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Sample records for fenticonazole activity measured

  1. Fenticonazole Activity Measured by the Methods of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing and CLSI against 260 Candida Vulvovaginitis Isolates from Two European Regions and Annotations on the Prevalent Genotypes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulou, Stavroula; Aoun, Michel; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.; Baka, Stavroula; Logothetis, Emanuel; Kalambokas, Theodoros; Zannos, Andreas; Papadias, Konstantine; Grigoriou, Odysseas; Kouskouni, Evangelia; Velegraki, Aristea

    2009-01-01

    The activity of fenticonazole was studied against 260 West and Southeast European vulvovaginal candidiasis isolates, and low MICs were displayed. Fenticonazole was assessed by European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing and CLSI microdilution methods for the first time, and the results showed excellent agreement (97%) and significant interclass correlation coefficient (P < 0.0001). Also, the levels of agreement for the results for itraconazole, fluconazole, and ketoconazole were 84%, 90%, and 98% (P < 0.0001), respectively. Multilocus typing by PCR fingerprinting and subsequent cluster analysis delineated geographically associated alignments for Candida albicans and fluconazole resistance-related clusters for Candida glabrata. PMID:19223627

  2. Fenticonazole activity measured by the methods of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing and CLSI against 260 Candida vulvovaginitis isolates from two European regions and annotations on the prevalent genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulou, Stavroula; Aoun, Michel; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Baka, Stavroula; Logothetis, Emanuel; Kalambokas, Theodoros; Zannos, Andreas; Papadias, Konstantine; Grigoriou, Odysseas; Kouskouni, Evangelia; Velegraki, Aristea

    2009-05-01

    The activity of fenticonazole was studied against 260 West and Southeast European vulvovaginal candidiasis isolates, and low MICs were displayed. Fenticonazole was assessed by European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing and CLSI microdilution methods for the first time, and the results showed excellent agreement (97%) and significant interclass correlation coefficient (P < 0.0001). Also, the levels of agreement for the results for itraconazole, fluconazole, and ketoconazole were 84%, 90%, and 98% (P < 0.0001), respectively. Multilocus typing by PCR fingerprinting and subsequent cluster analysis delineated geographically associated alignments for Candida albicans and fluconazole resistance-related clusters for Candida glabrata.

  3. Determination of fenticonazole in human plasma by HPLC–MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixing Mao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Two simple and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS methods were developed and validated for the determination of fenticonazole in human plasma after percutaneous and intravaginal administration. Mifepristone was used as an internal standard (IS, and simple protein precipitation by acetonitrile containing 2% acetic acid was utilized for extracting the analytes from the plasma samples. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Kinetex XB-C18 column. The quantitation was performed by a mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source in multiple reactions monitoring (MRM positive ion mode using precursor-to-product ion transitions of m/z 455.2–199.1 for fenticonazole and m/z 430.2–372.3 for mifepristone. The validated linear ranges were 5–1000 pg/mL and 0.1–20 ng/mL fenticonazole in plasma for the methods A and B, respectively. For the two methods, the accuracy data ranged from 85% to 115%, the intra- and inter-batch precision data were less than 15%, the recovery data were more than 90%, and no matrix interference was observed. The methods A and B were successfully validated and applied to the pharmacokinetic studies of fenticonazole gel in Chinese healthy volunteers after percutaneous and intravaginal administration, respectively.

  4. Study on the Vaginal Irritation of Fenticonazole Nitrate Gel%硝酸芬替康唑凝胶阴道刺激性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海梅; 邵卿; 梅胜尧; 乔红群; 刘晶

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the vaginal irritation of Fenticonazole Nitrate Gel given to rabbit vaginal according to the pre-scribed dose, so as to provide a reference for the study of clinical medication. Methods 8 New Zealand female rabbits were ran-domly divided into two groups according to the weight. Fenticonazole Nitrate Gel was administrated to them q.d. for 7 d. The rab-bits were killed 24h after the last administration, and the vagina was taken for histopathological examination. Results In the 4 rab-bits of the blank gel contrast group, no obvious degeneration and necrosis was found in vaginal epithelial cells, no palpable dilata-tion and congestion was found in intrinsic membrane vascular and no obvious inflammatory cells infiltration was found around the vessels; but in the Fenticonazole Nitrate Gel group, fibroblast proliferation and some epithelial exfoliation were found in vaginal mucosa lamina propria of 4 rabbits, and many necrosis neutrophils were found in vaginal mucosa lamina propria of No. 1 rabbit. Conclusion Continuous administration of Fenticonazole Nitrate Gel has certain irritation on local vaginal, it may cause partial vaginal epithelial exfoliation, local edema and other inflammatory changes.%目的:探讨硝酸芬替康唑凝胶按规定剂量给予兔阴道后对阴道的刺激性,为临床研究用药提供参考。方法选取新西兰兔8只,雌性,按体重随机分为两组,给药1次/d,连续7 d,末次给药后24 h处死动物,取阴道进行病理组织学检查。结果空白凝胶组4只动物阴道粘膜上皮细胞无明显变性、坏死,固有膜血管未见明显扩张充血,血管周围未见明显炎细胞浸润;硝酸芬替康唑组4只动物阴道黏膜固有层均见成纤维细胞增生,部分黏膜上皮脱落,并且1号阴道黏膜固有层见较多的坏死的中性粒细胞。结论连续给予硝酸芬替康唑阴道凝胶对阴道局部有一定的刺激性,有可能会引起部分阴道

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

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    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For ...

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    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

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    Full Text Available ... Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) ...

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    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

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    Full Text Available ... Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ...

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    Full Text Available ... Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps ...

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    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

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    Full Text Available ... David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance ... Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

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    Full Text Available ... Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & ... Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & ...

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps ... file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word ...

  4. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

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    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . ... Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity ...

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    Full Text Available ... updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water aerobics Bicycling slower than 10 miles per hour ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National ... INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

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    Full Text Available ... Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References Discount Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting a ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. In general, if ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

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    Full Text Available ... Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your ... ...

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    Full Text Available ... Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email ... ...

  14. Measuring children's physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...... on the thigh (n=903) and one on the lower back (n= 856), for up to ten consecutive days. Participants were instructed not to reattach an accelerometer should it fall off. Simple and multiple linear regression were used to determine associations between accelerometer wear time and age, sex, BMI percentiles...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E F G H I J K ... aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ways to ... ePub file RIS file Page last reviewed: June 4, 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content ...

  16. Measuring children's physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...... compliance. The aim of this study was to assess the compliance of Axivity AX3 accelerometers taped directly to the skin of 9-13-year-old children. METHODS: Children in 46 school classes (53.4% girls, age 11.0±1.0 years, BMI 17.7±2.8 kg*m) across Denmark wore two Axivity AX3 accelerometers, one taped...... on the thigh (n=903) and one on the lower back (n= 856), for up to ten consecutive days. Participants were instructed not to reattach an accelerometer should it fall off. Simple and multiple linear regression were used to determine associations between accelerometer wear time and age, sex, BMI percentiles...

  17. Electrical measurement of sweat activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronstad, Christian; Gjein, Gaute E; Grimnes, Sverre; Martinsen, Ørjan G; Krogstad, Anne-Lene; Fosse, Erik

    2008-06-01

    A multichannel logger for long-term measurements of sweat activity is presented. The logger uses skin surface electrodes for unipolar admittance measurements in the stratum corneum. The logger is developed with emphasis on clinical use. The portability of the logger enables recording of sweat activity under circumstances such as daily errands, exercise and sleep. Measurements have been done on 24 healthy volunteers during relaxation and exercise with heart rate monitoring. Recordings of sweat activity during sleep have been done on two healthy subjects. Early results show good agreement with the literature on sweating physiology and electrodermal activity. Results are presented showing measurements related to physical exercise, dermatomes, distribution of sweat glands and sympathetic activity. This study examines the normal sweating patterns for the healthy population, and we present results with the first 24 healthy volunteers. Comparing these results with similar measurements on hyperhidrosis patients will make it possible to find the most useful parameters for diagnosis and treatment evaluation.

  18. Measuring physical activity during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teede Helena J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, little is known about physical activity patterns in pregnancy with prior estimates predominantly based on subjective assessment measures that are prone to error. Given the increasing obesity rates and the importance of physical activity in pregnancy, we evaluated the relationship and agreement between subjective and objective physical activity assessment tools to inform researchers and clinicians on optimal assessment of physical activity in pregnancy. Methods 48 pregnant women between 26-28 weeks gestation were recruited. The Yamax pedometer and Actigraph accelerometer were worn for 5-7 days under free living conditions and thereafter the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was completed. IPAQ and pedometer estimates of activity were compared to the more robust and accurate accelerometer data. Results Of 48 women recruited, 30 women completed the study (mean age: 33.6 ± 4.7 years; mean BMI: 31.2 ± 5.1 kg/m2 and 18 were excluded (failure to wear [n = 8] and incomplete data [n = 10]. The accelerometer and pedometer correlated significantly on estimation of daily steps (ρ = 0.69, p -1 day-1 were not significantly correlated and there was poor absolute agreement. Relative to the accelerometer, the IPAQ under predicted daily total METs (105.76 ± 259.13 min-1 day-1 and light METs (255.55 ± 128.41 min-1 day-1 and over predicted moderate METs (-112.25 ± 166.41 min-1 day-1. Conclusion Compared with the accelerometer, the pedometer appears to provide a reliable estimate of physical activity in pregnancy, whereas the subjective IPAQ measure performed less accurately in this setting. Future research measuring activity in pregnancy should optimally encompass objective measures of physical activity. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry Number: ACTRN12608000233325. Registered 7/5/2008.

  19. Youth physical activity resource use and activity measured by accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether use of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily (1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and (2) vigorous physical activity. Using a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources.

  20. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  1. Oxygen activity measurements in simulated converter matte

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tshilombo, KG

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available to the composition of the gas atmosphere over the melt. The measured oxygen activity was generally close to that predicted by FactSage calculations. This indicates that such oxygen activity measurements could be useful to monitor iron removal during converting...

  2. Youth Physical Activity Resource Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andra L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether use of physical activity resources (e.g., parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods: One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1 resources). The main…

  3. Measuring Cognitive Translation Effort with Activity Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael; Lacruz, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increased quality of Machine Translation output, human interaction will remain a crucial activity to guarantee the quality of the final translation products. Human-computer interaction in translation will likely be the more successful the more we understand the properties and compleme...... methods in empirical translation process research and suggests ngrams of Activity Units for measuring the translation process....

  4. Measuring Homework Completion in Behavioral Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Andrew M.; Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities…

  5. Active cell mechanics: Measurement and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Wylie W; Fodor, Étienne; Betz, Timo

    2015-11-01

    Living cells are active mechanical systems that are able to generate forces. Their structure and shape are primarily determined by biopolymer filaments and molecular motors that form the cytoskeleton. Active force generation requires constant consumption of energy to maintain the nonequilibrium activity to drive organization and transport processes necessary for their function. To understand this activity it is necessary to develop new approaches to probe the underlying physical processes. Active cell mechanics incorporates active molecular-scale force generation into the traditional framework of mechanics of materials. This review highlights recent experimental and theoretical developments towards understanding active cell mechanics. We focus primarily on intracellular mechanical measurements and theoretical advances utilizing the Langevin framework. These developing approaches allow a quantitative understanding of nonequilibrium mechanical activity in living cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology.

  6. pedometer-measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as a direct/objective measure of ambulatory physical activity.[8-10]. Furthermore, such ..... that 100 steps/minute is a reasonable heuristic value indicative of ... funding this project: Durban University of Technology (DUT) and the. National ...

  7. Mathematical model of radon activity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Zambianchi, Pedro, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Present work describes a mathematical model that quantifies the time dependent amount of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn altogether and their activities within an ionization chamber as, for example, AlphaGUARD, which is used to measure activity concentration of Rn in soil gas. The differential equations take into account tree main processes, namely: the injection of Rn into the cavity of detector by the air pump including the effect of the traveling time Rn takes to reach the chamber; Rn release by the air exiting the chamber; and radioactive decay of Rn within the chamber. Developed code quantifies the activity of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn isotopes separately. Following the standard methodology to measure Rn activity in soil gas, the air pump usually is turned off over a period of time in order to avoid the influx of Rn into the chamber. Since {sup 220}Rn has a short half-life time, approximately 56s, the model shows that after 7 minutes the activity concentration of this isotope is null. Consequently, the measured activity refers to {sup 222}Rn, only. Furthermore, the model also addresses the activity of {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn progeny, which being metals represent potential risk of ionization chamber contamination that could increase the background of further measurements. Some preliminary comparison of experimental data and theoretical calculations is presented. Obtained transient and steady-state solutions could be used for planning of Rn in soil gas measurements as well as for accuracy assessment of obtained results together with efficiency evaluation of chosen measurements procedure. (author)

  8. Radium activity measurements in bottled mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Denyak, Valeriy; Reque, Marilson, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Paschuk; Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of {sup 226}Ra activity measurements of fifteen samples of bottled mineral water acquired at markets of Curitiba-PR, Brazil. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology - Parana (UTFPR) in collaboration with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Committee (CNEN). The experimental setup was based on the electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.). The measurements were carried out with a special kit of accessory vessels (vials) RAD7 H{sub 2}O, which allows one to identify the {sup 222}Rn activity concentration in small water samples of 40 mL and 250 mL in the range going from less than 30 pCi/L to greater than 10{sup 5} pCi/L. During each measurement a vial from RAD H{sub 2}O was poured with a sample of water. The air pump, included in the close loop aeration circuit and connected to the vial and RAD7 detector, operated for five minutes to snatch the sample of air maintained above the level of water sample and transporting it from the vial through the system. Evaluation of the concentration of soluble radium ({sup 226}Ra) salts in water and their activity was performed after 30 days when {sup 222}Rn in the water samples reached secular equilibrium. The background measurements were performed using the samples of the distilled water. Considering the importance of background measurements, it was found that the value suggested by user Manual protocol (RAD7) for the case of low activity radon measurements, has to be slightly modified. (author)

  9. ATPase Activity Measurements Using Radiolabeled ATP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swarts, H.G.; Koenderink, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    ATP provides the energy that is essential for all P-type ATPases to actively transport their substrates against an existing gradient. This ATP hydrolysis can be measured using different methods. Here, we describe a method that uses radiolabeled [gamma-(32)P]ATP, which is hydrolyzed by P-type ATPases

  10. Measuring Active Learning to Predict Course Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John E.; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether active learning within computer-based training courses can be measured and whether it serves as a predictor of learner-perceived course quality. A major corporation participated in this research, providing access to internal employee training courses, training representatives, and historical course evaluation data.…

  11. Measuring segregation: an activity space approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David W S; Shaw, Shih-Lung

    2011-06-01

    While the literature clearly acknowledges that individuals may experience different levels of segregation across their various socio-geographical spaces, most measures of segregation are intended to be used in the residential space. Using spatially aggregated data to evaluate segregation in the residential space has been the norm and thus individual's segregation experiences in other socio-geographical spaces are often de-emphasized or ignored. This paper attempts to provide a more comprehensive approach in evaluating segregation beyond the residential space. The entire activity spaces of individuals are taken into account with individuals serving as the building blocks of the analysis. The measurement principle is based upon the exposure dimension of segregation. The proposed measure reflects the exposure of individuals of a referenced group in a neighborhood to the populations of other groups that are found within the activity spaces of individuals in the referenced group. Using the travel diary data collected from the tri-county area in southeast Florida and the imputed racial-ethnic data, this paper demonstrates how the proposed segregation measurement approach goes beyond just measuring population distribution patterns in the residential space and can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of segregation by considering various socio-geographical spaces.

  12. Vectorised Spreading Activation algorithm for centrality measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Troussov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spreading Activation is a family of graph-based algorithms widely used in areas such as information retrieval, epidemic models, and recommender systems. In this paper we introduce a novel Spreading Activation (SA method that we call Vectorised Spreading Activation (VSA. VSA algorithms, like “traditional” SA algorithms, iteratively propagate the activation from the initially activated set of nodes to the other nodes in a network through outward links. The level of the node’s activation could be used as a centrality measurement in accordance with dynamic model-based view of centrality that focuses on the outcomes for nodes in a network where something is flowing from node to node across the edges. Representing the activation by vectors allows the use of the information about various dimensionalities of the flow and the dynamic of the flow. In this capacity, VSA algorithms can model multitude of complex multidimensional network flows. We present the results of numerical simulations on small synthetic social networks and multi­dimensional network models of folksonomies which show that the results of VSA propagation are more sensitive to the positions of the initial seed and to the community structure of the network than the results produced by traditional SA algorithms. We tentatively conclude that the VSA methods could be instrumental to develop scalable and computationally efficient algorithms which could achieve synergy between computation of centrality indexes with detection of community structures in networks. Based on our preliminary results and on improvements made over previous studies, we foresee advances and applications in the current state of the art of this family of algorithms and their applications to centrality measurement.

  13. Measuring psychological engagement in youth activity involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Heather L; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Busseri, Michael A; Gadbois, Shannon; Bowker, Anne; Findlay, Leanne

    2015-12-01

    Although psychological engagement (e.g., enjoyment, concentration) may be critical in fostering positive outcomes of youth activity participation, too few studies have been conducted to establish its role in development. Furthermore, an established measurement tool is lacking. In the current study, we evaluated a brief engagement measure with two Canadian samples of youth (Sample 1, N = 290, mean age = 16.9 years, 62% female; Sample 2, N = 1827, mean age = 13.1 years, 54% female). We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis with structural equation modeling to examine the hypothesized structure of the model. We also assessed the measure's validity by testing relations between engagement and both perceived outcomes and positive features of activity settings. Psychological engagement was best captured by three latent cognitive, affective, and relational/spiritual factors and a second-order latent factor. Also, as anticipated, psychological engagement was associated with features of the activity setting and perceived impact.

  14. How should we measure online learning activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim O'Riordan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of Web-based learning objects makes finding and evaluating resources a considerable hurdle for learners to overcome. While established learning analytics methods provide feedback that can aid learner evaluation of learning resources, the adequacy and reliability of these methods is questioned. Because engagement with online learning is different from other Web activity, it is important to establish pedagogically relevant measures that can aid the development of distinct, automated analysis systems. Content analysis is often used to examine online discussion in educational settings, but these instruments are rarely compared with each other which leads to uncertainty regarding their validity and reliability. In this study, participation in Massive Open Online Course (MOOC comment forums was evaluated using four different analytical approaches: the Digital Artefacts for Learning Engagement (DiAL-e framework, Bloom's Taxonomy, Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO and Community of Inquiry (CoI. Results from this study indicate that different approaches to measuring cognitive activity are closely correlated and are distinct from typical interaction measures. This suggests that computational approaches to pedagogical analysis may provide useful insights into learning processes.

  15. PROMOTION OF ACTIVE MEASURES AND EMPLOYMENT STIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA ELISABETA POPP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches in the field of the labour market has allowed the identification of certain specific mechanisms for employment promotion; at present, on the Romanian labour market we find passive policies, concretised in financial aids paid to the unemployed, along with active policies, constituting the most efficient social protection activity addressed to the unemployed (they aim at counterbalancing the inefficiencies determined by the granting of financial allowances, help population to find a job by actions of information, professional training and contributing to the encouragement of the labour force mobility. The paper refers to some theoretical considerations related to the influence factors of employment stimulation, as well as to the unemployment – correlated adequate measures synapse. The applied research comprises the analysis of statistic documents; the method used is the case study, i.e. the activity of employment stimulation carried on by the County Agency for Employment Caraş-Severin, in the period 2004-2012. The conclusions highlight the impact of the activity of the institutions involved in the system of social protection and security within the labour market.

  16. Wear measurement by surface layer activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blatchley, C.

    1987-05-01

    The purpose of these projects was to demonstrate the capability for precisely but remotely measuring small increments of wear, erosion or corrosion in utility components using detectors mounted outside the system to monitor the presence of radionuclide surface markers. These gamma ray emitting markers are produced by surface layer activation (SLA) using a high energy particle beam from a Van de Graaff or cyclotron particle accelerator. The work was divided into three major projects: (1) determination of the feasibility of applying SLA based surface monitoring techniques to key power plant systems; (2) a field demonstration of SLA monitoring in steam turbine components subject to severe solid particle erosion; and (3) a field demonstration of SLA wear or corrosion monitoring of components in boiler auxiliaries. In the field tests, surface material removal was successfully measured from both selected systems, demonstrating the feasibility of the technique for long term diagnostic condition monitoring. Three bearing components in a boiler circulation pump were monitored almost continuously for a period of over 5 months until the pump was stopped due to electrical problems unrelated to the wear measurements. Solid particle erosion from two stop valve bypass valves was measured during a series of nine startup cycles. Both test demonstrations confirmed the earlier feasibility estimates and showed how SLA markers can be used to provide valuable diagnostic information to plant operators. 22 refs., 63 figs., 29 tabs.

  17. Photocatalytic Active Radiation Measurements and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Underwood, Lauren W.

    2011-01-01

    Photocatalytic materials are being used to purify air, to kill microbes, and to keep surfaces clean. A wide variety of materials are being developed, many of which have different abilities to absorb various wavelengths of light. Material variability, combined with both spectral illumination intensity and spectral distribution variability, will produce a wide range of performance results. The proposed technology estimates photocatalytic active radiation (PcAR), a unit of radiation that normalizes the amount of light based on its spectral distribution and on the ability of the material to absorb that radiation. Photocatalytic reactions depend upon the number of electron-hole pairs generated at the photocatalytic surface. The number of electron-hole pairs produced depends on the number of photons per unit area per second striking the surface that can be absorbed and whose energy exceeds the bandgap of the photocatalytic material. A convenient parameter to describe the number of useful photons is the number of moles of photons striking the surface per unit area per second. The unit of micro-einsteins (or micromoles) of photons per m2 per sec is commonly used for photochemical and photoelectric-like phenomena. This type of parameter is used in photochemistry, such as in the conversion of light energy for photosynthesis. Photosynthetic response correlates with the number of photons rather than by energy because, in this photochemical process, each molecule is activated by the absorption of one photon. In photosynthesis, the number of photons absorbed in the 400 700 nm spectral range is estimated and is referred to as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). PAR is defined in terms of the photosynthetic photon flux density measured in micro-einsteins of photons per m2 per sec. PcAR is an equivalent, similarly modeled parameter that has been defined for the photocatalytic processes. Two methods to measure the PcAR level are being proposed. In the first method, a calibrated

  18. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2014-02-04

    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine's list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996-2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship.

  19. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine’s list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996–2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. PMID:24449873

  20. Methods to Measure Physical Activity Behaviors in Health Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important concept to measure in health education research. The health education researcher might need to measure physical activity because it is the primary measure of interest, or PA might be a confounding measure that needs to be controlled for in statistical analysis. The purpose of this commentary is to…

  1. The Measurement and Interpretation of Children's Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Ann V; Eston, Roger G

    2007-09-01

    The accurate and reliable assessment of physical activity is necessary for any research study where physical activity is either an outcome measure or an intervention. The aim of this review is to examine the use of objective measurement techniques for the assessment and interpretation of children's physical activity. Accurate measurement of children's activity is challenging, as the activity is characteristically sporadic and intermittent, consisting of frequent, short bouts. Objective measures of physical activity include heart rate telemetry, pedometry and accelerometry, and each of these methods has strengths and limitations. Heart rate is suited to the measurement of sustained periods of moderate and vigorous activity, pedometry provides a valid measure of total activity, and accelerometry provides a valid measure of total activity as well as the pattern and intensity of activity. As the weaknesses of heart rate and accelerometry for the assessment of activity are not inter-correlated, a combination of the two methods may be more accurate than either method alone. Recent evidence suggests that the Actiheart, an integrated accelerometer and heart rate unit, provides a more accurate prediction of children's energy expenditure than either heart rate or accelerometry alone. However, the cost of the Actiheart is prohibitive for large-scale studies. The pedometer is recommended when only the total amount of physical activity is of interest. When the intensity or the pattern of activity is of interest, accelerometry is the recommended measurement tool. Key pointsThe use of objective measures to assess physical activity in children is recommended.Pedometers provide an inexpensive objective measure of total activity that is highly correlated with more sophisticated techniques, e.g. accelerometry, and has been used to identify relationships between health and activity in children.Accelerometry allows examination of the temporal pattern and intensity of children

  2. Measurement of myeloid cell immune suppressive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolcetti, Luigi; Peranzoni, Elisa; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2010-11-01

    This unit presents simple methods to assess the immunosuppressive properties of immunoregulatory cells of myeloid origin, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), both in vitro and in vivo. These methods are general and could be adapted to test the impact of different suppressive populations on T cell activation, proliferation, and cytotoxic activity; moreover they could be useful to assess the influence exerted on immune suppressive pathways by genetic modifications, chemical inhibitors, and drugs.

  3. Physical activity in preschoolers: understanding prevalence and measurement issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Melody; Schofield, Grant M; Kolt, Gregory S

    2007-01-01

    Accurate physical activity quantification in preschoolers is essential to establish physical activity prevalence, dose-response relationships between activity and health outcomes, and intervention effectiveness. To date, best practice approaches for physical activity measurement in preschool-aged children have been relatively understudied. This article provides a review of physical activity measurement tools for preschoolers, an overview of measurement of preschoolers' physical activity, and directions for further research. Electronic and manual literature searches were used to identify 49 studies that measured young children's physical activity, and 32 studies that assessed the validity and/or reliability of physical activity measures with preschool-aged children. While no prevalence data exist, measurement studies indicate that preschool children exhibit low levels of vigorous activity and high levels of inactivity, boys are more active than girls, and activity patterns tend to be sporadic and omnidirectional. As such, measures capable of capturing differing activity intensities in very short timeframes and over multiple planes are likely to have the most utility with this population. Accelerometers are well suited for this purpose, and a number of models have been used to objectively quantify preschoolers' physical activity. Only one model of pedometer has been investigated for validity with preschool-aged children, showing equivocal results. Direct observation of physical activity can provide detailed contextual information on preschoolers' physical activity, but is subjective and impractical for understanding daily physical activity. Proxy-report questionnaires are unlikely to be useful for determining actual physical activity levels of young children, and instead may be useful for identifying potential correlates of activity. Establishing validity is challenging due to the absence of a precise physical activity measure, or 'criterion', for young children

  4. THE MEASUREMENT AND INTERPRETATION OF CHILDREN'S PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann V. Rowlands

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The accurate and reliable assessment of physical activity is necessary for any research study where physical activity is either an outcome measure or an intervention. The aim of this review is to examine the use of objective measurement techniques for the assessment and interpretation of children's physical activity. Accurate measurement of children's activity is challenging, as the activity is characteristically sporadic and intermittent, consisting of frequent, short bouts. Objective measures of physical activity include heart rate telemetry, pedometry and accelerometry, and each of these methods has strengths and limitations. Heart rate is suited to the measurement of sustained periods of moderate and vigorous activity, pedometry provides a valid measure of total activity, and accelerometry provides a valid measure of total activity as well as the pattern and intensity of activity. As the weaknesses of heart rate and accelerometry for the assessment of activity are not inter-correlated, a combination of the two methods may be more accurate than either method alone. Recent evidence suggests that the Actiheart, an integrated accelerometer and heart rate unit, provides a more accurate prediction of children's energy expenditure than either heart rate or accelerometry alone. However, the cost of the Actiheart is prohibitive for large-scale studies. The pedometer is recommended when only the total amount of physical activity is of interest. When the intensity or the pattern of activity is of interest, accelerometry is the recommended measurement tool

  5. Monitoring Oral Anticoagulant Therapy: Measuring Coagulant Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attermann, Jorn

    and the time for the next visit based on laboratory analyses of the INR. This conventional treatment regimen is relatively inconvenient for the patient, since it requires frequent outpatient visits and venipunctures. Moreover, errors may occur due to insufficient communication between patient and physician...... of anticoagulant therapy. The specific hypotheses were: • The precision of patient’s own measurements of INR performed at home on a portable coagulometer is sufficient to allow for self management of OAT (substudy 1). • For selected pairs of thromboplastins, the relation between logarithmic prothrombin times...... substudy it was shown that for selected patients the precision of the patients’ own measurements of INR is sufficient to allow for reliable routine patient self testing of INR. In the same substudy we found large discrepancies between the INR measurements on portable coagulometers and in the Department...

  6. MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  7. MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity in the Elderly: Some Implications for Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Roy J.

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of physical activity patterns is discussed in terms of data obtained by attitude assessment, activity questionnaires, personal monitoring devices, and fitness assessment. Problems of each technique are described. Application of activity measures to the estimation of total dietary needs is discussed. (SK)

  9. Towards Fast In-line Measurement of Water Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J.; Andreasen, M. B.; Pedersen, M.; Rasmussen, M. K.

    2015-03-01

    Water activity is widely used as a key parameter in controlling the quality of food and feed products, among others. For determining the water activity, the material is sampled from the manufacturing process and measured in the laboratory with water activity analyzers. The sampling procedure can lead to non-representative measurements, the measurement process is time consuming, and much of the produced material may be wasted before the measurement results are available. To reduce waste and to be able to optimize production processes, industry requires in-line measurement of relevant quality determining parameters, hereunder the water activity. In cooperation with a manufacturer of systems for automatic in-line sampling and measurement of moisture, density, and the size of items, a project was defined to also enable the manufacturer's existing products to perform automatic measurement of the water activity in a sample. The aim was to develop a measurement system with the ability to operate in an industrial environment, which in the end would increase the measurement speed significantly and minimize the problems related to the handling of samples. In the paper the selection and characterization of the sensors, the design of a measurement chamber, and various issues of modeling and methods to reduce measurement time are discussed. The paper also presents water activity measurements obtained from food and feed products with the system, and shows that reliable results can be obtained in a few minutes with a proper design of the measurement chamber and selection of a model.

  10. Electromagnetic Measurements in an Active Oilfield Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, K. A.; Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.; Weiss, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    An important issue in oilfield development pertains to mapping and monitoring of the fracture distributions (either natural or man-made) controlling subsurface fluid flow. Although microseismic monitoring and analysis have been used for this purpose for several decades, there remain several ambiguities and uncertainties with this approach. We are investigating a novel electromagnetic (EM) technique for detecting and mapping hydraulic fractures in a petroleum reservoir by injecting an electrically conductive contrast agent into an open fracture. The fracture is subsequently illuminated by a strong EM field radiated by a large engineered antenna. Specifically, a grounded electric current source is applied directly to the steel casing of the borehole, either at/near the wellhead or at a deep downhole point. Transient multicomponent EM signals (both electric and magnetic) scattered by the conductivity contrast are then recorded by a surface receiver array. We are presently utilizing advanced 3D numerical modeling algorithms to accurately simulate fracture responses, both before and after insertion of the conductive contrast agent. Model results compare favorably with EM field data recently acquired in a Permian Basin oilfield. However, extraction of the very-low-amplitude fracture signatures from noisy data requires effective noise suppression strategies such as long stacking times, rejection of outliers, and careful treatment of natural magnetotelluric fields. Dealing with the ever-present "episodic EM noise" typical in an active oilfield environment (associated with drilling, pumping, machinery, traffic, etc.) constitutes an ongoing problem. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Comparison of self-reported measure of sitting time (IPAQ) with objective measurement (activPAL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastin, S F M; Culhane, B; Dall, P M

    2014-11-01

    This study compared sitting time measured by a questionnaire (International Physical Activity Questionnaire; IPAQ) with concurrently measured objective sitting time from an accelerometer-based measure of thigh inclination (activPAL).Adults (n = 69), wore an activPAL for a week, and then completed the long-form 7 d recall IPAQ questionnaire. IPAQ reported sitting time (including and excluding transportation sitting) for the week, weekdays and weekend days were compared to activPAL (criterion measure) sitting time using intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland Altman plots.Confidence intervals between the IPAQ and the activPAL were wide, while correlations between the two measures were low and non-significant (0.112-0.275). Compared to a direct measure of postural sitting (activPAL), the IPAQ underestimated sitting time across the group for the whole week, both when including (mean 2.2 h d(-1)) and excluding (mean 3.4 h d(-1)) transportation sitting. Sitting was less accurately reported on weekend days than weekdays, and at lower levels of sitting on weekdays.Agreement between the IPAQ and the activPAL, a direct measure of sitting, in this study was poor. The direction of group agreement was different to comparisons using a measure of low accelerometer counts (Actigraph) as the criterion measure in previous research. Future studies should use a direct measure of sitting as a criterion measure to validate subjective measurement tools.

  12. Global positioning system: a new opportunity in physical activity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Ralph; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2009-11-04

    Accurate measurement of physical activity is a pre-requisite to monitor population physical activity levels and design effective interventions. Global Positioning System (GPS) technology offers potential to improve the measurement of physical activity. This paper 1) reviews the extant literature on the application of GPS to monitor human movement, with a particular emphasis on free-living physical activity, 2) discusses issues associated with GPS use, and 3) provides recommendations for future research. Overall findings show that GPS is a useful tool to augment our understanding of physical activity by providing the context (location) of the activity and used together with Geographical Information Systems can provide some insight into how people interact with the environment. However, no studies have shown that GPS alone is a reliable and valid measure of physical activity.

  13. On-line Measurements of Settling Charateristics in Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Larsen, Torben

    1997-01-01

    An on-line settling column for measuring the dynamic variations of settling velocity of activated sludge has been developed. The settling column is automatic and self-cleansing insuring continuous and reliable measurements. The settling column was tested on sludge from a batch reactor where sucrose...... was added as an impulse to activated sludge. The continuous measurement of settling velocity revealed a highly dynamic response after the sucrose was added. The result were verified with simultaneous measurement of the initial settling rate. A 200 hour experiment showed variations in settling velocity...

  14. Physical activity in Ontario preschoolers: prevalence and measurement issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Joyce; Nguyen, Thanh; Gabel, Leigh; Timmons, Brian W

    2011-04-01

    Early childhood is a critical period for the development of active living behaviours; however, very little is known about the physical activity levels of preschoolers from Canada. The objectives of this study were to (i) examine physical activity in a sample of Ontario preschoolers by using high-frequency accelerometry to determine activity and step counts; (ii) assess the relationship between step counts and physical activity; (iii) examine the influence of epoch length or sampling interval on physical activity; and (iv) compare measured physical activity to existing recommendations. Thirty 3- to 5-year-old children wore accelerometers to monitor habitual physical activity in 3-s epochs over a 7-day period. Preschoolers engaged in an average of 220 min of daily physical activity, 75 min of which were spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and they accumulated 7529 ± 1539 steps·day(-1). Preschoolers who engaged in more MVPA also took more steps on a daily basis (r = 0.81, p physical activity per day for preschool-age children. Our data highlight important methodological considerations when measuring physical activity in preschoolers and the need for preschool-specific physical activity guidelines for Canadian children.

  15. Measuring sound absorption: considerations on the measurement of the active acoustic power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, E.R.; Wijnant, Y.H.; Boer, de A.

    2014-01-01

    Using a local plane wave assumption, one can determine the normal incidence sound absorption coefficient of a surface by measuring the acoustic pressure and the particle velocity normal to that surface. As the measurement surface lies in front of the material surface, the measured active and inciden

  16. Inferring brain-computational mechanisms with models of activity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution functional imaging is providing increasingly rich measurements of brain activity in animals and humans. A major challenge is to leverage such data to gain insight into the brain's computational mechanisms. The first step is to define candidate brain-computational models (BCMs) that can perform the behavioural task in question. We would then like to infer which of the candidate BCMs best accounts for measured brain-activity data. Here we describe a method that complements each BCM by a measurement model (MM), which simulates the way the brain-activity measurements reflect neuronal activity (e.g. local averaging in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) voxels or sparse sampling in array recordings). The resulting generative model (BCM-MM) produces simulated measurements. To avoid having to fit the MM to predict each individual measurement channel of the brain-activity data, we compare the measured and predicted data at the level of summary statistics. We describe a novel particular implementation of this approach, called probabilistic representational similarity analysis (pRSA) with MMs, which uses representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) as the summary statistics. We validate this method by simulations of fMRI measurements (locally averaging voxels) based on a deep convolutional neural network for visual object recognition. Results indicate that the way the measurements sample the activity patterns strongly affects the apparent representational dissimilarities. However, modelling of the measurement process can account for these effects, and different BCMs remain distinguishable even under substantial noise. The pRSA method enables us to perform Bayesian inference on the set of BCMs and to recognize the data-generating model in each case.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'.

  17. Inferring brain-computational mechanisms with models of activity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution functional imaging is providing increasingly rich measurements of brain activity in animals and humans. A major challenge is to leverage such data to gain insight into the brain's computational mechanisms. The first step is to define candidate brain-computational models (BCMs) that can perform the behavioural task in question. We would then like to infer which of the candidate BCMs best accounts for measured brain-activity data. Here we describe a method that complements each BCM by a measurement model (MM), which simulates the way the brain-activity measurements reflect neuronal activity (e.g. local averaging in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) voxels or sparse sampling in array recordings). The resulting generative model (BCM-MM) produces simulated measurements. To avoid having to fit the MM to predict each individual measurement channel of the brain-activity data, we compare the measured and predicted data at the level of summary statistics. We describe a novel particular implementation of this approach, called probabilistic representational similarity analysis (pRSA) with MMs, which uses representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) as the summary statistics. We validate this method by simulations of fMRI measurements (locally averaging voxels) based on a deep convolutional neural network for visual object recognition. Results indicate that the way the measurements sample the activity patterns strongly affects the apparent representational dissimilarities. However, modelling of the measurement process can account for these effects, and different BCMs remain distinguishable even under substantial noise. The pRSA method enables us to perform Bayesian inference on the set of BCMs and to recognize the data-generating model in each case. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience’. PMID:27574316

  18. A Simple and Accurate Method for Measuring Enzyme Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Din-Yan

    1997-01-01

    Presents methods commonly used for investigating enzyme activity using catalase and presents a new method for measuring catalase activity that is more reliable and accurate. Provides results that are readily reproduced and quantified. Can also be used for investigations of enzyme properties such as the effects of temperature, pH, inhibitors,…

  19. A Simple and Accurate Method for Measuring Enzyme Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Din-Yan

    1997-01-01

    Presents methods commonly used for investigating enzyme activity using catalase and presents a new method for measuring catalase activity that is more reliable and accurate. Provides results that are readily reproduced and quantified. Can also be used for investigations of enzyme properties such as the effects of temperature, pH, inhibitors,…

  20. The effect of carbohydrates on alpha-amylase activity measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baks, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Ceralpha method can be used for ¿-amylase activity measurements during the hydrolysis of starch at high substrate concentrations (>40 wt.%). However, the results are affected by the carbohydrates present in the samples. The effect of carbohydrates on the Ceralpha ¿-amylase activity

  1. The effect of carbohydrates on alpha-amylase activity measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baks, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Ceralpha method can be used for ¿-amylase activity measurements during the hydrolysis of starch at high substrate concentrations (>40 wt.%). However, the results are affected by the carbohydrates present in the samples. The effect of carbohydrates on the Ceralpha ¿-amylase activity measuremen

  2. Particle fluence measurements by activation technique for radiation damage studies

    CERN Document Server

    León-Florián, E; Furetta, C; Leroy, Claude

    1995-01-01

    High-level radiation environment can produce radiation damage in detectors and their associate electronic components. The establishment of a correlation between damage, irradiation level and absorbed dose requires a precise measurement of the fluence of particles causing the damage. The activation technique is frequently used for performing particle fluence measurements. A review of this technique is presented.

  3. Development of the Patient Activation Measure for mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Carla A; Perrin, Nancy A; Polen, Michael R; Leo, Michael C; Hibbard, Judith H; Tusler, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Our objective was to adapt the physical health Patient Activation Measure (PAM) for use among people with mental health conditions (PAM-MH). Data came from three studies among people with chronic mental health conditions and were combined in Rasch analyses. The PAM-MH's psychometric properties equal those of the original 13-item PAM. Test-retest reliability and concurrent validity were good, and the PAM-MH showed sensitivity to change. The PAM-MH appears to be a reliable and valid measure of patient activation among individuals with mental health problems. It appears to have potential for use in assessing change in activation.

  4. Traceable measurements of the activity concentration in air

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, A; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Müller, A; Marcos, A

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear reactions induced by high energetic protons in heavy targets such as UC/sub 2/ and ThC cause a particular, complex radiation protection task at facilities like ISOLDE: the measurement of a mixture of different isotopes of the radioactive noble gas radon and the radon progenies in air. The knowledge of their respective activity concentration is fundamental for exposure assessments. Due to the complex mixture of activity concentrations in air, its precise determination is quite difficult. Therefore, a new procedure for taking reference samples was developed and implemented for the traceable measurement of the activity concentration of radioactive ions (e.g., radon progenies) in air. This technique is combined by measuring alpha -particles with a multi-wire ionization chamber for the parallel on-line determination of the activity concentration of different radon isotopes. (10 refs).

  5. Comparison of Estimated and Measured Muscle Activity During Inclined Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Nathalie; Schwameder, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    While inclined walking is a frequent daily activity, muscle forces during this activity have rarely been examined. Musculoskeletal models are commonly used to estimate internal forces in healthy populations, but these require a priori validation. The aim of this study was to compare estimated muscle activity using a musculoskeletal model with measured EMG data during inclined walking. Ten healthy male participants walked at different inclinations of 0°, ± 6°, ± 12°, and ± 18° on a ramp equipped with 2 force plates. Kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity of the musculus (m.) biceps femoris, m. rectus femoris, m. vastus lateralis, m. tibialis anterior, and m. gastrocnemius lateralis were recorded. Agreement between estimated and measured muscle activity was determined via correlation coefficients, mean absolute errors, and trend analysis. Correlation coefficients between estimated and measured muscle activity for approximately 69% of the conditions were above 0.7. Mean absolute errors were rather high with only approximately 38% being ≤ 30%. Trend analysis revealed similar estimated and measured muscle activities for all muscles and tasks (uphill and downhill walking), except m. tibialis anterior during uphill walking. This model can be used for further analysis in similar groups of participants.

  6. Objectively measured physical activity in Danish after-school cares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Møller, Niels Christian; Støckel, Jan Toftegaard;

    2015-01-01

    Inactivity and more sedentary time predominate the daily activity level of many of today's children. In Denmark, certified sport after-school cares have been established in order to increase children's daily physical activity (PA) level. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the activity......+ activity monitors worn by the children for at least 8 consecutive days. Anthropometry and cardiorespiratory fitness were measured as well. A multivariate regression analysis was carried out to check for the differences in the PA level across the two care systems. However, there did not appear to be any...

  7. Photo-activated biological processes as quantum measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Imamoglu, Atac

    2014-01-01

    We outline a framework for describing photo-activated biological reactions as generalized quantum measurements of external fields, for which the biological system takes on the role of a quantum meter. By using general arguments regarding the Hamiltonian that describes the measurement interaction, we identify the cases where it is essential for a complex chemical or biological system to exhibit non-equilibrium quantum coherent dynamics in order to achieve the requisite functionality. We illustrate the analysis by considering measurement of the solar radiation field in photosynthesis and measurement of the earth's magnetic field in avian magnetoreception.

  8. Longitudinal measurement invariance of psychosocial measures in physical activity research: An application to adolescent data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Scott C; Norman, Greg J; Merz, Erin L; Sallis, James F; Patrick, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    The current study served as a practical and substantive guide to establishing longitudinal measurement invariance of psychosocial measures commonly used in adolescent physical activity (PA) research. Psychosocial data on an initial sample of 878 adolescents (ages 11 - 15) recruited through primary care providers were provided at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months. The target measures included family support, peer support, decisional balance (pros, cons), self-efficacy, and behavioral strategies. Five of the six psychosocial measures exhibited strict longitudinal measurement invariance, with the 6th measure (self-efficacy) exhibiting strong longitudinal measurement invariance. These findings support the equivalence of these measures across time, and provide the foundation to substantively interpret group differences and associations involving these measures and PA.

  9. Advanced Active-Magnetic-Bearing Thrust-Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imlach, Joseph; Kasarda, Mary; Blumber, Eric

    2008-01-01

    An advanced thrust-measurement system utilizes active magnetic bearings to both (1) levitate a floating frame in all six degrees of freedom and (2) measure the levitation forces between the floating frame and a grounded frame. This system was developed for original use in measuring the thrust exerted by a rocket engine mounted on the floating frame, but can just as well be used in other force-measurement applications. This system offers several advantages over prior thrust-measurement systems based on mechanical support by flexures and/or load cells: The system includes multiple active magnetic bearings for each degree of freedom, so that by selective use of one, some, or all of these bearings, it is possible to test a given article over a wide force range in the same fixture, eliminating the need to transfer the article to different test fixtures to obtain the benefit of full-scale accuracy of different force-measurement devices for different force ranges. Like other active magnetic bearings, the active magnetic bearings of this system include closed-loop control subsystems, through which the stiffness and damping characteristics of the magnetic bearings can be modified electronically. The design of the system minimizes or eliminates cross-axis force-measurement errors. The active magnetic bearings are configured to provide support against movement along all three orthogonal Cartesian axes, and such that the support along a given axis does not produce force along any other axis. Moreover, by eliminating the need for such mechanical connections as flexures used in prior thrust-measurement systems, magnetic levitation of the floating frame eliminates what would otherwise be major sources of cross-axis forces and the associated measurement errors. Overall, relative to prior mechanical-support thrust-measurement systems, this system offers greater versatility for adaptation to a variety of test conditions and requirements. The basic idea of most prior active

  10. Microbial metabolic activity in soil as measured by dehydrogenase determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The dehydrogenase technique for measuring the metabolic activity of microorganisms in soil was modified to use a 6-h, 37 C incubation with either glucose or yeast extract as the electron-donating substrate. The rate of formazan production remained constant during this time interval, and cellular multiplication apparently did not occur. The technique was used to follow changes in the overall metabolic activities of microorganisms in soil undergoing incubation with a limiting concentration of added nutrient. The sequence of events was similar to that obtained by using the Warburg respirometer to measure O2 consumption. However, the major peaks of activity occurred earlier with the respirometer. This possibly is due to the lack of atmospheric CO2 during the O2 consumption measurements.

  11. An alternative measure of solar activity from detailed sunspot datasets

    CERN Document Server

    Muraközy, Judit; Ludmány, András

    2016-01-01

    The sunspot number is analyzed by using detailed sunspot data, including aspects of observability, sunspot sizes, and proper identification of sunspot groups as discrete entities of the solar activity. The tests show that besides the subjective factors there are also objective causes of the ambiguities in the series of sunspot numbers. To introduce an alternative activity measure the physical meaning of the sunspot number has to be reconsidered. It contains two components whose numbers are governed by different physical mechanisms, this is one source of the ambiguity. This article suggests an activity index, which is the amount of emerged magnetic flux. The only long-term proxy measure is the detailed sunspot area dataset with proper calibration to the magnetic flux amount. The Debrecen sunspot databases provide an appropriate source for the establishment of the suggested activity index.

  12. Measurement of nuclear activity with Ge detectors and its uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Cortes, C A P

    1999-01-01

    presented in the fifth chapter and they are applied to establish the optimum conditions for the measurement of the activity of a gamma transmitter isolated radioactive source with a spectrometer with germanium detector. (Author) The objective of this work is to analyse the influence magnitudes which affect the activity measurement of gamma transmitter isolated radioactive sources. They prepared by means of the gravimetric method, as well as, determining the uncertainty of such measurement when this is carried out with a gamma spectrometer system with a germanium detector. This work is developed in five chapters: In the first one, named Basic principles it is made a brief description about the meaning of the word Measurement and its implications and the necessaries concepts are presented which are used in this work. In the second chapter it is exposed the gravimetric method used for the manufacture of the gamma transmitter isolated radioactive sources, it is tackled the problem to determine the main influence ...

  13. Measuring Inclinations and Attitudes of University Teachers towards Sports Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaimaa Abed Mutar A1-Tamimi

    2015-01-01

    The researcher wants to know the inclinations of the teachers in A1-Mustansiriyah University into participation in sports activities and the obstacles. The aims are to build measure of trends and tendencies toward university teachers about exercise and sporting activities and identify the reasons that prevent teachers from exercise. This measure contained on 25 open questions directed by the researcher toward the university teachers, and the distribution of the questions was on three areas: cognitive domain, behavioral domain and emotional domain. These areas have a relationship between tendencies and attitudes of teachers towards sports activities, in addition to the knowledge of the problems and obstacles that prevent this group from participating in sports activities. There is a lack of correlation between the desire to practice physical activity and the presence of a sports hall at the university in terms of statistics. The difficulties in the practice of sports activities, including economic, social and other factors, insecurity and instability exist. There is a good correlation between the previous practice of physical activity and the current desire to practice in terms of statistical activities.

  14. Passive and active measurements of Egyptian monazite samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sroor, A. E-mail: amanysroor@hotmail.com

    2003-02-01

    Five samples of Egyptian monazite from beach black sand at Abou Khashba near Rosetta, North Egypt were separated in the laboratories of the nuclear materials authority of Egypt. Neutron activation analysis has been used to determine the elemental content of monazite samples. Twelve elements Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Cs, La, Eu, Sm, Hf, Pa and Np are observed and the concentrations of these elements have been calculated. Using passive measurements natural radioactivity has also been determined in Bq/kg for the investigated monazite samples. Th and U concentrations from both passive and active measurements are in agreement. Some of the observed elements have a high economic value.

  15. Passive and active measurements of Egyptian monazite samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroor, A

    2003-02-01

    Five samples of Egyptian monazite from beach black sand at Abou Khashba near Rosetta, North Egypt were separated in the laboratories of the nuclear materials authority of Egypt. Neutron activation analysis has been used to determine the elemental content of monazite samples. Twelve elements Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Cs, La, Eu, Sm, Hf, Pa and Np are observed and the concentrations of these elements have been calculated. Using passive measurements natural radioactivity has also been determined in Bq/kg for the investigated monazite samples. Th and U concentrations from both passive and active measurements are in agreement. Some of the observed elements have a high economic value.

  16. The influence of thoron on instruments measuring radon activity concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, N; Bondiguel, S

    2015-11-01

    Thoron, the isotope 220 of radon, is a radionuclide whose concentration may influence the measurement of the activity concentration of (222)Rn in the air. If in the case of continuous and active sampling measuring instruments, using a pump for example, the influence of thoron on radon measurement is obvious and is taken into account in the apparatus, it is often assumed that in the case of a passive sampling, by diffusion through a filter for example, this thoron influence is negligible. This is due to the very short radioactive half-life of thoron, 55.6 s (3.82 d for (222)Rn), and the assumption that the diffusion time of thoron in the detection chamber is long enough beside that of the thoron half-life. The objective of this study is to check whether this assumption is true or not for different kinds of commercial electronic apparatus used to measure radon activity concentration from soil to dwellings. First of all, the devices were calibrated in activity concentration of radon, and then they were exposed to a controlled thoron atmosphere. The experiments concerning the thoron aimed to investigate the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode of the apparatus. Results of these experiments show that all devices have a very quick answer to thoron atmosphere, even though the sensitivities vary from one instrument to another. Results clearly show that this influence on radon measurement due to the thoron is observed also after the exposition because of the decay of (212)Pb and its progenies. In conclusion, the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode depends strongly on the type of instruments. The results of the present investigation show that for some apparatus, the influence of thoron cannot be disregarded especially when measuring radon in soil.

  17. Tethered phytic acid as a probe for measuring phytase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Duane F; Berry, David A

    2005-06-15

    A novel approach for measuring phytase activity is presented. We have developed a new chromophoric substrate analog of phytic acid, 5-O-[6-(benzoylamino)hexyl]-d-myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,6-pentakisphosphate that permits direct measurement of the phosphate ester bond-cleavage reaction using HPLC. This compound, along with its dephosphorylated T-phosphatidylinositol intermediates, are quantified using reversed phase chromatography with UV detection.

  18. Measuring the Enzyme Activity of Arabidopsis Deubiquitylating Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowska, Kamila; Nagel, Marie-Kristin; Isono, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Deubiquitylating enzymes, or DUBs, are important regulators of ubiquitin homeostasis and substrate stability, though the molecular mechanisms of most of the DUBs in plants are not yet understood. As different ubiquitin chain types are implicated in different biological pathways, it is important to analyze the enzyme characteristic for studying a DUB. Quantitative analysis of DUB activity is also important to determine enzyme kinetics and the influence of DUB binding proteins on the enzyme activity. Here, we show methods to analyze DUB activity using immunodetection, Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining, and fluorescence measurement that can be useful for understanding the basic characteristic of DUBs.

  19. Accelerometry-measured physical activity and inflammation after gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Véronique; Vigneault, Jessica; Weisnagel, S John; Tchernof, André; Robitaille, Julie

    2013-07-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with adverse metabolic outcomes after delivery. Physical activity practice improves the inflammatory profile; however, whether this association exists in women with prior GDM remains unknown. Our objective was to examine the cardiometabolic and inflammatory risk factors associated with accelerometer-based measures of physical activity in women with prior GDM. Ninety-six women who had GDM between 2003 and 2010 were tested 2.9 ± 2.2 yr after delivery. The physical activity practice was measured with ActiGraph GT3X (ActiGraph™, Pensacola, FL) accelerometers worn ≥ 5 d, and the time spent weekly in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was derived. The waist circumference was measured and the inflammatory marker or cytokine concentrations were measured in fasting plasma by the xMAP technology using the Bio-Plex 200 system. The lipid profile was also measured from fasting blood samples. Only 31% of women accumulated at least 150 min of MVPA per week. No association was observed between the MVPA practice and any of the metabolic measurements in the whole group of women. The MVPA did not differ in groups stratified by waist circumference activator inhibitor-1 (r = -0.32, P = 0.04), and triglycerides (r = -0.44, P = 0.003). No association was seen with plasma interleukin-6; tumor necrosis factor-α; and total, LDL, or HDL cholesterol concentrations. These analyses suggest that in the years after delivery, longer time spent in MVPA practice is associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk only in women with prior GDM who do not have abdominal obesity.

  20. Anoxic Activated Sludge Monitoring with Combined Nitrate and Titrimetric Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B.; Gernaey, Krist; Vanrolleghem, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental procedure for anoxic activated sludge monitoring with combined nitrate and titrimetric measurements is proposed and evaluated successfully with two known carbon sources, (-)acetate and dextrose. For nitrate measurements an ion-selective nitrate electrode is applied to allow...... was with the carbon source in excess, since excess nitrate provoked nitrite build-up thereby complicating the data interpretation. A conceptual model could quantitatively describe the experimental observations and thus link the experimentally measured proton production with the consumption of electron acceptor...... and carbon source during denitrification....

  1. Cavitation Measurement during Sonic and Ultrasonic Activated Irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, R.G.; Verhaagen, B.; Fernandez Rivas, David; Versluis, Andreas Michel; Wesselink, P.R.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to quantify and to visualize the possible occurrence of transient cavitation (bubble formation and implosion) during sonic and ultrasonic (UAI) activated irrigation. Methods The amount of cavitation generated around several endodontic instruments was measured

  2. Cavitation measurement during sonic and ultrasonic activated irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, R.; Verhaagen, B.; Fernandez Rivas, D.; Versluis, M.; Wesselink, P.; van der Sluis, L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to quantify and to visualize the possible occurrence of transient cavitation (bubble formation and implosion) during sonic and ultrasonic (UAI) activated irrigation. Methods The amount of cavitation generated around several endodontic instruments was measured

  3. Exploring Patient Activation in the Clinic: Measurement from Three Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Christy J. W.; Ledford, Christopher C.; Childress, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To further conceptualize and operationalize patient activation (PA), using measures from patient, physician, and researcher perspectives. Data Source/Study Setting. Multimethod observation in 2010 within a family medicine clinic. Study Design. Part of an intervention with 130 patients with type 2 diabetes, this observational study…

  4. Cavitation Measurement during Sonic and Ultrasonic Activated Irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, R.G.; Verhaagen, B.; Fernandez-Rivas, D.; Versluis, M.; Wesselink, P.R.; Sluis, van der L.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to quantify and to visualize the possible occurrence of transient cavitation (bubble formation and implosion) during sonic and ultrasonic (UAI) activated irrigation. Methods The amount of cavitation generated around several endodontic instruments was measure

  5. Cavitation measurement during sonic and ultrasonic activated irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, R.; Verhaagen, B.; Fernandez Rivas, D.; Versluis, M.; Wesselink, P.; van der Sluis, L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to quantify and to visualize the possible occurrence of transient cavitation (bubble formation and implosion) during sonic and ultrasonic (UAI) activated irrigation. Methods The amount of cavitation generated around several endodontic instruments was measured

  6. Design parameters for measurements of local catalytic activity on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Martin; Johannessen, Tue; Jørgensen, Jan Hoffmann;

    2006-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics in combination with experiments is used to characterize a gas sampling device for measurements of the local catalytic activity on surfaces. The device basically consists of a quartz capillary mounted concentrically inside an aluminum tube. Reactant gas is blown toward...

  7. Voluntary activation of trapezius measured with twitch interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Janet L; Olsen, Henrik Baare; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of measuring voluntary activation of the trapezius muscle with twitch interpolation. Subjects (n=8) lifted the right shoulder or both shoulders against fixed force transducers. Stimulation of the accessory nerve in the neck was used to evoke maximal twitche...

  8. [Mass spectrometry assay for denitrifying enzyme activity measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-li; Wu, Zhi-jie; Song, Yu-chao

    2010-07-01

    Nitrification inhibitors exert inhibition function in soil nitrification process (NH4(+)-N to NO3(-)-N) and are widely applied in order to improve N fertilizer use efficiency. Before the new nitrification inhibitor is used, its effects on denitrification process must be investigated and denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) is an effective indicator to show this process. In the present paper, a mass spectrometery (MS) method was taken to measure the denitrifying enzyme activity in the new nitrification inhibitor 3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) incubation system. The results showed that the method measured the concentration of N2O in the incubation system accurately and the concentration measured by MS had marked correlation with that measured by gas chromatogram (GC) (MS(N2O) = -0.45 + 1.03GC(N2O, R2 = 0.995). At the same time, enrichment of 15 N2O and 15 N2 was measured to discriminate the nitrate reductase and N2O reductase. Differed with traditional method, the enzymatic inhibitor-acetylene was not appended. The results showed that DMPP had no influence on the denitrifying enzyme activity and indicated that the denitrification process was not influenced by DMPP.

  9. Triton burnup measurements in KSTAR using a neutron activation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jungmin; Cheon, MunSeong; Kim, Jun Young; Rhee, T.; Kim, Junghee; Shi, Yue-Jiang; Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of the time-integrated triton burnup for deuterium plasma in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) have been performed following the simultaneous detection of the d-d and d-t neutrons. The d-d neutrons were measured using a 3He proportional counter, fission chamber, and activated indium sample, whereas the d-t neutrons were detected using activated silicon and copper samples. The triton burnup ratio from KSTAR discharges is found to be in the range 0.01%-0.50% depending on the plasma conditions. The measured burnup ratio is compared with the prompt loss fraction of tritons calculated with the Lorentz orbit code and the classical slowing-down time. The burnup ratio is found to increase as plasma current and classical slowing-down time increase.

  10. Objectively Measured Activity Patterns among Adults in Residential Aged Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Reid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the feasibility of using the activPAL3TM activity monitor, and, to describe the activity patterns of residential aged care residents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Randomly selected aged care facilities within 100 km of the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. Participants: Ambulatory, older (≥60 years residential aged care adults without cognitive impairment. Measurements: Feasibility was assessed by consent rate, sleep/wear diary completion, and through interviews with staff/participants. Activity patterns (sitting/lying, standing, and stepping were measured via activPAL3TM monitors worn continuously for seven days. Times spent in each activity were described and then compared across days of the week and hours of the day using linear mixed models. Results: Consent rate was 48% (n = 41. Activity patterns are described for the 31 participants (mean age 84.2 years who provided at least one day of valid monitor data. In total, 14 (45% completed the sleep/wear diary. Participants spent a median (interquartile range of 12.4 (1.7 h sitting/lying (with 73% of this accumulated in unbroken bouts of ≥30 min, 1.9 (1.3 h standing, and 21.4 (36.7 min stepping during their monitored waking hours per day. Activity did not vary significantly by day of the week (p ≥ 0.05; stepping showed significant hourly variation (p = 0.018. Conclusions: Older adults in residential aged care were consistently highly sedentary. Feasibility considerations for objective activity monitoring identified for this population include poor diary completion and lost monitors.

  11. Thermodynamic Activity Measurements with Knudsen Cell Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copland, Evan H.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2001-01-01

    Coupling the Knudsen effusion method with mass spectrometry has proven to be one of the most useful experimental techniques for studying the equilibrium between condensed phases and complex vapors. The Knudsen effusion method involves placing a condensed sample in a Knudsen cell, a small "enclosure", that is uniformly heated and held until equilibrium is attained between the condensed and vapor phases. The vapor is continuously sampled by effusion through a small orifice in the cell. A molecular beam is formed from the effusing vapor and directed into a mass spectrometer for identification and pressure measurement of the species in the vapor phase. Knudsen cell mass spectrometry (KCMS) has been used for nearly fifty years now and continues to be a leading technique for obtaining thermodynamic data. Indeed, much of the well-established vapor specie data in the JANAF tables has been obtained from this technique. This is due to the extreme versatility of the technique. All classes of materials can be studied and all constituents of the vapor phase can be measured over a wide range of pressures (approximately 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -11) bar) and temperatures (500-2800 K). The ability to selectively measure different vapor species makes KCMS a very powerful tool for the measurement of component activities in metallic and ceramic solutions. Today several groups are applying KCMS to measure thermodynamic functions in multicomponent metallic and ceramic systems. Thermodynamic functions, especially component activities, are extremely important in the development of CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) type thermodynamic descriptions. These descriptions, in turn, are useful for modeling materials processing and predicting reactions such as oxide formation and fiber/matrix interactions. The leading experimental methods for measuring activities are the Galvanic cell or electro-motive force (EMF) technique and the KCMS technique. Each has specific advantages, depending on

  12. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ashley R; Goodman, Anna; Page, Angie S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in youth have been reported to vary by sex, age, weight status and country. However, supporting data are often self-reported and/or do not encompass a wide range of ages or geographical locations. This study aimed to describe objectively.......8-18.4 years) who provided at least three days of valid accelerometer data. Linear regression was used to examine associations between age, sex, weight status, country and physical activity outcomes. RESULTS: Boys were less sedentary and more active than girls at all ages. After 5 years of age......-measured physical activity and sedentary time patterns in youth. METHODS: The International Children's Accelerometry Database (ICAD) consists of ActiGraph accelerometer data from 20 studies in ten countries, processed using common data reduction procedures. Analyses were conducted on 27,637 participants (2...

  13. Using systematic measurement to target consumer activation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Judith H

    2009-02-01

    Current policy directions place high expectations on consumers, pressing them to adopt new roles and behaviors. The price of failing to meet these expectations will be high for the individual, for the care delivery system, and for the society as a whole. Yet there is limited support in place to help consumers meet these expectations. The article reviews the major approaches used to stimulate consumer engagement in health and health care. The concept of activation is explored as a possible organizing construct for informing strategies to increase consumer involvement in health. Illustrative data are presented that show how activation levels are associated with engaging in specific health behaviors. The strategy of measuring activation and calibrating both the type and the amount of support for consumers is discussed as a way to improve current approaches. Tailoring activation to the individual, group, and community level is also explored.

  14. How valid are wearable physical activity trackers for measuring steps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hyun-Sung; Jones, Gregory C; Kang, Seoung-Ki; Welk, Gregory J; Lee, Jung-Min

    2017-04-01

    Wearable activity trackers have become popular for tracking individual's daily physical activity, but little information is available to substantiate the validity of these devices in step counts. Thirty-five healthy individuals completed three conditions of activity tracker measurement: walking/jogging on a treadmill, walking over-ground on an indoor track, and a 24-hour free-living condition. Participants wore 10 activity trackers at the same time for both treadmill and over-ground protocol. Of these 10 activity trackers three were randomly given for 24-hour free-living condition. Correlations of steps measured to steps observed were r = 0.84 and r = 0.67 on a treadmill and over-ground protocol, respectively. The mean MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) score for all devices and speeds on a treadmill was 8.2% against manually counted steps. The MAPE value was higher for over-ground walking (9.9%) and even higher for the 24-hour free-living period (18.48%) on step counts. Equivalence testing for step count measurement resulted in a significant level within ±5% for the Fitbit Zip, Withings Pulse, and Jawbone UP24 and within ±10% for the Basis B1 band, Garmin VivoFit, and SenseWear Armband Mini. The results show that the Fitbit Zip and Withings Pulse provided the most accurate measures of step count under all three different conditions (i.e. treadmill, over-ground, and 24-hour condition), and considerable variability in accuracy across monitors and also by speeds and conditions.

  15. Measurements of radon and radium activity in bottled mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Reque, Marilson; Tabuchi, Camila Garcia; Del Claro, Flavia; Perna, Allan Felipe, E-mail: jaquelinekappke@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Deniak, Valeriy [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Current work presents the results of further development of optimized experimental protocol for RAD7 instant radon detector (Durridge Company Inc.) usage in low level radon in water measurements and the results concerning Ra-226 activity evaluation in bottled mineral water samples purchased at Brazilian market. With the purpose to achieve the statistically consistent results for the activity levels of 0.1Bq/L for radon (radium) activity in water, present study used modified experimental protocol which consists of: 1) water samples were stored in hermetically sealed glass vials of 250mL during 30 days to guarantee that Rn-222 will reach the secular equilibrium; 2) the measurements were performed using WAT250 protocol of RAD7 detector; 3) with an aim to decrease the background, the cleaning (activated carbon filter) and drying (DRIERITE desiccant) vessels, which have a function to retain the radioactive decay product of Rn-222 and humidity, were connected to a closed air loop of RAD7 permanently by means of valves and taps, which gave a possibility to repeat all sequence of measurements (including background evaluation) three or four times without to open the air loop and disconnect the sample vial with water. Each water sample was submitted to such measurements two or three times. Obtained results presented the level of Ra-226 activity in studied samples of bottled mineral water that varied from 0.007 ± 0.061 Bq/L to 0.145 ± 0.049 Bq/L, which is below the limit of 0,5 Bq/L established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for drinking water. (author)

  16. Parent-child relationship of directly measured physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mâsse Louise C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on parent-child correlations of physical activity have been mixed. Few studies have examined concurrent temporal patterns of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in parents and children using direct measures. The purpose of this study was to examine parent-child activity correlations by gender, day of week, and time of day, using accelerometers - a method for direct assessment of physical activity. Methods Accelerometers were used to assess physical activity and sedentary time in 45 fathers, 45 mothers and their children (23 boys, 22 girls, mean age 9.9 years over the course of 4 days (Thursday - Sunday. Participants were instructed to wear accelerometers for 24 hours per day. Data from accelerometers were aggregated into waking hours on weekdays and weekends (6:00 am to midnight and weekday after-school hours (3:00 - 7:00 pm. Results Across the 4 days, the mean minutes per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA for fathers was 30.0 (s.d. = 17.3, for mothers was 30.1 (s.d. = 20.1 and for children was 145.47 (s.d. = 51.64. Mothers' and fathers' minutes of MVPA and minutes of sedentary time were positively correlated with child physical activity and sedentary time (all ps Conclusions Greater parental MVPA was associated with increased child MVPA. In addition, having two parents with higher levels of MVPA was associated with greater levels of activity in children. Sedentary time in children was not as strongly correlated with that of their parents. Findings lend support to the notion that to increase childhood activity levels it may be fruitful to improve physical activity among parents.

  17. Density and Temperature Measurements in a Solar Active Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Harry P.; Winebarger, Amy R.

    2003-10-01

    We present electron density and temperature measurements from an active region observed above the limb with the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation spectrometer on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. Density-sensitive line ratios from Si VIII and S X indicate densities greater than 108 cm-3 as high as 200" (or 145 Mm) above the limb. At these heights, static, uniformly heated loop models predict densities close to 107 cm-3. Differential emission measure analysis shows that the observed plasma is nearly isothermal with a mean temperature of about 1.5 MK and a dispersion of about 0.2 MK. Both the differential emission measure and the Si XI/Si VIII line ratios indicate only small variations in the temperature at the heights observed. These measurements confirm recent observations from the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer of ``overdense'' plasma at temperatures near 1 MK in solar active regions. Time-dependent hydrodynamic simulations suggest that impulsive heating models can account for the large densities, but they have a difficult time reproducing the narrow range of observed temperatures. The observations of overdense, nearly isothermal plasma in the solar corona provide a significant challenge to theories of coronal heating.

  18. Measuring thermal budgets of active volcanoes by satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, L.; Francis, P. W.; Rothery, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    Thematic Mapper measurements of the total radiant energy flux Q at Lascar volcano in north Chile for December 1984 are reported. The results are consistent with the earlier suggestion that a lava lake is the source of a reported thermal budget anomaly, and with values for 1985-1986 that are much lower, suggesting that fumarolic activity was then a more likely heat source. The results show that satellite remote sensing may be used to monitor the activity of a volcano quantitatively, in a way not possible by conventional ground studies, and may provide a method for predicting eruptions.

  19. Enzyme activity measurement via spectral evolution profiling and PARAFAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas; Meyer, Anne S.; Garcia, Javier Lopez

    2013-01-01

    The recent advances in multi-way analysis provide new solutions to traditional enzyme activity assessment. In the present study enzyme activity has been determined by monitoring spectral changes of substrates and products in real time. The method relies on measurement of distinct spectral...... fingerprints of the reaction mixture at specific time points during the course of the whole enzyme catalyzed reaction and employs multi-way analysis to detect the spectral changes. The methodology is demonstrated by spectral evolution profiling of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectral fingerprints using...

  20. Measurement of accidental coincidences for higher activity sources

    CERN Document Server

    Yull Hwang, H; Jae-Oh, P; Man-Lee, J; Kie-Lee, M

    1999-01-01

    The multi-channel time-scaling (MCTS) technique has been applied for the measurement of accidental coincidences for the cases of higher activity samples in beta-gamma coincidence counting. Two beta samples of sup 1 sup 3 sup 4 Cs were prepared and the nominal activities observed in the beta counter were about 7000 and 11000 s sup - sup 1 , respectively. The obtained true coincidence rates are independent of resolving times and dead times. They are compared with those calculated from the mathematical model derived by Cox and Isham.

  1. Environmental Measurements Laboratory fiscal year 1998: Accomplishments and technical activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) is government-owned, government-operated, and programmatically under the DOE Office of Environmental Management. The Laboratory is administered by the Chicago Operations Office. EML provides program management, technical assistance and data quality assurance for measurements of radiation and radioactivity relating to environmental restoration, global nuclear nonproliferation, and other priority issues for the Department of Energy, as well as for other government, national, and international organizations. This report presents the technical activities and accomplishments of EML for Fiscal Year 1998.

  2. Approximate determination of efficiency for activity measurements of cylindrical samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helbig, W. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany); Bothe, M. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Some calibration samples are necessary with the same geometrical parameters but of different materials, containing known activities A homogeniously distributed. Their densities are measured, their mass absorption coefficients may be unknown. These calibration samples are positioned in the counting geometry, for instance directly on the detector. The efficiency function {epsilon}(E) for each sample is gained by measuring the gamma spectra and evaluating all usable gamma energy peaks. From these {epsilon}(E) the common valid {epsilon}{sub geom}(E) will be deduced. For this purpose the functions {epsilon}{sub mu}(E) for these samples have to be established. (orig.)

  3. Neutron Field Measurements in Phantom with Foil Activation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-29

    jI25 Ii III uumu ullli~ S....- - Lb - w * .qJ’ AD-A 192 122 ulJ. IL (pj DNA-TR-87- 10 N EUTRON FIELD MEASUREMENTS IN PHANTOM WITH FOIL ACTIVATION...SAND II Measurements in Phantom 6 4 The 5-Foil Neutron Dosimetry Method 29 5 Comparison of SAND II and Simple 5-Foil Dosimetry Method 34 6 Thermal ...quite reasonable. The monkey phantom spectrum differs from the NBS U-235 fission spectrum in that the former has a I/E tail plus thermal -neutron peak

  4. Measurement of the total activity concentrations of Libyan oil scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, F. C. A.; Bradley, D. A.; Regan, P. H.; Rozaila, Z. Siti

    2017-08-01

    Twenty-three oil scale samples obtained from the Libyan oil and gas industry production facilities onshore have been measured using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with a shielded HPGe detector, the work being carried out within the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory at the University of Surrey. The main objectives of this work were to determine the extent to which the predominant radionuclides associated with the uranium and thorium natural decay chains were in secular equilibrium with their decay progeny, also to compare differences between the total activity concentrations (TAC) in secular equilibrium and disequilibrium and to evaluate the measured activities for the predominant gamma-ray emitting decay radionuclides within the 232Th and 238U chains. The oil scale NORM samples did not exhibit radioactive equilibrium between the decay progeny and longer-lived parent radionuclides of the 238U and 232Th series.

  5. The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment: A Measure of Engagement in Personally Valued Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakman, Aaron M.; Carlson, Mike E.; Clark, Florence A.

    2010-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction…

  6. The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment: A Measure of Engagement in Personally Valued Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakman, Aaron M.; Carlson, Mike E.; Clark, Florence A.

    2010-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction…

  7. Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-14

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis were harvested shortly after release from sporangia, incubated under...Dec-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 spores, Bacillus , spore dormancy, 3-phosphoglycerate REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11

  8. Mediated Electrochemical Measurements of Intracellular Catabolic Activities of Yeast Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Sheng ZHAO; Zhen Yu YANG; Yao LU; Zheng Yu YANG

    2005-01-01

    Coupling with the dual mediator system menadione/ferricyanide, microelectrode voltammetric measurements were undertaken to detect the ferrocyanide accumulations arising from the mediated reduction of ferricyanide by yeast cells. The results indicate that the dual mediator system menadione/ferricyanide could be used as a probe to detect cellular catabolic activities in yeast cells and the electrochemical response has a positive relationship with the specific growth rate of yeast cells.

  9. Measuring Capability for Healthy Diet and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Robert L.; Cruz, Inez; Burge, Sandra; Bayles, Bryan; Castilla, Martha I.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Patterns of diet and physical activity, major drivers of morbidity and mortality, are contingent on people’s feasible opportunities to pursue healthy behaviors. Our objective for this mixed methods study was to develop measures of feasible opportunities for diet and activity. METHODS The Capability Approach framework for evaluating people’s real freedoms to pursue their values guided the research. A community-based participatory model was applied to conduct focus groups of adults with obesity or diabetes mellitus from an economically disadvantaged Latino community. Focus group themes were developed into survey items that assess how individual circumstances and neighborhood contexts influence opportunities for diet and activity. The prevalence of different influences was explored in a sample of 300 patients from a primary care safety net clinic. Scales measuring different aspects of opportunity were created through principal components analysis. RESULTS Availability, convenience, safety, cost of food, and activity resources interact with individual circumstances, such as illness, depression, family and nonfamily supports, and scope of personal agency, to shape practical opportunities. Multiple vulnerabilities in availability of resources and moderators of resource use commonly occur together, intensifying challenges and creating difficult trade-offs. Only one-half of participants reported that physicians understood their difficulties pursuing activity, and just one-third for diet. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that practical opportunities for healthy behavior can be measured as a primary target for clinical and public health assessment and intervention. The Capability Approach holds promise as a framework for developing interventions responsive to both personal and environmental determinants. PMID:24445103

  10. Active spectroscopic measurements using the ITER diagnostic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D M; Counsell, G; Johnson, D; Vasu, P; Zvonkov, A

    2010-10-01

    Active (beam-based) spectroscopic measurements are intended to provide a number of crucial parameters for the ITER device being built in Cadarache, France. These measurements include the determination of impurity ion temperatures, absolute densities, and velocity profiles, as well as the determination of the plasma current density profile. Because ITER will be the first experiment to study long timescale (∼1 h) fusion burn plasmas, of particular interest is the ability to study the profile of the thermalized helium ash resulting from the slowing down and confinement of the fusion alphas. These measurements will utilize both the 1 MeV heating neutral beams and a dedicated 100 keV hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam. A number of separate instruments are being designed and built by several of the ITER partners to meet the different spectroscopic measurement needs and to provide the maximum physics information. In this paper, we describe the planned measurements, the intended diagnostic ensemble, and we will discuss specific physics and engineering challenges for these measurements in ITER.

  11. Precise Measurement of Drift Velocities in Active-Target Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Louis

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear experiments with radioactive beams are needed to improve our understanding of nuclei structure far from stability. Radioactive beams typically have low beam rates, but active-target detectors can compensate for these low beam rates. In active-target detectors that are also Time-Projection Chambers (TPC), ionized electrons drift through an electric fieldto a detection device to imagethe trajectory of charged-particle ionization tracks within the chamber's gas volume. The measurement of the ionized electrons' drift velocity is crucial for the accurate imaging of these tracks. In order to measure this drift velocity, we will use a UV laser and photo-sensitive foil in a the ND-Cubedetector we are developing, periodically releasingelectrons from the foil at a known timesand a known distance from the electron detector, thereby precisely measuring the drift velocity in situ. We have surveyed several materials to find a material that will work well with typical solid-state UV lasers on the market. We plan to determine the best material and thickness of the foil to maximize the number of photoelectrons. The precision that will be afforded by this measurement of the drift velocity will allow us to eliminate a source of systematic uncertainty.

  12. Evaluating the Measurement of Activated Sludge Foam Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoghan O’Flaherty

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The most widely used technique for assessing the propensity of activated sludge to suffer from biological foaming is to measure foam potential. This involves measuring the amount of foam produced from sludge under conditions of controlled aeration. Two approaches have been adopted: (1 Air is passed through specially designed columns from fine porous diffusers at a fixed rate to form uniform sized bubbles or (2 employing Alka-Seltzer™ tablets which effervesce when added to the sludge. Both tests generate foam formation which can then be quantified. Foam assessment in activated sludge is reviewed. A sintered disc aeration column was compared with the Alka-Seltzer™ test method and both methods examined under a range of different environmental conditions. Foam potential measured by the sintered disc method displayed better repeatability compared to the Alka-Seltzer test. The use of a wire cage placed over the tablets greatly improved the precision of the Alka-Seltzer test. A positive linear correlation was also found between foam potential and temperature (4–20 °C. Sludge solids concentration was also shown to influence foaming potential making comparisons between reactors problematic. Recommendations on how to improve the repeatability of foam potential measurements are given.

  13. Blade tip vortex measurements on actively twisted rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauknecht, André; Ewers, Benjamin; Schneider, Oliver; Raffel, Markus

    2017-05-01

    Active rotor control concepts, such as active twist actuation, have the potential to effectively reduce the noise and vibrations of helicopter rotors. The present study focuses on the experimental investigation of active twist for the reduction of blade-vortex interaction (BVI) effects on a model rotor. Results of a large-scale smart-twisting active rotor test under hover conditions are described. This test investigated the effects of individual blade twist control on the blade tip vortices. The rotor blades were actuated with peak torsion amplitudes of up to 2° and harmonic frequencies of 1-5/rev with different phase angles. Time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry was carried out to study the effects of active twist on the strength and trajectories of the tip vortices between ψ _ {v}= 3.6° and 45.7° of vortex age. The analysis of the vortex trajectories revealed that the 1/rev active twist actuation mainly caused a vertical deflection of the blade tip and the corresponding vortex trajectories of up to 1.3% of the rotor radius R above and -1%R below the unactuated condition. An actuation with frequencies of 2 and 3/rev significantly affected the shapes of the vortex trajectories and caused negative vertical displacements of the vortices relative to the unactuated case of up to 2%R within the first 35° of wake age. The 2 and 3/rev actuation also had the most significant effects on the vortex strength and altered the initial peak swirl velocity by up to -34 and +31% relative to the unactuated value. The present aerodynamic investigation reveals a high control authority of the active twist actuation on the strength and trajectories of the trailing blade tip vortices. The magnitude of the evoked changes indicates that the active twist actuation constitutes an effective measure for the mitigation of BVI-induced noise on helicopters.

  14. The Detection and Measurement of the Activity Size Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthi, Mukund

    The infiltration of radon into the indoor environment may cause the exposure of the public to excessive amounts of radioactivity and has spurred renewed research interest over the past several years into the occurrence and properties of radon and its decay products in indoor air. The public health risks posed by the inhalation and subsequent lung deposition of the decay products of Rn-222 have particularly warranted the study of their diffusivity and attachment to molecular cluster aerosols in the ultrafine particle size range (0.5-5 nm) and to accumulation mode aerosols. In this research, a system for the detection and measurement of the activity size distributions and concentration levels of radon decay products in indoor environments has been developed. The system is microcomputer-controlled and involves a combination of multiple wire screen sampler -detector units operated in parallel. The detection of the radioactivity attached to the aerosol sampled in these units permits the determination of the radon daughter activity -weighted size distributions and concentration levels in indoor air on a semi-continuous basis. The development of the system involved the design of the detection and measurement system, its experimental characterization and testing in a radon-aerosol chamber, and numerical studies for the optimization of the design and operating parameters of the system. Several concepts of utility to aerosol size distribution measurement methods sampling the ultrafine cluster size range evolved from this study, and are discussed in various chapters of this dissertation. The optimized multiple wire screen (Graded Screen Array) system described in this dissertation is based on these concepts. The principal facet of the system is its ability to make unattended measurements of activity size distributions and concentration levels of radon decay products on a semi-continuous basis. Thus, the capability of monitoring changes in the activity concentrations and size

  15. Radon-222 activity flux measurement using activated charcoal canisters: revisiting the methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Sami H; Akber, Riaz A

    2014-03-01

    The measurement of radon ((222)Rn) activity flux using activated charcoal canisters was examined to investigate the distribution of the adsorbed (222)Rn in the charcoal bed and the relationship between (222)Rn activity flux and exposure time. The activity flux of (222)Rn from five sources of varying strengths was measured for exposure times of one, two, three, five, seven, 10, and 14 days. The distribution of the adsorbed (222)Rn in the charcoal bed was obtained by dividing the bed into six layers and counting each layer separately after the exposure. (222)Rn activity decreased in the layers that were away from the exposed surface. Nevertheless, the results demonstrated that only a small correction might be required in the actual application of charcoal canisters for activity flux measurement, where calibration standards were often prepared by the uniform mixing of radium ((226)Ra) in the matrix. This was because the diffusion of (222)Rn in the charcoal bed and the detection efficiency as a function of the charcoal depth tended to counterbalance each other. The influence of exposure time on the measured (222)Rn activity flux was observed in two situations of the canister exposure layout: (a) canister sealed to an open bed of the material and (b) canister sealed over a jar containing the material. The measured (222)Rn activity flux decreased as the exposure time increased. The change in the former situation was significant with an exponential decrease as the exposure time increased. In the latter case, lesser reduction was noticed in the observed activity flux with respect to exposure time. This reduction might have been related to certain factors, such as absorption site saturation or the back diffusion of (222)Rn gas occurring at the canister-soil interface.

  16. Measurements of radon activity concentration in mouse tissues and organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimori, Yuu; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Akihiro; Kataoka, Takahiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the biokinetics of inhaled radon, radon activity concentrations in mouse tissues and organs were determined after mice had been exposed to about 1 MBq/m(3) of radon in air. Radon activity concentrations in mouse blood and in other tissues and organs were measured with a liquid scintillation counter and with a well-type HP Ge detector, respectively. Radon activity concentration in mouse blood was 0.410 ± 0.016 Bq/g when saturated with 1 MBq/m(3) of radon activity concentration in air. In addition, average partition coefficients obtained were 0.74 ± 0.19 for liver, 0.46 ± 0.13 for muscle, 9.09 ± 0.49 for adipose tissue, and 0.22 ± 0.04 for other organs. With these results, a value of 0.414 for the blood-to-air partition coefficient was calculated by means of our physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. The time variation of radon activity concentration in mouse blood during exposure to radon was also calculated. All results are compared in detail with those found in the literature.

  17. Contrasting Various Metrics for Measuring Tropical Cyclone Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yuh Yu and Ping-Gin Chiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Popular metrics used for measuring the tropical cyclone (TC activity, including NTC (number of tropical cyclones, TCD (tropical cyclone days, ACE (accumulated cyclone energy, PDI (power dissipation index, along with two newly proposed indices: RACE (revised accumulated cyclone energy and RPDI (revised power dissipation index, are compared using the JTWC (Joint Typhoon Warning Center best-track data of TC over the western North Pacific basin. Our study shows that, while the above metrics have demonstrated various degrees of discrepancies, but in practical terms, they are all able to produce meaningful temporal and spatial changes in response to climate variability. Compared with the conventional ACE and PDI, RACE and RPDI seem to provide a more precise estimate of the total TC activity, especially in projecting the upswing trend of TC activity over the past few decades, simply because of a better approach in estimating TC wind energy. However, we would argue that there is still no need to find a _ or _ metric for TC activity because different metrics are designed to stratify different aspects of TC activity, and whether the selected metric is appropriate or not should be determined solely by the purpose of study. Except for magnitude difference, the analysis results seem insensitive to the choice of the best-track datasets.

  18. Measurements of Microbial Community Activities in Individual Soil Macroaggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bilskis, Christina L.; Fansler, Sarah J.; McCue, Lee Ann; Smith, Jeff L.; Konopka, Allan

    2012-05-01

    The functional potential of single soil aggregates may provide insights into the localized distribution of microbial activities better than traditional assays conducted on bulk quantities of soil. Thus, we scaled down enzyme assays for {beta}-glucosidase, N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase, lipase, and leucine aminopeptidase to measure of the enzyme potential of individual aggregates (250-1000 {mu}m diameter). Across all enzymes, the smallest aggregates had the greatest activity and the range of enzyme activities observed in all aggregates supports the hypothesis that functional potential in soil may be distributed in a patchy fashion. Paired analyses of ATP as a surrogate for active microbial biomass and {beta}-glucosidase on the same aggregates suggest the presence of both extracellular {beta}-glucosidase functioning in aggregates with no detectable ATP and also of relatively active microbial communities (high ATP) that have low {beta}-glucosidase potentials. Studying function at a scale more consistent with microbial habitat presents greater opportunity to link microbial community structure to microbial community function.

  19. Contrasting Various Metrics for Measuring Tropical Cyclone Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yuh Yu Ping-Gin Chiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Popular metrics used for measuring the tropical cyclone (TC activity, including NTC (number of tropical cyclones, TCD (tropical cyclone days, ACE (accumulated cyclone energy, PDI (power dissipation index, along with two newly proposed indices: RACE (revised accumulated cyclone energy and RPDI (revised power dissipation index, are compared using the JTWC (Joint Typhoon Warning Center best-track data of TC over the western North Pacific basin. Our study shows that, while the above metrics have demonstrated various degrees of discrepancies, but in practical terms, they are all able to produce meaningful temporal and spatial changes in response to climate variability. Compared with the conventional ACE and PDI, RACE and RPDI seem to provide a more precise estimate of the total TC activity, especially in projecting the upswing trend of TC activity over the past few decades, simply because of a better approach in estimating TC wind energy. However, we would argue that there is still no need to find a ¡§universal¡¨ or ¡§best¡¨ metric for TC activity because different metrics are designed to stratify different aspects of TC activity, and whether the selected metric is appropriate or not should be determined solely by the purpose of study. Except for magnitude difference, the analysis results seem insensitive to the choice of the best-track datasets.

  20. Using decision trees to measure activities in people with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Fulk, George D; Tang, Wenlong; Sazonov, Edward S

    2013-01-01

    Improving community mobility is a common goal for persons with stroke. Measuring daily physical activity is helpful to determine the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions. In our previous studies, a novel wearable shoe-based sensor system (SmartShoe) was shown to be capable of accurately classify three major postures and activities (sitting, standing, and walking) from individuals with stroke by using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). In this study, we utilized decision tree algorithms to develop individual and group activity classification models for stroke patients. The data was acquired from 12 participants with stroke. For 3-class classification, the average accuracy was 99.1% with individual models and 91.5% with group models. Further, we extended the activities into 8 classes: sitting, standing, walking, cycling, stairs-up, stairs-down, wheel-chair-push, and wheel-chair-propel. The classification accuracy for individual models was 97.9%, and for group model was 80.2%, demonstrating feasibility of multi-class activity recognition by SmartShoe in stroke patients.

  1. Active Radiation Level Measurement on New Laboratory Instrument for Evaluating the Antibacterial Activity of Radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Eunha; Park, Jang Guen [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. However, it is difficult to measure the antibacterial effect of radioisotopes using a disc method. A disc method is a method for diffusing a drug by placing the drug containing disc on the medium. In this method, radioisotopes are diffused on the medium and it is difficult to measure the exact effect by radiation. Thus, new laboratory equipment needs to evaluate the antibacterial activity by the radioisotopes. In this study, we measured the radiation level of radioisotopes on a new laboratory instrument using a MCNP. A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. This method uses a drug diffusion system for the measurement of anti-bacterial antibiotics. To measure the antimicrobial activity of a radioisotope, a new type of laboratory instrument is necessary to prevent the drug from spreading. The radioisotopes are used to diagnose and treat cancer. However, studies for anti-biotical use have not progressed. The radiation of radioisotopes has the effect of killing bacteria. Before this study proceeds further, it is necessary to be able to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope easily in the laboratory. However, in this study, it was possible to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope in the laboratory using a new laboratory instrument. We intend to start evaluation studies of the antibacterial activity of specific radioisotopes. In addition, it will be possible to develop research to overcome diseases caused by bacteria in the future.

  2. Measuring patient activation in the Netherlands: translation and validation of the American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rademakers Jany

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM is a 13-item instrument which assesses patient (or consumer self-reported knowledge, skills and confidence for self-management of one’s health or chronic condition. In this study the PAM was translated into a Dutch version; psychometric properties of the Dutch version were established and the instrument was validated in a panel of chronically ill patients. Methods The translation was done according to WHO guidelines. The PAM 13-Dutch was sent to 4178 members of the Dutch National Panel of people with Chronic illness or Disability (NPCD in April 2010 (study A and again to a sub sample of this group (N = 973 in June 2010 (study B. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and cross-validation with the SBSQ-D (a measure for Health literacy were computed. The Dutch results were compared to similar Danish and American data. Results The psychometric properties of the PAM 13-Dutch were generally good. The level of internal consistency is good (α = 0.88 and item-rest correlations are moderate to strong. The Dutch mean PAM score (61.3 is comparable to the American (61.9 and lower than the Danish (64.2. The test-retest reliability was moderate. The association with Health literacy was weak to moderate. Conclusions The PAM-13 Dutch is a reliable instrument to measure patient activation. More research is needed into the validity of the Patient Activation Measure, especially with respect to a more comprehensive measure of Health literacy.

  3. Physical Activity in Vietnam: Estimates and Measurement Issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Van Bui

    Full Text Available Our aims were to provide the first national estimates of physical activity (PA for Vietnam, and to investigate issues affecting their accuracy.Measurements were made using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ on a nationally-representative sample of 14706 participants (46.5% males, response 64.1% aged 25-64 years selected by multi-stage stratified cluster sampling.Approximately 20% of Vietnamese people had no measureable PA during a typical week, but 72.9% (men and 69.1% (women met WHO recommendations for PA by adults for their age. On average, 52.0 (men and 28.0 (women Metabolic Equivalent Task (MET-hours/week (largely from work activities were reported. Work and total PA were higher in rural areas and varied by season. Less than 2% of respondents provided incomplete information, but an additional one-in-six provided unrealistically high values of PA. Those responsible for reporting errors included persons from rural areas and all those with unstable work patterns. Box-Cox transformation (with an appropriate constant added was the most successful method of reducing the influence of large values, but energy-scaled values were most strongly associated with pathophysiological outcomes.Around seven-in-ten Vietnamese people aged 25-64 years met WHO recommendations for total PA, which was mainly from work activities and higher in rural areas. Nearly all respondents were able to report their activity using the GPAQ, but with some exaggerated values and seasonal variation in reporting. Data transformation provided plausible summary values, but energy-scaling fared best in association analyses.

  4. AGN Activity in Nucleated Galaxies as Measured by Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foord, Adi; Gallo, Elena; Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Miller, Brendan P.; Baldassare, Vivienne F.; Gültekin, Kayhan; Gnedin, Oleg Y.

    2017-05-01

    Motivated by theoretical expectations that nuclear star clusters (NSCs) in galactic centers may provide a favorable environment for supermassive black holes to form and/or efficiently grow, we set out to measure the fraction of nearby nucleated galaxies that also host an active galactic nucleus. We targeted a distance-limited sample of 98 objects with the Chandra X-ray Telescope, down to a uniform X-ray luminosity threshold of ˜1038 erg s-1. The sample is composed of 47 late-types and 51 early-types, enabling us to further investigate the active fraction as a function of galactic morphology. After correcting for contamination to the nuclear X-ray signal from bright X-ray binaries, we measure an active fraction f=11.2{ % }-4.9+7.4 (1σ C.L.) across the whole sample, in agreement with previous estimates based on a heterogeneous combination of optical, X-ray, and radio diagnostics, by Seth et al. After accounting for the different stellar mass distributions in our samples, we find no statistically significant difference in the active fraction of early- versus late-type nucleated galaxies, with f=10.6{ % }-4.9+11.9 and 10.8{ % }-6.3+11.3, respectively. For the early-type nucleated galaxies, we are able to carry out a controlled comparison with a parent sample of non-nucleated galaxies covering the same stellar mass range, again finding no statistically significant difference in the active fraction. Taken at face value, our findings suggest that the presence of an NSC does not facilitate or enhance accretion-powered emission from a nuclear supermassive black hole. This is true even for late-type nucleated galaxies, home to bluer NSCs and arguably larger gas reservoirs.

  5. A method to measure hydrolytic activity of adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Bartolommei

    Full Text Available The detection of small amounts (nanomoles of inorganic phosphate has a great interest in biochemistry. In particular, phosphate detection is useful to evaluate the rate of hydrolysis of phosphatases, that are enzymes able to remove phosphate from their substrate by hydrolytic cleavage. The hydrolysis rate is correlated to enzyme activity, an extremely important functional parameter. Among phosphatases there are the cation transporting adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases, that produce inorganic phosphate by cleavage of the γ-phosphate of ATP. These membrane transporters have many fundamental physiological roles and are emerging as potential drug targets. ATPase hydrolytic activity is measured to test enzyme functionality, but it also provides useful information on possible inhibitory effects of molecules that interfere with the hydrolytic process. We have optimized a molybdenum-based protocol that makes use of potassium antimony (III oxide tartrate (originally employed for phosphate detection in environmental analysis to allow its use with phosphatase enzymes. In particular, the method was successfully applied to native and recombinant ATPases to demonstrate its reliability, validity, sensitivity and versatility. Our method introduces significant improvements to well-established experimental assays, which are currently employed for ATPase activity measurements. Therefore, it may be valuable in biochemical and biomedical investigations of ATPase enzymes, in combination with more specific tests, as well as in high throughput drug screening.

  6. Comparison of accelerometry and oxymetry for measuring daily physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yumiko; Kawamura, Takashi; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Noda, Akiko; Hirai, Makoto; Saito, Hidehiko; Ohno, Yoshiyuki

    2002-08-01

    To assess the validity of accelerometry in measuring daily physical activity, the energy consumption calculated by accelerometry, with respiratory gas analysis as a reference, was evaluated in 45 non-athletes during various exercise tests. Subjects were required to (1) walk on a treadmill ergometer at various speeds, (2) walk on a treadmill ergometer at a fixed speed and with a stride of 20% more or 20% less than that when walking freely, (3) walk on a treadmill ergometer at a fixed speed wearing either sneakers or leather-soled shoes, and (4) cycle on a bicycle ergometer. There were strong linear relationships between the measurements during the progressively graded treadmill test, with an overall Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.97. The mean estimated difference ranged from -0.77 to 0.27 kcal/min and the coefficients of variation from 13.2% to 22.2%. However, the difference between the methods was not negligible for individual subjects. Accelerometry overestimated energy expenditure during short-step walking, and underestimated it during long-step walking. No significant difference in energy expenditure was found according to the type of shoes worn. Cycling activity was not recorded by accelerometry. Accelerometry is a reasonably accurate and feasible method for evaluating the physical activities of non-athletes, and could be a common tool for epidemiological research and health promotion despite its limitations.

  7. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, J.; Koleška, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-11-01

    Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. Not all fluorescent lamps are recycled, resulting in contamination of the environment with toxic mercury, making measurement of the mercury mass used in fluorescent lamps important. Mercury mass measurement of lamps via instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) was tested under various conditions in the LVR-15 research reactor. Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in different positions in vertical irradiation channels and a horizontal channel in neutron fields with total fluence rates from 3×108 cm-2 s-1 to 1014 cm-2 s-1. The 202Hg(n,γ)203Hg nuclear reaction was used for mercury mass evaluation. Activities of 203Hg and others induced radionuclides were measured via gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector at various times after irradiation. Standards containing an Hg2Cl2 compound were used to determine mercury mass. Problems arise from the presence of elements with a large effective cross section in luminescent material (europium, antimony and gadolinium) and glass (boron). The paper describes optimization of the NAA procedure in the LVR-15 research reactor with particular attention to influence of neutron self-absorption in fluorescent lamps.

  8. A simple colorimetric assay for measuring fructosamine 3 kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikomola, Justin C; Kishabongo, Antoine S; Vandepoele, Karl; Mulder, Marieke De; Katchunga, Philippe B; Laukens, Bram; Schie, Loes Van; Grootaert, Hendrik; Callewaert, Nico; Speeckaert, Marijn M; Delanghe, Joris R

    2017-01-01

    Fructosamine 3 kinase (FN3K) is a deglycating enzyme, which may play a key role in reducing diabetes-induced organ damage by removing bound glucose from glycated proteins. We wanted to develop a simple colorimetric method for assaying FN3K activity in human body fluids. Glycated bovine serum albumin (BSA) was obtained by glycation with a 10% glucose solution at 37 °C. After 72 h, glycated BSA was dialyzed against phosphate buffered saline (0.1 mol/L, pH 7.4). The dialyzed solution (containing ±1000 µmol/L fructosamine) was used as an FN3K substrate. In the assay, 300 µL of substrate was incubated with 50 µL of serum and 100 µL of MgCl2 (0.7 mmol/L)/ATP (3.2 mmol/L). The fructosamine concentration was determined at the start and after incubation (120 min, 25 °C). The decrease in fructosamine concentration over time is a measure for the FN3K activity (1 U corresponding to 1 µmol/min). Concomitantly, the FN3K SNP rs1056534 and the ferroportin SNP rs1156350 were genotyped. Within-assay CV was 6.0%. Reference values for FN3K activity in serum were 14.2±1.6 U/L (n=143). Reference values for FN3K were neither age- nor sex-dependent. The various FN3K SNP rs1056534 genotypes showed no significant differences in serum FN3K activity. In diabetics (n=191), values (14.0±2.2 U/L) were comparable to those of the controls. FN3K activity in erythrocytes was significantly higher (170.3±7.6 U/L). The intra-erythrocytic FN3K activity makes the results prone to hemolysis. FN3K activity depended on the ferroportin Q248H genotypes, with the highest value for the wild type genotype. Neither transferrin saturation nor ferritin were confounders for the FN3K activity. FN3K activity was significantly (p<0.0001) correlated with HbA1c values, although the correlation between FN3K and HbA1c was weak. The simple colorimetric method allows determining FN3K activity in human serum. The assay may be useful for studying the impact of deglycation processes in diabetes mellitus.

  9. Improved installation prototype for measurement of low argon-37 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Sergei; Dubasov, Yuri

    2015-04-01

    On-site Inspection (OSI) is a key element of verification of State Parties' compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). An on-site inspection is launched to establish whether or not a nuclear explosion has been carried out. One of the most significant evidence of n underground nuclear explosion (UNE) is detection above background concentrations of argon-37 in near surface air. Argon-37 is formed in large amounts at interaction of neutrons of UNE with the potassium which is a part of the majority of rocks. Its estimated contents for the 100th days after explosion with a energy of 1000 t of TNT near a surface can vary from 1 to 1000 mBq/m3. The background concentrations of argon-37 in subsoil air vary 1 do100 mBq/m3. Traditionally, for argon-37 activity measurement the gas-proportional counters are used. But at Khlopin Radium institute the developments of the new type of highly sensitive and low-background installation capable to provide the required range of measurements of the argon-37 concentration are conducted. The liquid scintillation method of the registration of the low-energetic argon-37 electrons is the basic installation principle and as scintillator, the itself condensed air argon sample is used. Registration of scintillations of liquid argon is made by means of system from 3 PMT which cathodes are cooled near to the temperature of liquid nitrogen together with the measuring chamber in which placed the quartz glass ampule, containing the measured sample of the liquefied argon. For converse the short wavelength photons (λ = 127 nm) of liquid argon scintillations to more long-wave, corresponding to the range of PMT sensitivity, the polymer film with tetra-phenyl-butadiene (TPB) is provided. Even the insignificant impurities of nitrogen, oxygen and others gaseous in the liquid argon samples can to cause the quenching of scintillation, especially their slow components. To account this effect and it influence on change of registration

  10. Activities on Nuclear Data Measurements at Pohang Neutron Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Guinyun

    2009-03-01

    We report the activities of the Pohang Neutron Facility which consists of an electron linear accelerator, a water-cooled Ta target, and a 12-m time-of-flight path. It has been equipped with a four-position sample changer controlled remotely by a CAMAC data acquisition system, which allows simultaneous accumulation of the neutron time of flight spectra from 4 different detectors. It can be possible to measure the neutron total cross-sections in the neutron energy range from 0.1 eV to few hundreds eV by using the neutron time-of-flight method. A 6LiZnS(Ag) glass scintillator was used as a neutron detector. The neutron flight path from the water-cooled Ta target to the neutron detector was 12.1 m. The background level was determined by using notch-filters of Co, In, Ta, and Cd sheets. In order to reduce the gamma rays from bremsstrahlung and those from neutron capture, we employed a neutron-gamma separation system based on their different pulse shapes. The present measurements of several samples (Ta, Mo) are in general agreement with the evaluated data in ENDF/B-VI. We measured the thermal neutron capture cross-sections and the resonance integrals of the 186W(n,γ)187W reaction and the 98Mo(n,γ)99Mo reaction by the activation method using the 197Au(n,γ)198Au monitor reaction as a single comparator. We also report the isomeric yield ratios for the 44 m, gSc isomeric pairs produced from four different photonuclear reactions 45Sc(γ,n)44m,gSc, natTi(γ,xn1p)44m,gSc, natFe(γ,xn5p)52m,gMn, and 103Rh(γ,4n)99m,gRh by using the activation method.

  11. Longitudinal measurement of physical activity following kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontje, M L; de Greef, M H G; Krijnen, W P; Corpeleijn, E; Kok, T; Bakker, S J L; Stolk, R P; van der Schans, C P

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal observational study was to (i) examine the change of daily physical activity in 28 adult kidney transplant recipients over the first 12 months following transplantation; and (ii) to examine the change in metabolic characteristics and renal function. Accelerometer-based daily physical activity and metabolic- and clinical characteristics were measured at six wk (T1), three months (T2), six months (T3) and 12 months (T4) following transplantation. Linear mixed effect analyses showed an increase in steps/d (T1 = 6326 ± 2906; T4 = 7562 ± 3785; F = 3.52; p = 0.02), but one yr after transplantation only 25% achieved the recommended 10 000 steps/d. There was no significant increase in minutes per day spent on moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (T1 = 80.4 ± 63.6; T4 = 93.2 ± 55.1; F = 1.71; p = 0.17). Body mass index increased over time (T1 = 25.4 ± 3.2; T4 = 27.2 ± 3.8; F = 12.62; p physical activity, the majority did not meet the recommended levels of physical activity after one yr. In addition to the weight gain, this may result in negative health consequences. Therefore, it is important to develop strategies to support kidney transplant recipients to comply with healthy lifestyle recommendations, including regular physical activity.

  12. Cavitation measurement during sonic and ultrasonic activated irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Ricardo; Verhaagen, Bram; Rivas, David Fernandez; Versluis, Michel; Wesselink, Paul; van der Sluis, Luc

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify and to visualize the possible occurrence of transient cavitation (bubble formation and implosion) during sonic and ultrasonic (UAI) activated irrigation. The amount of cavitation generated around several endodontic instruments was measured by sonochemiluminescence dosimetry inside 4 root canal models of human dimensions and varying complexity. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the sonochemiluminescence in the root canal was visualized with long-exposure photography. Instrument oscillation frequency, ultrasonic power, and file taper influenced the occurrence and amount of cavitation. In UAI, cavitation was distributed between the file and the wall extending beyond the file and inside lateral canals/isthmuses. In sonic activated irrigation, no cavitation was detected. Cavitation was shown to occur in UAI at clinically relevant ultrasonic power settings in both straight and curved canals but not around sonically oscillating instruments, driven at their highest frequency. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurement of Antioxidant Activity Towards Superoxide in Natural Waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Whitney King

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are a class of molecules that provide a protective function against reactive oxygen species (ROS in biological systems by out competing physiologically important molecules for ROS oxidation. In natural waters, the reactivity of antioxidants gives an estimate of oxidative stress and may determine the reactivity and distribution of reactive oxidants. We present an analytical method to measure antioxidant activity in natural waters through the competition between ascorbic acid, an antioxidant, and MCLA, a chemiluminescent probe for superoxide. A numerical kinetic model of the analytical method has been developed to optimize analytical performance. Measurements of antioxidant concentrations in pure and seawater are possible with detection limits below 0.1 nM. Surface seawater samples collected at solar noon contained over 0.4 nM of antioxidants and exhibited first-order decay with a half-life of 3-7 minutes, consistent with a reactive species capable of scavenging photochemically produced superoxide.

  14. Active calibration target for bistatic radar cross-section measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, M.; Odendaal, J. W.; Joubert, J.; Cilliers, J. E.; Smit, J. C.

    2016-05-01

    Either passive calibration targets are expensive and complex to manufacture or their bistatic radar cross section (RCS) levels are significantly lower than the monostatic RCS levels of targets such as spheres, dihedral, and trihedral corner reflectors. In this paper the performance of an active calibration target with relative high bistatic RCS values is illustrated as a reference target for bistatic RCS measurements. The reference target is simple to manufacture, operates over a wide frequency range, and can be configured to calibrate all four polarizations (VV, HH, HV, and VH). Bistatic RCS measurements of canonical targets, performed in a controlled environment, are calibrated with the reference target and the results are compared to simulated results using FEKO.

  15. Development of standard ionization chamber counting system for activity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pyun, W B; Lee, H Y; Park, T S

    1998-01-01

    This study is to set up the activity measuring system using a 4 pi gamma ionization chamber as used mainly in national standards laboratories that are responsible for radionuclide metrology. The software for automatic control between the electrometer and personal computer is developed using Microsoft visual basic 4.0 and IEEE488 Interface. The reproducibility of this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber is about 0.02% and the background current is 0.054+-0.024 pA. this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber is calibrated by 6 standard gamma emitting radionuclides from KRISS. According to the result of this study, it is revealed that this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber counting system can be used as a secondary standard instrument for radioactivity measurement.

  16. Measurements of 55Fe activity in activated steel samples with GEMPix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curioni, A.; Dinar, N.; La Torre, F. P.; Leidner, J.; Murtas, F.; Puddu, S.; Silari, M.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we present a novel method, based on the recently developed GEMPix detector, to measure the 55Fe content in samples of metallic material activated during operation of CERN accelerators and experimental facilities. The GEMPix, a gas detector with highly pixelated read-out, has been obtained by coupling a triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) to a quad Timepix ASIC. Sample preparation, measurements performed on 45 samples and data analysis are described. The calibration factor (counts per second per unit specific activity) has been obtained via measurements of the 55Fe activity determined by radiochemical analysis of the same samples. Detection limit and sensitivity to the current Swiss exemption limit are calculated. Comparison with radiochemical analysis shows inconsistency for the sensitivity for only two samples, most likely due to underestimated uncertainties of the GEMPix analysis. An operative test phase of this technique is already planned at CERN.

  17. Relationship between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakura, Masahiro; Okura, Kazuki; Shibata, Kazuyuki; Kawagoshi, Atsuyoshi; Sugawara, Keiyu; Takahashi, Hitomi; Shioya, Takanobu

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the relationship between balance impairments and physical activity in COPD. There has been no study investigating the relationship between balance and objectively measured physical activity. Here we investigated the association between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients. Twenty-two outpatients with COPD (mean age, 72±7 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 53%±21% predicted) and 13 age-matched healthy control subjects (mean age, 72±6 years) participated in the study. We assessed all 35 subjects' balance (one-leg standing test [OLST] times, Short Physical Performance Battery total scores, standing balance test scores, 4 m gait speed, and five-times sit-to-stand test [5STST]) and physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day [MV-PA]). Possible confounders were assessed in the COPD group. The between-group differences in balance test scores and physical activity were analyzed. A correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted in the COPD group. The COPD patients exhibited significant reductions in OLST times (P=0.033), Short Physical Performance Battery scores (P=0.013), 4 m gait speed (Pbalance test scores. The correlation and multivariate regression analyses revealed significant independent associations between OLST times and daily steps (Pbalance and reductions in physical activity were observed in the COPD group. Deficits in balance are independently associated with physical inactivity.

  18. Quantitative measurements of active Ionian volcanoes in Galileo NIMS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saballett, Sebastian; Rathbun, Julie A.; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Spencer, John R.

    2016-10-01

    Io is the most volcanically active body in our solar system. The spatial distribution of volcanoes a planetary body's surface gives clues into its basic inner workings (i.e., plate tectonics on earth). Tidal heating is the major contributor to active surface geology in the outer solar system, and yet its mechanism is not completely understood. Io's volcanoes are the clearest signature of tidal heating and measurements of the total heat output and how it varies in space and time are useful constraints on tidal heating. Hamilton et al. (2013) showed through a nearest neighbor analysis that Io's hotspots are globally random, but regionally uniform near the equator. Lopes-Gautier et al. (1999) compared the locations of hotspots detected by NIMS to the spatial variation of heat flow predicted by two end-member tidal heating models. They found that the distribution of hotspots is more consistent with tidal heating occurring in asthenosphere rather than the mantle. Hamilton et al. (2013) demonstrate that clustering of hotspots also supports a dominant role for asthenosphere heating. These studies were unable to account for the relative brightness of the hotspots. Furthermore, studies of the temporal variability of Ionian volcanoes have yielded substantial insight into their nature. The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) gave us a large dataset from which to observe active volcanic activity. NIMS made well over 100 observations of Io over an approximately 10-year time frame. With wavelengths spanning from 0.7 to 5.2 microns, it is ideally suited to measure blackbody radiation from surfaces with temperatures over 300 K. Here, we report on our effort to determine the activity level of each hotspot observed in the NIMS data. We decide to use 3.5 micron brightness as a proxy for activity level because it will be easy to compare to, and incorporate, ground-based observations. We fit a 1-temperature blackbody to spectra in each grating position and averaged the

  19. Physical Activity Measures in the Healthy Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R; McIver, Kerry L; Colabianchi, Natalie; Troiano, Richard P; Reis, Jared P; Carroll, Dianna D; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-10-01

    The risk of obesity is reduced when youth engage in recommended levels of physical activity (PA). For that reason, public health organizations in the U.S. have encouraged communities to implement programs and policies designed to increase PA in youth, and many communities have taken on that challenge. However, the long-term effects of those programs and policies on obesity are largely unknown. The Healthy Communities Study is a large-scale observational study of U.S. communities that is examining the characteristics of programs and policies designed to promote healthy behaviors (e.g., increase PA and improve diet) and determining their association with obesity-related outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used to measure PA in children and the personal and community factors that may influence it. The study used both self-reported and objective measures of PA, and measured personal, family, and home influences on PA via three constructs: (1) PA self-schema; (2) parental support; and (3) parental rules regarding PA. Neighborhood and community factors related to PA were assessed using three measures: (1) child perceptions of the neighborhood environment; (2) availability of PA equipment; and (3) attributes of the child's street segment via direct observation. School influences on children's PA were assessed via three constructs: (1) school PA policies; (2) child perceptions of the school PA environment; and (3) school outdoor PA environment. These measures will enable examination of the associations between characteristics of community PA programs and policies and obesity-related outcomes in children and youth.

  20. Neighborhood environments and objectively measured physical activity in 11 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli L; Conway, Terry L; Van Dyck, Delfien; Hinckson, Erica; Schipperijn, Jasper; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Owen, Neville; Davey, Rachel C; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Mitáš, Josef; Orzanco-Garralda, Rosario; Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L; Christiansen, Lars B; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Schofield, Grant; Sallis, James F

    2014-12-01

    Environmental changes are potentially effective population-level physical activity (PA) promotion strategies. However, robust multisite evidence to guide international action for developing activity-supportive environments is lacking. We estimated pooled associations of perceived environmental attributes with objectively measured PA outcomes, between-site differences in such associations, and the extent to which perceived environmental attributes explain between-site differences in PA. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 16 cities located in Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, China, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, United Kingdom, and United States of America. Participants were 6968 adults residing in administrative units stratified by socioeconomic status and transport-related walkability. Predictors were 10 perceived neighborhood environmental attributes. Outcome measures were accelerometry-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and meeting the PA guidelines for cancer/weight gain prevention (420 min·wk of MVPA). Most perceived neighborhood attributes were positively associated with the PA outcomes in the pooled, site-adjusted, single-predictor models. Associations were generalizable across geographical locations. Aesthetics and land use mix-access were significant predictors of both PA outcomes in the fully adjusted models. Environmental attributes accounted for within-site variability in MVPA, corresponding to an SD of 3 min·d or 21 min·wk. Large between-site differences in PA outcomes were observed; 15.9%-16.8% of these differences were explained by perceived environmental attributes. All neighborhood attributes were associated with between-site differences in the total effects of the perceived environment on PA outcomes. Residents' perceptions of neighborhood attributes that facilitate walking were positively associated with objectively measured MVPA and meeting the guidelines for cancer/weight gain prevention at

  1. Estimation of geomagnetic activity using measure of anomalousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Soloviev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we present a newly developed indicator for estimating geomagnetic activity. It is based on the magnitude of measure of anomalousness (MA of magnetometer recordings at a given time or interval. It is intended for automated estimation of geomagnetic activity level in the area of a specific magnetic station or in a given region using data of a set of stations. It reflects geomagnetic activity level at different observatories in a single scale [-1, 1], regardless of their latitudinal location and consequently typical disturbance amplitudes. To a certain extent MA indicator is an analog of traditional K index. However, a well-known shortcoming of the latter is its long, 3-hour update rate. Moreover, K index calculation requires subtraction of Sq variation that also causes delays. At the same time there is a demand for operational geomagnetic indices that have maximal time resolution and are available in near real-time. The proposed MA indicator aims to address the shortcomings of the traditional K index. The MA calculation may be implemented automatically with the same time resolution as the initial data are recorded.

  2. Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry Measurement of Aminotransferase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xin; Li, Xin; Zhang, Chengsen; Xu, Yang; Cooks, R. Graham

    2017-06-01

    A change in enzyme activity has been used as a clinical biomarker for diagnosis and is useful in evaluating patient prognosis. Current laboratory measurements of enzyme activity involve multi-step derivatization of the reaction products followed by quantitative analysis of these derivatives. This study simplified the reaction systems by using only the target enzymatic reaction and directly detecting its product. A protocol using paper spray mass spectrometry for identifying and quantifying the reaction product has been developed. Evaluation of the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was chosen as a proof-of-principle. The volume of sample needed is greatly reduced compared with the traditional method. Paper spray has a desalting effect that avoids sprayer clogging problems seen when examining serum samples by nanoESI. This very simple method does not require sample pretreatment and additional derivatization reactions, yet it gives high quality kinetic data, excellent limits of detection (60 ppb from serum), and coefficients of variation <10% in quantitation. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Measurement of active shoulder proprioception: dedicated system and device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubiatowski, Przemyslaw; Ogrodowicz, Piotr; Wojtaszek, Marcin; Kaniewski, Ryszard; Stefaniak, Jakub; Dudziński, Witold; Romanowski, Leszek

    2013-02-01

    Proprioception is an essential part of shoulder stability and neuromuscular control. The purpose of the study was the development of a precise system of shoulder proprioception assessment in the active mode (Propriometr). For that purpose, devices such as the electronic goniometer and computer software had been designed. A pilot study was carried out on a control group of 27 healthy subjects, the average age being 23.8 (22-29) in order to test the system. The result of the assessment was the finding of the error of active reproduction of the joint position (EARJP). EARJP was assessed for flexion, abduction, external and internal rotation. For every motion, reference positions were used at three different angles. The results showed EARJP to range in 3-6.1°. The proprioception evaluation system (propriometr) allows a precise measurement of active joint position sense. The designed system can be used to assess proprioception in both shoulder injuries and treatment. In addition, all achieved results of normal shoulders may serve as reference to be compared with the results of forthcoming studies.

  4. Effects of vasoactive and metabolic active substances (measurement of RCBF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrschaft, H.

    1986-09-29

    Methods, principles, normal values, reproducibility and clinical indications of rCBF-measurements, using the intraartrial 133-Xenon-clearance-technique, are presented. The effect of vaso- and metabolically active drugs on cerebral blood flow was examined in 215 patients, suffering from cerebral ischemia. Significant increase of rCBF was ascertained after intravenous injection of centrophenoxine, pyrithioxine, extractum sanguis deproteinatus, piracetam and solutions of low molecular dextran. All the other drugs tested proved to be either without any effect or caused decrease of rCBF. In 130 patients with obstructive disease of internal carotid artery after surgery at an interval of 6 - 8 weeks and 1 year a significant increase of CBF could be stated. The rank of psychological tests and quantitative EEF-investigations relating to evidence of efficacy of metabolically active drugs is discussed critically. Therapeutic efficacy and clinical relevance of vaso- and metabolically active drugs in cerebral ischemia of man are to be substantiated only by double-blind controlled studies.

  5. A Helium Gas-Scintillator Active Target for Photoreaction Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Jebali, R Al; Adler, J -O; Akkurt, I; Buchanan, E; Brudvik, J; Fissum, K; Gardner, S; Hamilton, D J; Hansen, K; Isaksson, L; Livingston, K; Lundin, M; McGeorge, J C; MacGregor, I J D; MacRae, R; Middleton, D G; Reiter, A J H; Rosner, G; Schröder, B; Sjögren, J; Sokhan, D; Strandberg, B

    2015-01-01

    A multi-cell He gas-scintillator active target, designed for the measurement of photoreaction cross sections, is described. The target has four main chambers, giving an overall thickness of 0.103 $\\mathrm{g/cm^{2}}$ at an operating pressure of 2 MPa. Scintillations are read out by photomultiplier tubes and the addition of small amounts of $\\mathrm{N}_{2}$ to the He, to shift the scintillation emission from UV to visible, is discussed. First results of measurements at the MAX IV Laboratory tagged-photon facility show that the target has good timing resolution and can cope well with a high-flux photon beam. The determination of reaction cross sections from target yields relies on a Monte Carlo simulation, which considers scintillation light transport, photodisintegration processes in $^{4}\\mathrm{He}$, background photon interactions in target windows and interactions of the reaction-product particles in the gas and target container. The predictions of this simulation are compared to the measured target response...

  6. Biological aerosol detection with combined passive-active infrared measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifarraguerri, Agustin I.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.; Ben-David, Avishai

    2004-12-01

    A data collection experiment was performed in November of 2003 to measure aerosol signatures using multiple sensors, all operating in the long-wave infrared. The purpose of this data collection experiment was to determine whether combining passive hyperspectral and LIDAR measurements can substantially improve biological aerosol detection performance. Controlled releases of dry aerosols, including road dust, egg albumin and two strains of Bacillus Subtilis var. Niger (BG) spores were performed using the ECBC/ARTEMIS open-path aerosol test chamber located in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD. The chamber provides a ~ 20' path without optical windows. Ground truth devices included 3 aerodynamic particle sizers, an optical particle size spectrometer, 6 nephelometers and a high-volume particle sampler. Two sensors were used to make measurements during the test: the AIRIS long-wave infrared imaging spectrometer and the FAL CO2 LIDAR. The AIRIS and FAL data sets were analyzed for detection performance relative to the ground truth. In this paper we present experimental results from the individual sensors as well as results from passive-active sensor fusion. The sensor performance is presented in the form of receiver operating characteristic curves.

  7. Establishing a reproducible protocol for measuring index active extension strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter-Parrat, V; Hidalgo Diaz, J J; Collon, S; Salazar Botero, S; Prunières, G; Ichihara, S; Facca, S; Liverneaux, P

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study was to establish a reproducible protocol to measure active extension strength in the index finger. The secondary objectives consisted in correlating the independent or associated index extension strength to the other fingers force of contraction of the extensor indicis propius with hand dominance. The population studied consisted of 24 healthy volunteers, including 19 women and 20 right-handed individuals. The independent and dependent index extension strength in each hand was measured three times with a dynamometer by three examiners at Day 0 and again at Day 7. Intra and inter-examiner reproducibility were, respectively, >0.90 and >0.75 in all cases. The independent extension strength was lower than the dependent one. There was no difference between the independent index extension strength on the dominant and non-dominant sides. The same was true for the dependent strength. Our results show that our protocol is reproducible in measuring independent and dependent index extension strength. Dominance did not come into account.

  8. A helium gas scintillator active target for photoreaction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Jebali, Ramsey; Annand, John R.M.; Buchanan, Emma; Gardner, Simon; Hamilton, David J.; Livingston, Kenneth; McGeorge, John C.; MacGregor, Ian J.D.; MacRae, Roderick; Reiter, Andreas J.H.; Rosner, Guenther; Sokhan, Daria; Strandberg, Bruno [University of Glasgow, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Adler, Jan-Olof; Fissum, Kevin; Schroeder, Bent [University of Lund, Department of Physics, Lund (Sweden); Akkurt, Iskender [Sueleyman Demirel University, Fen-Edebiyat Faculty, Isparta (Turkey); Brudvik, Jason; Hansen, Kurt; Isaksson, Lennart; Lundin, Magnus [MAX IV Laboratory, PO Box 118, Lund (Sweden); Middleton, Duncan G. [Universitaet Tuebingen, Kepler Centre for Astro and Particle Physics, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Sjoegren, Johan [University of Glasgow, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); MAX IV Laboratory, PO Box 118, Lund (Sweden)

    2015-10-15

    A multi-cell He gas scintillator active target, designed for the measurement of photoreaction cross sections, is described. The target has four main chambers, giving an overall thickness of 0.103 g/cm{sup 3} at an operating pressure of 2 MPa. Scintillations are read out by photomultiplier tubes and the addition of small amounts of N{sub 2} to the He, to shift the scintillation emission from UV to visible, is discussed. First results of measurements at the MAX IV Laboratory tagged-photon facility show that the target has a timing resolution of around 1 ns and can cope well with a high-flux photon beam. The determination of reaction cross sections from target yields relies on a Monte Carlo simulation, which considers scintillation light transport, photodisintegration processes in {sup 4}He, background photon interactions in target windows and interactions of the reaction-product particles in the gas and target container. The predictions of this simulation are compared to the measured target response. (orig.)

  9. Physical Activity Measurement Device Agreement: Pedometer Steps/Minute and Physical Activity Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Philip W.; Mungen, Jonathan D.; Oh, Yoonsin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine agreement between the Walk4Life DUO pedometer (W4L; Walk4Life, Plainfield, Illinois, USA) and two criterion instruments in the measurement of physical activity. Participants (N = 189, M = 16.74 years, SD = 0.99) in high school physical education concurrently wore the DUO (i.e., comparison instrument) and…

  10. Validation of the historical adulthood physical activity questionnaire (HAPAQ against objective measurements of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDermott Christopher J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifetime physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE is an important determinant of risk for many chronic diseases but remains challenging to measure. Previously reported historical physical activity (PA questionnaires appear to be reliable, but their validity is less well established. Methods We sought to design and validate an historical adulthood PA questionnaire (HAPAQ against objective PA measurements from the same individuals. We recruited from a population-based cohort in Cambridgeshire, UK, (Medical Research Council Ely Study in whom PA measurements, using individually calibrated heart rate monitoring, had been obtained in the past, once between 1994 and 1996 and once between 2000 and 2002. 100 individuals from this cohort attended for interview. Historical PA within the domains of home, work, transport, sport and exercise was recalled using the questionnaire by asking closed questions repeated for several discrete time periods from the age of 20 years old to their current age. The average PAEE from the 2 periods of objective measurements was compared to the self-reported data from the corresponding time periods in the questionnaire. Results Significant correlations were observed between HAPAQ-derived and objectively measured total PAEE for both time periods (Spearman r = 0.44; P Conclusions HAPAQ demonstrates convergent validity for total PAEE and vigorous PA. This instrument will be useful for ranking individuals according to their past PA in studies of chronic disease aetiology, where activity may be an important underlying factor contributing to disease pathogenesis.

  11. Associations between active commuting to school and objectively measured physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børrestad L, Anita Bjørkelund; Ostergaard, Lars; Andersen, Lars Bo;

    2013-01-01

    , b) compare moderate vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among children cycling vs. walking to school, and c) thus calculate possible underestimated MVPA, when using accelerometers to measure commuter cycling. Methods: A total of 78 children, average age 11.4 (SD = 0.5), participated in the study....... Physical activity was measured with cycle computers and accelerometers for 4 days. Mode of commuting and demographic information was self-reported in a questionnaire. Results: Children who reported to cycle to school spent significantly more time cycling than those who walked to school, 53.6 (SD = ± 33......Background: To provide more accurate assessment of commuting behavior and potential health effect, it is important to have accurate methods. Therefore, the current study aimed to a) compare questionnaire reported mode of commuting with objectively measured data from accelerometer and cycle computer...

  12. Objectively Measured Physical Activity Is Associated with Brain Volumetric Measurements in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Klaren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Little is known about physical activity and its association with volumes of whole brain gray matter and white matter and deep gray matter structures in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS. Purpose. This study examined the association between levels of physical activity and brain volumetric measures from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in MS. Method. 39 persons with MS wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period and underwent a brain MRI. Normalized GM volume (NGMV, normalized WM volume (NWMV, and deep GM structures were calculated from 3D T1-weighted structural brain images. We conducted partial correlations (pr controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Results. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA was significantly associated with NGMV (pr=0.370, p<0.05, NWMV (pr=0.433, p<0.01, hippocampus (pr=0.499, p<0.01, thalamus (pr=0.380, p<0.05, caudate (pr=0.539, p<0.01, putamen (pr=0.369, p<0.05, and pallidum (pr=0.498, p<0.01 volumes, when controlling for sex, age, clinical course of MS, and Expanded Disability Status Scale score. There were no associations between sedentary and light physical activity with MRI outcomes. Conclusion. Our results provide the first evidence that MVPA is associated with volumes of whole brain GM and WM and deep GM structures that are involved in motor and cognitive functions in MS.

  13. Ambulatory measurement of knee motion and physical activity: preliminary evaluation of a smart activity monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malchau Henrik

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is currently a paucity of devices available for continuous, long-term monitoring of human joint motion. Non-invasive, inexpensive devices capable of recording human activity and joint motion have many applications for medical research. Such a device could be used to quantify range of motion outside the gait laboratory. The purpose of this study was to test the accuracy of the modified Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA in measuring knee flexion angles, to detect different physical activities, and to quantify how often healthy subjects use deep knee flexion in the ambulatory setting. Methods We compared Biomotion Laboratory (BML "gold standard" data to simultaneous IDEEA measures of knee motion and gait, step up/down, and stair descent in 5 healthy subjects. In addition, we used a series of choreographed physical activities outside the BML to confirm the IDEEA's ability to accurately measure 7 commonly-performed physical activities. Subjects then continued data collection during ordinary activities outside the gait laboratory. Results Pooled correlations between the BML and IDEEA knee flexion angles were .97 +/- .03 for step up/down, .98 +/- .02 for stair descent, and .98 +/- .01 for gait. In the BML protocol, the IDEEA accurately identified gait, but was less accurate in identifying step up/down and stair descent. During sampling outside the BML, the IDEEA accurately detected walking, running, stair ascent, stair descent, standing, lying, and sitting. On average, subjects flexed their knees >120° for 0.17% of their data collection periods outside the BML. Conclusion The modified IDEEA system is a useful clinical tool for evaluating knee motion and multiple physical activities in the ambulatory setting. These five healthy subjects rarely flexed their knees >120°.

  14. Active region emission measure distributions and implications for nanoflare heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cargill, P. J., E-mail: p.cargill@imperial.ac.uk [Space and Atmospheric Physics, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW, UKAND (United Kingdom); School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Scotland KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-20

    The temperature dependence of the emission measure (EM) in the core of active regions coronal loops is an important diagnostic of heating processes. Observations indicate that EM(T) ∼ T{sup a} below approximately 4 MK, with 2 < a < 5. Zero-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of nanoflare trains are used to demonstrate the dependence of a on the time between individual nanoflares (T{sub N} ) and the distribution of nanoflare energies. If T{sub N} is greater than a few thousand seconds, a < 3. For smaller values, trains of equally spaced nanoflares cannot account for the observed range of a if the distribution of nanoflare energies is either constant, randomly distributed, or a power law. Power law distributions where there is a delay between consecutive nanoflares proportional to the energy of the second nanoflare do lead to the observed range of a. However, T{sub N} must then be of the order of hundreds to no more than a few thousand seconds. If a nanoflare leads to the relaxation of a stressed coronal field to a near-potential state, the time taken to build up the required magnetic energy is thus too long to account for the EM measurements. Instead, it is suggested that a nanoflare involves the relaxation from one stressed coronal state to another, dissipating only a small fraction of the available magnetic energy. A consequence is that nanoflare energies may be smaller than previously envisioned.

  15. Absolute activity measurement of radon gas at IRA-METAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Philippe; Nedjadi, Youcef; Bailat, Claude; Triscone, Gilles; Bochud, François

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the system of the Swiss national metrological institute (IRA-METAS) for the absolute standardisation of radon gas. This method relies on condensing radon under vacuum conditions within a specified cold area using a cryogenerator, and detecting its alpha particles with an ion-implanted silicon detector, through a very accurately defined solid angle. The accuracy of this defined solid angle standardisation technique was corroborated by another primary measurement method involving 4 πγ NaI(Tl) integral counting and Monte Carlo efficiency calculations. The 222Rn standard submitted by IRA-METAS to the Système International de Référence (SIR) at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) has also been found to be consistent with an analogous standard submitted by the German national metrological institute (PTB). IRA-METAS is able to deliver radon standards, with activities ranging from a few kBq to 350 kBq, in NIST-Type ampoules, and glass or steel containers usable for calibrating radon-measuring instruments.

  16. Relationship between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakura, Masahiro; Okura, Kazuki; Shibata, Kazuyuki; Kawagoshi, Atsuyoshi; Sugawara, Keiyu; Takahashi, Hitomi; Shioya, Takanobu

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the relationship between balance impairments and physical activity in COPD. There has been no study investigating the relationship between balance and objectively measured physical activity. Here we investigated the association between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients. Materials and methods Twenty-two outpatients with COPD (mean age, 72±7 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 53%±21% predicted) and 13 age-matched healthy control subjects (mean age, 72±6 years) participated in the study. We assessed all 35 subjects’ balance (one-leg standing test [OLST] times, Short Physical Performance Battery total scores, standing balance test scores, 4 m gait speed, and five-times sit-to-stand test [5STST]) and physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day [MV-PA]). Possible confounders were assessed in the COPD group. The between-group differences in balance test scores and physical activity were analyzed. A correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted in the COPD group. Results The COPD patients exhibited significant reductions in OLST times (P=0.033), Short Physical Performance Battery scores (P=0.013), 4 m gait speed (P<0.001), five-times sit-to-stand times (P=0.002), daily steps (P=0.003), and MV-PA (P=0.022) compared to the controls; the exception was the standing balance test scores. The correlation and multivariate regression analyses revealed significant independent associations between OLST times and daily steps (P<0.001) and between OLST times and MV-PA (P=0.014) in the COPD group after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Conclusion Impairments in balance and reductions in physical activity were observed in the COPD group. Deficits in balance are independently associated with physical inactivity. PMID:27445470

  17. A New Quantum Sensor for Measuring Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.; Thomas, T.; Heinicke, D.; Peterson, R.; Morgan, P.; McDermitt, D. K.; Burba, G. G.

    2015-12-01

    A quantum sensor measures photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, in μmol of photons m-2 s-1) in the 400 nm to 700 nm waveband. Plants utilize this radiation to drive photosynthesis, though individual plant responses to incident radiation may vary within this range. The new quantum sensor (model LI-190R, LI-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NE), with an optical filter and silicon photodiode detector housed in a cosine-corrected head, is designed to provide a better response to incident radiation across the 400-700 nm range. The new design is expected to significantly improve spectral response due to uniformity across the PAR waveband, but particularly in the wavebands from 520 nm to 600 nm and 665 nm to 680 nm, and sharp cutoffs in the regions below and above the PAR waveband. Special care was taken to make sure that PAR sensor would not substantially respond to incident radiation above the 700 nm threshold because this can lead to errors when performing measurements in environments with a large proportion of near-infrared radiation, such as canopy understory. The physical housing of the sensor is designed to be weather-resistant, to effectively shed precipitation, provide protection at high temperature and high humidity conditions, and has a cosine-corrected response to 82° zenith angle. The latter is particularly important when measuring incident radiation at low elevation angles, diffuse light, or low light conditions. This presentation describes the principles of the new design, and shows the performance results from field experiments and laboratory tests.

  18. Measuring temperature-dependent activation energy in thermally activated processes: a 2D Arrhenius plot method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian V; Johnston, Steven W; Yan, Yanfa; Levi, Dean H

    2010-03-01

    Thermally activated processes are characterized by two key quantities, activation energy (E(a)) and pre-exponential factor (nu(0)), which may be temperature dependent. The accurate measurement of E(a), nu(0), and their temperature dependence is critical for understanding the thermal activation mechanisms of non-Arrhenius processes. However, the classic 1D Arrhenius plot-based methods cannot unambiguously measure E(a), nu(0), and their temperature dependence due to the mathematical impossibility of resolving two unknown 1D arrays from one 1D experimental data array. Here, we propose a 2D Arrhenius plot method to solve this fundamental problem. Our approach measures E(a) at any temperature from matching the first and second moments of the data calculated with respect to temperature and rate in the 2D temperature-rate plane, and therefore is able to unambiguously solve E(a), nu(0), and their temperature dependence. The case study of deep level emission in a Cu(In,Ga)Se(2) solar cell using the 2D Arrhenius plot method reveals clear temperature dependent behavior of E(a) and nu(0), which has not been observable by its 1D predecessors.

  19. Measurement of antioxidant activity with trifluoperazine dihydrochloride radical cation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Asghar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel, rapid and cost-effective trifluoperazine dihydrochloride (TFPH decolorization assay is described for the screening of antioxidant activity. A chromogenic reaction between TFPH and potassium persulfate at low pH produces an orange-red radical cation with maximum absorption at 502 nm in its first-order derivative spectrum. TFPH was dissolved in distilled water to give a 100 mM solution. The TFPH radical cation solution was made by reacting 0.5 mL of the solution with K2S2O8 (final concentration: 0.1 mM and diluting to 100 mL with 4 M H2SO4 solution. A linear inhibition of color production was observed with linearly increasing amounts of antioxidants, with correlation coefficients (R² ranging from 0.999 to 0.983. The antioxidant capacity of standard solutions of an antioxidant was evaluated by comparing with the inhibition curve using Trolox as the standard. Comparison of antioxidant capacity determined with this newly developed TFPH assay and with the well-known 2,2'-azinobis-[3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] (ABTS-persulfate decolorization assay indicated the efficacy and sensitivity of the procedure. The proposed assay is less expensive (costs about US$4 per 100 assays and requires only 20 min for preparation of radical cation solution in comparison with ABTS assay, in which almost 12-16 h are required for preparation of a stable ABTS radical cation solution. The present assay has the advantage over ABTS assay that it can be used to measure the antioxidant activity of the samples, which are naturally found at a pH as low as 1, because the radical cation itself has been stabilized at low pH.

  20. Measurements of the Effects of Smoke on Active Circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1999-02-09

    Smoke has long been recognized as the most common source of fire damage to electrical equipment; however, most failures have been analyzed after the fire was out and the smoke vented. The effects caused while the smoke is still in the air have not been explored. Such effects have implications for new digital equipment being installed in nuclear reactors. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring work to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control. As part of this program, Sandia National Laboratories has tested simple active circuits to determine how smoke affects them. These tests included the study of three possible failure modes on a functional board: (1) circuit bridging, (2) corrosion (metal loss), and (3) induction of stray capacitance. The performance of nine different circuits was measured continuously on bare and conformably coated boards during smoke exposures lasting 1 hour each and continued for 24 hours after the exposure started. The circuit that was most affected by smoke (100% change in measured values) was the one most sensitive to circuit bridging. Its high impedance (50 M{Omega}) was shorted during the exposure, but in some cases recovered after the smoke was vented. The other two failure modes, corrosion and induced stray capacitance, caused little change in the function of the circuits. The smoke permanently increased resistance of the circuit tested for corrosion, implying that the cent acts were corroded. However, the change was very small (< 2%). The stray-capacitance test circuit showed very little change after a smoke exposure in either the short or long term. The results of the tests suggest that conformal coatings and type of circuit are major considerations when designing digital circuitry to be used in critical control systems.

  1. Questionnaires for measuring physical activity in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Bertoldo Benedetti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The identifi cation of the best amount of physical activity is fundamental so that coherent physical activity practices can be advised regarding the amount, intensity, and frequency, as well as intervention programs can be built to minimize and control problems from functional decline with age. Amongst the methods and techniques, questionnaires have been the most used tool to evaluate physical activity and energy expenditure. Thus, the present study proposed to evaluate psychometric characteristics, advantages and limitations of questionnaires that measure physical activity level in the elderly. A literature review in electronic databases was performed using Ovid Medline and also in personal fi les. After identifying the questionnaires, a new search was run. Six questionnaires were found, and their characteristics were presented. The Baecke and the IPAQ questionnaires are the only forms translated into Portuguese and validated. The IPAQ seemed to show the best conditions to be applied in aged Brazilians. Thus, the questionnaires evaluating physical activity level in the elderly population in Brazil have good reliability, but low validity. RESUMO Identificar a quantidade ideal de atividade física é fundamental para que se possa orientar práticas coerentes em relação à quantidade, intensidade e freqüência, bem como construir programas de intervenções para minimizar e controlar os problemas relacionados com o declínio funcional em idosos. Dentre os métodos e técnicas, os questionários têm sido os mais empregados para avaliar a atividade física e o gasto energético. Assim, o presente estudo objetivou avaliar as características, origens, aspectos psicométricos, vantagens e limitações de questionários que medem o nível de atividade física em idosos. Realizou-se umarevisão bibliográfi ca nos bancos de dados eletrônicos: Ovid Medline e o acervo bibliográfi co pessoal. Após a identifi cação dos instrumentos, realizou

  2. RADSAT Benchmarks for Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Kimberly A.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2011-07-01

    The accurate and efficient simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems is necessary for several important radiation detection applications. Examples include the detection of nuclear threats concealed in cargo containers and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for nondestructive determination of elemental composition of unknown samples. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are used in these applications to measure the spectrum of the emitted photon flux, which consists of both continuum and characteristic gamma rays with discrete energies. Monte Carlo transport is the most commonly used simulation tool for this type of problem, but computational times can be prohibitively long. This work explores the use of multi-group deterministic methods for the simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems. The main purpose of this work is to benchmark several problems modeled with RADSAT and MCNP to experimental data. Additionally, the cross section libraries for RADSAT are updated to include ENDF/B-VII cross sections. Preliminary findings show promising results when compared to MCNP and experimental data, but also areas where additional inquiry and testing are needed. The potential benefits and shortcomings of the multi-group-based approach are discussed in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  3. Relationship between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwakura M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Masahiro Iwakura,1,2 Kazuki Okura,2 Kazuyuki Shibata,1,2 Atsuyoshi Kawagoshi,2 Keiyu Sugawara,2 Hitomi Takahashi,2 Takanobu Shioya1 1Department of Rehabilitation, Akita City Hospital, 2Department of Physical Therapy, Akita University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Akita, Japan Background: Little is known regarding the relationship between balance impairments and physical activity in COPD. There has been no study investigating the relationship between balance and objectively measured physical activity. Here we investigated the association between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients. Materials and methods: Twenty-two outpatients with COPD (mean age, 72±7 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 53%±21% predicted and 13 age-matched healthy control subjects (mean age, 72±6 years participated in the study. We assessed all 35 subjects’ balance (one-leg standing test [OLST] times, Short Physical Performance Battery total scores, standing balance test scores, 4 m gait speed, and five-times sit-to-stand test [5STST] and physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day [MV-PA]. Possible confounders were assessed in the COPD group. The between-group differences in balance test scores and physical activity were analyzed. A correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted in the COPD group. Results: The COPD patients exhibited significant reductions in OLST times (P=0.033, Short Physical Performance Battery scores (P=0.013, 4 m gait speed (P<0.001, five-times sit-to-stand times (P=0.002, daily steps (P=0.003, and MV-PA (P=0.022 compared to the controls; the exception was the standing balance test scores. The correlation and multivariate regression analyses revealed significant independent associations between OLST times and daily steps (P<0.001 and between OLST times and MV-PA (P=0.014 in the COPD group after adjusting for

  4. Measuring up : reporting our environmental activities to the community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    This report outlined the environmental activities undertaken during 2005 by the Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA), the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) and the Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program (RAMP). The 3 organizations were established to examine and address the environmental impacts of oil sands development in the region. CEMA was formed to manage cumulative impacts of oil sands development, while RAMP was formed to assess the health of rivers and lakes. WBEA was formed to monitor and report regional air quality. In 2005, CEMA focused on research designed to understand the sources of harmful emissions as well as how the natural environment responded to increased development. Long-term environmental impacts on surface water quantity and quality were investigated. Other activities included the creation of an acid sensitive lakes network and lake atlas; an ongoing assessment of the effects of air emissions on people living in the region; a Muskeg River watershed integrity and water management and mitigation strategies; a study of nitrogen sinks in boreal ecosystems; and the development of a pit lake work plan to integrate pit lakes within reclaimed ecosystems. RAMP was established in 1997 to monitor the health of lakes and rivers in the Wood Buffalo region. Studies conducted by RAMP in 2005 included water and sediment analyses, as well as fish and benthic communities monitoring. During 2005, RAMP studies observed no differences in benthic invertebrate communities, no significant accumulations of chemicals and sediments, and no appreciable differences in water chemistry. Concentrations of metals and tainting compounds in fish from the region have remained consistent over time. No significant changes in the overall chemistry of 50 lakes sampled during 2005 were observed. Air, land, and human monitoring programs conducted during 2005 by the WBEA included a human exposure monitoring program which studied the indoor and outdoor air

  5. Associations of objectively measured physical activity and abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Annelotte; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2015-01-01

    -dimensionally by ultrasonography and physical activity with combined accelerometry and HR monitoring. Linear regression of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and time spent in different physical activity intensity levels on VAT and SAT was performed. Results: Median body mass index (BMI) was 26.6 kg.m(-2) and PAEE was 28...

  6. The improved physical activity index for measuring physical activity in EPIC Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Wientzek

    Full Text Available In the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC, physical activity (PA has been indexed as a cross-tabulation between PA at work and recreational activity. As the proportion of non-working participants increases, other categorization strategies are needed. Therefore, our aim was to develop a valid PA index for this population, which will also be able to express PA continuously. In the German EPIC centers Potsdam and Heidelberg, a clustered sample of 3,766 participants was re-invited to the study center. 1,615 participants agreed to participate and 1,344 participants were finally included in this study. PA was measured by questionnaires on defined activities and a 7-day combined heart rate and acceleration sensor. In a training sample of 433 participants, the Improved Physical Activity Index (IPAI was developed. Its performance was evaluated in a validation sample of 911 participants and compared with the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index. The IPAI consists of items covering five areas including PA at work, sport, cycling, television viewing, and computer use. The correlations of the IPAI with accelerometer counts in the training and validation sample ranged r = 0.40-0.43 and with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE r = 0.33-0.40 and were higher than for the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index previously applied in EPIC. In non-working participants the IPAI showed higher correlations than the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index, with r = 0.34 for accelerometer counts and r = 0.29 for PAEE. In conclusion, we developed a valid physical activity index which is able to express PA continuously as well as to categorize participants according to their PA level. In populations with increasing rates of non-working people the performance of the IPAI is better than the established indices used in EPIC.

  7. Physical activity and physical activity induced energy expenditure in humans: measurement, determinants, and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure. The doubly labeled water method for the measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE), in combination with resting energy expenditure, is the reference for physical activity under free-living conditions. To compare the physical activity level (PAL) within and between species, TEE is divided by resting energy expenditure resulting in a figure without dimension. The PAL for sustainable lifestyles ranges between a minimum of 1.1-1.2 and a maximum of 2.0-2.5. The average PAL increases from 1.4 at age 1 year to 1.7-1.8 at reproductive age and declines again to 1.4 at age 90 year. Exercise training increases PAL in young adults when energy balance is maintained by increasing energy intake. Professional endurance athletes can reach PAL values around 4.0. Most of the variation in PAL between subjects can be ascribed to predisposition. A higher weight implicates higher movement costs and less body movement but not necessarily a lower PAL. Changes in physical activity primarily affect body composition and to a lesser extent body weight. Modern man has a similar PAL as a wild mammal of a similar body size.

  8. Reliability of Wearable Inertial Measurement Units to Measure Physical Activity in Team Handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luteberget, Live S; Holme, Benjamin R; Spencer, Matt

    2017-09-05

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and sensitivity of commercially available inertial measurement units (IMU) to measure physical activity in team handball. Twenty-two handball players were instrumented with two IMUs (OptimEye S5, Catapult Sports, Australia) taped together. They participated in either a laboratory assessment (n=10), consisting of seven team handball specific tasks, or field assessment (n=12) conducted in twelve training sessions. Variables, including PlayerLoad™ and inertial movement analysis (IMA) magnitude and counts, were extracted from the manufactures software. IMA count was divided into intensity bands of low (1.5-2.5m·s(-1)), medium (2.5-3.5m·s(-1)), high (>3.5m·s(-1)), medium/high (>2.5m·s(-1)), and total (>1.5m·s(-1)). Reliability between devices and sensitivity was established using coefficient of variation (CV) and smallest worthwhile difference (SWD). Laboratory assessment : IMA magnitude showed a good reliability (CV: 3.1%) in well-controlled tasks. CV increased (4.4-6.7%) in more complex tasks. Field assessment : Total IMA count (CV: 1.8%, SWD: 2.5%), PlayerLoad™ (CV: 0.9 % SWD: 2.1%), and its associated variables (CV: 0.4-1.7%) showed a good reliability, well below the SWD. However, the CV of IMA increased when categorized into intensity bands (2.9-5.6%). The reliability of IMA count were good, when data was displayed as total, high or medium/high counts. A good reliability for PlayerLoad™ and associated variables was evident. The CV of the aforementioned variables was well below the SWD, suggesting that OptimEye IMU and its software are sensitive for use in team handball.

  9. Detection and measurement of paracaspase MALT1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailfinger, Stephan; Pelzer, Christiane; Thome, Margot

    2014-01-01

    The paracaspase MALT1 is a Cys-dependent, Arg-specific protease that plays an essential role in the activation and proliferation of lymphocytes during the immune response. Oncogenic activation of MALT1 is associated with the development of specific forms of B-cell lymphomas. Through specific cleavage of its substrates, MALT1 controls various aspects of lymphocyte activation, including the activation of transcriptional pathways, the stabilization of mRNAs, and an increase in cellular adhesion. In lymphocytes, the activity of MALT1 is tightly controlled by its inducible monoubiquitination, which promotes the dimerization of MALT1. Here, we describe both in vitro and in vivo assays that have been developed to assess MALT1 activity.

  10. Objectively measured habitual physical activity in a highly obesogenic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, S A; Summerbell, C D; Reilly, J J

    2009-05-01

    While the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children continues to grow nationally, prevalence in the North-East of England is among the highest in the UK. The objective of this study was to investigate the habitual physical activity levels in a particularly obesogenic environment in the North-East of England. Eight primary schools were selected using a stratified random sampling frame ranking average deprivation levels. Participating children (n = 246, mean age 10 years) wore an accelerometer (Actigraph, GT-256) over five consecutive days (weekend plus three weekdays). Total daily moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity was calculated using thresholds by Puyau and colleagues. Only 7% (17/246) of children were sufficiently active. Boys were more physically active than girls (766 +/- 268 vs. 641 +/- 202 counts/min, 95% CI for the difference 63-186 cpm.). Total physical activity was not influenced significantly by deprivation levels or weight status, and there were no significant differences in physical activity between school or weekend days. The North-East of England is a recognized 'hot spot' for paediatric obesity and the present study shows that low levels of habitual physical activity are typical. Choice of accelerometry threshold affects both the apparent amount of physical activity and the ability to detect groups with particularly low levels of physical activity.

  11. Measuring disease activity to predict therapeutic outcome in Graves' ophthalmopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwee, C.B.; Prummel, M.F.; Gerding, M.N.; Kahaly, G.J.; Dekker, F.W.; Wiersinga, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The concept of disease activity in Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) might explain why as many as one-third of patients do not respond to immunosuppressive treatment, because only patients in the active stage of disease are expected to respond. The hypothesis was adopted that a parameter used

  12. Measuring disease activity to predict therapeutic outcome in Graves' ophthalmopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwee, C.B.; Prummel, M.F.; Gerding, M.N.; Kahaly, G.J.; Dekker, F.W.; Wiersinga, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The concept of disease activity in Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) might explain why as many as one-third of patients do not respond to immunosuppressive treatment, because only patients in the active stage of disease are expected to respond. The hypothesis was adopted that a parameter used t

  13. Affective Response to Physical Activity: Testing for Measurement Invariance of the Physical Activity Affect Scale across Active and Non-Active Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Laura C.; Tompkins, Sara Anne; Schmiege, Sarah J.; Nilsson, Renea; Bryan, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Affective responses to physical activity are assumed to play a role in exercise initiation and maintenance. The Physical Activity Affect Scale measures four dimensions of an individual's affective response to exercise. Group differences in the interpretation of scale items can impact the interpretability of mean differences, underscoring the need…

  14. Tracking of objectively measured physical activity from childhood to adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Lund; Møller, N C; Korsholm, L

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated tracking of physical activity from childhood to adolescence and, in general, these studies have been based on methods with some degree of subjectivity (e.g., questionnaires). The aim of the present study was to evaluate tracking of physical activity from...... childhood to adolescence using accelerometry, taking into account major sources of variation in physical activity. Both a crude and an adjusted model was fitted, and, in the adjusted model, analyses were corrected for seasonal variation, within-week variation, activity registration during night time sleep......, in the adjusted model highly significant stability coefficients of 0.53 and 0.48 for boys and girls, respectively, were observed. It was concluded that physical activity behavior tends to track moderately from childhood to adolescence....

  15. Cavitation Measurement during Sonic and Ultrasonic Activated Irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, Ricardo; Verhaagen, Bram; Rivas, David Fernandez; Versluis, Michel; Wesselink, Paul; van der Sluis, Luc

    Introduction: The aims of this study were to quantify and to visualize the possible occurrence of transient cavitation (bubble formation and implosion) during sonic and ultrasonic (UAI) activated irrigation. Methods: The amount of cavitation generated around several endodontic instruments was

  16. Objectively measured activity patterns among adults in residential aged care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reid, Natasha; Eakin, Elizabeth; Henwood, Timothy; Keogh, Justin W L; Senior, Hugh E; Gardiner, Paul A; Winkler, Elisabeth; Healy, Genevieve N

    2013-01-01

    .... Ambulatory, older (≥60 years) residential aged care adults without cognitive impairment. Feasibility was assessed by consent rate, sleep/wear diary completion, and through interviews with staff/participants. Activity patterns...

  17. Measurement of water activity from shales through thermo hygrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabe, Claudio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil. Grupo de Tecnologia e Engenharia de Petroleo (GTEP)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a campaign of lab tests to obtain the water activity from shales and its pore fluid originated from offshore and onshore basin. The results of water activity from shales indicate that the values rang from 0.754 to 0.923 and for the pore fluid are between 0.987 and 0.940. The results show that the water activity of interstitial water can be obtained in 6 days and the rock in 10 days using the thermo hygrometer used. The degree of saturation, water content, kind and tenor of expansible and hydratable clay mineral, total and interconnected porosity, salinity of interstitial fluid and the capillary pressure of shale samples affected the results of water activity. (author)

  18. Measurements of flux pumping activation of trapped field magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Roy; Parks, Drew; Sawh, Ravi-Persad [Texas Center for Superconductivity, 202 Houston Science Center, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5002 (United States); Davey, Kent [Physics Department, 617 Science and Research Building I, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Large grains of high temperature superconducting (HTS) material can be utilized as trapped field magnets (TFMs). Persistent currents are set up in the HTS when it is cooled in a magnetic field, or exposed to a magnetic field after cooling. TFMs have been improved over the past two decades by the efforts of a large number of worldwide research groups. However, applications using TFMs have lagged, in part due to the problem of high fields needed for activation. We describe herein experiments designed to observe the behaviour of TFM activation using repeated applications of low fields (called 'pumping'). Significant partial activation is obtained using a non-uniform pumping field (e.g., a small permanent magnet) which is higher in the centre of the HTS than at the periphery. Cooling in zero field followed by pumping with such a field results in trapping the full applied field, in comparison to half of the applied field being trapped by cooling in zero field followed by application of a uniform field. We find that for partial activation by cooling in a field and subsequent activation by pumping, the resulting fields are additive. We also conclude that for activation by fluxoid pumping, creep assists the process.

  19. Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woskov, Paul P.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Titus, Charles H.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. In an alternative embodiment, a translatable base plate and a visible laser beam allow slow mapping out of interference patterns and obtaining peak values therefor. The invention also includes a waveguide having a replaceable end portion, an insulating refractory sleeve and/or a source of inert gas flow. The pyrometer may be used in conjunction with a waveguide to form a system for temperature measurements in a furnace. The system may employ a chopper or alternatively, be constructed without a chopper. The system may also include an auxiliary reflector for surface emissivity measurements.

  20. Physical Activity in Hemodialysis Patients Measured by Triaxial Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimar Pedrosa Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different factors can contribute to a sedentary lifestyle among hemodialysis (HD patients, including the period they spend on dialysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate characteristics of physical activities in daily life in this population by using an accurate triaxial accelerometer and to correlate these characteristics with physiological variables. Nineteen HD patients were evaluated using the DynaPort accelerometer and compared to nineteen control individuals, regarding the time spent in different activities and positions of daily life and the number of steps taken. HD patients were more sedentary than control individuals, spending less time walking or standing and spending more time lying down. The sedentary behavior was more pronounced on dialysis days. According to the number of steps taken per day, 47.4% of hemodialysis patients were classified as sedentary against 10.5% in control group. Hemoglobin level, lower extremity muscle strength, and physical functioning of SF-36 questionnaire correlated significantly with the walking time and active time. Looking accurately at the patterns of activity in daily life, HDs patients are more sedentary, especially on dialysis days. These patients should be motivated to enhance the physical activity.

  1. A coupled observation – modeling approach for studying activation kinetics from measurements of CCN activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Raatikainen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to study droplet activation kinetics from measurements of CCN activity by the Continuous Flow Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Chamber (CFSTGC and a comprehensive model of the instrument and droplet growth. The model is evaluated against a series of experiments with ammonium sulfate calibration aerosol. Observed and model predicted droplet sizes are in excellent agreement for a water vapor uptake coefficient ~0.2, which is consistent with theoretical expectations. The model calculations can be considerably accelerated without significant loss of accuracy by assuming simplified instrument geometry and constant parabolic flow velocity profiles. With these assumptions, the model can be applied to large experimental data sets (to infer kinetic growth parameters while fully accounting for water vapor depletion effects and changes in instrument operation parameters such as the column temperature, flow rates, sheath and sample flow relative humidities, and pressure. When the effects of instrument operation parameters, water vapor depletion and equilibrium dry particle properties on droplet size are accounted for, the remaining variations in droplet size are most likely due to non-equilibrium processes such as those caused by organic surface films, slow solute dissociation and glassy or highly viscous particle states. As an example of model application, data collected during a research flight in the ARCTAS 2008 campaign are analyzed. The model shows that water vapor depletion effects can explain changes in the observed average droplet size.

  2. Toward autonomous measurements of photosynthetic electron transport rates: An evaluation of active fluorescence-based measurements of photochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silsbe, G.M.; Oxborough, K.; Suggett, D.J.; Forster, R.M.; Ihnken, S.; Komárek, O.; Lawrenz, E.; Prášil, O.; Röttgers, R.; Šicner, M.; Simis, S.G.H.; Van Dijk, M.A.; Kromkamp, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a methods evaluation and intercalibration of active fluorescence-based measurements of the quantum yield ( inline image) and absorption coefficient ( inline image) of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry. Measurements of inline image, inline image, and irradiance (E) can be

  3. Measuring Physical Activity in Outdoor Community Recreational Environments: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytur, Semra A; Jones, Sydney A; Stransky, Michelle; Evenson, Kelly R

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) are major contributors to escalating health care costs in the USA. Physical activity is an important protective factor against CVD, and the National Prevention Strategy recognizes active living (defined as a way of life that integrates physical activity into everyday routines) as a priority for improving the nation's health. This paper focuses on developing more inclusive measures of physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments, specifically parks and trails, to enhance their usability for at-risk populations such as persons with mobility limitations. We develop an integrated conceptual framework for measuring physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments, describe examples of evidence-based tools for measuring physical activity in these settings, and discuss strategies to improve measurement of physical activity for persons with mobility limitations. Addressing these measurement issues is critically important to making progress towards national CVD goals pertaining to active community environments.

  4. Longitudinal measurement of physical activity following kidney transplantation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dontje, M.L.; Greef, M.H. de; Krijnen, W.P.; Corpeleijn, E.; Kok, T.; Bakker, S.J.; Stolk, R.P.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2014-01-01

    purpose of this longitudinal observational study was to (i) examine the change of daily physical activity in 28 adult kidney transplant recipients over the first 12 months following transplantation; and (ii) to examine the change in metabolic characteristics and renal function. Accelerometer-based d

  5. Measurements on Active Cold Loads for Radiometer Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.

    2008-01-01

    Two semi-conductor Active Cold Loads (ACLs) to be used as cold references in spaceborne microwave radiometers have been developed. An X-band frequency was chosen, and the target noise temperature value was in the 50 to 100 K range. The ACLs are characterized in the operating temperature range 0 50...

  6. Measurements on Active Cold Loads for Radiometer Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Skou, Niels; Balling, Jan E.

    2009-01-01

    Two semiconductor active cold loads (ACLs) to be used as cold references in spaceborne microwave radiometers have been developed. An X-band frequency was chosen, and the target noise temperature value was in the 50-100-K range. The ACLs are characterized in the operating temperature range of 0deg...

  7. Performance Measurements on Active Cold Loads for Radiometer Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.

    2007-01-01

    Two semi-conductor Active Cold Loads (ACLs) to be used as cold references in spaceborne microwave radiometers have been developed. An X-band frequency has been chosen, and the target noise temperature value is in the 50 to 100 K range. The ACLs are to be characterized in the operating temperature...

  8. ACTIVITY OF ENTERPRISES DURING CRISIS AND MEASURES FOR ECONOMY STABILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. I. Yusubov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to determine negative factors of  the crisis affecting the economy ofBelarusand determination of the most important measures directed on strengthening economic and financial situation of the country during the economic crisis.

  9. "Measuring Me": Using Nutrition Education Curriculum Activities to Teach Elementary Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sara; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; Hovland, Jana; Duffrin, Melani

    2012-01-01

    "Measuring Me" is an introductory activity developed to be used while collecting pre-study anthropometric data for the Food Math and Science Teacher Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative. Using "Measuring Me" as an introductory activity for collecting anthropometric measurements in the classroom was feasible and well received by students…

  10. A theoretical study of radon measurement with activated charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikezić, Dragoslav; Urošević, Vlade

    1998-02-01

    Diffusion of radon in a bed of activated charcoal is described by diffusion equations. An analytical solution of these equations is presented for the case of constant radon concentration in the atmosphere. The solutions are given separately for short term and long term exposure. An analytical form of the calibration constant f for long term exposure and constant radon concentration in air, was found to be f=kp {D}/{λ}S {sinh{λ}/{D}l }/{cosh{λ}/{D}l } A numerical method and computer code based on the method of finite elements is developed for the case of variable radon concentration in air. This program simulates radon adsorption by the activated charcoal bed, enabling determination of sensitivity. The dependence of sensitivity on different parameters, such as temperature, thickness of the charcoal, etc. was studied using this program.

  11. Measurement of the external parameters in quantitative active thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmi, R.; Inglese, G.

    2017-10-01

    Infrared thermography is widely used in non-destructive testing and in the non-destructive evaluation of subsurface defects in several materials. The detection and reconstruction (location and shape) of a defect inside a material from thermal data requires the solution of an inverse heat conduction problem. Here the problem is tackled by the thin-plate approximation of the investigated domain. A number of physical quantities must be known for the reconstruction procedure to be successful: some relating to the material (thermal conductivity, heat capacity, density), usually known, and others relating to the heating process. This paper proposes procedures for accurately measuring the latter, whose importance is often not given due consideration. Those procedures allow us to accurately measure the heat flux distribution produced by the sources on the heated surface, and the heat exchange coefficient at the remaining surfaces, and are easily applicable in ‘on field’ situations.

  12. Body composition as measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.; Sawitsky, A.; Vartsky, D.; Yasumura, S.; Zanzi, I.; Gartenhaus, W.; Ellis, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    A large scale study is currently underway on the changes in body composition resulting from the cachexia of malignancy. The ultimate objective of the overall project is to assess the changes in body composition associated with hyperalimentation and other modes of nutritional support to cancer patients. The first phase of this study is now in progress. In this phase, a study is being made of a control group of normal patients to provide baseline data against which data from cancer patients can be evaluated. Total body nitrogen and potassium are measured in a group of normal men and women, and are analyzed as a function of age. Additionally, changes in skeletal mass (total body calcium) are also recorded, and body water is measured simultaneously with the use of tritiated water.

  13. Picosecond pulse measurements using the active laser medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardin, James P.; Lawandy, N. M.

    1990-01-01

    A simple method for measuring the pulse lengths of synchronously pumped dye lasers which does not require the use of an external nonlinear medium, such as a doubling crystal or two-photon fluorescence cell, to autocorrelate the pulses is discussed. The technique involves feeding the laser pulses back into the dye jet, thus correlating the output pulses with the intracavity pulses to obtain pulse length signatures in the resulting time-averaged laser power. Experimental measurements were performed using a rhodamine 6G dye laser pumped by a mode-locked frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The results agree well with numerical computations, and the method proves effective in determining lengths of picosecond laser pulses.

  14. Pain Measurement and Brain Activity: Will Neuroimages Replace Pain Ratings?

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Michael E; Staud, Roland; Price, Donald D.

    2013-01-01

    Arguments made for the advantages of replacing pain ratings with brain imaging data include assumptions that pain ratings are less reliable and objective and that brain image data would greatly benefit the measurement of treatment efficacy. None of these assumptions are supported by available evidence. Self-report of pain is predictable and does not necessarily reflect unreliability or error. Since pain is defined as an experience, magnitudes of its dimensions can be estimated by well establi...

  15. The Production of Specified Electrocortical Activity as a Measurable Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    subject to disruption by enviromental distractors in the same way that cognitive tasks were. If this last hypothesis was substantiated one might be able to...devices and software s.ysgms. Hardware Devices It was desirable that the measurement system be simple, economical , and Stransportable for possible...it appears to have a high degree of sensitivity to enviromental changes, it is, perhaps, overly sensitive and thus unstable. More productive metrics

  16. A coupled observation – modeling approach for studying activation kinetics from measurements of CCN activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Raatikainen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to study droplet activation kinetics from measurements of CCN activity by the Continuous Flow Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Chamber (CFSTGC and a comprehensive model of the instrument and droplet growth. The model, which can be downloaded from http://nenes.eas.gatech.edu/Experiments/CFSTGC.html , is evaluated against a series of experiments with ammonium sulfate calibration aerosol. Observed and modeled droplet sizes are in excellent agreement for a water vapor uptake coefficient ~0.2, which is consistent with theoretical expectations. The model calculations can be considerably accelerated without significant loss of accuracy by assuming simplified instrument geometry and constant parabolic flow velocity profiles. With these assumptions, the model can be applied to large experimental data sets to infer kinetic growth parameters while fully accounting for water vapor depletion effects and changes in instrument operation parameters such as the column temperature, flow rates, sheath and sample flow relative humidities, and pressure. When the effects of instrument operation parameters, water vapor depletion and equilibrium dry particle properties on droplet size are accounted for, the remaining variations in droplet size are most likely due to non-equilibrium processes such as those caused by organic surface films, slow solute dissociation and glassy or highly viscous particle states. As an example of model application, data collected during a research flight in the ARCTAS 2008 campaign are analyzed. The model shows that water vapor depletion effects can explain changes in the observed average droplet size.

  17. Working Group 5: Measurements technology and active experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, E.; Barfield, J. N.; Faelthammar, C.-G.; Feynman, J.; Quinn, J. N.; Roberts, W.; Stone, N.; Taylor, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    Technology issues identified by working groups 5 are listed. (1) New instruments are needed to upgrade the ability to measure plasma properties in space. (2) Facilities should be developed for conducting a broad range of plasma experiments in space. (3) The ability to predict plasma weather within magnetospheres should be improved and a capability to modify plasma weather developed. (4) Methods of control of plasma spacecraft and spacecraft plasma interference should be upgraded. (5) The space station laboratory facilities should be designed with attention to problems of flexibility to allow for future growth. These issues are discussed.

  18. Improvements on Low Level Activity Gamma Measurements and X-ray Spectrometry at the CEA-MADERE Measurement Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeyeva, Victoria; Domergue, Christophe; Destouches, Christophe; Girard, Jean Michel; Philibert, Hervé; Bonora, Jonathan; Thiollay, Nicolas; Lyoussi, Abdallah

    2016-02-01

    The CEA MADERE platform (Measurement Applied to DosimEtry in REactors) is a part of the Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory (LDCI). This facility is dedicated to the specific activity measurements of solid and radioactive samples using Gamma and X-ray spectrometry. MADERE is a high-performance facility devoted to neutron dosimetry for experimental programs performed in CEA and for the irradiation surveillance programmes of PWR vessels. The MADERE platform is engaged in a continuous improvement process. Recently, two High Efficiency diodes have been integrated to the MADERE platform in order to manage the accurate low level activity measurements (few Bq per sample). This new equipment provides a good level of efficiency over the energy range from 60 keV to 2 MeV. The background continuum is reduced due to the use of a Ultra Low Background (ULB) lead shielding. Relative and absolute X-ray measurement techniques have been improved in order to facilitate absolute rhodium activity measurement (Rh103m) on solid samples. Additional efforts have been made to increase the accuracy of the relative niobium (Nb93m) activity measurement technique. The way of setting up an absolute measurement method for niobium is under investigation. After a presentation of the MADERE's measurement devices, this paper focuses on the technological options taken into account for the design of high efficiency measurement devices. Then, studies performed on X-ray measurement techniques are presented. Some details about the calculation of uncertainties and correction factors are also mentioned. Finally, future research and development axes are exposed.

  19. Three-Dimensional Concentration Measurements around Actively Tracking Blue Crabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, B. D.; Jackson, J. L.; Weissburg, M. J.; Webster, D. R.

    2006-11-01

    Many aquatic arthropods locate food, suitable habitats, and mates solely through information extracted by chemical signals in their environment. Chemical plumes detected by larger animals are influenced by turbulence that creates an intermittent and unpredictable chemical stimulus environment. To link the stimulus pattern to behavior, we have developed a measurement system to quantify the instantaneous odor concentration surrounding a freely tracking blue crab through three-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence (3DLIF). A blue crab receives chemical stimulus at several locations, including the antennules near the mouth region and the distal tips of the legs and claws. Hence, three-dimensional measurements of the concentration field are required to link behavior to plume structure. During trials, crabs began their search 150 cm downstream of a source, and walking kinematics were recording simultaneously. The crabs were reversibly ``blindfolded'' during tracking to prevent aversive reactions to the intense laser light. Our experiments allow us to examine how hypothesized navigational cues, such as concentration bursts at the antennules and spatial asymmetry in concentration at the distributed chemosensory organs on the legs and claws, results in particular decisions during navigation.

  20. Performance Prismas an Innovative Concept of the Organizational Activity Results Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Jagiełło

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an innovative method of the organization activity results measurement which is called Performance Measurement System. It is kind of control system which can help to improve the competitive advantages of organization.

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Objectively Measured Built Environment as Determinant of Physical Activity in Young Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Nielsen, Merete S;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study aimed to examine if a Moveability Index (MI), based on objectively measured built environment characteristics, was a determinant for objectively measured physical activity (PA) among young adults. METHOD: Data collected from 177 persons participating...

  2. Electrodermal activity during total sleep deprivation and its relationship with other activation and performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, E; Cano-Lozano, M C; Buela-Casal, G

    2002-06-01

    The present study analyses the variations of the skin resistance level (SRL) during 48 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD) and its relationship to body temperature, self-informed sleepiness in the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS), and reaction time (RT). All of the variables were evaluated every 2 h except for the SSS, which was evaluated every hour. A total of 30 healthy subjects (15 men and 15 women) from 18 to 24 years old participated in the experiment. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with TSD days and time-of-day as factors showed a substantial increase of SRL, SSS, and RT, and a decrease in body temperature marked by strong circadian oscillations. The interaction between day by time-of-day was only significant for RT. Furthermore, Pearson's correlations showed that the increase of SRL is associated to the decrease in temperature (mean r=-0.511), the increase of SSS (mean r=0.509), and the deterioration of RT (mean r=0.425). The results support previous TSD reports and demonstrate the sensitivity of SRL to TSD. The non-invasive character of SRL, its simplicity, and its relationships with other activation parameters, widely validated by previous literature, convert SRL into an interesting and useful measure in this field.

  3. Reliability and Validity of an Internet-based Questionnaire Measuring Lifetime Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    De Vera, Mary A.; Ratzlaff, Charles; Doerfling, Paul; Kopec, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Lifetime exposure to physical activity is an important construct for evaluating associations between physical activity and disease outcomes, given the long induction periods in many chronic diseases. The authors' objective in this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (L-PAQ), a novel Internet-based, self-administered instrument measuring lifetime physical activity, among Canadian men and women in 2005–2006. Reliability was examined u...

  4. Measurement and analysis of active synchrotron mirrors under operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, John P.; Alcock, Simon G.; Sawhney, Kawal

    2013-05-01

    At the Diamond Light Source, in situ slope error measurements using the pencil-beam method have enabled X-ray mirror surfaces to be examined in their beamline environment. A surface corrugation common to several bimorph mirrors and the removal of that corrugation by repolishing were both confirmed using this method. In the same way, mirrors curved in a controlled way with bending actuators and sag compensators could also be optimized. Fits to the elastic bending of ideal beams using the Euler-Bernoulli model have been performed on the slope errors of a mechanically bent mirror in order to distinguish bender curvatures from gravitational distortion and to calculate the compensating force that most reduces the latter effect. A successful improvement of the sag compensation mechanism of a vertically focusing mirror was also achieved, aided by a previously tested method for optimizing the settings of a mirror's actuators using pencil-beam scans.

  5. Measuring Solution Viscosity and its Effect on Enzyme Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Salvador

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In proteins, some processes require conformational changes involving structural domain diffusion. Among these processes are protein folding, unfolding and enzyme catalysis. During catalysis some enzymes undergo large conformational changes as they progress through the catalytic cycle. According to Kramers theory, solvent viscosity results in friction against proteins in solution, and this should result in decreased motion, inhibiting catalysis in motile enzymes. Solution viscosity was increased by adding increasing concentrations of glycerol, sucrose and trehalose, resulting in a decrease in the reaction rate of the H+-ATPase from the plasma membrane of Kluyveromyces lactis. A direct correlation was found between viscosity (&eegr; and the inhibition of the maximum rate of catalysis (V max. The protocol used to measure viscosity by means of a falling ball type viscometer is described, together with the determination of enzyme kinetics and the application of Kramers’ equation to evaluate the effect of viscosity on the rate of ATP hydrolysis by the H+-ATPase.

  6. Hydrogeology, chemical and microbial activity measurement through deep permafrost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stotler, R.L.; Frape, S.K.; Freifeld, B.M.; Holden, B.; Onstott, T.C.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Chan, E.

    2010-04-01

    Little is known about hydrogeochemical conditions beneath thick permafrost, particularly in fractured crystalline rock, due to difficulty in accessing this environment. The purpose of this investigation was to develop methods to obtain physical, chemical, and microbial information about the subpermafrost environment from a surface-drilled borehole. Using a U-tube, gas and water samples were collected, along with temperature, pressure, and hydraulic conductivity measurements, 420 m below ground surface, within a 535 m long, angled borehole at High Lake, Nunavut, Canada, in an area with 460-m-thick permafrost. Piezometric head was well above the base of the permafrost, near land surface. Initial water samples were contaminated with drill fluid, with later samples <40% drill fluid. The salinity of the non-drill fluid component was <20,000 mg/L, had a Ca/Na ratio above 1, with {delta}{sup 18}O values {approx}5{per_thousand} lower than the local surface water. The fluid isotopic composition was affected by the permafrost-formation process. Nonbacteriogenic CH{sub 4} was present and the sample location was within methane hydrate stability field. Sampling lines froze before uncontaminated samples from the subpermafrost environment could be obtained, yet the available time to obtain water samples was extended compared to previous studies. Temperature measurements collected from a distributed temperature sensor indicated that this issue can be overcome easily in the future. The lack of methanogenic CH{sub 4} is consistent with the high sulfate concentrations observed in cores. The combined surface-drilled borehole/U-tube approach can provide a large amount of physical, chemical, and microbial data from the subpermafrost environment with few, controllable, sources of contamination.

  7. Income and Physical Activity among Adults: Evidence from Self-Reported and Pedometer-Based Physical Activity Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Jaana T; Pehkonen, Jaakko; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Yang, Xiaolin; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T; Tammelin, Tuija H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between income and physical activity by using three measures to illustrate daily physical activity: the self-reported physical activity index for leisure-time physical activity, pedometer-based total steps for overall daily physical activity, and pedometer-based aerobic steps that reflect continuous steps for more than 10 min at a time. The study population consisted of 753 adults from Finland (mean age 41.7 years; 64% women) who participated in 2011 in the follow-up of the ongoing Young Finns study. Ordinary least squares models were used to evaluate the associations between income and physical activity. The consistency of the results was explored by using register-based income information from Statistics Finland, employing the instrumental variable approach, and dividing the pedometer-based physical activity according to weekdays and weekend days. The results indicated that higher income was associated with higher self-reported physical activity for both genders. The results were robust to the inclusion of the control variables and the use of register-based income information. However, the pedometer-based results were gender-specific and depended on the measurement day (weekday vs. weekend day). In more detail, the association was positive for women and negative or non-existing for men. According to the measurement day, among women, income was positively associated with aerobic steps despite the measurement day and with totals steps measured on the weekend. Among men, income was negatively associated with aerobic steps measured on weekdays. The results indicate that there is an association between income and physical activity, but the association is gender-specific and depends on the measurement type of physical activity.

  8. Income and Physical Activity among Adults: Evidence from Self-Reported and Pedometer-Based Physical Activity Measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana T Kari

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between income and physical activity by using three measures to illustrate daily physical activity: the self-reported physical activity index for leisure-time physical activity, pedometer-based total steps for overall daily physical activity, and pedometer-based aerobic steps that reflect continuous steps for more than 10 min at a time. The study population consisted of 753 adults from Finland (mean age 41.7 years; 64% women who participated in 2011 in the follow-up of the ongoing Young Finns study. Ordinary least squares models were used to evaluate the associations between income and physical activity. The consistency of the results was explored by using register-based income information from Statistics Finland, employing the instrumental variable approach, and dividing the pedometer-based physical activity according to weekdays and weekend days. The results indicated that higher income was associated with higher self-reported physical activity for both genders. The results were robust to the inclusion of the control variables and the use of register-based income information. However, the pedometer-based results were gender-specific and depended on the measurement day (weekday vs. weekend day. In more detail, the association was positive for women and negative or non-existing for men. According to the measurement day, among women, income was positively associated with aerobic steps despite the measurement day and with totals steps measured on the weekend. Among men, income was negatively associated with aerobic steps measured on weekdays. The results indicate that there is an association between income and physical activity, but the association is gender-specific and depends on the measurement type of physical activity.

  9. Measurements of Active Tectonic Deformation on the Guerrero Coast, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, T.; Cundy, A.; Carranza-Edwards, A.; Morales, E.; Kostoglodov, V.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2004-12-01

    The study of tectonic deformation rates using displaced shoreline features is relatively well-established, and has provided much useful information on seismic hazard. Such studies have frequently been complemented by analysis of the coastal sedimentary record, where past marine to terrestrial environmental changes (and vice versa) may be recorded by clear changes in stratigraphy. Studies of this type are particularly valuable for tectonically-active areas where the preservation of former shoreline features is poor, or where long-term subsidence has resulted in their erosion, drowning or burial. The specific objective of this study is to derive rates of tectonic deformation from geomorphic and stratigraphic studies of the Guerrero coastal area, and to examine the feasibility of this stratigraphic approach in the coastal lagoons of the Mexican Pacific coast, in the Guerrero gap. The Guerrero gap coastal area, where a major earthquake is expected to occur, parallels the Cocos plate subduction zone. Here convergence rates vary from 5.2 cm/yr to 5.8 cm/yr. The Guerrero gap has experienced several historical earthquakes, notably the 1911 (7.8 Ms). However, no large magnitude events since the 1911 earthquake and only a few Ms~6 events have occurred near the Guerrero gap edges. It is expected that a major interplate earthquake of estimated magnitude Mw=8.1 to 8.4 has a high probability to occur. Landforms within the Guerrero gap indicate that the coast is subsiding. A series of key indicators such as elongated islands reminiscent of ancient barriers, submerged barriers island, extensive marshy environments, increased depths in the lagoons, and submerged anthropogenic features (shell mounds), among others, suggest active tectonic subsidence of the coast. In contrast, the adjacent northwest area off the Guerrero gap exhibits landforms characteristic of tectonic uplift (marine terraces and uplifted beach ridges), indicating a different seismo-tectonic regime northwest of the

  10. [Plantar pressure measurement in children and youths during sports activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, R; Mitternacht, J; Gerdesmeyer, L; Gradinger, R

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to consider whether changes occur in the foot area while under repeated physical stress and if they are age related. In addition it interests what consequences this might have in regard to proper shoe wear. The subjects for this study consisted of 15 children and youths aged between 4 and 16 years. The plantar pressure distribution and vertical ground reaction forces were measured before and after physical exercise. The subjects first ran a given distance wearing sport shoes, had a rest and then ran the same distance barefoot. The results showed marked age related differences after exercise. The pressure values were increased in all of the youths in the middle foot region. In comparison young children always exhibited an unbound gait pattern without any dynamic foot roll during heel strike or toe-off. The forefoot had ground contact from the beginning of the stance phase. To compensate for the lack of dynamic foot roll it is recommended that children wear a shoe with a soft sole and with sufficient space for toe movement. The sports shoe for youths should grip the heel and support the longitudinal arch to prevent an incorrect weight distribution.

  11. Grip pressure measurements during activities of daily life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Joe; Young, Carolyn; Popa, Dan; Bugnariu, Nicoleta; Patterson, Rita

    2014-06-01

    Research has expanded human-machine communication methods past direct programming and standard hand- held joystick control. Individual force sensors have been used as a simple means of providing environmental information to a robot and research has shown that more advanced sensitive skins can be viable input devices. These touch sensitive surfaces allow for additional modes of interaction between machines in open, undefined environments. These interactions include object detection for navigation and safety but can also be used for recognition of users command gestures by their machine partner. Key to successful implementation of these gestures is the understanding of varied strategies used for communication and interaction and the development of performance limits. Data of dominant hand grip forces was collected using a Tekscan Grip VersaTek Pressure Measurement System during opening of a door. Analysis of data from 10 male and female subjects is presented. The results of qualitative and quantitative analysis of these data show variability in hand configurations between users. Average data over the cohort is reported. These data will be used in future work to provide human metrology constraints and limits for use in simulation and design of new, physical human-robot interaction systems.

  12. Drought monitoring with soil moisture active passive (SMAP) measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashok; Vu, Tue; Veettil, Anoop Valiya; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-09-01

    Recent launch of space-borne systems to estimate surface soil moisture may expand the capability to map soil moisture deficit and drought with global coverage. In this study, we use Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) soil moisture geophysical retrieval products from passive L-band radiometer to evaluate its applicability to forming agricultural drought indices. Agricultural drought is quantified using the Soil Water Deficit Index (SWDI) based on SMAP and soil properties (field capacity and available water content) information. The soil properties are computed using pedo-transfer function with soil characteristics derived from Harmonized World Soil Database. The SMAP soil moisture product needs to be rescaled to be compatible with the soil parameters derived from the in situ stations. In most locations, the rescaled SMAP information captured the dynamics of in situ soil moisture well and shows the expected lag between accumulations of precipitation and delayed increased in surface soil moisture. However, the SMAP soil moisture itself does not reveal the drought information. Therefore, the SMAP based SWDI (SMAP_SWDI) was computed to improve agriculture drought monitoring by using the latest soil moisture retrieval satellite technology. The formulation of SWDI does not depend on longer data and it will overcome the limited (short) length of SMAP data for agricultural drought studies. The SMAP_SWDI is further compared with in situ Atmospheric Water Deficit (AWD) Index. The comparison shows close agreement between SMAP_SWDI and AWD in drought monitoring over Contiguous United States (CONUS), especially in terms of drought characteristics. The SMAP_SWDI was used to construct drought maps for CONUS and compared with well-known drought indices, such as, AWD, Palmer Z-Index, sc-PDSI and SPEI. Overall the SMAP_SWDI is an effective agricultural drought indicator and it provides continuity and introduces new spatial mapping capability for drought monitoring. As an

  13. Why and how FDI stocks are a biased measure of MNE affiliate activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, S.; Hennart, J.-F.; Slangen, A.; Smeets, R.

    2010-01-01

    Many international business (IB) studies have used foreign direct investment (FDI) stocks to measure the aggregate value-adding activity of multinational enterprises (MNE) affiliates in host countries. We argue that FDI stocks are a biased measure of that activity, because the degree to which they o

  14. Why and how FDI stocks are a biased measure of MNE affiliate activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Hennart, Jean-Francois; Slangen, Arjen; Smeets, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Many international business (IB) studies have used foreign direct investment (FDI) stocks to measure the aggregate value adding activity of multinational enterprises (MNE) affiliates in host countries We argue that FDI stocks are a biased measure of that activity, because the degree to which they ov

  15. Perceived and objective environmental measures and physical activity among urban adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehner, Christine M; Brennan Ramirez, Laura K; Elliott, Michael B; Handy, Susan L; Brownson, Ross C

    2005-02-01

    Enhancing community environments to support walking and bicycling serves as a promising approach to increase population levels of physical activity. However, few studies have simultaneously assessed perceptions and objectively measured environmental factors and their relative association with transportation or recreational physical activity. For this cross-sectional study, high- and low-income study areas were selected among census tracts in St. Louis MO ("low-walkable" city) and Savannah GA ("high-walkable" city). Between February and June 2002, a telephone survey of 1068 adults provided measures of the perceived environment and physical activity behavior. In this timeframe, objective measures were collected through environmental audits of all street segments (n =1158). These measures were summarized using 400-m buffers surrounding each respondent. Neighborhood characteristics included the land use environment, transportation environment, recreational facilities, aesthetics, and social environment. Associations were examined between neighborhood features and transportation- and recreation-based activity. After adjusting for age, gender, and education, transportation activity was negatively associated with objective measures of sidewalk levelness and perceived and objective neighborhood aesthetics. It was positively associated with perceived and objectively measured number of destinations and public transit, perceived access to bike lanes, and objective counts of active people in the neighborhood. Recreational activity was positively associated with perceived access to recreational facilities and objective measures of attractive features. These findings indicate that physical activities for transportation or recreational are associated with different perceived and objective environmental characteristics. Modifications to these features may change the physical activity behavior of residents exposed to them.

  16. Measuring the purpose of firms' customer and competitor-oriented activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe

    Traditional empirical market orientation research predominantly focuses on the presence of firms' market-oriented activities. This paper empirically explores a novel structure of four multi-indicator measures assessing the purpose of firms' customer and competitor-oriented activities....... The operationalization of the measures is based on a synthesis of the notion of exploitation and exploration with existing marketing research on firms' responsive and proactive activities....

  17. Development of the primary measurement standard for gaseous radon-222 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B C; Lee, K B; Park, T S; Lee, J M; Lee, S H; Oh, P J; Lee, M K; Ahn, J K

    2012-09-01

    The Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) has developed a primary system for the activity standardization of gaseous radon-222, based on the defined solid angle counting method. The size of adsorbed radon is determined by a Cyclone Storage Phosphor System, and a buffer chamber is introduced between the measurement chamber and the source for the purpose of gas purification. The measured activity of gaseous radon-222 and its associated measurement uncertainty obtained using the system are presented.

  18. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  19. The PROactive instruments to measure physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Raste, Yogini; Demeyer, Heleen; Louvaris, Zafeiris; de Jong, Corina; Rabinovich, Roberto A.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.; Polkey, Michael I.; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Tabberer, Maggie; Dobbels, Fabienne; Ivanoff, Nathalie; de Boer, Willem I.; van der Molen, Thys; Kulich, Karoly; Serra, Ignasi; Basagana, Xavier; Troosters, Thierry; Puhan, Milo A.; Karlsson, Niklas; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith

    2015-01-01

    No current patient-centred instrument captures all dimensions of physical activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our objective was item reduction and initial validation of two instruments to measure physical activity in COPD. Physical activity was assessed in a 6-week, randomised,

  20. Measuring Physical Activity in Children and Youth Living with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckson, Erica Aneke; Curtis, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Accurate assessment of physical activity is necessary in determining levels of physical activity in children living with intellectual disability (ID) and assessing effectiveness of intervention programmes. A systematic review of measures of physical activity in children with ID was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE-PubMed, Scopus,…

  1. THE GRONINGEN ACTIVITY RESTRICTION SCALE FOR MEASURING DISABILITY - ITS UTILITY IN INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SUURMEIJER, TPBM; DOEGLAS, DM; MOUM, T; BRIANCON, S; KROL, B; SANDERMAN, R; GUILLEMIN, F; BJELLE, A; VAMDENHEUVEL, WJA

    1994-01-01

    Objectives. The Groningen Activity Restriction Scale (GARS) is a non-disease-specific instrument to measure disability in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). It was developed in studies of Dutch samples consisting of elderly or chronically ill people.

  2. The relationship between objectivity and subjectivity measured activity levels in people with chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weering, Marit; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Objective: To compare self-report measures of daily activities with objective activity data to determine whether patients with chronic lower back pain report their activity levels as accurately as controls do. - Design: A cross-sectional study was performed in patients and controls. - Setting: The

  3. The PROactive instruments to measure physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Raste, Yogini; Demeyer, Heleen; Louvaris, Zafeiris; de Jong, Corina; Rabinovich, Roberto A.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.; Polkey, Michael I.; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Tabberer, Maggie; Dobbels, Fabienne; Ivanoff, Nathalie; de Boer, Willem I.; van der Molen, Thys; Kulich, Karoly; Serra, Ignasi; Basagana, Xavier; Troosters, Thierry; Puhan, Milo A.; Karlsson, Niklas; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith

    2015-01-01

    No current patient-centred instrument captures all dimensions of physical activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our objective was item reduction and initial validation of two instruments to measure physical activity in COPD. Physical activity was assessed in a 6-week, randomised,

  4. Measurement error of self-reported physical activity levels in New York City: assessment and correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sungwoo; Wyker, Brett; Bartley, Katherine; Eisenhower, Donna

    2015-05-01

    Because it is difficult to objectively measure population-level physical activity levels, self-reported measures have been used as a surveillance tool. However, little is known about their validity in populations living in dense urban areas. We aimed to assess the validity of self-reported physical activity data against accelerometer-based measurements among adults living in New York City and to apply a practical tool to adjust for measurement error in complex sample data using a regression calibration method. We used 2 components of data: 1) dual-frame random digit dialing telephone survey data from 3,806 adults in 2010-2011 and 2) accelerometer data from a subsample of 679 survey participants. Self-reported physical activity levels were measured using a version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, whereas data on weekly moderate-equivalent minutes of activity were collected using accelerometers. Two self-reported health measures (obesity and diabetes) were included as outcomes. Participants with higher accelerometer values were more likely to underreport the actual levels. (Accelerometer values were considered to be the reference values.) After correcting for measurement errors, we found that associations between outcomes and physical activity levels were substantially deattenuated. Despite difficulties in accurately monitoring physical activity levels in dense urban areas using self-reported data, our findings show the importance of performing a well-designed validation study because it allows for understanding and correcting measurement errors.

  5. Validity of an Accelerometer-Based Activity Monitor System for Measuring Physical Activity in Frail Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollewand, Anne M; Spijkerman, Anouk G; Bilo, Henk J; Kleefstra, Nanne; Kamsma, Yvo; van Hateren, Kornelis J

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the validity of the accelerometer-based DynaPort system to detect physical activity in frail elderly subjects. Eighteen home-dwelling subjects (Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI) score ≥4, ≥75 years) were included. Activities in their home environment were simultaneous

  6. Ambulatory activity monitoring: Progress in measurement of activity, posture, and specific motion patterns in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.J. Bussmann (Hans); U.W. Ebner-Priemer (Ulrich); J. Fahrenberg (Jochen)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBehavior is central to psychology in almost any definition. Although observable activity is a core aspect of behavior, assessment strategies have tended to focus on emotional, cognitive, or physiological responses. When physical activity is assessed, it is done so mostly with questionnai

  7. Ambulatory activity monitoring: Progress in measurement of activity, posture, and specific motion patterns in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.J. Bussmann (Hans); U.W. Ebner-Priemer (Ulrich); J. Fahrenberg (Jochen)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBehavior is central to psychology in almost any definition. Although observable activity is a core aspect of behavior, assessment strategies have tended to focus on emotional, cognitive, or physiological responses. When physical activity is assessed, it is done so mostly with questionnai

  8. Comparison between muscle activation measured by electromyography and muscle thickness measured using ultrasonography for effective muscle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Yong; Choi, Jong-Duk; Kim, Suhn-Yeop; Oh, Duck-Won; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, Ji-Whan

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the intrarater reliability and validity of muscle thickness measured using ultrasonography (US) and muscle activity via electromyography (EMG) during manual muscle testing (MMT) of the external oblique (EO) and lumbar multifidus (MF) muscles. The study subjects were 30 healthy individuals who underwent MMT at different grades. EMG was used to measure the muscle activity in terms of ratio to maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and root mean square (RMS) metrics. US was used to measure the raw muscle thickness, the ratio of muscle thickness at MVC, and the ratio of muscle thickness at rest. One examiner performed measurements on each subject in 3 trials. The intrarater reliabilities of the % MVC RMS and raw RMS metrics for EMG and the % MVC thickness metrics for US were excellent (ICC=0.81-0.98). There was a significant difference between all the grades measured using the % MVC thickness metric (pEMG measurement methods than with the others (r=0.51-0.61). Our findings suggest that the % MVC thickness determined by US was the most sensitive of all methods for assessing the MMT grade.

  9. Validation of MCNP NPP Activation Simulations for Decommissioning Studies by Analysis of NPP Neutron Activation Foil Measurement Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmert Ben

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an overview of the Swiss Nuclear Power Plant (NPP activation methodology is presented and the work towards its validation by in-situ NPP foil irradiation campaigns is outlined. Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG in The Netherlands has been given the task of performing the corresponding neutron metrology. For this purpose, small Aluminium boxes containing a set of circular-shaped neutron activation foils have been prepared. After being irradiated for one complete reactor cycle, the sets have been successfully retrieved, followed by gamma-spectrometric measurements of the individual foils at NRG. Along with the individual activities of the foils, the reaction rates and thermal, intermediate and fast neutron fluence rates at the foil locations have been determined. These determinations include appropriate corrections for gamma self-absorption and neutron self-shielding as well as corresponding measurement uncertainties. The comparison of the NPP Monte Carlo calculations with the results of the foil measurements is done by using an individual generic MCNP model functioning as an interface and allowing the simulation of individual foil activation by predetermined neutron spectra. To summarize, the comparison between calculation and measurement serve as a sound validation of the Swiss NPP activation methodology by demonstrating a satisfying agreement between measurement and calculation. Finally, the validation offers a chance for further improvements of the existing NPP models by ensuing calibration and/or modelling optimizations for key components and structures.

  10. Who will increase their physical activity? Predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Stephen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to identify predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort to improve understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity. Methods ProActive is a physical activity promotion trial that took place in Eastern England (1999-2004. 365 offspring of people with type 2 diabetes underwent measurement of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE using heart rate monitoring, fitness, and anthropometric and biochemical status at baseline and 1 year (n = 321. Linear regression was used to quantify the associations between baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural variables and change in PAEE over 12 months. This study is registered as ISRCTN61323766. Results ProActive participants significantly increased their PAEE by 0.6 kj/min (SD 4.2, p = 0.006 over one year, the equivalent of around 20 minutes brisk walking/day. Male sex and higher fitness at baseline predicted increase in PAEE. No significant associations were found for any other variables. Very few baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural predictors were associated with change in objectively measured physical activity. Conclusions Traditional baseline determinants of self-reported physical activity targeted by behavioural interventions may be relatively weak predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity to inform the development and targeting of interventions.

  11. Simultaneous measurement of pelvic floor muscle activity and vaginal blood flow: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Stephanie; Laan, Ellen

    2007-05-01

    Dyspareunia, defined as persistent or recurrent genital pain associated with sexual intercourse, is hypothesized to be related to pelvic floor hyperactivity and to diminished sexual arousal. Empirical research to support these hypotheses is scarce and concentrates mostly on the role of either pelvic floor activity or genital arousal in female dyspareunia. Currently, however, there is no measurement device to assess pelvic floor activity and genital response simultaneously. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of a new device that enables simultaneous measurement of pelvic floor activity and genital response in women. Genital arousal measured as vaginal pulse amplitude, and vaginal surface electromyogram (EMG). Thirty sexually functional women participated. To investigate the accuracy of genital response measurement with the adapted photoplethysmograph, and the sensitivity of the device for involuntary changes in pelvic floor activity, vaginal pulse amplitude and vaginal surface EMG were monitored during exposure to emotional, including erotic, films. In addition, vaginal surface EMG was monitored during instructed pelvic floor contractions. The genital data obtained during emotional films proved accurate measurement of genital response. EMG values during the emotional films indicated limited sensitivity of the device for small, involuntary changes in pelvic floor activity due to emotional state. The EMG measurements during the instructed pelvic floor contractions proved sensitivity of the new probe to voluntary pelvic floor activity. It is concluded that following improvement of the sensitivity of the EMG measurement for small, involuntary changes in pelvic floor activity, the device will be a valuable tool in research on superficial dyspareunia.

  12. A comparison of subjective and objective measures of physical activity from the Newcastle 85+ study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innerd, Paul; Catt, Michael; Collerton, Joanna; Davies, Karen; Trenell, Michael; Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.; Jagger, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about physical activity (PA) in the very old, the fastest growing age group in the population. We aimed to examine the convergent validity of subjective and objective measures of PA in adults aged over 85 years. Methods: A total of 484 participants aged 87–89 years recruited to the Newcastle 85+ study completed a purpose-designed physical activity questionnaire (PAQ), which categorised participants as mildly active, moderately active and very active. Out of them, 337 participants wore a triaxial, raw accelerometer on the right wrist over a 5–7-day period to obtain objective measures of rest/activity, PA intensity and PA type. Data from subjective and objective measurement methods were compared. Results: Self-reported PA was significantly associated with objective measures of the daily sedentary time, low-intensity PA and activity type classified as sedentary, activities of daily living and walking. Objective measures of PA were significantly different when low, moderate and high self-reported PA categories were compared (all P Newcastle 85+ PAQ demonstrated convergent validity with objective measures of PA. Our findings suggest that this PAQ can be used in the very old to rank individuals according to their level of total PA. PMID:26018999

  13. The validity and reliability of a novel activity monitor as a measure of walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, C G; Grant, P M; Tigbe, W W; Granat, M H

    2006-09-01

    The accurate measurement of physical activity is crucial to understanding the relationship between physical activity and disease prevention and treatment. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of the activPAL physical activity monitor in measuring step number and cadence. The ability of the activPAL monitor to measure step number and cadence in 20 healthy adults (age 34.5+/-6.9 years; BMI 26.8+/-4.8 (mean+/-SD)) was evaluated against video observation. Concurrently, the accuracy of two commonly used pedometers, the Yamax Digi-Walker SW-200 and the Omron HJ-109-E, was compared to observation for measuring step number. Participants walked on a treadmill at five different speeds (0.90, 1.12, 1.33, 1.56, and 1.78 m/s) and outdoors at three self selected speeds (slow, normal, and fast). At all speeds, inter device reliability was excellent for the activPAL (ICC (2,1)> or =0.99) for both step number and cadence. The absolute percentage error for the activPAL was <1.11% for step number and cadence regardless of walking speed. The accuracy of the pedometers was adversely affected by slow walking speeds. The activPAL monitor is a valid and reliable measure of walking in healthy adults. Its accuracy is not influenced by walking speed. The activPAL may be a useful device in sports medicine.

  14. Measuring steps with the Fitbit activity tracker: an inter-device reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontje, Manon L; de Groot, Martijn; Lengton, Remko R; van der Schans, Cees P; Krijnen, Wim P

    2015-01-01

    Activity trackers like Fitbit are used for self-tracking of physical activity by an increasing number of individuals. Comparing physical activity scores with peers can contribute to the desired behavioural change. However, for meaningful social comparison a high inter-device reliability is paramount. This study aimed to determine the inter-device reliability of Fitbit activity trackers in measuring steps. Ten activity trackers (Fitbit Ultra) were worn by a single person (male, 46 years) during eight consecutive days. Inter-device reliability was assessed on three different levels of aggregation (minutes, hours, days) with various methods, including intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland-Altman plots, limits of agreement (LOA) and Mixed Model Analysis. Results showed that the inter-device reliability of the Fitbit in measuring steps is good at all levels of aggregation (minutes, hours, days), but especially when steps were measured per day. This implies that individuals can reliably compare their daily physical activity scores with peers.

  15. Health-related aspects of objectively measured daily physical activity in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that physical inactivity in adults is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Whether daily physical activity level is related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children has been debated. Furthermore, objective data on the habitual daily physical...... activity in children have at large been scarce in the literature. The main reason for this is the fact that daily physical activity is very difficult to measure in children. In recent years, a new device, the accelerometer, has emerged as a frequently used instrument for the measurement of daily physical...... activity. This review summarizes recently published studies that have used accelerometers to measure daily physical activity in children and related activity data to known risk factors for CVD....

  16. Using a Differential Emission Measure and Density Measurements in an Active Region Core to Test a Steady Heating Model

    CERN Document Server

    Winebarger, Amy; Warren, Harry; Saar, Steve; Kashyap, Vinay

    2011-01-01

    The frequency of heating events in the corona is an important constraint on the coronal heating mechanisms. Observations indicate that the intensities and velocities measured in active region cores are effectively steady, suggesting that heating events occur rapidly enough to keep high temperature active region loops close to equilibrium. In this paper, we couple observations of Active Region 10955 made with XRT and EIS on \\textit{Hinode} to test a simple steady heating model. First we calculate the differential emission measure of the apex region of the loops in the active region core. We find the DEM to be broad and peaked around 3\\,MK. We then determine the densities in the corresponding footpoint regions. Using potential field extrapolations to approximate the loop lengths and the density-sensitive line ratios to infer the magnitude of the heating, we build a steady heating model for the active region core and find that we can match the general properties of the observed DEM for the temperature range of 6...

  17. Measurements of fusion neutron yields by neutron activation technique: Uncertainty due to the uncertainty on activation cross-sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunas, Gediminas, E-mail: gediminas.stankunas@lei.lt [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Breslaujos str. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Batistoni, Paola [ENEA, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sjöstrand, Henrik; Conroy, Sean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, PO Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-11

    The neutron activation technique is routinely used in fusion experiments to measure the neutron yields. This paper investigates the uncertainty on these measurements as due to the uncertainties on dosimetry and activation reactions. For this purpose, activation cross-sections were taken from the International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File (IRDFF-v1.05) in 640 groups ENDF-6 format for several reactions of interest for both 2.5 and 14 MeV neutrons. Activation coefficients (reaction rates) have been calculated using the neutron flux spectra at JET vacuum vessel, both for DD and DT plasmas, calculated by MCNP in the required 640-energy group format. The related uncertainties for the JET neutron spectra are evaluated as well using the covariance data available in the library. These uncertainties are in general small, but not negligible when high accuracy is required in the determination of the fusion neutron yields.

  18. State-dependent cellular activity patterns of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus measured by reflectance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Rector, D M; Poe, G R

    1996-01-01

    Activity within the cat paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) during sleep and waking states was measured by quantifying intrinsic tissue reflectivity. A fiber optic probe consisting of a 1.0 mm coherent image conduit, surrounded by plastic fibers which conducted 660 nm source light, was attached...... to a charge-coupled device camera, and positioned over the PVH in five cats. Electrodes for assessing state variables, including electroencephalographic activity, eye movement, and somatic muscle tone were also placed. After surgical recovery, reflected light intensity was measured continuously at 2.5 Hz...... during spontaneously varying sleep/waking states. Sequential state transitions from active waking to quiet waking, quiet sleep and active sleep were accompanied by progressively increased levels of PVH activity. Overall activity was highest during active sleep, and decreased markedly upon awakening...

  19. Examining the construct validity of affective judgments of physical activity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Michael; Sala, Margarita; Tang, Rui; Baldwin, Austin

    2016-09-01

    Affective judgments of physical activity have emerged as important predictors of physical activity and interventions targeting affective judgments are a promising approach to improving regular physical activity. Currently, measures assessing a variety of potentially distinct constructs are treated as interchangeable assessments of affective judgments of physical activity. Moreover, little is known about the construct validity of the purported measures of this construct. We review several components of construct validity; highlighting their importance for health psychology research. Then, we examine the construct validity of a wide variety of affective judgment of physical activity measures in MTurk and student samples. Cronbach's alpha for the included measures was uniformly high; however, several scales contained excessively redundant items that ultimately lessen their construct validity. Moreover, dependability estimates for the majority of measures was poor, indicating high levels of transient measurement error. The included measures significantly predicted levels of physical activity; however, their relative predictive power was strongly associated with their dependability. In general, the affective judgment measures demonstrated poor convergent validity suggesting they are not interchangeable and best viewed as assessing distinct, albeit related, constructs. Another important limitation of these measures is that they exhibited poor discriminant validity from exercise self-efficacy, which represents an important theoretical and empirical issue for the field of health behavior research. Overall, the current findings indicate the available affective judgments of physical activity measures are suboptimal, have considerable construct validity limitations, and thereby prevent the further advancement of science, theory, and intervention development in this promising area of research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei activity and droplet activation kinetics of fresh unprocessed regional dust samples and minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, P.; I. N. Sokolik; Nenes, A.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports laboratory measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity and droplet activation kinetics of aerosols dry generated from clays, calcite, quartz, and desert soil samples from Northern Africa, East Asia/China, and Northern America. Based on the observed dependence of critical supersaturation, sc, with particle dry diameter, Ddry, we found that FHH (Frenkel, Halsey and Hill) adsorptio...

  1. Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei activity and droplet activation kinetics of wet processed regional dust samples and minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, P.; I. N. Sokolik; Nenes, A.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports laboratory measurements of particle size distributions, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity, and droplet activation kinetics of wet generated aerosols from clays, calcite, quartz, and desert soil samples from Northern Africa, East Asia/China, and Northern America. The dependence of critical supersaturation, sc, on particle dry diameter, Ddry, is used to characterize particle-water inter...

  2. A method to measure thrombin activity in a mixture of fibrinogen and thrombin powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAnglis, Ashley P; Nur, Israel; Gorman, Anne J; Meidler, Roberto

    2017-03-01

    Thrombin and fibrinogen powders are the active components of advanced surgical hemostasis products including the EVARREST Fibrin Sealant Patch. Measuring the enzymatic activity of thrombin in the presence of fibrinogen is challenging, as hydration of the powders in a neutral aqueous environment will cause the enzyme to rapidly react with the fibrinogen to form a fibrin clot, which in turn binds and entraps the enzyme thus preventing subsequent measurement of thrombin activity. A novel approach has been developed to overcome this challenge. After isolation of the mixture of powders, an alkaline carbonate solution is used to solubilize the proteins, while reversibly inhibiting the activity of thrombin and preventing clot formation. Once the powders have been fully solubilized, thrombin activity can be restored by neutralization in a buffered fibrinogen solution resulting in fibrin clot formulation. The rate of clot formation can be quantified in a coagulometer to determine the thrombin activity of the original powder. Samples coated with powders containing fibrinogen and varying amounts of thrombin were tested using the method described herein. The results demonstrated that the method could consistently measure the activity of (alpha) thrombin in the presence of fibrinogen over a broad range of thrombin activity levels. The test was successfully validated according to International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use Guidelines and thus is suitable for use as part of a commercial manufacturing process. A method has been developed that enables thrombin activity to be measured in a mixture of fibrinogen and thrombin powders.

  3. A method to measure thrombin activity in a mixture of fibrinogen and thrombin powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAnglis, Ashley P.; Nur, Israel; Gorman, Anne J.; Meidler, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Thrombin and fibrinogen powders are the active components of advanced surgical hemostasis products including the EVARREST Fibrin Sealant Patch. Measuring the enzymatic activity of thrombin in the presence of fibrinogen is challenging, as hydration of the powders in a neutral aqueous environment will cause the enzyme to rapidly react with the fibrinogen to form a fibrin clot, which in turn binds and entraps the enzyme thus preventing subsequent measurement of thrombin activity. A novel approach has been developed to overcome this challenge. After isolation of the mixture of powders, an alkaline carbonate solution is used to solubilize the proteins, while reversibly inhibiting the activity of thrombin and preventing clot formation. Once the powders have been fully solubilized, thrombin activity can be restored by neutralization in a buffered fibrinogen solution resulting in fibrin clot formulation. The rate of clot formation can be quantified in a coagulometer to determine the thrombin activity of the original powder. Samples coated with powders containing fibrinogen and varying amounts of thrombin were tested using the method described herein. The results demonstrated that the method could consistently measure the activity of (alpha) thrombin in the presence of fibrinogen over a broad range of thrombin activity levels. The test was successfully validated according to International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use Guidelines and thus is suitable for use as part of a commercial manufacturing process. A method has been developed that enables thrombin activity to be measured in a mixture of fibrinogen and thrombin powders. PMID:26991860

  4. Measuring everyday functional competence using the Rasch assessment of everyday activity limitations (REAL) item bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, Martijn A.H.; Ten Klooster, Peter M.; Vonkeman, Harald E.; van de Laar, Mart A.F.J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Traditional patient-reported physical function instruments often poorly differentiate patients with mild-to-moderate disability. We describe the development and psychometric evaluation of a generic item bank for measuring everyday activity limitations in outpatient populations. Study

  5. Auroral Electrojet Index Designed to Provide a Global Measure, Hourly Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet (AE) index is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  6. Comparison of (90)Y activity measurements in nuclear medicine in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossert, Karsten; Bokeloh, Karen; Ehlers, Marion; Nähle, Ole; Scheibe, Olaf; Schwarz, Uwe; Thieme, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    In 2014, PTB and the company Eckert & Ziegler organized a national comparison exercise to determine the activity of a (90)Y solution. One aim of the comparison was to assess the measurement capability of hospitals and medical practices in Germany. P6-type vials were filled with aliquots of a radioactive (90)Y solution and then sent to 19 participants who were asked to measure the activity in the ampoules as well as in their own standard geometry using syringes. Most of the submitted results have a deviation of less than ±10% from the PTB reference activity when measured in the P6-type vials. The spread is somewhat larger when measured in a syringe geometry. The comparison revealed that some participants have difficulties in applying decay corrections and only a few participants were capable of estimating realistic measurement uncertainties.

  7. Using a Differential Emission Measure and Density Measurements in an Active Region Core to Test a Steady Heating Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Schmelz, Joan T.; Warren, Harry P.; Saar, Steve H.; Kashyap, Vinay L.

    2011-10-01

    The frequency of heating events in the corona is an important constraint on the coronal heating mechanisms. Observations indicate that the intensities and velocities measured in active region cores are effectively steady, suggesting that heating events occur rapidly enough to keep high-temperature active region loops close to equilibrium. In this paper, we couple observations of active region (AR) 10955 made with the X-Ray Telescope and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode to test a simple steady heating model. First we calculate the differential emission measure (DEM) of the apex region of the loops in the active region core. We find the DEM to be broad and peaked around 3 MK. We then determine the densities in the corresponding footpoint regions. Using potential field extrapolations to approximate the loop lengths and the density-sensitive line ratios to infer the magnitude of the heating, we build a steady heating model for the active region core and find that we can match the general properties of the observed DEM for the temperature range of 6.3 accounts for the base pressure, loop length, and distribution of apex temperatures of the core loops. We find that the density-sensitive spectral line intensities and the bulk of the hot emission in the active region core are consistent with steady heating. We also find, however, that the steady heating model cannot address the emission observed at lower temperatures. This emission may be due to foreground or background structures, or may indicate that the heating in the core is more complicated. Different heating scenarios must be tested to determine if they have the same level of agreement.

  8. Objective measurements of daily physical activity patterns and sedentary behaviour in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Koster, Annemarie; Van Domelen, Dane R

    2013-01-01

    objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer.......objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer....

  9. Measurements and simulation of induced activity at the CERN-EU high- energy reference field facility

    CERN Document Server

    Brugger, M; Mitaroff, W A; Roesler, S

    2003-01-01

    Samples of aluminum, copper, stainless steel, iron, boron nitride, carbon composite and water were irradiated by the stray radiation field produced by interactions of high-energy hadrons in a copper target. The specific activity induced in the samples was measured by gamma spectrometry. In addition, the isotope production in the samples was calculated with detailed Monte-Carlo simulations using the FLUKA code. Results of the simulation are in reasonable agreement with the measured activities. 7 Refs.

  10. Objectively measured physical activity in Brazilians with visual impairment: description and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Porcellis da Silva, Rafael; Marques, Alexandre Carriconde; Reichert, Felipe Fossati

    2017-05-19

    Low level of physical activity is a serious health issue in individuals with visual impairment. Few studies have objectively measured physical activity in this population group, particularly outside high-income countries. The aim of this study was to describe physical activity measured by accelerometry and its associated factors in Brazilian adults with visual impairment. In a cross-sectional design, 90 adults (18-95 years old) answered a questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for at least 3 days (including one weekend day) to measure physical activity (min/day). Sixty percent of the individuals practiced at least 30 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Individuals who were blind were less active, spent more time in sedentary activities and spent less time in moderate and vigorous activities than those with low vision. Individuals who walked mainly without any assistance were more active, spent less time in sedentary activities and spent more time in light and moderate activities than those who walked with a long cane or sighted guide. Our data highlight factors associated with lower levels of physical activity in people with visual impairment. These factors, such as being blind and walking without assistance should be tackled in interventions to increase physical activity levels among visual impairment individuals. Implications for Rehabilitation Physical inactivity worldwide is a serious health issue in people with visual impairments and specialized institutions and public policies must work to increase physical activity level of this population. Those with lower visual acuity and walking with any aid are at a higher risk of having low levels of physical activity. The association between visual response profile, living for less than 11 years with visual impairment and PA levels deserves further investigations Findings of the present study provide reliable data to support rehabilitation programs, observing the need of taking special attention to

  11. Measured and perceived environmental characteristics are related to accelerometer defined physical activity in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strath Scott J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated both the self-perceived and measured environment with objectively determined physical activity in older adults. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine measured and perceived environmental associations with physical activity of older adults residing across different neighborhood types. Methods One-hundred and forty-eight older individuals, mean age 64.3 ± 8.4, were randomly recruited from one of four neighborhoods that were pre-determined as either having high- or low walkable characteristics. Individual residences were geocoded and 200 m network buffers established. Both objective environment audit, and self-perceived environmental measures were collected, in conjunction with accelerometer derived physical activity behavior. Using both perceived and objective environment data, analysis consisted of a macro-level comparison of physical activity levels across neighborhood, and a micro-level analysis of individual environmental predictors of physical activity levels. Results Individuals residing in high-walkable neighborhoods on average engaged in 11 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day more than individuals residing in low-walkable neighborhoods. Both measured access to non-residential destinations (b = .11, p p = .031 were significant predictors of time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Other environmental variables significantly predicting components of physical activity behavior included presence of measured neighborhood crime signage (b = .4785, p = .031, measured street safety (b = 26.8, p = .006, and perceived neighborhood satisfaction (b = .5.8, p = .003. Conclusions Older adult residents who live in high-walkable neighborhoods, who have easy and close access to nonresidential destinations, have lower social dysfunction pertinent to crime, and generally perceive the neighborhood to a higher overall satisfaction are likely to engage in higher levels

  12. Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei activity and droplet activation kinetics of fresh unprocessed regional dust samples and minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2011-04-01

    This study reports laboratory measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity and droplet activation kinetics of aerosols dry generated from clays, calcite, quartz, and desert soil samples from Northern Africa, East Asia/China, and Northern America. Based on the observed dependence of critical supersaturation, sc, with particle dry diameter, Ddry, we found that FHH (Frenkel, Halsey and Hill) adsorption activation theory is a far more suitable framework for describing fresh dust CCN activity than Köhler theory. One set of FHH parameters (AFHH ∼ 2.25 ± 0.75, BFHH ∼ 1.20 ± 0.10) can adequately reproduce the measured CCN activity for all species considered, and also explains the large range of hygroscopicities reported in the literature. Based on a threshold droplet growth analysis, mineral dust aerosols were found to display retarded activation kinetics compared to ammonium sulfate. Comprehensive simulations of mineral dust activation and growth in the CCN instrument suggest that this retardation is equivalent to a reduction of the water vapor uptake coefficient (relative to that for calibration ammonium sulfate aerosol) by 30-80%. These results suggest that dust particles do not require deliquescent material to act as CCN in the atmosphere.

  13. Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei activity and droplet activation kinetics of wet processed regional dust samples and minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2011-04-01

    This study reports laboratory measurements of particle size distributions, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity, and droplet activation kinetics of wet generated aerosols from clays, calcite, quartz, and desert soil samples from Northern Africa, East Asia/China, and Northern America. The dependence of critical supersaturation, sc, on particle dry diameter, Ddry, is used to characterize particle-water interactions and assess the ability of Frenkel-Halsey-Hill adsorption activation theory (FHH-AT) and Köhler theory (KT) to describe the CCN activity of the considered samples. Regional dust samples produce unimodal size distributions with particle sizes as small as 40 nm, CCN activation consistent with KT, and exhibit hygroscopicity similar to inorganic salts. Clays and minerals produce a bimodal size distribution; the CCN activity of the smaller mode is consistent with KT, while the larger mode is less hydrophilic, follows activation by FHH-AT, and displays almost identical CCN activity to dry generated dust. Ion Chromatography (IC) analysis performed on regional dust samples indicates a soluble fraction that cannot explain the CCN activity of dry or wet generated dust. A mass balance and hygroscopicity closure suggests that the small amount of ions (of low solubility compounds like calcite) present in the dry dust dissolve in the aqueous suspension during the wet generation process and give rise to the observed small hygroscopic mode. Overall these results identify an artifact that may question the atmospheric relevance of dust CCN activity studies using the wet generation method. Based on a threshold droplet growth analysis, wet generated mineral aerosols display similar activation kinetics compared to ammonium sulfate calibration aerosol. Finally, a unified CCN activity framework that accounts for concurrent effects of solute and adsorption is developed to describe the CCN activity of aged or hygroscopic dusts.

  14. Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei activity and droplet activation kinetics of wet processed regional dust samples and minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study reports laboratory measurements of particle size distributions, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity, and droplet activation kinetics of wet generated aerosols from clays, calcite, quartz, and desert soil samples from Northern Africa, East Asia/China, and Northern America. The dependence of critical supersaturation, sc, on particle dry diameter, Ddry, is used to characterize particle-water interactions and assess the ability of Frenkel-Halsey-Hill adsorption activation theory (FHH-AT and Köhler theory (KT to describe the CCN activity of the considered samples. Regional dust samples produce unimodal size distributions with particle sizes as small as 40 nm, CCN activation consistent with KT, and exhibit hygroscopicity similar to inorganic salts. Clays and minerals produce a bimodal size distribution; the CCN activity of the smaller mode is consistent with KT, while the larger mode is less hydrophilic, follows activation by FHH-AT, and displays almost identical CCN activity to dry generated dust. Ion Chromatography (IC analysis performed on regional dust samples indicates a soluble fraction that cannot explain the CCN activity of dry or wet generated dust. A mass balance and hygroscopicity closure suggests that the small amount of ions (of low solubility compounds like calcite present in the dry dust dissolve in the aqueous suspension during the wet generation process and give rise to the observed small hygroscopic mode. Overall these results identify an artifact that may question the atmospheric relevance of dust CCN activity studies using the wet generation method. Based on a threshold droplet growth analysis, wet generated mineral aerosols display similar activation kinetics compared to ammonium sulfate calibration aerosol. Finally, a unified CCN activity framework that accounts for concurrent effects of solute and adsorption is developed to describe the CCN activity of aged or hygroscopic dusts.

  15. Measuring the activity of BioBrick promoters using an in vivo reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Jason R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The engineering of many-component, synthetic biological systems is being made easier by the development of collections of reusable, standard biological parts. However, the complexity of biology makes it difficult to predict the extent to which such efforts will succeed. As a first practical example, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts started at MIT now maintains and distributes thousands of BioBrick™ standard biological parts. However, BioBrick parts are only standardized in terms of how individual parts are physically assembled into multi-component systems, and most parts remain uncharacterized. Standardized tools, techniques, and units of measurement are needed to facilitate the characterization and reuse of parts by independent researchers across many laboratories. Results We found that the absolute activity of BioBrick promoters varies across experimental conditions and measurement instruments. We choose one promoter (BBa_J23101 to serve as an in vivo reference standard for promoter activity. We demonstrated that, by measuring the activity of promoters relative to BBa_J23101, we could reduce variation in reported promoter activity due to differences in test conditions and measurement instruments by ~50%. We defined a Relative Promoter Unit (RPU in order to report promoter characterization data in compatible units and developed a measurement kit so that researchers might more easily adopt RPU as a standard unit for reporting promoter activity. We distributed a set of test promoters to multiple labs and found good agreement in the reported relative activities of promoters so measured. We also characterized the relative activities of a reference collection of BioBrick promoters in order to further support adoption of RPU-based measurement standards. Conclusion Relative activity measurements based on an in vivoreference standard enables improved measurement of promoter activity given variation in measurement

  16. Measuring the activity of BioBrick promoters using an in vivo reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jason R; Rubin, Adam J; Davis, Joseph H; Ajo-Franklin, Caroline M; Cumbers, John; Czar, Michael J; de Mora, Kim; Glieberman, Aaron L; Monie, Dileep D; Endy, Drew

    2009-03-20

    The engineering of many-component, synthetic biological systems is being made easier by the development of collections of reusable, standard biological parts. However, the complexity of biology makes it difficult to predict the extent to which such efforts will succeed. As a first practical example, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts started at MIT now maintains and distributes thousands of BioBrick standard biological parts. However, BioBrick parts are only standardized in terms of how individual parts are physically assembled into multi-component systems, and most parts remain uncharacterized. Standardized tools, techniques, and units of measurement are needed to facilitate the characterization and reuse of parts by independent researchers across many laboratories. We found that the absolute activity of BioBrick promoters varies across experimental conditions and measurement instruments. We choose one promoter (BBa_J23101) to serve as an in vivo reference standard for promoter activity. We demonstrated that, by measuring the activity of promoters relative to BBa_J23101, we could reduce variation in reported promoter activity due to differences in test conditions and measurement instruments by approximately 50%. We defined a Relative Promoter Unit (RPU) in order to report promoter characterization data in compatible units and developed a measurement kit so that researchers might more easily adopt RPU as a standard unit for reporting promoter activity. We distributed a set of test promoters to multiple labs and found good agreement in the reported relative activities of promoters so measured. We also characterized the relative activities of a reference collection of BioBrick promoters in order to further support adoption of RPU-based measurement standards. Relative activity measurements based on an in vivoreference standard enables improved measurement of promoter activity given variation in measurement conditions and instruments. These improvements are

  17. Reliability of the RT3 accelerometer for measurement of physical activity in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhelst, Jeremy; Theunynck, Denis; Gottrand, Frédéric; Béghin, Laurent

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the RT3 accelerometer under conditions of normal physical activity. Sixty healthy individuals (30 boys, 30 girls) aged 10-16 years wore two accelerometers while performing different structured physical activities. The accelerometers were synchronized and data were recorded every minute during nine 15-min sessions of physical activity that varied in intensity from sedentary (watching television, playing video games) to vigorous (running on a treadmill at different speeds). Intra-instrument coefficients of variation (CV) were assessed using the formula CV = standard deviation of the measure x 100/mean of the measure. The intra-instrument coefficient of variation was higher for sedentary (17%) and light activity (16.2%) than moderate (9.3%) and vigorous activity (6.6%). These results confirmed the poor reliability of the RT3 for activity of low magnitude and frequency that was demonstrated in studies using a shaker.

  18. Measuring Social Provisions for Physical Activity among Adolescent Black and White Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-01-01

    The authors evaluate the validity of the Social Provisions Scale for physical activity among adolescent Black (n = 896) and White (n = 823) girls. The girls completed the scale and measures of subjective norms and physical activity in the eighth and ninth grades. Within the sample of White girls, the Social Provisions Scale contained 24 items that…

  19. Measurement and simulation of proton induced activation of LaBr3 : Ce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, E. J.; Beijers, H.; Brandenburg, S.; Bos, A. J. J.; Dathy, C.; Dorenbos, P.; Drozdowski, W.; Kraft, S.; Maddox, E.; Ostendorf, R. W.; Owens, A.; Quarati, F.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the suitability of LaBr3:Ce scintillators for space mission applications, proton induced activation of LaBr3 has been investigated. The crystals were irradiated using proton beams at several different energies to mimic the spectrum of a solar flare. We have measured the activation both int

  20. Validating a Lifestyle Physical Activity Measure for People with Serious Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezyak, Jill L.; Chan, Fong; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kaya, Cahit; Huck, Garrett

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the measurement structure of the "Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities" (PASIPD) as an assessment tool of lifestyle physical activities for people with severe mental illness. Method: A quantitative descriptive research design using factor analysis was employed. A sample of 72 individuals…

  1. Validating a Lifestyle Physical Activity Measure for People with Serious Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezyak, Jill L.; Chan, Fong; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kaya, Cahit; Huck, Garrett

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the measurement structure of the "Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities" (PASIPD) as an assessment tool of lifestyle physical activities for people with severe mental illness. Method: A quantitative descriptive research design using factor analysis was employed. A sample of 72 individuals…

  2. Longitudinal Approaches to Stages of Change Measurement: Effects on Cognitive and Behavioral Physical Activity Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Philip D.; Martin, Andrew J.; Martinez, Carissa; Marsh, Herbert W.; Jackson, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The transition from school to further education and work is one of immense change that impacts physical activity attitudes and engagement in adulthood. The Stages of Change (SOC) model, which resides under the transtheoretical framework, has been proposed as one way to measure and evaluate physical activity uptake and maintenance. The current…

  3. Developing the School Physical Activity and Nutrition Environment Tool to Measure Qualities of the Obesogenic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Deborah H.; Gunter, Katherine; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Manore, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practical tools are needed that reliably measure the complex physical activity (PA) and nutrition environments of elementary schools that influence children's health and learning behaviors for obesity prevention. The School Physical Activity and Nutrition-Environment Tool (SPAN-ET) was developed and beta tested in 6 rural Oregon…

  4. Measuring the performance of multi-agency programmatic permits for Washington State Department of Transportation activities

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, the Washington State Legislature established the Transportation Permit Efficiency and Accountability Committee (TPEAC) to identify measures to streamline permit procedures for transportation activities and improve environmental outcomes. A programmatic subcommittee was created to develop a multi-agency approach for developing programmatic permits that would cover 60 to 70 percent of Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) activities (mostly maintenance and preservation ...

  5. Measuring Disability: Application of the Rasch Model to Activities of Daily Living (ADL/IADL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, T. Joseph; DeChello, Laurie M.; Garcia, Ramon; Fifield, Judith; Rothfield, Naomi; Reisine, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Performed a comparative analysis of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) items administered to 4,430 older adults and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living administered to 605 people with rheumatoid arthritis scoring both with Likert and Rasch measurement models. Findings show the superiority of the Rasch approach over the Likert method. (SLD)

  6. Development of a Measure to Assess Youth Self-Reported Experiences of Activity Settings (SEAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; Batorowicz, Beata; Rigby, Patty; McMain-Klein, Margot; Thompson, Laura; Pinto, Madhu

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for psychometrically sound measures of youth experiences of community/home leisure activity settings. The 22-item Self-Reported Experiences of Activity Settings (SEAS) captures the following experiences of youth with a Grade 3 level of language comprehension or more: Personal Growth, Psychological Engagement, Social Belonging,…

  7. Physical activity of young overweight and obese children: parent reports of child activity level compared with objective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Leigh; Bonds-McClain, Darya; Gannon, Alex M

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare objectively measured physical activity (PA) and parent-reported assessments of the children's PA in an overweight/obese child sample. A total of 67 child-parent dyads were recruited for study participation. Child anthropometric measures and parent-reported questionnaires were completed, and then PA was measured by accelerometers for 48 consecutive hours. These children demonstrated moderate-to-vigorous PA for 17.32 min per day on average. The children spent 86.7% of their time in sedentary activities. Parents' reports of hyperactivity were significantly related to the objectively measured PA; however, the parents significantly overestimated the average amount of time children spent in each activity level. These findings suggest that although parents may be able to generally characterize their child's PA, they may not be able to accurately report specific information and thus may struggle to identify clear activity goals for their child and/or be unable to assess intervention effects.

  8. Plasminogen activator activity and plasma-coagulum lysis measured by use of optimized fibrin gel structure preformed in microtiter plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Jespersen, J; Gram, J

    1995-01-01

    gel, and the absorbance of the gel was recorded at 405 nm. After incubation for 17 h at 25 degrees C, the absorbance was measured again. The difference in absorbance was proportional to the concentration of plasminogen activator, such that the dose-response curves were linear when the difference...

  9. Measurement of Habitual Physical Activity Performance in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanchy, Kelly M.; Tweedy, Sean M.; Boyd, Roslyn

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review compares the validity, reliability, and clinical use of habitual physical activity (HPA) performance measures in adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Measures of HPA across Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V for adolescents (10-18y) with CP were included if at least 60% of items…

  10. Are self-report measures able to define individuals as physically active or inactive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steene-Johannessen, J.; Anderssen, S.A.; Ploeg, H.P. van der; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Donnelly, A.E.; Brage, S.; Ekelund, U.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Assess the agreement between commonly used self-report methods compared with objectively measured physical activity (PA) in defining the prevalence of individuals compliant with PA recommendations. Methods: Time spent in moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was measured at two time points in 171

  11. Telemetry Option in the Measurement of Physical Activity for Patients with Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melczer, Csaba; Melczer, László; Oláh, András; Sélleyné-Gyúró, Mónika; Welker, Zsanett; Ács, Pongrác

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of physical activity among patients with heart failure typically requires a special approach due to the patients' physical status. Nowadays, a technology is already available that can measure the kinematic movements in 3-D by a pacemaker and implantable defibrillator giving an assessment on software. The telemetry data can be…

  12. Reliability and validity of an internet-based questionnaire measuring lifetime physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vera, Mary A; Ratzlaff, Charles; Doerfling, Paul; Kopec, Jacek

    2010-11-15

    Lifetime exposure to physical activity is an important construct for evaluating associations between physical activity and disease outcomes, given the long induction periods in many chronic diseases. The authors' objective in this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (L-PAQ), a novel Internet-based, self-administered instrument measuring lifetime physical activity, among Canadian men and women in 2005-2006. Reliability was examined using a test-retest study. Validity was examined in a 2-part study consisting of 1) comparisons with previously validated instruments measuring similar constructs, the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire (LT-PAQ) and the Chasan-Taber Physical Activity Questionnaire (CT-PAQ), and 2) a priori hypothesis tests of constructs measured by the L-PAQ. The L-PAQ demonstrated good reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.67 (household activity) to 0.89 (sports/recreation). Comparison between the L-PAQ and the LT-PAQ resulted in Spearman correlation coefficients ranging from 0.41 (total activity) to 0.71 (household activity); comparison between the L-PAQ and the CT-PAQ yielded coefficients of 0.58 (sports/recreation), 0.56 (household activity), and 0.50 (total activity). L-PAQ validity was further supported by observed relations between the L-PAQ and sociodemographic variables, consistent with a priori hypotheses. Overall, the L-PAQ is a useful instrument for assessing multiple domains of lifetime physical activity with acceptable reliability and validity.

  13. Reliability and validity of daily physical activity measures during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Zbogar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the test–retest reliability and convergent validity of daily physical activity measures during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation. Design: Observational study. Setting: Two inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation centres. Subjects: Participants (n = 106 were recruited from consecutive admissions to rehabilitation. Methods: Physical activity during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation stay was recorded on two days via (1 wrist accelerometer, (2 hip accelerometer if ambulatory, and (3 self-report (Physical Activity Recall Assessment for People with Spinal Cord Injury questionnaire. Spearman’s correlations and Bland–Altman plots were utilized for test–retest reliability. Correlations between physical activity measures and clinical measures (functional independence, hand function, and ambulation were performed. Results: Correlations for physical activity measures between Day 1 and Day 2 were moderate to high (ρ = 0.53–0.89. Bland–Altman plots showed minimal bias and more within-subject differences in more active individuals and wide limits of agreement. None of these three physical activity measures correlated with one another. A moderate correlation was found between wrist accelerometry counts and grip strength (ρ = 0.58 and between step counts and measures of ambulation (ρ = 0.62. Functional independence was related to wrist accelerometry (ρ = 0.70 and step counts (ρ = 0.56, but not with self-report. Conclusion: The test–retest reliability and convergent validity of the instrumented measures suggest that wrist and hip accelerometers are appropriate tools for use in research studies of daily physical activity in the spinal cord injury rehabilitation setting but are too variable for individual use.

  14. Direct measurement of catalase activity in living cells and tissue biopsies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, Christine N.; Xu, Qijin; Ramanujan, V. Krishnan, E-mail: Ramanujanv@csmc.edu

    2016-01-29

    Spatiotemporal regulation of enzyme-substrate interactions governs the decision-making steps in biological systems. Enzymes, being functional units of every living cell, contribute to the macromolecular stability of cell survival, proliferation and hence are vital windows to unraveling the biological complexity. Experimental measurements capturing this dynamics of enzyme-substrate interactions in real time add value to this understanding. Furthermore these measurements, upon validation in realistic biological specimens such as clinical biopsies – can further improve our capability in disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring. Towards this direction, we describe here a novel, high-sensitive measurement system for measuring diffusion-limited enzyme-substrate kinetics in real time. Using catalase (enzyme) and hydrogen peroxide (substrate) as the example pair, we demonstrate that this system is capable of direct measurement of catalase activity in vitro and the measured kinetics follows the classical Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics. We further demonstrate the system performance by measuring catalase activity in living cells and in very small amounts of liver biopsies (down to 1 μg total protein). Catalase-specific enzyme activity is demonstrated by genetic and pharmacological tools. Finally we show the clinically-relevant diagnostic capability of our system by comparing the catalase activities in liver biopsies from young and old mouse (liver and serum) samples. We discuss the potential applicability of this system in clinical diagnostics as well as in intraoperative surgical settings. - Highlights: • A novel, direct measurement of Catalase enzyme activity via, oxygen sensing method. • Steady-stateprofiles of Catalase activity follow the Michaelis-Menten Kinetics. • Catalase-specific activity demonstrated using genetic and pharmacological tools. • Overcomes limitations of spectroscopic methods and indirect calorimetric approaches. • Clear

  15. Interaction of Active MMIC with Package/Housing -Theory, Analysis and Measurement

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    A. Sarvaiya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents enclosure effect comprehensive by 3D Electromagnetic modeling, simulation and measurement of active MMIC with Package/housing. When put inside a test box or package with a cavity, MMIC shows significant deviation from it RFOW measurement data. Cavity resonance’s adverse effects are analyzed by Eigen mode solver using CST Microwave Studio and RFOW measurement and in test box data is matched by simulating package/house with the best suited RF absorbers.

  16. Measurement of factor v activity in human plasma using a microplate coagulation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Derek; Levit, Irina; Samis, John A

    2012-09-09

    In response to injury, blood coagulation is activated and results in generation of the clotting protease, thrombin. Thrombin cleaves fibrinogen to fibrin which forms an insoluble clot that stops hemorrhage. Factor V (FV) in its activated form, FVa, is a critical cofactor for the protease FXa and accelerator of thrombin generation during fibrin clot formation as part of prothrombinase (1, 2). Manual FV assays have been described (3, 4), but they are time consuming and subjective. Automated FV assays have been reported (5-7), but the analyzer and reagents are expensive and generally provide only the clot time, not the rate and extent of fibrin formation. The microplate platform is preferred for measuring enzyme-catalyzed events because of convenience, time, cost, small volume, continuous monitoring, and high-throughput (8, 9). Microplate assays have been reported for clot lysis (10), platelet aggregation (11), and coagulation Factors (12), but not for FV activity in human plasma. The goal of the method was to develop a microplate assay that measures FV activity during fibrin formation in human plasma. This novel microplate method outlines a simple, inexpensive, and rapid assay of FV activity in human plasma. The assay utilizes a kinetic microplate reader to monitor the absorbance change at 405 nm during fibrin formation in human plasma (Figure 1) (13). The assay accurately measures the time, initial rate, and extent of fibrin clot formation. It requires only μl quantities of plasma, is complete in 6 min, has high-throughput, is sensitive to 24-80 pM FV, and measures the amount of unintentionally activated (1-stage activity) and thrombin-activated FV (2-stage activity) to obtain a complete assessment of its total functional activity (2-stage activity - 1-stage activity). Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is an acquired coagulopathy that most often develops from pre-existing infections (14). DIC is associated with a poor prognosis and increases mortality

  17. Measurable benefits on brain activity from the practice of educational leisure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Carmen; López, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Even if behavioral studies relate leisure practices to the preservation of memory in old persons, there is unsubstantial evidence of the import of leisure on brain activity. This study was to compare the brain activity of elderly retired people who engage in different types of leisure activities. Quasi-experimental study over a sample of 60 elderly, retired subjects distributed into three groups according to the leisure activities they practised: educational leisure (G1), memory games (G2), and card games (G3). Applied measures include the conceptual distinction between free time and leisure, the test of the organization of free time measuring 24 clock divisions, and EEG register during 12 word list memorizing. The results show that the type of leisure activity is associated with significant quantitative differences regarding the use of free time. G1 devotes more time to leisure activities than G2 (p = 0.007) and G3 (p = 0.034). G1 rests more actively than the other two groups (p = 0.001). The electrical localization of brain activity indicated a reverse tendency of activation according to the bands and groups. Engaging in educational leisure activities is a useful practice to protect healthy brain compensation strategies. Future longitudinal research may verify the causal relation between practicing educational leisure activities and functional brain aging.

  18. Measurable benefits on brain activity from the practice of educational leisure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eRequena

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Even if behavioural studies relate leisure practices to the preservation of memory in old persons, there is unsubstantial evidence of the import of leisure on brain activity. Aim of this study was to compare the brain activity of elderly retired people who engage in different types of leisure activities. Methods: quasi-experimental study over a sample of 60 elderly, retired subjects distributed into three groups according to the leisure activities they practised: educational leisure (G1, memory games (G2 and card games (G3. Applied measures include the conceptual distinction between free time and leisure, the Test of Organization of Free Time (TOFT measuring 24 clock divisions, and EEG register during 12 word list memorizing. The results show that the type of leisure activity is associated with significant quantitative differences regarding the use of free time. G1 devotes more time to leisure activities than G2 (p = 0.007 and G3 (p = 0.034. G1 rests more actively than the other two groups (p=0.001. The electrical localization of brain activity indicated a reverse tendency of activation according to the bands and groups. Discussion. Engaging in educational leisure activities is a useful practice to protect healthy brain compensation strategies. Future longitudinal research may verify the causal relation between practicing educational leisure activities and functional brain aging.

  19. Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure: an overview of objective measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Hills

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to assess energy expenditure and estimate physical activity in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that physical activity and energy expenditure are different constructs with physical activity defined as any bodily movement that results in energy expenditure and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of physical activity. However, total energy expenditure, best assessed using the criterion doubly labelled water technique, includes components in addition to physical activity energy expenditure, namely resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of food. Given the large number of assessment techniques currently used to estimate physical activity in humans, it is imperative to understand the relative merits of each. The goal of this review is to provide information on the utility and limitations of a range of objective measures of physical activity and their relationship with energy expenditure. The measures discussed include those based on energy expenditure or oxygen uptake including doubly labelled water, activity energy expenditure, physical activity level, and metabolic equivalent; those based on heart rate monitoring and motion sensors; and because of their widespread use, selected subjective measures.

  20. Measuring water activity of aviation fuel using a polymer optical fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Webb, David J.; Carpenter, Mark; Williams, Colleen

    2014-05-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings have been used for measuring water activity of aviation fuel. Jet A-1 samples with water content ranging from 100% ERH (wet fuel) to 10 ppm (dried fuel), have been conditioned and calibrated for measurement. The PMMA based optical fiber grating exhibits consistent response and a good sensitivity of 59±3pm/ppm (water content in mass). This water activity measurement allows PMMA based optical fiber gratings to detect very tiny amounts of water in fuels that have a low water saturation point, potentially giving early warning of unsafe operation of a fuel system.

  1. Comparison of the activity measurements in nuclear medicine services in the Brazilian northeast region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Farias Fragoso, Maria da Conceição; de Albuquerque, Antônio Morais; de Oliveira, Mércia L; de Lima, Fabiana Farias; Barreto, Flávio Chiappetta Paes; de Andrade Lima, Ricardo

    2013-12-01

    The Northeastern Regional Centre for Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE), National Nuclear Energy Commission, has organized for the first time in nuclear medicine services (NMSs) in the Brazilian northeast region a comparison of activity measurements for (99m)Tc, (131)I, (67)Ga, (201)Tl and (57)Co. This tool is widely utilized to evaluate not only the accuracy of radionuclide calibrators, but also the competence of NMSs to measure the activity of the radiopharmaceuticals and the performance of the personnel involved in these measurements. The comparison results showed that 90% of the results received from participants are within the ±10% limit established by the Brazilian Norm.

  2. Cellular Telephones Measure Activity and Lifespace in Community-Dwelling Adults: Proof of Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Ana Katrin; Witbrodt, Bradley C.; Hoarty, Carrie A.; Carlson, Richard H.; Goulding, Evan H.; Potter, Jane F.; Bonasera, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe a system that uses off-the-shelf sensor and telecommunication technologies to continuously measure individual lifespace and activity levels in a novel way. DESIGN Proof of concept involving three field trials of 30, 30, and 21 days. SETTING Omaha, Nebraska, metropolitan and surrounding rural region. PARTICIPANTS Three participants (48-year-old man, 33-year-old woman, and 27-year-old male), none with any functional limitations. MEASUREMENTS Cellular telephones were used to detect in-home position and in-community location and to measure physical activity. Within the home, cellular telephones and Bluetooth transmitters (beacons) were used to locate participants at room-level resolution. Outside the home, the same cellular telephones and global positioning system (GPS) technology were used to locate participants at a community-level resolution. Physical activity was simultaneously measured using the cellular telephone accelerometer. RESULTS This approach had face validity to measure activity and lifespace. More importantly, this system could measure the spatial and temporal organization of these metrics. For example, an individual’s lifespace was automatically calculated across multiple time intervals. Behavioral time budgets showing how people allocate time to specific regions within the home were also automatically generated. CONCLUSION Mobile monitoring shows much promise as an easily deployed system to quantify activity and lifespace, important indicators of function, in community-dwelling adults. PMID:21288235

  3. Vectra DA for the objective measurement of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segurado, O G; Sasso, E H

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative and regular assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is required to achieve treatment targets such as remission and to optimize clinical outcomes. To assess inflammation accurately, predict joint damage and monitor treatment response, a measure of disease activity in RA should reflect the pathological processes resulting in irreversible joint damage and functional disability. The Vectra DA blood test is an objective measure of disease activity for patients with RA. Vectra DA provides an accurate, reproducible score on a scale of 1 to 100 based on the concentrations of 12 biomarkers that reflect the pathophysiologic diversity of RA. The analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility of Vectra DA have been evaluated for patients with RA in registries and prospective and retrospective clinical studies. As a biomarker-based instrument for assessing disease activity in RA, the Vectra DA test can help monitor therapeutic response to methotrexate and biologic agents and assess clinically challenging situations, such as when clinical measures are confounded by non-inflammatory pain from fibromyalgia. Vectra DA scores correlate with imaging of joint inflammation and are predictive for radiographic progression, with high Vectra DA scores being associated with more frequent and severe progression and low scores being predictive for non-progression. In summary, the Vectra DA score is an objective measure of RA disease activity that quantifies inflammatory status. By predicting risk for joint damage more effectively than conventional clinical and laboratory measures, it has the potential to complement these measures and optimise clinical decision making.

  4. Study on activity measurement of Nostoc flagelliforme cells based on color identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yizhong; Su, Jianyu; Liu, Tiegen; Kong, Fanzhi; Jia, Shiru

    2008-12-01

    In order to measure the activities of Nostoc flagelliforme cells, a new method based on color identification was proposed in this paper. N. flagelliforme cells were colored with fluoreseein diaeetate. Then, an image of colored N. flagelliforme cells was taken, and changed from RGB model to HIS model. Its histogram of hue H was calculated, which was used as the input of a designed BP network. The output of the BP network was the description of measured activity of N. flagelliforme cells. After training, the activity of N. flagelliforme cells was identified by the BP network according to the histogram of H of their colored image. Experiments were conducted with satisfied results to show the feasibility and usefulness of activity measurement of N. flagelliforme cells based on color identification.

  5. Measurement of peroxisomal enzyme activities in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta, using spectrophotometric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resende Albina D

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was aimed primarily at testing in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta spectrophotometric methods previously used to measure the activities of catalase and hydrogen peroxide producing oxidases in mammals. To evaluate the influence of temperature on the activities of those peroxisomal enzymes was the second objective. A third goal of this work was the study of enzyme distribution in crude cell fractions of brown trout liver. Results The assays revealed a linear increase in the activity of all peroxisomal enzymes as the temperature rose from 10° to 37°C. However, while the activities of hydrogen peroxide producing oxidases were strongly influenced by temperature, catalase activity was only slightly affected. A crude fraction enriched with peroxisomes was obtained by differential centrifugation of liver homogenates, and the contamination by other organelles was evaluated by the activities of marker enzymes for mitochondria (succinate dehydrogenase, lysosomes (aryl sulphatase and microsomes (NADPH cytochrome c reductase. For peroxisomal enzymes, the activities per mg of protein (specific activity in liver homogenates were strongly correlated with the activities per g of liver and with the total activities per liver. These correlations were not obtained with crude peroxisomal fractions. Conclusions The spectrophotometric protocols originally used to quantify the activity of mammalian peroxisomal enzymes can be successfully applied to the study of those enzymes in brown trout. Because the activity of all studied peroxisomal enzymes rose in a linear mode with temperature, their activities can be correctly measured between 10° and 37°C. Probably due to contamination by other organelles and losses of soluble matrix enzymes during homogenisation, enzyme activities in crude peroxisomal fractions do not correlate with the activities in liver homogenates. Thus, total homogenates will be used in future seasonal and

  6. Direct measurement of catalase activity in living cells and tissue biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, Christine N; Xu, Qijin; Ramanujan, V Krishnan

    2016-01-29

    Spatiotemporal regulation of enzyme-substrate interactions governs the decision-making steps in biological systems. Enzymes, being functional units of every living cell, contribute to the macromolecular stability of cell survival, proliferation and hence are vital windows to unraveling the biological complexity. Experimental measurements capturing this dynamics of enzyme-substrate interactions in real time add value to this understanding. Furthermore these measurements, upon validation in realistic biological specimens such as clinical biopsies - can further improve our capability in disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring. Towards this direction, we describe here a novel, high-sensitive measurement system for measuring diffusion-limited enzyme-substrate kinetics in real time. Using catalase (enzyme) and hydrogen peroxide (substrate) as the example pair, we demonstrate that this system is capable of direct measurement of catalase activity in vitro and the measured kinetics follows the classical Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics. We further demonstrate the system performance by measuring catalase activity in living cells and in very small amounts of liver biopsies (down to 1 μg total protein). Catalase-specific enzyme activity is demonstrated by genetic and pharmacological tools. Finally we show the clinically-relevant diagnostic capability of our system by comparing the catalase activities in liver biopsies from young and old mouse (liver and serum) samples. We discuss the potential applicability of this system in clinical diagnostics as well as in intraoperative surgical settings.

  7. Associations between objectively measured physical activity intensity in childhood and measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Grøntved, Anders; Møller, Niels Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: No prospective studies have investigated the association between physical activity (PA) and carotid subclinical cardiovascular disease across childhood. Therefore, the primary aim was to investigate the association between PA intensity across childhood and carotid intima media...... thickness (cIMT) and stiffness in adolescence. Second, we included a clustered cardiovascular disease risk score as outcome. METHODS: This was a prospective study of a sample of 254 children (baseline age 8-10 years) with a 6-year follow-up. The mean exposure and the change in minutes of moderate......-and-vigorous and vigorous PA intensity were measured using the Actigraph activity monitor. Subclinical cardiovascular disease was expressed as cIMT, carotid arterial stiffness and secondarily as a metabolic risk z-score including the homoeostasis model assessment score of insulin resistance, triglycerides, total...

  8. II. Physical activity: measurement and behavioral patterns in children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcicki, Thomas R; McAuley, Edward

    2014-12-01

    With physical activity levels among children and adolescents at an all-time low, there is a critical need for scientists and public health officials alike to further examine the physical activity behaviors of this population. Accordingly, this chapter will act as an entrée to the rest of the monograph by providing a general overview of the epidemiology of physical activity among youth in the United States. In so doing, we discuss the following: public health guidelines for youth-based physical activity, current rates and trends of physical activity participation in youth, issues related to physical education rates in school systems, lifestyle practices that encourage sedentary behaviors and attendant disease states, a synopsis of the health-related benefits of a physically active lifestyle, promotion of and opportunities for increased engagement, and comparisons of objective and subjective methods of measuring physical activity.

  9. Detailed measurements and modelling of thermo active components using a room size test facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of thermo active components based on prefabricated hollow core concrete decks. Recent years have given an increased awareness of the use of thermo active components as an alternative to mechanical cooling systems in office buildings. The investigation covers...... measurements in an office sized test facility with thermo active ceiling and floor as well as modelling of similar conditions in a computer program designed for analysis of building integrated heating and cooling systems. A method for characterizing the cooling capacity of thermo active components is described...... based on measurements of the energy balance of the thermo active deck. A cooling capacity of around 60W/m² at a temperature difference of 10K between room and fluid temperature has been found. It is also shown, that installing a lowered acoustic ceiling covering around 50% of the ceiling surface area...

  10. Objectively measured habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour in obese and non-obese Malaysian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Sharifah Wajihah; Hamzaid, Hana; Talib, Ruzita Abd; Reilly, John J

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined objectively measured physical activity in Malaysian children and compared the differences in physical levels between obese and healthy weight children. Eighty-six obese children were matched for age and sex with 86 healthy weight children with median age 9.5 years. Habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour were measured over 5 days using Actigraph accelerometers. Time spent sedentary was significantly higher in the obese group (90% vs. 86% of daytime; p = 0.001). Moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly higher in the healthy weight group (1.2 vs. 0.7% of daytime, p low, although moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly lower in the obese group than the healthy weight group. Efforts to prevent and treat obesity in Malaysian children will need a substantial focus on the promotion of reductions in sedentary behaviour and increases in physical activity.

  11. The Impact of Ethnicity on Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Emma Lisa Jane; Duncan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and obesity-related diseases (cardiovascular disease/metabolic risk factors) are experienced differently in individuals from different ethnic backgrounds, which originate in childhood. Physical activity is a modifiable risk factor for obesity and related diseases. Both physical activity and metabolic risk factors track to adulthood, and thus understanding the physical activity patterns in children from different ethnic backgrounds is important. Given the limitations of self-report measures in children, this study provides a review of studies which have objectively measured physical activity patterns in children from different ethnic backgrounds. From a total of 16 studies, it can be concluded that physical activity does seem to vary amongst the ethnic groups especially South Asian and Black compared to White EU (European Union). The findings are less consistent for Hispanic/Mexican American children. However, there are several methodological limitations which need to be considered in future studies. Firstly, there is a need for consistency in the measurement of physical activity. Secondly, there are a range of complex factors such as socioeconomic status and body composition which affect both physical activity and ethnicity. Studies have failed to account for these differences limiting the ability to generalise that ethnicity is an independent risk factor for physical activity. PMID:24555154

  12. Objectively measured physical activity and fat mass in a large cohort of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Andy R; Leary, Sam D; Mattocks, Calum; Blair, Steven N; Reilly, John J; Wells, Jonathan; Ingle, Sue; Tilling, Kate; Smith, George Davey; Riddoch, Chris

    2007-03-01

    Previous studies have been unable to characterise the association between physical activity and obesity, possibly because most relied on inaccurate measures of physical activity and obesity. We carried out a cross sectional analysis on 5,500 12-year-old children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Total physical activity and minutes of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured using the Actigraph accelerometer. Fat mass and obesity (defined as the top decile of fat mass) were measured using the Lunar Prodigy dual x-ray emission absorptiometry scanner. We found strong negative associations between MVPA and fat mass that were unaltered after adjustment for total physical activity. We found a strong negative dose-response association between MVPA and obesity. The odds ratio for obesity in adjusted models between top and the bottom quintiles of minutes of MVPA was 0.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-0.13, p-value for trend <0.0001) in boys and 0.36 (95% CI 0.17-0.74, p-value for trend = 0.006) in girls. We demonstrated a strong graded inverse association between physical activity and obesity that was stronger in boys. Our data suggest that higher intensity physical activity may be more important than total activity.

  13. Objectively measured physical activity and fat mass in a large cohort of children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy R Ness

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have been unable to characterise the association between physical activity and obesity, possibly because most relied on inaccurate measures of physical activity and obesity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We carried out a cross sectional analysis on 5,500 12-year-old children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Total physical activity and minutes of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA were measured using the Actigraph accelerometer. Fat mass and obesity (defined as the top decile of fat mass were measured using the Lunar Prodigy dual x-ray emission absorptiometry scanner. We found strong negative associations between MVPA and fat mass that were unaltered after adjustment for total physical activity. We found a strong negative dose-response association between MVPA and obesity. The odds ratio for obesity in adjusted models between top and the bottom quintiles of minutes of MVPA was 0.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-0.13, p-value for trend <0.0001 in boys and 0.36 (95% CI 0.17-0.74, p-value for trend = 0.006 in girls. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated a strong graded inverse association between physical activity and obesity that was stronger in boys. Our data suggest that higher intensity physical activity may be more important than total activity.

  14. SU-E-T-543: Measurement of Neutron Activation From Different High Energy Varian Linear Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatcher, T; Madsen, S; Sudowe, R [University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Meigooni, A Soleimani [University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Linear accelerators producing photons above 10 MeV may induce photonuclear reactions in high Z components of the accelerator. These liberated neutrons can then activate the structural components of the accelerator and other materials in the beam path through neutron capture reactions. The induced activity within the accelerator may contribute to additional dose to both patients and personnel. This project seeks to determine the total activity and activity per activated isotope following irradiation in different Varian accelerators at energies above 10 MeV. Methods: A Varian 21IX accelerator was used to irradiate a 30 cm × 30 cm × 20 cm solid water phantom with 15 MV x-rays. The phantom was placed at an SSD of 100 cm and at the center of a 20 cm × 20 cm field. Activation induced gamma spectra were acquired over a 5 minute interval after 1 and 15 minutes from completion of the irradiation. All measurements were made using a CANBERRA Falcon 5000 Portable HPGe detector. The majority of measurements were made in scattering geometry with the detector situated at 90° to the incident beam, 30 cm from the side of the phantom and approximately 10 cm from the top. A 5 minute background count was acquired and automatically subtracted from all subsequent measurements. Photon spectra were acquired for both open and MLC fields. Results: Based on spectral signatures, nuclides have been identified and their activities calculated for both open and MLC fields. Preliminary analyses suggest that activities from the activation products in the microcurie range. Conclusion: Activation isotopes have been identified and their relative activities determined. These activities are only gross estimates since efficiencies have not been determined for this source-detector geometry. Current efforts are focused on accurate determination of detector efficiencies using Monte Carlo calculations.

  15. Qualitative attributes and measurement properties of physical activity questionnaires: a checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwee, Caroline B; Mokkink, Lidwine B; van Poppel, Mireille N M; Chinapaw, Mai J M; van Mechelen, Willem; de Vet, Henrica C W

    2010-07-01

    The large number of available physical activity (PA) questionnaires makes it difficult to select the most appropriate questionnaire for a certain purpose. This choice is further hampered by incomplete reporting and unsatisfactory evaluation of the content and measurement properties of the questionnaires. We provide a checklist for appraising the qualitative attributes and measurement properties of PA questionnaires, as a tool for selecting the most appropriate PA questionnaire for a certain target population and purpose. The checklist is called the Quality Assessment of Physical Activity Questionnaire (QAPAQ). This review is one of a group of four reviews in this issue of Sports Medicine on the content and measurement properties of physical activity questionnaires. Part 1 of the checklist can be used to appraise the qualitative attributes of PA questionnaires, i.e. the construct to be measured by the questionnaire, the purpose and target population for which it was developed, the format, interpretability and ease of use. Part 2 of the checklist can be used to appraise the measurement properties of a PA questionnaire, i.e. reliability (parameters of measurement error and reliability coefficients), validity (face and content validity, criterion validity and construct validity) and responsiveness. The QAPAQ can be used to select the most appropriate PA questionnaire for a certain purpose, but it can also be used to design or report a study on measurement properties of PA questionnaires. Using such a checklist will contribute to improving the assessment, reporting and appraisal of the content and measurement properties of PA questionnaires.

  16. Factors influencing the measurement of lysosomal enzymes activity in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Persichetti

    Full Text Available Measurements of the activities of lysosomal enzymes in cerebrospinal fluid have recently been proposed as putative biomarkers for Parkinson's disease and other synucleinopathies. To define the operating procedures useful for ensuring the reliability of these measurements, we analyzed several pre-analytical factors that may influence the activity of β-glucocerebrosidase, α-mannosidase, β-mannosidase, β-galactosidase, α-fucosidase, β-hexosaminidase, cathepsin D and cathepsin E in cerebrospinal fluid. Lysosomal enzyme activities were measured by well-established fluorimetric assays in a consecutive series of patients (n = 28 with different neurological conditions, including Parkinson's disease. The precision, pre-storage and storage conditions, and freeze/thaw cycles were evaluated. All of the assays showed within- and between-run variabilities below 10%. At -20°C, only cathepsin D was stable up to 40 weeks. At -80°C, the cathepsin D, cathepsin E, and β-mannosidase activities did not change significantly up to 40 weeks, while β-glucocerebrosidase activity was stable up to 32 weeks. The β-galactosidase and α-fucosidase activities significantly increased (+54.9±38.08% after 4 weeks and +88.94±36.19% after 16 weeks, respectively. Up to four freeze/thaw cycles did not significantly affect the activities of cathepsins D and E. The β-glucocerebrosidase activity showed a slight decrease (-14.6% after two freeze/thaw cycles. The measurement of lysosomal enzyme activities in cerebrospinal fluid is reliable and reproducible if pre-analytical factors are accurately taken into consideration. Therefore, the analytical recommendations that ensue from this study may contribute to the establishment of actual values for the activities of cerebrospinal fluid lysosomal enzymes as putative biomarkers for Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders.

  17. Daily Physical Activity and Screen Time, but Not Other Sedentary Activities, Are Associated with Measures of Obesity during Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Nik Shanita, Safii; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours. PMID:25546277

  18. Daily Physical Activity and Screen Time, but Not Other Sedentary Activities, Are Associated with Measures of Obesity during Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoo Thien Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI, BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ, body fatness (%BF and waist circumference (WC. A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514. PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours.

  19. Daily physical activity and screen time, but not other sedentary activities, are associated with measures of obesity during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours.

  20. Concurrent measurement of cellular turbidity and hemoglobin to evaluate the antioxidant activity of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellik, Yuva; Iguer-Ouada, Mokrane

    2016-01-01

    In past decades, a multitude of analytical methods for measuring antioxidant activity of plant extracts has been developed. However, when using methods to determine hemoglobin released from human erythrocytes treated with ginger extracts, we found hemoglobin concentrations were significantly higher than in untreated control samples. This suggests in the presence of antioxidants that measuring hemoglobin alone is not sufficient to determine hemolysis. We show concurrent measurement of erythrocyte concentration and hemoglobin is essential in such assays, and describe a new protocol based on simultaneous measurement of cellular turbidity and hemoglobin.

  1. Exploration Of Activity Measurements And Equilibrium Checks For Sediment Dating Using Thick-Window Germanium Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jacob A.; Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E.; Reynolds, Eva M.; Gladkis, Laura G.; Timmers, Heiko

    2011-06-01

    Activity measurements on sediment samples for trapped-charge geological dating using gamma-ray spectroscopy are an important verification of the field-site dose rate determination. Furthermore gamma-ray spectroscopy can check if the natural decay series are in secular equilibrium which is a crucial assumption in such dating. Typically the activities of leading members of the Thorium and Uranium decay series are measured, which requires Germanium detectors with thin windows and good energy resolution in order to effectively detect the associated low energy gamma-rays. Such equipment is not always readily available. The potential of conventional Germanium detectors with thick entrance window has been explored towards routine gamma-ray spectroscopy of sediment samples using higher energy gamma-rays. Alternative isotopes, such as Ac-228 and Pb-212 for the Thorium series, and Pa-234m, Ra-226 and Bi-214 for the Uranium series, have been measured in order to determine the mass-specific activity for the respective series and possibly provide a check of secular equilibrium. In addition to measurements of the K-40 activity, with the alternative approach, the activities of both decay series can be accurately determined. The secular equilibrium condition may be tested for the Thorium series. Measurement accuracy for Pa-234m is, however, not sufficient to permit also a reliable check of equilibrium for the Uranium series.

  2. Activity-monitor accuracy in measuring step number and cadence in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, P Margaret; Dall, Philippa M; Mitchell, Sarah L; Granat, Malcolm H

    2008-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the activPAL physical activity monitor in measuring step number and cadence in older adults. Two pedometers (New-Lifestyles Digi-Walker SW-200 and New-Lifestyles NL2000) used in clinical practice to count steps were simultaneously evaluated. Observation was the criterion measure. Twenty-one participants (65-87 yr old) recruited from community-based exercise classes walked on a treadmill at 5 speeds (0.67, 0.90, 1.12, 1.33, and 1.56 m/s) and outdoors at 3 self-selected speeds (slow, normal, and fast). The absolute percentage error of the activPAL was <1% for all treadmill and outdoor conditions for measuring steps and cadence. With the exception of the slowest treadmill speed, the NL-2000 error was <2%. The SW-200 was the least accurate device, particularly at slower walking speeds. The activPAL monitor accurately recorded step number and cadence. Combined with its ability to identify primary postures, the activPAL might be a useful and versatile device for measuring activity in older adults.

  3. Development and validation of psychosocial determinants measures of physical activity among Iranian adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faghihzadeh Soghrate

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study aimed at assessing the psychometric properties of psychosocial determinants of physical activity-related measures in Iranian adolescent girls. Methods Several measures of psychosocial determinants of physical activity were translated from English into Persian using the back-translation technique. These translated measures were administered to 512 ninth and tenth-grade Iranian high school students. Results The results of a series of factor analysis showed that the self-efficacy scale contained a single factor, the social support scale contained two factors: family support and friend support, the physical activity 'pros & cons' scale contained two factors: physical activity pros scale and physical activity cons scale, the change strategies scale contained a single factor, the environment scale also contained a single factor. Chronbach's alphas, mean inter-item correlations and test-retest coefficients showed that these solutions were reliable. Conclusions These preliminary results provide support for using the mentioned scales to measure psychosocial determinants of physical activity in Iranian adolescent girls.

  4. Intercomparison program of activity measurements in nuclear medicine in Recife, PE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Flavio Chiappetta Paes; Teodosio, Alberto; Santos, Marcus Aurelio P. dos; Lima, Fabiana Farias de; Oliveira, Mercia L. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mails: flaviochiappetta@hotmail.com; atmelo@cnen.gov.br; masantos@cnen.gov.br; fflima@cnen.gov.br; mercial@cnen.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    Intercomparison is an important tool for quality assessment, since not only the equipment performance but also the procedures are evaluated and compared. This tool is wide utilized to evaluate the ability of nuclear medicine services (NMS) to measure activities of radiopharmaceuticals. Since 1998, the Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN) has been conducting intercomparison programs at Rio de Janeiro and surroundings, and, after successive rounds of comparison, an improvement in the performance of the radionuclide calibrators have been observed in this region. Similar results were observed worldwide. The Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN) was designated by the LNMRI to establish the intercomparison program of activity measurements in NMS in the Brazilian northeast. The aim of this work is to present the results of the first round of comparison measurements of activity of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I. This round was carried out in Recife/PE. Six NMS participated in this intercomparison. Additionally to the activity measurement, some information about equipment (calibration and quality control program) and human resources was obtained. All NMS participants complied with the limit established by CNEN for the accuracy of measurement ({+-}10%) for {sup 99}mTc and {sup 131}I. Measurements will be repeated for {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I, and additional rounds will be performed including different radionuclides. (author)

  5. Comparison of disease activity measures for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, PA; Cuthbertson, DD; Hellmich, B; Hoffman, GS; Jayne, DRW; Kallenberg, CGM; Krischer, JP; Luqmani, R; Mahr, AD; Matteson, EL; Specks, U; Stone, JH

    2011-01-01

    Aim Currently, several different instruments are used to measure disease activity and extent in clinical trials of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, leading to division among investigative groups and difficulty comparing study results. An exercise comparing six different vasculitis instruments was performed. Methods A total of 10 experienced vasculitis investigators from 5 countries scored 20 cases in the literature of Wegener granulomatosis or microscopic polyangiitis using 6 disease assessment tools: the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS), The BVAS for Wegener granulomatosis (BVAS/WG), BVAS 2003, a Physician Global Assessment (PGA), the Disease Extent Index (DEI) and the Five Factor Score (FFS). Five cases were rescored by all raters. Results Reliability of the measures was extremely high (intraclass correlations for the six measures all=0.98). Within each instrument, there were no significant differences or outliers among the scores from the 10 investigators. Test/retest reliability was high for each measure: range=0.77 to 0.95. The scores of the five acute activity measures correlated extremely well with one another. Conclusions Currently available tools for measuring disease extent and activity in ANCA-associated vasculitis are highly correlated and reliable. These results provide investigators with confidence to compare different clinical trial data and helps form common ground as international research groups develop new, improved and universally accepted vasculitis disease assessment instruments. PMID:18664546

  6. Technique and experiment of active direct gas pressure measurement in coal roadway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue-xi Chen; Shang-quan Ma; Li-ming Qi [North China Institute of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). School of Safety Engineering

    2009-06-15

    An active measurement method and its principle was introduced considering the low success rate, special difficulty, and long measurement time of the direct gas pressure measurement currently used in coal roadways. The technology of drilling, borehole sealing depth, borehole sealing length, sealing control of the measuring process, compensatory computation of gas loss quantity and other key techniques were discussed. Finally, based on the latest instrument the authors developed, a series of experiments of direct gas pressure measurement in the coal roadways of the Jincheng and Tongchuan mine district, were carried out. The experimental results show that active gas pressure measurement technique has advantages as follows: (1) the application scope of direct gas pressure measurement technique is wide and it does not have the restriction of coal hardness, coal seam fissure and other conditions; (2) the measured results are credible, which can be tested by the same gas pressure value acquired from a different borehole in the same place; (3) the measurement process is convenient and quick, it takes about 2 to 3 days to acquire the gas pressure value in a coal seam. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Technique and experiment of active direct gas pressure measurement in coal roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xue-xi; MA Shang-quan; QI Li-ming

    2009-01-01

    An active measurement method and its principle was introduced considering the low success rate, special difficulty, and long measurement time of the direct gas pres-sure measurement currently used in coal roadways. The technology of drilling, borehole sealing depth, borehole sealing length, sealing control of the measuring process, com-pensatory computation of gas loss quantity and other key techniques were discussed. Fi-nally, based on the latest instrument the authors developed, a series of experiments of di-rect gas pressure measurement in the coal roadways of the Jincheng and Tongchuan mine district, were carried out. The experimental results show that active gas pressure measurement technique has advantages as follows: (1) the application scope of direct gas pressure measurement technique is wide and it does not have the restriction of coal hardness, coal seam fissure and other conditions; (2) the measured results are credible, which can be tested by the same gas pressure value acquired from a different borehole in the same place; (3) the measurement process is convenient and quick, it takes about 2 to 3 days to acquire the gas pressure value in a coal seam.

  8. Issues for the selection of wheelchair-specific activity and participation outcome measures: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, William B; Miller, William C; Auger, Claudine

    2008-06-01

    To use the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a framework to identify and to evaluate wheelchair-specific outcome instruments that are useful for measuring activity and participation. CINHAL, PsychInfo, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Dissertation Abstracts Medline databases, and conference proceedings. Activity and participation measures that were specifically intended for adults who use wheelchairs and that were published in English in a peer-reviewed journal were included in this review. Based on electronic database searches using a variety of search terms, articles were identified by title, and appropriate abstracts were retrieved. Articles were obtained for all relevant abstracts. For peer-reviewed measures included in the review, we obtained any instruction manuals and related publications, frequently published in conference proceedings and theses or available electronically, on the development and testing of the measure. Tools included in the review were evaluated based on their conceptual coverage, reliability, validity, responsiveness, usefulness, and wheelchair contribution, which indicated how well the tool isolated the effect of the wheelchair on activity and participation outcomes. A number of conceptual, psychometric, and applicability issues were identified with the 11 wheelchair-specific measures included in the review. A majority of the measures were mobility focused. No single tool received excellent ratings in all areas of the review. Some of the most frequent issues identified included a failure to account for differences attributable to different wheelchairs and wheelchair seating, limited psychometric testing, and high administrative and respondent burden. Good reliability evidence was reported for most of the measures, but validity information was only available for 6 of the 11 measures, and responsiveness information for 3. This review suggests that these measures could be improved with

  9. Prediction of objectively measured physical activity and sedentariness among blue-collar workers using survey questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Heiden, Marina; Mathiassen, Svend Erik;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed at developing and evaluating statistical models predicting objectively measured occupational time spent sedentary or in physical activity from self-reported information available in large epidemiological studies and surveys. METHODS: Two-hundred-and-fourteen blue-collar workers...... responded to a questionnaire containing information about personal and work related variables, available in most large epidemiological studies and surveys. Workers also wore accelerometers for 1-4 days measuring time spent sedentary and in physical activity, defined as non-sedentary time. Least......-squares linear regression models were developed, predicting objectively measured exposures from selected predictors in the questionnaire. RESULTS: A full prediction model based on age, gender, body mass index, job group, self-reported occupational physical activity (OPA), and self-reported occupational sedentary...

  10. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  11. Measurement of Activity of Indium in Liquid Bi-In-Sn Alloys by EMF Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M. R.; Mohan, S.; Behera, C. K.

    2016-08-01

    The electrochemical technique based on a molten salt electrolyte galvanic cell has been used to measure the activity of indium in liquid Bi-In-Sn alloys in the temperature range of 723 K to 855 K along three ternary sections. The activity of tin in Bi-Sn binary alloys has also been measured by the same technique in the above temperature range. The activity of indium in Bi-In-Sn alloys shows negative deviation from Raoult's law for most of the compositions and slight positive deviations for a few indium-rich compositions. The ternary excess molar free energies have been calculated by Darken's treatment. Isoactivity curves at 813 K in the ternary Bi-In-Sn alloys were derived by combining the activity data of In-Sn and Bi-In alloys. The values of excess molar free energy obtained in this study are compared with those calculated from the Muggianu model at 813 K.

  12. Measurement of physical activity in obese persons: how and why? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Alghadir, Ahmad H; Iqbal, Zaheen A

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for poor health, especially in children. Reduced physical activity, prompted by a sedentary lifestyle, is a major contributor. Hence, it is important to assess physical activity using standardized methods in public health to identify the risks associated with obesity. There have been no recent reports comparing such modalities for use by clinicians and researchers. In this article, some of these methods for use in the assessment of physical activity are reviewed, and their advantages and disadvantages are described. [Subjects and Methods] Electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar were searched for literature, using key words Obesity, Physical activity, and Physical Behavior Monitoring. [Results] With advances in technology, various novel methods have been developed to assess physical behavior, but conventional methods are still relevant and easy to administer. [Conclusion] There are various measurement options available. Researchers may choose devices providing more accurate measurements, while clinicians may prefer portability and affordability for patients.

  13. Objectively measured daily physical activity related to cardiac size in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Thorsson, O; Karlsson, M K;

    2009-01-01

    ), aged 8-11 years, from a population-based cohort. Left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVDD) and left atrial end-systolic diameter (LA) were measured with echocardiography and indexed for body surface area (BSA). Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry, and the duration of vigorous physical...... activity per day (VPA) was calculated. Acceptable accelerometer and echocardiography measurements were obtained in 228 children (boys=127, girls=101). Univariate correlations between VPA and LVDD were indexed for BSA in boys (r=0.27, P... that independent factors for LVDD, indexed for BSA for boys, were age and VPA. LA indexed for BSA was not related to physical activity variables in either gender. No clear relationship exists between cardiac size and daily physical activity in children aged 8-11 years. This suggests that significant cardiac...

  14. Conceptualizing and comparing neighborhood and activity space measures for food environment research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Thomas W; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; McGuirt, Jared T; Keyserling, Thomas C; Ammerman, Alice S

    2014-11-01

    Greater accessibility to geospatial technologies has led to a surge of spatialized public health research, much of which has focused on food environments. The purpose of this study was to analyze differing spatial measures of exposure to supermarkets and farmers׳ markets among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina. Exposure measures were derived using participant-defined neighborhoods, investigator-defined road network neighborhoods, and activity spaces incorporating participants׳ time space behaviors. Results showed that mean area for participant-defined neighborhoods (0.04 sq. miles) was much smaller than 2.0 mile road network neighborhoods (3.11 sq. miles) and activity spaces (26.36 sq. miles), and that activity spaces provided the greatest market exposure. The traditional residential neighborhood concept may not be particularly relevant for all places. Time-space approaches capturing activity space may be more relevant, particularly if integrated with mixed methods strategies.

  15. Dopamine activation in Neuroticism as measured by spontaneous eye blink rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, Giuseppe; Della Monica, Ciro; Costanzo, Antonio; De Padova, Vittoria

    2012-01-18

    Personality dimensions have been associated with different psychobiological systems. However, no agreement exists in literature on a specific role of a single neurotransmitter for each of the dimensions investigated. We studied the relationship of Neuroticism, Extraversion and Psychoticism as assessed by Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) with spontaneous eye blink rate (BR), a non-invasive measure of central dopamine activity. A total of sixty-three healthy subjects (40 females, 23 males, mean age 24.2±3.9) were studied. Spontaneous blink rate and time of blink suppression were assessed by EOG measurement. Levels of Extraversion and Neuroticism were inversely correlated. In contrast with previous findings, a significant correlation between blink rate measures and Neuroticism was found. No significant correlation between blink measures and either Extraversion, or Psychoticism were found. The results appear consistent with a lower threshold for activation in neuroticism as suggested by Eysenck's original model.

  16. Phoswich detectors with DSP analysis for low-energy, low-activity photon measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillai, S.; Feng, J.; Miller, W.H. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Several new phoswich detector designs coupled with digital pulse shape discrimination systems are under development for a variety of radiological measurements. Herein the authors report on two detectors for measuring small activities (nanocurie amounts) of low photon energy (30 to 150 keV) from either isotopic decay or beta-produced bremsstrahlung radiation. The lower limit of detection (LLD), assuming a 60-s counting time, for a phoswich well detector is 0.7 Bq (0.02 nCi) of gamma activity in the 20- to 100-keV range and 11 Bq (0.3 nCi) and 550 (15 nCi) for gamma rays and beta bremsstrahlung X rays, respectively. It is envisioned that these detectors would be useful for biomedical applications or for other measurements requiring low-level, low-energy photon measurement.

  17. Electronic monitoring of psychomotor activity as a supplementary objective measure of depression severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj

    2015-01-01

    control persons aged 18-60 years were included. Psychomotor activity was measured using a combined heart rate and movement sensor device (Actiheart) for 3 consecutive days, 24 h a day. RESULTS: We found that sleeping heart rate (beats/min) correlated with HDRS-17 in both patients with unipolar disorder...... and bipolar disorder (unadjusted model: B = 0.46, 95% CI 0.037-0.89, P = 0.034). In contrast, correlations between activity energy expenditure (kJ/kg/day), cardio-respiratory fitness (mlO2/min/kg) and HDRS-17 were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that measuring sleeping heart rate in non......BACKGROUND: Rating scales used to assess the severity of depression e.g. the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17-item (HDRS-17) partly rely on the patient's subjective experience and reporting. Such subjective measures tend to have low reliability and adding objective measures to complement...

  18. Female reproductive factors are associated with objectively measured physical activity in middle-aged women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, Janne; Aukee, Pauliina; Hakonen, Harto; Kujala, Urho M.; Lowe, Dawn A.; Kovanen, Vuokko; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity improves health and may delay the onset of several chronic diseases. For women in particular, the rate of these diseases accelerates at middle age; therefore it is important to identify the determinants of health-enhancing physical activity during midlife in this population. In this study, we focused on determinants that are unique to the female sex, such as childbearing and menopause. The main objective was to characterize the level of physical activity and differences between active and inactive middle-aged Finnish women. In addition, we examined the association of physical activity with female reproductive factors at midlife. The study population consisted of 647 women aged 48 to 55 years who participated in our Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis (ERMA) study during the period from 2015 to 2016. Physical activity was measured objectively using hip-worn accelerometers for seven consecutive days. The outcome measures included the amounts of light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity accumulated in bouts of at least 10 minutes (MVPA10). MVPA10 was used to determine whether women were placed in the active (≥150 min/week) or inactive (pelvic floor dysfunction as independent variables. We found that a large portion (61%) of Finnish middle-aged women did not meet the physical activity recommendations of 150 minutes of MVPA10 per week. In the studied cohort, 78% of women experienced menopausal symptoms, and 54% exhibited pelvic floor dysfunction. Perceived menopausal symptoms were associated with greater light physical activity. Perceived pelvic floor dysfunction was associated with lower MVPA10. According to the fully adjusted multiple linear regression models, reproductive factors explained 6.0% of the variation of MVPA10 and 7.5% of the variation of light physical activity. The results increase our knowledge of the factors related to physical activity participation among middle-aged women and

  19. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis mediates loss of intrinsic activity measured by functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brier, Matthew R; Day, Gregory S; Snyder, Abraham Z; Tanenbaum, Aaron B; Ances, Beau M

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous brain activity is required for the development and maintenance of normal brain function. Many disease processes disrupt the organization of intrinsic brain activity, but few pervasively reduce the amplitude of resting state blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI fluctuations. We report the case of a female with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, longitudinally studied during the course of her illness to determine the contribution of NMDAR signaling to spontaneous brain activity. Resting state BOLD fMRI was measured at the height of her illness and 18 weeks following discharge from hospital. Conventional resting state networks were defined using established methods. Correlation and covariance matrices were calculated by extracting the BOLD time series from regions of interest and calculating either the correlation or covariance quantity. The intrinsic activity was compared between visits, and to expected activity from 45 similarly aged healthy individuals. Near the height of the illness, the patient exhibited profound loss of consciousness, high-amplitude slowing of the electroencephalogram, and a severe reduction in the amplitude of spontaneous BOLD fMRI fluctuations. The patient's neurological status and measures of intrinsic activity improved following treatment. We conclude that NMDAR-mediated signaling plays a critical role in the mechanisms that give rise to organized spontaneous brain activity. Loss of intrinsic activity is associated with profound disruptions of consciousness and cognition.

  20. Accelerometer-measured dose-response for physical activity, sedentary time, and mortality in US adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Charles E; Keadle, S. K.; Troiano, Richard P

    2016-01-01

    Background: Moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity is recommended to maintain and improve health, but the mortality benefits of light activity and risk for sedentary time remain uncertain. Objectives: Using accelerometer-based measures, we 1) described the mortality dose-response for se......Background: Moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity is recommended to maintain and improve health, but the mortality benefits of light activity and risk for sedentary time remain uncertain. Objectives: Using accelerometer-based measures, we 1) described the mortality dose......-response for sedentary time and light-and moderateto-vigorous-intensity activity using restricted cubic splines, and 2) estimated the mortality benefits associated with replacing sedentary time with physical activity, accounting for total activity. Design: US adults (n = 4840) from NHANES (2003-2006) wore...... an accelerometer for #7 d and were followed prospectively for mortality. Proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for mortality associations with time spent sedentary and in light-and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity. Splines were used to graphically present...

  1. Preliminary Findings of The Brief Everyday Activities Measurement (BEAM) in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharaga, Elyssa A.; Holtzer, Roee

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Functional losses are common in healthy and cognitively impaired older adults. However, subtle declines in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) are not always detected in self-reports. Performance IADL measurements are financially and time burdensome, restricting their use in varied settings. To address these limitations, we developed the Brief Everyday Activities Measure (BEAM), a short (speed. Conclusions Medication and finance management can be efficiently assessed within five minutes. The BEAM may be a valuable screening tool to evaluate these functional abilities. PMID:26482695

  2. Employment effects of active labor market measures for sick-listed workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Høgelund, Jan; Gørtz, Mette

    We use unique and rich register data of 88,948 sick-listed workers to investigate the effect of active labor market measures on the duration until returning to non-subsidized employment and the duration of this employment. To identify causal treatment effects, we exploit over-time variation in 98...... job centers’ use of active labor market measures. We find that ordinary education and especially subsidized job training have statistically significant positive employment effects. Subsidized job training has a large, statistically significant positive effect on the transition into employment...

  3. Accelerometer-measured daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake ([Vdot]O(2PEAK)) is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. While a positive relationship between daily physical activity and aerobic fitness has been established in adults, the relationship appears less clear in children and adolescents...... if they included measurement of daily physical activity by accelerometry and related to a [Vdot]O(2PEAK) either measured directly at a maximal exercise test or estimated from maximal power output. A total of nine studies were identified, with a total number of 6116 children and adolescents investigated. Most...

  4. A computer-controlled experimental facility for krypton and xenon adsorption coefficient measurements on activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Serra, Daniele; Aquaro, Donato; Mazed, Dahmane; Pazzagli, Fabio; Ciolini, Riccardo, E-mail: r.ciolini@ing.unipi.it

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • An experimental test facility for qualification of the krypton and xenon adsorption properties of activated carbons. • The measurement of the adsorption coefficient by using the elution curve method. • The simultaneous on-line control of the main physical parameters influencing the adsorption property of activated carbon. - Abstract: An automated experimental test facility, intended specifically for qualification of the krypton and xenon adsorption properties of activated carbon samples, was designed and constructed. The experimental apparatus was designed to allow an on-line control of the main physical parameters influencing greatly the adsorption property of activated carbon. The measurement of the adsorption coefficient, based upon the elution curve method, can be performed with a precision better than 5% at gas pressure values ranging from atmospheric pressure up to 9 bar and bed temperature from 0 up to 80 °C. The carrier gas flow rate can be varied from 40 up to 4000 N cm{sup 3} min{sup −1} allowing measurement of dynamic adsorption coefficient with face velocities from 0.3 up to 923 cm min{sup −1} depending on the gas pressure and the test cell being used. The moisture content of the activated carbon can be precisely controlled during measurement, through the relative humidity of the carrier gas.

  5. A new quantitative method to measure activity of ice structuring proteins using differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassa-Roudsari, Majid; Goff, H Douglas

    2012-01-01

    There are very few quantitative assays to measure the activity of antifreeze proteins (AFPs, or Ice Structuring Proteins, ISPs) and these can be prone to various inaccuracies and inconsistencies. Some methods rely only on unassisted visual assessment. When microscopy is used to measure ice crystal size, it is critical that standardized procedures be adopted, especially when image analysis software is used to quantify sizes. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) has been used to measure the thermal hysteresis activity (TH) of AFPs. In this study, DSC was used isothermally to measure enthalpic changes associated with structural rearrangements as a function of time. Differences in slopes of isothermal heat flow vs. time between winter wheat ISP or AFP type I containing samples, and those without ISP or AFP type I were demonstrated. ISP or AFP type I containing samples had significantly higher slopes compared to those without ISP or AFP type I. Samples with higher concentration of ISP or AFP type I showed higher slope values during the first hour and took up to 3 hr to attain equilibrium. Differences were attributed to activity of the proteins at the ice interface. Proteinaceous activity of ISPs or AFP type I was confirmed by loss of activity after treatment with protease.

  6. Accelerometer-measured daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars B

    2011-06-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK)) is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. While a positive relationship between daily physical activity and aerobic fitness has been established in adults, the relationship appears less clear in children and adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to summarise recently published data on the relationship between daily physical activity, as measured by accelerometers, and VO(2PEAK) in children and adolescents. A PubMed search was performed on 29 October 2010 to identify relevant articles. Studies were considered relevant if they included measurement of daily physical activity by accelerometry and related to a VO(2PEAK) either measured directly at a maximal exercise test or estimated from maximal power output. A total of nine studies were identified, with a total number of 6116 children and adolescents investigated. Most studies reported a low-to-moderate relationship (r = 0.10-0.45) between objectively measured daily physical activity and VO(2PEAK). No conclusive evidence exists that physical activity of higher intensities are more closely related to VO(2PEAK), than lower intensities.

  7. Measurement of total-body oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon in vivo by photon activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulin, K.

    1984-01-01

    With the aim of assessing nutritional status, the feasibility of measuring the total body quantities of the major body elements, i.e. oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon, using the photon beam of a 45 MV betatron and a whole-body counter, has been evaluated in detail. Following photon activation a single energy ..gamma..-radiation (.511 MeV) is observed from all three elements to be measured. The half-lives of /sup 15/O, /sup 13/N, and /sup 11/C, however, are sufficiently different (20.5 min, 10.0 min, and 20.4 min. respectively) to permit their measurement from an analysis of the measured decay curve. Following corrections for interfering reactions, a computer curve-fitting algorithm is used to resolve the data into /sup 15/O, /sup 13/N, and /sup 11/C components. Measurements of O, N, and C have been made both in phantoms and in live and dead rats. A comparison of the body composition results from this technique with results from chemical analysis indicates that measured carbon can quite accurately predict total body fat. The comparison of the total body nitrogen measurement by photon activation with total body protein by chemical analysis was inconclusive and suggests that further work be done to verify the estimated accuracy of the nitrogen measurement.

  8. Measurement of physical activity by triaxial accelerometers in schoolchildren from three peruvian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Alvis-Chirinos, Katherine; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima. Perú. Nutricionista; Huamán-Espino, Lucio; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima. Perú. Sociólogo; Pillaca, Jenny; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima. Perú. Estadístico; Pablo Aparco, Juan; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima. Perú. Nutricionista

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the proportion of primary school students who fulfill the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations on physical activity and the factors associated with less time of moderate-intense physical activity in urban areas of three cities in Peru. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study with a random selection of schoolchildren aged 6 to 13 from public educational institutions in urban areas of Chiclayo, Huaraz and Tarapoto. In order to measure the time and intens...

  9. Where is the Theoretical Basis for Understanding and Measuring the Environment for Physical Activity?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, N. M.; Wright, A; Lowry, R.G.; Mutrie, N.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers are beginning to explore environmental correlates to further the fi eld of physical activity research. Before interventions and experimental investigations can be undertaken, it is necessary to identify specific environmental features that are consistent correlates of physical activity. There has been a plethora of research measuring such cross-sectional associations since this fi eld came to the fore in 2003. This paper posits that it is time for researchers to evaluate the state...

  10. A Simultaneous Model to measure Academic and Financial Performances of Scientific Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Handoko, L T

    2005-01-01

    I propose a new model to measure simultaneously academic and financial performances of scientific activities quantitatively. The tool is very simple and can be applied to any branches of science, while it is also adjustable to varying macroeconomic indicators. I argue that implementing the model could realize a fair and objective decisionmaking and also reward and punishment system in order to improve the individual and institutional performances in scientific activities.

  11. Polar stratospheric cloud evolution and chlorine activation measured by CALIPSO and MLS, and modeled by ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nakajima

    2016-03-01

    TNAT. Furthermore, simulations of the ATLAS chemistry and transport box model along the trajectories were used to corroborate the measurements and show good agreement with the observations. Rapid chlorine activation was observed when an air mass encountered PSCs. Usually, chlorine activation was limited by the amount of available ClONO2. Where ClONO2 was not the limiting factor, a large dependence on temperature was evident.

  12. High-throughput measurement of the Ca2+-dependent ATPase activity in COS microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecaetsbeek, Ilse; Holemans, Tine; Wuytack, Frank; Vangheluwe, Peter

    2014-08-01

    We provide a detailed procedure to determine the Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase activity in COS or HEK293 cells overexpressing a Ca(2+) pump. The ATPase activity is determined by the Baginsky method, which allows measurement of the steady-state production of inorganic phosphate (Pi). We have adapted this widely applied method into a sensitive, fast, and semi-high-throughput protocol suitable for use in a 96-well plate format.

  13. Hierarchy of individual calibration levels for heart rate and accelerometry to measure physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brage, Søren; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Combining accelerometry with heart rate (HR) monitoring may improve precision of physical activity measurement. Considerable variation exists in the relationships between physical activity intensity (PAI) and HR and accelerometry, which may be reduced by individual calibration. However, individual......, submaximal step and walk tests with and without calorimetry, and nonexercise calibration using sleeping HR and gender. Reference accelerometry and HR models explained >95% of the between-individual variance in PAI (P

  14. Match-to-match variation in physical activity and technical skill measures in professional Australian Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Thomas; Sullivan, Courtney; Bilsborough, Johann C; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    To determine the match-to-match variability in physical activity and technical performance measures in Australian Football, and examine the influence of playing position, time of season, and different seasons on these measures of variability. Longitudinal observational study. Global positioning system, accelerometer and technical performance measures (total kicks, handballs, possessions and Champion Data rank) were collected from 33 players competing in the Australian Football League over 31 matches during 2011-2012 (N=511 observations). The global positioning system data were categorised into total distance, mean speed (mmin(-1)), high-speed running (>14.4 kmh(-1)), very high-speed running (>19.9 kmh(-1)), and sprint (>23.0 kmh(-1)) distance while player load was collected from the accelerometer. The data were log transformed to provide coefficient of variation and the between subject standard deviation (expressed as percentages). Match-to-match variability was increased for higher speed activities (high-speed running, very high-speed running, sprint distance, coefficient of variation %: 13.3-28.6%) compared to global measures (speed, total distance, player load, coefficient of variation %: 5.3-9.2%). The between-match variability was relativity stable for all measures between and within AFL seasons, with only few differences between positions. Higher speed activities (high-speed running, very high-speed running, sprint distance), but excluding mean speed, total distance and player load, were all higher in the final third phase of the season compared to the start of the season. While global measures of physical performance are relatively stable, higher-speed activities and technical measures exhibit a large degree of between-match variability in Australian Football. However, these measures remain relatively stable between positions, and within and between Australian Football League seasons. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  15. In-situ measurement of dust devil activity at La Jornada Experimental Range, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Neakrase, Lynn D.; Anderson, John D.

    2015-12-01

    We document observations of dust devil vortices using a linear array of 10 miniature pressure- and sunlight-logging stations in summer 2013 at La Jornada Experimental Range in the southwestern USA. These data provide a census of vortex and dust-devil activity at this site. The simultaneous spatially-distributed measurements resolve the horizontal pressure structure of several dust devil encounters, and the data can be fit well with an analytic model, giving independent measures of vortex size and intensity.

  16. Fatigue, patient reported outcomes, and objective measurement of physical activity in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, M A; Ahn, G E; Chmiel, J S; Dunlop, D D; Helenowski, I B; Semanik, P; Song, J; Yount, S; Chang, R W; Ramsey-Goldman, R

    2016-10-01

    Fatigue is a common symptom in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and engaging in physical activity may reduce fatigue. We aimed to characterize relationships between fatigue, other health status measures assessed with the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) instruments, and accelerometer-based physical activity measurements in patients with SLE. The internal consistency of each PROMIS measure in our SLE sample was also evaluated. This cross-sectional study analyzed 123 adults with SLE. The primary fatigue outcome was Fatigue Severity Scale score. Secondary outcomes were PROMIS standardized T-scores in seven health status domains. Accelerometers were worn for seven days, and mean daily minutes of light, moderate/vigorous, and bouted (10 minutes) moderate/vigorous physical activity were estimated. Cronbach's alpha was determined for each PROMIS measure to assess internal consistency. Relationships between Fatigue Severity Scale, PROMIS, and physical activity were summarized with Spearman partial correlation coefficients (r), adjusted for average daily accelerometer wear time. Mean Fatigue Severity Scale score (4.3, SD 1.6) was consistent with clinically relevant levels of fatigue. Greater daily and bouted moderate/vigorous physical activity minutes correlated with lower Mean Fatigue Severity Scale score (r = -0.20, p = 0.03 and r = -0.30, p = 0.0007, respectively). For PROMIS, bouted moderate/vigorous physical activity minutes correlated with less fatigue (r = -0.20, p = 0.03). PROMIS internal consistency was excellent, with Cronbach's alpha > 0.90 for each domain. Mean PROMIS T-scores for fatigue, pain interference, anxiety, sleep disturbance, sleep-related impairment, and physical function were worse than reported for the general US population. More moderate/vigorous physical activity minutes were associated with less pain interference (r = -0.22, p = 0.01). Both light physical activity and

  17. Diurnal blood pressure variability and physical activity measured electronically and by diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretler, D D; Carlson, G F; Montano, A V; Murphy, M B

    1993-02-01

    In order for 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) to be useful in clinical decision making, it is necessary to quantify ambient physical activity and to develop appropriate norms of ambulatory pressure for different levels of activity. The present study has compared the predictive value of physical activity determined by an electronic activity monitor or a written diary, for concomitantly recorded blood pressure during ABPM in healthy normotensive subjects. Each subject wore four activity monitors, on the right and left wrists, on the left ankle and at the waist, respectively. Linear regression analysis was performed for each subject to determine the correlation between ABPM data (systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate) and activity data (obtained from diaries and the four monitors). Significant differences in the degree of correlation were found for both the location of the activity monitor and the time (1/2, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 30 min preceding blood pressure measurement) over which activity was averaged (P accounting for 18 to 69% (mean 36 +/- 5%) of systolic blood pressure variation. Diaries performed similarly in these well-motivated subjects. It is concluded that because of the significant interaction between activity and blood pressure, ABPM data should be interpreted only in the light of concomitant activity data.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Research on Proximity Magnetic Field Influence in Measuring Error of Active Electronic Current Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Weijiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of the active electronic current transformer (ECT are introduced, and the mechanism of how a proximity magnetic field can influence the measuring of errors is analyzed from the perspective of the sensor section of the ECT. The impacts on active ECTs created by three-phase proximity magnetic field with invariable distance and variable distance are simulated and analyzed. The theory and simulated analysis indicate that the active ECTs are sensitive to proximity magnetic field under certain conditions. According to simulated analysis, a product structural design and the location of transformers at substation sites are suggested for manufacturers and administration of power supply, respectively.

  19. Measuring the Activity of Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2: A Kinase Involved in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung Dae; Li, Xiaojie; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the LRRK2 (Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2) gene are the most common cause of autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 has multiple functional domains including a kinase domain. The kinase activity of LRRK2 is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Developing an assay to understand the mechanisms of LRRK2 kinase activity is important for the development of pharmacologic and therapeutic applications. Here, we describe how to measure in vitro LRRK2 kinase activity and its inhibition. PMID:21960214

  20. A novel fluorogenic substrate for the measurement of endothelial lipase activity

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) is a phospholipase A1 (PLA1) enzyme that hydrolyzes phospholipids at the sn-1 position to produce lysophospholipids and free fatty acids. Measurement of the PLA1 activity of EL is usually accomplished by the use of substrates that are also hydrolyzed by lipases in other subfamilies such as PLA2 enzymes. In order to distinguish PLA1 activity of EL from PLA2 enzymatic activity in cell-based assays, cell supernatants, and other nonhomogeneous systems, a novel fluorogenic ...

  1. Activity measurement of solid Cu-In alloys by EMF method with solid electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayama I.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamic activity of indium in the solid Cu-In alloys was obtained from the EMF measurement of cell: In,In2O3, ZrO2(+11mol%CaO, Cu-In,In2O3 for 16 alloys in the temperature range 773 to 900K. Activity changes with composition at 823K are very large in the and - phase regions. Activity and free energies of formation are derived and compared with the published data.

  2. Normalization of voltage-sensitive dye signal with functional activity measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaroh Takagaki

    Full Text Available In general, signal amplitude in optical imaging is normalized using the well-established DeltaF/F method, where functional activity is divided by the total fluorescent light flux. This measure is used both directly, as a measure of population activity, and indirectly, to quantify spatial and spatiotemporal activity patterns. Despite its ubiquitous use, the stability and accuracy of this measure has not been validated for voltage-sensitive dye imaging of mammalian neocortex in vivo. In this report, we find that this normalization can introduce dynamic biases. In particular, the DeltaF/F is influenced by dye staining quality, and the ratio is also unstable over the course of experiments. As methods to record and analyze optical imaging signals become more precise, such biases can have an increasingly pernicious impact on the accuracy of findings, especially in the comparison of cytoarchitechtonic areas, in area-of-activation measurements, and in plasticity or developmental experiments. These dynamic biases of the DeltaF/F method may, to an extent, be mitigated by a novel method of normalization, DeltaF/DeltaF(epileptiform. This normalization uses as a reference the measured activity of epileptiform spikes elicited by global disinhibition with bicuculline methiodide. Since this normalization is based on a functional measure, i.e. the signal amplitude of "hypersynchronized" bursts of activity in the cortical network, it is less influenced by staining of non-functional elements. We demonstrate that such a functional measure can better represent the amplitude of population mass action, and discuss alternative functional normalizations based on the amplitude of synchronized spontaneous sleep-like activity. These findings demonstrate that the traditional DeltaF/F normalization of voltage-sensitive dye signals can introduce pernicious inaccuracies in the quantification of neural population activity. They further suggest that normalization

  3. Indoor radon activity concentration measurements in the great historical museums of University of Naples, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarto, Maria; Pugliese, Mariagabriella; Loffredo, Filomena; La Verde, Giuseppe; Roca, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Indoor radon activity concentrations were measured in seven Museums of University of Naples, very old buildings of great historical value. The measurements were performed using a time-integrated technique based on LR-115 solid-state nuclear track detectors. The annual average concentrations were found to range from 40 up to 1935 Bq m(-3) and in 26 % of measurement sites, the values were higher than 500 Bq m(-3) which is the limit value of Italian legislation for workplace. Moreover, we analysed the seasonal variations of radon concentrations observing the highest average in cold weather than in warm.

  4. Voluntary activation of human knee extensors measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, S; Romer, L M; Ross, E Z

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the applicability and reliability of a transcranial magnetic stimulation twitch interpolation technique for measuring voluntary activation of a lower limb muscle group. Cortical voluntary activation of the knee extensors was determined in nine healthy men on two separate visits by measuring superimposed twitch torques evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation during isometric knee extensions of varying intensity. Superimposed twitch amplitude decreased linearly with increasing voluntary torque between 50 and 100% of mean maximal torque, allowing estimation of resting twitch amplitude and subsequent calculation of voluntary activation. There were no systematic differences for maximal voluntary activation within day (mean +/- s.d. 90.9 +/- 6.2 versus 90.7 +/- 5.9%; P = 0.98) or between days (90.8 +/- 6.0 versus 91.2 +/- 5.7%; P = 0.92). Systematic bias and random error components of the 95% limits of agreement were 0.23 and 9.3% within day versus 0.38 and 7.5% between days. Voluntary activation was also determined immediately after a 2 min maximal voluntary isometric contraction; in four of these subjects, voluntary activation was determined 30 min after the sustained contraction. Immediately after the sustained isometric contraction, maximal voluntary activation was reduced from 91.2 +/- 5.7 to 74.2 +/- 12.0% (P knee extensors.

  5. Objectively measured physical activity during pregnancy: a study in obese and overweight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rankin Judith

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obese and overweight women may benefit from increased physical activity (PA during pregnancy. There is limited published data describing objectively measured PA in such women. Methods A longitudinal observational study of PA intensity, type and duration using objective and subjective measurement methods. Fifty five pregnant women with booking body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 were recruited from a hospital ultrasound clinic in North East England. 26 (47% were nulliparous and 22 (40% were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. PA was measured by accelerometry and self report questionnaire at 13 weeks, 26 weeks and/or 36 weeks gestation. Outcome measures were daily duration of light, moderate or vigorous activity assessed by accelerometry; calculated overall PA energy expenditure, (PAEE, and PAEE within four domains of activity based on self report. Results At median 13 weeks gestation, women recorded a median 125 mins/day light activity and 35 mins/day moderate or vigorous activity (MVPA. 65% achieved the minimum recommended 30 mins/day MVPA. This proportion was maintained at 26 weeks (62% and 36 weeks (71%. Women achieving more than 30 mins/day MVPA in the first trimester showed a significant reduction in duration of MVPA by the third trimester (11 mins/day, p = 0.003. Walking, swimming and floor exercises were the most commonly reported recreational activities but their contribution to estimated energy expenditure was small. Conclusion Overweight and obese pregnant women can achieve and maintain recommended levels of PA throughout pregnancy. Interventions to promote PA should target changes in habitual activities at work and at home, and in particular walking.

  6. Objectively measured physical activity during pregnancy: a study in obese and overweight women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Obese and overweight women may benefit from increased physical activity (PA) during pregnancy. There is limited published data describing objectively measured PA in such women. Methods A longitudinal observational study of PA intensity, type and duration using objective and subjective measurement methods. Fifty five pregnant women with booking body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 were recruited from a hospital ultrasound clinic in North East England. 26 (47%) were nulliparous and 22 (40%) were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). PA was measured by accelerometry and self report questionnaire at 13 weeks, 26 weeks and/or 36 weeks gestation. Outcome measures were daily duration of light, moderate or vigorous activity assessed by accelerometry; calculated overall PA energy expenditure, (PAEE), and PAEE within four domains of activity based on self report. Results At median 13 weeks gestation, women recorded a median 125 mins/day light activity and 35 mins/day moderate or vigorous activity (MVPA). 65% achieved the minimum recommended 30 mins/day MVPA. This proportion was maintained at 26 weeks (62%) and 36 weeks (71%). Women achieving more than 30 mins/day MVPA in the first trimester showed a significant reduction in duration of MVPA by the third trimester (11 mins/day, p = 0.003). Walking, swimming and floor exercises were the most commonly reported recreational activities but their contribution to estimated energy expenditure was small. Conclusion Overweight and obese pregnant women can achieve and maintain recommended levels of PA throughout pregnancy. Interventions to promote PA should target changes in habitual activities at work and at home, and in particular walking. PMID:21114834

  7. A measurement error model for physical activity level as measured by a questionnaire with application to the 1999-2006 NHANES questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooze, Janet A; Troiano, Richard P; Carroll, Raymond J; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Freedman, Laurence S

    2013-06-01

    Systematic investigations into the structure of measurement error of physical activity questionnaires are lacking. We propose a measurement error model for a physical activity questionnaire that uses physical activity level (the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal energy expenditure) to relate questionnaire-based reports of physical activity level to true physical activity levels. The 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey physical activity questionnaire was administered to 433 participants aged 40-69 years in the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study (Maryland, 1999-2000). Valid estimates of participants' total energy expenditure were also available from doubly labeled water, and basal energy expenditure was estimated from an equation; the ratio of those measures estimated true physical activity level ("truth"). We present a measurement error model that accommodates the mixture of errors that arise from assuming a classical measurement error model for doubly labeled water and a Berkson error model for the equation used to estimate basal energy expenditure. The method was then applied to the OPEN Study. Correlations between the questionnaire-based physical activity level and truth were modest (r = 0.32-0.41); attenuation factors (0.43-0.73) indicate that the use of questionnaire-based physical activity level would lead to attenuated estimates of effect size. Results suggest that sample sizes for estimating relationships between physical activity level and disease should be inflated, and that regression calibration can be used to provide measurement error-adjusted estimates of relationships between physical activity and disease.

  8. Differentiating challenge reactivity from psychomotor activity in studies of children's psychophysiology: considerations for theory and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Nicole R; Alkon, Abbey; Obradović, Jelena; Stamperdahl, Juliet; Boyce, W Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Current methods of assessing children's physiological "stress reactivity" may be confounded by psychomotor activity, biasing estimates of the relation between reactivity and health. We examined the joint and independent contributions of psychomotor activity and challenge reactivity during a protocol for 5- and 6-year-old children (N = 338). Measures of parasympathetic reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and sympathetic reactivity (preejection period [PEP]) were calculated for social, cognitive, sensory, and emotional challenge tasks. Reactivity was calculated relative to both resting and a paired comparison task that accounted for psychomotor activity effects during each challenge. Results indicated that comparison tasks themselves elicited RSA and PEP responses, and reactivity adjusted for psychomotor activity was incongruent with reactivity calculated using rest. Findings demonstrate the importance of accounting for confounding psychomotor activity effects on physiological reactivity.

  9. Original article Inventory of Physical Activity Objectives – a new method of measuring motives for physical activity and sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Lipowski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background As a conscious activity of an individual, physical activity (PA constitutes an element of the free-time dimension. The type of goal allows us to distinguish between sport and PA: sport performance vs. psychophysical health – hence the idea to develop a tool for measurement of the motivational function of an objective in physical activity and sport. Participants and procedure The normalisation sample consisted of 2141 individuals: 1163 women aged 16-64 (M = 23.90, SD = 8.30 and 978 men aged 16-66 (M = 24.50, SD = 9.40. In the process of validation, a factor analysis, and subsequently validity and reliability analysis of the tool, and normalisation of scales were performed. Results Based on the factor analysis and the degree to which each of the given items conformed to the theory of the motivational function of an objective, the following scales were distinguished: 1 motivational value (the extent to which the objective influences the actions undertaken by an individual, 2 time management (the level of focus on planning, arranging and organizing time for PA, 3 persistence in action (efficiency and persistence of action, and the ability to deal with adversities, and 4 motivational conflict (the level of conflict: PA objectives vs. other objectives. The Cronbach’s α reliability coefficient for this version reached .78. The Inventory of Physical Activity Objectives (IPAO also included questions that allow one to control for variables such as the variety of forms, duration, and frequency of PA, and socio-demographic variables. Conclusions The IPAO, as a new method for measuring motives for physical activity and sport, is characterized by good psychometric properties. The IPAO can serve both scientific research and as a useful tool for personal trainers, helping diagnose the motives for engaging in PA and sports. With knowledge about the purposefulness of actions, it is possible to support and shape additional motivation experienced by

  10. Chemical composition measurements of the low activity waste (LAW) EPA-Series glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analysis results for a series of simulated low activity waste glasses provided by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as part of an ongoing development task. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. A detailed review showed no indications of errors in the preparation or measurement of the study glasses. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 100.2 to 100.8 wt %, indicating recovery of all components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %.

  11. Enzymatic activity measured by microcalorimetry in soil amended with organic residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Cenciani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic activity is an important property for soil quality evaluation. Two sequences of experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the enzymatic activity in a soil (Rhodic Eutrudox amended with cattle manure, earthworm casts, or sewage sludges from the municipalities of Barueri and Franca. The activity of commercial enzymes was measured by microcalorimetry in the same soil samples after sterilization. In the first experiment, the enzyme activities of cellulase, protease, and urease were determined in the soil samples during a three month period. In the second sequence of experiments, the thermal effect of the commercial enzymes cellulase, protease, and urease on sterilized soil samples under the same tretaments was monitored for a period of 46 days. The experimental design was randomized and arranged as factorial scheme in five treatments x seven samplings with five replications. The treatment effects were statistically evaluated by one-way analysis of variance. Tukey´s test was used to compare means at p < 0.05. The presence of different sources of organic residues increased the enzymatic activity in the sampling period. Cattle manure induced the highest enzymatic activity, followed by municipal sewage sludge, whereas earthworm casts induced the lowest activity, but differed from control treatment. The thermal effect on the enzyme activity of commercial cellulase, protease, and urease showed a variety of time peaks. These values probably oscillated due to soil physical-chemical factors affecting the enzyme activity on the residues.

  12. Measurement uncertainty on subsurface defects detection using active infrared thermographic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yoon Jae; Kim [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Jae [Center for Safety Measurements, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Active infrared thermography methods have been known to possess good fault detection capabilities for the detection of defects in materials compared to the conventional passive thermal infrared imaging techniques. However, the reliability of the technique has been under scrutiny. This paper proposes the lock-in thermography technique for the detection and estimation of artificial subsurface defect size and depth with uncertainty measurement.

  13. Activity measurement of phosphorus-32 in the presence of pure beta-emitting impurities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, B

    2006-02-27

    Full Text Available measurements indicated the presence of radioactive impurities, the occurrence of the pure beta-emitters phosphorus-33 and sulphur-35 was assumed. The method adopted to extract the phosphorus-32 activity was thus to follow the decay over an extended period...

  14. Measuring potential denitrification enzyme activity rates using the membrane inlet mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) assay, provides a quantitative assessment of the multi enzyme, biological process of reactive nitrogen removal via the reduction of N03 to N2. Measured in soil, usually under non limiting carbon and nitrate concentrations, this short ter...

  15. Praseodymium activation detector for measuring bursts of 14 MeV neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, Tim, E-mail: meehanbt@nv.doe.go [National Security Technologies, LLC, P.O. Box 98521, North Las Vegas, NV 89030 (United States); Hagen, E.C. [National Security Technologies, LLC, P.O. Box 98521, North Las Vegas, NV 89030 (United States); Ruiz, C.L.; Cooper, G.W. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2010-08-21

    A new, accurate, neutron activation detection scheme for measuring pulsed neutrons has been designed and tested. The detection system is sensitive to neutrons with energies above 10 MeV; importantly, it is insensitive to gamma radiation <10 MeV and to lower-energy (e.g., fission and thermal) neutrons. It is based upon the use of {sup 141}Pr, an element that has a single, naturally occurring isotope, a significant n,2n cross-section, and decays by positron emission that result in two coincident 511 keV photons. Neutron fluences are thus inferred by relating measured reaction product decay activity to fluence. Specific sample activity is measured using the sum-peak method to count gamma-ray coincidences from the annihilation of the positron decay products. The system was tested using 14 and 2.45 MeV neutron bursts produced by NSTec Dense Plasma Focus Laboratory fusion sources. Lead, copper, beryllium, and silver activation detectors were compared. The detection method allows measurement of 14 MeV neutron yield with a total error of {approx}18%.

  16. Enhancing Maritime Education and Training: Measuring a Ship Navigator's Stress Based on Salivary Amylase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Koji; Wakida, Shin-Ichi; Miyado, Takashi; Fukushi, Keiichi; Hayashi, Yuji; Stone, Laurie C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose that the measurement of salivary amylase activity is an effective index to evaluate the stress of a ship navigator for safe navigation training and education. Design/methodology/approach: Evaluation comes from the simulator and actual on-board experiments. The subjects are real captains who have…

  17. Predictability of bacterial activity and denitrification in aquatic sediments with continuous measurements of redox potential.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunting, E.R.; van der Geest, H.G.

    2011-01-01

    Redox potential has been adopted as a qualitative parameter for interpreting solubility changes of nutrients and contaminants and the biological activity within wetland systems for several decades. The majority of studies considering the redox geochemistry in sediments used measurements of bulked

  18. Activity measurement of phosphorus-32 in the presence of pure beta-emitting impurities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, BRS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors describe the activity measurements undertaken at the CSIR’s National Metrology Laboratory on a solution of the pure beta emitting Radio nuclide phosphorus-32 that formed part of an international key comparison. Depending on the production...

  19. Quality of Life Assessment for Physical Activity and Health Promotion: Further Psychometrics and Comparison of Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L.; Reifsteck, Erin J.; Adams, Melanie M.; Shang, Ya-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Despite the clear relationship between physical activity and quality of life, few sound, relevant quality of life measures exist. Gill and colleagues developed a 32-item quality of life survey, and provided initial psychometric evidence. This study further examined that quality of life survey in comparison with the widely used short form (SF-36)…

  20. Physical Activity Measurement Instruments for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capio, Catherine M.; Sit, Cindy H. P.; Abernethy, Bruce; Rotor, Esmerita R.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This paper is a systematic review of physical activity measurement instruments for field-based studies involving children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Database searches using PubMed Central, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and PEDro located 12 research papers, identifying seven instruments that met the inclusion…

  1. 75 FR 54374 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0112, Performance Measures Data, Revision of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0112, Performance Measures Data, Revision of a Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... information collection (1010-0112). SUMMARY: To comply with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA),...

  2. 78 FR 74125 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Measuring Educational Gain in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Measuring Educational Gain in the National.... chapter 3501 et seq.), ED is proposing an extension of an existing information collection. DATES... submitted after the comment period will not be accepted. Written requests for information or...

  3. Bias Errors in Measurement of Vibratory Power and Implication for Active Control of Structural Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlrich, Mogens; Henriksen, Eigil; Laugesen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    control of vibratory power transmission into structures. This is demonstrated by computer simulations using a theoretical model of a beam structure which is driven by one primary source and two control sources. These simulations reveal the influence of residual errors on power measurements......, and the limitations imposed in active control of structural vibration based upon a strategy of power minimisation....

  4. The minimal important difference for measures of urticaria disease activity: Updated findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Susan D; Crosby, Ross D; Rosén, Karin E; Zazzali, James L

    2015-01-01

    The Urticaria Patient Daily Diary (UPDD) is a validated patient-reported outcome that captures key measures of urticaria disease activity. To update estimates of the minimal important difference (MID) for urticaria disease activity measures in the UPDD, including the weekly itch severity score, weekly number of hives score, weekly average size of largest hive score, and the composite measure of itch severity and number of hives over 7 days, or urticaria activity score 7 (UAS7). A total of 975 subjects with chronic idiopathic urticaria from three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies completed the UPDD and other patient-reported outcome assessments (the Dermatology Life Quality Index, Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale, the Chronic Urticaria Quality-of-Life Questionnaire, the EuroQoL-5 Dimension Questionnaire) multiple times. MIDs were estimated through a combination of distribution- and anchor-based methods. MID estimates ranged from 4.5 to 5.0 for the weekly itch severity score, 5.0 to 5.5 for weekly hives count score, 9.5 to 10.5 for the UAS7, and 4.0 to 4.5 for the weekly size of the largest hive score. This analysis provided confirmation of the previous MID estimates for the urticaria disease activity measures in the UPDD.

  5. Changing Investment in Activities and Interests in Elders' Lives: Theory and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kathryn Betts

    2004-01-01

    Socioemotional selectivity and gerotranscendence, newer theories with roots in the disengagement theory of aging, provided the theoretical framework for a new measure of perceived change in investment in a variety of pursuits. The 30-item Change in Activity and Interest Index (CAII) was given to a sample of 327 outpatients aged 65-94. Items with…

  6. Multistatic Tracking for Continous Active Sonar using Doppler-Bearing Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    S. Coraluppi, Multistatic active sonar system interoperability, data fusion, and measures of performance, NURC Technical Report NURC -FR-2006-004...of Doppler sensitive and insensitive waveforms, NURC Technical Report SR-427, July 2005. [7] S. Nardone, V. Aidala, Observability Criteria For

  7. Telemetry Option in the Measurement of Physical Activity for Patients with Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melczer Csaba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of physical activity among patients with heart failure typically requires a special approach due to the patients’ physical status. Nowadays, a technology is already available that can measure the kinematic movements in 3-D by a pacemaker and implantable defibrillator giving an assessment on software. The telemetry data can be transmitted to a central system. The research aims to elaborate the methods that help to compare of the data concerning physical activity both built-in an accelerometer in Cardiac Resychrinisation Therapy (CRT devices and data obtained from an external Actigraph GT3XE-Plus Triaxial Activity Monitor. 5 persons participated in the pilot study (n=5; mean age: 57+- 13.37; BMI: 90.6+- 7.63. The Actigraph data from CRT device were examined in a 6-day-interval, between February 28 and March 5, 2014. The investigation started conducting a 6-minute walking test and continued with the measurement of daily physical activity. For data analysis descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis were used. It is clear from the data obtained from Actigraph that the MET values (mean: 1.17 ± 0.096 of the patients in the sample were extremely low due to their disease. However, some patients with higher physical activity than average (1.26; 1.28 seemed to be noteworthy, but they showed lower performance than healthy people. The physical activity of the patients during the 6-minute walking test corresponded to 1.9-2.48 MET. The physical activity of patients was found typically in the “light or moderate range” classifying the physical activity by Actigraph. Data from Actigraph are accurate and detailed making the physical activity of the patients measurable and appreciable. The results of the 6-minute walking test were in the category from moderate to very vigorous for individualized moderate physical performance based on Actigraph. It indicates the individual performance differences among patients. However, the daily

  8. Field measurement of dermal soil loading attributable to various activities: implications for exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, J C; Richter, K Y; Fenske, R A

    1996-02-01

    Estimates of soil adherence to skin are required for assessment of dermal exposures to contaminants in soils. Previously available estimates depend heavily on indirect measurements and/or artificial activities and reflect sampling of hands only. Results are presented here from direct measurement of soil loading on skin surfaces of volunteers before and after normal occupational and recreational activities that might reasonably be expected to lead to soil contact. Skin surfaces assayed included hands, forearms, lower legs, faces and/or feet. Observed hand loadings vary over five orders of magnitude (roughly from 10(-3) to 10(2) mg/cm2) and are dependent upon type of activity. Hand loadings within the current default range of 0.2 to 1.0 mg/cm2 were produced by activities providing opportunity for relatively vigorous soil contact (rugby, farming). Loadings less than 0.2 mg/cm2 were found on hands following activities presenting less opportunity for direct soil contact (soccer, professional grounds maintenance) and on other body parts under many conditions. The default range does not, however, represent a worst case. Children playing in mud on the shore of a lake generated geometric mean loadings well in excess of 1 mg/cm2 on hands, arms, legs, and feet. Post-activity average loadings on hands were typically higher than average loadings on other body parts resulting from the same activity. Hand data from limited activities cannot, however, be used to conservatively predict loadings that might occur on other body surfaces without regard to activity since non-hand loadings attributable to higher contact activities exceeded hand loadings resulting from lower contact activities. Differences between pre- and post-activity loadings also demonstrate that dermal contact with soil is episodic. Typical background (pre-activity) geometric mean loadings appear to be on the order of 10(-2) mg/cm2 or less. Because exposures are activity dependent, quantification of dermal exposure

  9. The accuracy of the 24-h activity recall method for assessing sedentary behaviour: the physical activity measurement survey (PAMS) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngwon; Welk, Gregory J

    2017-02-01

    Sedentary behaviour (SB) has emerged as a modifiable risk factor, but little is known about measurement errors of SB. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of 24-h Physical Activity Recall (24PAR) relative to SenseWear Armband (SWA) for assessing SB. Each participant (n = 1485) undertook a series of data collection procedures on two randomly selected days: wearing a SWA for full 24-h, and then completing the telephone-administered 24PAR the following day to recall the past 24-h activities. Estimates of total sedentary time (TST) were computed without the inclusion of reported or recorded sleep time. Equivalence testing was used to compare estimates of TST. Analyses from equivalence testing showed no significant equivalence of 24PAR for TST (90% CI: 443.0 and 457.6 min · day(-1)) relative to SWA (equivalence zone: 580.7 and 709.8 min · day(-1)). Bland-Altman plots indicated individuals that were extremely or minimally sedentary provided relatively comparable sedentary time between 24PAR and SWA. Overweight/obese and/or older individuals were more likely to under-estimate sedentary time than normal weight and/or younger individuals. Measurement errors of 24PAR varied by the level of sedentary time and demographic indicators. This evidence informs future work to develop measurement error models to correct for errors of self-reports.

  10. A Review of Emerging Analytical Techniques for Objective Physical Activity Measurement in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cain C T; Barnes, Claire M; Stratton, Gareth; McNarry, Melitta A; Mackintosh, Kelly A; Summers, Huw D

    2017-03-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most prevalent risk factors for non-communicable diseases in the world. A fundamental barrier to enhancing physical activity levels and decreasing sedentary behavior is limited by our understanding of associated measurement and analytical techniques. The number of analytical techniques for physical activity measurement has grown significantly, and although emerging techniques may advance analyses, little consensus is presently available and further synthesis is therefore required. The objective of this review was to identify the accuracy of emerging analytical techniques used for physical activity measurement in humans. We conducted a search of electronic databases using Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar. This review included studies written in English and published between January 2010 and December 2014 that assessed physical activity using emerging analytical techniques and reported technique accuracy. A total of 2064 papers were initially retrieved from three databases. After duplicates were removed and remaining articles screened, 50 full-text articles were reviewed, resulting in the inclusion of 11 articles that met the eligibility criteria. Despite the diverse nature and the range in accuracy associated with some of the analytic techniques, the rapid development of analytics has demonstrated that more sensitive information about physical activity may be attained. However, further refinement of these techniques is needed.

  11. Active fiber polymer cladding temperature measurement under conditions of laser generation and amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sypin, V. E.; Prusakov, K. Y.; Ryabushkin, O. A.

    2016-04-01

    Polymer cladding temperature of active fiber in lasing regime is important parameter as it allows determination of fiber core temperature that in turn effects laser generation and amplification efficiency. Besides polymer cladding has much lower temperature damage threshold comparing to fused silica. For example, 200 degrees Kelvin overheating of the polymer cladding can result in fiber degradation. In present paper we introduce novel and simple method for precise temperature measurement of active fibers cladding under conditions of laser generation and amplification. Dependence of longitudinal temperature distribution along active fibers on optical pump power can be determined. This method employs measurement of temperature dependent electrical resistance of the metal wire being in thermal contact with fiber polymer cladding. The wire is reeled on the active fiber segment. Under lasing or amplification conditions the polymer cladding of the active fiber is heated together with coiled metal wire resulting in its electrical resistance change. By measuring resistance variation one can determine the temperature of the given fiber section.

  12. Simultaneous measurement of neuronal activity and cortical hemodynamics by unshielded magnetoencephalography and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yusuke; Miyashita, Tsuyoshi; Kandori, Akihiko; Maki, Atsushi; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2012-10-01

    The correlation between neuronal activity and cortical hemodynamics, namely, neurovascular coupling (NVC), is important to shed light on the mechanism of a variety of brain functions or neuronal diseases. NVC can be studied by simultaneously measuring neuronal activity and cortical hemodynamics. Consequently, noninvasive measurements of the NVC have been widely studied using both electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, electromagnetic interference between EEG and fMRI is still a major problem. On the other hand, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is another promising tool for detecting cortical hemodynamics because it can be combined with EEG or magnetoencephalography (MEG) without any electromagnetic interference. Accordingly, in the present study, a simultaneous measurement system-combining an unshielded MEG using a two-dimensional gradiometer based on a low-T superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and an NIRS using nonmagnetic thin probes-was developed. This combined system was used to simultaneously measure both an auditory-evoked magnetic field and blood flow change in the auditory cortex. It was experimentally demonstrated that the combined unshielded MEG/NIRS system can simultaneously measure neuronal activity and cortical hemodynamics.

  13. Passive and active measurements of radon-related parameters inside ancient Egyptian tombs in Luxor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abo-Elmagd, M. [Radiation Measurements Department, National Institute for Standard, Giza (Egypt)]. E-mail: abo_elmgd@hotmail.com; Metwally, S.M. [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Fiki, S.A. [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Eissa, H.M. [Radiation Measurements Department, National Institute for Standard, Giza (Egypt); Salama, E. [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-01-15

    Radon and its related parameters were measured using passive (CR-39) and active (Alpha-Guard analyzer) techniques inside seven ancient Egyptian tombs of the Valley of the Kings in Luxor. The measurements were performed throughout the winter and summer seasons. The average radon concentration inside the tombs ranges from 96.9+/-10.8 to 415+/-43Bqm{sup -3} in winter and from 86.4+/-13.8 to 6102.8+/-573.6 in summer. Because of the variations of tombs dimensions and their ventilation systems, the equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny ranges from 0.228+/-0.02 to 0.95+/-0.05. The effective doses for the tomb workers, the tour guide and visitors were calculated. Active measurements show that radon exhalation rates range from 0.68+/-0.30 to 1.47+/-0.27Bqm{sup -2}h{sup -1} and from 0.60+/-0.03 to 1.42+/-0.05Bqm{sup -2}h{sup -1} for passive measurements. The real radium content was determined for all examined tombs by HPGe detector, while the effective radium content was obtained by Alpha-Guard and sealed cup techniques. Radon exhalation rates were correlated with the real radium content. A good correlation was found between active and passive measurements of radon exhalation rate.

  14. Determination of biological activity from fluorescence-lifetime measurements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudek, F.; Baselt, T.; Lempe, B.; Taudt, C.; Hartmann, P.

    2015-03-01

    The importance of fluorescence lifetime measurement as an optical analysis tool is growing. Many applications already exist in order to determine the fluorescence lifetime, but the majority of these require the addition of fluorescence-active substances to enable measurements. Every usage of such foreign materials has an associated risk. This paper investigates the use of auto-fluorescing substances in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) as a risk free alternative to fluorescence-active substance enabled measurements. The experimental setup uses a nitrogen laser with a pulse length of 350 ps and a wavelength of 337 nm. The excited sample emits light due to fluorescence of NADH/NADPH and collagen. A fast photodiode collects the light at the output of an appropriate high-pass edge-filter at 400 nm. Fluorescence lifetimes can be determined from the decay of the measurement signals, which in turn characterizes the individual materials and their surrounding environment. Information about the quantity of the fluorescence active substances can also be measured based on the received signal intensity. The correlation between the fluorescence lifetime and the metabolic state of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated and is presented here.

  15. Objectively measured differences in physical activity in five types of schoolyard area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Klinker, Charlotte Demant; Toftager, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Physical activity (PA) in childhood is related to a multitude of short- and long-term health consequences. School recess can contribute with up to 40% of the recommended 60 min of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This paper aims to investigate how schoolchildren use...... different schoolyard areas during recess and whether these areas are associated with different levels of PA. Time spent by 316 students (grade 5–8) in five types of schoolyard area was measured during at least two days and four separate recess period per person (in total 1784 recess periods), using global...... positioning system (GPS) and the level of activity was measured using accelerometers. Total time spent and proportions of time spent sedentary and in MVPA were calculated per area type. Significant differences in PA levels were found. Grass and playground areas had the highest proportion of time in MVPA...

  16. Measurements of the neutron activation cross sections for Bi and Co at 386 MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashima, H; Sekimoto, S; Ninomiya, K; Kasamatsu, Y; Shima, T; Takahashi, N; Shinohara, A; Matsumura, H; Satoh, D; Iwamoto, Y; Hagiwara, M; Nishiizumi, K; Caffee, M W; Shibata, S

    2014-10-01

    Neutron activation cross sections for Bi and Co at 386 MeV were measured by activation method. A quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam was produced using the (7)Li(p,n) reaction. The energy spectrum of these neutrons has a high-energy peak (386 MeV) and a low-energy tail. Two neutron beams, 0° and 25° from the proton beam axis, were used for sample irradiation, enabling a correction for the contribution of the low-energy neutrons. The neutron-induced activation cross sections were estimated by subtracting the reaction rates of irradiated samples for 25° irradiation from those of 0° irradiation. The measured cross sections were compared with the findings of other studies, evaluated in relation to nuclear data files and the calculated data by Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System code.

  17. Free radicals and SOD activity of jaw cyst. Direct measurement and spin trapping studies by ESR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, H; Simodate, H; Suzuki, M

    1990-01-01

    Free radicals produced in the fluid of jaw cysts were directly measured at room temperature using ESR. With these samples, SOD activity of the cyst fluid was measured by the ESR spin trapping method with DMPO as a trapping agent. Freeze-dried samples of cyst fluid showed a broad ESR signal at g = 2.005. Relative signal intensity of samples from jaw cysts with inflammation was higher than jaw cysts without inflammation. SOD activity of cyst fluid with high viscosity showed higher values than that of cyst fluid with low viscosity. We suggest that free radicals produced in jaw cyst damage tissues while higher SOD activity of cyst fluid play a role in a self-defense mechanism against free radicals.

  18. Active life in old age. Combining measures of functional ability and social participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, K; Holstein, B E; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    1999-01-01

    . SUBJECTS: A random sample of 75-year-old people who were invited to participate in the study (participation rate: 89, n = 477). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: ALC is a combination of two dichotomized variables: functional ability (dependent vs not dependent of help) and social participation (low vs. high). RESULTS......This paper describes a new measure of Active Life Expectancy, called Active Life Classification (ALC) in which the criterion for successful aging is a combination of good functional ability and high social participation. OBJECTIVES: 1) to describe the distribution of ALC among 75-year-old men...... were associated with ALC. CONCLUSIONS: It is an advantage to combine functional ability and social participation in the description of quality of life in old age, as 1) a high social participation may compensate for a poor functional ability, and vice versa, 2) the combined measure is meaningful...

  19. Bias Errors in Measurement of Vibratory Power and Implication for Active Control of Structural Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlrich, Mogens; Henriksen, Eigil; Laugesen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    of a degree for the phase. This implies that input power at a single point can be measured to within one dB in practical structures which possesses some damping. The uncertainty is increased, however, when sums of measured power contributions from more sources are to be minimised, as is the case in active...... control of vibratory power transmission into structures. This is demonstrated by computer simulations using a theoretical model of a beam structure which is driven by one primary source and two control sources. These simulations reveal the influence of residual errors on power measurements......, and the limitations imposed in active control of structural vibration based upon a strategy of power minimisation....

  20. Review on retrieval of lunar regolith thickness by active and passive microwave measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiguo MENG; Shengbo CHEN; Cai LIU; Xiaojuan DU; Tao MENG; Zijun WANG; Hang LU

    2008-01-01

    It is one of the important methods to retrieve lunar regolith thickness using active and passive microwave techniques. The retrieval of lunar regolith thickness is based on microwave radiation transfer process simulation in the regolith media. The lunar regolith model is first introduced, and the features of the involved physical parameters are indicated thereafter, such as dielectric constants, surface roughness, particle size and thermal grads of the lunar regolith. The time delay and the migration of the radar echoes from the different interfaces is the key problem for active microwave measurement. And the simulation of the microwave radiative transfer in the regolith media is the important technique for the passive microwave measurement. The important parameters and the physical mechanism for the two measurements are also presented.

  1. [Cytomechanics of oscillatory contractions. Measurement of active mechanical properties of Physarum polycephalum plasmodium strands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'iasov, F E; Morozov, M A; Teplov, V A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this series of studies is to elucidate the role of mechanical stresses in the processes of cell activation. The experiments were done with a huge unicellular organism, the Physarum polycephalum plasmodium, which is a classical object in studies of the nonmuscle motility. The contractile properties of this amoeboid cell were investigated with the help of an inexpensive electronic-mechanical measuring system. A short description of this device is presented, which allows one to maintain a given kinetics of either the length or the load of the object and to measure either its tension force or deformation, respectively, as a response. Some examples of the longitudinal dynamics of the plasmodial strand and its activation under periodic switching of regimes of measurement in certain phases of the contraction-relaxation cycle are shown.

  2. Advanced flow measurement and active flow control of aircraft with MEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Chengyu; Deng Jinjun; Ma Binghe; Yuan Weizheng

    2012-01-01

    Advanced flow measurement and active flow control need the development of new type devices and systems. Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technologies become the important and feasible approach for micro transducers fabrication. This paper introduces research works of MEMS/NEMS Lab in flow measurement sensors and active flow control actuators. Micro sensors include the flexible thermal sensor array, capacitive shear stress sensor and high sensitivity pressure sensor. Micro actuators are the balloon actuator and synthetic jet actuator respectively. Through wind tunnel test, these micro transducers achieve the goals of shear stress and pressure distribution measurement, boundary layer separation control, lift enhancement, etc. And unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight test verifies the ability of maneuver control of micro actuator. In the future work, micro sensor and actuator can be combined into a closed-loop control system to construct aerodynamic smart skin system for aircraft.

  3. Feasibility and validity of accelerometer measurements to assess physical activity in toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accelerometers are considered to be the most promising tool for measuring physical activity (PA in free-living young children. So far, no studies have examined the feasibility and validity of accelerometer measurements in children under 3 years of age. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the feasibility and validity of accelerometer measurements in toddlers (1- to 3-year olds. Methods Forty-seven toddlers (25 boys; 20 ± 4 months wore a GT1M ActiGraph accelerometer for 6 consecutive days and parental perceptions of the acceptability of wearing the monitor were assessed to examine feasibility. To investigate the validity of the ActiGraph and the predictive validity of three ActiGraph cut points, accelerometer measurements of 31 toddlers (17 boys; 20 ± 4 months during free play at child care were compared to directly observed PA, using the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool (OSRAC-P. Validity was assessed using Pearson and Spearman correlations and predictive validity using area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC-AUC. Results The feasibility examination indicated that accelerometer measurements of 30 toddlers (63.8% could be included with a mean registration time of 564 ± 62 min during weekdays and 595 ± 83 min during weekend days. According to the parental reports, 83% perceived wearing the accelerometer as 'not unpleasant and not pleasant' and none as 'unpleasant'. The validity evaluation showed that mean ActiGraph activity counts were significantly and positively associated with mean OSRAC-P activity intensity (r = 0.66; p Conclusions The present findings suggest that ActiGraph accelerometer measurements are feasible and valid for quantifying PA in toddlers. However, further research is needed to accurately identify PA intensities in toddlers using accelerometry.

  4. The relationship between objectively measured physical activity, salivary cortisol, and the metabolic syndrome score in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Katrina D; McKune, Andrew J

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between physical activity levels, salivary cortisol, and the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) score was examined. Twenty-three girls (8.4 ± 0.9 years) had a fasting blood draw, waist circumference and blood pressure measured, and wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 5 days. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol levels. Previously established cut points estimated the minutes spent in moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. A continuous MetSyn score was created from blood pressure, waist circumference, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride, and glucose values. Correlation analyses examined associations between physical activity, cortisol, the MetSyn score, and its related components. Regression analysis examined the relationship between cortisol, the MetSyn score, and its related components adjusting for physical activity, percent body fat, and sexual maturity. Vigorous physical activity was positively related with 30 min post waking cortisol values. The MetSyn score was not related with cortisol values after controlling for confounders. In contrast, HDL was negatively related with 30 min post waking cortisol. Triglyceride was positively related with 30 min post waking cortisol and area under the curve. The MetSyn score and many of its components were not related to cortisol salivary levels even after adjusting for physical activity, body fat percentage, and sexual maturity.

  5. Assessment of released acrosin activity as a measurement of the sperm acrosome reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-Zhi Liu; Wan-Li Na; Hong-Guo Zhang; Zhi-Yong Lin; Bai-Oong Xue; Zong-Oe Xu

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To develop a method for assessing sperm function by measuring released acrosin activity during the acrosome reaction (AR). Methods: Human semen samples were obtained from 24 healthy donors with proven fertility after 3-7 days of sexual abstinence. After collection, samples were liquefied for 30 min at room temperature. Standard semen parameters were evaluated according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Calcium ionophore A23187 and progesterone (P4) were used to stimulate the sperm to undergo AR. After treatment, sperm were incubated with the supravital dye Hoechst33258, fixed in a glutaraldehyde-phosphate-buffered saline solution, and the acrosomal status was determined by fluorescence microscopy with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled Pisum sativum agglutinin (FITC-PSA). The percentage of sperm undergoing AR (AR%) was compared to sperm acrosin activities as assessed by spectrocolorimetry. The correlation between AR% and acrosin activity was determined by statistical analysis. Results: The AR% and released acrosin activity were both markedly increased with A23187 and P4 stimulation. Sperm motility and viability were significantly higher after stimulation with P4 versus stimula-tion with A23187 (P < 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between released acrosin activity and AR% determined by FITC-PSA staining (r = 0.916, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Spectrocolorimetric measurement of released acrosin activity might serve as a reasonable alternative method to evaluate AR.

  6. Correlates of subjectively and objectively measured physical activity in young adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kelly Kavanaugh; Justin B. Moore; Leisha Johnson Hibbett; Andrew T. Kaczynski

    2015-01-01

    Background:Many studies examining individual-level correlates in youth utilize self-report rather than objective measures of physical activity (PA). This utilization of self-report may result in associations that are not present when examining objectively measured PA. The present study investigates the relationship between hypothesized correlates of PA with objectively and subjectively measured PA. Methods: Participating children (n = 232, 101 males, mean age = 12.3 years) provided a minimum of four monitored days of PA (via accelerometer) and completed a survey assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sport competence, appearance, enjoyment, and self-efficacy. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Results: Hierarchical regression models controlling for sex, race, and BMI Z-score showed that only sex and BMI Z-score were significant correlates of objective MVPA while only sex was a significant correlate of objective total PA. However, in a separate model examining the relationship with subjective MVPA, enjoyment of PA and self-efficacy for PA were the only significant correlates of self-reported PA. Conclusion:Measuring MVPA via self-report versus accelerometry produces considerably different results in a sample of young adolescents. Future studies should use caution when selecting outcome measures if the intent is to identify modifiable correlates of MVPA in youth.

  7. Using Activity Monitors to Measure Sit-to-Stand Transitions in Overweight/Obese Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tarrah; Borner, Kelsey; Finch, Jonathan; Kerr, Jacqueline; Carlson, Jordan A

    2017-08-01

    Reducing sedentary behavior has emerged as an important health intervention strategy. Although hip-worn, and more recently wrist-worn, accelerometers are commonly used for measuring physical activity and sedentary behavior, they may not provide accurate measures of postural changes. The current study examined the validity of commonly used hip- and wrist-worn accelerometer cut points and the thigh-worn activPAL activity monitor for measuring sit-to-stand transitions as compared with direct observation in youth with overweight and obesity. Nine children wore three activity monitors while being directly observed. The monitors included a hip- and wrist-worn ActiGraph and thigh-worn activPAL. The hip-worn ActiGraph was processed with the normal- and low-frequency filters and the inclinometer function. Cut points of ≤25 counts per 15-s epoch for the hip and ≤105 counts per 15-s epoch for the wrist were applied to the vertical axis to identify sit-to-stand transitions. Epoch-level absolute agreement, Bland-Altman plots, mixed-effects linear regression, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were investigated. The hip and wrist accelerometer cut points and the hip inclinometer function overestimated the number of hourly sit-to-stand transitions by approximately triple as compared with direct observation. ICC values between the ActiGraph methods and the direct observation were all Sit-to-stand transitions assessed from activPAL were within 17% of direct observation; ICC was 0.26. Despite the common use of the 100-count hip-worn accelerometer cut point for assessing sedentary time, these processing decisions should be used with caution for assessing sit-to-stand transitions. Future research should investigate other processing methods for ActiGraph data, and studies investigating postural changes should consider including devices such as activPAL.

  8. Measurement of zinc activity in the ternary In–Zn–Sn alloys by EMF method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, C.K., E-mail: ckbehera.met@itbhu.ac.in; Sonaye, A.

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: • Activity of zinc in the ternary In–Zn–Sn system has been measured in the temperature range 753–853 K by EMF method. • Isoactivity lines for zinc reflect the positive deviation from the ideality at 813 K. • The activity of indium in In–Sn binary system shows negative deviation from Raoult's law over entire range of composition. • Ternary excess molar free energies at 813 K are computed by Darken's treatment. • Calculated molar excess free energies for the ternary systems are compared with the Chou's theoretical model data. - Abstract: Activity of zinc in liquid In–Zn–Sn alloys has been measured by electrochemical technique based on molten salt electrolyte galvanic cell in the temperature range 753–853 K along three ternary sections of Zn{sub x}(In{sub y}Sn{sub 1−y}){sub 1−x} where y = 0.67, 0.50 and 0.33. The activity of indium in In–Sn binary alloys has also been measured by the same technique in the same temperature range. The activity of Zinc in In–Zn–Sn alloys shows positive deviation from the Raoult's law over entire range of composition. The activity of indium in In–Sn alloys shows negative deviations from ideality for entire composition. The excess molar free energies have been computed by the Darken's treatment of the ternary solutions using In–Sn binary data and ternary data in this study. Isoactivity curves at 813 K in the ternary In–Zn–Sn alloys were derived by combining the activity data of In–Zn and Sn–Zn alloys. The values of excess molar free energy in this study are in good agreement with those calculated from the general model calculation proposed by Chou.

  9. Validation of Web-Based Physical Activity Measurement Systems Using Doubly Labeled Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yukio; Yamada, Yosuke; Tokushima, Satoru; Hatamoto, Yoichi; Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Misaka; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Background Online or Web-based measurement systems have been proposed as convenient methods for collecting physical activity data. We developed two Web-based physical activity systems—the 24-hour Physical Activity Record Web (24hPAR WEB) and 7 days Recall Web (7daysRecall WEB). Objective To examine the validity of two Web-based physical activity measurement systems using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Methods We assessed the validity of the 24hPAR WEB and 7daysRecall WEB in 20 individuals, aged 25 to 61 years. The order of email distribution and subsequent completion of the two Web-based measurements systems was randomized. Each measurement tool was used for a week. The participants’ activity energy expenditure (AEE) and total energy expenditure (TEE) were assessed over each week using the DLW method and compared with the respective energy expenditures estimated using the Web-based systems. Results The mean AEE was 3.90 (SD 1.43) MJ estimated using the 24hPAR WEB and 3.67 (SD 1.48) MJ measured by the DLW method. The Pearson correlation for AEE between the two methods was r = .679 (P WEB and 3.80 (SD 1.36) MJ by the DLW method. The Pearson correlation for AEE between the two methods was r = .144 (P = .54). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement ranged from –3.83 to 4.81 MJ between the two methods. The Pearson correlation for TEE between the two methods was r = .590 (P = .006). The average input times using terminal devices were 8 minutes and 10 seconds for the 24hPAR WEB and 6 minutes and 38 seconds for the 7daysRecall WEB. Conclusions Both Web-based systems were found to be effective methods for collecting physical activity data and are appropriate for use in epidemiological studies. Because the measurement accuracy of the 24hPAR WEB was moderate to high, it could be suitable for evaluating the effect of interventions on individuals as well as for examining physical activity behavior. PMID:23010345

  10. Development of a Smartphone Application to Measure Physical Activity Using Sensor-Assisted Self-Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Fridlund Dunton

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the known advantages of objective physical activity monitors (e.g., accelerometers, these devices have high rates of non-wear, which leads to missing data. Objective activity monitors are also unable to capture valuable contextual information about behavior. Adolescents recruited into physical activity surveillance and intervention studies will increasingly have smartphones, which are miniature computers with built-in motion sensors. Methods: This paper describes the design and development of a smartphone application (app called Mobile Teen that combines objective and self-report assessment strategies through (1 sensor-informed context-sensitive ecological momentary assessment (CS-EMA and (2 sensor-assisted end-of-day recall.Results: The Mobile Teen app uses the mobile phone’s built-in motion sensor to automatically detect likely bouts of phone non-wear, sedentary behavior, and physical activity. The app then uses transitions between these inferred states to trigger CS-EMA self-report surveys measuring the type, purpose, and context of activity in real time. The end of the day recall component of the Mobile Teen app allows users to interactively review and label their own physical activity data each evening using visual cues from automatically-detected major activity transitions from the phone’s built-in motions sensors. Major activity transitions are identified by the app, which cues the user to label that chunk, or period, of time using activity categories.Conclusions: Sensor-driven CS-EMA and end-of-day recall smartphone apps can be used to augment physical activity data collected by objective activity monitors, filling in gaps during non-wear bouts and providing additional real-time data on environmental, social, and emotional correlates of behavior. Smartphone apps such as these have potential for affordable deployment in large scale epidemiological and intervention studies.

  11. Physical activity in an indigenous Ecuadorian forager-horticulturalist population as measured using accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madimenos, Felicia C.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Liebert, Melissa A.; Sugiyama, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Minimal information on physical activity is available for non-Western populations undergoing the transition to a market economy. This is unfortunate given the importance of these data for understanding health issues such as the global obesity epidemic. We consider the utility of using accelerometry technology to examine activity patterns and energy use regulation among indigenous Shuar, an Ecuadorian forager-horticulturalist population undergoing economic and lifestyle change. We investigate sex differences in Shuar activity patterns and the effects of reproductive status on activity. Finally, we discuss the potential of accelerometry use in human biology research. Methods Physical activity levels were measured using Actical accelerometers in 49 indigenous Shuar adults (23 males, 26 females) from a rural Ecuadorian community. Female participants were in various reproductive states including pregnant, lactating, and non-pregnant/non-lactating. Results Activity counts (AC), activity energy expenditure (AEE), and physical activity levels (PAL) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in males than females. Significant differences in energy expenditure were found among pregnant or lactating females and males with pregnant or lactating partners (P < 0.001). Males with pregnant or lactating partners also had significantly higher activity levels than did other men (P < 0.01). Conclusions Shuar activity levels are relatively low compared to other non-Western populations. Despite increasing market integration, pregnant and lactating females seem to be adopting a strategy noted in other subsistence populations where male participation in subsistence activities increases to compensate for their partners’ elevated reproductive costs. Despite certain limitations, use of accelerometry in human biology research shows promise. PMID:21538650

  12. Sleeping dendrites: fiber-optic measurements of dendritic calcium activity in freely moving and sleeping animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Seibt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dendrites are the post-synaptic sites of most excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the brain, making them the main location of cortical information processing and synaptic plasticity. Although current hypotheses suggest a central role for sleep in proper cognitive function and brain plasticity, virtually nothing is known about changes in dendritic activity across the sleep-wake cycle and how waking experience modifies this activity. To start addressing these questions, we developed a method that allows long-term recordings of EEGs/EMG combined with in vivo cortical calcium (Ca2+ activity in freely moving and sleeping rats. We measured Ca2+ activity from populations of dendrites of layer (L 5 pyramidal neurons (n = 13 rats that we compared with Ca2+ activity from populations of neurons in L2/3 (n = 11 rats. L5 and L2/3 neurons were labelled using bolus injection of OGB1-AM or GCaMP6 (1. Ca2+ signals were detected using a fiber-optic system (cannula diameter = 400µm, transmitting the changes in fluorescence to a photodiode. Ca2+ fluctuations could then be correlated with ongoing changes in brain oscillatory activity during 5 major brain states: active wake [AW], quiet wake [QW], NREM, REM and NREM-REM transition (or intermediate state, [IS]. Our Ca2+ recordings show large transients in L5 dendrites and L2/3 neurons that oscillate predominantly at frequencies In summary, we show that this technique is successful in monitoring fluctuations in ongoing dendritic Ca2+ activity during natural brain states and allows, in principle, to combine behavioral measurement with imaging from various brain regions (e.g. deep structures in freely behaving animals. Using this method, we show that Ca2+ transients from populations of L2/3 neurons and L5 dendrites are deferentially regulated across the sleep/wake cycle, with dendritic activity being the highest during the IS sleep. Our correlation analysis suggests that specific sleep EEG activity during NREM and IS

  13. Measuring Acoustic Wave Transit Time in Furnace Based on Active Acoustic Source Signal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Luo; Feng Tian; Xiao-Ping Sun

    2007-01-01

    Accurate measurement of transit time for acoustic wave between two sensors installed on two sides of a furnace is a key to implementing the temperature field measurement technique based on acoustical method. A new method for measuring transit time of acoustic wave based on active acoustic source signal is proposed in this paper, which includes the followings: the time when the acoustic source signal arrives at the two sensors is measured first; then, the difference of two arriving time arguments is computed, thereby we get the transit time of the acoustic wave between two sensors installed on the two sides of the furnace. Avoiding the restriction on acoustic source signal and background noise, the new method can get the transit time of acoustic wave with higher precision and stronger ability of resisting noise interference.

  14. The high precision measurement of the 144Ce activity in the SOX experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noto, L.; Agostini, M.; Althenmüller, K.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Berton, N.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo—Berguño, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Cereseto, R.; Chepurnov, A.; Choi, K.; Cribier, M.; DAngelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Drachnev, I.; Durero, M.; Etenko, A.; Farinon, S.; Fischer, V.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Gaffiot, J.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Houdy, Th; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jonquères, N.; Jedrzejczak, K.; Kaiser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kornoukhov, V.; Kryn, D.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lasserre, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, T.; Link, J.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Maricic, J.; Mention, G.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Musenich, R.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Roncin, R.; Rossi, C.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Scola, L.; Semenov, D.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Veyssière, C.; Vivier, M.; Unzhakov, E.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-02-01

    In order to perform a resolutive measurement to clarify the neutrino anomalies and to observe possible short distance neutrino oscillations, the SOX (Short distance neutrino Oscillations with BoreXino) experiment is under construction. In the first phase, a 100 kCi 144Ce-144Pr antineutrino source will be placed under the Borexino detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), in center of Italy, and the rate measurement of the antineutrino events, observed by the very low radioactive background Borexino detector, will be compared with the high precision (< 1%) activity measurement performed by two calorimeters. The source will be embedded in a 19 mm thick tungsten alloy shield and both the calorimeters have been conceived for measuring the thermal heat absorbed by a water flow. In this report the design of the calorimeters will be described in detail and very preliminary results will be also shown.

  15. Quantitative assessment of swallowing activity by MMG measurement with PVDF film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takuya, Hashimoto; Keita, Tsukagoshi; Takuji, Koike

    2017-07-01

    Difficulty of swallowing, called dysphagia, leads to aspiration pneumonia which is particularly a big health concern in aging societies. Therefore, prevention and treatment of dysphagia would contribute to extending healthy-life and QOL of elderly people and decreasing healthcare cost. Robotics technologies are expected as one of the effective methods to solve the problem in terms of detecting malfunction in swallowing and recovering swallowing function. The aim of this study is to investigate muscle activity during normal swallowing using mechanomyography (MMG) with PolyVinylidene DiFluoride (PVDF) film which is a ferroelectrics polymer. Measurement of MMG signal during voluntary isometric contraction of the biceps brachii muscle was conducted to confirm whether PVDF film can detect MMG signal. In the experiment, surface electromyography (sEMG) was also measured as a reference to estimate muscle activity for comparison. Then, activities of swallowing muscles during normal swallowing with different volume of bolus were measured using MMG signal. As the result, it was confirmed that swallowing activity can be quantified by the detected MMG signal from different region of neck.

  16. A History of In Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis in Measurement of Aluminum in Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Hedieh K; Chettle, David R

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum, as an abundant metal, has gained widespread use in human life, entering the body predominantly as an additive to various foods and drinking water. Other major sources of exposure to aluminum include medical, cosmetic, and occupational routes. As a common environmental toxin, with well-known roles in several medical conditions such as dialysis encephalopathy, aluminum is considered a potential candidate in the causality of Alzheimer's disease. Aluminum mostly accumulates in the bone, which makes bone an indicator of the body burden of aluminum and an ideal organ as a proxy for the brain. Most of the techniques developed for measuring aluminum include bone biopsy, which requires invasive measures, causing inconvenience for the patients. There has been a considerable effort in developing non-invasive approaches, which allow for monitoring aluminum levels for medical and occupational purposes in larger populations. In vivo neutron activation analysis, a method based on nuclear activation of isotopes of elements in the body and their subsequent detection, has proven to be an invaluable tool for this purpose. There are definite challenges in developing in vivo non-invasive techniques capable of detecting low levels of aluminum in healthy individuals and aluminum-exposed populations. The following review examines the method of in vivo neutron activation analysis in the context of aluminum measurement in humans focusing on different neutron sources, interference from other activation products, and the improvements made in minimum detectable limits and patient dose over the past few decades.

  17. A simplified method for detecting macroamylasemia by measuring serum amylase activity at different reaction temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, T; Kuratsune, H; Kurahori, T

    1983-06-01

    Amylase activity in serum and urine, and isoamylase, were measured in 300 patients with abdominal pain to detect cases of macroamylasemia. Of these patients, 9 had hyperamylasemia and 2 were diagnosed as cases of macroamylasemia on the basis of their amylase/creatinine clearance ratio, the gel filtration pattern of their amylase on a dextran column, and results of immunological analysis. Amylase activity in macroamylasemia is reported to show an anomalous response to increase in reaction-temperature. In this report, measurements of the temperature-activity relationships of serum amylase confirmed that the ratio of serum amylase activity at 50 degrees C to that at 25 degrees C (AMY-50 degrees C/AMY-25 degrees C ratio) in patients with macroamylasemia was higher than that in normal subjects or patients with pancreatitis. Moreover, when macromolecular amylase in the sera of patients with macroamylasemia was separated from amylase of normal molecular weight by dextran gel chromatography, it showed a significantly higher AMY-50 degrees C/AMY-25 degrees C ratio than the latter. Measurement of this AMY-50 degrees C/AMY-25 degrees C ratio seems to be a convenient and useful method for differential diagnosis of hyperamylasemia.

  18. Efficiency calibration of a HPGe detector for [{sup 18}F] FDG activity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias; Lacerda, Isabelle Viviane Batista de; Albuquerque, Antonio Morais de Sa, E-mail: mariacc05@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: isabelle.lacerda@ufpe.br, E-mail: moraisalbuquerque@hotmaiI.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Oliveira, Mercia Liane de; Hazin, Clovis Abrahao; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade, E-mail: mercial@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    The radionuclide {sup 18}F, in the form of flurodeoxyglucose (FDG), is the most used radiopharmaceutical for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Due to [{sup 18}F]FDG increasing demand, it is important to ensure high quality activity measurements in the nuclear medicine practice. Therefore, standardized reference sources are necessary to calibrate of {sup 18}F measuring systems. Usually, the activity measurements are performed in re-entrant ionization chambers, also known as radionuclide calibrators. Among the existing alternatives for the standardization of radioactive sources, the method known as gamma spectrometry is widely used for short-lived radionuclides, since it is essential to minimize source preparation time. The purpose of this work was to perform the standardization of the [{sup 18}F]FDG solution by gamma spectrometry. In addition, the reference sources calibrated by this method can be used to calibrate and test the radionuclide calibrators from the Divisao de Producao de Radiofarmacos (DIPRA) of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE). Standard sources of {sup 152}Eu, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 68}Ge were used for the efficiency calibration of the spectrometer system. As a result, the efficiency curve as a function of energy was determined in wide energy range from 122 to 1408 keV. Reference sources obtained by this method can be used in [{sup 18}F]FDG activity measurements comparison programs for PET services localized in the Brazilian Northeast region. (author)

  19. Radiation Measurements Performed with Active Detectors Relevant for Human Space Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narici, Livio; Berger, Thomas; Matthiä, Daniel; Reitz, Günther

    2015-01-01

    A reliable radiation risk assessment in space is a mandatory step for the development of countermeasures and long-duration mission planning in human spaceflight. Research in radiobiology provides information about possible risks linked to radiation. In addition, for a meaningful risk evaluation, the radiation exposure has to be assessed to a sufficient level of accuracy. Consequently, both the radiation models predicting the risks and the measurements used to validate such models must have an equivalent precision. Corresponding measurements can be performed both with passive and active devices. The former is easier to handle, cheaper, lighter, and smaller but they measure neither the time dependence of the radiation environment nor some of the details useful for a comprehensive radiation risk assessment. Active detectors provide most of these details and have been extensively used in the International Space Station. To easily access such an amount of data, a single point access is becoming essential. This review presents an ongoing work on the development of a tool that allows obtaining information about all relevant measurements performed with active detectors providing reliable inputs for radiation model validation.

  20. Radiation measurements performed with active detectors relevant for human space exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livio eNarici

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A reliable radiation risk assessment in space is a mandatory step for the development of countermeasures and long duration mission planning in human spaceflight.Research in radiobiology provides information about possible risks linked to radiation. In addition, for a meaningful risk evaluation, the radiation exposure has to be assessed to a sufficient level of accuracy. Consequently, both the radiation models predicting the risks and the measurements used to validate such models must have an equivalent precision. Corresponding measurements can be performed both with passive and active devices. The former are easier to handle, cheaper, lighter and smaller but they measure neither the time dependence of the radiation environment nor some of the details useful for a comprehensive radiation risk assessment. Active detectors provide most of these details and have been extensively used in the International Space Station (ISS.To easily access such an amount of data, a single point access is becoming essential. This review presents an ongoing work on the development of a tool which allows obtaining information about all relevant measurements performed with active detectors providing reliable inputs for radiation model validation.

  1. Galvanostatic pulse measurements of passive and active reinforcing steel in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, D.W.; Millard, S.G.; Bungey, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Results of galvanostatic pulse transient response experiments were reported to determine the corrosion parameters associated with passive and actively corroding reinforcing steel in concrete. Galvanostatic pulse measurements were conducted on a number of short sections of steel-reinforcing bar embedded in concrete. The duration of the applied galvanostatic pulse varied from 45 s to 600 s. The bars displayed a range of corrosion rates, from passive steel to highly active corrosion. Analysis of the galvanostatic pulse transient enabled separate components, which made up the measured transient, to be isolated. These components displayed a range of resistances and associated capacitances, dependent upon the corrosion state of the reinforcing steel, which may be attributed to the corrosion process or other effects within the bulk concrete. The corrosion rate was calculated from the summation of the separate resistive components and compared with the corrosion rate determined from linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements on the same specimens. Results from the galvanostatic pulse transient analysis showed that significant errors in evaluating corrosion rates using the LPR method may be incurred if the usual 30-s equilibrium period was used for measuring actively corroding steel bars.

  2. A rapid and sensitive method for measuring N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mauri

    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive method to quantitatively assess N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG activity in cultured cells is highly desirable for both basic research and clinical studies. NAG activity is deficient in cells from patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB due to mutations in NAGLU, the gene that encodes NAG. Currently available techniques for measuring NAG activity in patient-derived cell lines include chromogenic and fluorogenic assays and provide a biochemical method for the diagnosis of MPS IIIB. However, standard protocols require large amounts of cells, cell disruption by sonication or freeze-thawing, and normalization to the cellular protein content, resulting in an error-prone procedure that is material- and time-consuming and that produces highly variable results. Here we report a new procedure for measuring NAG activity in cultured cells. This procedure is based on the use of the fluorogenic NAG substrate, 4-Methylumbelliferyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (MUG, in a one-step cell assay that does not require cell disruption or post-assay normalization and that employs a low number of cells in 96-well plate format. We show that the NAG one-step cell assay greatly discriminates between wild-type and MPS IIIB patient-derived fibroblasts, thus providing a rapid method for the detection of deficiencies in NAG activity. We also show that the assay is sensitive to changes in NAG activity due to increases in NAGLU expression achieved by either overexpressing the transcription factor EB (TFEB, a master regulator of lysosomal function, or by inducing TFEB activation chemically. Because of its small format, rapidity, sensitivity and reproducibility, the NAG one-step cell assay is suitable for multiple procedures, including the high-throughput screening of chemical libraries to identify modulators of NAG expression, folding and activity, and the investigation of candidate molecules and constructs for applications in

  3. Perceived and measured physical activity and mental stress levels in obstetricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez de Tejada, Begoña; Jastrow, Nicole; Poncet, Antoine; Le Scouezec, Iona; Irion, Olivier; Kayser, Bengt

    2013-11-01

    Obstetric work generates important subjective and objective mental stress and is perceived as a physically demanding activity by obstetricians. The aim of this study was to quantify physical and mental stress levels in obstetricians at work and during leisure activities to investigate their association with overall physical activity levels and professional experience. 18 obstetricians at the maternity unit of the University of Geneva Hospitals were enrolled in a prospective observational study. Physical activity and stress levels were measured in two different activity sectors (delivery room and outpatient clinic) and outside work. Physical activity was assessed by questionnaire, visual analogue scale (VAS), and accelerometer. Mental stress levels were assessed by validated questionnaires, VAS, measurement of urine catecholamines and salivary cortisol, and night-time heart rate variability indices. Daily stress levels were higher at work compared to outside work (all, P = 0.002). Adrenalin (P = 0.002) and dopamine (P = 0.09) levels were elevated after a labour suite shift and a trend was observed for reduced heart rate variability during the night after this shift. The median average daily number of steps was 7132 (range, 5283-8649). Subjects reached a median of 32 min (range, 19-49 min) of moderate or higher intensity (≥ 1952 counts/min) daily physical activity. Contrary to perception, obstetrics work is not physically demanding. It is, however, accompanied by important subjective and objective mental stress that may have a negative impact on health when combined with a lack of regular daily physical activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurement of separase proteolytic activity in single living cells by a fluorogenic flow cytometry assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiltrud Haaß

    Full Text Available ESPL1/Separase, an endopeptidase, is required for centrosome duplication and separation of sister-chromatides in anaphase of mitosis. Overexpression and deregulated proteolytic activity of Separase as frequently observed in human cancers is associated with the occurrence of supernumerary centrosomes, chromosomal missegregation and aneuploidy. Recently, we have hypothesized that increased Separase proteolytic activity in a small subpopulation of tumor cells may serve as driver of tumor heterogeneity and clonal evolution in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Currently, there is no quantitative assay to measure Separase activity levels in single cells. Therefore, we have designed a flow cytometry-based assay that utilizes a Cy5- and rhodamine 110 (Rh110-biconjugated Rad21 cleavage site peptide ([Cy5-D-R-E-I-M-R]2-Rh110 as smart probe and intracellular substrate for detection of Separase enzyme activity in living cells. As measured by Cy5 fluorescence the cellular uptake of the fluorogenic peptide was fast and reached saturation after 210 min of incubation in human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cells. Separase activity was recorded as the intensity of Rh110 fluorescence released after intracellular peptide cleavage providing a linear signal gain within a 90-180 min time slot. Compared to conventional cell extract-based methods the flow cytometric assay delivers equivalent results but is more reliable, bypasses the problem of vague loading controls and unspecific proteolysis associated with whole cell extracts. Especially suited for the investigaton of blood- and bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cells the flow cytometric Separase assay allows generation of Separase activity profiles that tell about the number of Separase positive cells within a sample i.e. cells that currently progress through mitosis and about the range of intercellular variation in Separase activity levels within a cell population. The assay was used to quantify Separase proteolytic

  5. Retrospective assessment of indoor radon exposure by measurements of embedded 210Po activity in glass objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramola, R. C.; Gusain, G. S.; Prasad, Ganesh

    In most of the epidemiological studies contemporary radon measurements have been used as surrogates for radon concentrations in past decades even though changes in radon levels and residence may have occurred. Short-lived radon progeny may deposit on available surfaces in dwellings thus giving rise over time to a build up of long-lived progeny. Airborne radon decay products can be deposited and implanted through alpha recoil into the glass surfaces. On glass surface, activities of 210Po may arise as a result of the decay of recoil implanted activity following the alpha decay of surface deposited 218Po or 214Po. Measurement of 210Po implanted on a household glass is a method that can be employed to retrospectively determine the historic level of radon in dwellings. This method is based on the assumption that levels of recoil implanted 210Po in the glass provide a measure of time integrated radon concentration in the environment in which the glass has been located. The surface deposited activity of the radon progenies, which then become implanted in the glass by alpha recoil, is believed to reflect past exposure to airborne activity. Such retrospective measurements on glass are valuable in estimating the human dose derived from radon during the time of exposure. In this paper an account is given of the principles and some field applications of a retrospective technique, using the alpha track detectors, CR-39 and LR-115, to measure 210Po implanted in glass surfaces (surface traps). By using this CR-LR difference technique, the cumulative radon exposure in a dwelling in past decades may be estimated. This method provides reliable radon exposure data as a support to epidemiological studies concerning the health effects of radon exposure in the living environment.

  6. Interplay between patient global assessment, pain, and fatigue and influence of other clinical disease activity measures in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsmose, Emilie Lund; Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2015-01-01

    analog scales (VAS) in the daily clinic by patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Associations with other measures of disease activity were also examined. Traditional disease activity data on 221 RA patients with active disease planned to initiate biological treatment were extracted from...

  7. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyatt Raymond R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. Methods During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Results Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p p = 0.03. While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. Conclusions This work extends the current literature by demonstrating the potential

  8. Measurements of neutrons at JET by means of the activation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopowicz, R., E-mail: prokopowicz@ifpilm.waw.p [EURATOM-IPPLM Association, 23, Hery St, Warsaw 01-497 (Poland); Bienkowska, B.; Drozdowicz, K.; Jednorog, S.; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E. [EURATOM-IPPLM Association, 23, Hery St, Warsaw 01-497 (Poland); Murari, A. [EURATOM-ENEA Fusion Association, Consorzio RFX, Padova I-35127 (Italy); Popovichev, S. [EURATOM-CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Pytel, K.; Scholz, M.; Szydlowski, A. [EURATOM-IPPLM Association, 23, Hery St, Warsaw 01-497 (Poland); Syme, B. [EURATOM-CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Tracz, G. [EURATOM-IPPLM Association, 23, Hery St, Warsaw 01-497 (Poland)

    2011-05-01

    The neutron diagnostics in tokamaks like Joint European Torus (JET) are essential in estimating fusion power. The neutron activation method, supported by neutron transport calculations, is particularly useful for the evaluation of the total neutron yield from a single plasma discharge. This paper presents the results of activation experiments and calculations carried out for JET plasmas, from the selection of the activation materials to their irradiations in the neutron field of JET discharges. Neutron transport calculations were performed, leading to activation coefficients for new materials. The results of the calculations were used to design new composite samples to obtain information on both the yield and the neutron spectrum. The neutron measurements using these new activation materials were performed during the last JET experimental campaigns. The results are compared with neutron transport calculations. Additionally, application of the cadmium difference method allows revelation of the part of thermal neutrons near the tokamak first wall. The advantages of new activation materials and benchmarking the activation method against neutron transport calculations are also discussed.

  9. A novel fluorogenic substrate for the measurement of endothelial lipase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Andrew L; Olson, Matthew W; Xin, Hong; Burke, Sharon L; Smith, Charles; Schalk-Hihi, Celine; Williams, Robyn; Bayoumy, Shariff S; Deckman, Ingrid C; Todd, Matthew J; Damiano, Bruce P; Connelly, Margery A

    2011-02-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) is a phospholipase A1 (PLA1) enzyme that hydrolyzes phospholipids at the sn-1 position to produce lysophospholipids and free fatty acids. Measurement of the PLA1 activity of EL is usually accomplished by the use of substrates that are also hydrolyzed by lipases in other subfamilies such as PLA2 enzymes. In order to distinguish PLA1 activity of EL from PLA2 enzymatic activity in cell-based assays, cell supernatants, and other nonhomogeneous systems, a novel fluorogenic substrate with selectivity toward PLA1 hydrolysis was conceived and characterized. This substrate was preferred by PLA1 enzymes, such as EL and hepatic lipase, and was cleaved with much lower efficiency by lipases that exhibit primarily triglyceride lipase activity, such as LPL or a lipase with PLA2 activity. The phospholipase activity detected by the PLA1 substrate could be inhibited with the small molecule esterase inhibitor ebelactone B. Furthermore, the PLA1 substrate was able to detect EL activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a cell-based assay. This substrate is a useful reagent for identifying modulators of PLA1 enzymes, such as EL, and aiding in characterizing their mechanisms of action.

  10. Calculation of Apparent Activation Energy of Coal Oxidation at Low Temperatures by Measuring CO Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    By analyzing previous studies on activation energy of coal oxidation at low temperatures, a theoretical calculation model of apparent activation energy is established. Yield of CO is measured by using the characteristic detector of coal oxidation at 30-90 ℃. The impact of parameters, such as airflow and particle size, on activation energies is analyzed. Finally, agreement was obtained between activation energies and the dynamic oxygen absorbed in order to test the accuracy of the model. The results show that: 1) a positive exponential relation between concentration of CO and temperature in the process of the experiment is obtained: increases are almost identical and the initial CO is low; 2) the apparent activation energies increase gradually with the sizes of particle at the same airflow, but the gradients increase at a decreasing rate; 3) the apparent activation energies increase linearly with airflow. For the five coal particles, the differences among the energies are relatively high when the airflow was low, but the differences were low when the airflow was high; 4) the optimum sizes of particle, 0.125-0.25 mm, and the optimum volume of airflow, 100 mL/min, are determined from the model; 5) the apparent activation energies decrease with an increase in oxygen absorbed. A negative exponential relation between the two is obtained.

  11. Optimization of ERK Activity Biosensors for both Ratiometric and Lifetime FRET Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Vandame

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among biosensors, genetically-encoded FRET-based biosensors are widely used to localize and measure enzymatic activities. Kinases activities are of particular interest as their spatiotemporal regulation has become crucial for the deep understanding of cell fate decisions. This is especially the case for ERK, whose activity is a key node in signal transduction pathways and can direct the cell into various processes. There is a constant need for better tools to analyze kinases in vivo, and to detect even the slightest variations of their activities. Here we report the optimization of the previous ERK activity reporters, EKAR and EKAREV. Those tools are constituted by two fluorophores adapted for FRET experiments, which are flanking a specific substrate of ERK, and a domain able to recognize and bind this substrate when phosphorylated. The latter phosphorylation allows a conformational change of the biosensor and thus a FRET signal. We improved those biosensors with modifications of: (i fluorophores and (ii linkers between substrate and binding domain, resulting in new versions that exhibit broader dynamic ranges upon EGF stimulation when FRET experiments are carried out by fluorescence lifetime and ratiometric measurements. Herein, we characterize those new biosensors and discuss their observed differences that depend on their fluorescence properties.

  12. Measurement of natural radioactivity in chemical fertilizer and agricultural soil: evidence of high alpha activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Bera, Sukumar; Sengupta, Rosalima; Patra, Kanchan Kumar

    2008-02-01

    People are exposed to ionizing radiation from the radionuclides that are present in different types of natural sources, of which phosphate fertilizer is one of the most important sources. Radionuclides in phosphate fertilizer belonging to 232Th and 238U series as well as radioisotope of potassium (40K) are the major contributors of outdoor terrestrial natural radiation. The study of alpha activity in fertilizers, which is the first ever in West Bengal, has been performed in order to determine the effect of the use of phosphate fertilizers on human health. The data have been compared with the alpha activity of different types of chemical fertilizers. The measurement of alpha activity in surface soil samples collected from the cultivated land was also performed. The sampling sites were randomly selected in the cultivated land in the Midnapore district, which is the largest district in West Bengal. The phosphate fertilizer is widely used for large agricultural production, mainly potatoes. The alpha activities have been measured using solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), a very sensitive detector for alpha particles. The results show that alpha activity of those fertilizer and soil samples varies from 141 Bq/kg to 2,589 Bq/kg and from 109 Bq/kg to 660 Bq/kg, respectively. These results were used to estimate environmental radiation exposure on human health contributed by the direct application of fertilizers.

  13. Metabolic equivalents of task are confounded by adiposity, which disturbs objective measurement of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompuri, Tuomo T

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity refers any bodily movements produced by skeletal muscles that expends energy. Hence the amount and the intensity of physical activity can be assessed by energy expenditure. Metabolic equivalents of task (MET) are multiplies of the resting metabolism reflecting metabolic rate during exercise. The standard MET is defined as 3.5 ml/min/kg. However, the expression of energy expenditure by body weight to normalize the size differences between subjects causes analytical hazards: scaling by body weight does not have a physiological, mathematical, or physical rationale. This review demonstrates by examples that false methodology may cause paradoxical observations if physical activity would be assessed by body weight scaled values such as standard METs. While standard METs are confounded by adiposity, lean mass proportional measures of energy expenditure would enable a more truthful choice to assess physical activity. While physical activity as a behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness or adiposity as a state represents major determinants of public health, specific measurements of health determinants must be understood to enable a truthful evaluation of the interactions and their independent role as a health predictor.

  14. Metabolic equivalents of task are confounded by adiposity, which disturbs objective measurement of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomo T Tompuri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity refers any bodily movements produced by skeletal muscles that expends energy. Hence the amount and the intensity of physical activity can be assessed by energy expenditure. Metabolic equivalents of task (MET are multiplies of the resting metabolism reflecting metabolic rate during exercise. The standard MET is defined as 3.5 ml/min/kg. However, the expression of energy expenditure by body weight to normalize the size differences between subjects causes analytical hazards: scaling by body weight does not have a physiological, mathematical, or physical rationale. This review demonstrates by examples that false methodology may cause paradoxical observations if physical activity would be assessed by body weight scaled values such as standard METs. While standard METs are confounded by adiposity, lean mass proportional measures of energy expenditure would enable a more truthful choice to assess physical activity. While physical activity as a behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness or adiposity as a state represents major determinants of public health, specific measurements of health determinants must be understood to enable a truthful evaluation of the interactions and their independent role as a health predictor.

  15. The influence of dairy consumption and physical activity on ultrasound bone measurements in Flemish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Stephanie; Michels, Nathalie; Polfliet, Carolien; D'Haese, Sara; Roggen, Inge; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sioen, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    The study's aim was to analyse whether children's bone status, assessed by calcaneal ultrasound measurements, is influenced by dairy consumption and objectively measured physical activity (PA). Moreover, the interaction between dairy consumption and PA on bone mass was studied. Participants of this cross-sectional study were 306 Flemish children (6-12 years). Body composition was measured with air displacement plethysmography (BodPod), dairy consumption with a Food Frequency Questionnaire, PA with an accelerometer (only in 234 of the 306 children) and bone mass with quantitative ultrasound, quantifying speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and Stiffness Index (SI). Regression analyses were used to study the associations between dairy consumption, PA, SOS, BUA and SI. Total dairy consumption and non-cheese dairy consumption were positively associated with SOS and SI, but no significant association could be demonstrated with BUA. In contrast, milk consumption, disregarding other dairy products, had no significant effect on calcaneal bone measurements. PA [vigorous PA, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and counts per minute] was positively associated and sedentary time was negatively associated with BUA and SI, but no significant influence on SOS could be detected. Dairy consumption and PA (sedentary time and MVPA) did not show any interaction influencing bone measurements. In conclusion, even at young age, PA and dairy consumption positively influence bone mass. Promoting PA and dairy consumption in young children may, therefore, maximize peak bone mass, an important protective factor against osteoporosis later in life.

  16. Direct and indirect measurement of physical activity in older adults: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Kristina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to physiological and cognitive changes that occur with aging, accurate physical activity (PA measurement in older adults represents a unique challenge. The primary purpose of this study was to systematically review measures of PA and their use and appropriateness with older adults. A secondary aim was to determine the level of agreement between PA measures in older adults. Methods Literature was identified through electronic databases. Studies were eligible if they examined the correlation and/or agreement between at least 2 measures, either indirect and/or direct, of PA in older adults (> 65 years of age. Results Thirty-six studies met eligibility criteria. The indirect and direct measures of PA across the studies differed widely in their ability to address the key dimensions (i.e., frequency, intensity, time, type of PA in older adults. The average correlation between indirect and direct measures was moderate (r=0.38. The correlation between indirect and other indirect measures (r=0.29 was weak, while correlations between direct measures with other direct measures were high (real world: r= 0.84; controlled settings: r=0.92. Agreement was strongest between direct PA measures with other direct measures in both real world and laboratory settings. While a clear trend regarding the agreement for mean differences between other PA measures (i.e., direct with indirect, indirect with indirect did not emerge, there were only a limited number of studies that reported comparable units. Conclusions Despite the lack of a clear trend regarding the agreement between PA measures in older adults, the findings underscore the importance of valid, accurate and reliable measurement. To advance this field, researchers will need to approach the assessment of PA in older adults in a more standardized way (i.e., consistent reporting of results, consensus over cut-points and epoch lengths, using appropriate validation tools. Until then

  17. Active retroreflector to measure the rotational orientation in conjunction with a laser tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofherr, O.; Wachten, C.; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    2012-10-01

    High precision optical non-contact position measurement is a key technology in modern engineering. Laser trackers (LT) can determine accurately x-y-z coordinates of passive retroreflectors. Next-generation systems answer the additional need to measure an object's rotational orientation (pitch, yaw, roll). These devices are based on photogrammetry or on enhanced retroreflectors. However, photogrammetry relies on camera systems and time-consuming image processing. Enhanced retroreflectors analyze the LT's beam but are restricted in roll angle measurements. Here we present an integrated laser based method to evaluate all six degrees of freedom. An active retroreflector directly analyzes its orientation to the LT's beam path by outcoupling laser light on detectors. A proof of concept prototype has been designed with a specified measuring range of 360° for roll angle measurements and +/-15° for pitch and yaw angle respectively. The prototype's optical design is inspired by a cat's eye retroreflector. First results are promising and further improvements are under development. We anticipate our method to facilitate simple and cost-effective six degrees of freedom measurements. Furthermore, for industrial applications wide customizations are possible, e.g. adaptation of measuring range, optimization of accuracy, and further system miniaturization.

  18. Effects of reconstructed magnetic field from sparse noisy boundary measurements on localization of active neural source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui-min; Lee, Kok-Meng; Hu, Liang; Foong, Shaohui; Fu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Localization of active neural source (ANS) from measurements on head surface is vital in magnetoencephalography. As neuron-generated magnetic fields are extremely weak, significant uncertainties caused by stochastic measurement interference complicate its localization. This paper presents a novel computational method based on reconstructed magnetic field from sparse noisy measurements for enhanced ANS localization by suppressing effects of unrelated noise. In this approach, the magnetic flux density (MFD) in the nearby current-free space outside the head is reconstructed from measurements through formulating the infinite series solution of the Laplace's equation, where boundary condition (BC) integrals over the entire measurements provide "smooth" reconstructed MFD with the decrease in unrelated noise. Using a gradient-based method, reconstructed MFDs with good fidelity are selected for enhanced ANS localization. The reconstruction model, spatial interpolation of BC, parametric equivalent current dipole-based inverse estimation algorithm using reconstruction, and gradient-based selection are detailed and validated. The influences of various source depths and measurement signal-to-noise ratio levels on the estimated ANS location are analyzed numerically and compared with a traditional method (where measurements are directly used), and it was demonstrated that gradient-selected high-fidelity reconstructed data can effectively improve the accuracy of ANS localization.

  19. Active downhole thermal property measurement system for characterization of gas hydrate-bearing formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuhara, Masafumi; Fujii, Kasumi; Tertychnyi, Vladimir; Shandrygin, Alexander; Popov, Yuri; Matsubayashi, Osamu; Kusaka, Koji; Yasuda, Masato

    2005-07-01

    Gas hydrates dissociate or form when temperature and/or pressure conditions cross the equilibrium border. When we consider gas hydrates as an energy resource, understanding those parameters is very important for developing efficient production schemes. Therefore, thermal measurement is one of the key components of the characterization of the gas hydrate-bearing formation, not only statically but also dynamically. To estimate thermal properties such as thermal conductivity and diffusivity of subsurface formations, the conventional method has been to monitor temperature passively at several underground locations and interpret collected information with assumptions such as steady heat flow or relaxation from thermal disturbance by fluid flow, etc. Because the thermal properties are estimated based on several assumptions, these passive measurement methods sometimes leave a lot of uncertainties. On the other hand, active thermal property measurement, which could minimize those uncertainties, is commonly used in a laboratory and many types of equipment exist commercially for the purpose. The concept of measurement is very simple: creating a known thermal disturbance with a thermal source and then monitoring the response of the specimen. However, simply applying this method to subsurface formation measurement has many technical and logistical difficulties. In this paper, newly developed thermal property measurement equipment and its measurement methodology are described. Also discussed are the theoretical background for the application of the methodology to a gas hydrate-bearing formation through numerical simulation and the experimental results of laboratory mockup in a controlled environment. (Author)

  20. Measurement of the thorium-228 activity in solutions cavitated by ultrasonic sound

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, R; Vazquez-Jauregui, E

    2009-01-01

    We show that cavitation of a solution of thorium-228 in water does not induce its transformation at a faster rate than the natural radioactive decay. We measured the activity of a thorium-228 solution in water before, and after, it was subjected to a cavitation at 44 kHz and $250 $W for 90 minutes in order to observe any change in the thorium half-life. The results were compared to the original activity of the sample and we observed no change. Our results and conclusions conflict with those in a recent paper by F. Cardone et. al. [Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 1956-1958].

  1. Bioluminescence Microscopy as a Method to Measure Single Cell Androgen Receptor Activity Heterogeneous Responses to Antiandrogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Pallavi; Neveu, Bertrand; Velot, Lauriane; Wu, Lily; Fradet, Yves; Pouliot, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cell heterogeneity is well-documented. Therefore, techniques to monitor single cell heterogeneous responses to treatment are needed. We developed a highly translational and quantitative bioluminescence microscopy method to measure single cell androgen receptor (AR) activity modulation by antiandrogens from fluid biopsies. We showed that this assay can detect heterogeneous cellular response to drug treatment and that the sum of single cell AR activity can mirror the response in the whole cell population. This method may thus be used to monitor heterogeneous dynamic treatment responses in cancer cells. PMID:27678181

  2. Correlates of objectively measured physical activity in 5-6 year old preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, L G; Kristensen, P L; Korsholm, L;

    2015-01-01

    preschools. Percentage of total daily time spent in moderate and vigorously physical activity (MVPA) was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers over 5 preschool days and 2 days off. Thirty--nine potential correlates of child MVPA across 5 domains were tested for associations with gender specific MVPA......The aim of this study was to identify gender specific physical activity correlates in Danish preschool children. METHODS: Cross--sectional study in Odense, Denmark. The gender specific models were based on data from 174 boys and 177 girls, 5--6 years of age and enrolled in 40 randomly selected...

  3. Measurement of neutron induced activation of the SCT end-cap module

    CERN Document Server

    Linhart, V; Kolros, A; Lebel, C; Leroy, C; Pospísil, S; Stekl, I; Vobecky, M

    2005-01-01

    Results of the experimental study of the induced radioactivity generated by neutron irradiation in the semiconductor tracker end-cap module are presented. The purpose of the experiment was to identify the radioisotopes produced in the module by neutron interactions. The irradiation was done in the active zone of the VR-1 CTU Prague reactor. The identification and quantification of radioisotopes were based on detailed analysis of gamma-ray spectra, which were measured with a HPGe-detector. The nuclear processes of all 26 observed radioisotopes and their activities at the end of the irradiation were determined.

  4. Calibration and efficiency curve of SANAEM ionization chamber for activity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeltepe, Emin; Kossert, Karsten; Dirican, Abdullah; Nähle, Ole; Niedergesäß, Christiane; Kemal Şahin, Namik

    2016-03-01

    A commercially available Fidelis ionization chamber was calibrated and assessed in PTB with activity standard solutions. The long-term stability and linearity of the system was checked. Energy-dependent efficiency curves for photons and beta particles were determined, using an iterative method in Excel™, to enable calibration factors to be calculated for radionuclides which were not used in the calibration. Relative deviations between experimental and calculated radionuclide efficiencies are of the order of 1% for most photon emitters and below 5% for pure beta emitters. The system will enable TAEK-SANAEM to provide traceable activity measurements.

  5. Quantitative measurements of trace elements with large activation cross section for concrete materials in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, A.; Iida, T.; Moriizumi, J.; Kameyama, T. [Nuclear Engineering, Nagoya Univ., Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Sakuma, Y. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Takada, J.; Yamasaki, K.; Yoshimoto, T. [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst

    2000-05-01

    It is expected that some nuclear power reactors are decommissioned successively in the near future, since the nuclear power technology matures in Japan. Then, what proportion of the massive concrete waste materials is regarded as radioactive waste materials? It is a serious problem. Suzuki et at., have measured specific activities for concrete materials in Japan. In present study, we have measured quantitatively microelements with large activation cross section in concrete materials, and furnish basic data for the guiding principle of concrete waste materials. We have collected 158 samples of concrete materials in Japan. The samples were ground into pieces of 100 to 200 meshes. The amount of 100 mg in each sample was exposed to neutrons for 1 h in the nuclear reactor of KUR. We have measured radioactive elements of medium life time (La-140, Np-239, etc.) one week later, and radioactive elements of long life time (Co-60, Eu-152, etc.) one month later with Ge detector. Nineteen microelements with large activation cross section were detected. The distribution of Co-60 and Eu-152 concentrations was obtained. The mean concentration of Co-60 is 15.7 ppm, and gabbros, peridotites and basalts have high Co-60 concentrations. The mean value of Eu-152 is 8.8 x 10{sup -1} ppm. Andesites, basalts, sandstones and shales have high Eu-152 concentrations. The activated concentrations for cement depend on the place of the origin. Since the concrete materials with low natural radioactivities as gabbros and peridotites have a tendency to activation, it is necessary to pay attention for concrete materials in nuclear power plant. The natural specific activities included in concrete materials in Japan are 556.2 (16.0-896.0) Bq/kg for K-40, 33.8 (2.96-87.6) Bq/kg for U-238 and 29.1 (2.63-48.4)Bq/kg for Th-232{approx_equal} Ra-228. The quantities of microelements with large activation cross section depend on the species of rocks and the level of the weathering. If we could collect many

  6. Study of solar activity by measuring cosmic rays with a water Cherenkov detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahena Bias, Angelica [Facultad de ciencias FIsico-Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Avenida Francisco J. Mujica S/N Ciudad Universitaria C.P. 58030 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Villasenor, Luis, E-mail: anbahena@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: villasen@ifm.umich.mx [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Avenida Francisco J. Mujica S/N Ciudad Universitaria C.P. 58030 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2011-04-01

    We report on an indirect study of solar activity by using the Forbush effect which consists on the anti-correlation between the intensity of solar activity and the intensity of secondary cosmic radiation detected at ground level at the Earth. We have used a cylindrical water Cherenkov detector to measure the rate of arrival of secondary cosmic rays in Morelia Mich., Mexico, at 1950 m.a.s.l. We describe the analysis required to unfold the effect of atmospheric pressure and the search for Forbush decreases in our data, the latter correspond to more than one year of continuous data collection.

  7. Optimal design of measurement network for neutronic activity field reconstruction by data assimilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouriquet, Bertrand, E-mail: bertrand.bouriquet@cerfacs.fr [Sciences de l' Univers au CERFACS, URA CERFACS/CNRS No 1875, 42 avenue Gaspard Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); Argaud, Jean-Philippe; Cugnart, Romain [Electricite de France, 1 avenue du General de Gaulle, F-92141 Clamart Cedex (France)

    2012-02-01

    An optimal reconstruction of the neutronic activity field can be determined for a nuclear reactor core using a data assimilation framework to merge information from models and measurements. In this paper, we focus on solving the inverse problem of determining an optimal repartition of the measuring instruments within the core, to get the best possible results from the data assimilation reconstruction procedure. The position optimisation is realised using a Simulated Annealing algorithm, based on the Metropolis-Hastings proposition. Moreover, algebraic improvements of data assimilation have been developed, optimising their computational performance, and are presented here.

  8. MCNPX simulation of influence of cosmic rays on low-activity spectrometric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šolc, Jaroslav; Kovář, Petr; Dryák, Pavel

    2014-02-01

    Germanium gamma spectrometers are effective instruments for low-activity measurement of a mixture of radionuclides in environmental samples, food samples, in materials released from nuclear facilities to the environment, etc. In such measurements cosmic rays have a significant contribution to the background signal. A Monte Carlo code MCNPXTM was used to calculate coaxial high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector pulse-height spectra caused by cosmic rays penetrating through shielding made of concrete and lead. Simulations were compared to two different measurements, one performed inside a 10 cm thick lead shielding and another done inside a larger chamber made of low-activity concrete and with several ceiling thicknesses. In the first experiment, a discrepancy was found between simulated and measured spectra by up to the factor of 4 at 2.62 MeV and slowly decreasing to unity at 13 MeV. It is assumed that the discrepancy between the measured and simulated spectra is caused by the simplification of muon energy losses treatment resulting in the underestimation of count rate in simulated pulse-height spectrum. Good agreement was obtained between simulation and measurement of differences of detector count rates in 662 keV and 1332 keV energy windows inside a concrete chamber with varying ceiling thickness. It is assumed that due to lower effective Z of concrete, delta electron bremsstrahlung has lower yield and the muon radiation energy losses start to be important at higher energies than in lead. As a result, the total contribution of these effects to the outputs of MCNPXTM simulations of concrete chamber is not dominant in the investigated energy windows and the simulation results are in a close agreement with the measurement.

  9. Brachial artery vasomotion and transducer pressure effect on measurements by active contour segmentation on ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, Theodore W.; Sultan, Laith R.; Sehgal, Chandra M., E-mail: sehgalc@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Reamer, Courtney B.; Mohler, Emile R. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Section of Vascular Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To use feed-forward active contours (snakes) to track and measure brachial artery vasomotion on ultrasound images recorded in both transverse and longitudinal views; and to compare the algorithm's performance in each view. Methods: Longitudinal and transverse view ultrasound image sequences of 45 brachial arteries were segmented by feed-forward active contour (FFAC). The segmented regions were used to measure vasomotion artery diameter, cross-sectional area, and distention both as peak-to-peak diameter and as area. ECG waveforms were also simultaneously extracted frame-by-frame by thresholding a running finite-difference image between consecutive images. The arterial and ECG waveforms were compared as they traced each phase of the cardiac cycle. Results: FFAC successfully segmented arteries in longitudinal and transverse views in all 45 cases. The automated analysis took significantly less time than manual tracing, but produced superior, well-behaved arterial waveforms. Automated arterial measurements also had lower interobserver variability as measured by correlation, difference in mean values, and coefficient of variation. Although FFAC successfully segmented both the longitudinal and transverse images, transverse measurements were less variable. The cross-sectional area computed from the longitudinal images was 27% lower than the area measured from transverse images, possibly due to the compression of the artery along the image depth by transducer pressure. Conclusions: FFAC is a robust and sensitive vasomotion segmentation algorithm in both transverse and longitudinal views. Transverse imaging may offer advantages over longitudinal imaging: transverse measurements are more consistent, possibly because the method is less sensitive to variations in transducer pressure during imaging.

  10. Bayesian calibration of reactor neutron flux spectrum using activation detectors measurements: Application to CALIBAN reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartier, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Casoli, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives CEA, DAM, Valduc, F-21120 Is sur Tille (France); Chappert, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we present calibration methods in order to estimate reactor neutron flux spectrum and its uncertainties by using integral activation measurements. These techniques are performed using Bayesian and MCMC framework. These methods are applied to integral activation experiments in the cavity of the CALIBAN reactor. We estimate the neutron flux and its related uncertainties. The originality of this work is that these uncertainties take into account measurements uncertainties, cross-sections uncertainties and model error. In particular, our results give a very good approximation of the total flux and indicate that neutron flux from MCNP simulation for energies above about 5 MeV seems to overestimate the 'real flux'. (authors)

  11. Static Absolute Force Measurement for Preloaded Piezoelements Used for Active Lorentz Force Detuning System

    CERN Document Server

    Sekalski, S P; Sekalski, S P

    2004-01-01

    To reach high gradients in pulsed operation of superconducting (SC) cavities an active Lorentz force detuning compensation system is needed. For this system a piezoelement can be used as an actuator (other option is a magnetostrictive device). To guarantee the demanded lifetime of the active element, the proper preload force adjustment is necessary. To determine this parameter an absolute force sensor is needed which will be able to operate at cryogenic temperatures. Currently, there is no calibrated commercial available sensor, which will be able to measure the static force in such an environment. The authors propose to use a discovered phenomenon to estimate the preload force applied to the piezoelement. The principle of the proposed solution based on a shape of impedance curve, which changes with the value of applied force. Especially, the position of resonances are monitored. No need of specialized force sensor and measurement in-situ are additional advantages of proposed method.

  12. Whole-body dose meters. Measurements of total activity. Ganzkoerperzaehler. Messungen der Gesamtaktivitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeppe, P. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Theoretische Strahlenkunde und Medizinische Informatik Klinikum Steglitz, Berlin (Germany). Bereich Ganzkoerperzaehler/Elektronenrechner)

    1990-04-01

    By means of measurements using a whole-body dose meter, the course of the incorporation of radionuclides was established between April 1986 and May 1989 for unchanged conditions of alimentation, activity-conscious alimentation, and uniquely increased incorporation. Monitoring covered persons from the most different spheres of life. The incorporation is compared with the one resulting from nuclear weapons explosions in the atmosphere. (DG).

  13. Quantitative Measurement of Physical Activity in Acute Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømmen, Anna Maria; Christensen, Thomas; Jensen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to quantitatively measure and describe the amount and pattern of physical activity in patients within the first week after acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack using accelerometers. METHODS: A total of 100 patients with acute is...... ischemic stroke. The method offers a low cost and noninvasive tool for future clinical interventional physiotherapeutic and early mobilization studies. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01560520....

  14. Measurement of Infinite Diluted Activity Coefficient of Solvents in Polymer by Inverse Gas Chromatography Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@1 INTRODUCTION Due to its short experimental time, little sample needed, suitable for broad temperature range, inverse gas chromatography (IGC) has been widely used to measure variety of properties of polymer systems, such as the intinite diluted activity coefficients of solvent in polymer, the glass transition temperature of polymer and the surface properties of polymer[1-5], etc. Those data have been used to develop the group contribution method for the prediction of thermodynamic proper-ties of polymer solution[6].

  15. Analysis of Active Lava Flows on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, Using SIR-C Radar Correlation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebker, H. A.; Rosen, P.; Hensley, S.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Precise eruption rates of active pahoehoe lava flows on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, have been determined using spaceborne radar data acquired by the Space Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C). Measurement of the rate of lava flow advance, and the determination of the volume of new material erupted in a given period of time, are among the most important observations that can be made when studying a volcano.

  16. Agreement between pedometer and accelerometer in measuring physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Tarja I; Tennant, Peter W G; McParlin, Catherine; Poston, Lucilla; Robson, Stephen C; Bell, Ruth

    2011-06-27

    Inexpensive, reliable objective methods are needed to measure physical activity (PA) in large scale trials. This study compared the number of pedometer step counts with accelerometer data in pregnant women in free-living conditions to assess agreement between these measures. Pregnant women (n = 58) with body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2) at median 13 weeks' gestation wore a GT1M Actigraph accelerometer and a Yamax Digi-Walker CW-701 pedometer for four consecutive days. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients were determined between pedometer step counts and various accelerometer measures of PA. Total agreement between accelerometer and pedometer step counts was evaluated by determining the 95% limits of agreement estimated using a regression-based method. Agreement between the monitors in categorising participants as active or inactive was assessed by determining Kappa. Pedometer step counts correlated moderately (r = 0.36 to 0.54) with most accelerometer measures of PA. Overall step counts recorded by the pedometer and the accelerometer were not significantly different (medians 5961 vs. 5687 steps/day, p = 0.37). However, the 95% limits of agreement ranged from -2690 to 2656 steps/day for the mean step count value (6026 steps/day) and changed substantially over the range of values. Agreement between the monitors in categorising participants to active and inactive varied from moderate to good depending on the criteria adopted. Despite statistically significant correlations and similar median step counts, the overall agreement between pedometer and accelerometer step counts was poor and varied with activity level. Pedometer and accelerometer steps cannot be used interchangeably in overweight and obese pregnant women.

  17. Agreement between pedometer and accelerometer in measuring physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McParlin Catherine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inexpensive, reliable objective methods are needed to measure physical activity (PA in large scale trials. This study compared the number of pedometer step counts with accelerometer data in pregnant women in free-living conditions to assess agreement between these measures. Methods Pregnant women (n = 58 with body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 at median 13 weeks' gestation wore a GT1M Actigraph accelerometer and a Yamax Digi-Walker CW-701 pedometer for four consecutive days. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients were determined between pedometer step counts and various accelerometer measures of PA. Total agreement between accelerometer and pedometer step counts was evaluated by determining the 95% limits of agreement estimated using a regression-based method. Agreement between the monitors in categorising participants as active or inactive was assessed by determining Kappa. Results Pedometer step counts correlated moderately (r = 0.36 to 0.54 with most accelerometer measures of PA. Overall step counts recorded by the pedometer and the accelerometer were not significantly different (medians 5961 vs. 5687 steps/day, p = 0.37. However, the 95% limits of agreement ranged from -2690 to 2656 steps/day for the mean step count value (6026 steps/day and changed substantially over the range of values. Agreement between the monitors in categorising participants to active and inactive varied from moderate to good depending on the criteria adopted. Conclusions Despite statistically significant correlations and similar median step counts, the overall agreement between pedometer and accelerometer step counts was poor and varied with activity level. Pedometer and accelerometer steps cannot be used interchangeably in overweight and obese pregnant women.

  18. Adenylate cyclase activity along the rabbit nephron as measured in single isolated segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, M; Chabardès, D; Montégut, M; Clique, A; Morel, F

    1975-01-01

    A method is described, which allows adenylate cyclase activity measurement in single pieces of various nephron segments. Tubular samples of 0.5 to 2 mm length were isolated by microdissection from collagenase treated slices of rabbit kidney. A photograph of each piece was taken in order to measure its length. After a permeabilisation treatment involving preincubation in a hypoosmotic medium and a freezing step, each sample was incubated for 30 mm at 30 degrees C in a medium containing high specific (alpha-32-P)-ATP 3-10-4 M, final volume 2.5 mu 1. The (32P)-cAMP formed was separated from the other labelled nucleotides by filtering the incubate on a dry aluminium oxide microcolumn, 3H cAMP was added as a tracer for measuring cAMP recovery. The sensitivity of the method was found to be a few fentomoles (10-15 M) cAMP. cAMP generation increased linearly as a function of the incubation time up to more than 30 min, and as a function of the length of the segment used. Control and fluoride (5 mM) stimulated adenvlate cyclase activities were measured in the following segments of the nephron: early proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), pars recta of the proximal tubule (PR), thin descending limb of the loop (TDL), cortical portion of the thick ascending limb (CAL), distal convoluted tubule (dct), first branched portion of the collecting tubule (BCT), further cortical (CCT) and medullary (MCT) portions of the collecting tubule. Mean control adenylate cyclase activity varied from 7 (PR) to 75 (BCT) fmoles/mm/30 min. Flouride addition resulted in a 10 (BCT) to 50 (PR) fold increase in enzyme activity. Series of replicates gave a scatter equal to plus or minus 20% (S.D. as a per cent of the mean). The method described appears to be suitable to determine which nephron segments contain hormone-dependent adenylate cyclase.

  19. Volumic activities measurements and equivalent doses calculation of indoor 222Rn in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmajid Choukri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As a way of prevention, we have measured the volumic activities of indoor 222Rn and we have calculated the corresponding effective dose in some dwellings and enclosed areas in Morocco. Seasonal variation of Radon activities and Relationships between variation of these activities and some parameters such height, depth and type of construction were also established in this work.Methods: The passive time-integrated method of using a solid state nuclear track detector (LR-115 type II was employed. These films, cut in pieces of 3.4 ´ 2.5 cm2, were placed in detector holders and enclosed in heat-scaled polyethylene bags.Results: The measured volumic activities of radon vary in houses, between 31 and 136 Bq/m3 (0.55 and 2.39 mSv/year with an average value of 80 Bq/m3 (1.41 mSv/year. In enclosed work area, they vary between 60 Bq/m3 (0.38 mSv/year in an ordinary area to 1884 Bq/m3 (11.9 mSv/year at not airy underground level of 12 m. the relatively higher volumic activities of 222Rn in houses were measured in Youssoufia and khouribga towns situated in regions rich in phosphate deposits. Measurements at the geophysical observatory of Berchid show that the volumic activity of radon increases with depth, this is most probably due to decreased ventilation. Conclusion: The obtained results show that the effective dose calculated for indoor dwellings are comparable to those obtained in other regions in the word. The risks related to the volumic activities of indoor radon could be avoided by simple precautions such the continuous ventilation. The reached high value of above 1884 Bq/m3 don't present any risk for workers health in the geophysical observatory of Berchid because workers spend only a few minutes by day in the cellar to control and reregister data.

  20. Where is the Theoretical Basis for Understanding and Measuring the Environment for Physical Activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are beginning to explore environmental correlates to further the field of physical activity research. Before interventions and experimental investigations can be undertaken, it is necessary to identify specific environmental features that are consistent correlates of physical activity. There has been a plethora of research measuring such cross-sectional associations since this field came to the fore in 2003. This paper posits that it is time for researchers to evaluate the state of knowledge, and suggests that future developments in this field focus on the theoretical bases for (i measurement of the environment and (ii understanding the links between perceptions of the environment and behaviour through psychological theories of cognition. Key theories considered include social ecology and the theory of planned behaviour. It is suggested that with a continued absence of a common conceptual framework, vocabulary and measurement tools the majority of studies may remain at a correlates stage. In highlighting issues with current methodologies, this commentary encourages more grounded theoretical approaches to the study of the environment and physical activity.

  1. Where is the Theoretical Basis for Understanding and Measuring the Environment for Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, N M; Wright, A; Lowry, R G; Mutrie, N

    2008-12-02

    Researchers are beginning to explore environmental correlates to further the field of physical activity research. Before interventions and experimental investigations can be undertaken, it is necessary to identify specific environmental features that are consistent correlates of physical activity. There has been a plethora of research measuring such cross-sectional associations since this field came to the fore in 2003. This paper posits that it is time for researchers to evaluate the state of knowledge, and suggests that future developments in this field focus on the theoretical bases for (i) measurement of the environment and (ii) understanding the links between perceptions of the environment and behaviour through psychological theories of cognition. Key theories considered include social ecology and the theory of planned behaviour. It is suggested that with a continued absence of a common conceptual framework, vocabulary and measurement tools the majority of studies may remain at a correlates stage. In highlighting issues with current methodologies, this commentary encourages more grounded theoretical approaches to the study of the environment and physical activity.

  2. A microreactor array for spatially resolved measurement of catalytic activity for high-throughput catalysis science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratyuk, Petro; Gumuslu, Gamze; Shukla, Shantanu; Miller, James B; Morreale, Bryan D; Gellman, Andrew J

    2013-04-01

    We describe a 100 channel microreactor array capable of spatially resolved measurement of catalytic activity across the surface of a flat substrate. When used in conjunction with a composition spread alloy film (CSAF, e.g. Pd{sub x}Cu{sub y}Au{sub 1-x-y}) across which component concentrations vary smoothly, such measurements permit high-throughput analysis of catalytic activity and selectivity as a function of catalyst composition. In the reported implementation, the system achieves spatial resolution of 1 mm{sup 2} over a 10×10 mm{sup 2} area. During operation, the reactant gases are delivered at constant flow rate to 100 points of differing composition on the CSAF surface by means of a 100-channel microfluidic device. After coming into contact with the CSAF catalyst surface, the product gas mixture from each of the 100 points is withdrawn separately through a set of 100 isolated channels for analysis using a mass spectrometer. We demonstrate the operation of the device on a Pd{sub x}Cu{sub y}Au{sub 1-x-y} CSAF catalyzing the H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} exchange reaction at 333 K. In essentially a single experiment, we measured the catalytic activity over a broad swathe of concentrations from the ternary composition space of the Pd{sub x}Cu{sub y}Au{sub 1-x-y} alloy.

  3. Self-control constructs related to measures of dietary intake and physical activity in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Thomas A; Isasi, Carmen R; Mendoza, Don; Ainette, Michael G

    2007-12-01

    To test self-regulation concepts in relation to dietary intake and physical activity patterns in adolescence, which we predicted to be influenced by components of a self-control model. A survey was conducted with a multiethnic sample of 9th grade public school students in a metropolitan area (N = 539). Confirmatory analysis tested the measurement structure of self-control. Structural equation modeling tested the association of self-control constructs with measures of fruit and vegetable intake, saturated fat intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Confirmatory analysis of 14 indicators of self-control showed best fit for a two-factor structure, with latent constructs of good self-control (planfulness) and poor self-control (impulsiveness). Good self-control was related to more fruit and vegetable intake, more participation in sports, and less sedentary behavior. Poor self-control was related to more saturated fat intake and less vigorous exercise. These effects were independent of gender, ethnicity, and parental education, which themselves had relations to diet and exercise measures. Multiple-group modeling indicated that effects of self-control were comparable across gender and ethnicity subgroups. Self-control concepts are relevant for patterns of dietary intake and physical activity among adolescents. Attention to self-control processes may be warranted for prevention programs to improve health behaviors in childhood and adolescence.

  4. An analytical method for measuring α-amylase activity in starch-containing foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kazuo; Hirao, Takashi; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2013-05-01

    The quality of starch-containing foods may be significantly impaired by contamination with very small amounts of α-amylase, which can enzymatically hydrolyze the starch and cause viscosity loss. Thus, for quality control, it is necessary to have an analytical method that can measure low amylase activity. We developed a sensitive analytical method for measuring the activity of α-amylase (from Bacillus subtilis) in starch-containing foods. The method consists of six steps: (1) crude extraction of α-amylase by centrifugation and filtration; (2) α-amylase purification by desalting and anion-exchange chromatography; (3) reaction of the purified amylase with boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY)-labeled substrate, which releases a fluorescent fragment upon digestion of the substrate, thus avoiding interference from starch derivatives in the sample; (4) stopping the reaction with acetonitrile; (5) reversed-phase solid-phase extraction of the fluorescent substrate to remove contaminating dye and impurities; and (6) separation and measurement of BODIPY fluorescence by HPLC. The proposed method could quantify α-amylase activities as low as 10 mU/mL, which is enough to reduce the viscosity of starch-containing foods.

  5. Self-Reported Versus Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Biomarkers Among NHANES Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Britni R; Moser, Richard P; Dodd, Kevin W; Atienza, Audie A; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Berrigan, David

    2015-05-01

    Discrepancies in self-report and accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) may influence relationships with obesity-related biomarkers in youth. Data came from 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) for 2174 youth ages 12 to 19. Biomarkers were: body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), BMI percentile, height and waist circumference (WC, cm), triceps and subscapular skinfolds (mm), systolic & diastolic blood pressure (BP, mmHg), high-density lipoprotein (HDL, mg/dL), total cholesterol (mg/dL), triglycerides (mg/dL), insulin (μU/ml), C-reactive protein (mg/dL), and glycohemoglobin (%). In separate sex-stratified models, each biomarker was regressed on accelerometer variables [mean MVPA (min/day), nonsedentary counts, and MVPA bouts (mean min/day)] and self-reported MVPA. Covariates were age, race/ethnicity, SES, physical limitations, and asthma. In boys, correlations between self-report and accelerometer MVPA were stronger (boys: r = 0.14-0.21; girls: r = 0.07-0.11; P physical activity. Physical activity measures should be selected based on the outcome of interest and study population; however, associations between PA and these biomarkers appear to be weak regardless of the measure used.

  6. Measurements of Non-thermal Line Widths in Solar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, David H.; Warren, Harry P.

    2016-03-01

    Spectral line widths are often observed to be larger than can be accounted for by thermal and instrumental broadening alone. This excess broadening is a key observational constraint for both nanoflare and wave dissipation models of coronal heating. Here we present a survey of non-thermal velocities measured in the high temperature loops (1-4 MK) often found in the cores of solar active regions. This survey of Hinode Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) observations covers 15 non-flaring active regions that span a wide range of solar conditions. We find relatively small non-thermal velocities, with a mean value of 17.6 ± 5.3 km s-1, and no significant trend with temperature or active region magnetic flux. These measurements appear to be inconsistent with those expected from reconnection jets in the corona, chromospheric evaporation induced by coronal nanoflares, and Alfvén wave turbulence models. Furthermore, because the observed non-thermal widths are generally small, such measurements are difficult and susceptible to systematic effects.

  7. Measurements of Non-Thermal Line Widths in Solar Active Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, David H

    2015-01-01

    Spectral line widths are often observed to be larger than can be accounted for by thermal and instrumental broadening alone. This excess broadening is a key observational constraint for both nanoflare and wave dissipation models of coronal heating. Here we present a survey of non-thermal velocities measured in the high temperature loops (1--5MK) often found in the cores of solar active regions. This survey of $\\textit{Hinode}$ Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) observations covers 15 non-flaring active regions that span a wide range of solar conditions. We find relatively small non-thermal velocities, with a mean value of 17km s$^{-1}$, and no significant trend with temperature or active region magnetic flux. These measurements appear to be inconsistent with those expected from reconnection jets in the corona, chromospheric evaporation induced by coronal nanoflares, and Alfv\\'en wave turbulence models. Furthermore, because the observed non-thermal widths are generally small their measurements are ...

  8. MEASUREMENTS OF NON-THERMAL LINE WIDTHS IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, David H. [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    Spectral line widths are often observed to be larger than can be accounted for by thermal and instrumental broadening alone. This excess broadening is a key observational constraint for both nanoflare and wave dissipation models of coronal heating. Here we present a survey of non-thermal velocities measured in the high temperature loops (1–4 MK) often found in the cores of solar active regions. This survey of Hinode Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) observations covers 15 non-flaring active regions that span a wide range of solar conditions. We find relatively small non-thermal velocities, with a mean value of 17.6 ± 5.3 km s{sup −1}, and no significant trend with temperature or active region magnetic flux. These measurements appear to be inconsistent with those expected from reconnection jets in the corona, chromospheric evaporation induced by coronal nanoflares, and Alfvén wave turbulence models. Furthermore, because the observed non-thermal widths are generally small, such measurements are difficult and susceptible to systematic effects.

  9. Measurement and theoretical estimation of induced activity in natIn by high energy neutrons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maitreyee Nandy; P K Sarkar; N Nakao; T Shibata

    2009-10-01

    Induced radioactivity in natural indium (natIn) foils by high energy neutrons was measured at the KENS Facility, KEK, Japan, where a 16.7 cm thick W target was bombarded by protons of 500 MeV. High energy neutrons consequently produced irradiated the In targets placed at different depths inside a 4 m thick concrete shield placed at the beam exit. The measured activities were compared with the results calculated using the nuclear reaction model codes ALICE-91 and EMPIRE-2.18. To estimate the induced activity, excitation functions of the various radionuclides were calculated using the two codes and folded with the appropriate neutron energy distribution at different depths of the concrete shield. The calculated excitation functions of a given nuclide were found to vary widely from one another in some cases. The performances of the codes for different input parameters like level densities and inverse cross-sections are reported in this paper. Our analysis shows that neither of the two codes reproduced all the measured activities satisfactorily, requiring further improvements in the models adopted.

  10. Fibromyalgia in patients with axial spondyloarthritis: epidemiological profile and effect on measures of disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaffi, Fausto; De Angelis, Rossella; Carotti, Marina; Gutierrez, Marwin; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Atzeni, Fabiola

    2014-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of fibromyalgia (FM) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) or psoriatic arthritis (PsA) characterized by axial involvement (axial-PsA), and to assess the discriminative ability of different versions of the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Activity Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) in measuring disease activity in three different cohorts of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axial-SpA), FM, or both (axial-SpA + FM), this study was divided into two phases: (1) 402 patients with definite AS or axial-PsA were examined to diagnose FM and estimate its prevalence; and (2) 419 patients (111 with axial-SpA, 248 with FM, and 60 with aSpA + FM) were evaluated using the different versions of the ASDAS and BASDAI to assess the effect on disease activity. The overall prevalence of FM in the axial-SpA population was 14.9 %, significantly higher among women (p axial-PsA was 17.2 %. Although the BASDAI scores correlated with those of ASDAS-C-reactive protein (CRP) and ASDAS-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (p axial-SpA and more prevalent in female patients. Our findings suggest that ASDAS is better than BASDAI in distinguishing patients with disease activity from those with functional impairment. The use of ASDAS may be very useful in clinical practice as it allows treating patients with the most appropriate therapy.

  11. Museum activities in dementia care: Using visual analog scales to measure subjective wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joana; Culverwell, Alison; Hulbert, Sabina; Robertson, Mitch; Camic, Paul M

    2017-07-01

    Introduction Previous research has shown that people with dementia and caregivers derive wellbeing-related benefits from viewing art in a group, and that facilitated museum object handling is effective in increasing subjective wellbeing for people with a range of health conditions. The present study quantitatively compared the impact of two museum-based activities and a social activity on the subjective wellbeing of people with dementia and their caregivers. Methods A quasi-experimental crossover design was used. People with early to middle stage dementia and caregivers ( N = 66) participated in museum object handling, a refreshment break, and art viewing in small groups. Visual analog scales were used to rate subjective wellbeing pre and post each activity. Results Mixed-design analysis of variances indicated wellbeing significantly increased during the session, irrespective of the order in which the activities were presented. Wellbeing significantly increased from object handling and art viewing for those with dementia and caregivers across pooled orders, but did not in the social activity of a refreshment break. An end-of-intervention questionnaire indicated that experiences of the session were positive. Conclusion Results provide a rationale for considering museum activities as part of a broader psychosocial, relational approach to dementia care and support the use of easy to administer visual analog scales as a quantitative outcome measure. Further partnership working is also supported between museums and healthcare professionals in the development of nonclinical, community-based programs for this population.

  12. Measurement of estrogenic activity in sediments from Haihe and Dagu River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Maoyong; Xu, Yan; Jiang, Qinting; Lam, Paul K S; O'Toole, Desmond K; Giesy, John P; Jiang, Guibin

    2006-07-01

    Sediments from two rivers in China, the Haihe and Dagu Rivers, were examined for estrogenic activity using an estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated in vitro bioassay system. ER-active compounds were isolated from sediments by Soxhlet extraction, and the crude extracts were fractionated using a florisil column into three fractions. The estrogenic activity of each extract was detected by measuring luciferase activity in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 transfected with a luciferase receptor gene. Significant estrogenic activity was observed in each total extract. The 17beta-estradiol equivalents (E2-EQs) ranged from 8.24 to 95.28 ng E2 g(-1) dw. As a result, the relative estrogenic potencies of three fractions in this study descended in the order of Fraction 3>Fraction 2>Fraction 1. The results of the bioassay analysis indicated the heavy pollution status of these sites with estrogenic contaminants. In this study, five selected chemicals, the natural estrogens 17beta-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1), and the xeno-estrogens 4-octylphenol (OP), 4-nonylphenol (NP), and Bisphenol A (BPA) were also analyzed using the in vitro bioassay. The estrogenic activity of these chemicals were E2>E1>NP>OP>BPA.

  13. 2D surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components with modulated active pyrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, S; Loarer, T; Pocheau, C; Roche, H; Gauthier, E; Aumeunier, M-H; Le Niliot, C; Rigollet, F; Courtois, X; Jouve, M; Balorin, C; Moncada, V

    2014-10-01

    In nuclear fusion devices, such as Tore Supra, the plasma facing components (PFC) are in carbon. Such components are exposed to very high heat flux and the surface temperature measurement is mandatory for the safety of the device and also for efficient plasma scenario development. Besides this measurement is essential to evaluate these heat fluxes for a better knowledge of the physics of plasma-wall interaction, it is also required to monitor the fatigue of PFCs. Infrared system (IR) is used to manage to measure surface temperature in real time. For carbon PFCs, the emissivity is high and known (ɛ ∼ 0.8), therefore the contribution of the reflected flux from environment and collected by the IR cameras can be neglected. However, the future tokamaks such as WEST and ITER will be equipped with PFCs in metal (W and Be/W, respectively) with low and variable emissivities (ɛ ∼ 0.1-0.4). Consequently, the reflected flux will contribute significantly in the collected flux by IR camera. The modulated active pyrometry, using a bicolor camera, proposed in this paper allows a 2D surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected fluxes and the emissivity. Experimental results with Tungsten sample are reported and compared with simultaneous measurement performed with classical pyrometry (monochromatic and bichromatic) with and without reflective flux demonstrating the efficiency of this method for surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected flux and the emissivity.

  14. Measuring Antioxidant Activity in Bioorganic Samples by the Differential Oxygen Uptake Apparatus: Recent Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Amorati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The measure of O2 consumption during the inhibited autoxidation of an easily oxidizable substrate is one of the most reliable and predictive methods to assess antioxidant activity, especially for structure-activity relationship studies, for food and industrial applications. The differential oxygen uptake apparatus described herein represents a powerful and cost-effective way to obtain antioxidant activity from inhibited autoxidation studies. These experiments provide the rate constant and the stoichiometry of the reaction between antioxidants and peroxyl radicals (ROO∙, which are involved in the propagation of radical damage. We show the operation principles and the utility of this instrumentation in the bioorganic laboratory, with regard to the recent advances in this field, ranging from the study of natural antioxidants in biomimetic system, to the use of substrates generating hydroperoxyl radicals, and to the evaluation of novel nanoantioxidants.

  15. Correlates of objectively measured physical activity in 5-6 year old preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, L G; Kristensen, P L; Korsholm, L;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify gender specific physical activity correlates in Danish preschool children. METHODS: Cross--sectional study in Odense, Denmark. The gender specific models were based on data from 174 boys and 177 girls, 5--6 years of age and enrolled in 40 randomly selected...... preschools. Percentage of total daily time spent in moderate and vigorously physical activity (MVPA) was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers over 5 preschool days and 2 days off. Thirty--nine potential correlates of child MVPA across 5 domains were tested for associations with gender specific MVPA....... RESULTS: The gender specific models consistently identified motor coordination and the parents´ perceptions of their child´s activity preferences during free play were positively associated with MVPA. Days with rain or no preschool attendance were negatively associated with MVPA. For boys, rural area...

  16. Sedimentology models from activity concentration measurements: application to the "Bay of Cadiz" Natural Park (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligero, R A; Vidal, J; Meléndez, M J; Hamani, M; Casas-Ruiz, M

    2009-03-01

    A previous study on seabed sediments of the Bay of Cadiz (SW of Spain) enabled us to identify several relations between sedimentological variables and activity concentrations of environmental radionuclides such as (137)Cs, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. In this paper the study has been extended to a large neighbouring inter-tidal area in order to establish if the above mentioned models can be generalized. As a result we have determined that the measured activity concentrations are closely to the values predicted by the theoretical models (correlation coefficient range=0.85-0.93). Furthermore, the proposal model for granulometric facies as a function of activity concentrations of the abovementioned radionuclides provides for the sediments distribution a representation which agrees with the values of the tidal energy distribution obtained using numeric models calibrated with experimental data from current meters and water level recorders.

  17. Scientific and Financial Performance Measure A Simultaneous Model to Evaluate Scientific Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Handoko, L T

    2005-01-01

    An alternative model to measure simultaneously scientific and financial performances of scientific activities is proposed. This mathematical model focuses only on the final scientific outcomes in each fiscal year to gurantee the objectivity. The model is suited for the purpose of immediate and quantitative evaluation needed by policy makers to make decision in the subsequent fiscal year. The model can be applied to any branches of science, while it is also adjustable to varying macro-economic indicators. This enables the policy makers to evaluate equally scientific activities in various fields of science. It is argued that implementing the model could realize a fair, transparent and objective reward and punishment system in any scientific activities in order to improve both individual and institutional performances.

  18. Some details on the method for measuring activity changes of neuronal populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalauzi Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple, complex action potentials (AP and interspike recorded background activity (RBA were detected and extracted from 12 rat cerebellar cortical recordings. For each recording, an averaged simple action potential (SAP was formed. Fourier amplitude spectra of SAP and RBA were similar in all recordings. For one of the recordings, a series of RBA simulations (SBA was generated, superimposing random SAPs, varying the superposition frequency (fsup. Average Fourier amplitude, Amp(SBA, was calculated, in order to use Amp(SBA=f(fsup as a calibration line for reading fsup of RBA, which is a measure of the population activity. A probability distribution for SAP intensities was derived and a family of calibration lines constructed. As all lines were linear and parallel (slope S in log-log plots, a population activity change could be calculated as fsup2/fsup1=[Amp2(RBA/Amp(RBA]1/S.

  19. Measured Mass Loss Rates of Solar-like Stars as a Function of Age and Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, B E; Zank, G P; Linsky, J L; Wood, Brian E.; Mueller, Hans-Reinhard; Zank, Gary P.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    2002-01-01

    Collisions between the winds of solar-like stars and the local ISM result in a population of hot hydrogen gas surrounding these stars. Absorption from this hot H I can be detected in high resolution Lyman-alpha spectra of these stars from the Hubble Space Telescope. The amount of absorption can be used as a diagnostic for the stellar mass loss rate. We present new mass loss rate measurements derived in this fashion for four stars (Epsilon Eri, 61 Cyg A, 36 Oph AB, and 40 Eri A). Combining these measurements with others, we study how mass loss varies with stellar activity. We find that for the solar-like GK dwarfs, the mass loss per unit surface area is correlated with X-ray surface flux. Fitting a power law to this relation yields Mdot ~ Fx^(1.15+/-0.20). The active M dwarf Proxima Cen and the very active RS CVn system Lambda And appear to be inconsistent with this relation. Since activity is known to decrease with age, the above power law relation for solar-like stars suggests that mass loss decreases with t...

  20. Measurement of physical activity in obese persons: how and why? A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Iqbal, Zaheen A.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for poor health, especially in children. Reduced physical activity, prompted by a sedentary lifestyle, is a major contributor. Hence, it is important to assess physical activity using standardized methods in public health to identify the risks associated with obesity. There have been no recent reports comparing such modalities for use by clinicians and researchers. In this article, some of these methods for use in the assessment of physical activity are reviewed, and their advantages and disadvantages are described. [Subjects and Methods] Electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar were searched for literature, using key words Obesity, Physical activity, and Physical Behavior Monitoring. [Results] With advances in technology, various novel methods have been developed to assess physical behavior, but conventional methods are still relevant and easy to administer. [Conclusion] There are various measurement options available. Researchers may choose devices providing more accurate measurements, while clinicians may prefer portability and affordability for patients. PMID:27799717

  1. Polarization Resistance Measurement in Tap Water: The Influence of Rust Electrochemical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyliev, Georgii

    2017-07-01

    Corrosion rate of mild steel in tap water during 4300 h was estimated by LPR and weight-loss methods coupled with OCP measurements. The LPR results were found to be overestimated compared to the weight-loss data within initial 2000 h of exposure. The electrochemical activity of the rust separated from the metal surface was studied by cycling voltammetry using a home-built powder graphite electrode. High redox currents corresponding to the initial 2000 h of exposure were detected. Rust composition was characterized with IR and XRD, and the highest amounts of electrochemically active β- and γ-FeOOH were again detected for the initial 2000 h. Current consumption in rust transformation processes during LPR measurement in the galvanostatic mode accounts for overestimation of the corrosion rate. The time dependence of rust electrochemical activity correlates with OCP variation with time. During initial 2000 h, OCP values are shifted by 50 mV to cathodic side. For the period of a higher rust electrochemical activity, the use of a reduced B is suggested to increase accuracy of LPR technique in tap water.

  2. Polarization Resistance Measurement in Tap Water: The Influence of Rust Electrochemical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyliev, Georgii

    2017-08-01

    Corrosion rate of mild steel in tap water during 4300 h was estimated by LPR and weight-loss methods coupled with OCP measurements. The LPR results were found to be overestimated compared to the weight-loss data within initial 2000 h of exposure. The electrochemical activity of the rust separated from the metal surface was studied by cycling voltammetry using a home-built powder graphite electrode. High redox currents corresponding to the initial 2000 h of exposure were detected. Rust composition was characterized with IR and XRD, and the highest amounts of electrochemically active β- and γ-FeOOH were again detected for the initial 2000 h. Current consumption in rust transformation processes during LPR measurement in the galvanostatic mode accounts for overestimation of the corrosion rate. The time dependence of rust electrochemical activity correlates with OCP variation with time. During initial 2000 h, OCP values are shifted by 50 mV to cathodic side. For the period of a higher rust electrochemical activity, the use of a reduced B is suggested to increase accuracy of LPR technique in tap water.

  3. Active landslide monitoring using remote sensing data, GPS measurements and cameras on board UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Kavoura, Katerina; Depountis, Nikolaos; Argyropoulos, Nikolaos; Koukouvelas, Ioannis; Sabatakakis, Nikolaos

    2015-10-01

    An active landslide can be monitored using many different methods: Classical geotechnical measurements like inclinometer, topographical survey measurements with total stations or GPS and photogrammetric techniques using airphotos or high resolution satellite images. As the cost of the aerial photo campaign and the acquisition of very high resolution satellite data is quite expensive the use of cameras on board UAV could be an identical solution. Small UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) have started their development as expensive toys but they currently became a very valuable tool in remote sensing monitoring of small areas. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate a cheap but effective solution for an active landslide monitoring. We present the first experimental results of the synergistic use of UAV, GPS measurements and remote sensing data. A six-rotor aircraft with a total weight of 6 kg carrying two small cameras has been used. Very accurate digital airphotos, high accuracy DSM, DGPS measurements and the data captured from the UAV are combined and the results are presented in the current study.

  4. Association between objectively measured physical activity, chronic stress and leukocyte telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Känel, Roland; Bruwer, Erna J; Hamer, Mark; de Ridder, J Hans; Malan, Leoné

    2017-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) attenuates chronic stress and age-related and cardiovascular disease risks, whereby potentially slowing telomere shortening. We aimed to study the association between seven-day objectively measured habitual PA, chronic stress and leukocyte telomere length. Study participants were African (N.=96) and Caucasian (N.=107) school teachers of the Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans study. All lifestyle characteristics (including PA) were objectively measured. The general health questionnaire and serum cortisol were assessed as psychological and physical measures of chronic stress. Leukocyte telomere length was measured using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Africans had significantly shorter telomeres (Pstress or telomere length. However, more time spent with light intensity PA time was significantly and independently correlated with lower waist circumference (r=-0.21, P=0.004); in turn, greater waist circumference was significantly associated shorter telomeres (β=-0.17 [-0.30, -0.03], P=0.017). Habitual PA of different intensity was not directly associated with markers of chronic stress and leukocyte telomere length in this biethnic cohort. However, our findings suggest that light intensity PA could contribute to lowered age-related disease risk and healthy ageing by facilitating maintenance of a normal waist circumference.

  5. Measuring neutron yield and ρR anisotropies with activation foils at the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleuel D.L.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Neutron yields at the National Ignition Facility (NIF are measured with a suite of diagnostics, including activation of ∼20–200 g samples of materials undergoing a variety of energy-dependent neutron reactions. Indium samples were mounted on the end of a Diagnostic Instrument Manipulator (DIM, 25–50 cm from the implosion, to measure 2.45 MeV D-D fusion neutron yield. The 336.2 keV gamma rays from the 4.5 hour isomer of 115mIn produced by (n,n′ reactions are counted in high-purity germanium detectors. For capsules producing D-T fusion reactions, zirconium and copper are activated via (n,2n reactions at various locations around the target chamber and bay, measuring the 14 MeV neutron yield to accuracies on order of 7%. By mounting zirconium samples on ports at nine locations around the NIF chamber, anisotropies in the primary neutron emission due to fuel areal density asymmetries can be measured to a relative precision of 3%.

  6. Measurement of serum paraoxonase-1 activity in the evaluation of liver function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jordi Camps; Judit Marsillach; Jorge Joven

    2009-01-01

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an esterase and lactonase synthesized by the liver and found in the circulation associated with high-density lipoproteins. The physiological function of PON1 seems to be to degrade specific oxidized cholesteryl esters and oxidized phospholipids in lipoproteins and cell membranes. PON1 is, therefore, an antioxidant enzyme. Alterations in circulating PON1 levels have been reported in a variety of diseases involving oxidative stress including chronic liver diseases. Measurement of serum PON1 activity has been proposed as a potential test for the evaluation of liver function. However, this measurement is still restricted to research and has not been extensively applied in routine clinical chemistry laboratories. The reason for this restriction is due to the problem that the substrate commonly used for PON1 measurement,paraoxon, is toxic and unstable. The recent development of new assays with non-toxic substrates makes this proposal closer to a practical development. The present editorial summarizes PON1 biochemistry and function,its involvement with chronic liver impairment, and some aspects related to the measurement of PON1 activity in circulation.

  7. DEVICE FOR MEASURING OF THERMAL LENS PARAMETERS IN LASER ACTIVE ELEMENTS WITH A PROBE BEAM METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Zakharova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a device for measuring of parameters of thermal lens (TL in laser active elements under longitudinal diode pumping. The measurements are based on the probe beam method. This device allows one to determine sign and optical power of the lens in the principal meridional planes, its sensitivity factor with respect to the absorbed pump power and astigmatism degree, fractional heat loading which make it possible to estimate integral impact of the photoelastic effect to the formation of TL in the laser element. The measurements are performed in a linearly polarized light at the wavelength of 532 nm. Pumping of the laser element is performed at 960 nm that makes it possible to study laser materials doped with Yb3+ and (Er3+, Yb3+ ions. The precision of measurements: for sensitivity factor of TL – 0,1 m-1/W, for astigmatism degree – 0,2 m-1/W, for fractional heat loading – 5 %, for the impact of the photoelastic effect – 0,5 × 10-6 K-1. This device is used for characterization of thermal lens in the laser active element from an yttrium vanadate crystal, Er3+,Yb3+:YVO .

  8. Adsorption measurements of argon, neon, krypton, nitrogen, and methane on activated carbon up to 650 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malbrunot, P.; Vidal, D.; Vermesse, J. (Centre Universitaire Paris-Nord, Villetaneuse (France)); Chahine, R.; Bose, T.K. (Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Quebec (Canada))

    1992-02-01

    The physisorption of argon, krypton, neon, nitrogen, and methane on GAC activated carbon has been measured in the above critical region by a dielectric method. The measurements were done at room temperature and at pressures up to 650 MPa corresponding to reduced densities of up to 3.25. With the exception of nitrogen, all the measured excess adsorption isotherms show a similar behavior. They exhibit a maximum followed by a downward straight line intercepting the bulk density axis at around the liquid density of the adsorbate in the normal liquid range. The surface excess adsorption isotherms are well represented over the entire density range by Fischer's three-parameter integral equation. The results are also characterized in terms of the critical parameters and the reduced variables of the adsorbates. 21 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Measurement of the cosmogenic activation of germanium detectors in EDELWEISS-III

    CERN Document Server

    Armengaud, E; Augier, C; Benoît, A; Bergé, L; Billard, J; Blümer, J; de Boissière, T; Broniatowski, A; Camus, P; Cazes, A; Chapellier, M; Charlieux, F; De Jésus, M; Dumoulin, L; Eitel, K; Foerster, N; Gascon, J; Giuliani, A; Gros, M; Hehn, L; Heuermann, G; Jin, Y; Juillard, A; Kéfélian, C; Kleifges, M; Kozlov, V; Kraus, H; Kudryavtsev, V A; Le-Sueur, H; Marnieros, S; Navick, X -F; Nones, C; Olivieri, E; Pari, P; Paul, B; Piro, M -C; Poda, D; Queguiner, E; Rozov, S; Sanglard, V; Schmidt, B; Scorza, S; Siebenborn, B; Tcherniakhovski, D; Vagneron, L; Weber, M; Yakushev, E

    2016-01-01

    We present a measurement of the cosmogenic activation in the germanium cryogenic detectors of the EDELWEISS III direct dark matter search experiment. The decay rates measured in detectors with different exposures to cosmic rays above ground are converted into production rates of different isotopes. The measured production rates in units of nuclei/kg/day are 82 $\\pm$ 21 for $^3$H, 2.8 $\\pm$ 0.6 for $^{49}$V, 4.6 $\\pm$ 0.7 for $^{55}$Fe, and 106 $\\pm$ 13 for $^{65}$Zn. These results are the most accurate for these isotopes. A lower limit on the production rate of $^{68}$Ge of 74 nuclei/kg/day is also presented. They are compared to model predictions present in literature and to estimates calculated with the ACTIVIA code.

  10. Novel active comb-shaped dry electrode for EEG measurement in hairy site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Jun; Wu, Chung-Yu; Wong, Alice May-Kuen; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is an important biopotential, and has been widely applied in clinical applications. The conventional EEG electrode with conductive gels is usually used for measuring EEG. However, the use of conductive gel also encounters with the issue of drying and hardening. Recently, many dry EEG electrodes based on different conductive materials and techniques were proposed to solve the previous issue. However, measuring EEG in the hairy site is still a difficult challenge. In this study, a novel active comb-shaped dry electrode was proposed to measure EEG in hairy site. Different form other comb-shaped or spike-shaped dry electrodes, it can provide more excellent performance of avoiding the signal attenuation, phase distortion, and the reduction of common mode rejection ratio. Even under walking motion, it can effectively acquire EEG in hairy site. Finally, the experiments for alpha rhythm and steady-state visually evoked potential were also tested to validate the proposed electrode.

  11. Evaluation of an activity monitor for the objective measurement of free-living physical activity in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kit Tzu; Richardson, Alison M; Maxwell, Douglas; Spence, William D; Stansfield, Benedict W

    2013-12-01

    To explore the use of an activity monitor (AM) to objectively characterize free-living physical activity (F-LPA) in children with mobility impairment resulting from cerebral palsy (CP). First, a validation study compared outcomes from the AM with video evidence. Second, multiday F-LPA was characterized. Relationships between laboratory measures and F-LPA were explored. The evaluation study was conducted in a laboratory environment. F-LPA monitoring was conducted in the participants' free-living environment. Convenience sample of ambulatory children (N=15; 11 boys, 4 girls) aged 5 to 17 years with CP undergoing gait analysis. Not applicable. Accuracy of the AM for sitting/lying time, upright time, stepping time, and strides taken. Daily volumes of F-LPA of children with CP. AM outcomes in comparison with video-based analysis were (mean ± SD) 97.4%±2.7%, 101.1%±1.5%, 99.5%±6.6%, 105.6%±15.8%, and 103.8%±10.1% for sitting/lying time, upright time, standing time, stepping time, and stride count, respectively. Participants' daily F-LPA demonstrated considerable variation: mean standing time ± SD, 2.33±.96h/d; mean stepping time ± SD, 1.68±.86h/d; mean steps per day ± SD, 8477±4528; and mean sit-to-stand transitions per day ± SD, 76±49. Laboratory-measured cadence and mobility level were related to F-LPA, but not directly. The AM demonstrated excellent ability to determine sitting/lying and upright times in children with CP. Stepping time and stride count had lower levels of agreement with video-based analysis but were comparable to findings in previous studies. Crouch gait and toe walking had an adverse effect on outcomes. The F-LPA data provided additional information on children's performance not related to laboratory measures, demonstrating the added value of using this objective measurement technique. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Active control of an innovative seat suspension system with acceleration measurement based friction estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Donghong; Sun, Shuaishuai; Li, Hongyi; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, an innovative active seat suspension system for vehicles is presented. This seat suspension prototype is built with two low cost actuators each of which has one rotary motor and one gear reducer. A H∞ controller with friction compensation is designed for the seat suspension control system where the friction is estimated and compensated based on the measurement of seat acceleration. This principal aim of this research was to control the low frequency vibration transferred or amplified by the vehicle (chassis) suspension, and to maintain the passivity of the seat suspension at high frequency (isolation vibration) while taking into consideration the trade-off between the active seat suspension cost and its high frequency performance. Sinusoidal excitations of 1-4.5 Hz were applied to test the active seat suspension both when controlled and when uncontrolled and this is compared with a well-tuned passive heavy duty vehicle seat suspension. The results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm within the tested frequencies. Further tests were conducted using the excitations generated from a quarter-car model under bump and random road profiles. The bump road tests indicate the controlled active seat suspension has good transient response performance. The Power Spectral Density (PSD) method and ISO 2631-1 standards were applied to analyse the seat suspension's acceleration under random road conditions. Although some low magnitude and high frequency noise will inevitably be introduced by the active system, the weighted-frequency Root Mean Square (RMS) acceleration shows that this may not have a large effect on ride comfort. In fact, the ride comfort is improved from being an 'a little uncomfortable' to a 'not uncomfortable' level when compared with the well-tuned passive seat suspension. This low cost active seat suspension design and the proposed controller with the easily measured feedback signals are very practical for real

  13. Direct measurement of matrix metalloproteinase activity in 3D cellular microenvironments using a fluorogenic peptide substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leight, Jennifer L; Alge, Daniel L; Maier, Andrew J; Anseth, Kristi S

    2013-10-01

    Incorporation of degradable moieties into synthetic hydrogels has greatly increased the utility of these three-dimensional matrices for in vitro cell culture as well as tissue engineering applications. A common method for introducing degradability is the inclusion of oligopeptides sensitive to cleavage by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), enabling cell-mediated remodeling and migration within the material. While this strategy has been effective, characterization and measurement of cell-mediated degradation in these materials has remained challenging. There are 20+ MMP family members whose activity is regulated in space and time by a number of biochemical and biophysical cues. Thus, the typical approach of characterizing cleavage of degradable moieties in solution with recombinant enzymes does not easily translate to three-dimensional cell-mediated matrix remodeling. To address this challenge, we report here the synthesis of a cell-laden hydrogel matrix functionalized with a fluorogenic peptide substrate to provide real-time, quantitative monitoring of global MMP activity. Using this system, stimulation of MMP activity was observed with growth factor treatment in mammary epithelial cells and compared to classical zymography results. Further, the effect of biophysical cues on MMP activity of human mesenchymal stem cells was also investigated where more rigid hydrogels were observed to increase MMP activity. The regulation of MMP activity by these biochemical and biophysical cues highlights the need for in situ, real-time measurement of hydrogel degradation, and use of these functionalized hydrogels will aid in future rational design of degradable synthetic hydrogels for in vitro cell studies and tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrasound colour Doppler measurements in a single joint as measure of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis--assessment of concurrent validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, K; Torp-Pedersen, S; Terslev, L;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Colour Doppler ultrasound (CDU) displays blood flow in the tissues and is able to detect hyperaemia. Because hyperaemia is part of the inflammatory response, the amount of CDU activity in the inflamed synovium may be used to quantify the inflammatory activity in RA. It has never been...... investigated if the amount of CDU activity in a single joint can be used to quantify disease activity in RA. METHODS: A total of 109 patients with RA and affection of the wrist joint underwent a standardized CDU examination assessing three positions in their most affected wrist at start up in biological...... treatment. On the same day the following measures of disease activity were collected: assessment of the number of tender and swollen joints, CRP, ESR and 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28). The amount of CDU activity was quantified by measuring the percentage of colour in the synovium--the colour...

  15. Quantitatively accurate activity measurements with a dedicated cardiac SPECT camera: Physical phantom experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourmoghaddas, Amir, E-mail: apour@ottawaheart.ca; Wells, R. Glenn [Physics Department, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada and Cardiology, The University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario K1Y4W7 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Recently, there has been increased interest in dedicated cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanners with pinhole collimation and improved detector technology due to their improved count sensitivity and resolution over traditional parallel-hole cameras. With traditional cameras, energy-based approaches are often used in the clinic for scatter compensation because they are fast and easily implemented. Some of the cardiac cameras use cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) detectors which can complicate the use of energy-based scatter correction (SC) due to the low-energy tail—an increased number of unscattered photons detected with reduced energy. Modified energy-based scatter correction methods can be implemented, but their level of accuracy is unclear. In this study, the authors validated by physical phantom experiments the quantitative accuracy and reproducibility of easily implemented correction techniques applied to {sup 99m}Tc myocardial imaging with a CZT-detector-based gamma camera with multiple heads, each with a single-pinhole collimator. Methods: Activity in the cardiac compartment of an Anthropomorphic Torso phantom (Data Spectrum Corporation) was measured through 15 {sup 99m}Tc-SPECT acquisitions. The ratio of activity concentrations in organ compartments resembled a clinical {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi scan and was kept consistent across all experiments (1.2:1 heart to liver and 1.5:1 heart to lung). Two background activity levels were considered: no activity (cold) and an activity concentration 1/10th of the heart (hot). A plastic “lesion” was placed inside of the septal wall of the myocardial insert to simulate the presence of a region without tracer uptake and contrast in this lesion was calculated for all images. The true net activity in each compartment was measured with a dose calibrator (CRC-25R, Capintec, Inc.). A 10 min SPECT image was acquired using a dedicated cardiac camera with CZT detectors (Discovery NM530c, GE

  16. Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 1. Particle detection by active photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Markus; Strelnikova, Irina

    2009-03-01

    We present a new design of an in situ detector for the study of meteor smoke particles (MSPs) in the middle atmosphere. This detector combines a classical Faraday cup with a xenon-flashlamp for the active photoionization/photodetachment of MSPs and the subsequent detection of corresponding photoelectrons. This instrument was successfully launched in September 2006 from the Andøya Rocket Range in Northern Norway. A comparison of photocurrents measured during this rocket flight and measurements performed in the laboratory proves that observed signatures are truly due to photoelectrons. In addition, the observed altitude cut-off at 60 km (i.e., no signals were observed below this altitude) is fully understood in terms of the mean free path of the photoelectrons in the ambient atmosphere. This interpretation is also proven by a corresponding laboratory experiment. Consideration of all conceivable species which can be ionized by the photons of the xenon-flashlamp demonstrates that only MSPs can quantitatively explain the measured currents below an altitude of 90 km. Above this altitude, measured photocurrents are most likely due to photoionization of nitric oxide. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the active photoionization and subsequent detection of photoelectrons provides a promising new tool for the study of MSPs in the middle atmosphere. Importantly, this new technique does not rely on the a priori charge of the particles, neither is the accessible particle size range severely limited by aerodynamical effects. Based on the analysis described in this study, the geophysical interpretation of our measurements is presented in the companion paper by Strelnikova, I., et al. [2008. Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 2. results. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.07.011].

  17. In-situ soil composition and moisture measurement by surface neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, C.; Smith, C.; Marks, A.

    2009-04-01

    Neutron activation analysis is widely known as a laboratory technique dependent upon a nuclear reactor to provide the neutron flux and capable of precise elemental analysis. Less well known in-situ geochemical analysis is possible with isotopic (252Cf & 241Am) or compact accelerator (D-T, D-D fusion reaction) neutron sources. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) geophysical borehole logging has been applied to mining issues for >15 years (CSIRO) using isotopic neutron sources and more recently to environmental and hydro-geological applications by ANSTO. Similarly, sophisticated geophysical borehole logging equipment based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS) has been applied in the oil and gas industry by large oilfield services companies to measure oil saturation indices (carbon/oxygen) using accelerator neutron sources. Recent advances in scintillation detector spectral performance has enabled improved precision and detection limits for elements likely to be present in soil profiles (H, Si, Al, Fe, Cl) and possible detection of many minor to trace elements if sufficiently abundant (Na, K, Mg, Ca, S, N, + ). To measure carbon an accelerator neutron source is required to provide fast neutrons above 4.8 MeV. CSIRO and ANSTO propose building a soil geochemical analysis system based on experience gained from building and applying PGNA borehole logging equipment. A soil geochemical analysis system could effectively map the 2D geochemical composition of the top 50cm of soil by dragging the 1D logging equipment across the ground surface. Substituting an isotopic neutron source for a D-T accelerator neutron source would enable the additional measurement of elemental carbon. Many potential ambiguities with other geophysical proxies for soil moisture may be resolved by direct geochemical measurement of H. Many other applications may be possible including time series in-situ measurements of soil moisture for differential drainage, hydrology, land surface

  18. Measurements of indoor 222RN activity in dwellings and workplaces of Curitiba (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Janine N.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Del Claro, Flávia; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F. N.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valeriy

    2014-11-01

    The present work describes the results of systematic measurements of radon (222Rn) in residential environments and workplaces in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba (Paraná State, Brazil) during the period 2004-2012. For radon in air activity measurements, polycarbonate Track Etch Detectors CR-39, mounted in diffusion chambers protected by borosilicate glass fiber filters, were used. After being exposed in air, the CR-39 detectors were submitted to a chemical etching in a 6.25 M NaOH solution at 70 °C for 14 h. The alpha particle tracks were identified and manually counted with an optical microscope, and with the results of previously performed calibrations, the indoor activity concentration of 222Rn was calculated. The calibration of CR-39 and the alpha particle tracks chemical development procedures were performed in collaboration the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS, Japan). The major part of indoor 222Rn concentration in residences was found to be below 100 Bq/m3. In the case of working places, all measurements of 222Rn concentrations were below 100 Bq/m3. These values are considered within the limits set by international regulatory agencies, such as the US EPA and ICRP, which adopt up to 148 and 300 Bq/m3 as upper values for the reference levels for radon gas activity in dwellings, respectively. The latest value of 300 Bq/m3 for radon activity in air is proposed by ICRP considering the upper value for the individual dose reference level for radon exposure of 10 mSv/yr.

  19. A Modified Method for Measuring Root Iron Reductase Activity Under Normal Laboratory Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shao-Jian; HE Yun-Feng; TANG Cai-Xian; Y. MASAOKA

    2005-01-01

    Based on the strong chelating property of bathophenanthroline disulfonic acid (BPDS) with Fe(Ⅱ), root Fe(Ⅲ) chelate reductase activity is usually measured with a spectrophotometer using MES (2-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid) or HEPES (2-(4-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinyl) ethanesulfonic acid) buffer in the dark because of high autoreduction rate of Fe(Ⅲ)in the presence of light. However, the exclusion of light is inconvenient, especially when analyzing a large number of samples. The objective of this study was to develop a new method for determination of root reductase activity under normal laboratory conditions using a suitable buffer composition and Fe(Ⅲ) concentration to eliminate the autoreduction of Fe(Ⅲ). A modified method using a Tris (2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol) buffer at pH 7.5 instead of MES or HEPES buffer and a decreased FeEDTA (Fe ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid) concentration of 50 μmol L-1 was developed. The autoreduction of Fe(Ⅲ) using the Tris buffer was undetectable for temperatures at 4 and 28 ℃ and was also much lower than that using the other buffers even with sunlight during measurement of Fe(Ⅲ) reduction.Furthermore, the differences in Fe(Ⅲ) reductase activity among 5 plant species and 14 red clover cultivars (Trifolium pratense L.) could be easily detected with the modified method. The method developed in this study to measure root Fe chelate reductase activity was not only effective and reliable but also easily managed under normal laboratory light conditions.

  20. Measuring Granulocyte and Monocyte Phagocytosis and Oxidative Burst Activity in Human Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Mary Pat; Nieman, David C; Henson, Dru A; Jiang, Qi; Wang, Fu-Zhang

    2016-09-12

    The granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst (OB) activity assay can be used to study the innate immune system. This manuscript provides the necessary methodology to add this assay to an exercise immunology arsenal. The first step in this assay is to prepare two aliquots ("H" and "F") of whole blood (heparin). Then, dihydroethidium is added to the H aliquot, and both aliquots are incubated in a warm water bath followed by a cold water bath. Next, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is added to the H aliquot and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled S. aureus is added to the F aliquot (bacteria:phagocyte = 8:1), and both aliquots are incubated in a warm water bath followed by a cold water bath. Then, trypan blue is added to each aliquot to quench extracellular fluorescence, and the cells are washed with phosphate-buffered saline. Next, the red blood cells are lysed, and the white blood cells are fixed. Finally, a flow cytometer and appropriate analysis software are used to measure granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis and OB activity. This assay has been used for over 20 years. After heavy and prolonged exertion, athletes experience a significant but transient increase in phagocytosis and an extended decrease in OB activity. The post-exercise increase in phagocytosis is correlated with inflammation. In contrast to normal weight individuals, granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis is chronically elevated in overweight and obese participants, and is modestly correlated with C-reactive protein. In summary, this flow cytometry-based assay measures the phagocytosis and OB activity of phagocytes and can be used as an additional measure of exercise- and obesity-induced inflammation.