inspiration: breathing new life into the formal agricultural research .... and Urban Development and Poverty Alleviation and Agricultural Commodity ...

  8. Seeds as biosocial commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patnaik, Archana

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural

  9. Seed dispersal in fens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, Beth; van Diggelen, Rudy; Jensen, Kai

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and

  10. Seed development and carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be

  11. Beyond the flavor: A green formulation of Ferula asafoetida oleo-gum-resin with fenugreek dietary fibre and its gut health potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liju Vijayasteltar

    Full Text Available Albeit the fact that asafotida is a popular kitchen spice and Indian folklore medicine for gut disorders, its consumption at physiologically relevant dosage is greatly challenged by the unpleasant flavor characteristics. Herein we report a green approach to derive stable powder formulations of asafoetida gum with minimized taste and odor suitable for dietary applications and gut health-related disorders. Employing a water based ultrasound mediated gel-phase dispersion of asafoetida gum on fenugreek derived soluble galactomannan fibre matrix. Microencapsulated particles (1 ± 0.3 μm of asafoetida was prepared as water dispersible free flowing powder (Asafin. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, accelerated stability and in vitro dissolution studies confirmed the stability, sustained release and microencapsulated structure of Asafin. Further investigations revealed significant (p < 0.01 reduction in acetic acid-induced writings and inhibition of ethanol-induced ulcer (94.1% in rats orally administered with Asafin at 250 mg kg−1 b.w. Asafin also exhibited anti-inflammatory effects (p < 0.01, in acute and chronic paw edema mice models. The safety of Asafin was further demonstrated by acute toxicity studies at 4 g kg−1  b.w. and by 28 days of sub-acute toxicity studies at 2.0 g kg−1 b.w. Keywords: Ferula asafoetida, Green formulation, Oral delivery, Gastroprotective, Ethanol-induced ulcer, Gut health

  12. Hot seeding using large Y-123 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scruggs, S J; Putman, P T; Zhou, Y X; Fang, H; Salama, K

    2006-01-01

    There are several motivations for increasing the diameter of melt textured single domain discs. The maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that have traditionally been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators and electric propulsion. We have investigated the possibility of using large area epitaxial growth instead of the conventional point nucleation growth mechanism. This process involves the use of large Y123 seeds for the purpose of increasing the maximum achievable Y123 single domain size. The hot seeding technique using large Y-123 seeds was employed to seed Y-123 samples. Trapped field measurements indicate that single domain samples were indeed grown by this technique. Microstructural evaluation indicates that growth can be characterized by a rapid nucleation followed by the usual peritectic grain growth which occurs when large seeds are used. Critical temperature measurements show that no local T c suppression occurs in the vicinity of the seed. This work supports the suggestion of using an iterative method for increasing the size of Y-123 single domains that can be grown

  13. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  14. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality

  15. combining high seed number and weight to improve seed yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    ABSTRACT. Increasing seed size and seed weight is an important trait for trade, yield component and adaptation of chickpea ... determining yield or quality, and the development of rapid and ..... C.G. 1981. Control of seed growth in soybeans.

  16. Producing the target seed: Seed collection, treatment, and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2011-01-01

    The role of high quality seeds in producing target seedlings is reviewed. Basic seed handling and upgrading techniques are summarized. Current advances in seed science and technology as well as those on the horizon are discussed.

  17. Efficiency of alfalfa seed processing with different seed purity

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić, Dragoslav; Stanisavljević, Rade; Terzić, Dragan; Milenković, Jasmina; Radivojević, Gordana; Koprivica, Ranko; Štrbanović, Ratibor

    2015-01-01

    The work was carried out analysis of the impact of the initial purity of raw alfalfa seed on the resulting amount of processed seed in the processing. Alfalfa is very important perennial forage legume which is used for fodder and seed production. Alfalfa seed is possible to achieve high yields and very good financial effects. To obtain the seed material with good characteristics complex machines for cleaning and sorting seeds are used. In the processing center of the Institute for forage crop...

  18. Paper (essay on seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Mladen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on detailed studies of the past of the agrarian thought of the world (evolution of agro-innovation, and within it, the relationship of man and seed, the author has selected key data for Table 1. In addition, more or less known folk sayings, proverbs, curses and allegories in which the seed is the key word have been collected. Then, religious books, folk art and literature works (sayings of prominent individuals and experts and observations of the author himself have been studied. According to the collected opus, it can be concluded that the vast importance of seed meaningfully entwined into all spheres of folk life and cultural heritage. Seed is directly tied to the following eight key (revolutionary milestones in the food and economic life of mankind: 1. the first and for the longest time, the seed used to be the main food of the people and the first food reserve; 2. Neolithic Revolution was simply caused by the sowing of seeds; 3. for the sake of sowing man began to develop more complex processing techniques; 4. everywhere and forever, especially since the late 15th century, the seed has been a carrier of (rescuing plants between Europe and the New World, that is, between continents; 5. seed was the first product that has been chemically treated since the mid-18th century; 6. standard operation procedures and quality are promoted on seed by which it became the first product to have prescribed (compulsory methods, but it also became a good whose quality has to be tested before sale; 7. hybrid seed is a 'perpetrator' of the green revolution in the mid-20th century and at last there is disputable seed of genetically modified organisms that are spreading with certain reactions. The author proposes that the United Nations Standard International Trade Classification includes a special section (division which would classify the seed for sowing, while beyond this Classification terms such as seed, plant seed should be replaced with non-seed

  19. Seed dormancy and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Steven

    2017-09-11

    Reproduction is a critical time in plant life history. Therefore, genes affecting seed dormancy and germination are among those under strongest selection in natural plant populations. Germination terminates seed dispersal and thus influences the location and timing of plant growth. After seed shedding, germination can be prevented by a property known as seed dormancy. In practise, seeds are rarely either dormant or non-dormant, but seeds whose dormancy-inducing pathways are activated to higher levels will germinate in an ever-narrower range of environments. Thus, measurements of dormancy must always be accompanied by analysis of environmental contexts in which phenotypes or behaviours are described. At its simplest, dormancy can be imposed by the formation of a simple physical barrier around the seed through which gas exchange and the passage of water are prevented. Seeds featuring this so-called 'physical dormancy' often require either scarification or passage through an animal gut (replete with its associated digestive enzymes) to disrupt the barrier and permit germination. In other types of seeds with 'morphological dormancy' the embryo remains under-developed at maturity and a dormant phase exists as the embryo continues its growth post-shedding, eventually breaking through the surrounding tissues. By far, the majority of seeds exhibit 'physiological dormancy' - a quiescence program initiated by either the embryo or the surrounding endosperm tissues. Physiological dormancy uses germination-inhibiting hormones to prevent germination in the absence of the specific environmental triggers that promote germination. During and after germination, early seedling growth is supported by catabolism of stored reserves of protein, oil or starch accumulated during seed maturation. These reserves support cell expansion, chloroplast development and root growth until photoauxotrophic growth can be resumed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Artificial Seeds and their Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    currently working on ... heterozygosity of seed, minute seed size, presence of reduced ... Advantages of Artificial or Synthetic Seeds over Somatic Embryos for Propagation .... hour gives optimum bead hardness and rigidity for the produc-.

  1. Seed thioredoxin h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    , for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses...

  2. Saving Seed Microbiomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Gabriele; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Plant seeds are home to diverse microbial communities whose composition is determined by plant genotype, environment, and management practices. Plant domestication is now recognized as an important driver of plant-associated microbial diversity. To what extent and how domestication affects seed

  3. Medicinal significance of vegetables cultivated over minerals supplemented soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangash, J.A.; Arif, M.; Khan, F.; Khan, F.; Khan, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Three winter season vegetables Fenugreek/Methi (Trigonella-foenum-graceum), Sarson (Brassica-campestris-var-sarson) and Garlic (Allium-sativum) were included in the present study to determine some of their mineral components and see if some of their mineral (Cr, Zn, Mn, Cu, Mg and Fe) content could be increased by supplementation through their roots. Thus calculated amount of Cr, Zn, Mn, Cu, Mg and Fe salts (as fertilizer) were applied in solution form to the roots of vegetables in different concentration as individual or in combinations. These vegetables were grown from seeds in the soil plot. After harvesting vegetables were dried, acid digested and analyzed for Cr, Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mg on Hitachi Zeeman Japan Z-8000, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Thus in Fenugreek/Methi (Trigonella-foenum-graceum) total increase of Cr, Zn, Mn, Mg and Fe recorded was (10, 94, 10, 256 and 520) mg/Kg dry weight basis; in Sarson (Brassica-campestris-var-sarson) total increase of Cr, Zn, Mn and Mg recorded was (12, 30, 22 and 424) mg/Kg dry weight basis and ( Garlic) (Allium-sativum) total increase of Cr, Zn, Mn, Cu, Mg and Fe recorded was (14, 28, 4, 4, 116 and 10) mg/Kg dry weight basis. From the present study it can be concluded that by changing the soil minerals environment the uptake of required mineral content of vegetables, perhaps could be enhanced. This could play important role in management of diabetes control and also in the elimination of other deficiency diseases like anemia. (author)

  4. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C.; Czech, T.; Diekmann, K.; Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A.; Prayer, D.

    2004-01-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  5. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Medicine I, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Czech, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Diekmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Clinical Inst. for Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  6. Physalis peruviana seed storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia L. M. de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physalis peruviana belongs to Solanaceae family and has a high nutritional and nutraceutical potential. The production is intended for fruit consumption and the propagation is mainly by seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of priming on the kinetics of germination of P. peruviana seeds stored at different temperatures. The seeds were stored at 5 and 25 °C in a chamber saturated with zinc chloride solution and in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C. Every 4 months, the seeds were removed from storage for evaluation of germination and moisture content in the laboratory and emergence and development of seedlings in greenhouse. During the last evaluation at 16 months, the seeds under the same conditions were subjected to salt stress. The moisture content varied during the storage period, but was always higher for seeds kept at -196 ºC. These seeds kept high germination percentage in water until 16 months, regardless of the tested temperature; however, in salt solution the germination percentage was significantly reduced.

  7. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to examine the influence of Lagenaria siceraria seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor. Three seed fermentation methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested on two cultivars during two years. Seed germination and ...

  8. Prosopis Africana SEEDS (OKPEYE)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Keywords: Prosopis africana, okpeye seeds, thermal heat conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal heat diffusivity, .... 2.3 Determination of Thermal Properties of Prosopis. Africana .... and the guard ring was filled with fiber glass at both the.

  9. Oil seed marketing prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceroni, G.

    1992-01-01

    With its 100 million tonnes annual production, the American continent is by far the world's biggest producer of oil seed, followed by Asia - 52 million, and Europe - 27 million tonnes. The Italian and European Communities have the farming capacity to double their production, but international agreements currently prohibit such initiatives. After first providing a panorama of the world oil seed market, this paper discusses new reforms in European Communities internal agricultural policies which currently limit production. These reforms, intended to encourage the production of oil seed for use as an ecological automotive fuel alternative, call for an obligatory set-aside of 15% of producing farm-land in exchange for the compensatory removal of oil seed production limits

  10. Genetics and Forest Seed Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    High genetic quality seed is obtained from seed sources that match the planting site, have a good outcrossing rate, and are superior in some desirable characters. Non-degraded natural forests and plantations may be used as untested seed sources, which can sometimes be managed to promote outbreeding...... and increase seed production. Planted seed orchards aim at capturing large genetic variation and are planted in a design that facilitates genetic evaluation and promotes outbred seed production. Good seed production relies upon success of the whole range of reproductive events from flower differentiation...

  11. Seeds of impurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pavoni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ai Weiwei’s art installation Kui Hua Zi [Sunflower Seeds] took place between 2010 and 2011 in the gigantic Turbine Hall of the Tate Modern Gallery, in London. It consisted of 100 millions hand-crafted porcelain seeds made in Jingdezhen, China.1 An uneven surface to dive into, a haptic space of undulating vision, rustling steps, unusual horizontality, a meaningless quicksand where the separation between artwork and spectator is engulfed, the immunity of distant contemplation denied.

  12. Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-18

    . ... used for making oily pickles in South Asia. Galactagogue ... weeks of culture, more than 1 cm long regenerated shoots were taken and ..... Huetteman SE, Schotz AH, Wardley-Richardson T, Spencer D, Higgins. TJV (1993).

  13. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  14. Seed dispersal in fens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.; Van Diggelen, R.; Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and reducing genetic exchange. Species in fragmented wetlands may have lower reproductive success, which can lead to biodiversity loss. While fens may have always been relatively isolated from each other, they have become increasingly fragmented in modern times within agricultural and urban landscapes in both Europe and North America. Dispersal by water, animals and wind has been hampered by changes related to development in landscapes surrounding fens. Because the seeds of certain species are long-lived in the seed bank, frequent episodes of dispersal are not always necessary to maintain the biodiversity of fens. However, of particular concern to restoration is that some dominant species, such as the tussock sedge Carex stricta, may not disperse readily between fens. Conclusions: Knowledge of seed dispersal can be used to maintain and restore the biodiversity of fens in fragmented landscapes. Given that development has fragmented landscapes and that this situation is not likely to change, the dispersal of seeds might be enhanced by moving hay or cattle from fens to damaged sites, or by reestablishing lost hydrological connections. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  15. Ali et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2015) 12(2):149-154 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proff.Adewunmi

    Background: Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L) is receiving global attention as a functional food due to its unique nutritional and medicinal properties ... These fibrous components bind to the toxins present in food and help to protect the colon mucus membrane from cancer causing .... condition, agricultural. Table 1: ...

  16. A novel botanical formula prevents diabetes by improving insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Juntao; Velliquette, Rodney A; Grann, Kerry; Burns, Charlie R; Scholten, Jeff; Tian, Feng; Zhang, Qi; Gui, Min

    2017-07-05

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and the prevalence has increased significantly in recent decades to epidemic proportions in China. Individually, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seed, mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaf and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) root can improve glycemia in various animal models and humans with impaired glucose metabolism and T2DM. The aim of this study was to design an optimized botanical formula containing these herbal extracts as a nutritional strategy for the prevention of insulin resistance and T2DM. Cell-free α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme assays were used to determine inhibitory potential of extracts. Glucose uptake was examined in differentiated human adipocytes using radiolabeled 2-deoxyglucose. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided and glycemia balanced into 5 groups: two controls (naïve and model) and three doses of the botanical test formula containing standardized fenugreek seed, mulberry leaf and American ginseng extracts (42.33, 84.66 and 169.33 mg/kg BW). Insulin resistance and T2DM was induced by feeding animals a high fat diet and with an alloxan injection. Glucose tolerance was examined by measuring serum glucose levels following an oral glucose load. Fenugreek seed and mulberry leaf dose dependently inhibited α-amylase (IC50 = 73.2 μg/mL) and α-glucosidase (IC50 = 111.8 ng/mL), respectively. All three botanical extracts improved insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in human adipocytes, which lead to the design of an optimized botanical test formula. In a rat model of insulin resistance and T2DM, the optimized botanical test formula improved fasting serum glucose levels, fasting insulin resistance and the development of impaired glucose tolerance. The reduction in epididymal adipose tissue GLUT4 and PDK1 expression induced by high fat diet and alloxan was blunted by the botanical test formula. A novel botanical formula containing standardized

  17. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC, the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh. and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. Grove var. truncata (Schw. Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L. were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds and six (6.5 mm large seeds replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

  18. The importance of using certified seed

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanović Sandra; Mladenov Velimir; Balešević-Tubić Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Certified seed is produced from the seed of known genetic origin and genetic purity with controlled and tested production, processed and declared in accordance with the Law on Seeds. Production of certified seed is carried out under the supervision of the Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection, by seed producers formally listed in the Seed Register. Seed is processed in registered seed processing centres and quality is tested in laboratories accredited for seed testing. The orga...

  19. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S.

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  20. Molecular physiology of seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajduch, M.

    2014-05-01

    Plant development is well described. However, full understanding of the regulation of processes associated with plant development is still missing. Present Dr.Sc. thesis advances our understanding of the regulation of plant development by quantitative proteomics analyses of seed development of soybean, canola, castor, flax, and model plant arabidopsis in control and environmentally challenged environments. The analysis of greenhouse-grown soybean, canola, castor, and arabidospis provided complex characterization of metabolic processes during seed development, for instance, of carbon assimilation into fatty acids. Furthermore, the analyses of soybean and flax grown in Chernobyl area provided in-depth characterization of seed development in radio-contaminated environment. Soybean and flax were altered by radio-contaminated environment in different way. However, these alterations resulted into modifications in seed oil content. Further analyses showed that soybean and flax possess alterations of carbon metabolism in cytoplasm and plastids along with increased activity of photosynthetic apparatus. Our present experiments are focused on further characterization of molecular bases that might be responsible for alterations of seed oil content in Chernobyl grown plants. (author)

  1. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required under... seeds. (b) Seed consigned to a seed cleaning or processing establishment, for cleaning or processing for... pertaining to such seed show that it is “Seed for processing,” or, if the seed is in containers and in...

  2. Improving Soil Seed Bank Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Steven C; Flessner, Michael L

    2018-05-08

    Problems associated with simplified weed management motivate efforts for diversification. Integrated weed management uses fundamentals of weed biology and applied ecology to provide a framework for diversified weed management programs; the soil seed bank comprises a necessary part of this framework. By targeting seeds, growers can inhibit the propagule pressure on which annual weeds depend for agricultural invasion. Some current management practices affect weed seed banks, such as crop rotation and tillage, but these tools are often used without specific intention to manage weed seeds. Difficulties quantifying the weed seed bank, understanding seed bank phenology, and linking seed banks to emerged weed communities challenge existing soil seed bank management practices. Improved seed bank quantification methods could include DNA profiling of the soil seed bank, mark and recapture, or 3D LIDAR mapping. Successful and sustainable soil seed bank management must constrain functionally diverse and changing weed communities. Harvest weed seed controls represent a step forward, but over-reliance on this singular technique could make it short-lived. Researchers must explore tools inspired by other pest management disciplines, such as gene drives or habitat modification for predatory organisms. Future weed seed bank management will combine multiple complementary practices that enhance diverse agroecosystems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important development issue. This study deals with the impact different types of regulation have on how farmers access seed. I have analysed current regulatory frameworks in terms of their impact on differe...

  4. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depaoli, D.

    1996-01-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes

  5. genetics and inheritance of seed dormancy inflicted by seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. The study was undertaken to investigate the genetic mode of inheritance of dormancy imposed by the hull (seed coat) in rice seeds. Freshly harvested seeds of parents, F1 and F2 populations of a cross between a dormant cultivar Kisegese and non-dormant strain K2004 were used. Germination test of the ...

  6. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important

  7. Effects of seed collecting date and storage duration on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of seed collecting dates (5 to 6 times from mid-November to early January, 10 days intervals) and seed storage duration (4, 8, and 12 months) at room temperature on seed germination of four Artemisia species (Artemisia sieberi, A. diffusa, A. kupetdaghensis, and A.

  8. Cone and seed yields in white spruce seed production areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Pitcher

    1966-01-01

    The source of seed is an important consideration in the reforestation program on the National Forests in the North Central Region. Thirty-five seed production areas have been set up in the Region, along the lines proposed by the North Central Forest Experiment Station, to provide control of seed source. Red pine, white pine, shortleaf and loblolly pine, and white...

  9. seed germination and seedlings growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... The role of 20E in plant physiology including seed germination is not studied. ..... GA3, ABA and CKs on lettuce Lactuca sativa seed germination are ..... Practical uses for ecdysteroids in mammals and humans: an update. J.

  10. Seed research for improved technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Bino,R.J.; Jalink,H.; Oluoch,M.O.; Groot,S.P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The production of high-quality seed is the basis for a durable a profitable agriculture. After production, seed is processed, conditioned, stored, shipped and germinated. For quality assurance, seed quality has to be controlled at all steps of the production chain. Seed functioning is accompanied by programmed transitions from cell proliferation to quiescence upon maturation and from quiescence to reinitiation of cellular metabolism upon imbibition. Despite the obvious importance of these con...

  11. (Lupinus albus) SEEDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-08-08

    Aug 8, 2010 ... lupin samples indicated that lupins can be used as a raw material for various food ... lupin seeds can be utilized for milk and meat imitation products. ... estimated by multiplying the percentage of crude protein, crude fat and ...

  12. Seed for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassena Beko, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Ethiopia is an agrarian country where agriculture dominates the economy, and thus agriculture is considered as an engine of growth by the government. Seed as one of the agricultural technologies, in fact, a carrier of many technologies, is critical to increasing production, but the use of quality

  13. Managing Stress. Project Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Donna; Wilk, Jan

    One of eight papers from Project Seed, this paper describes a stress management project undertaken with high school sophomores. Managing Stress is described as an interactive workshop that offers young people an opportunity to examine specific areas of stress in their lives and to learn effective ways to deal with them. The program described…

  14. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Greece people have used grapes, grape leaves, and sap for health purposes. Grape seed extract was developed ... sharing research results, and educating the public. Its resources include publications (such as Dietary ... Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Center for ...

  15. The SEED Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  16. Dormancy in Plant Seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Finch-Savage, W.E.; Buitink, J.; Bolingue, W.; Leubner-Metzger, G.

    2010-01-01

    Seed dormancy has been studied intensely over the past decades and, at present, knowledge of this plant trait is at the forefront of plant biology. The main model species is Arabidopsis thaliana, an annual weed, possessing nondeep physiological dormancy. This overview presents the state-of-the-art

  17. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  18. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Yiacoumi, Sotira.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process

  19. [Study on seed testing for Salvia miltiorrhiza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Hong-mei; Qi, Jian-jun; Zhou, Li-li; Li, Xian-en

    2008-09-01

    To establish a seed testing methods for Salvia miltiorrhiza. Referring to the International Seed Testing Rules made by ISTA and the Seed Testing for Crops (GB/T3543. 1-1995) issued by China. The seeds are selected by winnowing; the seed purity is about 50%-60%; 100 grain weight is used to determine the quality of the seed; the seed moisture content is determined by air drying, the drying hour is 3 h. Seed viability is tested by TFC method.

  20. Germination of red alder seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Radwan; D.S. DeBell

    1981-01-01

    Red alder seeds were collected from six locations throughout the natural range of the species. Each seed lot was obtained from a single tree, and the seeds were used to determine germination with and without stratification treatment. Irrespective of treatment, germination varied significantly (P

  1. Nest-mediated seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Warren; Jason P. Love; Mark A. Bradford

    2017-01-01

    Many plant seeds travel on the wind and through animal ingestion or adhesion; however, an overlooked dispersal mode may lurk within those dispersal modes. Viable seeds may remain attached or embedded within materials birds gather for nest building. Our objective was to determine if birds inadvertently transport seeds when they forage for plant materials to...

  2. Seed systems support in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munyi, Peter; Jonge, De Bram

    2015-01-01

    The threats of climate change and rising food prices have stirred renewed attention for seed and food security in Africa, inviting new thinking on the role of seed sector development in coping with these concerns. One conceptual framework that has gained attention is the Integrated Seed Sector

  3. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation or...

  4. Mechanical harvesting of pumpkin seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Sito, Stjepan; Ivančan, Stjepan; Barković, Edi; Mucalo, Ana

    2009-01-01

    One of the key problems in production technology of pumpkin seed for oil production is mechanized harvesting and losses of seed during mechanical harvesting. The losses of pumpkin seed during mechanical harvesting at peripheral velocity of 1.57 m/s (optimally adjusted machine) were 4.4% for Gleisdorf species, 5.2% for Slovenska species and 7.8% for pumpkin with husk. The higher average losses of pumpkin seed with husk were caused by tight connection of seed and pumpkin fruit.

  5. Irradiation effect on the seed vigor, SOD activity and MDA content in germinating seeds of yellow-seeded and black-seeded rape seed (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jixiang; Hu Danhong; Liu Houli

    1993-01-01

    Seeds of a set of near-isogenic lines (Brassica napus L.) with different seed coat color from yellow to black were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays of 150 krad. Seed vigor, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in germinating seeds were analysed. In these characters, no significant difference between yellow-seeded lines (YLs) and black-seeded lines (BLs) showed before irradiation. But after irradiation, SOD activity in YLs was lower than that in BLs. While MDA content in YLs was obviously higher that that in DLs. As a result of irradiation, seed vigor of YLs was lower than that in BLs. these results indicated that the irradiation resistance of rape seed was related to the level of SOD as well as protective structure or substances in seed coat and that the radiosensitivity of YLs was higher than that of DLs

  6. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  7. Physiological quality and seed respiration of primed Jatropha curcas seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Angelica Horbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seed deterioration is a natural and irreversible process. Nevertheless, seed priming with water and antioxidants can minimize oxidative damage in oilseeds, resulting in attenuation of seed deterioration. The objective of this assay was to evaluate seed priming on respiratory activity of Jatropha curcas submitted to accelerated aging. Seeds from two provenances (Janauba and Pedro J. Caballero were submitted to three priming treatments (control, immersion in deionized water, and with 750 µmol L-1 of ascorbic acid and treated for accelerated aging at 41 °C for 72 h. The results showed that the priming of J. curcas seeds promoted tolerance to accelerated aging. Primed seeds, with ascorbic acid from Janauba and deionized water from Pedro J. Caballero, resulted in a higher percentage of normal seedlings, and increased germination speed index and seed respiration. The decline of physiological quality of J. curcas seeds after accelerated aging is directly associated with a reduction in respiratory activity that is related to seed moisture content.

  8. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Perea

    Full Text Available Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis. In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P. Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  9. Seeds of the Future

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Five of the global issues most frequently debated today are the decline of biodiversity in general and of agrobiodiversity in particular, climate change, hunger and malnutrition, poverty and water. These issues are connected with each other, and should be dealt with as such. Most of our food comes from seeds (even when we eat meat, we indirectly eat plants, which come from seeds) and food affects our health. The evolution of plant breeding, the science which is responsible for the type and the diversity of seed that farmers plant, and hence for the diversity of food that we eat, helps us understand how agrobiodiversity has decreased. An agro-ecological model of agriculture could be solution to the most important problems affecting the planet, but is often criticized for not being able to produce enough food for a growing population casting doubts on whether food security and food safety can be compatible objectives. Participatory and evolutionary plant breeding, while benefiting from advances in molecular g...

  10. Physicochemical Evaluation of Seeds and Oil of Nontraditional Oil Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food science department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, in order to evaluate some nontraditional oil seeds these are i.e. Marula (Sclerocarya birrea, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seeds and Christ’s thorn (Zizyphus spina-christi seeds. The seeds of the roselle and Christ’s thorn fruits were procured from Elobeid local market, North Kordofan State, while marula fruits were obtained from Elnuhod, West Kordofan State. The proximate composition of the seeds, cake and christ’s thorn pulp was done. Some chemical and physical properties were performed for the extracted oil. The results revealed that proximate composition of the seeds and cake differ statistically among the studied materials. Significant differences were observed among the oil extracted from these species; moreover, these oils differ significantly in color and viscosity only.

  11. Sunflower seed allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients’ IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient’s anaphylactic reaction. PMID:27222528

  12. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  13. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  14. Within canopy distribution of cotton seed N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole cotton seeds can be an important component of dairy rations. Nitrogen content of the seed is an important determinant of the feed value of the seed. Efforts to increase the seed value as feed will be enhanced with knowledge of the range and distribution of seed N within the cotton crop. This s...

  15. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328228818; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241338735

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana

  16. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading 1005.10...

  17. Seed dormancy and seed longevity: from genetic variation to gene identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.P.

    2014-01-01

    Seed dormancy and seed longevity are the most important survival traits in the soil seed bank. Both traits are induced during seed maturation and evolved to assure seed survival during environmental conditions that cannot support the regular course of life. Seed dormancy is related to the timing of

  18. Why high seed densities within buried mesh bags may overestimate depletion rates of soil seed banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourik, van T.A.; Stomph, T.J.; Murdoch, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    1. Estimates of seed bank depletion rates are essential for modelling and management of plant populations. The seed bag burial method is often used to measure seed mortality in the soil. However, the density of seeds within seed bags is higher than densities in natural seed banks, which may elevate

  19. Heirloom biodynamic seeds network rescue, conservation and multiplication of local seeds in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jovchelevich, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Structuring a network organic and biodynamic seed involving farmers in the central- southern Brazil. Training, participatory breeding, edition of publications, fairs of exchange seeds, a processing unit and assessment of seed quality, commercial seed multiplication with emphasis on vegetables. This network has garanteed the autonomy of farmers in seed production and enriched agrobiodiversity through exchanges of seed.

  20. Seed drill depth control system for precision seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2018-01-01

    acting on the drill coulters, which generates unwanted vibrations and, consequently, a non-uniform seed placement. Therefore, a proof-of-concept dynamic coulter depth control system for a low-cost seed drill was developed and studied in a field experiment. The performance of the active control system...... depth control system this variability was reduced to±2 mm. The system with the active control system operated more accurately at an operational speed of 12 km h−1 than at 4 km h−1 without the activated control system.......An adequate and uniform seeding depth is crucial for the homogeneous development of a crop, as it affects time of emergence and germination rate. The considerable depth variations observed during seeding operations - even for modern seed drills - are mainly caused by variability in soil resistance...

  1. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or... sieve are considered weed seeds. For wild onion and wild garlic (Allium spp.) bulblets classed as inert...

  2. Seeding and planting upland oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Oaks can be planted or seeded in uplands to: (1) afforest old fields, strip-mined areas, or other areas devoid of trees, and (2) supplement natural reproduction within existing forests. Planting is usually more successful than direct seeding. But even under good conditions survival and growth of planted oak has been considerably poorer than with conifers and other...

  3. STORAGE OF Handroanthus umbellatus SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Chalita Martins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815725Seed storage under controlled environmental conditions represents one of the most important lines of research to be applied on short-lived forest species as Handroanthus. The present research aimed to identify the most suitable seed storage conditions and longevity behavior of Handroanthus umbellatus seeds subject to the following storage treatments: packaging permeable paper bags under a no-controlled laboratory temperature and humidity (control and multiwall semipermeable bag at temperatures of -18 ºC, 1 ºC and 25 ºC. Seeds were dried to 6.3% of water content. Stored seeds were evaluated every three months until 24 months for water content, germination percentage and vigor utilizing first counting test. Seeds of T. umbellata are orthodox, with low longevity under natural conditions, once they remain viable for less than 5 months. The best conditions of seed preservation of these species were obtained by storage at -18° C in multiwall bags. Under these conditions physiological seed quality remains unchanged for a 24-month period.

  4. Uganda Early Generation Seed Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, A.; Ntare, Bonny

    2016-01-01

    One of the major bottlenecks limiting farmers’ access to good quality seed for food crops in Uganda is the shortage of early generation seed (EGS - breeder and foundation) to produce sufficient quantities of certified and/or quality declared) to satisfy the needs of farmers. A national study was

  5. Insecticide seed treatments for sugarbeet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest feeding and vectoring of viruses cause serious problems in sugarbeet production worldwide. In order to ameliorate pest and disease problems on sugarbeet, two seed treatments, Poncho Beta (60 g a.i. clothianidin + 8 g a.i. beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seed) and Cruiser Tef (60 g a.i. thiamethoxam + 8...

  6. Orthodox seeds and resurrection plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, Maria Cecília Dias; Cooper, Keren; Hilhorst, Henk W.M.; Farrant, Jill M.

    2017-01-01

    Although staple crops do not survive extended periods of drought, their seeds possess desiccation tolerance (DT), as they survive almost complete dehydration (desiccation) during the late maturation phase of development. Resurrection plants are plant species whose seeds and vegetative tissues are

  7. Efficient computation of spaced seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Silvana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most frequently used tools in bioinformatics are those searching for similarities, or local alignments, between biological sequences. Since the exact dynamic programming algorithm is quadratic, linear-time heuristics such as BLAST are used. Spaced seeds are much more sensitive than the consecutive seed of BLAST and using several seeds represents the current state of the art in approximate search for biological sequences. The most important aspect is computing highly sensitive seeds. Since the problem seems hard, heuristic algorithms are used. The leading software in the common Bernoulli model is the SpEED program. Findings SpEED uses a hill climbing method based on the overlap complexity heuristic. We propose a new algorithm for this heuristic that improves its speed by over one order of magnitude. We use the new implementation to compute improved seeds for several software programs. We compute as well multiple seeds of the same weight as MegaBLAST, that greatly improve its sensitivity. Conclusion Multiple spaced seeds are being successfully used in bioinformatics software programs. Enabling researchers to compute very fast high quality seeds will help expanding the range of their applications.

  8. Kauri seeds and larval somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Steen Thorleif

    2012-01-01

    The trunk morphology of the larvae of the kauri pine (Agathis) seed infesting moth Agathiphaga is described using conventional, polarization, and scanning electron microscopy. The pine seed chamber formed by the larva is also described and commented on. The simple larval chaetotaxy includes more ...

  9. Banking Wyoming big sagebrush seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt; Nancy Shaw

    2013-01-01

    Five commercially produced seed lots of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. var. wyomingensis (Beetle & Young) S.L. Welsh [Asteraceae]) were stored under various conditions for 5 y. Purity, moisture content as measured by equilibrium relative humidity, and storage temperature were all important factors to successful seed storage. Our results indicate...

  10. Vigor of sunflower and soybean aging seed

    OpenAIRE

    Tatić M.; Balešević-Tubić S.; Ðorđević V.; Miklič V.; Vujaković M.; Ðukić V.

    2012-01-01

    Seed aging and deterioration affect seed vigor and viability. The characteristics of the chemical composition of oil crops seed are related to specific processes occurring in the seed during storage. This study was performed to examine the changes in seed vigor of different sunflower and soybean genotypes under controlled and conventional (uncontrolled) conditions of natural aging for six and twelve months. Obtained results show that the degree of seed dama...

  11. Wheat seed system in Ethiopia: Farmers' varietal perception, seed sources, and seed management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge and information on farmers' perception and its influence on adoption of modern wheat varieties, awareness and source of new wheat production technology, wheat seed sources, and on-farm seed-management practices remain sporadic in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to understand the

  12. Farmer’s seed sources and seed quality: 2. seed health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the health quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seed samples collected from formal and informal sector in Ethiopia and Syria. In Ethiopia, several seed-borne fungi were found on wheat samples: Cochliobolus sativum, Fusarium avenaceum, F.

  13. Size, physiological quality, and green seed occurrence influenced by seeding rate in soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Sampaio Ferreira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The seeding rate influences the intraspecific competition, which might affect the development and quality of seeds in soybean. However, the impact of seeding rate on the physical and physiological qualities of soybean seeds needs to be better elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of soybean plant density on the seed size as well as the effects of the interaction between the plant density and seed size on the seed mass, green seed occurence, and physiological seed quality. The experiments were carried out in the growing seasons of the years 2013/14 and 2014/15 in a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, under a randomized complete block design, using the NK 7059 RR cultivar with six replications. Four plant densities (150, 300, 440, and 560 thousand viable seeds ha–1 were evaluated. After the classification of seeds into four sizes, using a set of sieves, a 4 ×4 factorial scheme was used for the statistical analysis of the four plant densities and four seed sizes. The seed samples were evaluated for the seed mass, green seed percentage, germination, and vigor. Under thermal and water stress during seed development, an increase in the seeding rate led to a reduction in the green seed occurrence and an increase in the seed size and mass. However, in the absence of thermal and water stress, the seed size and mass were not altered by the seeding rate and, there was no occurrence of green seeds.

  14. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  15. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effects of sodium-orthovanadate and Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds on hepatic and renal lipogenic enzymes and lipid profile during alloxan diabetes · Umesh C S Yadav K Moorthy Najma Z Baquer · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Sodium-orthovanadate (SOV) and seed powder of Trigonella foenum graecum Linn.

  16. A system for generating virtual seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sako Y.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed analysts need to identify seeds, and seed catalogs are used as a reference to accomplish this task. Conventional seed catalogs supply two-dimensional photographs and hand-drawn diagrams. In this study, a new, three-dimensional representation of seeds is developed to supplement these traditional photographs and drawings. QuickTime VR is a promising method for viewing three-dimensional objects on a computer screen. It permits manipulation of an object by rotating and viewing it from any pre-specified angle at an interactive speed, allowing the viewer the sense of examining a hand-held object. In this study, QuickTime VR object movies of seeds were created as interactive "movies" of seeds that can be rotated and scaled to give the viewer the sensation of examining actual seeds. This approach allows the examination of virtual seeds from any angle, permitting more accurate identification of seeds by seed analysts.

  17. Seed selection by earthworms : chemical seed properties matter more than morphological traits

    OpenAIRE

    Clause, J.; Forey, E.; Eisenhauer, N.; Seal, C.E.; Soudey, A.; Colville, L.; Barot, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Aims : The passage of seeds through the earthworm gut potentially damages seeds, altering seed and seedling performances depending on seed traits. This work was conducted to study to what extent chemical and morphological seed traits determine the seed attractiveness for earthworms. Methods : We tested seed selection via the ingestion and digestion of 23 grassland plant species spanning a range of 14 morphological and chemical traits by two common earthworm species: the anecic Lumbricus te...

  18. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BERTIN

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested ... fruits into plastic bag that was exposed in ambient air in the field; SFD, seeds ..... Concepts and technologies of selected.

  19. Improving the traditional sesame seed planting with seed pelleting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... 1Department of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Agriculture, Adnan Menderes University, Turkey. 2Fethiye ... the pelleted sesame seeds improved the yield significantly ... Sesame holds a special importance in the world's oil.

  20. Laser treatment of radish seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartalov, P.; Nidal, T.

    1987-01-01

    Trials were conducted in unheated plastic greenhouses in 1985-1986 to test the effect of laser treatment on radish seed. Seed of cv Saxia was irradiated with helio-neon laser of 632.8 Nm wave length at: 2-, 4- and 6-fold irradiation. Results showed that plants of all variants emerged almost simultaneously. The root mass was greatest for plants obtained from 4-fold irradiated seed. Treatment enhanced root production in 1985, and in 1986 4-fold irradiation boosted yield by 15%

  1. Studies on the Vigour of Soybean Seeds : II. Varietal Differences in Seed Coat Quality and Swelling Components of Seed during Moisture Imbibition

    OpenAIRE

    Mugnisjah, Wahju Qamara; Shimano, Itaru; Matsumoto, Shigeo; 島野, 至; 松本, 重男

    1987-01-01

    Laboratory experiment was conducted to elucidate the physiological factor determining the association of seed size and seed coat quality with varietal differences in seed vigour, and to pursue an alternative on the mechanism of varietal differences in seed resistance to field weathering. Results of this study revealed that seed polymer change (seed volume change minus seed weight change during moisture imbibition) was the physiological factor determining the association of seed size and seed ...

  2. Seed cryopreservation of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Università

    2013-04-17

    control) and liquid nitrogen-treated seeds were .... 76.0 ± 4.0 (NT in GA3), with an intermediary value of 70.0. ± 5.0% (Cryo seeds in water .... in November, suggesting a loss of dormancy during seed maturation. Furthermore, seed ...

  3. Storage requirements for sugar maple seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry W. Yawney; Clayton M., Jr. Carl

    1974-01-01

    Sugar maple seeds, collected from three trees in northern Vermont, were stored at four temperatures (18, 7, 2, and -10ºC) in combination with four seed moisture contents (35, 25, 17, and 10 percent). Seed moisture content and storage temperature significantly affected keeping ability, and these factors were highly interrelated. Seeds from all trees kept best...

  4. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes...

  5. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.57 Hard seeds. Seeds which remain hard at the end of the prescribed test because they have not absorbed water, due to an impermeable seed coat... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at 15...

  6. Brassica rapa L. seed development in hypergravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musgrave, M.E.; Kuang, A.; Allen, J.; Blasiak, J.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous experiments had shown that microgravity adversely affected seed development in Brassica rapa L. We tested the hypothesis that gravity controls seed development via modulation of gases around the developing seeds, by studying how hypergravity affects the silique microenvironment and seed

  7. Evaluation of Lettuce Genotypes for Seed Thermotolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermoinhibition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination is a common problem associated with lettuce production. Depending on lettuce cultivars, seed germination may be inhibited when temperatures exceed 28oC. The delay or inhibition of seed germination at high temperatures may reduce seedli...

  8. Analysis of seed quality in NS sunflower hybrid seed processed between 2010 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Goran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the processed seed of five sunflower hybrid seed developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. The cultivars were Rimi PR, Duško, NS Dukat, Sumo 1 PR and Sremac. The analysis was conducted on seed lots processed between 2010 and 2014 and involved the following parameters: seed purity percentage, 1000-seed weight, germination energy, germination, seed moisture, number of weed seeds per 1000 grams of seed. The results of the study produced the following average values: seed purity - 99.72%, 1000-seed weight - 67.59g, germination energy - 88.2%, germination - 91.8%, seed moisture - 8.3%. There were not found weeds seeds as well as pathogens on the seed samples, these values are all within the legally prescribed limits.

  9. Autoradiography for iodine-125 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, W.; Divoux, S.; Pothmann, B.; Tabor, P.; Hermann, K.P.; Harder, D.

    1993-01-01

    To study the interior design of model 6702 and 6711 iodine-125 seeds, contact autoradiographs were performed using mammography film. Improved resolution was obtained using a pin-hole camera with a hole of 0.1 mm x 0.1 mm. With these techniques, qualitative determination of the relative activity distribution within each seed was possible. The number of the activated resin spheres and the positions of the centers of these spheres can be exactly determined. A model calculation shows that variations in the arrangement of the activated spheres within a seed have a moderate influence on the dose distribution at source distances below 10 mm. Knowing the exact source configuration may be useful when comparing dose calculations with measured data for model 6702 125 I seeds which are currently employed in ophthalmic plaque and implant therapy of other tumors. 16 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Ethylene, seed germination, and epinasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, E R; Freebairn, H T

    1969-07-01

    Ethylene activity in lettuce seed (Lactuca satina) germination and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) petiole epinasty has been characterized by using heat to inhibit ethylene synthesis. This procedure enabled a separation of the production of ethylene from the effect of ethylene. Ethylene was required in tomato petioles to produce the epinastic response and auxin was found to be active in producing epinasty through a stimulation of ethylene synthesis with the resulting ethylene being responsible for the epinasty. In the same manner, it was shown that gibberellic acid stimulated ethylene synthesis in lettuce seeds. The ethylene produced then in turn stimulated the seeds to germinate. It was hypothesized that ethylene was the intermediate which caused epinasty or seed germination. Auxin and gibberellin primarily induced their response by stimulating ethylene production.

  11. Lack of caching of direct-seeded Douglas fir seeds by deer mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    Seed caching by deer mice was investigated by radiotagging seeds in forest and clear-cut areas in coastal British Columbia. Deer mice tend to cache very few Douglas fir seeds in the fall when the seed is uniformly distributed and is at densities comparable with those used in direct-seeding programs. (author)

  12. Seed mass and mast seeding enhance dispersal by a neotropical scatter-hoarding rodent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.A.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Hemerik, L.

    2004-01-01

    Many tree species that depend on scatter-hoarding animals for seed dispersal produce massive crops of large seeds at irregular intervals. Mast seeding and large seed size in these species have been explained as adaptations to increase animal dispersal and reduce predation. We studied how seed size

  13. Chloroxyanion residue on seeds and sprouts after chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of a 6-h chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed (0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg seed) on total coliform bacteria, seed germination, and on the presence of chlorate and perchlorate residues in seed rinse, seed soak, and in alfalfa sprouts was determined. Chlorate residues in 20000 ppm cal...

  14. Moringa Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana O. Ilesanmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and moringa (Moringa oleifera seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfested grains and analysed statistically. Significantly different means were compared using LSD at <.05. Increasing oil concentration resulted in better cowpea protection, for example, in oviposition where the control had 6513 eggs, only 8 eggs were recorded in pure neem oil-treated sample at 0.5 mL/200 g. Generally, better results were obtained with higher oil concentrations either in their pure forms or mixtures. The control had a total weevil population of 4988, while most treated samples had none. The control samples had 0% uninfested grains, while 73–94% of uninfested grains were observed in treated samples after 6 months of storage. Therefore, mixture of the oils at 1.5 mL/200 g can be effectively used to store cowpea.

  15. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  16. Effects of herbal supplements on growth performance of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax: Change in body composition and some blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVDAN YILMAZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary thyme (Thymus vulgaris, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum as feed additives on growth performance, proximate composition and ammonia excretion of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Four isonitrogenous (48% crude protein and isocaloric (21 kj/g diets were formulated to contain 0% (control or 1% of thyme, rosemary or fenugreek. The thyme supplementation significantly increased protein efficiency ratio, fillet protein levels, protein and energy retentions (P0.05. The results indicate that dietary thyme improved the protein and energy retentions of sea bass.

  17. Utilization of induced mutations in improving legumes in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Hegazi, A. M. T.

    1993-01-01

    More than one hundred articles published by Egyptian research workers dealing with the improvement of some seed-legumes through radiation, radioisotopes, chemical mutagens and induced mutations are briefly summarized and discussed from the point of view of a mutation breeder working in this field since 1961. Articles on faba bean (Vicia faba L.), soybean (Glycine Max L.), lentils (Lens culinaris), chick-pea (Cicer arietinum L.), lupin (Lupinus termis), peas=pea (Pisum sativum L.), cowpea (Vigna sinensis, savi), and fenugreek-helba (Trigonella foenum gracum L.) are reviewed. A very few number of promising mutations have been induced. However, none of them are utilized neither in conventional breeding programs nor as cultivars. This may be due to the lack of central plans and organization between efforts or research work being carried in various institutions. Joint plants and cooperation between research institutions, not only in Egypt but also among the Arab countries, are required in this field which may help in closing the wide gab between production and consumption os seed legumes. (author)

  18. Seed governance. From seed aid to seed system security in fragile areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietberg, P.I.; Gevers, H.; Hospes, O.

    2014-01-01

    Intergovernmental agencies and development organizations, including Cordaid, consider interventions directed at seed security of utmost importance to support smallholders recovering from conflict situations and disasters, and to contribute to revitalisation of local agricultural production and food

  19. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT and accelerated ageing test (AAT. Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest.

  20. Phenolics in the seed coat of wild soybean (Glycine soja) and their significance for seed hardness and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, San; Sekizaki, Haruo; Yang, Zhihong; Sawa, Satoko; Pan, Jun

    2010-10-27

    Hardseededness in annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. Et Zucc.) is a valuable trait that affects the germination, viability, and quality of stored seeds. Two G. soja ecotypes native to Shandong Province of China have been used to identify the phenolics in the seed coat that correlate with the seed hardness and seed germination. Three major phenolics from the seed coat were isolated and identified as epicatechin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside. Of the three phenolics, only the change of epicatechin exhibited a significant positive correlation with the change of hard seed percentages both under different water conditions during seed development and under different gas conditions during seed storage. Epicatechin also reveals a hormesis-like effect on the seed germination of G. soja. Epicatechin is suggested to be functionally related to coat-imposed hardseededness in G. soja.

  1. Equilibrium relative humidity as a tool to monitor seed moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2010-01-01

    The importance of seed moisture in maintaining high seed viability is well known. The seed storage chapters in the Tropical Tree Seed Manual (Hong and Ellis 2003) and the Woody Plant Seed Manual (Bonner 2008a) give a detailed discussion and many references on this point. Working with seeds in an operational setting requires a test of seed moisture status. It is...

  2. The Seed Proteome Web Portal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eGalland

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Seed Proteome Web Portal (SPWP; http://www.seedproteome.com/ gives access to information both on quantitative seed proteomic data and on seed-related protocols. Firstly, the SPWP provides access to the 475 different Arabidopsis seed proteins annotated from 2 dimensional electrophoresis (2DE maps. Quantitative data are available for each protein according to their accumulation profile during the germination process. These proteins can be retrieved either in list format or directly on scanned 2DE maps. These proteomic data reveal that 40% of seed proteins maintain a stable abundance over germination, up to radicle protrusion. During sensu stricto germination (24 h upon imbibition about 50% of the proteins display quantitative variations, exhibiting an increased abundance (35% or a decreasing abundance (15%. Moreover, during radicle protrusion (24 h to 48 h upon imbibition, 41% proteins display quantitative variations with an increased (23% or a decreasing abundance (18%. In addition, an analysis of the seed proteome revealed the importance of protein post-translational modifications as demonstrated by the poor correlation (r2 = 0.29 between the theoretical (predicted from Arabidopsis genome and the observed protein isoelectric points. Secondly, the SPWP is a relevant technical resource for protocols specifically dedicated to Arabidopsis seed proteome studies. Concerning 2D electrophoresis, the user can find efficient procedures for sample preparation, electrophoresis coupled with gel analysis and protein identification by mass spectrometry, which we have routinely used during the last 12 years. Particular applications such as the detection of oxidized proteins or de novo synthetized proteins radiolabeled by [35S]-methionine are also given in great details. Future developments of this portal will include proteomic data from studies such as dormancy release and protein turnover through de novo protein synthesis analyses during germination.

  3. Report on seed born diseases in organic seed and propagation material

    OpenAIRE

    Micheloni, C.; Plakolm, G.; Schärer, H.

    2007-01-01

    The key questions which will be addressed in this report are: • Are seed born diseases an important factor that prevents seed companies from producing organic seeds and organic farmers from using them? • Which seed treatments are available in organic farming? Which treatments are or will be acceptable? To which degree are they effective? • Are the thresholds for seed born diseases different among Member States? Can this cause unfair competition among farmers and seed producers? • ...

  4. Influence of Fungicides Application and Seed Processing on Sunflower Seed Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Šimić, Branimir; Svitlica, Brankica; Ćosić, Jasenka; Andrić, Luka; Rozman, Vlatka; Postić, Jelena; Liović, Ivica

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research was to determine influence of methods of seed processing and application of fungicides on mass of 1000 seeds, intergrowth energy and seed germination of sunflower hybrids ‘Favorit’ and ‘Apolon’ in 2005 and 2006. Selected untreated seeds of both sunflower hybrids (control) had a minimal mass of 1000 seeds (55-59 g), intergrowth energy (18-37 %) and seed germination (39-52 %). In both years of research maximal seed quality, mass of 1000 seeds (67-69 g), intergrowth energ...

  5. Neutron irradiation of seeds 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-10-01

    The irradiation of seeds with the fast neutron of research reactors has been hampered by difficulties in accurately measuring dose and in obtaining repeatable and comparable results. Co-ordinated research under an international program organized by the FAO and IAEA has already resulted in significant improvements in methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and in obtaining accurate dosimetry. This has been accomplished by the development of a standard reactor facility for the neutron irradiation of seeds and standard methods for determining fast-neutron dose and the biological response after irradiation. In this program various divisions of the IAEA and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division co-operate with a number of research institutes and reactor centres throughout the world. Results of the preliminary experiments were reported in Technical Reports Series No. 76, ''Neutron Irradiation of Seeds''. This volume contains the proceedings of a meeting of co-operators in the FAO/IAEA Neutron Seed Irradiation Program and other active scientists in this field. The meeting was held in Vienna from 11 to 15 December 1967. Refs, figs and tabs.

  6. Neutron irradiation of seeds 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    The irradiation of seeds with the fast neutron of research reactors has been hampered by difficulties in accurately measuring dose and in obtaining repeatable and comparable results. Co-ordinated research under an international program organized by the FAO and IAEA has already resulted in significant improvements in methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and in obtaining accurate dosimetry. This has been accomplished by the development of a standard reactor facility for the neutron irradiation of seeds and standard methods for determining fast-neutron dose and the biological response after irradiation. In this program various divisions of the IAEA and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division co-operate with a number of research institutes and reactor centres throughout the world. Results of the preliminary experiments were reported in Technical Reports Series No. 76, ''Neutron Irradiation of Seeds''. This volume contains the proceedings of a meeting of co-operators in the FAO/IAEA Neutron Seed Irradiation Program and other active scientists in this field. The meeting was held in Vienna from 11 to 15 December 1967. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. [Dynamics of seed rain of Tripterygium hypoglaucum and soil seed bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Wei, Yong-Sheng; Liu, Xiang; Su, Shu; Qu, Xian-You; Wang, Chang-Hua

    2017-11-01

    Tripterygium hypoglaucum is an endangered species in arid areas of Xiannvshan Chongqing, China. The dynamic characteristics of seed rain and soil seed bank of T. hypoglaucum were studied in this paper.Results showed that T. hypoglaucum years of mature seeds distribution number up to October; the seed rain occurred from the last ten-day of September to in the first ten-day of November and the peak of scattered seed rain concentrated in the October.The numbers of soil seed bank at 2-5 cm soil layer,mainly concentrated in the 1.5-3.5 m range. T. hypoglaucum seeds to the wind as a force for transmission, the transmission ability is strong, but in the process of natural reproduction, full mature seed rate is low, the soil seed bank seeds seed short-lived factors these were unfavorable for the natural reproduction of T. hypoglaucum population. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Factors influencing upon the incidence of seed migration in I-125 seed transperineal prostate implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itami, Jun; Onishi, Kayoko; Kanemura, Mikio

    2005-01-01

    Transperineal I-125 seed brachytherapy for prostate cancer is rapidly expanding in Japan. Seed migrations to lung and abdomen are well known complication in the seed brachytherapy. The rate of incidence and the predisposing factors were studied. From April 2004 through January 2005, 36 patients underwent transperineal I-125 seed brachytherapy for prostate cancer. In all patients loose I-125 seeds were inserted with Mick applicator according to modified peripheral loading pattern. One day, 1 week, and 1 month after the procedure, posteroanterior and lateral chest X-rays and abdominal X-ray were performed. Abdominal and chest seed migrations were seen in 11 (30.6%) and 14 (38.9%) patients, respectively. In total, 20 patients (55.6%) showed seed migrations. Forty-two I-125 seeds migrated out of 2,508 implanted seeds. Most of the migrations were seen until 1 month after the procedure. The preplanned number of the extraprostatic seeds had a statistically significant influence upon the incidence of seed migration. Seed migration is not a rare phenomenon in transperineal I-125 seed brachytherapy for prostate cancer. To confirm seed migration, X-ray examinations 1 month after the procedure are suited. At the preplanning, the number of extraprostatic seeds should be limited to minimal to decrease the incidence of seed migration. In future, the introduction of linked I-125 seeds is preferred. (author)

  9. Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) seed quality in relation to seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... bottles were seal-locked and kept in the accelerated ageing cham- ber at three ... Hundred (100) seeds of each treatment were performed in plastic ..... by heat stress: the activation state of Rubisco as a limiting factor in.

  10. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BERTIN

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... high, suggesting that wet soil is necessary for an on farm reliable evaluation of seed fermentation method in the .... with tap water, and sundried in ambient air until attaining 6 to 7% moisture. ..... arabica in Brazil. Int. J. Food ...

  11. Nutrient composition of Dacryodes edulis seed and seed coat mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.U. OGUNKA-NNOKA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the nutrient composition of D. edulis seed and seed coat mixture. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemicals, proximate, and vitamin compositions were evaluated using standard methods. Saponins were very high, alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins were high, while terpenoids were low, and glycosides, aldehydes, and steroids were absent. The quantitative phytochemical determination followed the order; saponin > kaempferol > rutin > catechin > tannin > sapogenin > lunamarine > phenol > ribalinidine > anthocyanin > oxalate > phytate. For the proximate composition, carbohydrates had the highest concentration, followed by lipids and fibre, while, protein concentration was the lowest. Vitamin E (5.42 mg/100g, vitamin C (3.24 mg/100g, and vitamin A (2.84 mg/100g were the highest occurring constituent vitamins while vitamin B12 (0.035 mg/100g and vitamin B2 (0.075 mg/100g were the least occurring vitamins. This study has shown the rich phytochemical composition of D. edulis seed and seed coat mixture while showing deficiencies in proteins, distinct vitamins, and ash contents.

  12. Chlorophyll in tomato seeds: marker for seed performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhartanto, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Using Xe-PAM, laser induced fluorometry and high performance liquid chromatography we found that chlorophyll was present in young tomato (cv. Moneymaker) seeds and was degraded during maturation. Fluorescence microscopy and imaging showed that the majority of chlorophyll is located in the

  13. The role of seed priming in improving seed germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    win7

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... As a result, fresh and dry weights of shoot and root were improved. Seed priming alleviated the inhibitory effect of salt stress on germination and seedling growth of maize under salt stress. ... Salinization is more spreading in irrigated lands because of inappropriate management of irrigation and drainage.

  14. Seed producer cooperatives in the Ethiopian seed sector and their role in seed supply improvement: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sisay, D.T.; Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    The role of seed producer cooperatives (SPCs) in the Ethiopian seed sector and their contribution to seed supply improvement have received attention from researchers, policymakers, and development partners. However, limited work has been done in reviewing and documenting their involvement in the

  15. Forest Seed Collection, Processing,and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    This chapter pertains to the techniques of capturing the best genetic quality seeds a seed source can produce at the optimal time of high physiological maturity and maintaining these qualities throughout the handling processes, all at a minimum cost. Different collection and processing techniques...... apply to different species, seed types, situations, and purposes. Yet the collection and processing toolbox contains a number of “standard” methods for most of these groups. Records and documentation help in evaluating “best practice” for future method improvement, and it helps in linking offspring...... to seed source. Conditions are set for short- and long-term seed storage by their inert storability physiology. The potential storage life of seed may for some robust “orthodox” species be several decades, while no available storage conditions can maintain viability for sensitive “recalcitrant” seed. Seed...

  16. Chemical Composition of Kapok (Ceibapentandra) Seed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -5 years. ... with a sharp steel knife from which healthy seeds were selected. ... Total carbohydrate was determined by difference. .... resistance to microbial attack of plant tissue (Taiz and. Zeiger, 1991 ... Maintenance of soybean seed quality in ...

  17. Inheritance of egusi seed type in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmini, G; Wehner, T C; Jarret, R L

    2004-01-01

    An unusual seed mutant in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) has seeds with a fleshy pericarp, commonly called egusi seeds. The origin of the phenotype is unknown, but it is widely cultivated in Nigeria for the high protein and carbohydrate content of the edible seeds. Egusi seeds have a thick, fleshy pericarp that appears during the second to third week of fruit development. We studied the inheritance of this phenotype in crosses of normal seeded Charleston Gray and Calhoun Gray with two plant introduction accessions, PI 490383w and PI 560006, having the egusi seed type. We found that the egusi seed type is controlled by a single recessive gene, and the symbol eg was assigned. Copyright 2004 The American Genetic Association

  18. Seed technology training in the year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed quality will remain the centerpiece of successful agricultural programs in the year 2000. As new changes occur in agriculture driven by advancements in biotechnology, seed enhancement technologies, a more diverse seed user clientele, and communication technologies, successful seed companies will require a knowledgeable and informed workforce to assure high seed quality. A new approach to seed technology training is professed that relies on the establishment of a three-institution consortium to achieve this objective. Advantages of the consortium are identified that emphasize the unique strengths of each institution, their geographic advantages representing major climactic/agricultural zones in the world, and differing approaches to seed technology training that are facilitated by increasing ease of global communication. This may be a better way to conduct seed technology training in the year 2000.

  19. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed

  20. Updated Methods for Seed Shape Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Cervantes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation in seed characters includes differences in seed size and shape. Seed shape is an important trait in plant identification and classification. In addition it has agronomic importance because it reflects genetic, physiological, and ecological components and affects yield, quality, and market price. The use of digital technologies, together with development of quantification and modeling methods, allows a better description of seed shape. Image processing systems are used in the automatic determination of seed size and shape, becoming a basic tool in the study of diversity. Seed shape is determined by a variety of indexes (circularity, roundness, and J index. The comparison of the seed images to a geometrical figure (circle, cardioid, ellipse, ellipsoid, etc. provides a precise quantification of shape. The methods of shape quantification based on these models are useful for an accurate description allowing to compare between genotypes or along developmental phases as well as to establish the level of variation in different sets of seeds.

  1. Effects of seed and seedling predation by small mammals on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed predation reduced seedling recruitment from seeds planted in March 1986 in mature fynbos, but ... Seed predation did not significantly reduce seedling recruitment from seed planted in July, August and ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Use of linear discriminant function analysis in seed morphotype ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of linear discriminant function analysis in seed morphotype relationship study in 31 ... Data were collected on 100-seed weight, seed length and seed width. ... to the Mesoamerican gene pool, comprising the cultigroups Sieva-Big Lima, ...

  3. Challenges and opportunities for quality seed potato availability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Key words: Quality seed potato, seed system and challenges ... systems, inadequate seed production and ... informal sources of seed potato, despite ..... Directorate General for International. Co-operation (DGIC), Brussels,. Belgium. 1540pp.

  4. Efficient chaining of seeds in ordered trees

    OpenAIRE

    Allali, Julien; Chauve, Cédric; Ferraro, Pascal; Gaillard, Anne-Laure

    2010-01-01

    International audience; We consider here the problem of chaining seeds in ordered trees. Seeds are mappings between two trees Q and T and a chain is a subset of non overlapping seeds that is consistent with respect to postfix order and ancestrality. This problem is a natural extension of a similar problem for sequences, and has applications in computational biology, such as mining a database of RNA secondary structures. For the chaining problem with a set of m constant size seeds, we describe...

  5. Composition of jojoba seeds and foliage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbiscar, A.J.; Banigan, T.F.

    1978-01-01

    The desert shrub jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) may be browsed by cattle. The seeds have about 50% oil but the extracted meal is at present unsuitable for feeding. Simmondsin, the most prevalent toxin, is present in seed, 2.3%, and in husks, leaves and twigs. Seeds contained another toxin, Simmondsin 2'-ferulate. The contents of oil, protein, carbohydrate and amino acids in seed are tabulated. 13 references.

  6. Drug Plant Seed Viability Preservation by Cryoconservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sh. Dodonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the possibility of cryopreservation of seeds of several species of drug plants in Central Kazakhstan – Tanacetum ulutavicum, Niedzwedzkia semiretschenskia, Rhaponticum carthamoides. To increase the amount of viable seeds after liquid nitrogen freezing, we used different defrosting temperatures, deposited seeds with different moisture contents and used different containers for cryopreservation. Recommendations, concerning conditions of cryopreservation of seeds of these drug plant species were developed, basing on the obtained results.

  7. Training and research in seed technology. No quality seeds without skilled staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    The seed industry in the Netherlands is the largest exporter of horticultural seeds, reaching farmers in every country of the world. High seed quality is one of the key factors of this success. Maintaining and increasing the level of seed qualtiy requires skilled staff, innovation and collaboration

  8. How seed orchard culture affects seed quality: experience with the southern pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett

    1996-01-01

    Tree improvement programs have influenced significantly the quality of southern pine seeds produced when compared to collections from native stands. Seed orchard management practices such as fertilization can increase seed size and reduce seed dormancy. These result in the need for less complex pregermination treatments. Repeated cone collections from the same clones...

  9. Consistent individual differences in seed disperser quality in a seed-eating fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollux, Bart J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Animal-mediated seed dispersal (zoochory) is considered to be an important mechanism regulating biological processes at larger spatial scales. To date, intra-specific variation in seed disperser quality within seed-dispersing animals has not been studied. Here, I employed seed feeding trials to

  10. Securing Access to Seed: Social Relations and Sorghum Seed Exchange in Eastern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGuire, S.

    2008-01-01

    Access to seed is crucial for farming, though few studies investigate household-level access in the informal `farmer seed systems¿ which still supply most seed in poor countries. This paper uses empirical data of seed exchange practices for sorghum in eastern Ethiopia to analyze how social

  11. seed germination and seedlings growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... however, abscisic acid (ABA) can counter this effect by keeping seeds ... Tris-HCl buffer at pH 8.8, with constant current set at 20 mA/gel. The gels were ..... on plants is rarely studied and the importance of 20E in the life cycle ...

  12. The Seed Is the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antone, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Since humanities arise from a specific place and from the people of that place, this article will focus on Peacemaker's revolutionary teachings about the seed of law. Long before the people from across the ocean arrived here on Turtle Island (North America) there was much warfare happening. According to John Mohawk (2001, para. 1), an Iroquoian…

  13. Seed production for fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosca, G.

    1992-01-01

    With the aim of assessing commercialization prospects for vegetable oils to be used as diesel fuel alternatives, this paper provides maps indicating regional production quantities for soybean, rape and sunflower seeds in Italy. It then tables and discusses the results of energy input-output analyses carried out for rape and soybean oil production

  14. Hormones and tomato seed germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Using GA- and ABA-deficient mutants, exogenous gibberellins (GAs), abscisic acid (ABA) and osmoticum, we studied the roles of GAs and ABA in the induction of cell cycle activities, internal free space formation and changes in water relations during seed development and imbibition in tomato. First of

  15. Spiny hopsage fruit and seed morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd; Marshall R. Haferkamp

    1996-01-01

    Rangeland seedings of spiny hopsage (Gruyia spinosa [Hook.] Moq.) may be made with either bracted utricles or seeds. Problems have resulted from inconsistent use of terminology describing these 2 structures and the fact their germination and seedling emergence is not the same with similar environmental conditions and seeding techniques. We examined...

  16. Galactinol as marker for seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza Vidigal, De D.; Willems, L.A.J.; Arkel, van J.; Dekkers, S.J.W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Bentsink, L.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced seed longevity or storability is a major problem in seed storage and contributes to increasedcosts in crop production. Here we investigated whether seed galactinol contents could be predictive forseed storability behavior in Arabidopsis, cabbage and tomato. The analyses revealed a positive

  17. Seed dormancy and germination : light and nitrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of the life cycle of seed plants is the formation and development of seeds on the motherplant and the subsequent dispersal. An equally important element of the survival strategy is the ability of seeds to prevent germination in unfavorable

  18. Dormancy cycling in seeds: mechanisms and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    The life cycle of most plants starts, and ends, at the seed stage. In most species mature seeds are shed and dispersed on the ground. At this stage of its life cycle the seed may be dormant and will, by definition, not germinate under favourable conditions (Bewley, 1997).

    Seasonal

  19. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  20. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  1. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all...

  2. Running title: Water distribution in chickpea seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agriphy20

    2012-07-24

    Jul 24, 2012 ... molecular mobility of cellular water in magnetically exposed seeds as compared to unexposed seeds. Analysis of ... protrusion takes place through the seed coat and absorption .... directly related to water activity (aw) of the cell water. (Gambhir ..... plants, including photosynthesis, respiration and enzymatic ...

  3. Strategies for Seed Propagation of Native Forbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer

    2006-01-01

    Native forbs are an increasingly important component of container production for many public and private nurseries. Propagators are often called upon to grow species with unknown requirements. A systematic approach is required to obtain plants from seeds of these species, beginning with determining what is a propagule and evaluating seed quality. Next, seed dormancy...

  4. Inheritance of fresh seed dormancy in groundnut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... Seed dormancy has been defined as the failure of an intact, viable seed to ... expected ratio of 3 dormant : 1 non-dormant seeds in F2 generations of crosses of ICGV 87378 and ICGV ... ICGV 87378 x ICGV 86158. 163. 0. 163.

  5. Spinach seed quality - potential for combining seed size grading and chlorophyll flourescence sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Boelt, Birte

    2013-01-01

    might therefore improve the establishment of spinach for producers. Spinach seeds were harvested at five different times (H1, H2, H3, H4 and H5) starting 3 weeks before estimated optimum harvest time. The harvested seeds were sorted according to chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) and seed size. Two harvest.......5–3.25 mm size seeds had germinated on day 3 than both their larger and smaller counterparts at the later time of harvest (H4). Seeds with a diameter below 2.5 mm displayed the lowest MGT. Commercially, the use of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF)-sorted seeds, in combination with seed size sorting, may provide...

  6. [Effects of illumination and seed-soaking reagent on seed germination of Solanum nigrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan-Jie; Wei, Shu-He; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Hu, Ya-Hu; Niu, Rong-Cheng

    2009-05-01

    To explore a rapid seed germination method for hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, a germination experiment with different illumination and seed-soaking treatments was conducted in constant temperature box and greenhouse, with filter as burgeon base. Under illumination, the germination rate was about 5 times high of that without illumination (P seed germination of S. nigrum. All test seed-soaking reagents could significantly improve the germination rate of S. nigrum (P seeds treated with H2O2 had the shortest germination time. The germination rate of seeds soaked but without cleaning was 2-3 times as high as that of seeds soaked and cleaned with water.

  7. The biomechanics of seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrecher, Tina; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2017-02-01

    From a biomechanical perspective, the completion of seed (and fruit) germination depends on the balance of two opposing forces: the growth potential of the embryonic axis (radicle-hypocotyl growth zone) and the restraint of the seed-covering layers (endosperm, testa, and pericarp). The diverse seed tissues are composite materials which differ in their dynamic properties based on their distinct cell wall composition and water uptake capacities. The biomechanics of embryo cell growth during seed germination depend on irreversible cell wall loosening followed by water uptake due to the decreasing turgor, and this leads to embryo elongation and eventually radicle emergence. Endosperm weakening as a prerequisite for radicle emergence is a widespread phenomenon among angiosperms. Research into the biochemistry and biomechanics of endosperm weakening has demonstrated that the reduction in puncture force of a seed's micropylar endosperm is environmentally and hormonally regulated and involves tissue-specific expression of cell wall remodelling proteins such as expansins, diverse hydrolases, and the production of directly acting apoplastic reactive oxygen. The endosperm-weakening biomechanics and its underlying cell wall biochemistry differ between the micropylar (ME) and chalazal (CE) endosperm domains. In the ME, they involve cell wall loosening, cell separation, and programmed cell death to provide decreased and localized ME tissue resistance, autolysis, and finally the formation of an ME hole required for radicle emergence. Future work will further unravel the molecular mechanisms, environmental regulation, and evolution of the diverse biomechanical cell wall changes underpinning the control of germination by endosperm weakening. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Improving seed potato quality in Ethiopia: a value chain perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, use of low-quality seed potatoes by the majority of potato growers is
    associated with underdevelopment of the seed potato value chains. Three seed potato systems are present in Ethiopia: the informal seed system, the alternative seed system and the formal seed system. This chapter

  9. Evaluation of seed production of scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to investigate seed production in a 13 years-old scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clonal seed orchard, including 30 clones. Eight of cone and seed traits as number of fertile and infertile scales, cone volume, cone number, filled and empty seed number, seed efficiency and 1000 seed weight were ...

  10. Multivariate NIR studies of seed-water interaction in Scots Pine Seeds (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lestander, Torbjörn

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes seed-water interaction using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multivariate regression models and Scots pine seeds. The presented research covers classification of seed viability, prediction of seed moisture content, selection of NIR wavelengths and interpretation of seed-water interaction modelled and analysed by principal component analysis, ordinary least squares (OLS), partial least squares (PLS), bi-orthogonal least squares (BPLS) and genetic algorithms. The potenti...

  11. Influence the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Salni Salni; Poedji Loekitowati Hariani; Hanifa Marisa Hanifa

    2017-01-01

    This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester). Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level), Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level) and Lahat District (627 m above s...

  12. Influence of the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Salni, Salni; Hariani, Poedji Loekitowati; Hanifa, Hanifa Marisa

    2017-01-01

    This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester). Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level), Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level) and Lahat District (627 m above s...

  13. Composition comprising lignin and antidi arrheal component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising lignin and at least one compound selected from the group consisting of bromelain, papain, tannin, carvacrol, thymol, alliin, allicin, fenugreek seed, egg, poppy, poppy seeds, humic acid, roots, kaolin, catechu, cellulase, flavonoid...

  14. [Procedure of seed quality testing and seed grading standard of Prunus humilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hao; Ren, Guang-Xi; Gao, Ya; Luo, Jun; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Li, Wei-Dong

    2014-11-01

    So far there exists no corresponding quality test procedures and grading standards for the seed of Prunus humilis, which is one of the important source of base of semen pruni. Therefor we set up test procedures that are adapt to characteristics of the P. humilis seed through the study of the test of sampling, seed purity, thousand-grain weight, seed moisture, seed viability and germination percentage. 50 cases of seed specimens of P. humilis tested. The related data were analyzed by cluster analysis. Through this research, the seed quality test procedure was developed, and the seed quality grading standard was formulated. The seed quality of each grade should meet the following requirements: for first grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 68%, thousand-grain weight 383 g, purity ≥ 93%, seed moisture ≤ 5%; for second grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 26%, thousand-grain weight ≥ 266 g, purity ≥ 73%, seed moisture ≤9%; for third grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 10%, purity ≥ 50%, thousand-grain weight ≥ 08 g, seed moisture ≤ 13%.

  15. Myrmecochory and short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus: Ant species and seed characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, J. M.; Oliveras, J.; Gómez, C.

    2009-05-01

    Benefits conferred on plants in ant-mediated seed dispersal mutualisms (myrmecochory) depend on the fate of transported seeds. We studied the effects of elaiosome presence, seed size and seed treatment (with and without passage through a bird's digestive tract) on short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus. In our study, we define short-term seed, or initial, seed fate, as the location where ants release the seeds after ant contact with it. The elaiosomes had the most influence on short-term fate, i.e. whether or not seeds were transported to the nest. The workers usually transported big seeds more often than small ones, but small ants did not transport large seeds. Effect of seed size on transport depended on the ant species and on the treatment of the seed (manual extraction simulating a direct fall from the parent plant vs. bird deposition corresponding to preliminary primary dispersal). Probability of removal of elaiosome-bearing seeds to the nest by Aphaenogaster senilis increased with increasing seed weight.

  16. Trade and Transfer of Tree Seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    testing records. Genetic quality is documented as documents on origin or seed source. New types of tree planting by smallholders imply special problems in distribution and supply systems since production systems for tree seeds have large areas while many consumers have small space for planting....... A centralized forest seed supply contains large central units with good facilities for production and procurement but is far from seed users. Alternative decentralized systems with many small producers may have problems meeting high standards of seed quality and dealing with central regulations....

  17. Stimulation of lettuce seed germination by ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, F B; Lonski, J

    1969-02-01

    Ethylene increased the germination of freshly imbibed lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grand Rapids) seeds. Seeds receiving either red or far-red light or darkness all showed a positive response to the gas. However, ethylene was apparently without effect on dormant seeds, those which failed to germinate after an initial red or far-red treatment. Carbon dioxide, which often acts as a competitive inhibitor of ethylene, failed to clearly reverse ethylene-enhanced seed germination. While light doubled ethylene production from the lettuce seeds, its effect was not mediated by the phytochrome system since both red and far-red light had a similar effect.

  18. GERMINATION STUDIES ON Tabebuia impetiginosa Mart. SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Aparecido Amaral da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination and seedling production of native forest tree species are an important step in ex situ conservation programs and in the reforestation with ecological purposes. Therefore, understanding seed germination and its regulation is mandatory for the complete success of the conservation programs and revegetation techniques. Thus, morphological studies, temperature requirements for seed germination and its control by gibberellins (GAs were studied in Tabebuia impetiginosa (“ipê-roxo” seeds. The best temperature for germination under constant light was 30oC. The imbibition of T. impetiginosa seeds followed the common triphasic pattern, with most of the seeds attaining phase II at 24 hours and phase III at 72 hours of imbibition. Visible germination, as radicle elongation, started at 30 hours in water-imbibed seeds and at 24 hours in GA-imbibed seeds. Seeds imbibed in Paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, failed to germinate. However, application of exogenous gibberellins overcame inhibition and allowed germination, suggesting that GAs are regulators of Tabebuia impetiginosa seed germination. The results suggested that germination in Tabebuia impetiginosa seeds is controlled by elongation of the radicle and gibberellins may play an important role in regulating it. The possible role of gibberellins is discussed.

  19. [Seed quality test methods of Paeonia suffruticosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ya-Yue; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Liu, Li; Wang, Chang-Lin

    2014-11-01

    In order to optimize the testing methods for Paeonia suffruticosa seed quality, and provide basis for establishing seed testing rules and seed quality standard of P. suffruticosa. The seed quality of P. suffruticosa from different producing areas was measured based on the related seed testing regulations. The seed testing methods for quality items of P. suffruticosa was established preliminarily. The samples weight of P. suffruticosa was at least 7 000 g for purity analysis and was at least 700 g for test. The phenotypic observation and size measurement were used for authenticity testing. The 1 000-seed weight was determined by 100-seed method, and the water content was carried out by low temperature drying method (10 hours). After soaking in distilled water for 24 h, the seeds was treated with different temperature stratifications of day and night (25 degrees C/20 degrees C, day/night) in the dark for 60 d. After soaking in the liquor of GA3 300 mg x L(-1) for 24 h, the P. suffruticos seeds were cultured in wet sand at 15 degrees C for 12-60 days for germination testing. Seed viability was tested by TlC method.

  20. Is seed conditioning essential for Orobanche germination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhine, Dina; Ziadna, Hammam; Joel, Daniel M

    2009-05-01

    Parasitic Orobanchaceae germinate only after receiving a chemical stimulus from roots of potential host plants. A preparatory phase of several days that follows seed imbibition, termed conditioning, is known to be required; thereafter the seeds can respond to germination stimulants. The aim of this study was to examine whether conditioning is essential for stimulant receptivity. Non-conditioned seeds of both Orobanche cumana Wallr. and O. aegyptiaca Pers. [syn. Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Pers.) Pomel] were able to germinate in response to chemical stimulation by GR24 even without prior conditioning. Stimulated seeds reached maximal germination rates about 2 weeks after the onset of imbibition, no matter whether the seeds had or had not been conditioned before stimulation. Whereas the lag time between stimulation and germination response of non-conditioned seeds was longer than for conditioned seeds, the total time between imbibition and germination was shorter for the non-conditioned seeds. Unlike the above two species, O. crenata Forsk. was found to require conditioning prior to stimulation. Seeds of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca are already receptive before conditioning. Thus, conditioning is not involved in stimulant receptivity. A hypothesis is put forward, suggesting that conditioning includes (a) a parasite-specific early phase that allows the imbibed seeds to overcome the stress caused by failing to receive an immediate germination stimulus, and (b) a non-specific later phase that is identical to the pregermination phase between seed imbibition and actual germination that is typical for all higher plants.

  1. Seed counting system evaluation using arduino microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Escobar Paim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of automated systems has been highlighted in the most diverse productive sectors, among them, the agricultural sector. These systems aim to optimize activities by increasing operational efficiency and quality of work. In this sense, the present work has the objective of evaluating a prototype developed for seed count in laboratory, using Arduino microcontroller. The prototype of the system for seed counting was built using a dosing mechanism commonly used in seeders, electric motor, Arduino Uno, light dependent resistor and light emitting diode. To test the prototype, a completely randomized design (CRD was used in a two-factorial scheme composed of three groups defined according to the number of seeds (500, 1000 and 1500 seeds tested, three speeds of the dosing disc that allowed the distribution in 17, 21 and 32 seeds per second, with 40 repetitions evaluating the seed counting prototype performance in different speeds. The prototype of the bench counter showed a moderate variability of seed number of counted within the nine tests and a high precision in the seed count on the distribution speeds of 17 and 21 seeds per second (s-1 up to 1500 seeds tested. Therefore, based on the observed results, the developed prototype presents itself as an excellent tool for counting seeds in laboratory.

  2. Interactions between seed traits and digestive processes determine the germinability of bird-dispersed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleyheeg, Erik; Claessens, Mascha; Soons, Merel B

    2018-01-01

    Waterbirds disperse a wide range of plant seeds via their guts, promoting biotic connectivity between isolated habitat patches. However, the intensity of digestive forces encountered by seeds, and therefore their potential to survive digestive tract passage, varies within and between waterbird species. Here, we investigate under controlled conditions how the interaction between seed traits and digestive strategies affect the germinability of seeds following waterbird-mediated dispersal. We exposed seeds of 30 wetland plant species to the main digestive processes in the dabbling duck digestive system: mechanical, chemical and intestinal digestion. These were simulated by 1) a pressure test and scarification treatment, 2) incubation in simulated gastric juice, and 3) incubation in intestinal contents of culled mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). We evaluated their separate and combined effects on seed germination, and identified the role of seed size and seed coat traits in resisting the digestive forces. Seeds were generally resistant to separate digestive processes, but highly sensitive to a combination. Resistance to mechanical break-down was reduced by up to 80% by chemical pre-treatment, especially for seeds with permeable coats. Scarified seeds were 12-17% more vulnerable to chemical and intestinal digestive processes than undamaged seeds. Large seeds and seeds with thin, permeable coats were particularly sensitive to chemical and intestinal digestion. These results indicate that efficient digestion of seeds requires multiple digestive processes. The gizzard, responsible for mechanical digestion, plays a key role in seed survival. Omnivorous birds, which have relatively light gizzards compared to pure herbivores or granivores, are thus most likely to disperse seeds successfully. Regardless of digestive strategy, small seeds with tough seed coats are most resistant to digestion and may be adapted to endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds.

  3. Interactions between seed traits and digestive processes determine the germinability of bird-dispersed seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soons, Merel B.

    2018-01-01

    Waterbirds disperse a wide range of plant seeds via their guts, promoting biotic connectivity between isolated habitat patches. However, the intensity of digestive forces encountered by seeds, and therefore their potential to survive digestive tract passage, varies within and between waterbird species. Here, we investigate under controlled conditions how the interaction between seed traits and digestive strategies affect the germinability of seeds following waterbird-mediated dispersal. We exposed seeds of 30 wetland plant species to the main digestive processes in the dabbling duck digestive system: mechanical, chemical and intestinal digestion. These were simulated by 1) a pressure test and scarification treatment, 2) incubation in simulated gastric juice, and 3) incubation in intestinal contents of culled mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). We evaluated their separate and combined effects on seed germination, and identified the role of seed size and seed coat traits in resisting the digestive forces. Seeds were generally resistant to separate digestive processes, but highly sensitive to a combination. Resistance to mechanical break-down was reduced by up to 80% by chemical pre-treatment, especially for seeds with permeable coats. Scarified seeds were 12–17% more vulnerable to chemical and intestinal digestive processes than undamaged seeds. Large seeds and seeds with thin, permeable coats were particularly sensitive to chemical and intestinal digestion. These results indicate that efficient digestion of seeds requires multiple digestive processes. The gizzard, responsible for mechanical digestion, plays a key role in seed survival. Omnivorous birds, which have relatively light gizzards compared to pure herbivores or granivores, are thus most likely to disperse seeds successfully. Regardless of digestive strategy, small seeds with tough seed coats are most resistant to digestion and may be adapted to endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds. PMID:29614085

  4. Evaluation of Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. Seed Quality of Certified Seed and Farm-Saved Seed in Three Provinces of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazaei Fardin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to study the seed quality aspects of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and the extent of weed seed contamination present in wheat seeds produced in different regions of Iran. Four districts (cities, each including 12 fields (six certified seed fields and six farm-saved seed fields, were selected in each regions (provinces. One kilogram of the wheat seed sample was collected from each field for analysis in the laboratory. Wheat seeding was commonly done by farm-saved seed sourced from within the farm due to the high costs of certified seeds purchased from outside sources, followed by the low seed quality. The use of a farm-saved seed resulted in a higher germination rate and a lower mean time to germination compared with another system. The more positive temperatures experienced by mother plants could decrease the number of normal seedling and seedling length vigor index. Generally there was virtually no difference about physiological quality between certified seed and farm-saved seed sector that is related to lower quality of certified seed. The certified produced seeds had the lower number of weed seed, species and genus before and after cleaning. The highest seed purity and 1000 seed weight was obtained from the certified seed production system. The need for cleaning the farm-saved seed samples before sowing is one of the important findings of this survey.

  5. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampton, John G; Boelt, Birte; Rolston, M P

    2013-01-01

    production on three seed quality components: seed mass, germination and seed vigour. In response to elevated CO2, seed mass has been reported to both increase and decrease in C3 plants, but not change in C4 plants. Increases are greater in legumes than non-legumes, and there is considerable variation among...... species. Seed mass increases may result in a decrease of seed nitrogen (N) concentration in non-legumes. Increasing temperature may decrease seed mass because of an accelerated growth rate and reduced seed filling duration, but lower seed mass does not necessarily reduce seed germination or vigour. Like...

  6. Noahs Ark of the seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tristan, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    The so-called 'vault of the end of the world', located in the archipelago Arctic Svalbard, brings together more than 860,000 samples seeds from around the world. The purpose of your existence -like the of thousands of other banks of its kind in all the planet - is to preserve the genetic diversity of crops, most of them are now disappearing. An international treaty approved by the United Nations, and in force since 2004, allowed the construction of this 'Sanctuary' where more than one hundred countries maintain their own banks of seeds, freezing them to 18 degrees below zero to lower its biological activity. (Author)

  7. Increasing seed size and quality by manipulating BIG SEEDS1 in legume species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Liangfa; Yu, Jianbin; Wang, Hongliang; Luth, Diane; Bai, Guihua; Wang, Kan; Chen, Rujin

    2016-11-01

    Plant organs, such as seeds, are primary sources of food for both humans and animals. Seed size is one of the major agronomic traits that have been selected in crop plants during their domestication. Legume seeds are a major source of dietary proteins and oils. Here, we report a conserved role for the BIG SEEDS1 (BS1) gene in the control of seed size and weight in the model legume Medicago truncatula and the grain legume soybean (Glycine max). BS1 encodes a plant-specific transcription regulator and plays a key role in the control of the size of plant organs, including seeds, seed pods, and leaves, through a regulatory module that targets primary cell proliferation. Importantly, down-regulation of BS1 orthologs in soybean by an artificial microRNA significantly increased soybean seed size, weight, and amino acid content. Our results provide a strategy for the increase in yield and seed quality in legumes.

  8. Mycoflora in Exhumed Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa and Its Possible Role in Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther Sánchez-Coronado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The funicular cover of the Opuntia tomentosa seed limits imbibition; germination occurs only when the funicle is weakened or the funicular valve is removed. We investigated the role of fungi in funicular weakening and seed germination. Seeds that had been either buried in one of two sites or stored in the laboratory were germinated with and without a valve. Disinfected or nondisinfected seeds and their naked embryos were cultivated on agar or PDA. None of the 11 identified fungal genera grew on the disinfected control seeds or the embryos. The mycoflora present on disinfected and nondisinfected exhumed seeds suggest that the fungal colonization occurred in the soil and differed between the burial sites. Exhumed seeds with and without a valve germinated in high percentages, whereas only the control seeds without a valve germinated. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the hyphae penetrated, cracked, and eroded the funicular envelope of exhumed seeds.

  9. Alleviate Seed Ageing Effects in Silybum marianum by Application of Hormone Seed Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ata SIADAT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the medicinal plants have seed dormancy or poor seed germination. This is due to their natural compounds or their morphological structure. Existence of such mechanisms makes the seeds able to endure harsh environments, stressful conditions or natural ageing. Different seed enhancement treatments were proposed in order to improve seed germination. In this study, it was examined Silybum marianum seed longevity (0, 48 and 72 hour of ageing and the response to seed priming when using different concentrations of cytokinin (50, 200, 350 and 500 ppm and different duration of treatment (8, 12 and 24 hour. Results revealed that ageing could be successfully alleviated using seed priming. Seed ageing significantly affected seed germination and vigour. Application of cytokinin considerably improved seed vigour in aged and non aged seeds. The most effective seed priming treatment was with 500 ppm cytokine, with the duration of 24 hours. In conclusion, it can be recommend the used of plant growth regulators like cytokine, as a good priming agent, to recover losses of seed quality and improve germination characteristics.

  10. Agrowaste: Phytosterol from Durian Seed

    OpenAIRE

    D. Mohd Nazrul Hisham; J. Mohd Lip; R. Suri; H. Mohamed Shafit; Z.Kharis; K. Shazlin; A. Normah; M.F. Nurul Nabilah

    2012-01-01

    Presence of phytosterol compound in Durian seed (Durio zibethinus) or known as King of fruits has been discovered from screening work using reagent test. Further analysis work has been carried out using mass spectrometer in order to support the priliminary finding. Isolation and purification of the major phytosterol has been carried out using an open column chromatography. The separation was monitored using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Major isolated compounds and pur...

  11. Preplanting irradiation of tomato seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltseva, S.

    1976-01-01

    Seeds of the tomato varieties Pioneer-2, Drouzhba and Ace were treated prior to planting with Co 60 gamma rays in optimal doses of 2000 R and the varieties No 10 x Bison, Triumph and Extase with 1500 R. This treatment raised the germination energy and the plants started flowering and ripening earlier. The index of earliness was enhanced but the overall yield was equal to that of the control plants. (author)

  12. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli eHe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the development of mass spectrometry (MS technology, proteomics has been widely applied in analyzing the mechanisms of different biological processes, and proved to be very powerful. Regulation of rice seed germination is critical for rice cultivation. In recent years, a lot of proteomic studies have been conducted in exploring the gene expression regulation, reserves mobilization and metabolisms reactivation, which brings us new insights on the mechanisms of metabolism regulation during this process. Nevertheless, it also invokes a lot of questions. In this mini-review, we summarized the progress in the proteomic studies of rice seed germination. The current challenges and future perspectives were also discussed, which might be helpful for the following studies.

  13. PHO1 Exports Phosphate from the Chalazal Seed Coat to the Embryo in Developing Arabidopsis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogiatzaki, Evangelia; Baroux, Célia; Jung, Ji-Yul; Poirier, Yves

    2017-10-09

    Seed production requires the transfer of nutrients from the maternal seed coat to the filial endosperm and embryo. Because seed coat and filial tissues are symplasmically isolated, nutrients arriving in the seed coat via the phloem must be exported to the apoplast before reaching the embryo. Proteins implicated in the transfer of inorganic phosphate (Pi) from the seed coat to the embryo are unknown despite seed P content being an important agronomic trait. Here we show that the Arabidopsis Pi exporters PHO1 and PHOH1 are expressed in the chalazal seed coat (CZSC) of developing seeds. PHO1 is additionally expressed in developing ovules. Phosphorus (P) content and Pi flux between the seed coat and embryo were analyzed in seeds from grafts between WT roots and scions from either pho1, phoh1, or the pho1 phoh1 double mutant. Whereas P content and distribution between the seed coat and embryo in fully mature dry seeds of these mutants are similar to the WT, at the mature green stage of seed development the seed coat of the pho1 and pho1 phoh1 mutants, but not of the phoh1 mutant, retains approximately 2-fold more P than its WT control. Expression of PHO1 under a CZSC-specific promoter complemented the seed P distribution phenotype of the pho1 phoh1 double mutant. CZSC-specific down-expression of PHO1 also recapitulated the seed P distribution phenotype of pho1. Together, these experiments show that PHO1 expression in the CZSC is important for the transfer of P from the seed coat to the embryo in developing seeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radioactive seed immobilization techniques for interstitial brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, K.; Podder, T.; Buzurovic, I.; Hu, Y.; Dicker, A.; Valicenti, R.; Yu, Y.; Messing, E.; Rubens, D.; Sarkar, N.; Ng, W.

    2008-01-01

    In prostate brachytherapy, seeds can detach from their deposited sites and move locally in the pelvis or migrate to distant sites including the pulmonary and cardiac regions. Undesirable consequences of seed migration include inadequate dose coverage of the prostate and tissue irradiation effects at the site of migration. Thus, it is clinically important to develop seed immobilization techniques. We first analyze the possible causes for seed movement, and propose three potential techniques for seed immobilization: (1) surgical glue, (2) laser coagulation and (3) diathermy coagulation. The feasibility of each method is explored. Experiments were carried out using fresh bovine livers to investigate the efficacy of seed immobilization using surgical glue. Results have shown that the surgical glue can effectively immobilize the seeds. Evaluation of the radiation dose distribution revealed that the non-immobilized seed movement would change the planned isodose distribution considerably; while by using surgical glue method to immobilize the seeds, the changes were negligible. Prostate brachytherapy seed immobilization is necessary and three alternative mechanisms are promising for addressing this issue. Experiments for exploring the efficacy of the other two proposed methods are ongoing. Devices compatible with the brachytherapy procedure will be designed in future. (orig.)

  15. Partial dehydration and cryopreservation of Citrus seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graiver, Natalia; Califano, Alicia; Zaritzky, Noemí

    2011-11-01

    Three categories of seed storage behavior are generally recognized among plant species: orthodox, intermediate and recalcitrant. Intermediate seeds cannot be stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) without a previous partial dehydration process. The water content (WC) of the seeds at the moment of immersion in LN must be regarded as the most critical factor in cryopreservation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the basis of the optimal hydration status for cryopreservation of Citrus seeds: C. sinensis (sweet orange), C. paradisi (grapefruit), C. reticulata (mandarin) in LN. To study the tolerance to dehydration and LN exposure, seeds were desiccated by equilibration at relative humidities between 11 and 95%. Sorption isotherms were determined and modeled; lipid content of the seeds was measured. Seed desiccation sensitivity was quantified by the quantal response model. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms were determined on cotyledon tissue at different moisture contents to measure ice melting enthalpies and unfrozen WC. Samples of total seed lipid extract were also analyzed by DSC to identify lipid transitions in the thermograms. The limit of hydration for LN Citrus seeds treatment corresponded to the unfrozen WC in the tissue, confirming that seed survival strictly depended on avoidance of intracellular ice formation. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Electrophysiology of pumpkin seeds: Memristors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Tuckett, Clayton; Greeman, Esther A; Markin, Vladislav S

    2016-01-01

    Leon Chua, the discoverer of a memristor, theoretically predicted that voltage gated ion channels can be memristors. We recently found memristors in different plants such as the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica, Aloe vera, apple fruits, and in potato tubers. There are no publications in literature about the existence of memristors in seeds. The goal of this work was to discover if pumpkin seeds might have memristors. We selected Cucurbita pepo L., cv. Cinderella, Cucurbita maxima L. cv Warty Goblin, and Cucurbita maxima L., cv. Jarrahdale seeds for this analysis. In these seeds, we found the presence of resistors with memory. The analysis was based on cyclic voltammetry where a memristor should manifest itself as a nonlinear two-terminal electrical element, which exhibits a pinched hysteresis loop on a current-voltage plane for any bipolar cyclic voltage input signal. Dry dormant pumpkin seeds have very high electrical resistance without memristive properties. The electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangular periodic waves induces electrical responses in imbibed pumpkin seeds with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in pumpkin seeds. NPPB (5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid) inhibits the memristive properties of imbibed pumpkin seeds. The discovery of memristors in pumpkin seeds creates a new direction in the understanding of electrophysiological phenomena in seeds.

  17. Germination of beans and snap beans seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Milan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate germination of good bean seed of the variety Galeb and the bad bean seed of the same variety. We were also interested in germination of bean and snap bean seed damaged by grain weevil, and in germination of the seed treated by freezing which was aimed at controlling grain weevil by cold. We also recorded the differences between bean and snap bean seed, which was or was not treated by freezing in laboratory conditions. This investigation was carried out by applying the two factorial block system. The obtained results were evaluated by the variance analysis and x2 test These results suggest that the bean seed of a bad fraction had low levels of germination, but still it was present. Although the seed of good appearance was carefully selected, germination was slightly lower than it should have been. The seed with the large amount of grain weevils performed a high level germination in laboratory conditions. There were no differences in germination between the seed injured by grain weevil either in beans or in snap beans. As for the seed treated or untreated by freezing, there also were no differences between beans and snap beans. .

  18. Local evolution of seed flotation in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Saez-Aguayo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis seeds rapidly release hydrophilic polysaccharides from the seed coat on imbibition. These form a heavy mucilage layer around the seed that makes it sink in water. Fourteen natural Arabidopsis variants from central Asia and Scandinavia were identified with seeds that have modified mucilage release and float. Four of these have a novel mucilage phenotype with almost none of the released mucilage adhering to the seed and the absence of cellulose microfibrils. Mucilage release was modified in the variants by ten independent causal mutations in four different loci. Seven distinct mutations affected one locus, coding the MUM2 β-D-galactosidase, and represent a striking example of allelic heterogeneity. The modification of mucilage release has thus evolved a number of times independently in two restricted geographical zones. All the natural mutants identified still accumulated mucilage polysaccharides in seed coat epidermal cells. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxometry their production and retention was shown to reduce water mobility into internal seed tissues during imbibition, which would help to maintain seed buoyancy. Surprisingly, despite released mucilage being an excellent hydrogel it did not increase the rate of water uptake by internal seed tissues and is more likely to play a role in retaining water around the seed.

  19. Selected aspects of tiny vetch [Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F.] seed ecology: generative reproduction and effects of seed maturity and seed storage on seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kucewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F. (tiny vetch is a common and persistent segetal weed. Tiny vetch seeds and pods reach different stages of maturity during the crop harvest season. Some seeds that mature before cereal harvest are shed in the field and deposited in the soil seed bank, while others become incorporated into seed material. The objective of this study was to describe selected aspects of tiny vetch seed ecology: to determine the rate of individual reproduction of vetch plants growing in winter and spring grain crops and to evaluate the germination of seeds at different stages of maturity, subject to storage conditions. The seeds and pods of V. hirsuta were sorted according to their development stages at harvest and divided into two groups. The first group was stored under laboratory conditions for two months. In the autumn of the same year, the seeds were subjected to germination tests. The remaining seeds were stored in a storeroom, and were planted in soil in the spring. The germination rate was evaluated after 8 months of storage. Potential productivity (developed pods and flowers, fruit buds was higher in plants fruiting in winter wheat than in spring barley. Vetch plants produced around 17-26% more pods (including cracked, mature, greenish-brown and green pods and around 25% less buds in winter wheat than in spring barley. Immature seeds were characterized by the highest germination capacity. Following storage under laboratory conditions and stratification in soil, mature seeds germinated at a rate of several percent. After storage in a storeroom, seeds at all three development stages broke dormancy at a rate of 72- 75%. The high germination power of tiny vetch seeds stored in a storeroom indicates that this plant can be classified as an obligatory speirochoric weed species.

  20. Impurities in alfalfa seed and their impact on processing technology

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić, Dragoslav; Stanisavljević, Rade; Marković, Jordan; Terzić, Dragan; Anđelković, Bojan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine relevant parameters and optimal alfalfa seed processing technology by a comparative analysis of two systems of machinery for processing natural alfalfa seed of different purity (59.0% and 71.0%) and with different content of impurities. The relevant parameters monitored during the test were: pure seed (%), weed seeds and seeds of other crops (%), inert matter (%), amount of processed seed (kg), seed processing time (min), consumption of steel powder (...

  1. Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

    2011-07-01

    Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat ( Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse ( Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote ( Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox ( Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl ( Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass ( Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass ( Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye ( Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

  2. Seed source, seed traits, and frugivore habits: Implications for dispersal quality of two sympatric primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; González-Di Pierro, Ana Ma; Lombera, Rafael; Guillén, Susana; Estrada, Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Frugivore selection of fruits and treatment of seeds together with seed deposition site are crucial for the population dynamics of vertebrate-dispersed plants. However, frugivore species may influence dispersal quality differently even when feeding on the same fruit species and, while animals disperse some seeds, others simply fall beneath the parent plant.• Methods: In southern Mexico, we investigated to see if within-species seed traits (i.e., length, width, weight, and volume) and germination success differed according to seed source. For five tropical tree species we obtained ingested seeds from two sources, howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) and spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) feces; and noningested seeds from two sources, the ground and tree crowns (with predispersed seeds used as control).• Key results: A principal components' analysis showed that traits of seeds ingested by howler monkeys differed from other sources while seeds ingested by spider monkeys were similar to noningested seeds. Howlers consumed on average the larger seeds in Ampelocera hottlei, Brosimum lactescens, and Dialium guianense. Both primate species consumed the smaller seeds in Spondias mombin, while no seed trait differences among seed sources were found in Spondias radlkoferi. For all five tree species, germination rate was greatest for seeds ingested by howler monkeys.• Conclusions: For the studied plant species, seed ingestion by howler monkeys confers higher dispersal quality than ingestion by spider monkeys or nondispersal. Dispersal services of both primate species, however, are not redundant and may contribute to germination heterogeneity within plant populations in tropical forests. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  3. Yield and quality of white mustard seed depending on the seeding dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevđović Radosav

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sowing dates and harvest dates on yield and quality of white mustard seed been investigated in this study. During the experiment two sowing dates have been tested the first one based on the crops in March, and the other one when the direct sowing was carried out in late May, after the harvest of camomile crops. The harvest of the seed crops in the first seeding date was performed on 1st July, and the second on 15th September. Seed fractioning extracted the following fractions: large (3mm, medium (2 mm and small (1mm. I he objective of the laboratory' experiments was to observe the effect of the seed fraction size on the most important parameters of its quality (germination energy, total germination and absolute mass according to the stipulated terms. Based on the data obtained in the survey, it can be concluded that the seed yield is significantly affected by the varied seeding dates. Earlier seeding date produced significantly increased seed yield (1920 kg/ha than the later seeding date (1160 kg/ha. According to the seed quality parameters, the best characteristics are found in the seed fraction of 3 mm, in both seeding and harvest dates.

  4. Activity uniformity of Ir-192 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, C.C.; Gromadzki, Z.C.

    1981-01-01

    A simple device that uses materials and apparatus commonly available in a radiotherapy department has been designed, fabricated and used in routine quality control relative to the activity uniformity of clinical Ir-192 seeds in ribbons. Detailed evaluation indicated that this system is easy to use and can yield relative activity measurements of individual Ir-192 seeds accurate to within 2%. With this device, activity uniformity of commercial Ir-192 seeds from two manufacturers has been assessed. For the seven shipments of Ir-192 seeds studied, the root mean square variations of individual seed strength from the average of each shipment ranged from 3.4 to 7.1%. Variation in seed activity by more than +- 10% from the average is not uncommon

  5. Improving tomato seed quality- challenges and possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh

    The thesis investigates the possibility of using single seed near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multispectral imaging (MSI) and NIR hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) in combination with chemometrics for rapid determination of the tomato seed quality. The results of the PhD study are compiled in four...... manuscripts (MS). These non-destructive methods show the potential of sorting tomato seeds as per their viability and varietal identity. The results are discussed in the context of possible contribution from these methods in the improvement of the seed quality in Nepal. In MS I, potential application of NIR...... spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics for prediction of tomato seed viability is demonstrated. The work in MS I also emphasises on identifying the important NIR spectral regions for the chemometric model that are relevant to the separation of viable and non-viable seeds. The NIR-HIS method was also...

  6. Commercial Scale Production of Mushroom Liquid Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Hassan Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom liquid seed production technology was developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in the late 1990s. Initially, the liquid seeds were used mainly in the solid state fermentation process for converting oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres into ruminant feed. Considering widespread problems encountered by mushroom growers from use of solid seeds, especially in cases of contaminant agents infecting cultivated bags and inconsistencies in yield, we diverted our focus to utilising liquid seeds as alternative inocula for mushroom cultivation. These problems provide us opportunities to look into the issues and address the problems faced by mushroom growers. However, the technology of producing liquid seed at laboratory scale needs to be primed for commercial production. This paper discusses developmental aspects of mushroom liquid seed at commercial scale for the advancement of the country's mushroom industry. (author)

  7. Chemical solution seed layer for rabits tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A method for making a superconducting article includes the steps of providing a biaxially textured substrate. A seed layer is then deposited. The seed layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different rare earth or transition metal cations. A superconductor layer is grown epitaxially such that the superconductor layer is supported by the seed layer.

  8. Effects of seed priming and water potential on seed germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... (without seed drying), primed and 12 h drying on seed germination of wheat .... completely with the lower half and the paper were rolled and placed ..... water stress and control of germination: a review. Plant Cell Environ.

  9. [Seed geography: its concept and basic scientific issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shun-Li; Wang, Zong-Shuai; Zeren, Wangmu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new concept 'seed geography' was provided, and its definition, research contents, and scientific issues were put forward. Seed geography is a newly developed interdisciplinary science from plant geography, seed ecology, and phytosociology, which studies the geographic variation patterns of seed biological traits as well as their relationships with environmental factors from macroscopic to microscopic, and the seed formation, development, and change trends. The main research contents would include geography of seed mass, geography of seed chemical components, geography of seed morphology, geography of seed cell biological characteristics, geography of seed physiological characteristics, geography of seed genetic characteristics, and geography of flower and fruit. To explore the scientific issues in seed geography would help us to better understand the long-term adaptation and evolution of seed characteristics to natural environments.

  10. [The research of Valeriana amurensis seed germination characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Yang, Chun-Rong; Jiang, Bo; Fang, Min; Du, Juan

    2011-10-01

    To study the effect of different treatments on the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. Used different chemical reagents and seed soakings on the routine germination test and the orthogonal test of the Valeriana amurensis seed, calculated the germination rate under different germination condition. Valeriana amurensis treated with different chemical reagends had different germination rate. The suitable immersion time could enhance Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. Different treatment time, different disposal temperature, different germination temperature would have an impact on the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. In order to raise the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate, use appropriate treatment on the seed before plant seeds; The seed growing must under suitable time and temperature.

  11. New design of experiment combined with UV-Vis spectroscopy for extraction and estimation of polyphenols from Basil seeds, Red seeds, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hussain, Javid; Alshidani, Sulaiman; Alghawi, Said; Albroumi, Mohammed; Alameri, Saif; Jabeen, Farah; Hussain, Zahid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Abri, Zahra K. M.; Farooq, Saima; Naureen, Zakira; Hamaed, Ahmad; Rasul Jan, M.; Shah, Jasmin

    2017-05-01

    New experimental designs for the extraction of polyphenols from different seeds including Basil seed, Red seed, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds were investigated. Four variables the concentration and volume of methanol and NaOH solutions as well as the temperature and time of extraction were varied to see their effect on total phenol extraction. The temperature was varied in the range from 25 °C to 200 °C while the time in the range from 30 to 200 minutes. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters. The estimation of polyphenols was measured through phenols reduction UV-Vis spectroscopic method of phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic acids (Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent). Calibration curve was made by using tannic acid as a polyphenols standard in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10 ppm. The regression line obtained shows the value of correlation coefficient i.e. R = 0.930 and Root mean square error of cross validation (RMSEC) value of 0.0654. The Basil seeds were found containing the highest amount of total phenols i.e. 785.76 mg/100 g. While the Sesame seeds having the least amount i.e. 33.08 mg/100 g. The Ajwan seeds and the Red seeds are containing the medium amounts i.e. 379 mg/100 g and 220.54 mg/100 g respectively.

  12. Regulatory redox state in tree seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Ratajczak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peroxiredoxins (Prx are important regulators of the redox status of tree seeds during maturation and long-term storage. Thioredoxins (Trx are redox transmitters and thereby regulate Prx activity. Current research is focused on the association of Trx with Prx in tree seeds differing in the tolerance to desiccation. The results will allow for better understanding the regulation of the redox status in orthodox, recalcitrant, and intermediate seeds. The findings will also elucidate the role of the redox status during the loss of viability of sensitive seeds during drying and long-term storage.

  13. New design of experiment combined with UV-Vis spectroscopy for extraction and estimation of polyphenols from Basil seeds, Red seeds, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hussain, Javid; Alshidani, Sulaiman; Alghawi, Said; Albroumi, Mohammed; Alameri, Saif; Jabeen, Farah; Hussain, Zahid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Abri, Zahra K M; Farooq, Saima; Naureen, Zakira; Hamaed, Ahmad; Rasul Jan, M; Shah, Jasmin

    2017-05-05

    New experimental designs for the extraction of polyphenols from different seeds including Basil seed, Red seed, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds were investigated. Four variables the concentration and volume of methanol and NaOH solutions as well as the temperature and time of extraction were varied to see their effect on total phenol extraction. The temperature was varied in the range from 25°C to 200°C while the time in the range from 30 to 200minutes. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters. The estimation of polyphenols was measured through phenols reduction UV-Vis spectroscopic method of phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic acids (Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent). Calibration curve was made by using tannic acid as a polyphenols standard in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10ppm. The regression line obtained shows the value of correlation coefficient i.e. R=0.930 and Root mean square error of cross validation (RMSEC) value of 0.0654. The Basil seeds were found containing the highest amount of total phenols i.e. 785.76mg/100g. While the Sesame seeds having the least amount i.e. 33.08mg/100g. The Ajwan seeds and the Red seeds are containing the medium amounts i.e. 379mg/100g and 220.54mg/100g respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Patogenic fungi associated with blue lupine seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over 10% ofseeds harvested in 1991 and 1992 (50 samples, 400 seeds in each sample proved to be infested with various fungi. Fusarium spp. and Botrytis cinerea were the most common pathogens isolated. Fusarium avenaceum was the most common and highIy pathogenic species. Fusarium semitectum and F. tricinctum were highly pathogenic to lupin seedlings but they were the least common Fusarium isolated from seeds. Similarily, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was isolated only from 0,2% seeds tested but this fungus was highly pathogenic to lupin seedlings. Some other fungi know as lupin pathogens (F. oxysporum, Stemphylium botryosum, Pleiochaeta setosa and Phomopsis leptostromiformis were also noted in tested seeds.

  15. Occurrence of root parsley pathogens inhabiting seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies on root parsley pathogens inhabiting seeds were conducted during 1981-1988 and in 1993. Filter paper method with prefreezing and keeping under light was used. Each test sample comprised 500 seeds. Pathogenicity of collected fungal isolates was tested following two laboratory methods. 238 seed samples were studied. 18 fungal species were found but only 7 proved to be important pathogens of root parsley. The most common inhabitants of root parsley seeds were Alternaria spp. A.allernata occurred on 74,8% of seeds but only a few isolates showed to be slightly pathogenic while A.petroselini and A.radicina were higly pathogenic and inhabited 11,4 and 4,2% of seeds, respectively. The second group of important pathogens were species of Fusarium found on 3,9% of seeds. F.avenaceum dominated as it comprised 48% of Fusarium isolates, the next were as follow: F.culmorum - 20%, F.equiseti - 15%, F.solani - 8%, F.oxysporum - 7% and F.dimerum -2%. Some fungi like Botrytis cinerea, Septoria petroselini and Phoma spp. inhabited low number of seeds, respectively O,4; 0,5 and 0,8%, but they were highly pathogenic to root parsley. The fungi: Bipolaris sorokiniana, Drechslera biseptata, Stemphylium botryosum and Ulocludium consortiale showed slight pathogenicity. They were isolated from 3,8% of seeds.

  16. Microscale Insight into Microbial Seed Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locey, Kenneth J; Fisk, Melany C; Lennon, J T

    2016-01-01

    Microbial dormancy leads to the emergence of seed banks in environmental, engineered, and host-associated ecosystems. These seed banks act as reservoirs of diversity that allow microbes to persist under adverse conditions, including extreme limitation of resources. While microbial seed banks may be influenced by macroscale factors, such as the supply of resources, the importance of microscale encounters between organisms and resource particles is often overlooked. We hypothesized that dimensions of spatial, trophic, and resource complexity determine rates of encounter, which in turn, drive the abundance, productivity, and size of seed banks. We tested this using >10,000 stochastic individual based models (IBMs) that simulated energetic, physiological, and ecological processes across combinations of resource, spatial, and trophic complexity. These IBMs allowed realistic dynamics and the emergence of seed banks from ecological selection on random variation in species traits. Macroscale factors like the supply and concentration of resources had little effect on resource encounter rates. In contrast, encounter rates were strongly influenced by interactions between dispersal mode and spatial structure, and also by the recalcitrance of resources. In turn, encounter rates drove abundance, productivity, and seed bank dynamics. Time series revealed that energetically costly traits can lead to large seed banks and that recalcitrant resources can lead to greater stability through the formation of seed banks and the slow consumption of resources. Our findings suggest that microbial seed banks emerge from microscale dimensions of ecological complexity and their influence on resource limitation and energetic costs.

  17. Inheritance of seed coat color in sesame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Laurentin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the inheritance mode of seed coat color in sesame. Two crosses and their reciprocals were performed: UCLA37 x UCV3 and UCLA90 x UCV3, of which UCLA37 and UCLA90 are white seed, and UCV3 is brown seed. Results of reciprocal crosses within each cross were identical: F1 seeds had the same phenotype as the maternal parent, and F2 resulted in the phenotype brown color. These results are consistent only with the model in which the maternal effect is the responsible for this trait. This model was validated by recording the seed coat color of 100 F2 plants (F3 seeds from each cross with its reciprocal, in which the 3:1 expected ratio for plants producing brown and white seeds was tested with the chi-square test. Sesame seed color is determined by the maternal genotype. Proposed names for the alleles participating in sesame seed coat color are: Sc1, for brown color; and Sc2, for white color; Sc1 is dominant over Sc2.

  18. Evaluation of seed vigor tests for determinig alfalfa seed quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamidreza tavakoli kakhki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the best seed vigor test in laboratory which may provide high correlation between alfalfa seedling stablishment in the field, two experiment were conducted in field as well as in laboratory. Four alfalfa cultivars Bami, Ghareyonjeh, Hamadani and Yazdi were used. Different seed vigor tests including standard germination, germination in low tempretaure (5c , germination rate, osmotic stress, accelerated ageing and electrical conductivity tests were laid out in a randomized completely design (RCD with four replications in laboratory experiment‌. The second experiment was carried out in a randomized completely block design (RCBD and each treatment replicated four times‌. Results revealed significant differences (p≤ 0.01 among different cultivars for establishment percentage and rate. Results also showed that there were significant correlations between electrical conductivity test and establishment percentage (r= -0.65 , p ≤ 0.01 as well as establishment rate (r= -0.80 , p ≤ 0.01. Correlation coefficients for rate and emergence percentage were significant and positive (r= 0.91, p ≤ 0.01 . Stepwise method disclosed that the regression model (y=165.23 – 0.15 x r2=0.64 , (p ≤ 0.01 for predicting rate of emergence could be recommended. In this model x (dependent variable is value of electrical conductivity and y (independent variable is rate of emergence.

  19. Chemical Characteristics of Pumpkin Seed Tempeh From Soybean and Pumpkin Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Pujilestari, Shanti; Sandrasari, Diny A; Marida, Rimmaria

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to find the effect of the combination of soybean and pumpkin seeds on the chemical characteristics of pumpkin seed tempeh. The pumpkin seed tempeh samples were analyzed for its water, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate and crude fiber. Meanwhile, support data were isoflavone and zinc. Sensory hedonic was conducted by 25 untrained panelists for selecting the best formulation of soybean and pumpkin seeds in tempeh. The result shows the formulation of soybean and pumpki...

  20. Seed Placement in Permanent Breast Seed Implant Brachytherapy: Are Concerns Over Accuracy Valid?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Daniel, E-mail: dmorton@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency, Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Hilts, Michelle [Department of Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency, Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Batchelar, Deidre [Department of Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency, Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada); Crook, Juanita [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada)

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate seed placement accuracy in permanent breast seed implant brachytherapy (PBSI), to identify any systematic errors and evaluate their effect on dosimetry. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans and postimplant computed tomography scans for 20 PBSI patients were spatially registered and used to evaluate differences between planned and implanted seed positions, termed seed displacements. For each patient, the mean total and directional seed displacements were determined in both standard room coordinates and in needle coordinates relative to needle insertion angle. Seeds were labeled according to their proximity to the anatomy within the breast, to evaluate the influence of anatomic regions on seed placement. Dosimetry within an evaluative target volume (seroma + 5 mm), skin, breast, and ribs was evaluated to determine the impact of seed placement on the treatment. Results: The overall mean (±SD) difference between implanted and planned positions was 9 ± 5 mm for the aggregate seed population. No significant systematic directional displacements were observed for this whole population. However, for individual patients, systematic displacements were observed, implying that intrapatient offsets occur during the procedure. Mean displacements for seeds in the different anatomic areas were not found to be significantly different from the mean for the entire seed population. However, small directional trends were observed within the anatomy, potentially indicating some bias in the delivery. Despite observed differences between the planned and implanted seed positions, the median (range) V{sub 90} for the 20 patients was 97% (66%-100%), and acceptable dosimetry was achieved for critical structures. Conclusions: No significant trends or systematic errors were observed in the placement of seeds in PBSI, including seeds implanted directly into the seroma. Recorded seed displacements may be related to intrapatient setup adjustments. Despite observed seed

  1. Seed abnormalities and associated mycoflora of rain- fed wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    seeds with discoloured embryo (germ) (1.2 – 1.5%) and brush (0.25 – 1.25%) ends. Fusarium graminearum and Helminthosporium sativum were associated with all seeds, ... Key words: Fungi, seed health testing, seed discolouration, wheat. INTRODUCTION. Abnormality in seeds is a major constraint in crop production in ...

  2. Nutritional value OF Bottle Gourd ( Lagenaria siceraria ) Seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whole seeds, dehulled seeds and seed coats of bottle gourd seed (Lagenaria siceraria) were analysed for their proximate, amino acids and mineral compositions. The results of the analysis showed that, whole seed has highest content of moisture (17.5 0.21%) and ash (5.80 0.83%) while dehulled had highest amount ...

  3. Use of linear discriminant function analysis in seed morphotype ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in seed morphology of the Lima bean in 31 accessions was studied. Data were collected on 100-seed weight, seed length and seed width. The differences among the accessions were significant, based on the three seed characteristics. K-means cluster analysis grouped the 31 accessions into four distinct groups, ...

  4. Ecological correlates of seed survival after ingestion by Fallow Deer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouissie, AM; Van der Veen, CEJ; Veen, GF; Van Diggelen, R

    1. The survival and retention of seeds was studied by feeding known quantities of seeds of 25 species to four captive Fallow Deer (Dama dama L.). To test for ecological correlates, plant species were selected to represent large variation in seed size, seed shape, seed longevity and habitat

  5. 7 CFR 201.57a - Dormant seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.57a Dormant seeds. Dormant seeds are viable seeds, other than hard seeds, which fail to germinate when provided the specified germination..., or application of germination promoting chemicals. (b) The percentage of dormant seed, if present...

  6. Seed regulation: choices on the road to reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tripp, R.; Louwaars, N.P.

    1997-01-01

    Major changes in national seed systems, including the rapid development of commercial seed enterprises, the growth of non-governmental organization (NGO) seed projects, and the concomitant decline of public sector seed provision, call for a re-examination of seed regulatory frameworks in developing

  7. Conference Proceedings: Seed Ecology III - The Third International Society for Seed Science Meeting on Seeds and the Environment - "Seeds and Change"; June 20-June 24, 2010; Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemary Pendleton; Susan Meyer; Bitsy Schultz

    2010-01-01

    Seed Ecology III was held in Salt Lake City, Utah in June 2010, sharing the latest research on all aspects of seed ecology. Our meeting was organized around the theme "Seeds and Change." We welcomed contributions in any area of seed ecology. Our agenda also aimed to create bridges between seed ecology and plant conservation, restoration ecology, and global...

  8. Factors affecting the density of Brassica napus seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, L.; Jalink, H.; Denkert, R.; Reaney, M.

    2006-01-01

    Brassica napus seed is composed of low density oil (0.92 g.cm(-3)) and higher density solids (1.3-1.45 g.cm(-3)). Seed buoyant density may potentially be used to determine seed oil content and to separate seeds with different oil contents, however, we have found that seeds with the lowest buoyant

  9. Lipids in citrus sinensis seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, S.; Liaquat, L.; Khalid, B.; Khan, J.I.

    2003-01-01

    The seed oil of citrus sinensis when subjected to different physicochemical tests showed moisture 13.2%, ash 7.5%, ester value 1.29%, free fatty acid 0.4%. iodine value 65.0% and protein value 6.0%. According to lipid analysis. the oil was classified into hydrocarbons. wax esters, sterol esters, triglycerides. free fatty acids, 1,3 and 1,2 diglycerides, alcohols, sterols, monoglycerides, phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylcholines and lysophosphatidylethanolamines. The fatty acid (C/sub 12.0/ - C/sub 21.0/) composition of all lipid classes was determined with the help of thin layer and gas liquid chromatography. (author)

  10. Seed size, shape and vertical distribution in the soil : indicators of seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, RM; Bakker, JP; Grandin, U; Kalamees, R; Milberg, P; Poschlod, P; Thompson, K; Willems, JH

    1998-01-01

    1. We investigated the vertical distribution of seeds in the soil, using data from nine studies in five European countries. We discovered significant correlations between seed shape and distribution in the soil. 2. The classification of the longevity of seeds of plant species has been improved by

  11. Proanthocyanidins in seed coat tegmen and endospermic cap inhibit seed germination in Sapium sebiferum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faheem Afzal; Ni, Jun; Chen, Jing; Wang, Qiaojian; Liu, Wenbo; Chen, Xue; Tang, Caiguo; Fu, Songling; Wu, Lifang

    2018-01-01

    Sapium sebiferum , an ornamental and bio-energetic plant, is propagated by seed. Its seed coat contains germination inhibitors and takes a long time to stratify for germination. In this study, we discovered that the S. sebiferum seed coat (especially the tegmen) and endospermic cap (ESC) contained high levels of proanthocyanidins (PAs). Seed coat and ESC removal induced seed germination, whereas exogenous application with seed coat extract (SCE) or PAs significantly inhibited this process, suggesting that PAs in the seed coat played a major role in regulating seed germination in S. sebiferum . We further investigated how SCE affected the expression of the seed-germination-related genes. The results showed that treatment with SCE upregulated the transcription level of the dormancy-related gene, gibberellins (GAs) suppressing genes, abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and signalling genes. SCE decreased the transcript levels of ABA catabolic genes, GAs biosynthesis genes, reactive oxygen species genes and nitrates-signalling genes. Exogenous application of nordihydroguaiaretic acid, gibberellic acid, hydrogen peroxide and potassium nitrate recovered seed germination in seed-coat-extract supplemented medium. In this study, we highlighted the role of PAs, and their interactions with the other germination regulators, in the regulation of seed dormancy in S. sebiferum .

  12. Supplementing seed banks to rehabilitate disturbed Mojave Desert shrublands: where do all the seeds go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFalco, Lesley A.; Esque, Todd C.; Nicklas, Melissa B.; Kane, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Revegetation of degraded arid lands often involves supplementing impoverished seed banks and improving the seedbed, yet these approaches frequently fail. To understand these failures, we tracked the fates of seeds for six shrub species that were broadcast across two contrasting surface disturbances common to the Mojave Desert—sites compacted by concentrated vehicle use and trenched sites where topsoil and subsurface soils were mixed. We evaluated seedbed treatments that enhance soil-seed contact (tackifier) and create surface roughness while reducing soil bulk density (harrowing). We also explored whether seed harvesting by granivores and seedling suppression by non-native annuals influence the success of broadcast seeding in revegetating degraded shrublands. Ten weeks after treatments, seeds readily moved off of experimental plots in untreated compacted sites, but seed movements were reduced 32% by tackifier and 55% through harrowing. Harrowing promoted seedling emergence in compacted sites, particularly for the early-colonizing species Encelia farinosa, but tackifier was largely ineffective. The inherent surface roughness of trenched sites retained three times the number of seeds than compacted sites, but soil mixing during trench development likely altered the suitability of the seedbed thus resulting in poor seedling emergence. Non-native annuals had little influence on seed fates during our study. In contrast, the prevalence of harvester ants increased seed removal on compacted sites, whereas rodent activity influenced removal on trenched sites. Future success of broadcast seeding in arid lands depends on evaluating disturbance characteristics prior to seeding and selecting appropriate species and seasons for application.

  13. Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for control of Alternaria brassicicola on cabbage seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amein, T.; Wright, Al S.; Wikstrom, M.; Koch, E.; Schmitt, A.; Stephan, D.; Jahn, M.; Tinivella, F.; Gullino, M.L.; Forsberg, G.; Werner, S.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the lack of foliar fungicide use, the organic production of Brassica seeds free of Alternaria spp. is difficult. Therefore, effective seed treatments certified for use in organic farming are needed to eradicate or at least effec­tively reduce the seed-borne inoculum. We here report results of

  14. Bulk YBCO seeded with 45°–45° bridge-seeds of different lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Y-H; Durrell, J H; Dennis, A R; Cardwell, D A

    2013-01-01

    Single grain, (RE)BCO (rare earth–barium–copper oxide) bulk superconductors in large or complicated geometries are required for a variety of potential applications, such as in motors and generators and magnetic shielding devices. As a result, top, multi-seeded, melt growth has been investigated over the past 15 years in an attempt to enlarge the size of (RE)BCO single grains specifically for such applications. Of these multi-seeding techniques, so-called bridge-seeding provides the best alignment of two seeds in a single grain growth process. Here we report, for the first time, the successful growth of YBCO (yttrium–barium–copper oxide) using a special, 45°–45°, arrangement of bridge-seeds. The superconducting properties, including trapped field, of the multi-seeded YBCO grains have been measured for different bridge lengths of the 45°–45° bridge-seeds. The boundaries at the impinging growth front and the growth features of the top, multi-seeded surface and cross-section of the multi-seeded, samples have been analysed using optical microscopy. The results suggest that an impurity-free boundary between the two seeds of each leg of the bridge-seed can form when 45°–45° bridge-seeds are used to enlarge the size of YBCO grains. (paper)

  15. Estimating Cone and Seed Production and Monitoring Pest Damage in Southern Pine Seed Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl W. Fatzinger; H. David Muse; Thomas Miller; Helen T. Bhattacharyya

    1988-01-01

    Field sampling procedures and computer programs are described for monitoring seed production and pest damage in southern pine seed orchards. The system estimates total orchard yields of female strobili and seeds, quantifies pest damage, determines times of year when losses occur, and produces life tables for female strobili. An example is included to illustrate the...

  16. Farmers' seed sources and seed quality: 1. Physical and physiological quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding farmers' seed quality problem will enable farmers to devise strategies to improve quality at the farm level. The study was conducted to assess the quality of seed used by farmers from different sources and regions. A total of 304 wheat (Trticium aestivum L. and T. durum L.) seed

  17. Proanthocyanidins in seed coat tegmen and endospermic cap inhibit seed germination in Sapium sebiferum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faheem Afzal Shah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sapium sebiferum, an ornamental and bio-energetic plant, is propagated by seed. Its seed coat contains germination inhibitors and takes a long time to stratify for germination. In this study, we discovered that the S. sebiferum seed coat (especially the tegmen and endospermic cap (ESC contained high levels of proanthocyanidins (PAs. Seed coat and ESC removal induced seed germination, whereas exogenous application with seed coat extract (SCE or PAs significantly inhibited this process, suggesting that PAs in the seed coat played a major role in regulating seed germination in S. sebiferum. We further investigated how SCE affected the expression of the seed-germination-related genes. The results showed that treatment with SCE upregulated the transcription level of the dormancy-related gene, gibberellins (GAs suppressing genes, abscisic acid (ABA biosynthesis and signalling genes. SCE decreased the transcript levels of ABA catabolic genes, GAs biosynthesis genes, reactive oxygen species genes and nitrates-signalling genes. Exogenous application of nordihydroguaiaretic acid, gibberellic acid, hydrogen peroxide and potassium nitrate recovered seed germination in seed-coat-extract supplemented medium. In this study, we highlighted the role of PAs, and their interactions with the other germination regulators, in the regulation of seed dormancy in S. sebiferum.

  18. Incorporating seeds in activated carbon pellets limits herbicide effects to seeded bunchgrasses when controlling exotic annuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revegetation of exotic annual grass-invaded rangeland with pre-emergent herbicides is challenging because seeding is delayed until herbicide toxicity has diminished, but at this time, exotic annuals can be re-invading. Incorporating seeds into activated carbon pellets may allow seeding to occur at t...

  19. In vitro Seed-dressing Technique for the Control of Seed-borne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro Seed-dressing Technique for the Control of Seed-borne Fungi of Rice variety Faro -29. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Fernasan-D, Apron Plus 50 DS and Dithane–M45), and soaking and slurry methods at various concentrations, for the control of seed-borne fungi of rice variety

  20. Local Seed Business in the Context of Integrated Seed Sector Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, M.H.; Borman, G.D.; Verhoosel, K.S.; Mastenbroek, A.; Heemskerk, Willem

    2015-01-01

    Quality seed is a key input for agriculture, with a direct impact on agricultural production and productivity. Integrated seed sector development (ISSD) is an inclusive approach that recognizes and builds upon a diversity of seed systems in the sector. We use the ISSD approach to guide us in the

  1. ESTIMATION OF EFFICIENCY OF MACHINERY FOR PRE-SOWING TREATMENT OF RADISH SEEDS FOR SEED PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sirota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of pre-sowing treatment of radish seeds aimed at increasing of seed production, yield and its productivity in protected area are presented. The density fractionation of radish seeds by gravity separator is recommended for improvement of planting material quality and increasing of utilization efficiency of frame area.

  2. Genetic analysis of seed-soluble oligosaccharides in relation to seed storability of Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentsink, L.; Alonso-Blanco, C.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Tesnier, K.; Groot, S.P.C.; Koornneef, M.

    2000-01-01

    Seed oligosaccharides (OSs) and especially raffinose series OSs (RSOs) are hypothesized to play an important role in the acquisition of desiccation tolerance and consequently in seed storability. In the present work we analyzed the seed-soluble OS (sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose) content of

  3. Recent trends in post-wildfire seeding in western US forests: costs and seed mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donna L. Peppin; Peter Z. Fule; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Jan L. Beyers; Molly E. Hunter; Pete Robichaud

    2011-01-01

    Broadcast seeding is one of the most commonly used post-fire rehabilitation treatments to establish ground cover for erosion control and mitigation of non-native plant species invasions. Little quantitative information is available on overall trends of post-fire seeding expenditures and seed mixes used over time in forested ecosystems in the western USA. We reviewed...

  4. Potential of endozoochorous seed dispersal by sheep in calcareous grasslands: correlations with seed traits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiters, A.T.; Huiskes, H.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Questions: What is the potential of sheep to serve as seed dispersers via ingestion and defecation in calcareous grasslands? Is the presence of viable seeds from dung correlated with specific seed traits? Location: Calcareous grasslands, South Limburg, the Netherlands/Belgium. Methods: Dung samples

  5. Emergence of native plant seeds in response to seed pelleting, planting depth, scarification, and soil anti-crusting treatment, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clint Shock; Erik Feibert; Lamont Saunders; Nancy Shaw

    2010-01-01

    Seed of native plants is needed to restore rangelands of the Intermountain West. Reliable commercial seed production is desirable to provide the quantity of seed needed for restoration efforts. Establishment of native seed crops has been difficult, because fall-planted seed is susceptible to bird damage, soil crusting, and soil erosion. Fall planting is important for...

  6. Plasticity of seed weight compensates reductions in seed number of oilseed rape in response to shading at flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labra Fernandez, Marcelo; Struik, Paul C.; Evers, Jochem B.; Calderini, Daniel F.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the response of the number of seeds and seed weight to the availability of assimilates is crucial for designing breeding strategies aimed to increase seed and oil yield in oilseed rape. This study aims to answer the questions: i) do seed number and seed weight in oilseed rape differ

  7. Energy cost of seed drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerachet Jittanit

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the energy costs of drying corn, rice and wheat seeds between 3 drying options were compared. They consisted of 1 two-stage drying by using fluidised bed dryer (FBD in the 1st stage and in-store dryer (ISD in the 2nd stage, 2 single-stage drying by fixed bed dryer (FXD and 3 two-stage drying by using FXD in the 1st  stage and ISD in the 2nd  stage. The drying conditions selected for comparison were proved to be safe for seed viability by the previous studies. The results showed that the drying options 2 and 3 consumed less energy than option 1. However, the benefits from lower energy cost must be weighed against some advantages of using FBD. Furthermore, it appeared that running the burners of FXD and ISD for warming up the ambient air during humid weather condition could shorten drying time significantly with a little higher energy cost.

  8. Seed Anatomy and Water Uptake in Relation to Seed Dormancy in Opuntia tomentosa (Cactaceae, Opuntioideae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Segovia, A.; Márquez-Guzmán, J.; Sánchez-Coronado, M. E.; Gamboa de Buen, A.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims There is considerable confusion in the literature concerning impermeability of seeds with ‘hard’ seed coats, because the ability to take up (imbibe) water has not been tested in most of them. Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa were reported recently to have a water-impermeable seed coat sensu lato (i.e. physical dormancy), in combination with physiological dormancy. However, physical dormancy is not known to occur in Cactaceae. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if seeds of O. tomentosa are water-permeable or water-impermeable, i.e. if they have physical dormancy. Methods The micromorphology of the seed coat and associated structures were characterized by SEM and light microscopy. Permeability of the seed-covering layers was assessed by an increase in mass of seeds on a wet substrate and by dye-tracking and uptake of tritiated water by intact versus scarified seeds. Key Results A germination valve and a water channel are formed in the hilum–micropyle region during dehydration and ageing in seeds of O. tomentosa. The funicular envelope undoubtedly plays a role in germination of Opuntia seeds via restriction of water uptake and mechanical resistance to expansion of the embryo. However, seeds do not exhibit any of three features characteristic of those with physical dormancy. Thus, they do not have a water-impermeable layer(s) of palisade cells (macrosclereids) or a water gap sensu stricto and they imbibe water without the seed coat being disrupted. Conclusions Although dormancy in seeds of this species can be broken by scarification, they have physiological dormancy only. Further, based on information in the literature, it is concluded that it is unlikely that any species of Opuntia has physical dormancy. This is the first integrative study of the anatomy, dynamics of water uptake and dormancy in seeds of Cactaceae subfamily Opuntioideae. PMID:17298989

  9. Defatted Detarium senegalense seed-based diet alters lipid profile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defatted Detarium senegalense seed-based diet alters lipid profile, ... cheaper alternative source for good quality protein for dietary purposes, we evaluated Detarium ... Whole seed residue, DDS seed flour and control diets (soybeans) were ...

  10. Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] Seed Quality as Affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... bicolor (L.) Moench seeds subjected to different field cultural management practices. ... Germination and vigour tests indicated that seed selection time did not ... In relation to this, variety E1291 showed better seed vigour, viability and yield ...

  11. Economic performance of community based bean seed production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-05-08

    May 8, 2017 ... in rural areas and those in farmer organisations/cooperatives. However, seed production through this model is concentrated closer to urban areas, where individual seed producers are easily linked to the formal seed system.

  12. heritability and number of genes controlling seed yield in bottle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2018-05-10

    May 10, 2018 ... For seed yield per plant, 100-seed weight per fruit, and number of seeds per fruit, a positive hypothetical heterosis was observed when calabash type was a maternal parent. ...... genes controlled fruit weight in watermelon.

  13. on seed germination and growth of Garcinia kola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-07-31

    Jul 31, 2016 ... Seed germination tests: After 72 h of fermentation in plastic bags, seeds were ... Models (GLM) procedure of the R statistical version 9.1 was used to identify traits .... L-1) had accelerated seed germination. Germination rates.

  14. Increasing storability of Ceratoides arborescens seeds in ultradry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-19

    Jul 19, 2010 ... After ultradrying, aging was accelerated in the seeds (45°C,. 2 days), and some .... According to International Rules for Seed Testing (ISTA, 1993). Seed moisture content was ... Statistical analysis. Data were subjected to ...

  15. EFFECTS OF NATURAL LONG STORAGE DURATION ON SEED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lep

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... germination and viability, seed vigor index and seed vigor under a 7.3% moisture content when .... containing two disks of Whatman filter papers soaked in distilled water. ..... desiccation tolerance (Review Update). Seed Sci.

  16. STATIONARY\\MOBILE SEEDS EXTRACTOR FROM FRUITS OF CUCURBIT CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Tokarev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical specifications and test data in 2012-2014 of a new fixed-mobile seed extractor of pumpkin and squash seeds (varieties of different ripeness, size and shape of fruit and seeds are presented.

  17. Effects of Seed Size on Germination and Early Morphorlogical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Seed Size on Germination and Early Morphorlogical and Physiological Characteristics of Gmelina Arborea , Roxb. ... African Research Review ... They were grouped into 3 categories as large seed size (LSS), medium seed size ...

  18. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sirnak University, Engineering Faculty, Sirnak (Turkey); Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton). (author)

  19. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2010-01-01

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensisL. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton).

  20. processing of fluted pumpkin seeds, telfairia occidentalis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ismail - [2010

    anti-nutritional factors in the seeds as well as growth and animal metabolism. Fresh seeds of ..... Adeyemi of the Department of Anatomy; Mrs. E.A. Adebiyi and O. Olatoye of the. Department .... China Agricultural University: Beijing, China. 2003 ...

  1. Seed bank characteristics of Dutch plant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, RM; Schaminee, JHJ; Bakker, JP; Thompson, K

    With the recent appearances of a new and well-documented classification of the Dutch plant communities (Schaminee et al 1995a,b; 1996) and a database on the seed longevity of plant species of North West Europe (Thompson ct al. 1997a) it was possible to investigate patterns of seed longevity in Dutch

  2. Evaluating cotton seed gland initiation by microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossypol is a terpenoid aldehyde found in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) glands and helps protect the seed from pests and pathogens. However, gossypol is toxic to many animals, so the seed is used mainly in cattle feed, as ruminants are tolerant to the effects of gossypol. In order to develop strat...

  3. Sycamore produces viable seed after six years

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. F. Ike

    1966-01-01

    In the early stages of any tree improvement program it is desirable to know how soon progenies of selected parents can themselves be included in a breeding program. How soon will they produce viable pollen and seed? In the case of sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), the information is meager: the Woody- Plant Seed Manual lists the minimum commercial seedbearing age...

  4. Ants, rodents and seed predation in Proteaceae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... their nests extremely rapidly. One benefit of the ant-plant interaction may be seed escape ... (odourless to humans when dry) household glue or, b) placing seed in a Petri dish ... the layout of exclosures was completed. Response was not as.

  5. Study of seed for synthetical quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, C.K.; Torikai, D.

    1988-01-01

    Natural quartz blocks for seed (synthetic quartz technology) were studied by using various characterization techniques, such as X-ray topography, optical micrography, inspectoscopy, polariscopy and conoscopy, and etching. One of the most commonly found defect is the electrical or Dauphine twin. In The present research, we have developed a methodology to obtain a highly perfect seed for the synthetic quartz industries. (author) [pt

  6. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  7. UTILISATION OF RUBBER SEED OL IN THE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal degradation studies on polyvinyl chloride in the presence of rubber seed oil, epoxidized rubber seed oil and metal ... Epoxidation of RSO was carried out at 29°C using peractic acid ..... impurities such as pigments, Vitamins, sterols ...

  8. Radiosensitivity of quince seeds (Cydonia oblonga Mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Orto, F.A.C.; Ojima, M.; Hiroce, R.; Igue, T.; Ferraz, E.S.B.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Menten, J.O.M.; Tulmann Neto, A.; Ando, A.

    1984-01-01

    The investigation with quince seeds (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) radiosensitivity and the mineral composition of the plants obtained for mutation breeding are related. The concentration of some macro and micronutrients in quince seedlings obtained from irradiated seeds are studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  9. Functionality-driven fractionation of lupin seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Functionality-driven fractionation of lupin seeds

    The growth in the world population requires an increase in the production of protein-rich foods from plant-based materials. Lupin seeds have potential to become a novel plant protein source for food products because they are rich

  10. Proteomics of Arabidopsis seed germination and priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallardo, K.; Job, C.; Groot, S.P.C.; Puype, M.; Demol, H.; Vandekerckhove, J.; Job, D.

    2003-01-01

    To better understand seed germination, a complex developmental process, we developed a proteome analysis of the model plant Arabidopsis for which complete genome sequence is now available. Among about 1,300 total seed proteins resolved in two-dimensional gels, changes in the abundance (up- and

  11. Regulation of seasonal patterns in seed dormancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkx, M.P.M.

    1993-01-01

    Buried seeds of many wild species pass annually through a pattern of induction and release of dormancy. These reversible changes in dormancy may be repeated for numbers of years when seeds are deprived from light and other germination-stimulating factors, and are a highly useful adaptation

  12. Dormancy Breaking in Ormosia arborea Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilma Pereira Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ormosia arborea is a tree species planted in urban areas and used to restore degraded areas. Its seeds are dormant and propagation is difficult. This study compares different dormancy breaking methods and physiological seed quality and seedling production. The seeds were germinated in sand in the laboratory of the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. The following dormancy breaking treatments were applied: control (intact seeds, 100°C water immersion; boiling water immersion followed by 24 hours of soaking; scarification with number 100 and number 50 sandpaper opposite from root emergence; sulfuric acid immersion for 1 hour, 50, 45, and 30 minutes. Seed immersion in 100°C and boiling water did not break the dormancy. The study species showed a greater vigor of seedling when its seeds were submitted to treatments associated with tegument rupturing by sandpaper or sulfuric acid. On the other hand, seed scarification with sulfuric acid for 1 hour, 50, 45, and 30 minutes or sandpaper favored seed germination and vigor.

  13. Elastohydrodynamic Traction Properties of Seed Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and s...

  14. Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) traction properties of seed oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and sev...

  15. STOVE: Seed treatments for organic vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, A.; Jahn, M.; Kromphardt, C.; Krauthausen, H.J.; Roberts, S.J.; Wright, S.A.I.; Amein, T.; Forsberg, G.; Tinivella, F.; Gullino, M.L.; Wikström, M.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.; Werner, S.; Koch, E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the EU-financed research project „STOVE“ (Seed Treatments for Organic Vegetable Production) is to evaluate different methods potentially suited for seed treatment of vegetables in organic farming regarding their efficacy, to optimise these methods, and where feasible to combine them with

  16. Stimulation of seeds by low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, Helen

    1976-05-01

    The first section of the bibliography lists materials on the stimulation of seeds by low dose irradiation, with particular reference to stimulation of germination and yield. The second section contains a small number of selected references on seed irradiation facilities. (author)

  17. Transport processes in pea seed coats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, Joost Thomas van

    2001-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns transport processes in coats of developing pea seeds. The scope of the investigation ranges from seed coat anatomy, via transport studies to the cloning of cDNA encoding proteinaceous membrane pores, and the heterologous expression of these

  18. Some insects affecting Penstemon seed production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Hammon; Melissa Franklin

    2012-01-01

    Beardtongue (Penstemon Schmidel [Scrophulariaceae)) seeds are often produced without apparent damage from pests, but several species of native insects can adversely impact seed production fields. Tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris (Palisot)) and western plant bug (Lygus hesperus Knight [Hemiptera: Miridae]), penstemon weevil (Hesperobaris sp. Casey [Coleoptera:...

  19. Electromagnetic treatment of loblolly pine seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. P. [Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA (United States); Krugman, S. L.

    1989-11-15

    Loblolly pine (Pinus faeda L.) seeds were exposed to an electromagnetic radiation treatment (Energy Transfer Process@, marketed by the Energy Transfer Corporation), and the effects of the treatments on seed germination, seedling development, disease resistance, and field performance of seedlings were evaluated. None of the evaluated variables showed any improvement over untreated controls.

  20. Puncturevine seed response to postemergence herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) continues to plague growers, vegetation managers, and home gardeners. Puncturevine is a summer annual weed with spiny fruits that split into five segments, each containing one to four seeds. The seed nearest the pointed end of the bur is the largest and usually ge...

  1. Iodine-125 seeds for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, Joao A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Nagatomi, Helio R.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Souza, Carla D., E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: czeituni@pobox.co, E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: jmoura31@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: esmoura@ipen.b, E-mail: hrnagato@ipen.b, E-mail: jemanzoli@ipen.b, E-mail: cdsouza@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karam, Dib, E-mail: dib.karan@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, cancer has become one of the major public health problems. An estimate by the Health Ministry showed that 466,430 people had the disease in the country in 2008. The prostate cancer is the second largest death cause among men. The National Institute of Cancer estimated the occurrence of 50,000 new cases for 2009. Some of these patients are treated with Brachytherapy, using Iodine-125 seeds. By this technique, small seeds with Iodine-125, a radioactive material, are implanted in the prostate. The advantages of radioactive seed implants are the preservation of healthy tissues and organs near the prostate, besides the low rate of impotence and urinary incontinence. The Energy and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN, which belongs to the Nuclear Energy National Commission - CNEN, established a program for the development of the technique and production of Iodine-125 seeds in Brazil. The estimate for the 125-Iodine seeds demand is of 8,000 seeds/month and the laboratory to be implanted will need this production capacity. The purpose of this paper is to explain the project status and show some data about the seeds used in the country. The project will be divided in two phases: technological development of a prototype and a laboratory implementation for the seeds production. (author)

  2. Imazapyr (herbicide) seed dressing increases yield, suppresses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from damage. In 1998/99 season, a trial was initiated at Chitedze Research Station under artificial infection, to evaluate the effects of seed dressing with imazapyr (an acetolactate synthase {ALS} inhibiting herbicide) using three seed treatment methods (coating, priming or drenching) and three herbicide rates (15, 30 and 45 ...

  3. Seed rain, soil seed bank, seed loss and regeneration of Castanopsis fargesii (Fagaceae) in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaojun Du; Qinfeng Guo; Xianming Gao; Keping Na

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the seed rain and seed loss dynamics in the natural condition has important significance for revealing the natural regeneration mechanisms.We conducted a 3-year field observation on seed rain, seed loss and natural regeneration of Castanopsis fargesii Franch., a dominant tree species in evergreen broad-leaved forests in Dujiangyan,...

  4. [Study on influence factors of seed germination and seeding growth of Lonicera macranthoides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ying; Cui, Guang-Lin; She, Yue-Hui; Li, Long-Yun

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve reproductive efficiency and quality standard, the influence factors of seed germination and seeding growth of Lonicera macranthoides werew studied. The fruit and seed morphological characteristics of L. macranthoides were observed, the seed water absorbing capacity was determined, and different wet sand stratification time, temperature and germination bed treatment were set up. The effects of the parameters on seed germination and seedling growth were analysed. There was no obstacles of water absorption on L. macranthoides seed, quantity for 22 h water absorption was close to saturation. In the first 80 d, with the increase of the stratification time, seed initial germination time was shortened, germination rate and germination potential was improved. Stratification for 100 d, germination rate decreased. At 15 ℃, seed germination and seedling growth indicators were the best. The seedling cotyledon width in light was significantly higher than that in dark. Seeds on the top of paper and top of sand germination rate, germination potential, and germination index was significantly higher than that of other germination bed and mildew rate is low. The optimal conditions of seeds germination test was stratified in 4 ℃ wet sand for 80 d, 15 ℃ illuminate culture on the top of paper or top of sand. The first seeding counting time was the 4th day after beginning the test, the final time was the 23th day. The germination potential statistical time was the 13th day after beginning the test. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Seed predators exert selection on the subindividual variation of seed size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, M; Guitián, J; Guitián, P; Larrinaga, A R

    2014-07-01

    Subindividual variation among repeated organs in plants constitutes an overlooked level of variation in phenotypic selection studies, despite being a major component of phenotypic variation. Animals that interact with plants could be selective agents on subindividual variation. This study examines selective pressures exerted during post-dispersal seed predation and germination on the subindividual variation of seed size in hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna). With a seed offering experiment and a germination test, we estimated phenotypic selection differentials for average and subindividual variation of seed size due to seed predation and germination. Seed size affects germination, growth rate and the probability of an individual seed of escaping predation. Longer seeds showed higher germination rates, but this did not result in significant selection on phenotypes of the maternal trees. On the other hand, seed predators avoided wider seeds, and by doing so exerted phenotypic selection on adult average and subindividual variation of seed size. The detected selection on subindividual variation suggests that the levels of phenotypic variation within individual plants may be, at least partly, the adaptive consequence of animal-mediated selection. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Seed Priming with Melatonin Effects on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth in Maize under Salinity Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Li, H.; Song, X.

    2016-01-01

    The effects on seed germination and seedling growth in maize under salinity stress by seed priming with melatonin were investigated. Seeds of maize cultivar Nonghua101 were soaked in 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mM aerated solution of melatonin for 24 h, and primed seeds were germinated under the condition of 150 mM NaCl with paper media. The results showed seed priming with 0.8 mM melatonin was the best performance of all the treatments to seed germination and seedling growth in maize under salinity stress. Then primed with 0.8 mM melatonin or water for 24 h and unprimed seeds were germination under the condition of 150 mM NaCl with sand media. The results showed seed priming with 0.8 mM melatonin significantly improved germination energy, germination percentage, seedling vigor index, shoot and root lengths, seedling fresh and dry weights, K/sup +/ content, relative water content, proline and total phenolic contents, superoxide dismutase, catalase and phenylalanin ammonia lyase activities; and significantly decreased mean emergence time, Na/sup +/ content, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content compared with untreated seeds under salinity stress. These results suggest that seed priming with melatonin alleviates the salinity damage to maize and seed priming with melatonin may be an important alternative approach to decrease the impact of salinity stress in maize. (author)

  7. A Methodological Approach for Testing the Viability of Seeds Stored in Short-Term Seed Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. FORTE GIL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient management of ‘active’ seed banks – specifically aimed at the short-term storage at room temperature of seeds to be used locally in conservation/regeneration programmes of endemic or endangered plant species – requires establishing the optimal storage time to maintain high seed viability, for each stored species. In this work, germination of seeds of the halophytes Thalictrum maritimum, Centaurea dracunculifolia and Linum maritimum has been investigated. The seeds had been stored for different periods of time in the seed bank of ‘La Albufera’ Natural Park (Valencia, SE Spain after collection in salt marshes of the Park, where small populations of the three species are present. Seeds of T. maritimum and C. dracunculifolia have a relatively short period of viability at room temperature, and should not be stored for more than three years. On the other hand, L. maritimum seeds maintain a high germination percentage and can be kept at room temperature for up to 10 years. T. maritimum seeds, in contrast to those of the other two species, did not germinate in in vitro tests nor when sown directly on a standard substrate, unless a pre-treatment of the seeds was applied, mechanical scarification being the most effective. These results will help to improve the management of the seed bank, to generate more efficiently new plants for reintroduction and reinforcement of populations of these species in their natural ecosystems within the Natural Park.

  8. Biochemical changes during aging of soybean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balešević-Tubić Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical changes that occur in the seed as a result of ageing are very significant for seed quality and longevity. Because of its characteristic composition, processes occurring in the seed of oil crops during storage will be typical as well. Six soybean varieties developed in Institute of field and vegetable crops Novi Sad, submitted to accelerated and natural aging, under controlled and conventional storage conditions were used in these trials. The content of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities were studied. The biochemical processes i.e. lipid peroxidation, as well as the decrease in supeoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities (especially pronounced by applied accelerated aging were caused by both type of aging. The degree of seed damage and the ability of seed to resist the negative consequences of aging were influenced, beside duration of aging period, by type of storage and characteristics of soybean varieties. .

  9. Asymbiotic in vitro seed propagation of Dendrobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Tsavkelova, Elena A; Ng, Tzi Bun; Parthibhan, S; Dobránszki, Judit; Cardoso, Jean Carlos; Rao, M V; Zeng, Songjun

    2015-10-01

    The ability to germinate orchids from seeds in vitro presents a useful and viable method for the propagation of valuable germplasm, maintaining the genetic heterogeneity inherent in seeds. Given the ornamental and medicinal importance of many species within the genus Dendrobium, this review explores in vitro techniques for their asymbiotic seed germination. The influence of abiotic factors (such as temperature and light), methods of sterilization, composition of basal media, and supplementation with organic additives and plant growth regulators are discussed in context to achieve successful seed germination, protocorm formation, and further seedling growth and development. This review provides both a basis for the selection of optimal conditions, and a platform for the discovery of better ones, that would allow the development of new protocols and the exploration of new hypotheses for germination and conservation of Dendrobium seeds and seedlings.

  10. Seed yield components and their potential interaction in grasses - to what extend does seed weigth influence yield?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, B; Gislum, R

    2010-01-01

     In a first-year seed crop of red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) the degree of lodging was controlled by the use of Moddus (Trinexapac-ethyl). Seed weight was found to increase by the decreasing degree of lodging prior to harvest. The higher seed weights were accompanied by higher yields even though...... the number of reproductive tillers and floret site utilization (FSU) were unaffected by the treatments. Seed yield is affected by several yield components and reflects the interaction between the seed yield potential (e.g. number of reproductive tillers, number of spikelets and florets/spikelet per...... reproductive tiller), the utilization of the potential (e.g. seed set, seed weight) and the realization of the seed yield potential, defined as the number of florets forming a saleable seed. The realization of the seed yield potential is affected by seed retention, seed weight and other traits associated...

  11. Influence the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salni Salni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester. Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level, Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level and Lahat District (627 m above sea level. The results showed that the weight of the flour, the water content and ash content in the local rubber seeds larger than the superior rubber seed for all altitude, but oil content a large in the superior rubber seeds. The major of fatty acids in the rubber seed oil in all types and altitude are a linoleic acid with a different percentage except local rubber seed oil from Lahat district with the large percentage of octadecanoic acid. Free fatty acids in the oil from the superior seeds rubber of 13.897-15.494 % large than local rubber seed oil was found 9.786-10.399 % for all altitude. By esterification process using sulfuric acid catalyst, Free Fatty Acid (FFA can be reduced to ≤ 2 %. The methyl ester made from the transesterification process of rubber seed oil after esterification using methanol and sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Analysis of methyl esters includes cetane index, flash point, kinematic viscosity, carbon residue, density, moisture content, water and sediment content and distillation compared with SNI 7182 and ASTM 6751-02.  The result indicated that the quality of methyl ester from superior rubber seed oil in the Banyuasin and Prabumulih district better than another methyl ester. The types of rubber seed altitude affect the characteristics of the seed, oil and methyl ester  but the altitude are not significantly different. Keywords: rubber seed, type, altitude, oil, biodiesel Article History: Received March 21st 2017; Received in

  12. Responses of Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Seed Yield Traits to Seed Pretreatment in Maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.. Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA, NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P<0.05. The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10 mg/L, NaCl at 50 mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM, or PEG (15% significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method.

  13. Seeds of hope, seeds of despair: towards a political economy of the seed industry in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, N

    2001-01-01

    The seed industry in Southern Africa has been radically transformed by a policy of liberalisation and privatisation started under structural adjustment. Traditionally under the domain of parastatals, seed research, production and distribution has been criticised for failing to provide modern variety seed to smallholder farmers. However, the private companies which have stepped in to replace seed parastatals in southern Africa have proven no more effective in meeting the demands of smallholders. The Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) Agreement, concluded in 1994 as part of the Uruguay Rounds of GATT negotiations, as well as certain biotechnological innovations such as Terminator or Traitor technologies, threaten to further undermine local seed production and consumption by destroying the informal seed sector so central to agricultural production in the region. What alternatives exist? The success of Zimbabwe's maize seed network offers some insight. Resting on a unique relationship between government and nationally based producer co-operatives, Zimbabwe's maize programme was able to provide nearly every farmer in the country with hybrid maize suited for local growing conditions.

  14. Responses of seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits to seed pretreatment in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Yu, Junbao; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method.

  15. Comparison of germination and seed bank dynamics of dimorphic seeds of the cold desert halophyte Suaeda corniculata subsp. mongolica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dechang; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Yang, Fan; Huang, Zhenying

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Differences in dormancy and germination requirements have been documented in heteromorphic seeds of many species, but it is unknown how this difference contributes to maintenance and regeneration of populations. The primary aim of this study was to compare the seed bank dynamics, including dormancy cycling, of the two seed morphs (black and brown) of the cold desert halophyte Suaeda corniculata and, if differences were found, to determine their influence on regeneration of the species. Method Seeds of the two seed morphs were buried, exhumed and tested monthly for 24 months over a range of temperatures and salinities, and germination recovery and viability were determined after exposure to salinity and water stress. Seedling emergence and dynamics of the soil seed bank were also investigated for the two morphs. Key Results Black seeds had an annual dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, while brown seeds, which were non-dormant at maturity, remained non-dormant. Black seeds also exhibited an annual cycle in sensitivity of germination to salinity. Seedlings derived from black seeds emerged in July and August and those from brown seeds in May. Seedlings were recruited from 2·6 % of the black seeds and from 2·8 % of the brown seeds in the soil, and only 0·5 % and 0·4 % of the total number of black and brown seeds in the soil, respectively, gave rise to seedlings that survived to produce seeds. Salinity and water stress induced dormancy in black seeds and decreased viability of brown seeds. Brown seeds formed only a transient soil seed bank and black seeds a persistent seed bank. Conclusions The presence of a dormancy cycle in black but not in brown seeds of S. corniculata and differences in germination requirements of the two morphs cause them to differ in their germination dynamics. The study contributes to our limited knowledge of dormancy cycling and seed bank formation in species producing heteromorphic seeds. PMID:22975287

  16. Climate Change: Seed Production and Options for Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Hampton

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Food security depends on seed security and the international seed industry must be able to continue to deliver the quantities of quality seed required for this purpose. Abiotic stress resulting from climate change, particularly elevated temperature and water stress, will reduce seed yield and quality. Options for the seed industry to adapt to climate change include moving sites for seed production, changing sowing date, and the development of cultivars with traits which allow them to adapt to climate change conditions. However, the ability of seed growers to make these changes is directly linked to the seed system. In the formal seed system operating in developed countries, implementation will be reasonably straight forward. In the informal system operating in developing countries, the current seed production challenges including supply failing to meet demand and poor seed quality will increase with changing climates.

  17. Seed coat development in Velloziaceae: primary homology assessment and insights on seed coat evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Baena, Mariane S; de Menezes, Nanuza L

    2014-09-01

    Seed coat characteristics have historically been used to infer taxonomic relationships and are a potential source of characters for phylogenetic reconstruction. In particular, seed coat morphoanatomy has never been studied in detail in Velloziaceae. One character based on seed surface microsculpture has been used in phylogenies, but was excluded from recent studies owing to problems in primary homology. This work aimed to clarify the origin and general composition of seed coat cell layers in Velloziaceae and to propose hypotheses of primary homology among seed characters.• Seed coat development of 24 Velloziaceae species, comprising nine genera, and one species of Pandanaceae (outgroup) was studied using standard anatomical methods. Developmental data were interpreted in the light of a recently published phylogeny.• Eight types of seed coat were identified. Whereas the most common type has four distinct cell layers (two-layered tegmen and testa), we encountered much more variation in seed coat composition than previously reported, the analysis of which revealed some potential synapomorphies. For instance, an exotesta with spiral thickenings may be a synapomorphy of Barbacenia.• Our results showed that the character states previously used in phylogenies are not based on homologous layers and that the same state was misattributed to species exhibiting quite different seed coats. This study is a first step toward a better understanding of seed coat structure evolution in Velloziaceae. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  18. Grazing impact on desert plants and soil seed banks: Implications for seed-eating animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Rodrigo G.; Sagario, M. Cecilia; Marone, Luis

    2014-02-01

    We assess whether the knowledge of livestock diet helps to link grazing effects with changes in plant cover and soil seed bank size, aiming at inferring the consequences of grazing on seed-eating animals. Specifically, we test whether continuous and heavy grazing reduce the cover, number of reproductive structures and seed reserves of the same grass species whose seeds are selected and preferred by granivorous animals in the central Monte desert, Argentina. Grass cover and the number of grass spikes usually diminished under grazing conditions in the two localities studied (Telteca and Ñacuñán), and soil seed bank was consistently reduced in all three years evaluated owing to a decline of perennial grass and forb seeds. In particular, the abundance of those seeds selected and preferred by birds and ants (in all cases grass species) declined 70-92% in Ñacuñán, and 52-72% in Telteca. Reduction of perennial grass cover and spike number in grazed sites reinforced the causal link between livestock grazing and the decline of grass soil seed reserves throughout failed plant reproduction. Grass seed bank depletion suggests that grazing may trigger a "cascade" of mechanisms that affect the abundance and persistence of valuable fodder species as well as the availability of seed resources for granivorous animals.

  19. Seed-specific overexpression of AtFAX1 increases seed oil content in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yinshuai; Lv, Xueyan; Xie, Guilan; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Ying; Chen, Fang

    2018-06-02

    Biosynthesis of plant seed oil is accomplished through the coordinate action of multiple enzymes in multiple subcellular compartments. Fatty acid (FA) has to be transported from plastid to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for TAG synthesis. However, the role of plastid FA transportation during seed oil accumulation has not been evaluated. AtFAX1 (Arabidopsis fatty acid export1) mediated the FA export from plastid. In this study, we overexpressed AtFAX1 under the control of a seed specific promoter in Arabidopsis. The resultant overexpression lines (OEs) produced seeds which contained 21-33% more oil and 24-30% more protein per seed than those of the wild type (WT). The increased oil content was probably because of the enhanced FA and TAG synthetic activity. The seed size and weight were both increased accordingly. In addition, the seed number per silique and silique number per plant had no changes in transgenic plants. Taken together, our results demonstrated that seed specific overexpression of AtFAX1 could promote oil accumulation in Arabidopsis seeds and manipulating FA transportation is a feasible strategy for increasing the seed oil content. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Colonization of citrus seed coats by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus': implications for seed transmission of the bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilf, Mark E

    2011-10-01

    Huanglongbing is an economically damaging disease of citrus associated with infection by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. Transmission of the organism via infection of seeds has not been demonstrated but is a concern since some citrus varieties, particularly those used as rootstocks in commercial plantings are propagated from seed. We compared the incidence of detection of 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' DNA in individual fruit peduncles, seed coats, seeds, and in germinated seedlings from 'Sanguenelli' sweet orange and 'Conners' grapefruit fruits sampled from infected trees. Using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) we detected pathogen DNA in nucleic acid extracts of 36 and 100% of peduncles from 'Sanguenelli' and from 'Conners' fruits, respectively. We also detected pathogen DNA in extracts of 37 and 98% of seed coats and in 1.6 and 4% of extracts from the corresponding seeds of 'Sanguenelli' and 'Conners', respectively. Small amounts of pathogen DNA were detected in 10% of 'Sanguenelli' seedlings grown in the greenhouse, but in none of 204 extracts from 'Conners' seedlings. Pathogen DNA was detected in 4.9% and in 89% of seed coats peeled from seeds of 'Sanguenelli' and 'Conners' which were germinated on agar, and in 5% of 'Sanguenelli' but in none of 164 'Conners' seedlings which grew from these seeds on agar. No pathogen DNA was detected in 'Ridge Pineapple' tissue at 3 months post-grafting onto 'Sanguenelli' seedlings, even when pathogen DNA had been detected initially in the 'Sanguenelli' seedling. Though the apparent colonization of 'Conners' seeds was more extensive and nearly uniform compared with 'Sanguenelli' seeds, no pathogen DNA was detected in 'Conners' seedlings grown from these seeds. For either variety, no association was established between the presence of pathogen DNA in fruit peduncles and seed coats and in seedlings.

  1. Ecological longevity of Polaskia chende (Cactaceae) seeds in the soil seed bank, seedling emergence and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez-Salanueva, C A; Orozco-Segovia, A; Canales-Martínez, M; Seal, C E; Pritchard, H W; Flores-Ortiz, C M

    2017-11-01

    Soil seed banks are essential elements of plant population dynamics, enabling species to maintain genetic variability, withstand periods of adversity and persist over time, including for cactus species. However knowledge of the soil seed bank in cacti is scanty. In this study, over a 5-year period we studied the seed bank dynamics, seedling emergence and nurse plant facilitation of Polaskia chende, an endemic columnar cactus of central Mexico. P. chende seeds were collected for a wild population in Puebla, Mexico. Freshly collected seeds were sown at 25 °C and 12-h photoperiod under white light, far-red light and darkness. The collected seeds were divided in two lots, the first was stored in the laboratory and the second was use to bury seeds in open areas and beneath a shrub canopy. Seeds were exhumed periodically over 5 years. At the same time seeds were sown in open areas and beneath shrub canopies; seedling emergence and survival were recorded over different periods of time for 5 years. The species forms long-term persistent soil seed banks. The timing of seedling emergence via germination in the field was regulated by interaction between light, temperature and soil moisture. Seeds entered secondary dormancy at specific times according to the expression of environmental factors, demonstrating irregular dormancy cycling. Seedling survival of P. chende was improved under Acacia constricta nurse plants. Finally, plant facilitation affected the soil seed bank dynamics as it promoted the formation of a soil seed bank, but not its persistence. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Effects of gamma radiation in annatto seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Camilo F. de Oliveira; Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Filho, Jose C.; Neto, Miguel B.

    2015-01-01

    The annatto bixin has emerged as a major source of natural dyes used in the world notably by the substitution of synthetics harmful to human health and ecologic tendency in obtaining industrial products free of additives with applications in industries textiles; cosmetics; pharmaceutical and food mainly. The aim of this research was to obtain increased of germination rate and dormancy breaking on annatto seeds by gamma radiation. Annatto dry seeds were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from source of Cobalt-60, type Gammecell-220, at 0.456 kGy/hour dose rate. In order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination rate and dormancy breaking in the seeds. Five treatments with gamma radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 100; 125; 150 and 175 Gy. After irradiation the annatto seeds were planted as for usual seed production. According to the results obtained in this experiment we can conclude that the low doses of gamma radiation utilized on the annatto seeds did not presented significantly effect on the germination of plants. But the best dose to increase the germination of seeds was 150 Gy. (author)

  3. Seed ecology of Bromus sterilis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žďárková, Veronika

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bromus sterilis L. (barren brome has become a troublesome weed of winter cereals in reduced tillage systems, mainly in South and North America, middle and Western Europe. In the Czech Republic, its importance has increased dramatically over the past 10 years. Barren brome is reported as a problem weed in other winter crops such as oil seed rape, in vineyards and in other cultivated places. In this study, the dormancy and germination under different temperatures, water and light regimes were investigated. Emergence from different depths and persistence in the soil profile were investigated under field conditions. The seeds of Bromus sterilis showed broad ecological valence to hydrothermal factors germinating in the wide range of 5 to 35 °C. Similarly, no strong effect on the germination in an environment with low water potential was observed. The response to light at various temperatures showed that seeds germinated better in darkness. The emergence declined significantly with burial depth (under 40 mm. The loss of primary dormancy was rapid in time and only 50% of the seeds germinated within 8 weeks after collecting from maternal plants. The seeds were not able to survive in the soil seed bank for a longer time and fall seeds lost viability 1 year after burial in a soil profile.

  4. Seed germination behavior of swallow wort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amir hosein pahlavani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The exotic plant, Swallow- wort, a twining perennial of the Milkweed family, has become increasingly invasive in some place of Iran, especially orchards. Increased knowledge of wort germination biology would facilitate development of an optimum control program. Germination of Swallow wort seeds as affected by environmental factors was studied under controlled-environment growth chamber conditions. The following studies were conducted in plant Pests & Diseases Research Institute during the years 2003-4: 1- Effect of constant temperature on germination that including 10, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40˚C; 2- Effect of light on constant germination; 3- Effect of temperature fluctuations on seed germination: 15/7, 20/12, 25/17 and 30/22˚C. All experiments were conducted with 8 replications. Swallow wort seeds showed no dormancy when detachment from mother plant. Seed germination was strongly influenced by temperature. Light did not play a crucial role on seed germination of this weed. Therefore Swallow wort seeds were not photoblastic and temperature fluctuations did not increase seed germination of Swallow wort. The above characteristics are very important in making swallowwort an invasive weed. Having precise information of these traits enables us to a better management and control of this troublesome weed.

  5. Oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    2003-05-01

    Plant experiments in earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and germinated in orbit to study gravity effects on the developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds, and this metabolism depends upon respiration, making oxygen one of the limiting factors in seed germination. In microgravity lack of run-off of excess water requires careful testing of water dispensation and oxygen availability. In preparation for a shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware (Magnetic Field Chamber, MFC). We tested between four to 32 seeds per chamber (air volume = 14 mL) and after 36 h measured the root length. At 90 μl O 2 per seed (32 seeds/chamber), the germination decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%, compared to 8 seeds per chamber. Based on the percent germination and root length obtained in controlled gas mixtures between 3.6 and 21.6% O 2 we determined the lower limit of reliable germination to be 10 vol. % O 2 at atmospheric pressure. Although the oxygen available in the MFC's can support the intended number of seeds, the data show that seed storage and microgravity-related limitations may reduce germination.

  6. Oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, K. H.; Hasentein, K. H. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Plant experiments in earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and germinated in orbit to study gravity effects on the developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds, and this metabolism depends upon respiration, making oxygen one of the limiting factors in seed germination. In microgravity lack of run-off of excess water requires careful testing of water dispensation and oxygen availability. In preparation for a shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware (Magnetic Field Chamber, MFC). We tested between four to 32 seeds per chamber (air volume=14 mL) and after 36 h measured the root length. At 90 microliters O2 per seed (32 seeds/chamber), the germination decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%, compared to 8 seeds per chamber. Based on the percent germination and root length obtained in controlled gas mixtures between 3.6 and 21.6% O2 we determined the lower limit of reliable germination to be 10 vol. % O2 at atmospheric pressure. Although the oxygen available in the MFC's can support the intended number of seeds, the data show that seed storage and microgravity-related limitations may reduce germination. c2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  7. Sowing seasons and quality of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ávila Marizangela Rizzatti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the difficulties of producing high quality soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] seeds during the traditional cropping period in some areas of the State of Paraná, Brazil, a research project was carried out with the objective of evaluating the influence of sowing dates on the physiological and sanitary quality of seeds, during the 1998/99 and 1999/00 cropping seasons, in Maringá, PR, Brazil. The experiment consisted of five cultivar competition assays, arranged in a completely randomized block design, with each assay sown at different dates (10/15, 10/30, 11/15, 11/30 and 12/15 for each cropping season. The evaluated cultivars were BRS 132 (early, BRS 133 (semi-early, BR 16 (semi-early, BRS 134 (intermediate and FT- Estrela (late. Seeds obtained at the sowing dates were evaluated in the laboratory by germination, accelerated aging, and health tests. Sowing in November resulted in seeds with superior physiological and health quality. Cultivar BRS 133 showed the greatest stability in seed production with better quality for the different sowing dates. Cultivars BRS 134 and BRS 133, which were sown during the period from 10/15 to 11/30, produced seeds that had higher percentages of normal seedlings in the germination and accelerated aging tests. Advancing or delaying sowing dates had adverse effects on soybean seed production with regard to their sanitary quality.

  8. Effects of gamma radiation in annatto seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Camilo F. de Oliveira, E-mail: camilo.urucum@hotmail.com [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA/EMEPA), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br [Centro Paula Souza, Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Bicombustiveis (FATEC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Filho, Jose C.; Neto, Miguel B., E-mail: jorgecazefilho@yahoo.com.br [Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuaria da Paraiba (EMEPA), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The annatto bixin has emerged as a major source of natural dyes used in the world notably by the substitution of synthetics harmful to human health and ecologic tendency in obtaining industrial products free of additives with applications in industries textiles; cosmetics; pharmaceutical and food mainly. The aim of this research was to obtain increased of germination rate and dormancy breaking on annatto seeds by gamma radiation. Annatto dry seeds were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from source of Cobalt-60, type Gammecell-220, at 0.456 kGy/hour dose rate. In order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination rate and dormancy breaking in the seeds. Five treatments with gamma radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 100; 125; 150 and 175 Gy. After irradiation the annatto seeds were planted as for usual seed production. According to the results obtained in this experiment we can conclude that the low doses of gamma radiation utilized on the annatto seeds did not presented significantly effect on the germination of plants. But the best dose to increase the germination of seeds was 150 Gy. (author)

  9. Seed shape quantification in the order Cucurbitales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Cervantes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed shape quantification in diverse species of the families belonging to the order Cucurbitales is done based on the comparison of seed images with geometric figures. Quantification of seed shape is a useful tool in plant description for phenotypic characterization and taxonomic analysis. J index gives the percent of similarity of the image of a seed with a geometric figure and it is useful in taxonomy for the study of relationships between plant groups. Geometric figures used as models in the Cucurbitales are the ovoid, two ellipses with different x/y ratios and the outline of the Fibonacci spiral. The images of seeds have been compared with these figures and values of J index obtained. The results obtained for 29 species in the family Cucurbitaceae support a relationship between seed shape and species ecology. Simple seed shape, with images resembling simple geometric figures like the ovoid, ellipse or the Fibonacci spiral, may be a feature in the basal clades of taxonomic groups.

  10. Nutritional evaluation of dried tomato seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persia, M E; Parsons, C M; Schang, M; Azcona, J

    2003-01-01

    Two samples of tomato seeds, a by-product of the tomato canning industry were evaluated to determine proximate analysis, amino acid content, and digestibility, TMEn, and protein efficiency ratio. Tomato seeds were also used to replace corn and soybean meal (SBM) in a chick diet on an equal true amino acid digestibility and TMEn basis. Tomato seeds were found to contain 8.5% moisture, 25% CP, 20.0% fat, 3.1% ash, 35.1% total dietary fiber, 0.12% Ca, 0.58% P, and 3,204 kcal/kg of TMEn. The total amounts of methionine, cystine, and lysine in the tomato seeds were 0.39, 0.40, and 1.34%, respectively, and their true digestibility coefficients, determined in cecectomized roosters, were 75, 70, and 54%, respectively. The protein efficiency ratio (weight gain per unit of protein intake) value when fed to chicks at 9% CP was 2.5 compared to 3.6 for SBM (P seeds could replace corn and SBM without any adverse affects on chick weight gain, feed intake, or gain:feed ratio from 8 to 21 d posthatch. Tomato seeds at any level in the diet did not significantly affect skin pigmentation. Although the protein quality of tomato seeds may not be as high as SBM, tomato seeds do contain substantial amounts of digestible amino acids and TMEn. When formulating diets on a true digestible amino acid and TMEn basis, tomato seeds can be supplemented into chick rations at up to 15% without any adverse affects on growth performance.

  11. The oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, O.; Hasenstein, K.

    Experiments for earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and often germinated in orbit in order to study gravity effects on developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds and respiration. In orbit the formation of a water layer around the seed may further limit oxygen availability. Therefore, the oxygen content of the available gas volume is one of the limiting factors for seed germination. In preparation for an upcoming shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware. We tested per seed chamber (gas volume = 14 mL, O2 = 2.9 mL) between 4 to 32 seeds glued to germination paper by 1% (w/v) gum guar. A lexan cover and a gasket hermetically sealed each of the eight chambers. For imbibition of the seeds a previously optimized amount of distilled water was dispensed through sealed inlets. The seedlings were allowed to grow for either 32 to 48 h on a clinostat or without microgravity simulation. Then their root length was measured. With 32 seeds per chamber, four times the intended number of seeds for the flight, the germination rate decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%. Experiments on the germination and root length in controlled atmospheres (5, 10, 15 and 21% O2 ) suggest that germination and growth for two days requires about 200 :l of O (1 mL air) per seed. Our2 experiments correlate oxygen dependency from seed mass and germination temperature, and analyze accumulation of gaseous metabolites (supported by NASA grant NAG10-0190).

  12. EPR in characterization of seeds paramagnetic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiz, A.P.C.; Mauro, M.F.F.L.; Portugal, K.O.; Barbana, V.M.; Guedes, C.L.B.; Mauro, E. di; Carneiro, C.E.A.; Zaia, D.A.M.; Prete, C.E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Full text. In Brazil, since 1970s, renewable fuel programs has been developed in order to replace petroleum. Today a program that has been discussed is the bio diesel, which intend to replace diesel fuel, fossil oil, to bio diesel, renewal fuel. As seeds are the basis for production of oil and consequently processed into bio diesel, the goal of this work is to characterize and compare paramagnetic species present in the seeds by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Samples used in this study were seeds of sorghum, barley, corn, peanuts, soy beans, cotton, wheat, oats, mustard, rice, sunflower and turnip. Some paramagnetic species present in soil was also investigated as goethite (FeOOH), hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ), magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), and ferrihydrite (Fe 5 HO 8 · 4H 2 O), since, these species present in appreciable quantities in the soil can be present in the seeds and analyzed for comparison. The characterization of these species is essential to understand the EPR seeds spectra. Each sample is placed in a thin quartz tube 4 mm in diameter, and it is inserted into the cavity of the spectrometer at room temperature, at low temperature (77 K) and variable temperature using liquid nitrogen flow and hot flow through a compressor air. It was used as standard Mg O:Mn 2+ , which is also inserted into the cavity. Shortly after the potency is regulated, frequency, amplitude and sweep the field. The spectroscopic analysis by EPR X-band (∼ 9:5GHz), were performed at the Fluorescence and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Laboratory, Exact Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Parana state, Brazil, through an EPR spectrometer JEOL brand (JES-PE-3X). In the EPR spectra, spectroscopic factor or g factor and line width were determined in paramagnetic species. Studies from several seeds with EPR technique detected in all of them presence of same complex of Fe 3+ present in the goethite at g ∼ 2, and in the seeds exist free radicals at g = 2:004, at room temperature

  13. EPR in characterization of seeds paramagnetic species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luiz, A.P.C.; Mauro, M.F.F.L.; Portugal, K.O.; Barbana, V.M.; Guedes, C.L.B.; Mauro, E. di; Carneiro, C.E.A.; Zaia, D.A.M.; Prete, C.E.C. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text. In Brazil, since 1970s, renewable fuel programs has been developed in order to replace petroleum. Today a program that has been discussed is the bio diesel, which intend to replace diesel fuel, fossil oil, to bio diesel, renewal fuel. As seeds are the basis for production of oil and consequently processed into bio diesel, the goal of this work is to characterize and compare paramagnetic species present in the seeds by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Samples used in this study were seeds of sorghum, barley, corn, peanuts, soy beans, cotton, wheat, oats, mustard, rice, sunflower and turnip. Some paramagnetic species present in soil was also investigated as goethite (FeOOH), hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), and ferrihydrite (Fe{sub 5}HO{sub 8} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O), since, these species present in appreciable quantities in the soil can be present in the seeds and analyzed for comparison. The characterization of these species is essential to understand the EPR seeds spectra. Each sample is placed in a thin quartz tube 4 mm in diameter, and it is inserted into the cavity of the spectrometer at room temperature, at low temperature (77 K) and variable temperature using liquid nitrogen flow and hot flow through a compressor air. It was used as standard Mg O:Mn{sup 2+}, which is also inserted into the cavity. Shortly after the potency is regulated, frequency, amplitude and sweep the field. The spectroscopic analysis by EPR X-band ({approx} 9:5GHz), were performed at the Fluorescence and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Laboratory, Exact Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Parana state, Brazil, through an EPR spectrometer JEOL brand (JES-PE-3X). In the EPR spectra, spectroscopic factor or g factor and line width were determined in paramagnetic species. Studies from several seeds with EPR technique detected in all of them presence of same complex of Fe{sup 3+} present in the goethite at g {approx} 2, and in the seeds

  14. INFLUENCE OF TREATMENT ON MAIZE SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Beraković

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing occurrence of major pests ON corn, hybrid seed is necessary to be protected against pests and seed corn should be treated with appropriately insecticides. Choosing better technological solutions and choosing and appropriate insecticide seed treatment for corn can significantly reduce pest attack and thus enhance the production of corn. The aim of this research was to obtain based upon result information on the impact of treatment on quality of maize seed as well as the means to improve the conditions of storage and preservation of semen quality. Investigation and checking if insecticide treated seed adverse phytotoxic effect on plant growth and development in field conditions. The results indicate a significant effect of insecticide seed treatments on germination energy and non standard germination. A very significant influence of treated seed storage was also found on quality seeds. Looking at the impact of the treated hybrid on germination vigor and standard germination, a very significant hybrid impact was found out. The highest quality of the seed semen during the study was noticed with the seed of hybrid “H2”, followed by hybrid “H1”, while the hybrids “H3” and “H4” possessed less. The research shows that hybrids “H2” and “H1” are more suitable for seed treatment with insecticides than “H3” and “H4” hybrids. The field observations and research results obtained indicate a very significant impact of the treated seed on the above ground parts of plants, above ground mass, stem thickness and a very significant impact on plant spacing. The positive effect of treatment with “T1” and “T3” insecticides is visible in all conducted field researches. Plants treated with common fungicides and insecticides “T1” and “T3” had a greater height of the above ground plant parts, a larger mass of the above ground stems, greater stem thickness and better plant density treatments, compared to

  15. Pre-sowing irradiation of vegetable seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyanov, S

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported of trials with radiation stimulation of vegetable crops conducted under farm conditions in different regions. They were based on exact tests accomplished at the IGHB. Pre-sowing irradiation of seed increased the greenhouse yield of Extase tomato variety by 15%; it increased the yield of Triumph tomato variety under field conditions as well. The pepper variety Kourtovska Kapiya and eggplant variety Bulgarski 12, both grown from irradiated seed in open field produced 18% and 5.5% higher yields, respectively. Irradiation of vegetable seeds finds a large application in the farm practice.

  16. Nutrient value of leaf versus seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Edelman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Major differences stand out between edible leaves and seeds in protein quality, vitamin and mineral concentrations and omega 6 / omega 3 fatty acid ratios. Data for seeds (wheat, rice, corn, soy, lentil, chick pea are compared with corresponding data for edible green leaves (kale, spinach, broccoli, duckweed. An x/y representation of data for lysine and methionine content highlights the group differences between grains, pulses, leafy vegetables and animal foods. Leaves come out with flying colors in all these comparisons. The perspective ends with a discussion on So why do we eat mainly seeds?

  17. Freezing tolerance of conifer seeds and germinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, B J; Guest, H J; Kolotelo, D

    2003-12-01

    Survival after freezing was measured for seeds and germinants of four seedlots each of interior spruce (Picea glauca x engelmannii complex), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Donn). Effects of eight seed treatments on post-freezing survival of seeds and germinants were tested: dry, imbibed and stratified seed, and seed placed in a growth chamber for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 days in a 16-h photoperiod and a 22/17 degrees C thermoperiod. Survival was related to the water content of seeds and germinants, germination rate and seedlot origin. After freezing for 3 h at -196 degrees C, dry seed of most seedlots of interior spruce, Douglas-fir and western red cedar had 84-96% germination, whereas lodgepole pine seedlots had 53-82% germination. Freezing tolerance declined significantly after imbibition in lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir and interior spruce seed (western red cedar was not tested), and mean LT50 of imbibed seed of these species was -30, -24.5 and -20 degrees C, respectively. Freezing tolerance continued to decline to a minimum LT50 of -4 to -7 degrees C after 10 days in a growth chamber for interior spruce, Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine, or after 15 days for western red cedar. Minimum freezing tolerance was reached at the stage of rapid hypocotyl elongation. In all species, a slight increase in freezing tolerance of germinants was observed once cotyledons emerged from the seed coat. The decrease in freezing tolerance during the transition from dry to germinating seed correlated with increases in seed water content. Changes in freezing tolerance between 10 and 30 days in the growth chamber were not correlated with seedling water content. Within a species, seedlots differed significantly in freezing tolerance after 2 or 5 days in the growth chamber. Because all seedlots of interior spruce and lodgepole pine germinated quickly, there was no correlation

  18. Pre-sowing irradiation of vegetable seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanov, S.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported of trials with radiation stimulation of vegetable crops conducted under farm conditions in different regions. They were based on exact tests accomplished at the IGHB. Pre-sowing irradiation of seed increased the greenhouse yield of Extase tomato variety by 15%; it increased the yield of Triumph tomato variety under field conditions as well. The pepper variety Kourtovska Kapiya and eggplant variety Bulgarski 12, both grown from irradiated seed in open field produced 18% and 5.5% higher yields, respectively. Irradiation of vegetable seeds finds a large application in the farm practice. (author)

  19. Electrophoretic studies on rape seed proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudry, M.A.; Starr, A.; Bibi, N.

    1992-07-01

    Electrophoresis is a technique which separates biological molecules on the basis of charge and mass properties. The technique is used for separation, purification, characterization and identification of molecules/ compounds. Two major objectives for applications of electrophoresis have been studied in this report i.e. characterization of rape seed proteins and enzymes and identification of rape seed cultivars by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Gamma irradiation is being successfully used to create genetic variability and germination which brought about definite changes in the rape seed proteins reflected in different bands. These differences could be used to study variability in crop plants. (A.B.)

  20. Barley seed proteomics from spots to structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2009-01-01

    forms on 2D-gels. Specific protein families, including peroxidases and alpha-amylases have been subjected to in-depth analysis resulting in characterisation of different isozymes, post-translational. modifications and processing. A functional proteomics study focusing on the seed thioredoxin system has...... with information from rice and other cereals facilitate identification of barley proteins. Several hundred barley seed proteins are identified and lower abundance proteins including membrane proteins are now being analysed. In the present review we focus on variation in protein profiles of seed tissues during...