WorldWideScience

Sample records for female-to-male breeding ratio

  1. Evidence Regarding Persistence in the Gender Unemployment Gap Based on the Ratio of Female to Male Unemployment Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Sen; Herve Queneau

    2007-01-01

    We examine the level of persistence in the gender unemployment gap in eight OECD countries: Australia, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United States. We use a new measure for the gender unemployment gap, namely, the ratio of the female to male unemployment rate. Our empirical evidence shows that the gender unemployment gap is not persistent given that we reject the unit root null hypothesis for all countries in our sample except Australia.

  2. Genomics and relative expression analysis identifies key genes associated with high female to male flower ratio in Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Manali; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2016-04-01

    Jatropha curcas, has been projected as a major source of biodiesel due to high seed oil content (42 %). A major roadblock for commercialization of Jatropha-based biodiesel is low seed yield per inflorescence, which is affected by low female to male flower ratio (1:25-30). Molecular dissection of female flower development by analyzing genes involved in phase transitions and floral organ development is, therefore, crucial for increasing seed yield. Expression analysis of 42 genes implicated in floral organ development and sex determination was done at six floral developmental stages of a J. curcas genotype (IC561235) with inherently higher female to male flower ratio (1:8-10). Relative expression analysis of these genes was done on low ratio genotype. Genes TFL1, SUP, AP1, CRY2, CUC2, CKX1, TAA1 and PIN1 were associated with reproductive phase transition. Further, genes CUC2, TAA1, CKX1 and PIN1 were associated with female flowering while SUP and CRY2 in female flower transition. Relative expression of these genes with respect to low female flower ratio genotype showed up to ~7 folds increase in transcript abundance of SUP, TAA1, CRY2 and CKX1 genes in intermediate buds but not a significant increase (~1.25 folds) in female flowers, thereby suggesting that these genes possibly play a significant role in increased transition towards female flowering by promoting abortion of male flower primordia. The outcome of study has implications in feedstock improvement of J. curcas through functional validation and eventual utilization of key genes associated with female flowering.

  3. The dyadic adjustment of female-to-male transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, M; MacGowan, B; Costos, D

    1985-02-01

    Dyadic adjustment, sexual activities, and marital stability in the relationships of female-to-male transsexuals and their spouses were examined. Participants were 22 female-to-male transsexuals who had undergone some form of surgery to alter their anatomical sex, their spouses, and a control group of married or cohabitating nontranssexual men and women. Participants were administered the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and additional items to assess quantitatively their marital relationships. The transsexuals and their spouses were also asked open-ended interview questions concerning marital and life adjustments. Generally, the transsexuals and their spouses reported good and mutually satisfying interpersonal relationships that are in many ways comparable to those of the matched control group. These findings lend support to the previous clinical interview studies that have reported that female-to-male transsexuals form stable and enduring intimate relationships.

  4. Practice with Female-to-Male Transgendered Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Sophia

    1999-01-01

    Examines the multiple experiences of female-to-male (FTM) transgendered adolescents, focusing on current theories and offering a strengths-based approach to social work practice. Discusses gender history and theory, trends experienced by FTMs during childhood and adolescence, FTMs and high school, FTMs and the family, and hormone therapy.…

  5. [Image of female-to-male transsexuals in Polish society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszewski, Bogusław; Fijałkowska, Marta; Kasielska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the image of female-to-male transsexuals (FtM) in the opinion of women and men. Methods. The questionnaire studies were carried out in a group of 300 students. Respondents answered questions concerning their age, sex, birthplace and the questions related to different aspects of female-to-male transsexuals' life (their childhood, occupational preferences, social and sexual relationships). The results showed that the image of FtM transsexuals created in the male and female group varies because of the lack of opinion expressed more frequently by male students. (1) Students' opinion on psychical, social and sexual life of transsexuals indicates a lack of understanding of their problems. (2) Men do not report much opinion about FtM transsexuals' different aspects of lives which may result from their insufficient knowledge and little interest in the topic of transsexualism.

  6. Sex Reassignment Surgery in the Female-to-Male Transsexual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monstrey, Stan J; Ceulemans, Peter; Hoebeke, Piet

    2011-08-01

    In female-to-male transsexuals, the operative procedures are usually performed in different stages: first the subcutaneous mastectomy which is often combined with a hysterectomy-ovarectomy (endoscopically assisted). The next operative procedure consists of the genital transformation and includes a vaginectomy, a reconstruction of the horizontal part of the urethra, a scrotoplasty and a penile reconstruction usually with a radial forearm flap (or an alternative). After about one year, penile (erection) prosthesis and testicular prostheses can be implanted when sensation has returned to the tip of the penis. The authors provide a state-of-the-art overview of the different gender reassignment surgery procedures that can be performed in a female-to-male transsexual.

  7. Vaginal carcinoma in a female-to-male transsexual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Thilo Ludwig; Holzbach, Thomas; Zantl, Niko; Schuhmacher, Christopher; Vogel, Markus; Seidl, Stefan; Machens, Hans-Gunther; Giunta, Riccardo Enzo

    2010-08-01

    Sex reassignment surgery (SRS) can be considered a reasonable and secure treatment for transsexualism, today. Because the population of patients who have received SRS is growing steadily, it can be expected that the number of patients who present with diseases specific to their original gender will increase as well. In female-to-male transsexuals, vaginal cancer has not been reported so far. This article reports, to our knowledge, the first case of a female-to-male transsexual who developed vaginal cancer. Eighteen years after receiving female-to-male SRS, the patient presented with vaginal cancer, which infiltrated rectum and bladder and also showed involvement of inguinal lymph nodes. Surgery consisted of an anterior and posterior pelvic demolition and extended lymphadenectomy with preservation of the penoid and reconstruction of the pelvic defect with multiple flaps. The tumor was removed completely (R0), and 2 years after surgery, the patient has no signs or symptoms of tumor recurrence and enjoys good quality of life. In SRS patients, diseases of their original gender should always be considered and patients should be encouraged to participate in screening programs. When choosing the surgical approach for SRS, the risks for developing cancer from remaining structures of the genetic gender should be considered. Of course, removal of e.g., ovaries, cervix and vagina, will prevent cancer of these structures. When it comes to surgery in SRS patients with malignancies, an interdisciplinary approach should be chosen. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  8. Ego development in female-to-male transsexual couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, M; Costos, D; MacGowan, B

    1984-12-01

    The ego development of 22 postoperative female-to-male transsexuals and their spouses or lovers with whom they had been living for a year or more was investigated. The transsexuals, their spouses, and a control group of 22 couples were administered the Washington University Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development, a projective measure of ego functioning. Ego development refers to the framework of meaning that the individual brings to an experience. The construct of ego development incorporates a series of sequential stages that integrate various frames of reference including cognitive style, interpersonal style, conscious preoccupation, and impulse control. These processes have received little attention in studies on female-to-male transsexuals who have successfully negotiated the social barrier of cross-living to the extent that they are living the male role in a heterosexual relationship. No significant differences in the distribution of ego development scores were found between the transsexuals and the control males, or between the transsexuals' spouses and the control spouses. Over 93% of the transsexuals and their spouses scored above the conformist level of ego development. These findings are discussed in terms of some of the previous literature on conformist thinking by transsexuals.

  9. Uterine and ovarian changes during testosterone administration in young female-to-male transsexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Loverro

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Our data suggest that long-term testosterone administration to female-to-male patients during reproductive age induces a low proliferative active endometrium, associated with some hypertrophic myometrial changes.

  10. Length-weight relationship, breeding season, sex ratio, maturity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length-weight relationship, breeding season, sex ratio, maturity and fecundity of the Nile catfish Synodontis schall (Bloch and Schneider, 1801) (Pisces: Mochokidae) in Lake Chamo, Ethiopia. ... The average number of eggs g-1 of ovary (preserved wet weight) ranged from 983 to 3,797 with a mean of 1,847 eggs g-1.

  11. Low concentrations of dihydrotestosterone induce female-to-male sex reversal in the frog Pelophylax nigromaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Lou, Qin-Qin; Chen, Xiao-Ran; Qin, Zhan-Fen; Wie, Wu-Ji

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that some amphibian species can be sex-reversed by high concentrations of androgens. Little attention has focused on the effects of androgenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on amphibians. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of lower concentrations of the androgenic EDC 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on gonadal differentiation and development in Pelophylax nigromaculatus, a true frog distributed widely in East Asia. Tadpoles at Gosner stage 24/25 were exposed to nominal concentrations of 40 ng/L, 400 ng/L, and 4000 ng/L DHT to complete metamorphosis. In all DHT treatment groups, males and ambiguous sexes were identified based on gonadal morphology, whereas no females were found; thus, all treatment groups exhibited male-skewed ratios compared with the control group. Gonadal histological examination revealed that ambiguous sexes displayed overall testicular structure with certain ovarian characteristics, demonstrating that DHT-induced sex-ambiguous gonads were incomplete ovary-to-testis reversals (IOTTRs). The expression levels of some ovary-biased genes in the IOTTRs were significantly higher than in the control testes but lower than in the control ovaries. These results show that low concentrations of DHT induced complete or incomplete female-to-male sex reversal in P. nigromaculatus, and incomplete sex reversal retained certain ovarian characteristics not only at gonadal morphological and histological levels but also at the molecular level. They present study highlights potential risks of DHT and other androgenic EDCs for P. nigromaculatus. © 2015 SETAC.

  12. Novel technique for proximal anchoring of penile prostheses in female-to-male transsexual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large, Michael C; Gottlieb, Lawrence J; Wille, Mark A; DeWolfe, Michael; Bales, Gregory T

    2009-08-01

    To present our initial experience with a novel technique for fixation of an inflatable penile prosthesis in the female-to-male transsexual in 2 patients. Proximal fixation of an inflatable penile prosthesis is challenging in the female-to-male transsexual because of the lack of normal corporal bodies. This technique uses a bone drill to create a fixation chamber in the symphysis pubis. A rear tip extender is then secured into bone, providing a stable fixation point for the proximal aspect of the penile cylinder. Two patients successfully underwent placement of a 2-cylinder inflatable penile prosthesis using this technique without any complications. At 8 and 13 months postoperatively, their Sexual Health Inventory for Men score was 23 and 25 of a possible 25 points, respectively. With modest follow-up, bone anchoring appears to provide improved support and better performance of the inflatable penile implant in the female-to-male transsexual patient.

  13. Distinctive features of female-to-male transsexualism and prevalence of gender identity disorder in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Toshiaki; Ikeda, Keiko; Shimizu, Ayumi; Honnma, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Masumori, Naoya; Ohmura, Tousei; Kiya, Tamotsu; Fujimoto, Takashi; Koizumi, Motoiki; Saito, Tsuyoshi

    2011-06-01

    The prevalence of transsexualism is thought to differ among socio-geographic backgrounds, and little is known about its prevalence in Japan. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is known to be associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, is often seen in female-to-male (FTM) transsexual patients. Consequently, detection of PCOS is an important part of health care for these individuals. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of transsexuality in Japan, as well as the incidences of PCOS and insulin resistance among Japanese FTM transsexual patients. One hundred four male-to-female (MTF) and 238 FTM Japanese transsexual patients were studied. Medical histories, including histories of menstrual cycling and hormone treatment, were taken. To exclude other diseases, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and hormone-secreting tumors, thorough medical assessments, including transvaginal or transrectal ultrasonography and measurement of serum hormone levels and insulin resistance indexes, were performed. The diagnosis of PCOS was based on the Rotterdam 2003 criteria. Based on demographic statistics, the prevalences of MTF and FTM transsexuality are about 3.97 and 8.20 per 100,000 people, respectively, making the MTF-to-FTM ratio about 1:2. Of the FTM transsexual patients studied, 128 had not taken hormones before their initial assessment (untreated group); the remaining 50 self-administered androgen. Among the untreated group, 32.0% were diagnosed with PCOS, 30.1% were insulin-resistant, and 31.1% showed hypoadiponectinemia. The sex ratio among Japanese transsexuals is different than among Caucasians. PCOS and insulin resistance are common findings in FTM transsexual patients at initial presentation. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. Neighborhood Characteristics as Predictors of Male to Female and Female to Male Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Harris, T. Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the association between neighborhood characteristics at the census tract-level, couples' perceived neighborhood social cohesion and informal social control, and male-to-female (MFPV) and female-to-male (FMPV) partner violence in the United States. Data come from a second wave of interviews (2000) with a national sample of…

  15. The Female-to-Male Transsexual Voice: Physiology vs. Performance in Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Viktoria

    2011-01-01

    Results of the three studies on the speech production of female-to-male transgender individuals (transmen) present phonetic evidence that speech produces the transmen by what I termed triple decoupling. Transmen successfully decouple gender from biological sex. The results of the longitudinal studies exemplified that speakers born and raised…

  16. Hormonal contraceptive use and female-to-male HIV transmission: a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polis, Chelsea B; Phillips, Sharon J; Curtis, Kathryn M

    2013-02-20

    To systematically review epidemiologic evidence assessing whether hormonal contraception alters the risk of HIV transmission from an HIV-positive woman to an HIV-negative male partner. Systematic review. We included articles published or in press through December 15, 2011. We assessed studies with direct evidence on hormonal contraception use and HIV transmission, and summarized studies with indirect evidence related to genital or plasma viral load. : One study provided direct evidence on oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) or injectable contraception and female-to-male HIV transmission; both injectables [Cox-adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR) 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-3.58; marginal structural model (MSM) adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 3.01, 95% CI 1.47-6.16] and OCPs (Cox adjHR 2.09, 95% CI 0.75-5.84; MSM adjOR 2.35, 95% CI 0.79-6.95) generated elevated point estimates, but only estimates for injectables were significant. Findings from 11 indirect studies assessing various hormonal contraception methods and viral genital shedding or setpoint were mixed, and seven of eight studies indicated no adverse effect of various hormonal contraception methods on plasma viral load. The only direct study on OCPs or injectable contraception and female-to-male HIV transmission suggests increased risk with the use of injectables. Given the potential for confounding in observational data, the paucity of direct evidence on this subject, and mixed indirect evidence, additional evidence is needed.

  17. The case for bilateral mastectomy and male chest contouring for the female-to-male transsexual

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, C; Barrett, J

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In the UK, funding for a bilateral mastectomy (BLM) and associated chest recontouring for female-to-male transsexuals (trans men) has been rejected by some funding authorities on a number of unsustainable grounds. Methods As funding is increasingly an important area for both surgeons and referrers, we undertook a review of the small amount of literature pertaining to this issue and considered it in light of our clinical experience of this group. Findings The literature showed tha...

  18. Could the female-to-male transgender population be donor candidates for uterus transplantation?

    OpenAIRE

    Api, Murat; Boza, Ayşen; Ceyhan, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the eligibility of female-to-male (FtM) transgender people as donor candidates with regard to histologic, surgical, and social aspects. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 31 FtM transgender people underwent standard hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for gender reassignment upon their request. The pelvic viscera of the transgender people was intraoperatively observed and the histology of the removed uteri were evaluated for fertility ...

  19. Management of female-to-male transgender persons: medical and surgical management, life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, Louis J

    2014-06-01

    Hormonal treatment of transgender people is becoming a normal part of medicine, though numbers of subjects remain small because of low prevalence. Information on treatment is scattered and this review brings together the latest information on treatment goals and potential side-effects of androgen treatment of female-to-male transsexual subjects. Androgen treatment of female-to-male transsexuals is usually uneventful, with a good patient compliance. Goals of hormonal treatment are elimination of secondary sex characteristics of the female sex and induction of those of the male sex. Completion takes approximately 2 years. Hormonal treatment is eventually followed by surgical ablation of breasts and removal of uterus and ovaries. Phalloplasty may be considered. Concerns are the sequelae of hypogonadism following surgery, such as loss of bone mass. Contrary to earlier expectations, there is no increase in cardiovascular disease. (Hormone-related) cancers are rare, but vaginal, cervical, endometrial carcinomas have been reported. Cancers of the breasts are of greater concern and have been found in residual mammary tissue after breast ablation. So far, androgen treatment has not raised major safety concerns. Regrets about changing sex have not been reported. Testosterone treatment of female-to-male transsexuals is effective and well tolerated.

  20. Sexual desire in female-to-male transsexual persons: exploration of the role of testosterone administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierckx, Katrien; Elaut, Els; Van Caenegem, Eva; Van De Peer, Fleur; Dedecker, David; Van Houdenhove, Ellen; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2011-08-01

    To describe sexual desire in female-to-male transsexual persons post sex reassignment surgery (SRS). The associations between serum androgen levels and sexual desire are examined. Single center cross-sectional study. Forty-five female-to-male transsexual persons post SRS completed a standardized questionnaire assessing sexual desire (Sexual Desire Inventory). In addition, participants were asked questions on sexual desire before starting hormone treatment and having SRS. Serum levels of testosterone, LH and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured on fasting morning serum samples. In retrospect, 73.9% of the participants reported an increase in sexual desire after hormone treatment and SRS. Solitary sexual desire scores were significantly correlated with frequency of masturbation (r=0.835; Pfemale-to-male transsexual persons with elevated levels of LH, indicating suboptimal testosterone therapy, reported significantly lower solitary sexual desire levels (than those with low LH levels; P=0.007). Suppressed LH levels were also associated with having a higher need for sexual activities (P=0.009) and a higher frequency of excessive sexual desire (P=0.007). Most female-to-male transsexual persons report on a marked increase in sexual desire after testosterone treatment and SRS. No direct associations between levels of testosterone and solitary or dyadic sexual desire were found. However, measures of sexual desire were inversely associated with LH levels.

  1. Selective breeding for a behavioral trait changes digit ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginia H Y Yan

    Full Text Available The ratio of the length of the second digit (index finger divided by the fourth digit (ring finger tends to be lower in men than in women. This 2D:4D digit ratio is often used as a proxy for prenatal androgen exposure in studies of human health and behavior. For example, 2D:4D ratio is lower (i.e. more "masculinized" in both men and women of greater physical fitness and/or sporting ability. Lab mice have also shown variation in 2D:4D as a function of uterine environment, and mouse digit ratios seem also to correlate with behavioral traits, including daily activity levels. Selective breeding for increased rates of voluntary exercise (wheel running in four lines of mice has caused correlated increases in aerobic exercise capacity, circulating corticosterone level, and predatory aggression. Here, we show that this selection regime has also increased 2D:4D. This apparent "feminization" in mice is opposite to the relationship seen between 2D:4D and physical fitness in human beings. The present results are difficult to reconcile with the notion that 2D:4D is an effective proxy for prenatal androgen exposure; instead, it may more accurately reflect effects of glucocorticoids, or other factors that regulate any of many genes.

  2. Aesthetic Female-to-Male Chest Transformation: Power of Combining Modified Mastectomy with a Pectoral Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkia Abbed, MD

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Gender reassignment surgery has gained in popularity with increased media exposure and society’s recognition of gender dysphoria. Female-to-male gender reassignment often begins with the “top” or chest surgery. Mastectomy with free nipple grafting is the most frequently described technique in the literature. This technique is reliable yet lacks the ability to provide a true male chest shape. We discuss our technique for female-to-male “top” surgery combining traditional mastectomy techniques with a lower pole pedicle vascularized areola and a pectoral implant. A 32-year-old African American female with bilateral C cup breast with grade 2/3 ptosis presented for “top” surgery. Intraoperatively, the nipple areola complex was maintained on a lower pole pedicle at a thickness of 1.5 cm to maintain neurovascularity. A superior mastectomy flap was raised at the level of the breast capsule and remaining breast tissue excised. A lateral subpectoral pocket was created for insertion of a silicone pectoral implant. The new nipple position matured in the infero-lateral quadrant of greatest projecting portion of the chest. Lower pole pedicle provided vascularity to the areola, which avoids the need for a free nipple graft and potential hypopigmentation. Pectoral silicone implant provided upper pole fullness to mimic the male chest muscular distribution. Modification of mastectomy-based female-to-male gender reassignment surgery with a lower pole pedicle–based areola and pectoral implant provides an aesthetic improvement over the classic mastectomy with free nipple graft technique.

  3. Effects of testosterone treatment on hypothalamic neuroplasticity in female-to-male transgender individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Kranz, Georg S.; Hahn, Andreas; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Tik, Martin; Ganger, Sebastian; Seiger, René; Hummer, Allan; Windischberger, Christian; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2017-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is used to measure gray matter tissue density and white matter fiber organization/directionality. Recent studies show that DWI also allows for assessing neuroplastic adaptations in the human hypothalamus. To this end, we investigated a potential influence of testosterone replacement therapy on hypothalamic microstructure in female-to-male (FtM) transgender individuals. 25 FtMs were measured at baseline, 4 weeks, and 4 months past treatment start and compared t...

  4. Phalloplasty with an Innervated Island Pedicled Anterolateral Thigh Flap in a Female-to-Male Transsexual

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, Kenjiro; Namba, Yuzaburo; Kimata, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Since 2001, we have been performing phalloplasty with a radial forearm free flap as the flap of first choice in female-to-male transsexuals (FTMTS). In the present case, a 22-year-old FTMTS with a negative Allen test, we achieved good results by performing phalloplasty with an innervated island pedicled anterolateral thigh flap using the "tube within a tube" technique, in which the penis and urethra are constructed with a single flap. While phalloplasty with an island-pedicled or free anterol...

  5. A Threshold Dosage of Testosterone for Female-to-Male Sex Reversal in Rana rugosa Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oike, Akira; Kodama, Maho; Nakamura, Yoriko; Nakamura, Masahisa

    2016-10-01

    Androgens play a critical role in testicular differentiation in many species of vertebrates. While female-to-male sex reversal can be induced by testosterone (T) in some species of amphibians, the mechanism still remains largely unknown even at the histological level. In this study, we determined a threshold dosage of T to induce female-to-male sex reversal in the Japanese frog Rana (R.) rugosa. Tadpoles were allowed to metamorphose into frogs with T present in the rearing water. At 0.2 ng/mL T, female frogs formed tissue comprising a mixture of ovary and testis, the so-called ovotestis, the size of which was significantly smaller than the wild-type ovary. Histological changes occurring in the oocytes of T-treated ovaries induced oocyte degeneration in the masculinizing ovaries leading to their final disappearance. In parallel, many germ cells emerged in the cortex of the ovotestis and, later, in the medulla as well. RT-PCR analysis revealed upregulated expression of CYP17 and Dmrt1 but not 17βHSD in the ovotestis, and downregulation of Pat1a expression. Furthermore, immunohistology revealed CYP17-positive signals in the cortex of the masculinizing ovary, spreading throughout the whole area as the testis developed. These results indicate that oocytes are sensitive to T in the ovary of R. rugosa and that male-type germ cells expand in the masculinizing gonad (testis) contemporaneous with oocyte disappearance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The 2011 WPATH Standards of Care and Penile Reconstruction in Female-to-Male Transsexual Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Selvaggi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH currently publishes the Standards of Care (SOC, to provide clinical guidelines for health care of transsexual, transgender and gender non-conforming persons in order to maximize health and well-being by revealing gender dysphoria. An updated version (7th version, 2011 of the WPATH SOC is currently available. Differences between the 6th and the 7th versions of the SOC are shown; the SOC relevant to penile reconstruction in female-to-male (FtM persons are emphasized, and we analyze how the 2011 WPATH SOC is influencing the daily practice of physicians involved in performing a penile reconstruction procedure for these patients. Depending by an individual’s goals and expectations, the most appropriate surgical technique should be performed: the clinic performing penile reconstruction should be able to offer the whole range of techniques, such as: metoidioplasty, pedicle and free flaps phalloplasty procedures. The goals that physicians and health care institutions should achieve in the next years, in order to improve the care of female-to-male persons, consist in: informing in details the individuals applying for penile reconstruction about all the implications; referring specific individuals to centers capable to deliver a particular surgical technique; implementing the surgery with the most updated refinements.

  7. The 2011 WPATH Standards of Care and Penile Reconstruction in Female-to-Male Transsexual Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Dhejne, Cecilia; Landen, Mikael; Elander, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) currently publishes the Standards of Care (SOC), to provide clinical guidelines for health care of transsexual, transgender and gender non-conforming persons in order to maximize health and well-being by revealing gender dysphoria. An updated version (7th version, 2011) of the WPATH SOC is currently available. Differences between the 6th and the 7th versions of the SOC are shown; the SOC relevant to penile reconstruction in female-to-male (FtM) persons are emphasized, and we analyze how the 2011 WPATH SOC is influencing the daily practice of physicians involved in performing a penile reconstruction procedure for these patients. Depending by an individual's goals and expectations, the most appropriate surgical technique should be performed: the clinic performing penile reconstruction should be able to offer the whole range of techniques, such as: metoidioplasty, pedicle and free flaps phalloplasty procedures. The goals that physicians and health care institutions should achieve in the next years, in order to improve the care of female-to-male persons, consist in: informing in details the individuals applying for penile reconstruction about all the implications; referring specific individuals to centers capable to deliver a particular surgical technique; implementing the surgery with the most updated refinements. PMID:22654902

  8. The Role of Clitoral Anatomy in Female to Male Sex Reassignment Surgery

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    Vojkan Vukadinovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Controversies on clitoral anatomy and its role in female sexual function still make clitoral reconstructive surgery very challenging. We evaluated the role of clitoral anatomic features in female to male sex reassignment surgery. Material and Methods. The study included 97 female transsexuals, aged from 18 to 41 years, who underwent single stage metoidioplasty between March 2008 and January 2013. The operative technique involved vaginectomy, the release of clitoral ligaments and urethral plate, urethroplasty by combining buccal mucosa graft and genital flaps, and scrotoplasty with insertion of testicle prostheses. Postoperative questionnaire was used to evaluate aesthetic, functional, and sexual outcome. Results. The mean followup was 30 months. The mean length of the neophallus was 7 cm, compared to mean preoperative length of the hypertrophied clitoris of 3.3 cm. Complications occurred in 27.84% of all patients, related mostly to urethroplasty. Voiding while standing was achieved in all cases. None of the patients had problems in sexual arousal, masturbation, or orgasms. Conclusion. Accurate knowledge of the clitoral anatomy, physiology, and neurovascular supply is crucial for a successful outcome of female to male sex reassignment surgery. Our approach appears to ensure overall satisfaction and high quality of sexual life.

  9. The sudden and unexpected death of a female-to-male transsexual patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiromasa; Nishida, Naoki; Ikeda, Noriaki; Tsuji, Akiko; Kudo, Keiko; Hanagama, Masakazu; Nata, Masayuki

    2007-08-01

    A 32-year-old woman, who was intramuscularly injected with testosterone enanthate (125 mg) once or twice a month over a two-year period for female-to-male transsexualism, died suddenly. A forensic autopsy was performed to investigate the cause of death. Concentric cardiac hypertrophy was macroscopically observed. In the left and right coronary arteries, atherosclerosis was generally observed within the endothelium. In particular, there was severe stenosis (>90%) at the start of the left descending branch. In the myocardium, both coagulation necrosis and contraction band necrosis were microscopically observed. Moreover, myocardial fibrosis and myocardial calcification were diffusely detected, respectively. The cause of death was diagnosed as ischemic heart disease due to coronary stenosis. There is some debate as to whether cross-hormone replacement is related to the occurrence of coronary artery disease or not, however, it is possible that the development of ischemic heart disease was aggravated by the administration of testosterone enanthate in the current case.

  10. Female-to-male transsexualism and sex roles: self and spouse ratings on the PAQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, M Z; MacGowan, B R; Salt, P

    1984-02-01

    The sex-role-based perceptions of self and spouse in a group of female-to-male transsexuals, their wives, and a matched control group were studied. Each participant was given four copies of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire and asked to rate self, spouse, ideal self, and ideal spouse. The transsexual group rated themselves significantly higher than the control male group on the F scale, while there were no significant differences between the two groups on the M and M-F scales. The transsexuals' wives rated their spouses higher than did the control women on the F scale, and this difference approached significance. There were no significant differences between the spouse ratings of these two groups on the M and M-F scales. These results are discussed in terms of the relationship between sex role and gender identity and in terms of the theories that propose role strain as the cause of transsexualism.

  11. The case for bilateral mastectomy and male chest contouring for the female-to-male transsexual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, C; Barrett, J

    2013-03-01

    In the UK, funding for a bilateral mastectomy (BLM) and associated chest recontouring for female-to-male transsexuals (trans men) has been rejected by some funding authorities on a number of unsustainable grounds. As funding is increasingly an important area for both surgeons and referrers, we undertook a review of the small amount of literature pertaining to this issue and considered it in light of our clinical experience of this group. The literature showed that BLM is necessary for trans men to live safely and effectively in their reassigned gender role, and further that it acts as a prophylaxis against distress, ameliorates extant distress as well as providing improved quality of life and global functioning for this patient group.

  12. Phalloplasty with an innervated island pedicled anterolateral thigh flap in a female-to-male transsexual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kenjiro; Namba, Yuzaburo; Kimata, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Since 2001, we have been performing phalloplasty with a radial forearm free flap as the flap of first choice in female-to-male transsexuals (FTMTS). In the present case, a 22-year-old FTMTS with a negative Allen test, we achieved good results by performing phalloplasty with an innervated island pedicled anterolateral thigh flap using the "tube within a tube" technique, in which the penis and urethra are constructed with a single flap. As compared to a forearm flap, use of an innervated island-pedicled flap may have the following advantages in phalloplasty:1) no need for a microsurgical technique;2) no scars at noticeable sites;3) small functional loss in the flap donor area;4) no sacrifice of major blood vessels. Thus, this technique seems to be a useful clinical alternative for phallic reconstruction.

  13. A very rare case of breast cancer in a female-to-male transsexual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Yuko; Motoki, Takayuki; Watanabe, Satoko; Miho, Saiga; Kimata, Yoshihiro; Matsuoka, Junji; Doihara, Hiroyoshi; Nanba, Yuzaburo

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of breast cancer in female-to-male (FTM) transsexuals who received mastectomy and sex reassignment surgery is very rare. In fact, there is only one previous medical report of such a case. We experienced a case of an FTM transsexual who developed breast cancer 12 years after mastectomy and hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Because he had been continuously receiving testosterone during the last 15 years and because histopathological examination revealed positive estrogen receptor and androgen receptor expression, we suggest that exogenous testosterone may have initiated the development of breast cancer via two distinct pathways. We describe the clinical course and condition of the patient and recommend that medical personnel consider the possibility of hormone-related cancer in FTM transsexuals receiving cross-sex hormones.

  14. Substance Use to Cope with Stigma in Healthcare Among U.S. Female-to-Male Trans Masculine Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Reisner, Sari L.; Pardo, Seth T.; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Hughto, Jaclyn M. White; Pardee, Dana J.; Keo-Meier, Colton L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Enacted and anticipated stigma exist within healthcare settings for transgender people, but research has yet to examine the effects of these forms of stigma on the substance use behaviors of female-to-male (FTM) trans masculine people.

  15. Alterations in Lipids and Adipocyte Hormones in Female-to-Male Transsexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Chandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone therapy in men and women results in decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL and increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL. We sought to determine whether testosterone therapy has this same effect on lipid parameters and adipocyte hormones in female-to-male (FTM transsexuals. Twelve FTM transsexuals provided a fasting lipid profile including serum total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides prior to and after 1 year of testosterone therapy (testosterone enanthate or cypionate 50–125 mg IM every two weeks. Subjects experienced a significant decrease in mean serum HDL (52±11 to 40±7 mg/dL (P<.001. The mean LDL (P=.316, triglyceride (P=.910, and total cholesterol (P=.769 levels remained unchanged. In a subset of subjects, we measured serum leptin levels which were reduced by 25% but did not reach statistical significance (P=.181 while resistin levels remained unchanged. We conclude that testosterone therapy in FTM transsexuals can promote an increased atherogenic lipid profile by lowering HDL and possibly reduce serum leptin levels. However, long-term studies are needed to determine whether decreases in HDL result in adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

  16. Long-term testosterone administration increases visceral fat in female to male transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbers, J M; Asscheman, H; Seidell, J C; Megens, J A; Gooren, L J

    1997-07-01

    The amount of intraabdominal (visceral) fat is an important determinant of disturbances in lipid and glucose metabolism. Cross-sectional studies in women have found associations between high androgen levels and visceral fat accumulation. The causal relation between these phenomena is unknown. We, therefore, studied prospectively the effect of testosterone administration on body fat distribution in 10 young, nonobese, female to male transsexuals undergoing sex reassignment. Before, after 1 yr, and after 3 yr of testosterone administration, magnetic resonance images were obtained at the level of the abdomen, hip, and thigh to quantify both sc and visceral fat depots. After 1 yr of testosterone administration, sc fat depots at all levels showed significant reductions compared to baseline measurements. The mean visceral fat area did not change significantly, but subjects who gained weight in the first year after testosterone administration showed an increase in visceral fat. After 3 yr of testosterone administration, sc fat depots were no longer significantly lower compared to pretreatment measurements, but the mean visceral fat depot had increased significantly by 13 cm2 (95% confidence interval, 4-22 cm2), a relative increase of 47% (95% confidence interval, 8-91%) from baseline. The increase in visceral fat was most pronounced in those subjects who had gained weight. We conclude that long term testosterone administration in young, nonobese, female subjects increases the amount of visceral fat. In addition, an increase in weight in this hyperandrogenic state leads to a preferential storage of fat in the visceral depot.

  17. Affective temperaments in subjects with female-to-male gender dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Şenol; Poyraz, Cana Aksoy; Öcek Baş, Tuba; Kani, Ayşe Sakallı; Duran, Alaattin

    2015-05-01

    Males and females have different temperaments. In individuals with gender dysphoria (GD) there is marked incongruence between a person׳s expressed/experienced gender and their biological sex. The present study aimed to investigate the most common affective temperaments in individuals with female-to-male (FtM) GD. We performed a prospective and comparative study investigating affective temperaments in subjects with FtM GD. Eighty subjects with FtM GD and 68 female controls were enrolled. The Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) was completed by all participants. TEMPS-A scores were significantly higher in subjects with FtM GD for hyperthymic temperament (p≤0.001), whereas depressive (p≤0.001), anxious (p≤0.001), and cyclothymic (p=0.028) temperament scores were significantly higher in female controls. The study was limited by the lack of male-to-female subjects and male controls. The results of our study indicate that individuals with FtM GD have significantly higher scores of hyperthymic temperament, measured by TEMPS-A. Biological basis underlying the development of gender identity independent from the biological sex might be related with affective temperaments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Female-to-Male Transsexual Individuals Demonstrate Different Own Body Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feusner, Jamie D; Dervisic, Jasenko; Kosidou, Kyriaki; Dhejne, Cecilia; Bookheimer, Susan; Savic, Ivanka

    2016-04-01

    Transsexualism is characterized by feelings of incongruity between one's natal sex and one's gender identity. It is unclear whether transsexual individuals have a body image that is more congruent with their gender identity than their sex assigned at birth (natal sex) and, if so, whether there are contributions from perceptual dysfunctions. We compared 16 pre-hormone treatment female-to-male transsexual (FtM) individuals to 20 heterosexual female and 20 heterosexual male controls on a visual identification task. Participants viewed photographs of their own body that were morphed by different degrees to bodies of other females or males, and were instructed to rate "To what degree is this picture you?" We also tested global vs. local visual processing using the inverted faces task. FtM differed from both control groups in demonstrating higher self-identification ratings for bodies morphed to the sex congruent with their gender identity, and across a broad range of morph percentages. This difference was more pronounced for longer viewing durations. FtM showed reduced accuracy for upright faces compared with female controls for short duration stimuli, but no advantage for inverted faces. These results suggest different own body identification in FtM, consisting of a relatively diffuse identification with body images congruent with their gender identity. This is more likely accounted for by conscious, cognitive factors than perceptual differences.

  19. Effects of testosterone treatment on hypothalamic neuroplasticity in female-to-male transgender individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Georg S; Hahn, Andreas; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Tik, Martin; Ganger, Sebastian; Seiger, René; Hummer, Allan; Windischberger, Christian; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2018-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is used to measure gray matter tissue density and white matter fiber organization/directionality. Recent studies show that DWI also allows for assessing neuroplastic adaptations in the human hypothalamus. To this end, we investigated a potential influence of testosterone replacement therapy on hypothalamic microstructure in female-to-male (FtM) transgender individuals. 25 FtMs were measured at baseline, 4 weeks, and 4 months past treatment start and compared to 25 female and male controls. Our results show androgenization-related reductions in mean diffusivity in the lateral hypothalamus. Significant reductions were observed unilaterally after 1 month and bilaterally after 4 months of testosterone treatment. Moreover, treatment induced increases in free androgen index and bioavailable testosterone were significantly associated with the magnitude of reductions in mean diffusivity. These findings imply microstructural plasticity and potentially related changes in neural activity by testosterone in the adult human hypothalamus and suggest that testosterone replacement therapy in FtMs changes hypothalamic microstructure towards male proportions.

  20. Long-term results of breast reduction in female-to-male transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszewski, Bogusław; Bratoś, Ryszard; Sitek, Aneta; Fijałkowska, Marta

    2012-03-01

    Transsexualism is considered to be an extreme end in a large group of gender identity disorders. Two main types of transsexualism are identified: male-to-female (MtF) and female-to-male (FtM). Transsexual persons have a feeling of being incarcerated in a foreign body and therefore they wish to change their sex by hormone therapy and surgical treatment. Breast reduction usually is the first procedure in the process of surgical reassignment in FtM transsexual persons. THE AIM OF THIS STUDY was to evaluate the long-term results of breast reduction in FtM transsexual persons, taking into account breast size and surgical technique. The doctors' and patients' opinions about the results were also compared. The study was carried out in a group of 98 FtM transsexual persons treated at the Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery. Evaluation of the long-term results of breast reduction was performed based on clinical examination done by the doctors and a questionnaire filled in by the patients and the surgeons. Good results of breast reduction were achieved in more than 60% of the examined patients operated on mainly by Webster technique. Clinical examination of the long-term results of breast reduction in FtM transsexual persons revealed good aesthetic effects. The doctors' and the patients' opinions were similar.

  1. Brain activation-based sexual orientation in female-to-male transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T-H; Kim, G-W; Kim, S-K; Jeong, G-W

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to identify the sexual orientation in association with brain activation pattern in response to visual erotic stimuli in female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eleven FtM transsexuals who have had sex-reassignment surgery to alter their natal bodies with the gender-identity disorder were participated. Brain activation for sexual orientation was induced by visual stimuli with female and male erotic nude pictures compared with emotionally-neutral pictures. During viewing the erotic female pictures, the brain areas dominantly activated consist of the superior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area, anterior/median cingulate gyri and hypothalamus, whereas during viewing male pictures, the brain areas with predominant activities were the middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, angular gyrus, precuneus, superior/middle occipital gyri, cerebellar cortex and vermis. These findings demonstrate that the brain activation patterns induced by viewing male or female erotic pictures show some correlation to the sexual orientation opposite to the genetic sex in FtM transsexuals. This study would be helpful to understand the neural mechanism associated with visual sexual arousal in patients with gender disorder.

  2. Outcome and preferences in female-to-male subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Majumder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Awareness of gender dysphoria (GD and its treatment is increasing. There is paucity of scientific data from India regarding the therapeutic options being used for alleviating GD, which includes psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments. Aim: To study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 18 female-to-male (FTM transgender subjects who presented to the endocrine clinic. Results: The mean follow-up was 1.6 years and only one subject was lost to follow-up after a single visit. All subjects desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All FTM subjects were cross-dressing. Seventeen (94.4% FTM subjects were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy, in the form of testosterone only (61.1% or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist in combination with testosterone (11.1% or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA depot in combination with testosterone (22.2%. FTM subjects preferred testosterone or testosterone plus MPA; very few could afford GnRH therapy. Testosterone esters injection was preferred by most (72.2% subjects as it was most affordable while 22.2% chose 3 monthly injections of testosterone undecanoate for convenience and better symptomatic improvement, but it was more expensive. None preferred testosterone gels because of cost and availability concerns. About 33.3% of our subjects underwent mastectomy, 38.9% had hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and only one subject underwent phalloplasty. About 16.7% of FTM subjects presented with prior mastectomy depicting a high prevalence of unsupervised or poorly supervised surgeries not following protocol wise approach. Conclusion: Notwithstanding of advances in Standards of Care in the Western world, there is lack of awareness and acceptance in the FTM subjects, about proper and timely protocol

  3. Voice in female-to-male transsexual persons after long-term androgen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosyns, Marjan; Van Borsel, John; Wierckx, Katrien; Dedecker, David; Van de Peer, Fleur; Daelman, Tine; Laenen, Sofie; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to 1) document voice in a large sample of female-to-male transsexual persons (FMT), 2) compare their vocal characteristics with those of heterosexual biological males, and 3) determine hormonal factors with impact on their fundamental frequency. This was a controlled cross-sectional study. It is the largest study to date on voice and voice change in FMT, and the first to include a control group and FMT who were under long-term androgen administration. Thirty-eight FMT, ranging in age between 22 and 54 years, and 38 controls, frequency matched by age and smoking behavior, underwent a voice assessment that comprised the determination of pitch, intonation, and perturbation parameters measured during sustained vowel production, counting, and reading. Hormonal factors explored were hematocrit, total testosterone level, luteinizing hormone level, and biallelic mean length of the cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeat sequence in the androgen receptor gene. It was found that the FMT as a group did not differ significantly from controls for any of the acoustic voice variables studied. However, in about 10% pitch lowering was not totally unproblematic. The lowest-pitched (i.e., more male) voices were observed in FMT with higher hematocrit and longer CAG repeats. After long-term androgen therapy, FMT generally demonstrate an acceptable male voice. Pitch-lowering difficulties can be expected in about 10% of cases and appear, at least in part, to be associated with diminished androgen sensitivity. 3b. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Altered White Matter and Sensory Response to Bodily Sensation in Female-to-Male Transgender Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Laura K; Brang, David; Landazuri, Rosalynn; Viswanathan, Pavitra; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2017-07-01

    While most people take identification with their body for granted, conditions such as phantom limb pain, alien hand syndrome, and xenomelia suggest that the feeling of bodily congruence is constructed and susceptible to alteration. Individuals with xenomelia typically experience one of their limbs as over-present and aversive, leading to a desire to amputate the limb. Similarly, many transgender individuals describe their untreated sexed body parts as incongruent and aversive, and many experience phantom body parts of the sex they identify with (Ramachandran, 2008). This experience may relate to differences in brain representation of the sexed body part, as suggested in xenomelia (McGeoch et al., 2011). We utilized magnetoencephalography imaging to record brain activity during somatosensory stimulation of the breast-a body part that feels incongruent to most presurgical female-to-male (FtM)-identified transgender individuals-and the hand, a body part that feels congruent. We measured the sensory evoked response in right hemisphere somatosensory and body-related brain areas and found significantly reduced activation in the supramarginal gyrus and secondary somatosensory cortex, but increased activation at the temporal pole for chest sensation in the FtM group (N = 8) relative to non-transgender females (N = 8). In addition, we found increased white matter coherence in the supramarginal gyrus and temporal pole and decreased white matter diffusivity in the anterior insula and temporal pole in the FtM group. These findings suggest that dysphoria related to gender-incongruent body parts in FtM individuals may be tied to differences in neural representation of the body and altered white matter connectivity.

  5. Prevalence of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary syndrome in female to male transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Fernández, Antonio; Pérez-López, Gilberto; Román, Miriam Menacho; Martín-Lazaro, Juan F; Lucio Pérez, María Jesús; Asenjo Araque, Nuria; Rodríguez-Molina, José Miguel; Berrocal Sertucha, María Carmen; Aguilar Vilas, María Victorina

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of hyperandrogenism (HA), including the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), in female-to-male transsexuals (FMT) is high. This has been related to metabolic syndrome (MS), which appears to increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality throughout cross-sex hormone (CSH) therapy. To assess the prevalence of HA and PCOS in FMT patients before the start of CSH therapy, and their association to MS and its components, insulin resistance (IR) and other cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors. Seventy-seven FMTs underwent clinical and biochemical assessment for HA before the start of CSH therapy. CVR, IR, and other MS parameters were also assessed. Prevalence of HA was 49.4% (73.7% were cases of PCOS [Rotterdam criteria]), and prevalence of PCOS in the overall sample was 36.4%. Prevalence of MS was 38.4% and 51.7% according to ATP-III and IDF criteria respectively). MS (according to ATP-III and IDF criteria respectively) was found in 36.8% and 57.9% as compared to 25.6% and 41% of patients with and without HA respectively (p<0.0001 and P<0.01 respectively). Of total patients, 54.5% had normal weight (body mass index [BMI] 18.5-24.9 kg.m(-2)), 26% were overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg.m(-2)), and 19.5% were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg.m(-2)). After adjusting for BMI, the comparison of hormonal, metabolic, and anthropometric parameters showed statistically significant differences in plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, and abdominal circumference (P<0.001 for all), as well as HDL cholesterol (HDL) (P=0.033), but not in total testosterone or calculated free testosterone levels. In the total sample, 27.3% had HDL levels less than 50mg/dL. Overall HA, and PCOS in particular, are highly prevalent in FMTs. HA and PCOS are related to early development of SM, IR, and other CVR factors with unknown consequences in adulthood. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of three different testosterone formulations in female-to-male transsexual persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelusi, Carla; Costantino, Antonietta; Martelli, Valentina; Lambertini, Martina; Bazzocchi, Alberto; Ponti, Federico; Battista, Giuseppe; Venturoli, Stefano; Meriggiola, Maria C

    2014-12-01

    Gender dysphoria is characterized by a strong discomfort with the gender assigned at birth and the urge to live as a member of the opposite gender. The acquisition of phenotypic features of the desired gender requires the use of cross-sex hormones. Female-to-male (FtM) transsexual persons are treated with testosterone to induce virilization. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of three different testosterone formulations on body weight and composition and metabolic and bone parameters. Forty-five FtM transsexuals were randomly assigned to receive testoviron depot (i.m.: 100 mg/10 days; n = 15), testosterone gel (50 mg/die; n = 15), and testosterone undecanoate (i.m.: 1,000 mg every 6 weeks for the first 6 weeks and then every 12 weeks, n = 15). FtM individuals were studied before, at week 30, and at week 54 of testosterone treatment. Anthropometric, metabolic, bone, hematological, and biochemical parameters were evaluated at baseline and after 12 months of treatment. Lean body mass significantly increased and fat mass decreased in all groups. No modifications were reported in fasting insulin and insulin sensitivity index. High-density plasma lipoprotein levels declined significantly and low-density lipoprotein concentrations increased significantly in the three groups. The activated partial thromboplastin time and factor I did not change while prothrombin time significantly increased in all groups. At week 54, all subjects were amenorrheic and time to amenorrhea did not differ between the three groups. Current general life satisfaction was increased in all subjects after 1 year of treatment. One-year testosterone administration in FtM transsexuals appears to be very safe with no differences among the testosterone formulations used. Our study is preliminary, and the detection of subtle or long-term differences in the effects of the three formulations may require further larger and longer term studies in this and other populations.

  7. Salivary testosterone in female-to-male transgender adolescents during treatment with intra-muscular injectable testosterone esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, Hong N.; Schagen, Sebastian E. E.; Klink, Daniel T.; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.

    2013-01-01

    In our hospital, female-to-male (FtM) transgender adolescents from the age of 16 are treated with two- or four-weekly intra-muscular injections of testosterone-esters. Some patients treated with four-weekly injections have complaints of fatigue and experience mood swings towards the end of the

  8. Salivary testosterone in female-to-male transgender adolescents during treatment with intra-muscular injectable testosterone esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, H.N.; Schagen, S.E.; Klink, D.T.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In our hospital, female-To-male (FtM) transgender adolescents from the age of 16 are treated with two- or four-weekly intra-muscular injections of testosterone-esters. Some patients treated with four-weekly injections have complaints of fatigue and experience mood swings towards the

  9. Importance of revealing a rare case of breast cancer in a female to male transsexual after bilateral mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolic Dejan V

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The incidence of breast carcinoma following prophylactic mastectomy is probably less than 2%. We present a 43-year-old female to male transsexual who developed breast cancer 1 year after bilateral nipple- sparing subcutaneous mastectomy as part of female to male gender reassignment surgery. In addition to gender reassignment surgery, total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (to avoid the patient from entering menopause and to eliminate any subsequent risk of iatrogenic endometrial carcinoma, colpocleisys, metoidioplasty, phalloplasty, urethroplasty together with scrotoplasty/placement of testicular prosthesis and perineoplasty were also performed. Before the sex change surgery, the following diagnostic procedures were performed: breast ultrasound and mammography (which were normal, lung radiography (also normal together with abdominal ultrasound examination, biochemical analysis of the blood and hormonal status. According to medical literature, in the last 50 years only three papers have been published with four cases of breast cancer in transsexual female to male patients. All hormonal pathways included in this complex hormonal and surgical procedure of transgender surgery have important implications for women undergoing prophylactic mastectomy because of a high risk of possible breast cancer.

  10. Importance of revealing a rare case of breast cancer in a female to male transsexual after bilateral mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Dejan V; Djordjevic, Miroslav L; Granic, Miroslav; Nikolic, Aleksandra T; Stanimirovic, Violeta V; Zdravkovic, Darko; Jelic, Svetlana

    2012-12-28

    The incidence of breast carcinoma following prophylactic mastectomy is probably less than 2%. We present a 43-year-old female to male transsexual who developed breast cancer 1 year after bilateral nipple- sparing subcutaneous mastectomy as part of female to male gender reassignment surgery. In addition to gender reassignment surgery, total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (to avoid the patient from entering menopause and to eliminate any subsequent risk of iatrogenic endometrial carcinoma), colpocleisys, metoidioplasty, phalloplasty, urethroplasty together with scrotoplasty/placement of testicular prosthesis and perineoplasty were also performed. Before the sex change surgery, the following diagnostic procedures were performed: breast ultrasound and mammography (which were normal), lung radiography (also normal) together with abdominal ultrasound examination, biochemical analysis of the blood and hormonal status.According to medical literature, in the last 50 years only three papers have been published with four cases of breast cancer in transsexual female to male patients. All hormonal pathways included in this complex hormonal and surgical procedure of transgender surgery have important implications for women undergoing prophylactic mastectomy because of a high risk of possible breast cancer.

  11. Breeding durations as estimators of adult sex ratios and population size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Nicholas Leslie; Gillanders, Bronwyn May; Semmens, Jayson

    2011-02-01

    Adult sex ratios (ASRs) and population size are two of the most fundamental parameters in population biology, as they are the main determinants of genetic and demographic viability, and vulnerability of a population to stochastic events. Underpinning the application of population viability analysis for predicting the extinction risk of populations is the need to accurately estimate parameters that determine the viability of populations (i.e. the ASR and population size). Here we demonstrate that a lack of temporal information can confound estimation of both parameters. Using acoustic telemetry, we compared differences in breeding durations of both sexes for a giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama breeding aggregation to the strongly male-biased operational sex ratio (4:1), in order to estimate the population ASR. The ratio of breeding durations between sexes was equal to the operational sex ratio, suggesting that the ASR is not strongly male-biased, but balanced. Furthermore, the short residence times of individuals at the breeding aggregation suggests that previous density-based abundance estimates have significantly underestimated population size. With the current wide application of population viability analysis for predicting the extinction risk of populations, tools to improve the accuracy of such predictions are vital. Here we provide a new approach to estimating the fundamental ASR parameter, and call for temporal considerations when estimating population size.

  12. Analysis on burnup step effect for evaluating reactor criticality and fuel breeding ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Geby; Purnama, Aditya Rizki; Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi

    2014-09-01

    Criticality condition of the reactors is one of the important factors for evaluating reactor operation and nuclear fuel breeding ratio is another factor to show nuclear fuel sustainability. This study analyzes the effect of burnup steps and cycle operation step for evaluating the criticality condition of thereactor as well as the performance of nuclear fuel breeding or breeding ratio (BR). Burnup step is performed based on a day step analysis which is varied from 10 days up to 800 days and for cycle operation from 1 cycle up to 8 cycles reactor operations. In addition, calculation efficiency based on the variation of computer processors to runthe analysis in term of time (time efficiency in the calculation) have been also investigated. Optimization method for reactor design analysis which is used a large fast breeder reactor typeas a reference case was performed by adopting an established reactor design code of JOINT-FR. The results show a criticality condition becomes higher for smaller burnup step (day) and for breeding ratio becomes less for smaller burnup step (day). Some nuclides contribute to make better criticality when smaller burnup step due to individul nuclide half-live. Calculation time for different burnup step shows a correlation with the time consuming requirement for more details step calculation, although the consuming time is not directly equivalent with the how many time the burnup time step is divided.

  13. Breeding sex ratio and population size of loggerhead turtles from Southwestern Florida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A Lasala

    Full Text Available Species that display temperature-dependent sex determination are at risk as a result of increasing global temperatures. For marine turtles, high incubation temperatures can skew sex ratios towards females. There are concerns that temperature increases may result in highly female-biased offspring sex ratios, which would drive a future sex ratio skew. Studying the sex ratios of adults in the ocean is logistically very difficult because individuals are widely distributed and males are inaccessible because they remain in the ocean. Breeding sex ratios (BSR are sought as a functional alternative to study adult sex ratios. One way to examine BSR is to determine the number of males that contribute to nests. Our goal was to evaluate the BSR for loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta nesting along the eastern Gulf of Mexico in Florida, from 2013-2015, encompassing three nesting seasons. We genotyped 64 nesting females (approximately 28% of all turtles nesting at that time and up to 20 hatchlings from their nests (n = 989 using 7 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We identified multiple paternal contributions in 70% of the nests analyzed and 126 individual males. The breeding sex ratio was approximately 1 female for every 2.5 males. We did not find repeat males in any of our nests. The sex ratio and lack of repeating males was surprising because of female-biased primary sex ratios. We hypothesize that females mate offshore of their nesting beaches as well as en route. We recommend further comparisons of subsequent nesting events and of other beaches as it is imperative to establish baseline breeding sex ratios to understand how growing populations behave before extreme environmental effects are evident.

  14. Bacterial vaginosis associated with increased risk of female-to-male HIV-1 transmission: a prospective cohort analysis among African couples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R Cohen

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV, a disruption of the normal vaginal flora, has been associated with a 60% increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition in women and higher concentration of HIV-1 RNA in the genital tract of HIV-1-infected women. However, whether BV, which is present in up to half of African HIV-1-infected women, is associated with an increase in HIV-1 transmission to male partners has not been assessed in previous studies.We assessed the association between BV on female-to-male HIV-1 transmission risk in a prospective study of 2,236 HIV-1-seropositive women and their HIV-1 uninfected male partners from seven African countries from a randomized placebo-controlled trial that enrolled heterosexual African adults who were seropositive for both HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus (HSV-2, and their HIV-1-seronegative partners. Participants were followed for up to 24 months; every three months, vaginal swabs were obtained from female partners for Gram stain and male partners were tested for HIV-1. BV and normal vaginal flora were defined as a Nugent score of 7-10 and 0-3, respectively. To reduce misclassification, HIV-1 sequence analysis of viruses from seroconverters and their partners was performed to determine linkage of HIV-1 transmissions. Overall, 50 incident HIV-1 infections occurred in men in which the HIV-1-infected female partner had an evaluable vaginal Gram stain. HIV-1 incidence in men whose HIV-1-infected female partners had BV was 2.91 versus 0.76 per 100 person-years in men whose female partners had normal vaginal flora (hazard ratio 3.62, 95% CI 1.74-7.52. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, sexual behavior, male circumcision, sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy, and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels in female partners, BV was associated with a greater than 3-fold increased risk of female-to-male HIV-1 transmission (adjusted hazard ratio 3.17, 95% CI 1.37-7.33.This study identified an association between BV and increased risk of HIV

  15. Measures of clinical health among female-to-male transgender persons as a function of sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, S Colton; Pardo, Seth T; Labuski, Christine; Babcock, Julia

    2013-04-01

    The present study examined the sexual orientation classification system that was used in the DSM-IV-TR for categorizing those who met the Gender Identity Disorder diagnostic criteria in order to determine the extent to which female-to-male transgender persons (FTMs) differ on psychological variables as a function of sexual orientation. Participants were 605 self-identified FTMs from 19 different countries (83 % U.S.) who completed an internet survey assessing their sexual orientation, sexual identity, symptoms of depression and anxiety, stress (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), and health related quality of life (SF-36v2 Health Survey). Over half the sample (52 %) reported sexual attractions to both men and women. The most common sexual identity label reported was "queer." Forty percent of FTMs who had begun to transition reported a shift in sexual orientation; this shift was associated with testosterone use. Overall, FTMs ranged from normal to above average on all psychological measures. FTMs did not significantly differ by sexual attraction on any mental health variables, except for anxiety. FTMs attracted to both men and women reported more symptoms of anxiety than those attracted to men only. Results from the present study did not support a sexual orientation classification system in FTMs with regard to psychological well-being.

  16. Differences in personality traits between male-to-female and female-to-male gender identity disorder subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Eiichi; Taira, Naoki; Koda, Munenaga; Kondo, Tsuyoshi

    2014-12-15

    The present study aimed to investigate differences in personality traits among male-to-female (MtF), female-to-male (FtM) gender identity disorder (GID) subjects and non-transsexual male (M) and female (F) controls. Subjects were 72 MtF and 187 FtM GID subjects without psychiatric comorbidities together with 184 male and 159 female non-transsexual controls. Personality traits were assessed using a short version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-125). Group comparisons were made by two-way ANOVA. Statistical significances were observed as follows: 1) lower novelty seeking in FtM than in M or MtF, 2) higher reward dependence in FtM than in M, 3) higher cooperativeness in FtM than in M or MtF, 4) the highest self-transcendence in MtF among all the groups. The highest self-transcendence in MtF subjects may reflect their vulnerable identity and constrained adaptation to society as the minority. Nevertheless, higher reward dependence and cooperativeness in FtM subjects can be related to more determined motivation for the treatments of GID and might promise better social functioning and adjustment than MtF subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Substance Use to Cope with Stigma in Healthcare Among U.S. Female-to-Male Trans Masculine Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Pardo, Seth T; Gamarel, Kristi E; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Pardee, Dana J; Keo-Meier, Colton L

    2015-12-01

    Enacted and anticipated stigma exist within healthcare settings for transgender people, but research has yet to examine the effects of these forms of stigma on the substance use behaviors of female-to-male (FTM) trans masculine people. Data were analyzed from the cross-sectional U.S. National Transgender Discrimination Survey, a convenience sample of transgender adults purposively sampled in 2008. Trans masculine respondents (n=2,578) were identified using a two-step method: Step 1, Assigned birth sex; Step 2, Current gender identity. A gender minority stress model of substance use was tested to examine the relation of enacted and anticipated stigma with substance use to cope with mistreatment. Overall, 14.1% of the sample reported having been refused care by a provider (enacted stigma), 32.8% reported delaying needed medical care when sick/injured, and 39.1% delayed routine preventive care (anticipated stigma). Having been refused care was significantly associated with avoidance of healthcare, including delaying needed medical care when sick/injured and delaying routine preventive medical care. Substance use to cope with mistreatment was self-reported by 27.6% of the sample. Enacted stigma by providers was associated with self-reported substance use to cope. Delays in both needed and preventive care (anticipated stigma) were highly associated with substance use, and attenuated the effect of enacted stigma. Gender minority-related stressors, particularly enacted and anticipated stigma in healthcare, should be integrated into substance use and abuse prevention and intervention efforts with this underserved population.

  18. Gay and bisexual identity development among female-to-male transsexuals in North America: emergence of a transgender sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockting, Walter; Benner, Autumn; Coleman, Eli

    2009-10-01

    We studied a North American sample of female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals sexually attracted to men, aiming to understand their identity and sexuality in the context of a culture of transgender empowerment. Sex-reassigned FtM transsexuals, 18 years or older and attracted to men, were recruited via an FtM community conference and listserv. Participants (N = 25) responded to open-ended questions about identity development, sexual behavior, and social support. Data were analyzed by content analysis. Scores for sexual identity, self esteem, sexual functioning, and psychological adjustment were compared to those of a comparison group (N = 76 nontransgender gay and bisexual men). Of the 25 FtMs, 15 (60%) identified as gay, 8 (32%) as bisexual, and 2 (8%) as queer. All were comfortable with their gender identity and sexual orientation. The FtM group was more bisexual than the nontransgender gay and bisexual controls. No significant group differences were found in self esteem, sexual satisfaction, or psychological adjustment. For some FtMs, sexual attractions and experiences with men affirmed their gender identity; for others, self-acceptance of a transgender identity facilitated actualization of their attractions toward men. Most were "out" as transgender among friends and family, but not on the job or within the gay community. Disclosure and acceptance of their homosexuality was limited. The sexual identity of gay and bisexual FtMs appears to mirror the developmental process for nontransgender homosexual men and women in several ways; however, participants also had experiences unique to being both transgender and gay/bisexual. This signals the emergence of a transgender sexuality.

  19. Effect on the Tritium Breeding Ratio due to a distributed ICRF antenna in a DEMO reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A., E-mail: albert.garcia.hp@gmail.com [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), Garching (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Noterdaeme, J.-M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), Garching (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Fischer, U. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Dies, J. [Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    This thesis reports results of MCNP-5 calculations, with the nuclear data library FENDL-2.1, to assess the effect on the Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) due to a distributed Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) antenna integrated in the blanket of a DEMO fusion power reactor. A preliminary design of the antenna with a reference configuration of the DEMO reactor was used together with a parametric analysis for different parameters that strongly affect the TBR. These are the type of breeding blanket (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed, Helium Cooled Lithium Lead and Water Cooled Lithium Lead), the covering ratio of the straps of the antenna (the ratio between the surface of all the straps and the projected surface of the antenna slot: 0.49, 0.72 and 0.94), the antenna radial thickness (20 cm and 40 cm), the thickness of the straps (2 cm, 4 cm and a double layer of 0.2 cm plus 2.5 cm with the composition of the First Wall), and finally the poloidal position of the antenna (0°, which is the equatorial port, 40° and 90°, which is the upper port). For an antenna with a full toroidal circumference of 360°, located poloidaly at 40° with a poloidal extension of 1 m and a total First Wall surface of 67 m{sup 2}, the reduction of the TBR is −0.35% for a HCPB blanket concept, −0.53% for a HCLL blanket concept and −0.51% for a WCLL blanket concept. In all cases covered by the parametric analysis, the loss of TBR remains below 0.61%. Such a distributed ICRF antenna has thus only a marginal effect on the TBR for a DEMO reactor.

  20. Different male versus female breeding periodicity helps mitigate offspring sex ratio skews in sea turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Clive Hays

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The implications of climate change for global biodiversity may be profound with those species with little capacity for adaptation being thought to be particularly vulnerable to warming. A classic case of groups for concern are those animals exhibiting temperature-dependent sex-determination (TSD, such as sea turtles, where climate warming may produce single sex populations and hence extinction. We show that, globally, female biased hatchling sex ratios dominate sea turtle populations (exceeding 3:1 in >50% records, which, at-a-glance, reiterates concerns for extinction. However, we also demonstrate that more frequent breeding by males, empirically shown by satellite tracking 23 individuals and supported by a generalized bio-energetic life history model, generates more balanced operational sex ratios (OSRs. Hence, concerns of increasingly skewed hatchling sex ratios and reduced population viability are less acute than previously thought for sea turtles. In fact, in some scenarios skewed hatchling sex ratios in groups with TSD may be adaptive to ensure optimum OSRs.

  1. Behavioral and physiological female responses to male sex ratio bias in a pond-breeding amphibian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grayson Kristine L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The phenomenon of sexual conflict has been well documented, and in populations with biased operational sex ratios the consequences for the rarer sex can be severe. Females are typically a limited resource and males often evolve aggressive mating behaviors, which can improve individual fitness for the male while negatively impacting female condition and fitness. In response, females can adjust their behavior to minimize exposure to aggressive mating tactics or minimize the costs of mating harassment. While male-male competition is common in amphibian mating systems, little is known about the consequences or responses of females. The red-spotted newt (Notophthalmus viridescens is a common pond-breeding amphibian with a complex, well-studied mating system where males aggressively court females. Breeding populations across much of its range have male-biased sex ratios and we predicted that female newts would have behavioral mechanisms to mitigate mating pressure from males. We conducted four experiments examining the costs and behavioral responses of female N. viridescens exposed to a male-biased environment. Results In field enclosures, we found that female newts exposed to a male-biased environment during the five-month breeding season ended with lower body condition compared to those in a female-biased environment. Shorter-term exposure to a male-biased environment for five weeks caused a decrease in circulating total leukocyte and lymphocyte abundance in blood, which suggests females experienced physiological stress. In behavioral experiments, we found that females were more agitated in the presence of male chemical cues and females in a male-biased environment spent more time in refuge than those in a female-biased environment. Conclusions Our results indicate that male-biased conditions can incur costs to females of decreased condition and potentially increased risk of infection. However, we found that females can also

  2. Syndemics and gender affirmation: HIV sexual risk in female-to-male trans masculine adults reporting sexual contact with cisgender males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Pardee, Dana; Sevelius, Jae

    2016-10-01

    Female-to-male trans masculine adults who have sex with cisgender (non-transgender) males (TMSM) represent an understudied population in relation to HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk. This study examined the role of syndemic conditions and social gender affirmation processes (living full-time in one's identified gender) in potentiating sexual risk among TMSM adults in Massachusetts, US. Cross-sectional data were restricted to TMSM who reported lifetime sexual behaviour with a cisgender male (n = 173; mean age = 29.4, SD = 9.6; 18.5% people of colour; 93.1% non-heterosexual identity; 56.1% hormones/surgery). Sexual risk outcomes were: lifetime STI diagnoses, three or more sexual partners in the previous six months, and condomless anal/vaginal sex at last encounter with a cisgender male. Age- and survey mode-adjusted logistic regression models regressed sexual risk outcomes on the main effect of syndemics (six indicators summed: binge drinking, substance use, depression, anxiety, childhood abuse, intimate partner violence), followed by the interaction of syndemics and social gender affirmation. Syndemics were associated with increased odds of all sexual risk indicators (adjusted odds ratios [aORs] = 1.32-1.55; p gender affirmation moderated the association between syndemics and condomless anal/vaginal sex at last encounter with a cisgender male (p gender (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.42-2.25; p gender affirmed as for cisgender MSM. Integration of syndemics and gender affirmation frameworks is recommended in interventions to address TMSM sexual risk. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Tsujimura

    2017-09-01

    Tsujimura A, Kiuchi H, Soda T, et al. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study. Sex Med 2017;5:e169–e174.

  4. "Oh Yeah--Is She a He-She?" Female to Male Transgendered Pupils in the Formal and Informal Cultures of an English Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flynn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that trans* pupils are subject to much trans-exclusionary practice in schools and find there is little positive change in attitudes, despite statutory requirements and greater recognition of trans* identities. This paper explores the ways in which two female to male trans* pupils in a London girls' school were excluded in…

  5. Oestrogens are Not Related to Emotional Processing : a Study of Regional Brain Activity in Female-to-Male Transsexuals Under Gonadal Suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soleman, Remi S; Staphorsius, A.S.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Veltman, Dick J; van Trotsenburg, M.A.A.; Hompes, Peter G A; Drent, M L; de Ronde, W P; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    Although the prevailing opinion is that emotional processes are influenced by sex hormones, the literature is still inconclusive. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of gonadal suppression on brain activity during affective picture processing. Twenty-one female-to-male (FtM)

  6. Effect of the ratio of teaser rams used prior to breeding on the reproductive performance of ewe hoggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, P R; Morel, P C H; Morris, S T; Burnham, D L; West, D M

    2007-12-01

    To determine the effects of the ratio of vasectomised (teaser) rams to ewe hoggets used prior to breeding on the breeding performance and pregnancy rate of ewe hoggets. Romney-composite ewe hoggets (n=1,180), 7-8 months of age, were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups (Day 1) and either exposed to harnessed teaser rams at a teaser-ram:ewe-hogget ratio of 1:32 (n=193 hoggets), 1:66 (n=199), 1:98 (n=197), or 1:197 (n=395), for 17 days prior to the breeding period, or not exposed to teasers (unteased; n=196). Harnessed entire rams were then introduced for the duration of two oestrous cycles (34 days). Using crayon marks, ewe hoggets were identified as having been mated during the first 17 days only, during the second 17 days only, during both 17-day periods, or not mated. Hoggets were weighed on Days 1 and 18. All ewe hoggets were scanned for pregnancy using ultrasound, 57 days after the end of the breeding period. Hogget groups did not differ in liveweight at Day 1, but at Day 18 hoggets exposed to teasers at a ratio of 1:66 were lighter, and those exposed to teasers at a ratio of 1:32 were heavier than all other groups by up 3.0 kg (pewe hoggets were less likely to be pregnant to the first 17 days of breeding compared with all teased groups, by at least 16.4% (pewe-hogget ratios as high as 1:197 can increase the percentage of ewe hoggets bred in the first 17 days of mating by at least 16.4%. Across the range of ratios used there was little difference in breeding pattern or pregnancy rate, although results might suggest ratios 1:98.

  7. Does breeding population trajectory and age of nesting females influence disparate nestling sex ratios in two populations of Cooper's hawks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert N; Stout, William E; Giovanni, Matthew D; Levine, Noah H; Cava, Jenna A; Hardin, Madeline G; Haynes, Taylor G

    2015-09-01

    Offspring sex ratios at the termination of parental care should theoretically be skewed toward the less expensive sex, which in most avian species would be females, the smaller gender. Among birds, however, raptors offer an unusual dynamic because they exhibit reversed size dimorphism with females being larger than males. And thus theory would predict a preponderance of male offspring. Results for raptors and birds in general have been varied although population-level estimates of sex ratios in avian offspring are generally at unity. Adaptive adjustment of sex ratios in avian offspring is difficult to predict perhaps in part due to a lack of life-history details and short-term investigations that cannot account for precision or repeatability of sex ratios across time. We conducted a novel comparative study of sex ratios in nestling Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) in two study populations across breeding generations during 11 years in Wisconsin, 2001-2011. One breeding population recently colonized metropolitan Milwaukee and exhibited rapidly increasing population growth, while the ex-Milwaukee breeding population was stable. Following life-history trade-off theory and our prediction regarding this socially monogamous species in which reversed sexual size dimorphism is extreme, first-time breeding one-year-old, second-year females in both study populations produced a preponderance of the smaller and cheaper sex, males, whereas ASY (after-second-year), ≥2-year-old females in Milwaukee produced a nestling sex ratio near unity and predictably therefore a greater proportion of females compared to ASY females in ex-Milwaukee who produced a preponderance of males. Adjustment of sex ratios in both study populations occurred at conception. Life histories and selective pressures related to breeding population trajectory in two age cohorts of nesting female Cooper's hawk likely vary, and it is possible that these differences influenced the sex ratios we documented for

  8. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tsujimura, Akira; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Soda, Tetsuji; Takezawa, Kentaro; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Iwasa, Atsushi; Nonomura, Norio; Miyagawa, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Very little has been elucidated about sexual interest in female-to-male (FtM) transsexual persons. Aims: To investigate the sexual interest of FtM transsexual persons vs that of men using an eye-tracking system. Methods: The study included 15 men and 13 FtM transsexual subjects who viewed three sexual videos (clip 1: sexy clothed young woman kissing the region of the male genitals covered by underwear; clip 2: naked actor and actress kissing and touching each other; and cl...

  9. For Vol.67, No.5 pp325-331 Phalloplasty with an Innervated Island Pedicled Anterolateral Thigh Flap in a Female-to-Male Transsexual

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, Kenjiro; Namba, Yuzaburo; Kimata, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Since 2001, we have been performing phalloplasty with a radial forearm free flap as the flap of firstchoice in female-to-male transsexuals (FTMTS). In the present case, a 22-year-old FTMTS with anegative Allen test, we achieved good results by performing phalloplasty with an innervated islandpedicled anterolateral thigh flap using the “tube within a tube” technique, in which the penis and urethraare constructed with a single flap. As compared to a forearm flap, use of an innervated islandpedi...

  10. Synergistic effect of fadrozole and insulin-like growth factor-I on female-to-male sex reversal and body weight of broiler chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadrezaei

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Fadrozole hydrochloride and recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I (rhIGF-I on female-to-male sex reversal, hatching traits, and body weight of broiler chickens. On the third day of incubation, fertile eggs were randomly assigned to five experimental groups comprising (i Fadrozole (0.1 mg/egg, (ii rhIGF-I (100 ng/egg, (iii Fadrozole (0.1 mg/egg + rhIGF-I (100 ng/egg, (iv vehicle injection (10 mM acetic acid and 0.1% BSA, and (v non-injected eggs. Eggs in the rhIGF-I-injected groups showed the mode of hatching time at the 480th hour of incubation, 12 hours earlier compared to the other groups, with no statistically significant difference in mortality and hatchability. On Day 1 and 42 of production, 90% of genetically female chicks were masculinized using Fadrozole treatment, while 100% female-to-male phenotypic sex reversal was observed in the Fadrozole+rhIGF-I group. Fadrozole equalized the body weight of both genders, although rhIGF-I was effective on the body weight of male chicks only. Interestingly, combined rhIGF-I and Fadrozole could increase the body weight in both sexes compared to the individual injections (P<0.05. These findings revealed that (i IGF-I-treated chicken embryos were shown to be an effective option for overcoming the very long chicken deprivation period, (ii the simultaneous treatment with Fadrozole and IGF-I could maximize the female-to-male sex reversal chance, (iii the increase in the body weight of masculinized chickens via Fadrozole could be equal to their genetically male counterparts, and (iv the IGF-I effectiveness, specifically along with the application of aromatase inhibitors in female chicks, indicates that estrogen synthesis could be a stumbling block for the IGF-I action mechanism in female embryos.

  11. Breed related odds ratio and anatomic distribution of canine mast cell tumours in Austria. Retrospective study of cases in the years 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, E F; Freeman, K; Kirtz, G; Hooijberg, E H; Sick, K

    2014-01-01

    An increased risk of mast cell tumours (MCT) in certain breeds has been described repeatedly in the literature. The incidence of MCTs for registered breeds in Austria, an estimate of the risk by means of the odds ratios based on breed as well as the anatomic localisation of MCTs were examined. In the first part of the study, the ranking of breeds in Austria based on 147,802 dogs with known breed (including mixed breed) was determined, based on those dogs included in the laboratory data base from 2000 to 2010. In the second part of the study, 476 dogs were identified with MCTs and analysed by age, sex, Patnaik grade of MCT and breed distribution. The odds ratios with confidence intervals were calculated for all breeds with skin tumours. The age distribution showed a peak in the age group from 6.1 to 8.0 years; 70% of MCTs were localised to the head and trunk. No significant difference was found based on gender. The evaluation of the odds ratios showed that only four of the 20 of the most popular in Austria breeds (Boxer, Bernese Mountain Dog, Golden Retriever, Spaniel) had an increased risk; on the other hand, some breeds which have not been previously identified in the literature were indicated to have a significantly increased risk for MCT (e.g., Dogo Argentino, Tibetan Spaniel, Pyrenean Mountain Dog, Beauceron, and Austrian Smooth-haired Hound). Because disease risk may influence the popularity of some currently rare breeds, consultation with breeders and owners regarding the identification of the breeds newly identified in this study as an increased risk for development of mast cell tumours is indicated.

  12. Synergistic effect of fadrozole and insulin-like growth factor-I on female-to-male sex reversal and body weight of broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadrezaei, Mohammad; Toghyani, Majid; Gheisari, Abbasali; Toghyani, Mehdi; Eghbalsaied, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Fadrozole hydrochloride and recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I (rhIGF-I) on female-to-male sex reversal, hatching traits, and body weight of broiler chickens. On the third day of incubation, fertile eggs were randomly assigned to five experimental groups comprising (i) Fadrozole (0.1 mg/egg), (ii) rhIGF-I (100 ng/egg), (iii) Fadrozole (0.1 mg/egg) + rhIGF-I (100 ng/egg), (iv) vehicle injection (10 mM acetic acid and 0.1% BSA), and (v) non-injected eggs. Eggs in the rhIGF-I-injected groups showed the mode of hatching time at the 480th hour of incubation, 12 hours earlier compared to the other groups, with no statistically significant difference in mortality and hatchability. On Day 1 and 42 of production, 90% of genetically female chicks were masculinized using Fadrozole treatment, while 100% female-to-male phenotypic sex reversal was observed in the Fadrozole+rhIGF-I group. Fadrozole equalized the body weight of both genders, although rhIGF-I was effective on the body weight of male chicks only. Interestingly, combined rhIGF-I and Fadrozole could increase the body weight in both sexes compared to the individual injections (Pbody weight of masculinized chickens via Fadrozole could be equal to their genetically male counterparts, and (iv) the IGF-I effectiveness, specifically along with the application of aromatase inhibitors in female chicks, indicates that estrogen synthesis could be a stumbling block for the IGF-I action mechanism in female embryos.

  13. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Akira; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Soda, Tetsuji; Takezawa, Kentaro; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Iwasa, Atsushi; Nonomura, Norio; Miyagawa, Yasushi

    2017-09-01

    Very little has been elucidated about sexual interest in female-to-male (FtM) transsexual persons. To investigate the sexual interest of FtM transsexual persons vs that of men using an eye-tracking system. The study included 15 men and 13 FtM transsexual subjects who viewed three sexual videos (clip 1: sexy clothed young woman kissing the region of the male genitals covered by underwear; clip 2: naked actor and actress kissing and touching each other; and clip 3: heterosexual intercourse between a naked actor and actress) in which several regions were designated for eye-gaze analysis in each frame. The designation of each region was not visible to the participants. Visual attention was measured across each designated region according to gaze duration. For clip 1, there was a statistically significant sex difference in the viewing pattern between men and FtM transsexual subjects. Longest gaze time was for the eyes of the actress in men, whereas it was for non-human regions in FtM transsexual subjects. For clip 2, there also was a statistically significant sex difference. Longest gaze time was for the face of the actress in men, whereas it was for non-human regions in FtM transsexual subjects, and there was a significant difference between regions with longest gaze time. The most apparent difference was in the gaze time for the body of the actor: the percentage of time spent gazing at the body of the actor was 8.35% in FtM transsexual subjects, whereas it was only 0.03% in men. For clip 3, there were no statistically significant differences in viewing patterns between men and FtM transsexual subjects, although longest gaze time was for the face of the actress in men, whereas it was for non-human regions in FtM transsexual subjects. We suggest that the characteristics of sexual interest of FtM transsexual persons are not the same as those of biological men. Tsujimura A, Kiuchi H, Soda T, et al. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons

  14. Intrinsic cerebral connectivity analysis in an untreated female-to-male transsexual subject: a first attempt using resting-state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarnecchi, E; Vatti, G; Déttore, D; Rossi, A

    2012-01-01

    Transsexualism is a gender identity disorder whose symptomatology could involve cognitive, neurobiological and psychological variance from biological sex standard. Several evidences support the hypothesis of a structural and functional brain reorganization in transgender subjects, with a different impact for male-to-female and female-to-male (FtM) subjects. Here we used resting-state fMRI to understand the similarities between the spontaneous brain connectivity of an untreated FtM subject and two male and female control groups. Both seed-voxel and atlas-based region-of-interest (ROI) approaches were used. Brain areas sensitive to gender dimorphism like left lingual gyrus and precuneus showed strong similarities between the FtM subject and female control group with respect to control males, with comparable extension and location of functional connectivity maps. ROI analysis confirmed this evidence, highlighting a greater pattern of differences between the FtM subject and males and the FtM subject and females. No difference between seed-voxel results in the FtM subject and females was found. These data partially support the idea that untreated FtM transgender shows a functional connectivity profile comparable to female control subjects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Oestrogens are Not Related to Emotional Processing: a Study of Regional Brain Activity in Female-to-Male Transsexuals Under Gonadal Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleman, R S; Staphorsius, A S; Cohen-Kettenis, P T; Lambalk, C B; Veltman, D J; van Trotsenburg, M A A; Hompes, P G A; Drent, M L; de Ronde, W P; Kreukels, B P C

    2016-02-01

    Although the prevailing opinion is that emotional processes are influenced by sex hormones, the literature is still inconclusive. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of gonadal suppression on brain activity during affective picture processing. Twenty-one female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals and 19 control women were recruited and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning while rating emotional pictures adapted from the International Affective Picture System. The gonadal hormone production of the FtMs was suppressed for 8 weeks, the control group did not receive any treatment before scanning. Under gonadal suppression, FtMs showed less brain activation in the superior temporal lobe compared with female controls during perception of positive affective pictures. Regression analysis showed that during processing of positive affective images, brain activity within the right superior temporal lobe was not correlated with levels of estradiol, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. In the absence of associations with hormonal levels, the difference in activation in the superior temporal lobe during positive emotional stimuli between FtMs and control women may be attributed to a priori differences between the 2 groups. Future studies should clarify if these differences are a result of atypical sexual differentiation of the brain in FtMs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Ovarian aromatase loss-of-function mutant medaka undergo ovary degeneration and partial female-to-male sex reversal after puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Masatoshi; Shibata, Yasushi; Ohno, Kaoru; Usami, Takeshi; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Yoshihito; Todo, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Takashi; Young, Graham; Swanson, Penny; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2018-01-15

    Although estrogens have been generally considered to play a critical role in ovarian differentiation in non-mammalian vertebrates, the specific functions of estrogens during ovarian differentiation remain unclear. We isolated two mutants with premature stops in the ovarian aromatase (cyp19a1) gene from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-based gene-driven mutagenesis library of the medaka, Oryzias latipes. In XX mutants, gonads first differentiated into normal ovaries containing many ovarian follicles that failed to accumulate yolk. Subsequently, ovarian tissues underwent extensive degeneration, followed by the appearance of testicular tissues on the dorsal side of ovaries. In the newly formed testicular tissue, strong expression of gsdf was detected in sox9a2-positive somatic cells surrounding germline stem cells suggesting that gsdf plays an important role in testicular differentiation during estrogen-depleted female-to-male sex reversal. We conclude that endogenous estrogens synthesized after fertilization are not essential for early ovarian differentiation but are critical for the maintenance of adult ovaries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. nr0b1 (DAX1) mutation in zebrafish causes female-to-male sex reversal through abnormal gonadal proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sijie; Zhang, Hefei; Wang, Fenghua; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Gang

    2016-09-15

    Sex determinations are diverse in vertebrates. Although many sex-determining genes and pathways are conserved, the mechanistic roles of these genes and pathways in the genetic sex determination are not well understood. DAX1 (encoded by the NR0B1 gene) is a vertebrate specific orphan nuclear receptor that regulates gonadal development and sexual determination. In human, duplication of the NR0B1 gene leads to male-to-female sex reversal. In mice, Nr0b1 shows both pro-testis and anti-testis functions. We generated inheritable nr0b1 mutation in the zebrafish and found the nr0b1 mutation caused homozygous mutants to develop as fertile males due to female-to-male sex reversal. The nr0b1 mutation did not increase Caspase-3 labeling nor tp53 expression in the developing gonads. Introduction of a tp53 mutation into the nr0b1 mutant did not rescue the sex-reversal phenotype. Further examination revealed reduction in cell proliferation and abnormal somatic cell differentiation in the nr0b1 mutant gonads at the undifferentiated and bi-potential ovary stages. Together, our results suggest nr0b1 regulates somatic cell differentiation and cell proliferation to ensure normal sex development in the zebrafish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel LY Converter Topologies for High Gain Transfer Ratio - A New Breed of XY Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, M.S.; Padmanaban, S.; Kulkarni, R.

    2016-01-01

    New LY converter topologies of DC-DC XY family for renewable energy applications are articulated in this paper. Four LY topologies are presented in this paper and the proposed topologies provide an operative solution for renewable energy applications which requires a very high inverting voltage...... gain and minimum internal resistance; such as a photovoltaic MLI system, high voltage applications and electrical drives. The conspicuous features of proposed LY converter topologies are i) Single power control switch ii) Single Input source iii) Inverting output voltage iv) Transformer-less converter...... topologies v) High inverting voltage gain with moderate duty ratio vi) Less number of power devices and components. The proposed topologies have minimum internal resistance and its effect on voltage gain of LY converter is also discussed in detail. The simulation results are presented and the result...

  19. Dysfunctional core beliefs, perceived parenting behavior and psychopathology in gender identity disorder: A comparison of male-to-female, female-to-male transsexual and nontranssexual control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lajos; Zsolt, Unoka; Fogd, Dora; Czobor, Pál

    2011-03-01

    Research into the association between Gender Identity Disorder (GID) and psychological disturbances as well as on its relation with parenting experiences yielded mixed results, with different patterns for Male-to-Female (MF) and Female-to-Male (FM) transsexual subjects. We investigated vulnerability markers of maladjustment and their possible origins in MF and FM transsexuals by examining maladaptive core beliefs and parenting behaviors thought to be specifically related to them. Dysfunctional core beliefs, parenting experiences and psychiatric symptoms were assessed by the Young Schema Questionnaire indexing 19 Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMS), the Young Parenting Inventory and the Symptom Checklist-90-R, respectively, in 30 MF, 17 FM transsexual and 114 control subjects (43 males, 114 females). Subjects with GID demonstrated a level of psychiatric distress comparable to that of controls. They did display elevated scores, however, on multiple EMSs compared to nontranssexual subjects, indicating feelings of isolation, emotional deprivation and an urge to meet others' needs, with MF transsexuals conceptualizing themselves also as more vulnerable and deficient than controls. Parenting experiences of transsexual subjects were characterised by increased maternal dominance, emotional abuse and neglect compared to controls, with males being exposed to a disengaged maternal style and more paternal emotional neglect and criticism. Both MF and FM transsexuals were made felt that in areas of achievement they will inevitably fail. There is no evidence of elevated levels of psychiatric symptoms in GID, but potential predisposing factors, particularly in MF transsexuals, are present; these may originate from the more intense rejection they experience. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bone mass, bone geometry, and body composition in female-to-male transsexual persons after long-term cross-sex hormonal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Caenegem, E; Wierckx, K; Taes, Y; Dedecker, D; Van de Peer, F; Toye, K; Kaufman, J-M; T'Sjoen, G

    2012-07-01

    Female-to-male transsexual persons (transsexual men) undergo extreme hormonal changes due to ovariectomy and testosterone substitution, allowing studies on sex steroid effects on bone geometry and physiology in the adult. The objective of the study was to examine the effects of cross-gender sex steroid exposure on volumetric bone parameters in transsexual men. This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited from the Center for Sexology and Gender Problems at the Ghent University Hospital (Ghent, Belgium). Fifty transsexual men after sex reassignment surgery with 50 age-matched control women and an additional 16 transsexual men before testosterone substitution and sex reassignment surgery with 16 control women participated in the study. The main outcome measures were areal and volumetric bone parameters using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), sex steroids, markers of bone turnover and grip strength. Before hormonal treatment, transsexual men had similar body composition and bone geometry as female controls. The transsexual men on long-term testosterone therapy, however, demonstrated a higher lean body mass and muscle mass and a greater grip strength as well as a lower body and subcutaneous fat mass and a larger waist and smaller hip circumference compared with female controls (all P transsexual men on testosterone therapy. Transsexual men on testosterone substitution therapy present with a different body composition with more muscle mass and strength and less fat mass as well as an altered bone geometry with larger bones compared with female controls.

  1. Mutation of foxl2 or cyp19a1a Results in Female to Male Sex Reversal in XX Nile Tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianbo; Li, Mengru; Ma, He; Liu, Xingyong; Shi, Hongjuan; Li, Minghui; Wang, Deshou

    2017-08-01

    It is well accepted that Forkhead box protein L2 (Foxl2) and aromatase (Cyp19a1; the enzyme responsible for estrogen synthesis) are critical for ovarian development in vertebrates. Knockouts of Foxl2 and Cyp19a1 in goat, mouse, and zebrafish have revealed similar but not identical functions across species. Functional analyses of these two genes in other animals are needed to elucidate their conserved roles in vertebrate sexual development. In this study, we established foxl2 and cyp19a1a mutant lines in Nile tilapia. Both foxl2-/- and cyp19a1a-/- XX fish displayed female-to-male sex reversal. Sf1, Dmrt1, and Gsdf were upregulated in the foxl2-/- and the cyp19a1a-/- XX gonads. Downregulation of Cyp19a1a and serum estradiol-17β level, and upregulation of Cyp11b2 and serum 11-ketotestosterone level were observed in foxl2-/- XX fish. The mutant phenotype of foxl2-/- XX individuals could be rescued by 17β-estradiol treatment from 5 to 30 days after hatching (dah). Upregulation of Star1, the enzyme involved in androgen production in tilapia, was also observed in the foxl2-/- XX gonad at 30 and 90 dah. In vitro promoter analyses consistently demonstrated that Foxl2 could suppress the transcription of star1 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, compared with the control XX gonad, fewer germ cells were detected in the foxl2-/- XX, cyp19a1a-/- XX, and control XY gonads 10 dah. These results demonstrate that Foxl2 promotes ovarian development by upregulating Cyp19a1a expression and repressing male pathway gene expression. These results extend the study of Foxl2 and Cyp19a1a loss of function to a commercially important fish species. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  2. Fasting urinary calcium-to-creatinine and oxalate-to-creatinine ratios in dogs with calcium oxalate urolithiasis and breed-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrow, E; Patterson, E E; Armstrong, P J; Osborne, C A; Lulich, J P

    2015-01-01

    Hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria are risk factors for calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis, but breed-specific reports of urinary metabolites and their relationship with stone status are lacking. To compare urinary metabolites (calcium and oxalate) and blood ionized calcium (iCa) concentrations between CaOx stone formers and breed-matched stone-free controls for the Miniature Schnauzer, Bichon Frise, and Shih Tzu breeds. Forty-seven Miniature Schnauzers (23 cases and 24 controls), 27 Bichons Frise (14 cases and 13 controls), and 15 Shih Tzus (7 cases and 8 controls). Prospective study. Fasting spot urinary calcium-to-creatinine and oxalate-to-creatinine ratios (UCa/Cr and UOx/Cr, respectively) and blood iCa concentrations were measured and compared between cases and controls within and across breeds. Regression models were used to test the effect of patient and environmental factors on these variables. UCa/Cr was higher in cases than controls for each of the 3 breeds. In addition to stone status, being on a therapeutic food designed to prevent CaOx stone recurrence was associated with higher UCa/Cr. UOx/Cr did not differ between cases and controls for any of the breeds. Blood iCa was higher in cases than controls in the Miniature Schnauzer and Bichon Frise breeds and had a moderate correlation with UCa/Cr. Hypercalciuria is associated with CaOx stone status in the Miniature Schnauzer, Bichon Frise, and Shih Tzu breeds. UOx/Cr did not correlate with stone status in these 3 breeds. These findings may influence breed-specific stone prevention recommendations. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Excessive androgen exposure in female-to-male transsexual persons of reproductive age induces hyperplasia of the ovarian cortex and stroma but not polycystic ovary morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Keiko; Baba, Tsuyoshi; Noguchi, Hiroko; Nagasawa, Kunihiko; Endo, Toshiaki; Kiya, Tamotsu; Saito, Tsuyoshi

    2013-02-01

    Does administration of androgen to female-to-male transsexual persons (FTMs) of reproductive age induce polycystic ovary (PCO) morphology? Administration of high-dose androgen to women causes pathognomonic changes to the ovarian cortex and stroma that resemble Stein-Leventhal syndrome but it does not induce PCO morphology. Androgen is thought to play a key role in follicular development and to be involved in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In several experimental models, animals given high-dose androgen show ovarian changes similar to those in women with PCOS. In previous human studies, the ovaries of FTMs who received androgen for long periods also exhibited PCO morphology. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of women, all without PCOS, undergoing salpingo-oophorectomy. The case group consisted of 11 FTMs taking testosterone (duration range: 17 months to 14 years), while the control group consisted of 10 patients with gynaecologic malignancies who did not receive testosterone. Resected ovaries from both groups were compared histologically with respect to changes in the cortex and stroma, and the number of follicles at each maturation stage. Compared with controls, the FTM group had a thicker ovarian cortex (P = 0.0001), and more hyperplastic collagen (P = 0.001), ovarian stromal hyperplasia (P = 0.003) and stromal luteinization, i.e. luteinized stromal cells with a small dark central nucleus surrounded by clear cytoplasm (P = 0.004). Isolated clusters of such stromal luteinized cells were found only in the testosterone-treated ovaries of FTMs. The number of primordial follicles was similar in the two groups (P = 0.22). The numbers of early stage (primary, pre-antral and early antral) follicles, which are dependent on androgen, were also similar (P = 0.81), as were the numbers of antral follicles (P = 0.97). In contrast, significantly greater numbers of atretic follicles were seen in the FTM than that in the control group (P = 0

  4. Patients' Priorities Regarding Female-to-Male Gender Affirmation Surgery of the Genitalia-A Pilot Study of 47 Patients in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, Josephine; Andréasson, My; Kölby, Lars; Elander, Anna; Selvaggi, Gennaro

    2017-06-01

    their specific benefits and limitations to make an informed choice. Jacobsson J, Andréasson M, Kölby L, et al. Patients' Priorities Regarding Female-to-Male Gender Affirmation Surgery of the Genitalia-A Pilot Study of 47 Patients in Sweden. J Sex Med 2017;14:857-864. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of genotype and transport on tonic immobility and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio in two local Italian breeds and Isa Brown hens kept under free-range conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele De Marco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of transport and genotype on the welfare and fear response of laying hens through a comparison of three breeds reared in free-range conditions: a commercial strain, the Isa Brown (IBh, and two local chicken breeds, the Bionda Piemontese (BPh and the Bianca di Saluzzo (BSh. After a journey of 67 km (75 min from the farmhouse of origin to the experimental station, ninety hens, divided according to breed, were free-range reared for two months. Body weight (BW, tonic immobility (TI, red and white blood cells, heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L ratio and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP were assessed at four different sampling times: at the farmhouse of origin (T1, at 1 day (T2, 15 days (T3 and at 2 months (T4 after arrival at the experimental station. No statistical differences were found between the four sampling times for BW, total red and white blood parameters. cells or for AGP. An increase in the H/L ratio (P<0.05 was recorded at time T2 for IBh and BSh, compared to BPh (P<0.05. TI was significantly higher (P<0.05 for the local breeds, BPh and BSh, than for the commercial strain IBh. The results of this study suggest that genetic and adaptive differences can affect both, physiological and ethological parameters.

  6. Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  7. Female-to-male transgender adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Sarah E

    2011-10-01

    This article focuses on considerations for natal females who present in the adolescent years with concerns related to their gender. They maybe individuals previously evaluated in their childhood years who have persisted with gender variance or gender identity disorder (GID) in DSM-IV, or they may be presenting for the first time in their adolescent years. The article discusses how to assess adolescents who come for evaluation and what treatments and other resources are available for them and their families. Where there seem to be differences between boys and girls with gender identity issues, they will be noted.

  8. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for the tritium breeding ratio of a DEMO fusion reactor with a helium cooled pebble bed blanket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnenmann, Elena; Fischer, Ulrich; Stieglitz, Robert

    2017-09-01

    An uncertainty analysis was performed for the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of a fusion power plant of the European DEMO type using the MCSEN patch to the MCNP Monte Carlo code. The breeding blanket was of the type Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB), currently under development in the European Power Plant Physics and Technology (PPPT) programme for a fusion power demonstration reactor (DEMO). A suitable 3D model of the DEMO reactor with HCPB blanket modules, as routinely used for blanket design calculations, was employed. The nuclear cross-section data were taken from the JEFF-3.2 data library. For the uncertainty analysis, the isotopes H-1, Li-6, Li-7, Be-9, O-16, Si-28, Si-29, Si-30, Cr-52, Fe-54, Fe-56, Ni-58, W-182, W-183, W-184 and W-186 were considered. The covariance data were taken from JEFF-3.2 where available. Otherwise a combination of FENDL-2.1 for Li-7, EFF-3 for Be-9 and JENDL-3.2 for O-16 were compared with data from TENDL-2014. Another comparison was performed with covariance data from JEFF-3.3T1. The analyses show an overall uncertainty of ± 3.2% for the TBR when using JEFF-3.2 covariance data with the mentioned additions. When using TENDL-2014 covariance data as replacement, the uncertainty increases to ± 8.6%. For JEFF-3.3T1 the uncertainty result is ± 5.6%. The uncertainty is dominated by O-16, Li-6 and Li-7 cross-sections.

  9. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sure should exist for sexual species to maintain a stable 1: 1 ratio of females to males. ... in a population which reproduces sexually, every individual will carry and transmit the genes of one father and one ... Now consider a newly mutated gene (capable of being transmitted by both males and females) that causes carriers to ...

  10. Effects of auditory and physical enrichment on 3 measurements of fear and stress (tonic immobility duration, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and fluctuating asymmetry) in several breeds of layer chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, S G; Campo, J L; Gil, M G; Prieto, M T; Torres, O

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of auditory enrichment (by means of classical music) or physical enrichment (by means of hanging colored string bunches and barley grains on the floor) on tonic immobility duration, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in chicks of several layer breeds. In experiment 1, 192 chicks from 8 Spanish breeds and 1 White Leghorn population were reared in cages with or without music auditory enrichment until 8 wk of age. The effect of music auditory enrichment was significant for heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P music than in those reared with music, suggesting that auditory enrichment from classical music reduces stress in chicks. There were significant differences in morphological trait measurements (relative asymmetry of wing length, leg width, and combined asymmetry; P music. This result suggests that FA is a good indicator for stress level in chicks, given that it follows the same trend as that found for heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. There was a significant treatment by breed interaction (P stress in layer chicks. In conclusion, auditory enrichment by means of classical music is a reliable method for reducing stress levels in several breeds of layer chicks. However, music auditory enrichment was not effective in reducing fearfulness in any of the layer breeds. Physical enrichment by means of colored plastic string bunches and floor barley grains does not appear to be an effective method for reducing stress and fear in layer chicks.

  11. Slave Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Sutch, Richard

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical work on slave breeding in the ante-bellum United States. Slave breeding consisted of interference in the sexual life of slaves by their owners with the intent and result of increasing the number of slave children born. The weight of evidence suggests that slave breeding occurred in sufficient force to raise the rate of growth of the American slave population despite evidence that only a minority of slave-owners engaged in such practices.

  12. Reliable effective number of breeders/adult census size ratios in seasonal-breeding species: Opportunity for integrative demographic inferences based on capture-mark-recapture data and multilocus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Montes, Gregorio; Wang, Jinliang; Ariño, Arturo H; Vizmanos, José Luis; Martínez-Solano, Iñigo

    2017-12-01

    The ratio of the effective number of breeders ( N b ) to the adult census size ( N a ), N b / N a , approximates the departure from the standard capacity of a population to maintain genetic diversity in one reproductive season. This information is relevant for assessing population status, understanding evolutionary processes operating at local scales, and unraveling how life-history traits affect these processes. However, our knowledge on N b / N a ratios in nature is limited because estimation of both parameters is challenging. The sibship frequency (SF) method is adequate for reliable N b estimation because it is based on sibship and parentage reconstruction from genetic marker data, thereby providing demographic inferences that can be compared with field-based information. In addition, capture-mark-recapture (CMR) robust design methods are well suited for N a estimation in seasonal-breeding species. We used tadpole genotypes of three pond-breeding amphibian species ( Epidalea calamita , Hyla molleri, and Pelophylax perezi , n  =   73-96 single-cohort tadpoles/species genotyped at 15-17 microsatellite loci) and candidate parental genotypes ( n  =   94-300 adults/species) to estimate N b by the SF method. To assess the reliability of N b estimates, we compared sibship and parentage inferences with field-based information and checked for the convergence of results in replicated subsampled analyses. Finally, we used CMR data from a 6-year monitoring program to estimate annual N a in the three species and calculate the N b / N a ratio. Reliable ratios were obtained for E. calamita ( N b / N a  = 0.18-0.28) and P. perezi (0.5), but in H. molleri, N a could not be estimated and genetic information proved insufficient for reliable N b estimation. Integrative demographic studies taking full advantage of SF and CMR methods can provide accurate estimates of the N b / N a ratio in seasonal-breeding species. Importantly, the SF method provides results that can be

  13. India's Distorted Sex Ratio: Dire Consequences for Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa R; Montgomery, Susanne B

    2016-01-01

    Female gender discrimination related to cultural preference for males is a common global problem, especially in Asian countries. Numerous laws intended to prevent discrimination on the basis of gender have been passed in India, yet the distorted female-to-male sex ratio seems to show worsening tendencies. Using detailed, two-year longitudinal chart abstraction data about delivery records of a private mission hospital in rural India, we explored if hospital birth ratio data differed in comparison to regional data, and what demographic and contextual variables may have influenced these outcomes. Using quantitative chart abstraction and qualitative contextual data, study results showed the female-to-male ratio was lower than the reported state ratio at birth. In the context of India's patriarchal structure, with its strong son preference, women are under tremendous pressure or coerced to access community-based, sex-selective identification and female fetus abortion. Nurses may be key to turning the tide.

  14. A model to investigate the optimal seeder-to-naïve ratio for successful natural Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae gilt exposure prior to entering the breeding herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Luiza R; Fano, Eduardo; Homwong, Nitipong; Payne, Brian; Pieters, Maria

    2016-02-29

    Due to the significance of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae as a swine respiratory pathogen, acclimation measures are taken into consideration when obtaining replacement gilts from negative sources to be introduced to endemically infected herds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimum seeder-to-naïve gilt ratio in a 4-week period for successful natural exposure to M. hyopneumoniae. Sixty gilts were divided in two groups, 21 2-week old seeder gilts were inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae, and 39 aged-matched naïve gilts were exposed to the seeders during a 4-week period. The exposure was set by dividing the gilts into six groups of 10 with different ratios of seeder-to-naïve, from 1:9 until 6 seeders and 4 naïve gilts. Laryngeal swabs, oral fluids and blood samples were collected from all gilts prior to, during and after inoculation and exposure. Infection in seeders was confirmed by development of clinical signs, seroconversion post-inoculation, and detection of M. hyopneumoniae genetic material. Naïve were considered positive after 4 weeks if M. hyopneumoniae was detected on bronchial swab or fixed lung tissue. As result, 33% (3/9) naïve gilts were positive in the 1:9 ratio, 75% (6/8) in 2:8, 28% (2/7) in 3:7, 33% (2/6) in 4:6, 80% (4/5) in 5:5 and 100% (4/4) in the 6:4 ratio. The estimated transmission rate (β) and expected probability of infection (ψ) were 1.28 per pig/week and 0.6, respectively. In this study, six seeders were required in a group of 10 gilts for successful exposure to M. hyopneumoniae in a 4-week exposure period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Different sex ratios of children born to Indian and Pakistani immigrants in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brekke Torkel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A low female-to-male ratio has been observed in different Asian countries, but this phenomenon has not been well studied among immigrants living in Western societies. In this study, we investigated whether a low female-to-male ratio exists among Indian and Pakistani immigrants living in Norway. In particular, we investigated whether the determination of sex via ultrasound examination, a common obstetric procedure that has been used in Norway since the early 1980 s, has influenced the female-to-male ratio among children born to parents of Indian or Pakistani origin. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of live births in mothers of Indian (n = 1597 and Pakistani (n = 5617 origin. Data were obtained from "Statistics Norway" and the female-to-male (F/M sex ratio was evaluated among 21,325 children born, in increasing birth order, during three stratified periods (i.e., 1969-1986, 1987-1996, and 1997-2005. Results A significant low female-to-male sex ratio was observed among children in the third and fourth birth order (sex ratio 65; 95% CI 51-80 from mothers of Indian origin who gave birth after 1987. Sex ratios did not deviate from the expected natural variation in the Indian cohort from 1969 to 1986, and remained stable in the Pakistani cohort during the entire study period. However, the female-to-male sex ratio seemed less skewed in recent years (i.e., 1997-2005. Conclusion Significant differences were observed in the sex ratio of children born to mothers of Indian origin compared with children born to mothers of Pakistani origin. A skewed number of female births among higher birth orders (i.e., third or later may partly reflect an increase in sex-selective abortion among mothers of Indian origin, although the numbers are too small to draw firm conclusions. Further research is needed to explain the observed differences in the female-to-male ratio among members of these ethnic groups who reside in Norway.

  16. Breeds of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchanan, David S.; Lenstra, Johannes A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067852335

    2015-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the different breeds of cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus). Cattle breeds are presented and categorized according to utility and mode of origin. Classification and phylogeny of breeds are also discussed. Furthermore, a description of cattle breeds is provided.

  17. Occupational gender stereotypes: is the ratio of women to men a powerful determinant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Tomoko

    2013-04-01

    Gendered division of occupational choices still exists in contemporary Japanese society. Women are underrepresented in traditionally male-dominated fields, while few men occupy positions in traditionally female-dominated areas. The purpose of the present study was to examine occupational gender stereotypes and its relation to the female-to-male ratio of jobholders. Participants were 540 Japanese (262 women, 278 men) who participated in an Internet survey. The results showed that the female-to-male ratio of jobholders was a strong predictor of gender stereotyping. That is to say, contemporary Japanese recognized male-dominated occupations as typically masculine and female-dominated ones as typically feminine. Gender comparisons revealed that men rated female-dominated occupations as more feminine in nature than did women, while women rated male-dominated occupations as more masculine than did men. Future implications for career interventions focusing on occupational gender stereotypes were also discussed.

  18. Organic breeding: New trend in plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenji Janoš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic breeding is a new trend in plant breeding aimed at breeding of organic cultivars adapted to conditions and expectations of organic plant production. The best proof for the need of organic cultivars is the existence of interaction between the performances of genotypes with the kind of production (conventional or organic (graph. 1. The adaptation to low-input conditions of organic production by more eddicient uptake and utilization of plant nutrients is especially important for organic cultivars. One of the basic mechanism of weed control in organic production is the competition of organic cultivars and weeds i.e. the enhanced ability of organic cultivars to suppress the weeds. Resistance/tolerance to diseases and pests is among the most important expectations toward the organic cultivars. In comparison with the methods of conventional plant breeding, in case of organic plant breeding limitations exist in choice of methods for creation of variability and selection classified as permitted, conditionally permitted and banned. The use of genetically modified organisms and their derivated along with induced mutations is not permitted in organic production. The use of molecular markers in organic plant breeding is the only permitted modern method of biotechnology. It is not permitted to patent the breeding material of organic plant breeding or the organic cultivars. .

  19. Tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements

  20. Implementation in breeding programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffey, M.P.; McParland, S.; Bastin, C.; Wall, E.; Berry, D.P.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic improvement is easy when selecting for one heritable and well-recorded trait at a time. Many industrialised national dairy herds have overall breeding indices that incorporate a range of traits balanced by their known or estimated economic value. Future breeding goals will contain more

  1. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    , unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While......, a number of potential risks are discussed, including detrimental genetic trends for non-measured welfare traits, the increased chance of spreading unfavourable mutations, reduced sharing of information arising from concerns over patents, and an increased monopoly within dairy cattle breeding that may make...... negative effects on animal welfare and to invest in breeding for increased animal welfare. Researchers are encouraged to further investigate the long-term effects of various breeding schemes that rely on genomic breeding values....

  2. Repeated embryo collection and interspecies transfer in alpacas and llamas during non-breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco J

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior evaluation was evaluated, collecting and interspecies embryo transfer inter species in llamas and alpacas during non-breeding season, 10 and 10 donor alpacas llamas, alpacas and 20 receiving 20 llamas, 5 alpacas and 5 llamas males were used. Sexual behavior by libido in males and acceptance of female to male in the presence of a dominant follicle was evaluated, the collection of embryos simple ovulation by non-surgical technique was performed and the fresh embryos are transferred directly into the horn left. It was observed that only 40% of alpaca accept the male and female in all cases had to use two males for mating, but all llama males mounted on the first attempt and accepted all females breeding. Embryos were collected at 25 and 60% of alpacas and llamas washes respectively, all were grade 1 embryos transferable; the embryo transfer fertility evaluated by ultrasound at 25 days was 100 and 41.6% respectively for donor alpaca and llama, however ultrasound evaluation at 60 days fertility was 50 and 25% respectively for donor alpaca and llama. We conclude that there is greater reproductive seasonality in alpaca regard to llamas, all were grade 1 embryos collected, fertility evaluated by ultrasound 25 days down to 60 days, demonstrating embryonic mortality, possibly due to the non-breeding season of both species.

  3. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  4. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual

  5. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  6. Ornamental Plant Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Silva Botelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available World’s ornamental plant market, including domestic market of several countries and its exports, is currently evaluated in 107 billion dollars yearly. Such estimate highlights the importance of the sector in the economy of the countries, as well as its important social role, as it represents one of the main activities, which contributes to income and employment. Therefore a well-structured plant breeding program, which is connected with consumers’ demands, is required in order to fulfill these market needs globally. Activities related to pre-breeding, conventional breeding, and breeding by biotechnological techniques constitute the basis for the successful development of new ornamental plant cultivars. Techniques that involve tissue culture, protoplast fusion and genetic engineering greatly aid conventional breeding (germplasm introduction, plant selection and hybridization, aiming the obtention of superior genotypes. Therefore it makes evident, in the literature, the successful employment of genetic breeding, since it aims to develop plants with commercial value that are also competitive with the ones available in the market.

  7. Breeding-assisted genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Jesse

    2015-04-01

    The revolution of inexpensive sequencing has ushered in an unprecedented age of genomics. The promise of using this technology to accelerate plant breeding is being realized with a vision of genomics-assisted breeding that will lead to rapid genetic gain for expensive and difficult traits. The reality is now that robust phenotypic data is an increasing limiting resource to complement the current wealth of genomic information. While genomics has been hailed as the discipline to fundamentally change the scope of plant breeding, a more symbiotic relationship is likely to emerge. In the context of developing and evaluating large populations needed for functional genomics, none excel in this area more than plant breeders. While genetic studies have long relied on dedicated, well-structured populations, the resources dedicated to these populations in the context of readily available, inexpensive genotyping is making this philosophy less tractable relative to directly focusing functional genomics on material in breeding programs. Through shifting effort for basic genomic studies from dedicated structured populations, to capturing the entire scope of genetic determinants in breeding lines, we can move towards not only furthering our understanding of functional genomics in plants, but also rapidly improving crops for increased food security, availability and nutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  9. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  10. Scavenging ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krey, P.W.; Toonkel, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Total 90 Sr fallout is adjusted for dry deposition, and scavenging ratios are calculated at Seattle, New York, and Fayetteville, Ark. Stable-lead scavenging ratios are also presented for New York. These ratios show large scatter, but average values are generally inversely proportional to precipitation. Stable-lead ratios decrease more rapidly with precipitation than do those of 90 Sr, a decrease reflecting a lesser availability of lead to the scavenging processes

  11. Litter size variation in Polish selected small dog breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Goleman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In breeders’ general opinion small breed females produce less numerous litters. The aim of the study was to analyse the litter size and the frequency of the gender ratio in selected small dog breeds in view of their popularity in Poland. The data set comprised information on 639 litters (in total 2578 puppies of eight breeds, which were born between January 2003 and end December 2014. The results were statistically analysed using statistical program SPSS 20.0. Medium-size litters were observed in the analysed small dog breeds (4.034±0.1. Comparison of the selected breeds of the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI Groups showed that the mean litter size in Group IX was higher (4.36±0.08 than that in Group III (3.87±0.14 and the differences were statistically significant. The study has confirmed the hypothesis that larger females produce more numerous litters, but there are large intra-individual variations in the number of pups born in individual breeds. Additionally, the gender ratio in the puppies born in the analysed breeds was equal, despite the fluctuations in the individual breeds.

  12. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  13. Sugar beet breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...

  14. Mutation breeding in mangosteen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khalid Mohd Zain

    2002-01-01

    Mangosteen the queen of the tropical fruits is apomitic and only a cultivar is reported and it reproduces asexually. Conventional breeding is not possible and the other methods to create variabilities are through genetic engineering and mutation breeding. The former technique is still in the infantry stage in mangosteen research while the latter has been an established tool in breeding to improve cultivars. In this mutation breeding seeds of mangosteen were irradiated using gamma rays and the LD 50 for mangosteen was determined and noted to be very low at 10 Gy. After sowing in the seedbed, the seedlings were transplanted in polybags and observed in the nursery bed for about one year before planted in the field under old oil palm trees in Station MARDI, Kluang. After evaluation and screening, about 120 mutant mangosteen plants were selected and planted in Kluang. The plants were observed and some growth data taken. There were some mutant plants that have good growth vigour and more vigorous that the control plants. The trial are now in the fourth year and the plants are still in the juvenile stage. (Author)

  15. Plant Breeding Goes Microbial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Zhong; Jousset, Alexandre|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370632656

    Plant breeding has traditionally improved traits encoded in the plant genome. Here we propose an alternative framework reaching novel phenotypes by modifying together genomic information and plant-associated microbiota. This concept is made possible by a novel technology that enables the

  16. Plant breeding and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is to develop improved crops. Improvements can be made in crop productivity, crop processing and marketing, and/or consumer quality. The process of developing an improved cultivar begins with intercrossing lines with high performance for the traits of interest, th...

  17. Organic crop breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Myers, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    This book provides readers with a thorough review of the latest efforts by crop breeders and geneticists to develop improved varieties for organic production. The book opens with chapters looking at breeding efforts that focus on specific valuable traits such as quality, pest and disease resistance

  18. Penguin breeding in Edinburgh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillespie, T.H.; F.R.S.E.,; F.Z.S.,

    1939-01-01

    The Scottish National Zoological Park at Edinburgh has been notably successful in keeping and breeding penguins. It is happy in possessing as a friend and benefactor, Mr Theodore E. Salvesen, head of the firm of Christian Salvesen & Co., Leith, to whose interest and generosity it owes the great

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This issue of the Mutation Breeding newsletter contains 39 articles dealing with radiation induced mutations and chemical mutagenesis techniques in plant breeding programs with the aims of improving crop productivity and disease resistance as well as exploring genetic variabilities

  20. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  1. Mutation breeding in peas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaranowski, J.; Micke, A.

    1985-01-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  2. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Rob; van Dun, Kees; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; van den Berg, Mark; Lelivelt, Cilia L C; Voermans, William; Woudenberg, Leo; de Wit, Jack P C; Reinink, Kees; Schut, Johan W; van der Zeeuw, Eveline; Vogelaar, Aat; Freymark, Gerald; Gutteling, Evert W; Keppel, Marina N; van Drongelen, Paul; Kieny, Matthieu; Ellul, Philippe; Touraev, Alisher; Ma, Hong; de Jong, Hans; Wijnker, Erik

    2009-12-01

    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on reducing genetic recombination in the selected heterozygote by eliminating meiotic crossing over. Male or female spores obtained from such plants contain combinations of non-recombinant parental chromosomes which can be cultured in vitro to generate homozygous doubled haploid plants (DHs). From these DHs, complementary parents can be selected and used to reconstitute the heterozygote in perpetuity. Since the fixation of unknown heterozygous genotypes is impossible in traditional plant breeding, RB could fundamentally change future plant breeding. In this review, we discuss various other applications of RB, including breeding per chromosome.

  3. Conceptualizing Masculinity in Female-to-Male Trans-Identified Individuals: A Qualitative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegter, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    A non-normative gender identity raises questions concerning widely accepted theories of gender that prevail in Western society. These theories are founded upon dichotomous models of gender identity that are posited as having a direct relationship to binary biological sex. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how individuals who…

  4. Long-term testosterone administration increases visceral fat in female to male transsexuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, J.M.; Asscheman, H.; Seidell, J C; Megens, J.A.J.; Gooren, Louis J G

    The amount of intraabdominal (visceral) fat is an important determinant of disturbances in lipid and glucose metabolism. Cross-sectional studies in women have found associations between high androgen levels and visceral fat accumulation. The causal relation between these phenomena is unknown. We,

  5. Long term testosterone administration increases visceral fat mass in female-to-male transsexuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, J.M.H.; Asscheman, H.; Seidell, J.C.; Megens, J.A.J.; Gooren, L.J.G.

    1997-01-01

    The amount of intraabdominal (visceral) fat is an important determinant of disturbances in lipid and glucose metabolism. Cross-sectional studies in women have found associations between high androgen levels and visceral fat accumulation. The causal relation between these phenomena is unknown. We,

  6. Brief Report: Female-to-Male Transsexual People and Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rebecca M.; Wheelwright, Sally; Farrell, Krista; Martin, Emma; Green, Richard; Di Ceglie, Domenico; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The "extreme male brain" theory suggests females with Autism Spectrum Conditions are hyper-masculinized in certain aspects of behavior. We predicted that females with Gender Identity Disorder (who are masculinized) would have elevated Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) scores. AQ scores from five groups were compared: (1) n = 61 transmen…

  7. Male-to-Female and Female-to-Male Transsexualism - A Theoretical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Volkova, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This project contains a theoretical investigation of MtF and FtM transsexualism. The theoretical point of departure is Harry Benjamin’s book The Transsexual Phenomenon. The former provides a general overview of the struggles a male transsexual faces in his life. Subsequently, the projects proceeds by giving a detailed account of Blanchard’s Theory of Autogynephilia. Using Lawrence’s and Blanchard’s research, the term autogynephilia is described and discussed. In the investigation of FtM trans...

  8. Contraceptive methods and risk of HIV acquisition or female-to-male transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Lisa B; Polis, Chelsea B; Sheth, Anandi N; Brown, Jennifer; Kourtis, Athena P; King, Caroline; Chakraborty, Rana; Ofotokun, Igho

    2014-12-01

    Effective family planning with modern contraception is an important intervention to prevent unintended pregnancies which also provides personal, familial, and societal benefits. Contraception is also the most cost-effective strategy to reduce the burden of mother-to-child HIV transmission for women living with HIV who wish to prevent pregnancy. There are concerns, however, that certain contraceptive methods, in particular the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), may increase a woman's risk of acquiring HIV or transmitting it to uninfected males. These concerns, if confirmed, could potentially have large public health implications. This paper briefly reviews the literature on use of contraception among women living with HIV or at high risk of HIV infection. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations place no restrictions on the use of hormonal contraceptive methods by women with or at high risk of HIV infection, although a clarification recommends that, given uncertainty in the current literature, women at high risk of HIV who choose progestogen-only injectable contraceptives should be informed that it may or may not increase their risk of HIV acquisition and should also be informed about and have access to HIV preventive measures, including male or female condoms.

  9. Female-to-male sex reversal in mice caused by transgenic overexpression of Dmrt1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Svingen, Terje; Ng, Ee Ting; Koopman, Peter

    2015-03-15

    Genes related to Dmrt1, which encodes a DNA-binding DM domain transcription factor, act as triggers for primary sex determination in a broad range of metazoan species. However, this role is fulfilled in mammals by Sry, a newly evolved gene on the Y chromosome, such that Dmrt1 has become dispensable for primary sex determination and instead maintains Sertoli cell phenotype in postnatal testes. Here, we report that enforced expression of Dmrt1 in XX mouse fetal gonads using a Wt1-BAC transgene system is sufficient to drive testicular differentiation and male secondary sex development. XX transgenic fetal gonads showed typical testicular size and vasculature. Key ovarian markers, including Wnt4 and Foxl2, were repressed. Sertoli cells expressing the hallmark testis-determining gene Sox9 were formed, although they did not assemble into normal testis cords. Other bipotential lineages differentiated into testicular cell types, including steroidogenic fetal Leydig cells and non-meiotic germ cells. As a consequence, male internal and external reproductive organs developed postnatally, with an absence of female reproductive tissues. These results reveal that Dmrt1 has retained its ability to act as the primary testis-determining trigger in mammals, even though this function is no longer normally required. Thus, Dmrt1 provides a common thread in the evolution of sex determination mechanisms in metazoans. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Laparoscopic Vaginal-Assisted Hysterectomy With Complete Vaginectomy for Female-To-Male Genital Reassignment Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes da Costa, Ana; Valentim-Lourenço, Alexandre; Santos-Ribeiro, Samuel; Carvalho Afonso, Maria; Henriques, Alexandra; Ribeirinho, Ana Luísa; Décio Ferreira, João

    2016-01-01

    Total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and vaginectomy for genital reassignment surgery is a complex procedure that is usually performed with a combined vaginal and abdominal approach. The aim of this study was to describe the feasibility of laparoscopic vaginectomy in sex reassignment surgery. We reviewed the relevant medical history, intra/postoperative complications, and surgical results of all patients diagnosed with gender dysphoria and submitted to totally laparoscopic gender confirmation surgery in our department between January 2007 and March 2015. In total, 23 patients underwent total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and vaginectomy in a single intervention. The vaginal mucosa was conserved to be used for the penile neourethra during the subsequent phalloplasty. The surgeries had an average operating time of 155 ± 42 minutes. No intraoperative complications were registered. In all patients, the vagina was totally removed, and, in most cases (n = 20), we were able to remove laparoscopically more than 50% of the vagina. Three patients had postoperative complications. One patient presented with hemoperitoneum on the second postoperative day; another presented with prolonged urinary retention, and a third patient developed a perineal hematoma 1 month after surgery. Patients were discharged less than 72 hours after surgery, except the patient who developed a postoperative hemoperitoneum. For all patients, we obtained an adequate specimen of vaginal mucosa to reconstruct the penile neourethra for the subsequent phalloplasty. This study suggests the feasibility of laparoscopic vaginectomy in genital reassignment surgery. The procedure can be executed as a continuation of the hysterectomy with the potential advantage of the laparoscopy providing better exposure of the anatomic structures with low blood losses (less than 500 mL) and few complications. Furthermore, using this approach, adequate-sized vaginal mucosa flaps were obtained for the urethral reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Female-to-male sex reversal in mice caused by transgenic overexpression of Dmrt1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Liang; Svingen, Terje; Ting Ng, Ee

    2015-01-01

    Genes related to Dmrt1, which encodes a DNA-binding DM domain transcription factor, act as triggers for primary sex determination in a broad range of metazoan species. However, this role is fulfilled in mammals by Sry, a newly evolved gene on the Y chromosome, such that Dmrt1 has become dispensab...

  12. Materials for breeding blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1995-09-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified

  13. Radiation mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  14. Biotechnology in soybean breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarić Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology can be defined broadly as a set of tools that allows scientists to genetically characterize or improve living organisms. Several emerging technologies, such as molecular characterization and genetic transformation, are already being used extensively for the purpose of plant improvement. Other emerging sciences, including genomics and proteomics, are also starting to impact plant improvement. Tools provided by biotechnology will not replace classical breeding methods, but rather will help provide new discoveries and contribute to improved nutritional value and yield enhancement through greater resistance to disease, herbicides and abiotic factors. In soybeans, biotechnology has and will continue to play a valuable role in public and private soybean breeding programs. Based on the availability and combination of conventional and molecular technologies, a substantial increase in the rate of genetic gain for economically important soybean traits can be predicted in the next decade. In this paper, a short review of technologies for molecular markers analysis in soybean is given as well as achievements in the area of genetic transformation in soybean.

  15. Sex Ratio and Sex Reversal in Two-year-old Class of Oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Bivalvia: Ostreidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung Jun; Kim, Hyejin; Kang, Seung Wan; An, Cheul Min; Lee, Sung-Ho; Gye, Myung Chan; Lee, Jung Sick

    2012-01-01

    The sex ratio (F:M) in the same population of oyster, Crassostrea gigas at the commencement of the study (2007) was 1:1.0, but changed to 1:2.8 by the end of the study (2008). The sex reversal rate in two-year-old oysters was 40.2%. Specifically, female to male sex reversal rate was 66.1%, which is higher than the male to female sex reversal rate of 21.1%. The sex reversal pattern of C. gigas appears to go from male?female?male, and as such is determined to be rhythmical hermaphroditism.

  16. Sex Ratio and Sex Reversal in Two-year-old Class of Oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Bivalvia: Ostreidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Jun; Kim, Hyejin; Kang, Seung Wan; An, Cheul Min; Lee, Sung-Ho; Gye, Myung Chan; Lee, Jung Sick

    2012-12-01

    The sex ratio (F:M) in the same population of oyster, Crassostrea gigas at the commencement of the study (2007) was 1:1.0, but changed to 1:2.8 by the end of the study (2008). The sex reversal rate in two-year-old oysters was 40.2%. Specifically, female to male sex reversal rate was 66.1%, which is higher than the male to female sex reversal rate of 21.1%. The sex reversal pattern of C. gigas appears to go from male⇒female⇒male, and as such is determined to be rhythmical hermaphroditism.

  17. Breeds in danger of extintion and biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    A. Blasco

    2008-01-01

    Some arguments currently used to support breed conservation are examined. The central point is that we cannot conserve all breeds because we do not have financial resources enough to keep everything (mainly in developing countries) and in many cases we do not have special reasons to conserve breeds. A breed is a human product and it should not be confused with specie. A breed can be generated or transformed. We can create synthetic breeds with the best characteristics of several breeds. Selec...

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    This issue of the Newsletter includes articles dealing with radiation induced mutation based plant breeding research findings aimed at improving productivity, disease resistance and tolerance of stress conditions

  19. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of mathematical biology. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- ... his practice of oral and maxillofacial surgery, and he developed a mask using the concept of golden ratio. The mask is called the. Marquardt beauty mask (Figure 1) [1]. Keywords.

  20. Textbook animal breeding : animal breeding andgenetics for BSc students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbroek, Kor; Waaij, van der Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    This textbook contains teaching material on animal breeding and genetics for BSc students. The text book started as an initiative of the Dutch Universities for Applied (Agricultural) Sciences. The textbook is made available by the Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre (ABGC) of Wageningen UR

  1. Over-breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Greenhouse Effect has fuzzy parameters, as do the consequences of acid rain, accidental nuclear fallout, deforestation, even the depletion of oil and natural gas reserves, and other threatening calamities. But the consequences of human over-breeding do not fall within fuzzy parameters. Reliable demographic studies predict a world population by the year 2020 of twice the present four billion or so living human beings. Some of us will see that year. But the population will again have doubled by the year 2090: sixteen billion people. The author suggests in this paper some morally permissible steps that might be taken to circumvent what otherwise is most assuredly an impending world tragedy. We have an ethical obligation to future generations. They have the moral right to a qualitatively fulfilling life, not just on allotted number of years. Some of my suggestions will not be palatable to some readers. But I urge those readers seriously to consider and if possible, hopefully, to propose alternatives

  2. Next generation breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabaschi, Delfina; Tondelli, Alessandro; Desiderio, Francesca; Volante, Andrea; Vaccino, Patrizia; Valè, Giampiero; Cattivelli, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    The genomic revolution of the past decade has greatly improved our understanding of the genetic make-up of living organisms. The sequencing of crop genomes has completely changed our vision and interpretation of genome organization and evolution. Re-sequencing allows the identification of an unlimited number of markers as well as the analysis of germplasm allelic diversity based on allele mining approaches. High throughput marker technologies coupled with advanced phenotyping platforms provide new opportunities for discovering marker-trait associations which can sustain genomic-assisted breeding. The availability of genome sequencing information is enabling genome editing (site-specific mutagenesis), to obtain gene sequences desired by breeders. This review illustrates how next generation sequencing-derived information can be used to tailor genomic tools for different breeders' needs to revolutionize crop improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Beyond breeding area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    . Perhaps as a consequence, long-distance migratory songbirds are declining rapidly compared to their sedentary counterparts. To understand what is driving these declines in European-Afrotropical migratory bird populations we need to understand the full annual migration cycle of these birds. Recent...... technological advances are currently enabling us to track yet smaller songbirds throughout their migration cycle providing valuable insight into the life cycle of individual birds. However, direct tracking of migratory birds has so far mainly been conducted on single populations and our understanding of entire......) in the period 2009-2015. We found that populations used the same migration routes and staging sites, but segregated spatially at the main non-breeding grounds in southern Africa. This finding suggest a far more complex migration pattern than what has recently been described for European-Afrotropical migrants...

  4. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  5. ["Breeding for distress" in fowl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, T

    1995-03-01

    During the last hundred years the fancying and breeding of exhibition poultry became very popular as free time activity. Certain breeding standards were set, and the aim of actual breeding endeavours is to meet these standards through selective breeding. Not only were serious defects established as standard qualities (e.g. domestic ducks with feather crests, rumplessness, and ear-tufts in the domestic fowl), but certain distinctive marks were changed into excessive formations (e.g. pigeon breeds with large, cauliflower-like wattles, or enlarged crops and severe behaviour changes). Accurate analysis of such breeding efforts shows that these breeds are to be called defective and abnormal in the sense of section 11b of the German protection of animals legislation. Whether an increased embryonic mortality, especially during the hatching period, constitutes a condemnable state of cruelty against is recently being discussed. Criticised are also standard features which handicap, in varying degrees, certain functional systems of the natural behaviour patterns. Section 11b of the German protection of animal legislation in its present wording is definitely no sufficient mean to control the contemporary excess in breeding of domestic animals.

  6. ROOT VEGETABLES, BREEDING TRENDS, RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of root vegetables is their unique specificity and high economic importance. The benefits and medicinal properties of root vegetables being highly demanded by the market requirements to the commodity are highlighted in the article. The main directions of breeding program for root vegetable crops, including species of Apiaceae family with carrot, parsnips; Chenopodioideae family with red beet; Brassicaceae family with radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga. Initial breeding accessions of carrot, red beet, radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga have been selected out to be used for breeding program for heterosis. The mf and ms breeding lines were developed, and with the use of them the new gene pool was created. Variety supporting breeding program and methods were also proposed. 

  7. Crowd control: sex ratio affects sexually selected cuticular hydrocarbons in male Drosophila serrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, S N; Rundle, H D

    2017-03-01

    Although it is advantageous for males to express costly sexually selected signals when females are present, they may also benefit from suppressing these signals to avoid costly interactions with rival males. Cuticular chemical profiles frequently function as insect sexual signals; however, few studies have asked whether males alter these signals in response to their social environment. In Drosophila serrata, an Australian fly, there is sexual selection for a multivariate combination of male cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). Here, we show that the ratio of females to males that an adult male experiences has a strong effect on his CHC expression, with female-biased adult sex ratios eliciting greater expression of CHC profiles associated with higher male mating success. Classical models predict that male reproductive investment should be highest when there is a small but nonzero number of rivals, but we found that males expressed the most attractive combination of CHCs when there were no rivals. We found that male CHCs were highly sensitive to adult sex ratio, with males expressing higher values of CHC profiles associated with greater mating success as the ratio of females to males increased. Moreover, sex ratio has a stronger effect on male CHC expression than adult density. Finally, we explore whether sex ratio affects the variance among a group of males in their CHC expression, as might be expected if individuals respond differently to a given social environment, but find little effect. Our results reveal that subtle differences in social environment can induce plasticity in male chemical signal expression. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. Sex ratio of lambs born from assisted reproductive technologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to investigate sex ratio of offspring resulting from superstimulated donors from two different breeds and artificially inseminated ewes from three different breeds. Romanov (n = 5) and Charollais (n = 6) (2 - 7 years of age) donors were superovulated using FSH-p with 400 mg ...

  9. Mutation breeding in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. The most widely known characteristic of chickpea is that it is an important vegetable protein source used in human and animal nutrition. However, the dry grains of chickpea, has 2-3 times more protein than our traditional food of wheat. In addition, cheakpea is also energy source because of its high carbohydrate content. It is very rich in some vitamin and mineral basis. In the plant breeding, mutation induction has become an effective way of supplementing existing germplasm and improving cultivars. Many successful examples of mutation induction have proved that mutation breeding is an effective and important approach to food legume improvement. The induced mutation technique in chickpea has proved successful and good results have been attained. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parents varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 (9 % seed moisture content and germination percentage 98 %) in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 500 ve 600 Gy for greenhouse experiments and 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 ve 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. One thousand seeds for per treatment were sown in the field for the M 1 . At maturity, 3500 single plants were harvested and 20 seeds were taken from each M 1 plant and planted in the following season. During plant growth

  10. Effect of breed and feeding on the carcass characteristics of the Chilote breed lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ramírez-Retamal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilote sheep has been developed in an isolated environment, based on grazing lands with low nutritive value belonging to small-scale producers, because of which there is little information about the use of this breed for meat production. The objective of this work was to determine the effects on lamb carcasses of two breeds with different productive purposes and fed on pastures with different nutritional quality. Three groups of lambs were used. The first and second groups were composed of 13 and 11 Chilote lambs respectively, and the third composed of six Suffolk Down lambs. Lambs remained with their mothers, the first group on naturalized pasture and the rest on rangeland. Animals were slaughtered at 90 d of age. Live weight, carcass weight and yield, and several zoometric parameters were determined, as well as the weight of commercial cuts and the muscle, bone and fat ratios. Hide and hoof weights were also measured. For the effect of breed, Chilote lamb is narrower (P < 0.05 than Suffolk Down, but with a higher proportion of hide (P < 0.05 and hooves (P < 0.05. The type of pasture only affected hot carcass yield, which was higher in Chilote lamb with naturalized pasture than with rangeland (P < 0.05. There were no effects of breed or pasture type on the main characteristics of the lamb carcasses.

  11. Sex ratio of multiple sclerosis in persons born from 1930 to 1979 and its relation to latitude in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampman, Margitta T; Aarseth, Jan Harald; Grytten, Nina; Benjaminsen, Espen; Celius, Elisabeth Gulowsen; Dahl, Ole Petter; Holmøy, Trygve; Løken-Amsrud, Kristin; Midgard, Rune; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Risberg, Geir; Vatne, Anita; Torkildsen, Oivind

    2013-06-01

    A remarkable increase in female to male ratio of multiple sclerosis (MS) is recognised in high incidence areas. Norway is a high-risk area for MS, spanning latitudes 58-71 °N. We studied whether the sex ratio has changed over time and whether it differs by clinical phenotype or by latitude. Population-based epidemiological data and data from the Norwegian MS Registry on patients born from 1930 to 1979 were combined in this study. Place of birth was retrieved from the Norwegian Population Registry and information on clinical subtypes was obtained from the Norwegian MS Registry. The female to male ratio ranged from 1.7 to 2.7 (median 2.0) in 5,469 patients born in Norway, and increased slightly by 5-year blocks of year of birth (p = 0.043). The sex ratio was 2.6:1 in 825 patients born 1970-1979, which is significantly higher than in those born 1930-1969 (p < 0.001). In patients with relapsing remitting onset, the sex ratio was 2.4:1, while it was 1.1:1 in those with primary progressive disease. The sex ratio did not differ between the south, the middle and the north of the country. The overall sex ratio of MS is strongly determined by cases with relapsing remitting onset. We did not observe the remarkable increase in sex ratios of MS reported from other high-risk areas. The high sex ratio in the youngest birth cohorts may change as an increasing proportion of cases in this age group is being diagnosed. Sex ratio was not associated with latitude.

  12. Effects of spring conditions on breeding propensity of Greater Snow Goose females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed, E. T.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding propensity, defined as the probability that a sexually mature adult will breed in a given year, is an important determinant of annual productivity. It is also one of the least known demographic parameters in vertebrates. We studied the relationship between breeding propensity and conditions on spring staging areas (a spring conservation hunt and the breeding grounds (spring snow cover in Greater Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica, a long distance migrant that breeds in the High Arctic. We combined information from mark–recapture, telemetry, and nest survey data to estimate breeding propensity over a 7– year period. True temporal variation in breeding propensity was considerable (mean: 0.574 [95% CI considering only process variation: 0.13 to 1.0]. Spring snow cover was negatively related to breeding propensity (bsnow=-2,05 ± 0,96 SE and tended to be reduced in years with a spring hunt (b = -0,78 ± 0,35. Nest densities on the breeding colony and fall ratios of young:adults were good indices of annual variation in breeding propensity, with nest densities being slightly more precise. These results suggest that conditions encountered during the pre-breeding period can have a significant impact on productivity of Arctic-nesting birds

  13. Safflower: genetics and breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, P.F.

    1982-01-01

    A review of genetic studies related to the breeding of improved cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) indicated that it was possible to modify the following over a wide range: duration of the rosette stage, stem length, branching habit, degree of spininess, head number, head size, flower morphology, mating system, seed size, hull thickness and thereby oil and protein contents, and fatty acid composition of the oil. Safflower breeders have concentrated most of their efforts on identifying and evaluating the great range of variability in cultivated safflower and its closely related wild species, and not on exploring means to increase variability. Limited experiments with gamma rays and ethyl methanesulphonate indicated that additional variability could be induced. Mutagenic agents should be used to obtain the following: resistance to foliar diseases where resistant germplasm is not available, increased levels of resistance to Phytophthora root rot, resistance to dodder and orobanche, resistance to insect pests, earlier maturity, and additional modifications in the fatty acid composition of the oil. (author)

  14. Mutation breeding in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagel, Z.; Tutluer, M. I.; Peskircioglu, H.; Kantoglu, Y.; Kunter, B.

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parent varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 had been used in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. As a result of these experiments, two promising mutant lines were chosen and given to the Seed Registration and Certification Center for official registration These two promising mutants were tested at five different locations of Turkey, in 2004 and 2005 years. After 2 years of registration experiments one of outstanding mutants was officially released as mutant chickpea variety under the name TAEK-SAGEL, in 2006. Some basic characteristics of this mutant are; earliness (95-100 day), high yield capacity (180-220 kg/da), high seed protein (22-25 %), first pot height (20-25 cm), 100 seeds weight (42-48 g), cooking time (35-40 min) and resistance to Ascochyta blight.

  15. RosBREED: Enabling marker-assisted breeding in Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iezzoni, A.F.; Weebadde, C.; Luby, J.; Yue, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Fazio, G.; Main, D.; Peace, C.P.; Bassil, N.V.; McFerson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including EST

  16. Disease burden in four populations of dog and cat breeds compared to mixed-breed dogs and European shorthair cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijser, S F A; Meijndert, L E; Fieten, H; Carrière, B J; van Steenbeek, F G; Leegwater, P A J; Rothuizen, J; Nielen, M

    2017-05-01

    Current public and professional opinion is that many dog breeds suffer from health issues related to inherited diseases or extreme phenotypes. The aim of this historical comparative observational study was to evaluate the breed-related disease burden in three purebred dog populations (Chihuahua, French bulldog, Labrador retriever) and one purebred cat breed (Persian cats) in the Netherlands by comparison to a control population of mixed-breed dogs and European Shorthair cats. A qualitative query was performed, consisting of a literature review and collecting the expert opinions of University veterinary specialists, to gather insight into potential diseases of the study population. Next, a referral clinic case control study of the patients referred to specific medical disciplines in the University Clinic was performed. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated to determine the likelihood of a patient referred to a particular medical discipline being a certain breed. Together, the qualitative query and the case control study resulted in a list of potentially relevant diseases limited to five organ systems per breed. These were analysed in data from primary practices. Patient files from ten primary practices over a period of two years were manually extracted and examined. Four-hundred individual patient records per breed as well as 1000 non-breed records were randomly selected from the 10 practices, weighted per practice size. Records were then examined and the presence or absence of certain diseases was identified. To evaluate the disease burden per breed, proportional difference (PD) was estimated, as well as the animal's age at presentation in months. The results of the referral clinic case control study showed an overrepresentation (Odds Ratio>1.5) of the selected breeds in several medical specialties, while median age at presentation was in some cases significantly lower than in the non-breed animals. Results of the practice-based extended cross-sectional study showed

  17. Field evidence for colony size and aseasonality of breeding and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ansell's mole-rat, Fukomys anselli, is a cooperatively breeding bathyergid endemic to the Lusaka Province of Zambia. During a 12-month field study involving the capture of 33 colonies of mole-rats, the number of occupants, breeding females and sex ratio within colonies were recorded. While thirty of these social groups ...

  18. Analysis for an environmental friendly seedling breeding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Y. H.; Wei, X. M.; Hou, Y. F.; Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.; Lin, C.

    2009-04-01

    Most seedlings of crops are produced in solar greenhouse or nursery, from which some problems about energy waste and environment pollution arise. This study aims at investigating the characteristics and effect of an environmental friendly type seedling breeding system. The results demonstrate that crops can grow with a short period and little pollution in the new seedling breeding system with total manpower controllable environment that is not influenced by geography, climate and other natural conditions. By multilayer, nonplanar seedling breeding and annual batches arrangement, utilization ratio of unit area land and seedlings yield can be improved for several times and even more than 10 times. Conclusions can be obtained from the tomato seedling breeding experiments: (1) each growth index of tomato seedlings that are under the conditions of 291 μmol/m2 s artificial illumination intensity is remarkably better than those produced in greenhouse with natural lights. (2) The environment of the seedling breeding system can be accurately controlled. The segmented temperature changed management can be applied according to the photosynthetic characteristics of plants, and not affected by the outside environment, which makes each growth index of tomato seedling constant in different seasons. The seedlings thus grow strong and can achieve the level of commodity seedlings after 20-30 days. (3) The temperature and humidity environment of the seedling breeding system can be accurately controlled according to plants growth demands.

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  20. Tricolored Blackbird - Breeding [ds20

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  9. Bee Queen Breeding Methods - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Patruica

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biological potential of a bee family is mainly generated by the biological value of the queen. Whether we grow queens widely or just for our own apiaries, we must consider the acquisition of high-quality biological material, and also the creation of optimal feeding and caring conditions, in order to obtain high genetic value queens. Queen breeding technology starts with the setting of hoeing families, nurse families, drone-breeding families – necessary for the pairing of young queens, and also of the families which will provide the bees used to populate the nuclei where the next queens will hatch. The complex of requirements for the breeding of good, high-production queens is sometimes hard to met, under the application of artificial methods. The selection of breeding method must rely on all these requirements and on the beekeeper’s level of training.

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter reports a number of research news and research abstracts on application of radiation induced mutation techniques to increase mutagenesis and mutation frequency in plant breeding projects

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  13. Mutation Breeding Newsletter. No. 37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This newsletter contains a brief account of FAO/IAEA meetings held in 1990 on plant breeding involving the use of induced mutations. It also features a list of commercially available plant cultivars produced by such techniques. Refs and tabs

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-05-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  18. Tricolored Blackbird - Breeding [ds20

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  17. Assessment of tritium breeding requirements for fusion power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, J.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents an assessment of tritium-breeding requirements for fusion power reactors. The analysis is based on an evaluation of time-dependent tritium inventories in the reactor system. The method presented can be applied to any fusion systems in operation on a steady-state mode as well as on a pulsed mode. As an example, the UWMAK-I design was analyzed and it has been found that the startup inventory requirement calculated by the present method significantly differs from those previously calculated. The effect of reactor-parameter changes on the required tritium breeding ratio is also analyzed for a variety of reactor operation scenarios

  18. Managing mainland salt marshes for breeding birds

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Wadden Sea region is one of the most important breeding areas in Western Europe for coastal breeding bird species. It is expected that management of salt marshes is important for successful conservation of breeding bird populations but the impact of management on the habitat quality for breeding birds is still not fully understood. In this study the effects of management on the three crucial habitat characteristics for breeding birds were studied on mainland salt marshes: effects of manag...

  19. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  20. Evaluation of between- and within-breed variation in measures of weight-age relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, T G; Kaps, M; Cundiff, L V; Ferrell, C L

    1991-08-01

    Variation between- and within-breeds was evaluated for accretion of weight from birth to 7 yr of age and hip height at 7 yr for 1,577 cows sired by Angus, Brahman, Brown Swiss, Charolais, Chianina, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Jersey, Limousin, Maine Anjou, Pinzgauer, Sahiwal, Simmental, South Devon, and Tarentaise and from either Angus or Hereford dams. Parameters from Wt = A (1 - Be-kt) were estimated by nonlinear regressions and provided estimates of mature body weight (A) and rate of weight accretion relative to change in age (k) for each cow. Actual weight at birth, linear adjusted weights at 200, 365, and 500 d of age, ratios of these weights to mature weight, and height at the hip at 7 yr were analyzed. Beyond 20 mo, weights were adjusted to a constant condition score within breed of sire. Variance and covariance components were derived for breed (sigma 2 b), sires within breed (sigma 2 s), and progeny within sire (sigma 2 w). For all traits, the sigma 2 b estimate of genetic variance ranged from two to four times greater than the variance component for sigma 2 s. Between-breed heritabilities were .91 +/- .27 and .54 +/- .17 for A and k, respectively. Estimates of within-breed heritability for these two traits were .61 +/- .11 and .27 +/- .09. Estimates, both between- and within-breed, of the genetic correlation between A and k were moderate to large and negative; those between A and weights at 200, 365, and 500 d and height at maturity were large and positive. Selection for immediate change in measures of growth would be most effective among breeds. Sufficient direct genetic variation exists between breeds to enhance breed improvement of growth characters through breed substitution. Greater opportunity to alter the shape of the growth curve exists through selection for within-breed selection than through breed substitution.

  1. Tokamak fusion reactors with less than full tritium breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, K. Jr.; Gilligan, J.G.; Jung, J.

    1983-05-01

    A study of commercial, tokamak fusion reactors with tritium concentrations and tritium breeding ratios ranging from full deuterium-tritium operation to operation with no tritium breeding is presented. The design basis for these reactors is similar to those of STARFIRE and WILDCAT. Optimum operating temperatures, sizes, toroidal field strengths, and blanket/shield configurations are determined for a sequence of reactor designs spanning the range of tritium breeding, each having the same values of beta, thermal power, and first-wall heat load. Additional reactor parameters, tritium inventories and throughputs, and detailed costs are calculated for each reactor design. The disadvantages, advantages, implications, and ramifications of tritium-depleted operation are presented and discussed

  2. Microsatellite genetic characterization of the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) breeding ground off Brazil (breeding stock A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypriano-Souza, Ana Lúcia; Fernández, Gabriela P; Lima-Rosa, Carlos André V; Engel, Márcia H; Bonatto, Sandro L

    2010-01-01

    The Southwestern Atlantic Ocean humpback whales wintering ground (breeding stock A) are distributed along the Brazilian coast (5-23 degrees S), and their main mating and calving ground is in the Abrolhos Bank. We investigated genetic diversity, population structure, and relatedness of individuals sampled from the entire Southwest Atlantic humpback whale population. A total of 275 individuals sampled from 2 subregions (Abrolhos Bank, n = 229 and Praia do Forte, n = 46) were screened for 9 microsatellite loci. This population showed a high level of allelic diversity (A = 12.1) and a high mean observed heterozygosity (H(O) = 0.733). No signal of significant genetic bottleneck was detected in accordance with the mitochondrial DNA data. We find no evidence of temporal (between years) genetic structure as well as no genetic differentiation between whales from the 2 subregions of the Brazilian breeding ground. We observed that the proportion of males and females in this population was approximately 1:1, which differs from the male-biased sex ratio observed in other breeding grounds. The data obtained through this study provided no evidence of kinship associations within social groups. Finally, a female sampled off South Georgia Islands showed a putative parent-offspring relationship with a female off Abrolhos Bank, supporting the migratory link between these 2 areas.

  3. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, Peter T; Trathan, Phil N; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  4. Sport horses : breeding specialist from a single breeding programme?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The general goal of this thesis was to provide information useful for the breeding programme of the Royal Dutch Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) in relation with the ongoing specialisation of the population. Data provided by KWPN consisted of records from studbook-first inspection,

  5. Development of breeding objectives for beef cattle breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mnr J F Kluyts

    production and marketing system, identification of sources of income and expense in commercial herds, determination of ..... decreasing marginal returns with an increase in the scale of the enterprise and thus, if operating at an optimum, the farm could ..... Training and Accreditation School Handbook. Anim. Genet. Breed.

  6. Development of breeding objectives for beef cattle breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... traits influencing income and expense, derivation of economic values, choice of selection criteria, and estimation of phenotypic and genetic parameters. The modelling methods to derive economic weights can be divided into simulation, dynamic programming and profit functions. Keywords: Beef cattle, Breeding objectives ...

  7. Breed base representation in dairy animals of 5 breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance of DNA from different dairy breeds can be determined by genotyping, just as individual ancestors such as parents, grandparents, or even great grandparents can be identified correctly in a high percentage of the cases by genotyping even if not reported or reported incorrectly in pedigrees...

  8. Genetic analysis of growth traits in Iranian Makuie sheep breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Farhadian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Makuie sheep is a fat-tailed sheep breed which can be found in the Azerbaijan province of Iran. In 1986, a Makuie sheep breeding station was established in the city of Maku in order to breed, protect and purify this breed. The genetic parameters for birth weight, weaning weight (3 months, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weight, and average daily gain from birth to weaning traits were estimated based on 25 years of data using DFREML software. Six different models were applied and a likelihood ratio test (LRT was used to select the appropriate model. Bivariate analysis was used to define the genetic correlation between studied traits. Based on the LRT, model II was selected as an appropriate model for all studied traits. Direct heritability estimates of birth, weaning, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weights and average daily gain from birth to weaning were 0.36, 0.41, 0.48, 0.42, 0.36 and 0.37, respectively. Estimates of direct genetic correlation between birth and weaning weights, birth and 6-month weights, birth and 9-month weights, as well as between birth and yearling weights were 0.57, 0.49, 0.46 and 0.32, respectively. The results suggest there is a substantial additive genetic variability for studied traits in the Makuie sheep breed population, and the direct additive effect and maternal permanent environment variance are the main source of phenotypic variance.

  9. Effect of immigration on multiple sclerosis sex ratio in Canada: the Canadian Collaborative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, S-M; Ramagopalan, S V; Brocklebank, D; Herrera, B M; Dyment, D A; Yee, I M; Sadovnick, A D; Ebers, G C

    2010-01-01

    The ratio of female to male (F:M) multiple sclerosis (MS) cases varies geographically, generally being greater in areas of high prevalence. In many regions, including Canada, rising MS incidence in women has been implied by the marked increase in F:M ratio. We examined the F:M ratio over time in MS patients in the Canadian Collaborative Study born outside Canada, with onset postmigration (n = 2531). We compared the trends to native-born Canadians, by region of origin and age at migration. Regression analysis showed that year of birth (YOB) was a significant predictor of sex ratio in immigrants (chi(2) = 21.4, pimmigrant F:M ratio was 2.17, but varied by country of origin. It was significantly lower in migrants from Southern Europe compared with Northern Europe or USA (1.89 vs 2.14 and 2.86, p = 0.023 and p = 0.0003, respectively). Increasing age at immigration was associated with decreasing sex ratio (p = 0.041). The sex ratio of individuals migrating or =21 (2.79 vs 1.96, p = 0.004). MS sex ratio in immigrants to Canada is increasing but variable by region of origin and influenced by age at migration. The findings highlight the importance of environmental effect(s) in MS risk, which are likely gender-specific.

  10. Genetic polymorphism of β-lactoglobulin and κ-casein of cattle breeds in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Ivanković

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Profitable milk production respects the interests of producers, processing industries, consumer requirements and welfare of animals. Development of new methods of direct gene analysis responsible for milk proteins polymorphism provide new tools to raise the profitability of milk production and dairy products through implementation of breed genetic profile in breeding program. Because of necessity to determinate genetic profiles of cattle breeds in Croatia using new analytical methods, the ratio of dominant allelic polymorphic variants of beta-lactoglobulin (β-Lg and kappa-casein (κ-CN is defined. The share of beta-lactoglobulin B variant is dominant in all investigated cattle breeds (>52.9 %. Kappa- casein allelic variant A is dominant in selected cattle breeds (60.7-76.4 %, while the share of B variant is significantly more presented in autochthonous cattle breeds (48.2-84.1 %. Knowledge about genetic profile of breeds due to studied polymorphic variants of milk proteins is useful in further breeding development and economic reaffirmation of cattle breeds, especially autochthonous ones.

  11. Fast and efficient charge breeding of the Californium rare isotope breeder upgrade electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C. A.; Perry, A.; Sharamentov, S. I.; Vondrasek, R. C.; Zinkann, G. P.; Pikin, A. I.

    2015-01-01

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), developed to breed Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) radioactive beams at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is being tested off-line. A unique property of the EBIS is a combination of short breeding times, high repetition rates, and a large acceptance. Overall, we have implemented many innovative features during the design and construction of the CARIBU EBIS as compared to the existing EBIS breeders. The off-line charge breeding tests are being performed using a surface ionization source that produces singly charged cesium ions. The main goal of the off-line commissioning is to demonstrate stable operation of the EBIS at a 10 Hz repetition rate and a breeding efficiency into single charge state higher than 15%. These goals have been successfully achieved and exceeded. We have measured (20% ± 0.7%) breeding efficiency into the single charge state of 28+ cesium ions with the breeding time of 28 ms. In general, the current CARIBU EBIS operational parameters can provide charge breeding of any ions in the full mass range of periodic table with high efficiency, short breeding times, and sufficiently low charge-to-mass ratio, 1/6.3 for the heaviest masses, for further acceleration in ATLAS. In this paper, we discuss the parameters of the EBIS and the charge breeding results in a pulsed injection mode with repetition rates up to 10 Hz

  12. Rose breeding: past, present, prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation

  13. Induced mutations in sesame breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashri, A.

    2001-01-01

    The scope of induced mutations in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) breeding is reviewed. So far in Egypt, India, Iraq, Rep. of Korea, and Sri Lanka, 14 officially released varieties have been developed through induced mutations: 12 directly and 2 through cross breeding (one using the 'dt45' induced mutant from Israel). For another variety released in China there are no details. The induced mutations approach was adopted primarily in order to obtain genetic variability that was not available in the germplasm collection. The mutagens commonly applied have been gamma rays, EMS and sodium azide. Sesame seeds can withstand high mutagen doses, and there are genotypic differences in sensitivity between varieties. The mutants induced in the above named countries and others include better yield, improved seed retention, determinate habit, modified plant architecture and size, more uniform and shorter maturation period, earliness, resistance to diseases, genic male sterility, seed coat color, higher oil content and modified fatty acids composition. Some of the induced mutants have already given rise to improved varieties, the breeding value of other mutants is now being assessed and still others can serve as useful markers in genetic studies and breeding programmes. (author)

  14. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windig Jack J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer livelihoods (current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity. Contributions of the breeds to genetic diversity were quantified using Eding's marker-estimated kinship approaches. Non-genetic aspects included threats (e.g. low population size, low preferences by farmers and current merits (economic, ecological and cultural merits. Threat analysis identified eight of the 14 breeds as threatened. Analysis of current merits showed that sub-alpine and arid-lowland breeds contribute most to farmer livelihoods in comparison to other breeds. The highest contribution to the genetic diversity conserved was from the Simien breed. Simien showed high between-breed (low between-breed kinship = 0.04 as well as high within-breed diversity (low within-breed kinship = 0.09 and high HE = 0.73 and allelic richness = 6.83. We combined the results on threat status, current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity to produce a ranking of the 14 breeds for conservation purposes. Our results balance the trade-offs between conserving breeds as insurance against future uncertainties and current sustainable utilization. The ranking of breeds provides a basis for conservation strategies for Ethiopian sheep and contributes to a regional or global conservation plan.

  15. Energy Profit Ratio Compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    We need more oil energy to take out oil under the ground. Limit resources make us consider other candidates of energy source instead of oil. Electricity shall be the main role more and more like electric vehicles and air conditioners so we should consider electricity generation ways. When we consider what kind of electric power generation is the best or suitable, we should not only power generation plant but whole process from mining to power generation. It is good way to use EPR, Energy Profit Ratio, to analysis which type is more efficient and which part is to do research and development when you see the input breakdown analysis. Electricity by the light water nuclear power plant, the hydrogen power plant and the geothermal power plant are better candidates from EPR analysis. Forecasting the world primly energy supply in 2050, it is said that the demand will be double of the demand in 2000 and the supply will not be able to satisfy the demand in 2050. We should save 30% of the demand and increase nuclear power plants 3.5 times more and recyclable energy like hydropower plants 3 times more. When the nuclear power plants are 3.5 times more then uranium peak will come and we will need breed uranium. I will analysis the EPR of FBR. Conclusion: A) the EPR of NPS in Japan is 17.4 and it is the best of all. B) Many countries will introduce new nuclear power plants rapidly may be 3.5 times in 2050. C) Uranium peak will happen around 2050. (author)

  16. Ecological problems in horse-breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Zachinyaew

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article is represented general information devoted to environmental problems in the horse- breeding. The concept of development of ecological explorations in the horse-breeding is considered as well.

  17. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB

    2009-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  18. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  19. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This is the second issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)

  20. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This is the first issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)

  1. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F.; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the pl...

  2. Genetic characterization of Zanskari breed of horse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, poor management of these animals has led to dilution of their characteristic features to some ex- ... animals of Zanskari breed from its breeding tract in Jammu and Kashmir state. About 10 ml of blood per ..... variation of Polish endangered Bilgoraj horses and two common horse breeds in microsatellite loci. J. Appl.

  3. Selective breeding in organic dairy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding

  4. Population structure of ice-breeding seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Corey S; Stirling, Ian; Strobeck, Curtis; Coltman, David W

    2008-07-01

    The development of population genetic structure in ice-breeding seal species is likely to be shaped by a combination of breeding habitat and life-history characteristics. Species that return to breed on predictable fast-ice locations are more likely to exhibit natal fidelity than pack-ice-breeding species, which in turn facilitates the development of genetic differentiation between subpopulations. Other aspects of life history such as geographically distinct vocalizations, female gregariousness, and the potential for polygynous breeding may also facilitate population structure. Based on these factors, we predicted that fast-ice-breeding seal species (the Weddell and ringed seal) would show elevated genetic differentiation compared to pack-ice-breeding species (the leopard, Ross, crabeater and bearded seals). We tested this prediction using microsatellite analysis to examine population structure of these six ice-breeding species. Our results did not support this prediction. While none of the Antarctic pack-ice species showed statistically significant population structure, the bearded seal of the Arctic pack ice showed strong differentiation between subpopulations. Again in contrast, the fast-ice-breeding Weddell seal of the Antarctic showed clear evidence for genetic differentiation while the ringed seal, breeding in similar habitat in the Arctic, did not. These results suggest that the development of population structure in ice-breeding phocid seals is a more complex outcome of the interplay of phylogenetic and ecological factors than can be predicted on the basis of breeding substrate and life-history characteristics.

  5. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Fretwell

    Full Text Available We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land. Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  6. A simple language to script and simulate breeding schemes: the breeding scheme language

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is difficult for plant breeders to determine an optimal breeding strategy given that the problem involves many factors, such as target trait genetic architecture and breeding resource availability. There are many possible breeding schemes for each breeding program. Although simulation study may b...

  7. Breed prevalence of canine lymphoma in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesl J. Van Rooyen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoma is a common haematopoietic neoplasm in dogs. Several breeds have been shown to have a predisposition to lymphoma; however, very little information exists regarding the South African dog population. This study assessed whether any breed had increased odds of developing lymphoma compared with others, and also investigated the effects of age, sex and neutering status on disease prevalence. Two study populations and their corresponding reference populations were studied retrospectively. Odds ratios (ORs for lymphoma in 49 dog breeds, together with their 95% confidence intervals (CI, were calculated. Age effect was assessed by calculating ORs for different age categories in one of the populations. The chi-square test was used to evaluate differences in the prevalence of the various sex and neutering categories in one lymphoma population compared with its reference population. Fourteen breeds had significantly increased odds of developing lymphoma, and one breed had significantly decreased odds (p < 0.050. The median ages of the two lymphoma populations were 6.5 and 8.0 years, with the 6.1–9.0 year category having significantly increased odds of developing lymphoma (OR 1.61, CI 1.2–2.16, p = 0.002. In one of the lymphoma populations, higher proportions of males (p = 0.033 and neutered females (p = 0.006 were found when compared with the reference population. These findings suggest that certain breeds in South Africa have a higher risk of developing lymphoma, and that sex hormones may play a role in lymphoma pathogenesis. The findings may provide useful information for pet owners and veterinarians.

  8. Current trends in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalani, B.S.; Rajanaidu, N.

    2000-01-01

    The current world population is 6 billion and it is likely to reach 7 billion in 2010 and 8 billion 2025. Sufficient food must be produced for the ever increasing human population. The available suitable land for intensive agriculture is limited. We have to produce more food from less land, pesticide, labour and water resources. Hence, increase in crop productivity are essential to feed the world in the next century. Plant breeding provides the avenue to increase the food production to feed the growing world population. Development of a cultivar involves (I) Construction of a genetic model (II) creating a gene pool (III) selection among plants and (IV) testing the selected genotypes for adaptation to the biotic and abiotic environments (Frey, 1999). This paper discusses the trends in plant breeding using the oil palm as a model. It covers (i) genetic resources (ii) physiological traits (III) exploitation of genotype x environment interaction (IV) oil palm clones, and (v) biotechnology application. (Author)

  9. Breeding quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Fuentes, Francisco; Zamora, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) originated in the Andean region of South America; this species is associated with exceptional grain nutritional quality and is highly valued for its ability to tolerate abiotic stresses. However, its introduction outside the Andes has yet to take off on a large...... scale. In the Andes, quinoa has until recently been marginally grown by small-scale Andean farmers, leading to minor interest in the crop from urban consumers and the industry. Quinoa breeding programs were not initiated until the 1960s in the Andes, and elsewhere from the 1970s onwards. New molecular...... tools available for the existing quinoa breeding programs, which are critically examined in this review, will enable us to tackle the limitations of allotetraploidy and genetic specificities. The recent progress, together with the declaration of "The International Year of the Quinoa" by the Food...

  10. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailer Frank

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This newsletter contains short descriptions of research methods for the use of radiation to induce mutations and facilitate plant breeding. This method is used to develop species of plants that can survive in harsh climates and thus provide a food supply for humans and animals. Some of the mutants discussed include a salt tolerant barley, a disease resistant shrub, a cold tolerant chickpea, a highly productive Canavalia virosa and productive tomato. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This issue contains a number of contributions from readers describing experiments in plant breeding (the individual items are indexed separately) and a report on the 30th Gamma-Field Symposium held in Tsukuba, Japan in July 1991. Also included is a list of officially released mutant varieties of seed-propagated crops taken from the FAO/IAEA database of mutant varieties. It is planned to organize a database on available crop plant mutant variety germplasm collections. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Genomic selection in plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mark A; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a method to predict the genetic value of selection candidates based on the genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) predicted from high-density markers positioned throughout the genome. Unlike marker-assisted selection, the GEBV is based on all markers including both minor and major marker effects. Thus, the GEBV may capture more of the genetic variation for the particular trait under selection.

  14. fat-tailed sheep breeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barresi-e asar-e sen va Jens barehay-e zel- e mazanderan bar tavan-e parvari va khosusiat-e lasheh (Study of age and sex effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Mazanderan Zel sheep breed) pajuhesh va sazandegi 37, 97-. 99 (in Persian). McClinton, O.W. & Carson, A.F., 2000. Growth and carcass ...

  15. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  16. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  17. Semen quality of Italian local pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 a conservation programme was carried out within the framework of EC contract “European gene banking project for the pig genetic resources” (Ollivier et al., 2001 in the Italian local pig breeds. The aims of the program included the primary characterization of the breeds, i.e. information on the organization in charge of the breed, breeding population numbers, breed description and qualifications, and field trials on productive and reproductive performances. In this context the “Semen Bank of Italian local pig breeds” was built. A total of 30,835 straws of four Italian local pig breeds (Cinta Senese, Casertana, Mora Romagnola and Nero Siciliano, collected from 42 sires, have been stored. In this work semen quality traits, lipid composition and freezability of the four Italian local pig breeds are reported.

  18. FATTENING CAPACITIES AND MEAT QUALITY OF JAPANESE QUAILS OF FARAON AND WHITE ENGLISH BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Genchev

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish the fatting capacity and the meat quality of the combined (meat+eggs White English breed and to compare with the same of the meat Faraon breed. Logically, the live weight of 31-day old male Faraon-birds was by 5,9 % higher and of the female ones – by 7,9 % compared to the birds of White English breed. Feed conversion ratio for the experimental period (3-31 days for the White English quails was to 9,95% less effective, compared to the Faraon birds. The meat of Faraon quails contained more dry matter and protein compared to the meat of White English breed. Fat content in the quail bodies of White English breed was signifi cantly lower compared to Faraon breed /Р≤0,05/. Quail meat of White English breed was characterized by its better capacity for technological processing due to the lower loss of moisture – by 18,8 % for breast and 22,4 % for leg muscles /Р≤0,05/. The established results characterize the combined White English breed as suitable for producing both of eggs and meat from quails.

  19. Eggs in the Freezer: Energetic Consequences of Nest Site and Nest Design in Arctic Breeding Shorebirds

    OpenAIRE

    Tulp, Ingrid; Schekkerman, Hans; de Leeuw, Joep

    2012-01-01

    Birds construct nests for several reasons. For species that breed in the Arctic, the insulative properties of nests are very important. Incubation is costly there and due to an increasing surface to volume ratio, more so in smaller species. Small species are therefore more likely to place their nests in thermally favourable microhabitats and/or to invest more in nest insulation than large species. To test this hypothesis, we examined characteristics of nests of six Arctic breeding shorebird s...

  20. Breeds in danger of extintion and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blasco

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Some arguments currently used to support breed conservation are examined. The central point is that we cannot conserve all breeds because we do not have financial resources enough to keep everything (mainly in developing countries and in many cases we do not have special reasons to conserve breeds. A breed is a human product and it should not be confused with specie. A breed can be generated or transformed. We can create synthetic breeds with the best characteristics of several breeds. Selection is not exhausting genetic variability (there are several experiments showing that, and genetic variability within breeds is large. We need reasons to keep breeds in danger in extinction. A breed is a tool, and we can decide to keep it when it is useful because it is specially adapted to some environments (although in this case it should not be in danger of extinction, it can be useful in crossbreeding to shorten the way of obtaining response to selection, or it has some extreme values for traits that may be useful in the future (in this case we have to define clearly which traits and how we expect the future to be. We can add cultural reasons when we have money enough to spend in culture.

  1. Breed effect between Mos rooster (Galician indigenous breed) and Sasso T-44 line and finishing feed effect of commercial fodder or corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, D; Rois, D; Vázquez, J A; Purriños, L; González, R; Lorenzo, J M

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study the Mos rooster breed growth performance, carcass, and meat quality. The breed effect (Mos vs. Sasso T-44) and finishing feed in the last month (fodder vs. corn) on animal growth, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty and amino acid profiles were studied using a randomized block design with initial weight as covariance. In total, 80 roosters (n = 30 of Sasso T-44 line and n = 50 of Mos breed) were used. They were separated by breed and allocated to 2 feeding treatment groups (concentrate and corn). Each feeding treatment group consisted of 15 and 25 roosters, for Sasso T-44 line and Mos breed, respectively. Finishing feeding did not affect growth parameters in the 2 genotypes of rooster tested (P > 0.05). Nonetheless, the comparison between both types of roosters led to significant differences in growth parameters (P 0.05) were found, and as expected, carcass weight clearly differed between genotypes due to the lower growth rate of Mos roosters. However, drumstick, thigh, and wing percentages were greater in the Mos breed than in the hybrid line. In color instrumental traits, roosters feeding with corn showed breast meat with significantly (P < 0.001) higher a* and b* values than those of cocks feeding with commercial fodder. Values of shear force were less than 2 kg for both genotypes, thus it can be classified as very tender meat. Finishing with corn significantly increased (P < 0.001) the polyunsaturated fatty acid content in the breast; the Mos breed had a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio of 0.73. The amino acid profile of the indigenous breed was not similar to that of the commercial strain. Finishing feeding treatment had a greater influence than breed effect on amino acid profile.

  2. Congruence between selection on breeding values and farmers' selection criteria in sheep breeding under conventional nucleus breeding schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, S; Getachew, T; Tibbo, M; Haile, A; Dessie, T

    2011-05-01

    Designing breeding schemes suitable for smallholder livestock production systems in developing regions has hitherto been a challenge. The suggested schemes either do not address farmers' breeding goals (centralized station-based nucleus schemes) or yield slow genetic progress (village-based schemes). A new breeding scheme that integrates the merits of previously suggested schemes has been designed for Menz sheep improvement in Ethiopia. It involves selection based on breeding values in nucleus flocks to produce elite rams, a one-time only provision of improved rams to villagers and a follow-up village-based selection to sustain genetic progress in village flocks. Here, we assessed whether conventional selection of breeding rams based on breeding values for production traits, which is the practice in station-based nucleus flocks, meets farmers' breeding objectives. We also elicited determinants of farmers' ram choice. Low but significant correlations were found between rankings of rams based on farmers' selection criteria, estimated breeding values (EBV) and body weight (BW). Appearance traits (such as color and horn) and meat production traits (BW and linear size traits) significantly determined farmers' breeding ram choice. The results imply that conventional selection criteria based solely on EBV for production traits do not address farmers' trait preferences fully, but only partially. Thus, a two-stage selection procedure involving selection on breeding values in nucleus centers followed by farmers' selection among top- ranking candidate rams is recommended. This approach accommodates farmers' preferences and speeds up genetic progress in village-based selection. The Menz sheep scheme could be applied elsewhere with similar situations to transform conventional station-based nucleus breeding activities into participatory breeding programs.

  3. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  4. Limits to captive breeding of mammals in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroy, John

    2015-06-01

    Captive breeding of mammals in zoos is the last hope for many of the best-known endangered species and has succeeded in saving some from certain extinction. However, the number of managed species selected is relatively small and focused on large-bodied, charismatic mammals that are not necessarily under strong threat and not always good candidates for reintroduction into the wild. Two interrelated and more fundamental questions go unanswered: have the major breeding programs succeeded at the basic level of maintaining and expanding populations, and is there room to expand them? I used published counts of births and deaths from 1970 to 2011 to quantify rates of growth of 118 captive-bred mammalian populations. These rates did not vary with body mass, contrary to strong predictions made in the ecological literature. Most of the larger managed mammalian populations expanded consistently and very few programs failed. However, growth rates have declined dramatically. The decline was predicted by changes in the ratio of the number of individuals within programs to the number of mammal populations held in major zoos. Rates decreased as the ratio of individuals in programs to populations increased. In other words, most of the programs that could exist already do exist. It therefore appears that debates over the general need for captive-breeding programs and the best selection of species are moot. Only a concerted effort could create room to manage a substantially larger number of endangered mammals. © 2015, Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Insights into Wilson's Warbler migration from analyses of hydrogen stable-isotope ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Viorel Atudorei; Zachary D. Sharp; Deborah M. Finch

    2002-01-01

    Our ability to link the breeding locations of individual passerines to migration stopover sites and wintering locations is limited. Stable isotopes of hydrogen contained in bird feathers have recently shown potential in this regard. We measured hydrogen stable-isotope ratios (deltaD) of feathers from breeding, migrating, and wintering Wilson's Warblers. Analyses...

  6. Mutation Breeding for Crop Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajbir, S. Sangwan

    2017-01-01

    Chromosomes contain genes responsible of different traits of any organism. Induced mutation using chemical mutagens and radiation to modify molecular structure of plants played a major role in the development of high genetic variability and help develop new superior crop varieties. The Mutation Breeding is applicable to all plants and has generated lot of agronomically interesting mutants, both in vegetatively and seed propagated plants. The technique is easy but long and challenging to detect, isolate and characterize the mutant and gene. A specific dose of irradiation has to be used to obtain desired mutants. However, with modern molecular technique, the gene responsible for mutation can be identified. The CRISPR-Cas9 allows the removal of a specific gene which is responsible of unwanted trait and replacing it with a gene which induces a desired trait. There have been more than 2700 officially released mutant varieties from 170 different plant species in more than 60 countries throughout the world and A more participatory approach, involving all stakeholders in plant breeding, is needed to ensure that it is demand/farmers driven.

  7. Breeding of speciality maize for industrial purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Pajić Zorica; Radosavljević Milica; Filipović Milomir; Todorović Goran; Srdić Jelena; Pavlov Milovan

    2010-01-01

    The breeding programme on speciality maize with specific traits was established at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, several decades ago. The initial material was collected, new methods applying to breeding of speciality maize, i.e. popping maize, sweet maize and white-seeded maize, were introduced. The aim was to enhance and improve variability of the initial material for breeding these three types of maize. Then, inbred lines of good combining abilities were developed and used as c...

  8. Use of induced mutations in soybean breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakri, A.H.; Jalani, B.S.; Ng, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    Artificial induction of mutation in plants is carried out using #betta#-irradiation and ethyl metanesulphonate (EMS) to expand the genetic variability of locally-grown soybean. This aspect of mutation breeding complements of conventional breeding approach undertaken by the Joint Malaysia Soybean Breeding Project group. Recovery of agronomically-important mutants such as earliness, lateness, bigger seed size and improved plant architecture were recorded. The significance of these findings is discussed. (author)

  9. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    , we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...... of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods...

  10. Guidelines for success in mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshua, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    There is renewed interest to induce mutations and to use them in plant breeding for crop improvement. But, often the projects on mutation breeding remain incomplete without achieving the desired specific objectives. A thorough knowledge of the various aspects of this technology is imperative to benefit from these experiments. With this in view, the essential basic information regarding mutagens, their mode of action, mutagenic treatment, sample size, handling the M 1 and M 2 generations, screening the mutants and their use in basic and applied fields are dealt with in this paper. This is meant to help those who are entering this field of plant breeding without previous experience in mutation breeding. (author)

  11. Illumination of murine gammaherpesvirus-68 cycle reveals a sexual transmission route from females to males in laboratory mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie François

    Full Text Available Transmission is a matter of life or death for pathogen lineages and can therefore be considered as the main motor of their evolution. Gammaherpesviruses are archetypal pathogenic persistent viruses which have evolved to be transmitted in presence of specific immune response. Identifying their mode of transmission and their mechanisms of immune evasion is therefore essential to develop prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against these infections. As the known human gammaherpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus are host-specific and lack a convenient in vivo infection model; related animal gammaherpesviruses, such as murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68, are commonly used as general models of gammaherpesvirus infections in vivo. To date, it has however never been possible to monitor viral excretion or virus transmission of MHV-68 in laboratory mice population. In this study, we have used MHV-68 associated with global luciferase imaging to investigate potential excretion sites of this virus in laboratory mice. This allowed us to identify a genital excretion site of MHV-68 following intranasal infection and latency establishment in female mice. This excretion occurred at the external border of the vagina and was dependent on the presence of estrogens. However, MHV-68 vaginal excretion was not associated with vertical transmission to the litter or with horizontal transmission to female mice. In contrast, we observed efficient virus transmission to naïve males after sexual contact. In vivo imaging allowed us to show that MHV-68 firstly replicated in penis epithelium and corpus cavernosum before spreading to draining lymph nodes and spleen. All together, those results revealed the first experimental transmission model for MHV-68 in laboratory mice. In the future, this model could help us to better understand the biology of gammaherpesviruses and could also allow the development of strategies that could prevent the spread of these viruses in natural populations.

  12. Illumination of murine gammaherpesvirus-68 cycle reveals a sexual transmission route from females to males in laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Sylvie; Vidick, Sarah; Sarlet, Mickaël; Desmecht, Daniel; Drion, Pierre; Stevenson, Philip G; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Gillet, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Transmission is a matter of life or death for pathogen lineages and can therefore be considered as the main motor of their evolution. Gammaherpesviruses are archetypal pathogenic persistent viruses which have evolved to be transmitted in presence of specific immune response. Identifying their mode of transmission and their mechanisms of immune evasion is therefore essential to develop prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against these infections. As the known human gammaherpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus are host-specific and lack a convenient in vivo infection model; related animal gammaherpesviruses, such as murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68), are commonly used as general models of gammaherpesvirus infections in vivo. To date, it has however never been possible to monitor viral excretion or virus transmission of MHV-68 in laboratory mice population. In this study, we have used MHV-68 associated with global luciferase imaging to investigate potential excretion sites of this virus in laboratory mice. This allowed us to identify a genital excretion site of MHV-68 following intranasal infection and latency establishment in female mice. This excretion occurred at the external border of the vagina and was dependent on the presence of estrogens. However, MHV-68 vaginal excretion was not associated with vertical transmission to the litter or with horizontal transmission to female mice. In contrast, we observed efficient virus transmission to naïve males after sexual contact. In vivo imaging allowed us to show that MHV-68 firstly replicated in penis epithelium and corpus cavernosum before spreading to draining lymph nodes and spleen. All together, those results revealed the first experimental transmission model for MHV-68 in laboratory mice. In the future, this model could help us to better understand the biology of gammaherpesviruses and could also allow the development of strategies that could prevent the spread of these viruses in natural populations.

  13. Erotic arguments and persuasive acts: discourses of desire and the rhetoric of female-to-male drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliny, Tara

    2002-01-01

    This chapter analyzes the October 21, 2000 drag king performance by Mildred Gerestant, a.k.a. Dréd. Arguing that her act appropriates, embodies, and manipulates certain ideological discourses of desire and identity, the article studies the shape and force of Dréd's performative arguments and illuminates how a drag king act can not only tease and titillate the addressed audience (the actual people who watched the show) but also hail the invoked audience (the audience called upon, imagined, or made possible by the performance). Arguing that, as a rhetorical act, Dréd's performance offers a purposeful discourse about gender, race, and power, this chapter ultimately explores how a rhetorical analysis of FTM drag elucidates the complex relationship between the rhetor, performance, and audience. More specifically, it shows how a rhetor's performance of non-normative identity and engagement with discourses of desire has the potential to unmask the hegemonic effects of language and power and to unsuture the seemingly natural connections between sex and gender.

  14. Illumination of Murine Gammaherpesvirus-68 Cycle Reveals a Sexual Transmission Route from Females to Males in Laboratory Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Sylvie; Vidick, Sarah; Sarlet, Mickaël; Desmecht, Daniel; Drion, Pierre; Stevenson, Philip G.; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Gillet, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Transmission is a matter of life or death for pathogen lineages and can therefore be considered as the main motor of their evolution. Gammaherpesviruses are archetypal pathogenic persistent viruses which have evolved to be transmitted in presence of specific immune response. Identifying their mode of transmission and their mechanisms of immune evasion is therefore essential to develop prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against these infections. As the known human gammaherpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus are host-specific and lack a convenient in vivo infection model; related animal gammaherpesviruses, such as murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68), are commonly used as general models of gammaherpesvirus infections in vivo. To date, it has however never been possible to monitor viral excretion or virus transmission of MHV-68 in laboratory mice population. In this study, we have used MHV-68 associated with global luciferase imaging to investigate potential excretion sites of this virus in laboratory mice. This allowed us to identify a genital excretion site of MHV-68 following intranasal infection and latency establishment in female mice. This excretion occurred at the external border of the vagina and was dependent on the presence of estrogens. However, MHV-68 vaginal excretion was not associated with vertical transmission to the litter or with horizontal transmission to female mice. In contrast, we observed efficient virus transmission to naïve males after sexual contact. In vivo imaging allowed us to show that MHV-68 firstly replicated in penis epithelium and corpus cavernosum before spreading to draining lymph nodes and spleen. All together, those results revealed the first experimental transmission model for MHV-68 in laboratory mice. In the future, this model could help us to better understand the biology of gammaherpesviruses and could also allow the development of strategies that could prevent the spread of these viruses in natural populations. PMID:23593002

  15. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C

    Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was...

  16. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Komen, J.; Windig, J.J.; Hanotte, O.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer

  17. Sire breed and breed genotype of dam effects in crossbreeding beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of sire breed and breed genotype of dam on birth and weaning mass in calves of Afrikaner, Hereford,. Simmentaler and Bonsmara cattle, as well as Fl> and two- and three-breed rotational crosses between Afrikaner,. Hereford and Simmentaler were investigated. Afrikaner bulls sired calves with lower birth and ...

  18. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C

    Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed...

  19. Neutronic analyses of design issues affecting the tritium breeding performance in different DEMO blanket concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereslavtsev, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.pereslavtsev@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bachmann, Christian [EUROfusion – Programme Management Unit, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fischer, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Realistic 3D MCNP model based on the CAD engineering model of DEMO. • Automated procedure for the generation and arrangement of the blanket modules for different DEMO concepts: HCPB, HCLL, WCLL, DCLL. • Several parameters affecting tritium breeding ratio (TBR) were investigated. • A set of practical guidelines was prepared for the designers developing the individual breeding blanket concepts. - Abstract: Neutronic analyses were performed to assess systematically the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) variations in the DEMO for the different blanket concepts HCPB, HCLL, WCLL and DCLL DEMOs due to modifications of the blanket configurations. A dedicated automated procedure was developed to fill the breeding modules in the common generic model in correspondence to the different concepts. The TBR calculations were carried out using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code. The following parameters affecting the global TBR were investigated: TBR poloidal distribution, radial breeder zone depth, {sup 6}Li enrichment, steel content in the breeder modules, poloidal segmentation of the breeder blanket volume, size of gaps between blankets, thickness of the first wall and of the tungsten armour. Based on the results a set of practical guidelines was prepared for the designers developing the individual breeding blanket concepts with the goal to achieve the required tritium breeding performance in DEMO.

  20. Neutronic analyses of design issues affecting the tritium breeding performance in different DEMO blanket concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereslavtsev, Pavel; Bachmann, Christian; Fischer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Realistic 3D MCNP model based on the CAD engineering model of DEMO. • Automated procedure for the generation and arrangement of the blanket modules for different DEMO concepts: HCPB, HCLL, WCLL, DCLL. • Several parameters affecting tritium breeding ratio (TBR) were investigated. • A set of practical guidelines was prepared for the designers developing the individual breeding blanket concepts. - Abstract: Neutronic analyses were performed to assess systematically the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) variations in the DEMO for the different blanket concepts HCPB, HCLL, WCLL and DCLL DEMOs due to modifications of the blanket configurations. A dedicated automated procedure was developed to fill the breeding modules in the common generic model in correspondence to the different concepts. The TBR calculations were carried out using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code. The following parameters affecting the global TBR were investigated: TBR poloidal distribution, radial breeder zone depth, 6 Li enrichment, steel content in the breeder modules, poloidal segmentation of the breeder blanket volume, size of gaps between blankets, thickness of the first wall and of the tungsten armour. Based on the results a set of practical guidelines was prepared for the designers developing the individual breeding blanket concepts with the goal to achieve the required tritium breeding performance in DEMO.

  1. Effect of slaughter weight and breed on instrumental and sensory meat quality of suckling kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, G; Alcalde, M J; Horcada, A; Campo, M M; Sañudo, C; Teixeira, A; Panea, B

    2012-09-01

    The effects of breed and slaughter weight on chemical composition, fatty acid groups, texture, and sensory characteristics of meat of 141 suckling male kids from 5 Spanish breeds were studied. There was a decrease in texture and lightness and hue angle with the increase of the slaughter weight. Fatty acid composition was correlated with the intramuscular fat content. All the breeds except MO had values of n-6/n-3 ratio below 4, which is the healthy limit recommended, and a low atherogenic index as well as a low intramuscular fat content. A multivariate analysis discriminated light kid, which had the most tender and juicy meat, from heavy kid which had more intense kid and milk odours. Blanca Andaluza and Pirenaica had most tender and juicy meat. The effect of slaughter weight on meat traits should be considered separately for each breed to find the most appropriate meat according to consumers preferences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The aim...

  3. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of

  4. FIRST BREEDING RECORDS OF KELP GULLS LARUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first recorded breeding of kelp gulls Larus dominicanus vetula on Robben Island, Western Cape, South Africa, took place in 2000, when five nests were recorded. In 2001, there were 15 nests and 29 fledglings. The initiation of breeding by kelp gulls on Robben Island is likely a response to the reduction of disturbance ...

  5. Studies on mutation techniques in rice breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Jin Wei

    2001-01-01

    Synthetical techniques for improving rice mutation breeding efficiency were studied. The techniques consist of corresponding relationship between radiosensitivity and mutation frequency, choosing appropriate materials, combination of physical and chemical mutagens, mutagenic effects of the new mutagenic agents as proton, ions, synchronous irradiation and space mutation. These techniques and methods for inducing mutations are very valuable to increase inducing mutation efficiency and breeding level

  6. USE OF GROWTH CHAMBERS FOR CABBAGE BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Bondareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the growth chambers for cabbage breeding allows the reducing of certain stages of the breeding process and the growing biennial varieties of cabbage in a one-year cycle. In these growth chambers, the nutritional conditions, temperature, and lighting of plants are under control; the open pollination is eliminated.

  7. Relationship between production characteristics and breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At an average age of 24.7 months the bulls were subjected to a libido test and overall breeding soundness evaluation (OBE). The bulls were categorised into independent breeding potential categories according to the scores they obtained for the measured reproductive traits. The categories included sperm morphology and ...

  8. Genomic analyses of modern dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Heidi G

    2012-02-01

    A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized worldwide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog, resulting in a unique genetic pattern for each breed. The breed-based population structure combined with extensive morphologic variation and shared human environments have made the dog a popular model for mapping both simple and complex traits and diseases. In order to obtain the most benefit from the dog as a genetic system, it is necessary to understand the effect structured breeding has had on the genome of the species. That is best achieved by looking at genomic analyses of the breeds, their histories, and their relationships to each other.

  9. Genetic diversity of 11 European pig breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavall, G.; Iannuccelli, N.; Legault, C.; Milan, D.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Andersson, L.; Fredholm, M.; Geldermann, H.; Foulley, J.L.; Chevalet, C.; Ollivier, L.

    2000-01-01

    A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed

  10. Structuring an Efficient Organic Wheat Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stephen Baenziger

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Our long-term goal is to develop wheat cultivars that will improve the profitability and competitiveness of organic producers in Nebraska and the Northern Great Plains. Our approach is to select in early generations for highly heritable traits that are needed for both organic and conventional production (another breeding goal, followed by a targeted organic breeding effort with testing at two organic locations (each in a different ecological region beginning with the F6 generation. Yield analyses from replicated trials at two organic breeding sites and 7 conventional breeding sites from F6 through F12 nurseries revealed, using analyses of variance, biplots, and comparisons of selected lines that it is inappropriate to use data from conventional testing for making germplasm selections for organic production. Selecting and testing lines under organic production practices in different ecological regions was also needed and cultivar selections for organic production were different than those for conventional production. Modifications to this breeding protocol may include growing early generation bulks in an organic cropping system. In the future, our selection efforts should also focus on using state-of-the-art, non-transgenic breeding technologies (genomic selection, marker-assisted breeding, and high throughput phenotyping to synergistically improve organic and conventional wheat breeding.

  11. POPULATION AND BREEDING OF THE GENTOO PENGUIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The numbers of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua breeding at subantarctic Marion Island fell by 40% from 1994/95 to 2002/03, from 1 352 pairs to 806 pairs. Apart from a slight increase in 1998/99, there was a steady decrease in numbers breeding between 1995/96 and 2000/01, when the population stabilized. There is ...

  12. Impact of selective breeding on European aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, K.; Chavanne, H.; Berentsen, P.; Komen, H.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the combined market share of breeding companies in aquaculture production in Europe, to describe the main characteristics of breeding companies and their programs, and to provide per species estimates on cumulative genetic gain in growth performance.

  13. Horse breed discrimination using machine learning methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burócziová, Monika; Riha, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2009), s. 375-377 ISSN 1234-1983 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Breed discrimination * Genetics diversity * Horse breeds Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.324, year: 2009

  14. Dressing percentage in Romanian spotted breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eleonora nistor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine whether there are significant differences in terms of carcass weight, forequarters, hindquarters and the dressing percentage among Romanian Spotted breed steers and first generation crossbreed obtained between Romanian Spotted and Holstein at slaughter age of 12 and 17 months respectively. Study was done on Romanian Spotted breed steer aged 12 months (36 heads and 17 months (19 heads; Romanian Spotted x Holstein first generation crossbreed of aged 12 months (29 heads and 17 months (20 heads. The Romanian Spotted breed steer, show superiority in terms of carcass weight compared to crossbreed of Romanian Spotted x Holstein, therefore this breed has a better suitability for fattening for meat. Regarding dressing percentage is higher in crossbreed of Romanian Spotted x Holstein compared with Romanian Spotted breed steers, but the difference is insignificant.

  15. Genetic diversity in Tunisian horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jemmali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at screening genetic diversity and differentiation in four horse breeds raised in Tunisia, the Barb, Arab-Barb, Arabian, and English Thoroughbred breeds. A total of 200 blood samples (50 for each breed were collected from the jugular veins of animals, and genomic DNA was extracted. The analysis of the genetic structure was carried out using a panel of 16 microsatellite loci. Results showed that all studied microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic in all breeds. Overall, a total of 147 alleles were detected using the 16 microsatellite loci. The average number of alleles per locus was 7.52 (0.49, 7.35 (0.54, 6.3 (0.44, and 6 (0.38 for the Arab-Barb, Barb, Arabian, and English Thoroughbred breeds, respectively. The observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.63 (0.03 in the English Thoroughbred to 0.72 in the Arab-Barb breeds, whereas the expected heterozygosities were between 0.68 (0.02 in the English Thoroughbred and 0.73 in the Barb breeds. All FST values calculated by pairwise breed combinations were significantly different from zero (p  <  0.05 and an important genetic differentiation among breeds was revealed. Genetic distances, the factorial correspondence, and principal coordinate analyses showed that the important amount of genetic variation was within population. These results may facilitate conservation programs for the studied breeds and enhance preserve their genetic diversity.

  16. Birth order and ratio of brothers to sisters in Spanish transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gil, Esther; Esteva, Isabel; Carrasco, Rocío; Almaraz, M Cruz; Pasaro, Eduardo; Salamero, Manel; Guillamon, Antonio

    2011-06-01

    Three Western studies have shown that male-to-female (MF) homosexual transsexuals tend to be born later than their siblings and to come from sibships with more brothers than sisters. The objective of this study was to determine whether these variables would be replicated in 530 MF and female-to-male (FM) Spanish transsexuals according to sexual orientation. The results showed that MF homosexual transsexuals had significantly more older brothers than the non-homosexual MF group. Compared with the expected rates in the general population, birth order was significantly higher in both MF (Slater's Index = 0.59; Fraternal Index = 0.61; Sororal Index = 0.58) and FM homosexual transsexuals (Slater's Index = 0.65; Fraternal Index = 0.68; Sororal Index = 0.67), and sibling sex ratio was significantly higher than expected in homosexual MF (sex ratio = 0.55) but not in homosexual FM transsexuals. No significant differences were found in the non-homosexual subgroups. The replication of the later birth order and sibling sex-ratio effect in MF homosexual transsexuals corroborates previous findings in a variety of groups from different cultures and may suggest a common mechanism underlying the etiology of transsexualism.

  17. Slaughter performance and meat quality of three Italian chicken breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Chiericato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out to study the slaughter performance and the meat quality of three Italian dual-purpose chicken breeds: Ermellinata di Rovigo (ER, Robusta lionata (RL and Robusta maculata (RM. Females were studied from June to October from 47 days of life until slaughtered age, at 138 (I age and 168 (II age days of age. Each genotype had access to outdoor and indoor spaces. RL and RM birds showed a higher final body weight, and provided heavier carcass and commercial cuts than ER (P<0.01, at both ages. The dressing-out percentage of RL and RM females was more favourable than ER ones, in particular at II age (P<0.01. Differences in carcass conformation were observed at II age: the ER carcass showed a higher (P<0.01 proportion of leg and wing. The RM carcass had a higher (P<0.01 proportion of breast. The thigh meat/ bone ratio was higher in RL at I age (P<0.01 and II (P<0.05 age. Significant differences in breast colour were observed among the breeds; ER thigh showed the highest (P<0.05 a* value. At II age, lipids were lower (P<0.01 in ER breast; thigh lipids were similar among the groups. Slaughtering at I age seem to be more advantageous for the ER breed since it is more precocious.

  18. Breeding of a new special rice variety Hangxiangnuo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hanqin; Pang Dajian; Fan Zhilan; Liu Chuanguang; Li Chen; Chen Jianyou

    2011-01-01

    A new special rice variety Hangxiangnuo was bred by several generation selections of the progeny of the rice variety Nanfengnuo which was carried by the spacecraft Shenzhou No 4. Hangxiangnuo was permitted to release by the Crop Examination and Approval Committee of Guangdong Province in January, 2009. Compared with its parent variety Nanfengnuo, Hangxiangnuo has better resistance to blast, greater length-width ratio of grain, more panicles per plant, filled grains per panicle and fragrance. The efficiency of space mutation breeding and the generation at which mutant traits become homozygous were also discussed in the paper. (authors)

  19. Mediterranean breeds of cattle, sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, I.L.

    1988-01-01

    Breeds of cattle, sheep and goats in the Mediterranean region are considered. Cattle: original longhorned breeds in Spain, Portugal and southern France; original shorthorned breeds in North Africa, the eastern Mediterranean and Sardinia; Grey Steppe in Balkan lowlands and central and southern Italy; Brown Swiss and its crosses in parts of Spain, northern Italy, north-west Turkey and the Maghreb; Simmental in Yugoslavia and Hungary; Friesian now dominant in western Europe and spreading in North Africa, the Near East and eastern Europe. Sheep: original coarse woolled thin tailed breeds in Algeria, Morocco, parts of Spain, Portugal, Italy and the Balkans; Merino in Spain has produced new breeds in Portugal, southern France, and Italy and is now being used in the Balkans, Turkey and Egypt; fat tailed coarse woolled breeds in Africa and Asia from Tunisia to Turkey. Goats: short eared dairy breeds in Spain and Italy; black, long haired, lop eared, screw horned goats from Turkey to North Africa; Maltese (dairy) goats in several countries. (author). 3 refs, 1 tab

  20. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Soo Jeong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous (native breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/ provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed’s characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  1. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan's history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars 'Chojuro' and 'Nijisseiki' around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars 'Niitaka' and 'Shinko' were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including 'Kosui', 'Hosui', and 'Akizuki', which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, 'Gold Nijisseiki' has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, 'Nansui' from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress.

  2. LINE CONSTRUCTION OF NONIUS BREED IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mlyneková

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays breeding has become the problem often solved in European states and it has been paid much attention by breeding organizations. In terms of hippology as well as some urgent requirements from the side of nonius breeders we have focussed on this particular breed especially from the reason of its further survival and development in Slovakia. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the growth indicators as well as the achievement level of the stallions since 1927 to the present. Based on our research of the nonius body lines we can state that at present there are 3 stallions that are followers of the N VIII horse line founder. In general, there are 12 stallions that are active within this breed in Slovakia. It was statistically confirmed that this particular breed grew much stronger through the goal-directed breeding work, improved nutrition as well as the immediate breeding site. It was quite complicated to evaluate the performance tests because the individual indicators were significantly influenced by the subjective views of the commitee members performing the evaluation. The next factor which prevents the objective evaluation is the fact that in the period up to 1979, the performance tests were valued by the 100 point system and from the year 1980 by the 10 point system. That is why we take the performance test results into account only as supplemental ones, which can provide a kind of amendment to the observed biological parameters.

  3. Neutronic studies of fissile and fusile breeding blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taczanowski, S.

    1984-08-01

    In light of the need of convincing motivation substantiating expensive and inherently applied research (nuclear energy), first a simple comparative study of fissile breeding economics of fusion fission hybrids, spallators and also fast breeder reactors has been carried out. As a result, the necessity of maximization of fissile production (in the first two ones, in fast breeders rather the reprocessing costs should be reduced) has been shown, thus indicating the design strategy (high support ratio) for these systems. In spite of the uncertainty of present projections onto further future and discrepancies in available data even quite conservative assumptions indicate that hybrids and perhaps even earlier - spallators can become economic at realistic uranium price increase and successfully compete against fast breeders. Then on the basis of the concept of the neutron flux shaping aimed at the correlation of the selected cross-sections with the neutron flux, the indications for the maximization of respective reaction rates has been formulated. In turn, these considerations serve as the starting point for the guidelines of breeding blanket nuclear design, which are as follows: 1) The source neutrons must face the multiplying layer (of proper thickness) of possibly low concentration of nuclides attenuating the neutron multiplication (i.e. structure materials, nongaseous coolants). 2) For the most effective trapping of neutrons within the breeding zone (leakage and void streaming reduction) it must contain an efficient moderator (not valid for fissile breeding blankets). 3) All regions of significant slow flux should contain 6 Li in order to reduce parasite neutron captures in there. (orig./HP)

  4. [Dog population and dog breeds in Switzerland from 1955 to 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospischil, Andreas; Hässig, M; Vogel, R; Salvini, M M; Fabrikant, S; Axhausen, K; Schenker, S N; Erni, D; Guscetti, F

    2013-04-01

    Aim of this study is to present a survey of the dog population and breed distribution in Switzerland from 1955 to 2008 as basis to realize a population based canine cancer register for Switzerland. The number of dogs rose from 309'000 in 1955 to approximately 500'000 in 2008 correlating with a parallel increase of human population. The ratio of dogs per 100 inhabitants remains stable. This ratio is lower in German speaking compared to French or Italian speaking Cantons. The variety and popularity of breeds changed from 1955 to 2008, "winners" are Labrador and Golden Retrievers, Yorkshire and Jack Russel Terriers. Less popular breeds over the years are German Sheherd dogs and Poodles.

  5. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shejal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

  6. Mutation breedings in ornamental plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Hisao

    1984-01-01

    Several methods of obtaining somatic mutant plants by γ-ray irradiation on pieces of tissues as in vitro adventitious bud technique or small cutting methods with repeated pruning are described. 1) The irradiation to the adventitious buds in the small pieces of organ cultured in vitro and to the small cuttings are employed. Culture beds of agar or of Japanese Kanuma soil were used in vitro culture. In these experiments, Japanese Kanuma soil bed in in vitro culture worked well for root development and transplant of the induced mutants. 2) Combination with in vitro culture and repeated pruning technique were used for isolation and fixation of solid somatic mutant from small sectorial mutation induced by irradiation. This method was successful for begonia, chrysanthemum, aberia and winter daphne. 3) These data indicates that most of the induced mutant plants were non-chimeric, while a few others were chimeric. Among the new varieties, ''Gin-Sei'', ''Ryoku-Ha'', ''Big-Cross'', ''Kaede-Iron'', ''Mei-Fu-Hana-Tsukubane-Utsugi'' and ''Daphne-γ-3'' are non-chimeric, and ''Mini-Mini-Iron'' and ''Orange-Iron'' are chimeric. Moreover, these new varieties have remarkably differed in size and in color pattern from original variety. From the experimental results of somatic mutation, it is indicated that plant tissue culture have enormous potential in radiation breeding and in rapid propagation of the somatic mutant. (author)

  7. II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of salinity tolerant Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus through traditional and modern breeding methods: II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign DNA into fish gonads.

  8. Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated fruit tree, Tamarindus indica L. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae ): Implications for fruit production, selective breeding, and conservation of genetic resources.

  9. Genetic analysis of three South African horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Cothran

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability at 7 blood-group and 10 biochemical genetic loci was examined in 3 South African horse breeds, the Nooitgedacht, Boerperd and Basuto Pony. Observed heterozygosity for these breeds was intermediate for domestic horses, with the highest heterozygosity in the Boerperd and the lowest in the Basuto Pony. The 3 breeds show greater genetic similarity to each other than to other domestic horse breeds. Compared to other breeds, the South African breeds show greater genetic similarity to breeds such as the Thoroughbred, Holstein, Trakehner and Hanovarian and also to North American breeds such as the Saddlebred, Standardbred and Morgan Horse.

  10. Domestication and Breeding of Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Juan M; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2016-12-01

    Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha) has a high, untapped potential to contribute towards sustainable production of food and bioenergy, rehabilitation of degraded land, and reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Tremendous progress in jatropha domestication and breeding has been achieved during the past decade. This review: (i) summarizes current knowledge about the domestication and breeding of jatropha; (ii) identifies and prioritizes areas for further research; and (iii) proposes strategies to exploit the full genetic potential of this plant species. Altogether, the outlook is promising for accelerating the domestication of jatropha by applying modern scientific methods and novel technologies developed in plant breeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mutation breeding in diffrent types of pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This project was carried out under the collaboration of TAEK, SANAEM, and BATEM within 1999-2005 period. The aim of this project was to create new pepper varieties in Sera Demre 8 (green pepper) and ST59 (green pepper) cultivars which are important greenhouse cultivars by using mutation breeding methods. The Effective Mutagen Dose (ED50) was calculated by linear regression analyses. According to results, 166 Gy dose was found as ED50. At the end of the breeding cycle 14 new mutant lines were obtained from mutant population. These mutant lines are still using as genitor for F1 hybrid pepper breeding programs

  12. In vitro technology for mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The ultimate aim of the Co-ordinated Research Programme on In Vitro Technology for Mutation Breeding is to provide new effective tools for plant breeders to construct new cultivars, thus increasing agricultural production of food, feed and industrial raw material, particularly in developing countries. The participants of the research co-ordination meetings considered the potential of new advances of agricultural biotechnology, especially the use of in vitro techniques for mutation breeding. They discussed and co-ordinated plans in conjunction with the impact on plant breeding of novel technologies, such as use of somaclonal variation, cell hybridization and molecular genetics

  13. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  14. Population parameters to compare dog breeds : differences between five Dutch purebred populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, A.L.J.; Beek, van der S.; Ubbink, G.J.; Knol, B.W.

    2001-01-01

    Differences in five purebred dog populations born in 1994 in the Netherlands were evaluated using different parameters. Numerically, the Golden Retriever was the largest breed (840 litters of 234 sires) and the Kooiker Dog (101 litters of 41 sires) the smallest. The litter per sire ratio was largest

  15. Eggs in the Freezer: energetic Consequences of Nest Site and Nest Design in Arctic Breeding Shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulp, I.Y.M.; Schekkerman, H.; Leeuw, de J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Birds construct nests for several reasons. For species that breed in the Arctic, the insulative properties of nests are very important. Incubation is costly there and due to an increasing surface to volume ratio, more so in smaller species. Small species are therefore more likely to place their

  16. Manual on mutation breeding. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The manual is a compilation of work done on the use of induced mutations in plant breeding, and presents general methods and techniques in this field. The use of chemical mutagens and ionizing radiations (X-rays, gamma rays, α- and β-particles, protons, neutrons) are described as well as the effects of these mutagens. The different types of mutations achieved can be divided into genome mutations, chromosome mutations and extra nuclear mutations. Separate chapters deal with mutation techniques in breeding seed-propagated species and asexually propagated plants (examples of development of cultivars given). Plant characters which can be improved by mutation breeding include yield, ripening time, growth habit, disease resistance and tolerance to environmental factors (temperature, salinity etc.). The use of mutagens for some specific plant breeding problems is discussed and attention is also paid to somatic cell genetics in connection with induced mutations. The manual contains a comprehensive bibliography (60 p. references) and a subject index

  17. Sugarbeet breeding: Situation, prospectives and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačev L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Breeders of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. use a variety of conventional breeding methods and novel techniques striving to protect, maintain and expand the genetic variability of the crop, develop superior hybrids, and multiply their seed. In recent years, a new methodology of genetic transformations has been extensively used in sugar beet breeding. The new methodology is used with the intention of introducing desirable genes, those that cannot be introduced by the classical breeding methods or which take a lengthy process to be introduced due to genetic barriers occur­ring during crossing. Conventional breeding methods and genetic engineering methods have been used to improve the sugar beet genome by the introduction of genes for resistance to Cercospora, rhizomania and nematodes. Presently, genes that modify the carbohydrate metabolism and genes that confer resistance to the active substances in certain herbicides may be introduced only by means of genetic engineering methods. .

  18. Mutant genes in pea breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiecicki, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutations of genes Dpo (dehiscing pods) and A (anthocyanin synthesis) played a role in pea domestication. A number of other genes were important in cultivar development for 3 types of usage (dry seeds, green vegetable types, fodder), e.g. fn, fna, le, p, v, fas and af. New genes (induced and spontaneous), are important for present ideotypes and are registered by the Pisum Genetics Association (PGA). Comparison of a pea variety ideotype with the variation available in gene banks shows that breeders need 'new' features. In mutation induction experiments, genotype, mutagen and method of treatment (e.g. combined or fractionated doses) are varied for broadening the mutation spectrum and selecting more genes of agronomic value. New genes are genetically analysed. In Poland, some mutant varieties with the gene afila were registered, controlling lodging by a shorter stem and a higher number of internodes. Really non-lodging pea varieties could strongly increase seed yield. But the probability of detecting a major gene for lodging resistance is low. Therefore, mutant genes with smaller influence on plant architecture are sought, to combine their effect by crossing. Promising seem to be the genes rogue, reductus and arthritic as well as a number of mutant genes not yet genetically identified. The gene det for terminal inflorescence - similarly to Vicia faba - changes plant development. Utilisation of assimilates and ripening should be better. Improvement of harvest index should give higher seed yield. A number of genes controlling disease resistance are well known (eg. Fw, Fnw, En, mo and sbm). Important in mass screening of resistance are closely linked gene markers. Pea gene banks collect respective lines, but mutants induced in highly productive cultivars would be better. Inducing gene markers sometimes seems to be easier than transfer by crossing. Mutation induction in pea breeding is probably more important because a high number of monogenic features are

  19. Economic evaluation of genomic breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, S; Simianer, H; Willam, A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare a conventional dairy cattle breeding program characterized by a progeny testing scheme with different scenarios of genomic breeding programs. The ultimate economic evaluation criterion was discounted profit reflecting discounted returns minus discounted costs per cow in a balanced breeding goal of production and functionality. A deterministic approach mainly based on the gene flow method and selection index calculations was used to model a conventional progeny testing program and different scenarios of genomic breeding programs. As a novel idea, the modeling of the genomic breeding program accounted for the proportion of farmers waiting for daughter records of genotyped young bulls before using them for artificial insemination. Technical and biological coefficients for modeling were chosen to correspond to a German breeding organization. The conventional breeding program for 50 test bulls per year within a population of 100,000 cows served as a base scenario. Scenarios of genomic breeding programs considered the variation of costs for genotyping, selection intensity of cow sires, proportion of farmers waiting for daughter records of genotyped young bulls, and different accuracies of genomic indices for bulls and cows. Given that the accuracies of genomic indices are greater than 0.70, a distinct economic advantage was found for all scenarios of genomic breeding programs up to factor 2.59, mainly due to the reduction in generation intervals. Costs for genotyping were negligible when focusing on a population-wide perspective and considering additional costs for herdbook registration, milk recording, or keeping of bulls, especially if there is no need for yearly recalculation of effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Genomic breeding programs generated a higher discounted profit than a conventional progeny testing program for all scenarios where at least 20% of the inseminations were done by genotyped young bulls without

  20. Breeding performance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Raje, P.C.; Joshi, V.P.

    1996-01-01

    The key factor in success of a Macrobrachium hatchery is to yield maximum number of larvae with minimum number of brooders. Suitable environmental conditions were provided and the breeding performance of females of M. rosenbergii was observed. A total number of 140 females brought from wild were used for this purpose. Each female was tagged and given a code number which made it possible to record the gestation period, interbreed period, number of breeding and larval yield of individual female...

  1. Application of Genomic Tools in Plant Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-de-Castro, A.M.; Vilanova, S.; Cañizares, J.; Pascual, L.; Blanca, J.M.; Díez, M.J.; Prohens, J.; Picó, B.

    2012-01-01

    Plant breeding has been very successful in developing improved varieties using conventional tools and methodologies. Nowadays, the availability of genomic tools and resources is leading to a new revolution of plant breeding, as they facilitate the study of the genotype and its relationship with the phenotype, in particular for complex traits. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are allowing the mass sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes, which is producing a vast array of genomic...

  2. Cashmere Quality of Iranian Goat Breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari-Renani, H. R

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the cashmere quality in different Iranian cashmere goat breeds to determine the scope for improvement of fiber quality. In April 2009 midside cashmere samples were taken from a total of 168 male and female cashmere goats of 1, 2, 3, and 4 yr of age. The goats were randomly chosen from Raeini, Birjandi, and Nadoushan breeds respectively from Kerman, South Khorasan, and Yazd provinces. Cashmere yield (CY) was determined from the percentage of weight of dehaired cashmere to w...

  3. BIBI: Bayesian inference of breed composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, C A; Khare, K; Elzo, M A

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to develop statistical models to estimate individual breed composition based on the previously proposed idea of regressing discrete random variables corresponding to counts of reference alleles of biallelic molecular markers located across the genome on the allele frequencies of each marker in the pure (base) breeds. Some of the existing regression-based methods do not guarantee that estimators of breed composition will lie in the appropriate parameter space, and none of them account for uncertainty about allele frequencies in the pure breeds, that is, uncertainty about the design matrix. To overcome these limitations, we proposed two Bayesian generalized linear models. For each individual, both models assume that the counts of the reference allele at each marker locus follow independent Binomial distributions, use the logit link and pose a Dirichlet prior over the vector of regression coefficients (which corresponds to breed composition). This prior guarantees that point estimators of breed composition such as the posterior mean pertain to the appropriate space. The difference between these models is that model termed BIBI does not account for uncertainty about the design matrix, while model termed BIBI2 accounts for such an uncertainty by assigning independent Beta priors to the entries of this matrix. We implemented these models in a data set from the University of Florida's multibreed Angus-Brahman population. Posterior means were used as point estimators of breed composition. In addition, the ordinary least squares estimator proposed by Kuehn et al. () (OLSK) was also computed. BIBI and BIBI2 estimated breed composition more accurately than OLSK, and BIBI2 had a 7.69% improvement in accuracy as compared to BIBI. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Structuring an Efficient Organic Wheat Breeding Program

    OpenAIRE

    Baenziger, P. Stephen; Salah, Ibrahim; Little, Richard S.; Santra, Dipak K.; Regassa, Teshome; Wang, Meng Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop wheat cultivars that will improve the profitability and competitiveness of organic producers in Nebraska and the Northern Great Plains. Our approach is to select in early generations for highly heritable traits that are needed for both organic and conventional production (another breeding goal), followed by a targeted organic breeding effort with testing at two organic locations (each in a different ecological region) beginning with the F 6 generation. Yield a...

  5. Inventory analysis of West African cattle breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belemsaga, D.M.A.; Lombo, Y.; Sylla, S.; Thevenon, S.

    2005-01-01

    The improvement of livestock productivity and the preservation of their genetic diversity to allow breeders to select animals adapted to environmental changes, diseases and social needs, require a detailed inventory and genetic characterization of domesticated animal breeds. Indeed, in developing countries, the notion of breed is not clearly defined, as visual traits are often used and characterization procedures are often subjective. So it is necessary to upgrade the phenotypic approach using genetic information. At CIRDES, a regional centre for subhumid livestock research and development, such studies have been conducted. This paper focuses on cattle breed inventory in seven countries of West Africa as a tool for genetic research on cattle improvement. Data collection was done using a bibliographical study, complemented by in situ investigations. According to phenotypic description and concepts used by indigenous livestock keepers, 13 local cattle breeds were recognized: N'dama, Kouri, the Baoule-Somba group, the Lagoon cattle group, zebu Azawak, zebu Maure, zebu Touareg, zebu Goudali, zebu Bororo, zebu White Fulani, zebu Djelli, zebu Peuhl soudanien and zebu Gobra (Toronke). Nine exotic breeds, (American Brahman, Gir, Girolando, Droughtmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Holstein, Montbeliarde, Jersey and Brown Swiss) and five typical cross-breeds (Holstein x Goudali; Montbeliarde x Goudali; Holstein x Azawak; Brown Swiss x Azawak; and Brown Swiss x zebu peuhl soudanien) were also found. From this initial investigation, the areas of heavy concentration of herds and the most important breeds were described. The review has also indicated the necessity for a balance between improving livestock productivity and the conservation of trypanotolerant breeds at risk of extinction in West Africa. (author)

  6. Breeding capability and void reactivity analysis of heavy-water-cooled thorium reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permana, Sidik; Takaki, Naoyuki; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    The fuel breeding and void reactivity coefficient of thorium reactors have been investigated using heavy water as coolant for several parametric surveys on moderator-to-fuel ratio (MFR) and burnup. The equilibrium fuel cycle burnup calculation has been performed, which is coupled with the cell calculation for this evaluation. The η of 233 U shows its superiority over other fissile nuclides in the surveyed MFR ranges and always stays higher than 2.1, which indicates that the reactor has a breeding condition for a wide range of MFR. A breeding condition with a burnup comparable to that of a standard PWR or higher can be achieved by adopting a larger pin gap (1-6 mm), and a pin gap of about 2 mm can be used to achieve a breeding ratio (BR) of 1.1. A feasible design region of the reactors, which fulfills the breeding condition and negative void reactivity coefficient, has been found. A heavy-water-cooled PWR-type Th- 233 U fuel reactor can be designed as a breeder reactor with negative void coefficient. (author)

  7. Testicular Histomorphometric Evaluation of Zebu Bull Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Terrabuio Andreussi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative histology and testicular biometrics in zebu bulls of different breeds. Testicular fragments of Nelore (n=10, Polled Nelore (n=6, Gir (n=5, Guzerat (n=5 and Tabapuã bulls (n=5 were used. The fragments were perfusion-fixed in Karnovsky solution, embedded in glycol methacrylate and stained with toluidine blue-1% sodium borate. The Nelore animals had a higher tubular volumetric proportion (85.2% and greater height of the seminiferous epithelium (73.2 µm than the Gir, Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. The Nelore animals also had a higher volumetric proportion of Leydig cells (5.2% than the Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. There was no significant difference for any of these parameters between the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds. The gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubule diameter, cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubule and tubule length (total length and length per gram of testicular parenchyma did not vary among the breeds studied. The morphometric parameters evaluated suggested that the genetic selection applied to the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds improved the efficiency of spermatogenesis in these breeders.

  8. Morphological traits and inbreeding depression in Bracco Italiano dog breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cecchi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first results of a survey on morphological traits in Bracco Italiano dog breed, and analyzes the effects of various levels of inbreeding on these measures. Traits were taken from 155 adult (mean age 4.18±2.60 years dogs (79 males and 76 females belonging to 57 different farms. For each animal, the following biometrical measurements were considered: height at withers (WH, height of chest (ChH, body length (BL, length at rump (RL, height at rump (RH, iliac width of rump (RIlW, ischiatic width of rump (RIsW, circumference of chest (ChC, circumference of cannon (CaC, length of ear (EL, and length of head (HL. The ratio of rump length/withers height (RL/WH, cannon circumference/chest circumference (CaC/ChC and head length/withers height (HL/WH were also calculated. ANOVA was used to test the differences between males and females and among farms in terms of morphological measurements and ratios. Significant differences between males and females were observed for many morphological traits. The measures coincided with what reported in the current breed standard, apart from the length of the rump, which was around ¼ of the withers height rather than the 1/3 required in the standard. No significant effect of inbreeding on conformation traits was observed.

  9. Nutritional Quality of Pork Produced by Mangalitsa Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Nistor

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pork lipids are an important source of conjugated linoleic acid, which in light of recent studies can provide protectionagainst some forms of cancer and heart disease because of its antioxidant properties. Pork is an excellent source ofvitamins and trace elements, ensuring between 10% (pantothenic acid and 65% (for thiamine - vitamin B1 of dailyrecommended dose. It is also an excellent source of pyridoxine, cyanocobalamin, biotin, niacin - soluble vitaminsnecessary for healthy metabolism. Minerals contained in pork provides between 9% (for iron and 36% (for zinc ofthe recommended daily dose, but also of phosphorus and magnesium. Mangalitsa fat content is 12-16% less saturatedfatty acids and 8-10% more unsaturated fatty acids (like n-3 and n-6 than the modern pig breeds. Significantdifferences were recorded among ratio content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in Red and Blonde Mangalitsa(35.88% and 38.42% respectively. In comparation with other modern breeds both Mangalitsa had a higher ratio ofunsaturated fatty acids.The amount of fats in meat and offal from Mangalitsa ranging from 8 g/100 g in pork leg to 80g/100g in lard, whilecholesterol is found from 50 mg/100g to 130 mg/100g in the same products.

  10. Development of fast-breeder reactors with high conversion ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobrov, S.B.; Danilychev, A.V.; Eliseev, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Fast power reactors (breeders) burning oxide fuel have moderate breeding characteristics. The highest conversion ratios can be obtained in breeders using metallic fuel, but unfortunately these are inferior to oxide breeders in such important characteristics as thermal load and burnup. An effective method of building fast reactors with good breeding characteristics is the use of heterogeneous oxide-metal cores. The paper reports on parametric studies of various models of heterogeneous cores. A number of physical aspects of such reactors are analysed: breeding gain, specific doubling time; and safety parameters: sodium vacuum and Doppler effects of reactivity. The paper quotes dependences of these quantities on various parameters which will make it possible to identify the optimum design of an oxide-metal heterogeneous core

  11. Genetics similarity among four breeds of goat in Saudi Arabia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phylogeny analysis using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers was performed for studying genetic variation in four Saudi Arabia goat breeds, namely: Harri, Ardi, Habsi and Masri. Six goats from Harri breed, four each from both Ardi and Habsi breeds and five from Masri breed were used for the experiment.

  12. Genetic improvement of Eucalyptus grandis using breeding seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus grandis is commercially important in Zimbabwe and a breeding program has been in progress since 1962. A classical breeding strategy was used initially but, in 1981, the Multiple Population Breeding Strategy (MPBS) was implemented and the concept of the Breeding Seedling Orchard (BSO) became central to ...

  13. Genetics similarity among four breeds of goat in Saudi Arabia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-28

    Feb 28, 2012 ... Phylogeny analysis using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers was performed for studying genetic variation in four Saudi Arabia goat breeds, namely: Harri, Ardi, Habsi and Masri. Six goats from Harri breed, four each from both Ardi and Habsi breeds and five from Masri breed were used.

  14. Breeding biology of House Crows ( Corvus splendens ) in Durban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Details of nestling growth, and fledging and post-fledging dependence periods, are provided. Breeding success was relatively poor. Early breeding attempts were more successful than late breeding attempts. Breeding failure was suspected, or known, to be associated with observer disturbance, egg breakage, failure of ...

  15. Preliminary design study of a board type radial fuel shuffling sodium cooled breed and burn reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Meiyin; Tian, Wenxi; Chu, Xiao; Zhang, Dalin; Qiu, Suizheng; Su, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A 1500MWt radial fuel shuffling sodium cooled breed and burn reactor core was designed. • The board type radial fuel shuffling strategy was applied and demonstrated. • Influences of the fuel height and core radius were investigated. - Abstract: In this paper, a preliminary board type radial fuel shuffling sodium cooled breed and burn reactor core is designed. In the current design, a number of breeding subassemblies are arranged in the center core to ensure enough breeding. A self-developed MCNP-ORIGEN coupled system with the ENDF/B-VI data library is applied to perform neutronics and burn-up calculations. For a 2.0 m radius and 2.5 m height core, the results demonstrate the feasibility of the board type radial fuel shuffling strategy. Breeding mainly occurs in the breeding subassemblies during the first 6 fuel cycles as they are moved to the burning/breeding region. The core will become asymptotically stable after about 24 years. The discharged burn-up of most subassemblies is about 15.0–30.0%. The influences of the core size on the major core parameters, such as initial k eff , steady k eff , maximum power density, peak burn-up and burn-up ratio between breeding and ignition subassemblies are calculated and investigated. The results indicate that the initial k eff increases with fuel height and core radius and finally reaches stability; the steady k eff increases with fuel height and core radius, then reaches peak value and finally decreases; the maximum power density, the peak burn-up and the burn-up ratio between breeding and ignition subassemblies decrease with the increase of fuel height and core radius; if core radius is less than 1.875 m, they increase sharply with the decrease of core radius

  16. The influence of cross-breeding Zlotnicka Spotted native breed sows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To sum up, it is possible to say that the raw meat of Zlotnicka Spotted pigs and their cross-breeds with Duroc and Polish Large White breeds is characterised by good quality and because of its considerable intramuscular fat content, it has a high culinary and processing value, especially for ripening products. Key words: Pigs ...

  17. Artificiat insemination vercus natural breeding in a multi.breed beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were the Bos taurus types. Cows bred naturally conceived earlier and thus calved earlier in the season leading to an increased calving-to-breeding period the following breeding season and a reduced intercalving interval. The higher conception rate of the naturally bred group resulted in a 35,6 7o greater total weaning.

  18. Sire breed and breed genotype of dam effects in crossbreeding beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cows bred to Afrikaner bulls were less (P < 0.05) productive than cows bred to other Bos taurus sires. An increase in proportion Afrikaner breeding in dam resulted in longer calving intervals and a decline in cow productivity, but these differences were not always significant. A breeding strategy for the retainment of superior ...

  19. Ecological factors associated with the breeding and migratory phenology of high-latitude breeding western sandpipers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehaus, A.C.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental conditions influence the breeding and migratory patterns of many avian species and may have particularly dramatic effects on longdistance migrants that breed at northern latitudes. Environment, however, is only one of the ecological variables affecting avian phenology, and recent work

  20. Resistance Genes in Global Crop Breeding Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, K A; Andersen, K F; Asche, F; Bowden, R L; Forbes, G A; Kulakow, P A; Zhou, B

    2017-10-01

    Resistance genes are a major tool for managing crop diseases. The networks of crop breeders who exchange resistance genes and deploy them in varieties help to determine the global landscape of resistance and epidemics, an important system for maintaining food security. These networks function as a complex adaptive system, with associated strengths and vulnerabilities, and implications for policies to support resistance gene deployment strategies. Extensions of epidemic network analysis can be used to evaluate the multilayer agricultural networks that support and influence crop breeding networks. Here, we evaluate the general structure of crop breeding networks for cassava, potato, rice, and wheat. All four are clustered due to phytosanitary and intellectual property regulations, and linked through CGIAR hubs. Cassava networks primarily include public breeding groups, whereas others are more mixed. These systems must adapt to global change in climate and land use, the emergence of new diseases, and disruptive breeding technologies. Research priorities to support policy include how best to maintain both diversity and redundancy in the roles played by individual crop breeding groups (public versus private and global versus local), and how best to manage connectivity to optimize resistance gene deployment while avoiding risks to the useful life of resistance genes. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0 International license .

  1. Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Santos Sotomaior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP. PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V, 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.

  2. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Žofajová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently description is made of the Ezer, Levan, Donaris, Sladar spring barley varieties with very good malting quality and effective resistance to  powdery mildew.  Cultivation of these varieties  and malting barley production with  reduced use  of pesticidies is environmentally friedly alternative. doi:10.5219/50

  3. Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.

    2008-01-01

    The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local......, in European OA. Currently, the effort is determined, partly, by the outcomes from trials that compare varieties under OA and CA (conventional agriculture) conditions. The differences are sufficiently large and important to warrant an increase in appropriate breeding. The wide range of environments within OA...... and between years, underlines the need to try to select for specific adaptation in target environments. The difficulty of doing so can be helped by decentralised breeding with farmer participation and the use of crops buffered by variety mixtures or populations. Varieties for OA need efficient nutrient uptake...

  4. Stock structure, connectivity and breeding sex ratios of eastern Pacific hawksbills

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project, initiated with FY13 funds and extended with FY14 funds, will determine stock structure, connectivity the latter only evident in Central American...

  5. Study of space mutation breeding in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xianfang; Zhang Long; Dai Weixu; Li Chunhua

    2004-01-01

    This paper described the status of space mutation breeding in China. It emphasized that since 1978 Chinese space scientists and agricultural biologists have send 50 kg seeds of more than 70 crops including cereals, cotton, oil, vegetable, fruit and pasture to the space using the facilities such as return satellite 9 times, Shenzhou aircraft twice and high balloon 4 times. New varieties of 19 with high yield, high quality and disease-resistance, have been bred though years of breeding at the earth at more than 70 Chinese research institutes in 22 provinces. The new varieties include five rice varieties, two wheat varieties, two cotton varieties, one sweat pepper, one tomato variety, one sesame variety, three water melon varieties, three lotus varieties and one ganoderma lucidum variety. In addition more than 50 new lines and many other germplasm resources have been obtained. Study on space breeding mechanism, such as biological effect of space induction, genetic variation by cell and molecular techniques and simulated study at the earth, has been conducted, and some progresses have been achieved. Many space-breeding bases have been established in some provinces. Space varieties have been extended up to 270000 hectares, and some useful scientific achievements and social economic benefit had been made. The study of Chinese space mutation breeding is going ahead in the world. The paper also introduced the contribution and results made by return satellites of the first three generation in space science. Some basic parameters involved in the study on space mutation breeding of return satellites were listed

  6. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärt Must

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread zoonotic parasite that is relevant for veterinary and public health. The domestic cat, the definitive host species with the largest worldwide population, has become evolutionarily and epidemiologically the most important host of T. gondii. The outcome of T. gondii infection is influenced by congenital and acquired host characteristics. We detected differences in T. gondii seroprevalence by cat breed in our previous studies. The aims of this study were to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence in selected domestic cat breeds, and to evaluate whether being of a certain breed is associated with T. gondii seropositivity, when the age and lifestyle of the cat are taken into account. The studied breeds were the Birman, British Shorthair, Burmese, Korat, Norwegian Forest Cat, Ocicat, Persian, and Siamese. Plasma samples were analyzed for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii with a commercial direct agglutination test at dilution 1:40. The samples were accompanied by owner-completed questionnaires that provided background data on the cats. Overall, 41.12% of the 1121 cats tested seropositive, and the seroprevalence increased with age. The Burmese had the lowest seroprevalence (18.82% and the Persian had the highest (60.00%. According to the final multivariable logistic regression model, the odds to test seropositive were four to seven times higher in Birmans, Ocicats, Norwegian Forest Cats, and Persians when compared with the Burmese, while older age and receiving raw meat were also risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. This study showed that T. gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed and identified being of certain breeds, older age, and receiving raw meat as risk factors for seropositivity.

  7. LIFETIME PRODUCTION OF SLOVENIAN LOCAL GOAT BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Žan Lotrič

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to analyze lifetime production data for two Slovenian locally adapted dairy breeds: Slovenian Saanen goat (334 and Slovenian Alpine goat (1105 and for the dairy type of Dreznica goat (141 which is the only Slovenian autochthonous goat breed. Dataset included records from 54 farms. Data for does born after 2002 have been obtained from the database of the National selection program for small ruminants, collected by the ICAR standards. The contribution of farm to phenotypic variance was estimated. Data was analyzed by MIXED procedure in SAS/STAT. The results showed significant effect of breed, farm and year of culling on all traits studied, except the effect of breed on completed lactations in lifetime and number of liveborn kids. The lifetime milk yield was higher in Slovenian Alpine goat compared to Slovenian Saanen goat by 413.26±172.52 kg. The difference in lifetime protein yield between Slovenian Alpine goat and Slovenian Saanen goat amounted to 11.76±5.21 kg. Dreznica goat did not differ in lifetime milk production and protein yield compared to both intensive goat breeds. Dreznica goat yielded about 25.50±5.21 kg more fat in lifetime compared to Slovenian Saanen goat. However, compared to Slovenian Alpine goat the difference was not significant. Comparison of Slovenian Saanen goat and Slovenian Alpine goat revealed higher lifetime fat yield of Slovenian Alpine goat by 13.28±5.21 kg. The results suggested reasonably good performance and adaptation of the autochthonous breed Dreznica goat in local agro climatic conditions.

  8. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...... and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....

  9. Breeding replacement gilts for organic pig herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenhouwers, J I; Ten Napel, J; Hanenberg, E H A T; Merks, J W M

    2011-02-01

    In this study, breeding structures and commercial sow lines were evaluated by economic and genetic simulation studies for their suitability to provide the Dutch organic pig sector with replacement gilts. Sow and litter performance from over 2000 crossbred sows from 2006 to 2007 were collected on 11 to 14 Dutch organic pig herds, respectively, and compared with conventional herds. Results showed that organic herds had lower farrowing rates (3.6% to 7.5%), more live born piglets per litter (0.4% to 1.2%) and higher preweaning mortality rates (7% to 13%) compared to conventional herds. These results were used to simulate economic performance of various combinations of breeding structures and sow lines under organic conditions, under the assumption of absence of genotype-environment interactions. Sow and litter performance data under organic conditions (total piglets born/litter, stillborn piglets/litter, mortality until weaning, lactation length, interval weaning-oestrus and sow culling rate) and the costprice calculation for the Dutch organic pig sector were used as input for the economic simulation studies. The expected genetic progress was simulated for three potential breeding structures of the organic sector: organic breeding herds producing F1 gilts (OrgBS), a flower breeding system (FlowerBS) and a two-line rotation breeding system (RotBS). In FlowerBS, an organic purebred sow line is bred, using on-farm gilt replacement. The OrgBS with a Yorkshire × Landrace cross had the highest margin per sow place (€779), followed by RotBS with Yorkshire × Landrace cross (€706) and FlowerBS with Yorkshire sow line (€677). In case that an organic purebred sow population of 5000 sows would be available, FlowerBS gave the highest genetic progress in terms of cost price reduction (€3.72/slaughter pig per generation), followed by RotBS and OrgBS (€3.60/slaughter pig per generation). For FlowerBS, additional costs will be involved for maintaining a dedicated breeding

  10. The influence of breed and environmental factors on social and solitary play in dogs (Canis lupus familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Hall, Nathaniel J; Haitz, Chelsea; Wynne, Clive D L

    2017-12-01

    The domestic dog is an ideal model species in which to study the genetic and environmental factors that influence play behavior. Dogs exist in a wide variety of breeds and frequently engage in multiple forms of play. In the present study, we investigated whether the levels of solitary and social play differed between dogs of three breed types with distinct predatory motor pattern sequences (herding dogs, retrievers, and livestock guarding dogs [LGDs]). Furthermore, we investigated how environmental factors (social and nonsocial contexts) influenced play in dogs of these breed types. Groups of breed-matched dyads with working experience and of equivalent age, sex, and neuter status ratios were exposed to four experimental test conditions and two control conditions in randomized orders. With respect to solitary play, environmental context did have a significant effect, with toys reliably producing the highest levels of solitary play across all breed types. Retrievers engaged in significantly higher levels of solitary play overall than LGDs, and there was a trend in comparison to herding dogs. In contrast, neither environmental context nor breed had a significant effect on social play levels; however, neuter status of the dyads did have a significant effect on social play, with mixed-status dyads engaging in significantly higher levels of social play than same-status dyads. Our findings provide experimental evidence for identifying proximate, environmental stimuli that reliably facilitate social and solitary play and discuss possible genetic (i.e., breed type) and lifetime influences on the form of play in domestic dogs.

  11. Epidemiological Survey of Brucella canis Infection in Different Breeds of Dogs in Fars Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Behzadi and Asghar Mogheiseh1*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Brucella canis antibodies in different breeds, sex and ages of dogs in southern of Iran. A total of 113 whole blood samples were taken from different breeds based on exotic or native sources. The samples were examined with immunochromatography assay for detection of B. canis antibodies. Twelve dogs were serologically positive (10.62%. There was significant differences in ratio of infected dogs between breeds (exotic or native, ages (less, equal or more than 2 years old and the history of vaccination (against rabies, leptospirosis, parvovirus, adenovirus type 2, canine distemper, parainfluenza (P<0.001. However, the results were not significant statistically, among both sex (P=0.058 and the history of clinical signs (P=0.456 in seropositive dogs. Based on this study and the other investigation in companion dogs from southwest of Iran, it seems that the mixed and spray (native breeds are not infected with B. canis, yet. Conversely, the exotic breeds would be the source of bacterium in Iran. Therefore, preventive and control measures are strongly recommended.

  12. Investigations of Pet Animal Breeding Trends in Sivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ziya Oğrak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the present situation and future trends of pet which a member of our home in central Anatolian city of Sivas. For this purpose, 100 people (73 male, 27 female used with face to face interviews in the questionnaire aged 18-72 (mean 32.25, monthly income changed 400-5000 Turkish Liras (average 1841 and, 16 questions except for personal information were asked to participants. Participants, 51% graduated the university, 46% married, 82% lived in apartments, and 64% of the occupied own houses or belonging to their family have been identified. According to the findings, any breeders of pet in the house in Sivas rate were 31%. and, the people's income level , gender , age , marital status , educational level , having a child and the seat of the house with a garden and the lack of this on the ratio statistically not significant was observed. Highest percentage pet in species of breeding animals was the bird and, 48.4% of those pet owners did not go to the veterinarian at all and, 24.6% of non-animal’s previously had a bad incident with animals that have been identified. As a result, in terms of veterinary importance will increase day by day with pet animal breeding priorities for the further dissemination of the determination of the current situation and problems are seen to be important and, larger-scale research to be done will be helpful.

  13. Tritium fuel cycle modeling and tritium breeding analysis for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hongli; Pan, Lei; Lv, Zhongliang; Li, Wei; Zeng, Qin, E-mail: zengqin@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A modified tritium fuel cycle model with more detailed subsystems was developed. • The mean residence time method applied to tritium fuel cycle calculation was updated. • Tritium fuel cycle analysis for CFETR was carried out. - Abstract: Attaining tritium self-sufficiency is a critical goal for fusion reactor operated on the D–T fuel cycle. The tritium fuel cycle models were developed to describe the characteristic parameters of the various elements of the tritium cycle as a tool for evaluating the tritium breeding requirements. In this paper, a modified tritium fuel cycle model with more detailed subsystems and an updated mean residence time calculation method was developed based on ITER tritium model. The tritium inventory in fueling system and in plasma, supposed to be important for part of the initial startup tritium inventory, was considered in the updated mean residence time method. Based on the model, the tritium fuel cycle analysis of CFETR (Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor) was carried out. The most important two parameters, the minimum initial startup tritium inventory (I{sub m}) and the minimum tritium breeding ratio (TBR{sub req}) were calculated. The tritium inventories in steady state and tritium release of subsystems were obtained.

  14. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  15. Analysis of Plant Breeding on Hadoop and Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of crop breeding technology is one of the important means of computer-assisted breeding techniques which have huge data, high dimensions, and a lot of unstructured data. We propose a crop breeding data analysis platform on Spark. The platform consists of Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS and cluster based on memory iterative components. With this cluster, we achieve crop breeding large data analysis tasks in parallel through API provided by Spark. By experiments and tests of Indica and Japonica rice traits, plant breeding analysis platform can significantly improve the breeding of big data analysis speed, reducing the workload of concurrent programming.

  16. Amino acid composition of lamb meat from the North East Bulgarian fine fleece breed and its crossbreds with Australian merino and Ile de France from internal breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Slavov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A comparative analysis of amino acid composition of lamb meat from the North East Bulgarian fine fleece breed (I gr. and its crossbreds from internal breeding with 25% heredity from the Australian merino (II gr. and Ile de France (III gr. breeds was conducted. Upon starting the experiment lambs were equal and during the experiment they were placed under similar conditions of feeding and rearing. To establish the amino acid composition of meat slaughter analyses were performed at 100 and 130 days of age. From the carcass of each slaughtered animal individual mean samples were taken. Studies were carried out in the Research Laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture at Trakia University. As a result of the studies the following conclusions were made: ¼ Ile de France crossbreds in a sophisticated crossing have the highest total amino acid content, including essential amino acids in the meat of 100- and 130-day-old lambs, 6.87% and 7.36%, respectively. The lysine/arginine ratio, relating to protein atherogenicity, varies within narrow ranges among groups and marks slight increase with age – from 1.31-1.37 at 100 days to 1.41-1.46 at 130 days. With the increase of age in crossbreds from internal breeding total protein amino acid content grows, that being most prominent in lambs from the III group – from 41.92 to 43.49%. The values of total protein indices increase compared to the reference protein (from 117.97% to 118.22% for II group and from 116.44% to 120.80% for III group and the whole egg protein (from 89.39% to 91.92% for II group and from 90.53% to 93.93 for III group. It has been found that internal breeding of crossbreds with 25% heredity from the Ile de France breed has positive effect concerning the total amino acid content of lamb meat at 100 and 130 days of age, essential amino acid content in it and the levels of total amino acid indices. Internal breeding of crossbreds with 25% heredity from the Australian merino breed

  17. UNUSUAL BREEDING BY SEABIRDS AT MARION ISLAND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1997/98, breeding at subantarctic Marion Island was exceptionally good for five species of seabirds capable of foraging over wide areas and for a tern. The number of king penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus chicks surviving to the start of spring in 1997 was considerably more than previously recorded. Greater numbers of ...

  18. (Bunaji) breeds of cattle following artificial insemination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to evaluate the fertility rate of white Fulani (Bunaji) and Friesian breeds of cattle following artificial insemination (A. I). Artificial insemination was performed following Oestrus synchronization using prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a) in 368 white Fulani and 230 Friesian cows at West Africa Milk Company ...

  19. Breeding for longevity in Italian Chianina cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forabosco, F.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to evaluate genetic aspects of longevity (LPL) in the Chianina beef cattle population in order to define how to include this trait in selection criteria. The Chianina breed has been raised for over twenty-two centuries in

  20. Mutation breeding for crop improvement: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    More than 70 years have passed since radiation was used successfully to generate genetic variation in plants. Since the research on theoretical basis of mutagenesis was performed with a peak in the mid sixties. The result of these investigations led to the formulation of methodological principles in the use of various mutagens for the creation and selection of desired variability. The induced genetic variability has been extensively used for evolution of crop varieties as well as in breeding programmes. More than 1800 varieties of 154 plants species have so far been released for commercial cultivation, of which cereals are at the top, demonstrating the economics of the mutation breeding technique. The most frequently occurring mutations have been the short stature and really maturity. In Pakistan, the use of mutation breeding technique for the improvement of crops has also led to the development of 34 cultivars of cotton, rice, wheat, chickpea, mungbean and rapeseed which have played a significant role in increasing crop production in the country. In addition, a wealth of genetic variability has been developed for use in the cross breeding programmes, and the breeders in Pakistan have released six varieties of cotton by using an induced mutant as one of the parents. (author)

  1. Pedigree analysis of an ostrich breeding flock

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Abstract. Pedigree records, maintained from 1978 to 2005 at the Oudtshoorn Research Farm, South Africa, of. 40 074 birds of a pair-breeding ostrich flock were used to estimate the effective number of founders (fe), the effective number of ancestors (fa), the effective population size and the effective genome equivalents (fg).

  2. Optimization of breeding methods when introducing multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of breeding methods when introducing multiple resistance genes from American to Chinese wheat. JN Qi, X Zhang, C Yin, H Li, F Lin. Abstract. Stripe rust is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat worldwide. Growing resistant cultivars with resistance genes is the most effective method to control this ...

  3. Prospects for genomic selection in cassava breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a clonally propagated staple food crop in the tropics. Genomic selection (GS) has been implemented at three breeding institutions in Africa in order to reduce cycle times. Initial studies provided promising estimates of predictive abilities. Here, we expand on p...

  4. Marketing potential of advanced breeding clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  5. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  6. Breeding soundness evaluation and reproductive management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphometric characterization, breeding soundness evaluation and reproductive management of 33 sport horses (14 mares and 19 stallions) belonging to Palace Administration was carried out for 6 months from January to June/2014. Animals were also subjected to condition scoring, and detailed evaluation through ...

  7. Relevance of test information in horse breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducro, B.J.

    2011-01-01

      The aims of this study were 1) to determine the role of test results of young horses in selection for sport performance, 2) to assess the genetic diversity of a closed horse breed and 3) the consequences of inbreeding for male reproduction. The study was performed using existing databases

  8. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION

    The investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and

  9. Seeds That Give: Participatory Plant Breeding

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    in_focus. Seeds that give. PARTICIPATORY PLANT BREEDING. in_focus. IDRC's In_Focus Collection tackles current and pressing issues in sustainable international development. Each publication distills IDRC's research experience with an eye to drawing out important lessons, observations, and recommendations for ...

  10. Impact of protein markers in wheat breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obreht Dragana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of structure, function and polymorphism of cereal storage and functional proteins has important value in cereal breeding. Beside of emergence of new molecular markers in last decade, special classes of protein markers are still the first choice in conventional breeding programmes. Wheat storage proteins, high molecular weight glutenins (HMW GS represent only 10% of total endosperm proteins, but their composition has a major effect on visco-elastic properties of dough. Second routinely applied marker test in cereal breeding are secaline subunits coded by Sec-1 locus. Their presence in bread wheat genome are marker for IB, 1R substitution or 1BL/1RS translocation which has serious defects in bread making quality such as high dough stickiness and low loaf volume. Composition of HMW GS and the presence of 1BL/1RS traslocation in 93 bread wheat cultivars breed in period 1990-2000. at the Research Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad was detected by SDS-PAG electrophoresis. Eleven alleles were scored, 3 at the Glu-A1, 5 at the Glu-B1, and 3 at the Glu-D1. 1BL/1RS translocation was present in 28 cultivars. Since more than one-third of analyzed cultivars possess high Glu-1 quality score and that 1BL/1RS traslocation presence express retrograde trend it could be conclude that the significant bread-making oriented genetic potential is present. .

  11. Cashmere Quality of Iranian Goat Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Ansari-Renani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the cashmere quality in different Iranian cashmere goat breeds to determine the scope for improvement of fiber quality. In April 2009 midside cashmere samples were taken from a total of 168 male and female cashmere goats of 1, 2, 3, and 4 yr of age. The goats were randomly chosen from Raeini, Birjandi, and Nadoushan breeds respectively from Kerman, South Khorasan, and Yazd provinces. Cashmere yield (CY was determined from the percentage of weight of dehaired cashmere to weight of shorn fibre. Cashmere fiber diameter was analyzed using a projection microscope instrument. A general linear model including sex and age as fixed effects and breed as random effect was used to analyze the data and measure the relationships between different cashmere characteristics and fleece attributes. The overall means ± standard deviations were for cashmere yield (CY 51.4%±1.5%, mean fiber diameter (MFD 18.7±0.2 µm, coefficient of variation of fiber diameter (CVFD 19.1%±0.3% and staple length (SL 42.8±1.6 mm. One year old goats had finer cashmere than older goats. CVFD were higher in males and CY and SL were higher in young animals. Iranian cashmere goat breeds have an excellent SL but are relatively coarse. Given the differences between goats there seems to be substantial scope to improve the commercial value of cashmere.

  12. Impact of mutation breeding in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutger, J.N.

    1992-01-01

    More cultivars have been developed in rice through the use of mutation breeding than in any other crop. Direct releases of mutants as cultivars began some 30 years ago, and now total 198 cultivars. During the last 20 years, increasing use has been made of induced mutants in cross-breeding programs, leading to 80 additional cultivars. Principal improvements through mutation breeding have been earlier maturity, short stature, and grain character modifications. Rice has been a popular subject of mutagenesis because it is the world's leading food crop, has diploid inheritance, and is highly self-pollinated. In recent years induced mutation has been exploited to develop breeding tool mutants, which are defined as mutants that in themselves may not have direct agronomic application but may be useful genetic tools for crop improvement. Examples include the eui gene, hull colour mutants, normal genetic male steriles, and environmentally sensitive genetic male steriles. The environmentally sensitive genetic male steriles, especially those in which male sterility can be turned on or off by different photoperiod lengths, show promise for simplifying hybrid rice seed production both in China and the USA. Future applications of mutation in rice include induction of unusual endosperm starch types, plant types with fewer but more productive tillers, dominant dwarfs, dominant genetic male steriles, extremely early maturing mutants, nutritional mutants, and in vitro-derived mutants for tolerance to herbicides or other growth stresses. Refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Plant Breeding by Using Radiation Mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Si Yong; Kim, Dong Sub; Lee, Geung Joo (and others)

    2007-06-15

    A mutation breeding is to use physical or chemical mutagens to induce mutagenesis, followed by individual selections with favorable traits. The mutation breeding has many advantages over other breeding methods, which include the usefulness for improving one or two inferior characteristics, applications to broad species with different reproductive systems or to diverse plant materials, native or plant introduction with narrow genetic background, time and cost-effectiveness, and valuable mutant resources for genomic researches. Recent applications of the radiation breeding techniques to developments of flowering plants or food crops with improved functional constituents heightened the public's interests in agriculture and in our genetic resources and seed industries. The goals of this project, therefore, include achieving advances in domestic seed industries and agricultural productivities by developing and using new radiation mutants with favored traits, protecting an intellectual property right of domestic seeds or germplasm, and sharing the valuable mutants and mutated gene information for the genomic and biotech researches that eventually leads to economic benefits.

  14. Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.; Goldringer, I.; Hoad, S.; Kovacs, G.M.; Loschenberger, F.; Miedaner, T.; Ostergard, H.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2008-01-01

    The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local, in

  15. Breeding and Cytogenetics in the Genus Tulipa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasek Ciolakowska, A.R.; Ramanna, M.S.; Arens, P.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Tulip (Tulipa) is one of the most important ornamental bulbous plants, which has been cultivated for cut flower, potted plant, garden plant and for landscaping. Species from the different sections display complementary agronomic characteristics and breeding techniques are used to combine desired

  16. SEEDS THAT GIVE: Participatory Plant Breeding

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    each other, and pay close attention to what the farmers told you? Revolutionary perhaps, but it's a revolution that has produced positive results. 1. Case study. Seeds. PARTICIPATORY PLANT BREEDING that give. ICARDA: S. Ceccarelli. Working together, researchers, farmers, breeders, and social scientists are increasing ...

  17. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This issue reports on the creation of the Agency's Subprogramme of Sustainable Intensification of Crop Production Systems (E1) through the merger of the Soils and Plant Breeding and Genetics Subprogrammes together with part of the Entomology Subprogramme activities. Implementation of a new Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Effects of Mutagenic Agents on the DNA Sequence in Plants, and the successful submission of a new CRP proposal on Pyramiding of Mutated Genes Contributing to Crop Quality and Resistance to Stress Affecting Quality were among the major activities of our Subprogramme during the last six months. We actively participated in the International Year of Rice (IYR 2004) events such as the Meeting of the Informal International Working Group on the International Year of Rice (IIWG) and the FAO Rice Conference on Rice in Global Markets and Sustainable Production Systems (Rome, Italy), both in February this year. A lot of work has been concentrated this last semester on the preparation of Programme and Budget for the biennium 2006-2007 and the appraisal of TC proposals for the biennium 2005-2006. The Mutation Breeding Newsletter and the Mutation Breeding Review will merge to become the Mutation Breeding Newsletter and Reviews (MBN and R). Starting at the end of July, the MBN and R will appear on a regular basis

  18. Breeding replacement gilts for organic pig herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouwers, J.I.; Napel, ten J.; Hanenberg, E.H.A.T.; Merks, J.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, breeding structures and commercial sow lines were evaluated by economic and genetic simulation studies for their suitability to provide the Dutch organic pig sector with replacement gilts. Sow and litter performance from over 2000 crossbred sows from 2006 to 2007 were collected on 11

  19. Territoriality and breeding success in Gurney's sugarbird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Territory size and quality were determined for Gurney's sugarbirds in Qwaqwa National Park, northeastern Free State, South Africa. Changes in territory size of Gurney's sugarbirds during the six-month season reflect increases in numbers of territorial birds and inflorescences at mid breeding season, and declines in both at ...

  20. Seeds that give: Participatory plant breeding

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    The project team began by studying the farmers' knowl- edge of ... management.” As the name indicates, the PRGA places considerable emphasis on the roles of rural women in managing plant genetic resources. Projects under the global PRGA program support the world- ... of the PRGA's plant breeding working group.

  1. New Brahman breed improvement program at STARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    At the USDA, ARS, Subtropical Agricultural Research Station (STARS) in Brooksville, Florida we have initiated a new ambitious research project that many believe will have a positive influence on the Brahman breed. This research was developed from a meeting held at STARS that included past and prese...

  2. On statistical selection in plant breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dourleijn, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is the development of new varieties. An important phase in the development process is testing and selecting potential new varieties. The varieties are tested by means of experiments at various sites, (sometimes) in several years. The observations from the

  3. Plant Breeding by Using Radiation Mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Si Yong; Kim, Dong Sub; Lee, Geung Joo

    2007-06-01

    A mutation breeding is to use physical or chemical mutagens to induce mutagenesis, followed by individual selections with favorable traits. The mutation breeding has many advantages over other breeding methods, which include the usefulness for improving one or two inferior characteristics, applications to broad species with different reproductive systems or to diverse plant materials, native or plant introduction with narrow genetic background, time and cost-effectiveness, and valuable mutant resources for genomic researches. Recent applications of the radiation breeding techniques to developments of flowering plants or food crops with improved functional constituents heightened the public's interests in agriculture and in our genetic resources and seed industries. The goals of this project, therefore, include achieving advances in domestic seed industries and agricultural productivities by developing and using new radiation mutants with favored traits, protecting an intellectual property right of domestic seeds or germplasm, and sharing the valuable mutants and mutated gene information for the genomic and biotech researches that eventually leads to economic benefits

  4. Potential support ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    , the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models......, historical data, and forecasted data. Cohort life expectancy takes future mortality improvements into account, unlike period life expectancy, leading to a higher prospective potential support ratio. Our results indicate that using cohort instead of period life expectancy returns around 0.5 extra younger...

  5. Application of genomic tools in plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-de-Castro, A M; Vilanova, S; Cañizares, J; Pascual, L; Blanca, J M; Díez, M J; Prohens, J; Picó, B

    2012-05-01

    Plant breeding has been very successful in developing improved varieties using conventional tools and methodologies. Nowadays, the availability of genomic tools and resources is leading to a new revolution of plant breeding, as they facilitate the study of the genotype and its relationship with the phenotype, in particular for complex traits. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are allowing the mass sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes, which is producing a vast array of genomic information. The analysis of NGS data by means of bioinformatics developments allows discovering new genes and regulatory sequences and their positions, and makes available large collections of molecular markers. Genome-wide expression studies provide breeders with an understanding of the molecular basis of complex traits. Genomic approaches include TILLING and EcoTILLING, which make possible to screen mutant and germplasm collections for allelic variants in target genes. Re-sequencing of genomes is very useful for the genome-wide discovery of markers amenable for high-throughput genotyping platforms, like SSRs and SNPs, or the construction of high density genetic maps. All these tools and resources facilitate studying the genetic diversity, which is important for germplasm management, enhancement and use. Also, they allow the identification of markers linked to genes and QTLs, using a diversity of techniques like bulked segregant analysis (BSA), fine genetic mapping, or association mapping. These new markers are used for marker assisted selection, including marker assisted backcross selection, 'breeding by design', or new strategies, like genomic selection. In conclusion, advances in genomics are providing breeders with new tools and methodologies that allow a great leap forward in plant breeding, including the 'superdomestication' of crops and the genetic dissection and breeding for complex traits.

  6. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PO de Wet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  7. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...

  8. Preschool Teachers' Objectives of Breeding Insects and the Efficacy of Such Breeding Experience

    OpenAIRE

    山下, 久美; ヤマシタ, クミ; Kumi, Yamashita

    2006-01-01

    Insects familiar to young children are very easy-to-handle educational material, being inexpensive and not being troublesome. Insects are being bred at many preschools. Thus, teachers were queried on the reason for breeding insects, and it was learned that breeding was for the purpose of "informing young children of the ecology of insects,""teaching them of the importance of life." and "nurturing in them the thoughtfulness for others." However, since a study has not been performed hitherto on...

  9. BREED PREFERENCES AND EFFECTIVENESS OF BEEKEEPING IN THE SOUTH URAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mashenkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of beekeeping is defined by breed of bees and melliferous herbs. In the conditions of sharply continental climate of South Ural, duration of success of beekeeping is provided with breed of bees.

  10. Experimentally induced helper dispersal in colonially breeding cooperative cichlids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heg, D.; Heg-Bachar, Z.; Brouwer, L.; Taborsky, M.

    2008-01-01

    The 'benefits of philopatry' hypothesis states that helpers in cooperatively breeding species derive higher benefits from remaining home, instead of dispersing and attempting to breed independently. We tested experimentally whether dispersal options influence dispersal propensity in the

  11. Possibilities and requirements for organic dairy breeding lines

    OpenAIRE

    Kargo, Morten

    2016-01-01

    The potential of breeding lines that are genetically adapted to organic milk production is essentially unexploited even though specific lines offer the potential to breed for cows with characteristics specific for organic production systems.

  12. Breeding objectives, selection criteria and breeding system of indigenous goat types in bale zone, oromia, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belete Asefa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken in bale zone to assess farmer’s selective breeding objectives, trait preferences, selection criteria and breeding system October 2012 to November 2013. A purposive and multistage sampling technique was applied for selection of 3 district and 9 kebeles. Then 360 households were selected by using simple random sampling techniques after the list of pastoralist having goats was identified. Statistical analysis system version 9.1 was used for analysis of data. Indices, effective population size and rate of inbreeding were calculated on average each respondent holds about 14 goats. Milk production is the main reason of goat keeping in the study area. Appearance is the first rank as selection criteria for male and female in all studies area. About 47.8% of the respondents have their own buck. The main use of breeding buck in the study area was for mating purpose (76.2%. Mean estimate of effective population size and mean rate of inbreeding was 2.43 and 0.21, respectively when a household flock is herded alone and under random mating. Therefore, any breed improvement strategies that are intended to be implemented in the study area and else- where should consider the traditional breeding practices and breeding objectives of the community.

  13. Genetic diversity and relationship of Yunnan native cattle breeds and introduced beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Lian, Lin-Sheng; Wen, Ji-Kun; Shi, Xian-Wei; Zhu, Fang-Xian; Nie, Long; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2004-02-01

    In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to estimate genetic diversity and relationship in 134 samples belonging to two native cattle breeds from the Yunnan province of China (DeHong cattle and DiQing cattle) and four introduced beef cattle breeds (Brahman, Simmental, MurryGrey, and ShortHorn). Ten primers were used, and a total of 84 bands were scored, of which 63 bands (75.0%) were polymorphic. The genetic distance matrix was obtained by proportions of shared fragment. The results indicate that the Yunnnan DeHong cattle breed is closely related to the Brahman (Bos indicus), and the Yunnan DiQing cattle breed is closely related to the Simmental, ShortHorn, and MurryGrey (Bos taurus) breeds. Our results imply that Bos indicus and Bos taurus were the two main origins of Yunnan native cattle. The results also provide the basic genetic materials for conservation of cattle resources and crossbreeding of beef cattle breeds in South China.

  14. Intramuscular fatty acid composition in beef from Aosta cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Barge

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare fat quality of three categories of the Aosta cattle breeds by fatty acid composition. Samples of longissimus thoracis et lumborum from 12 calves, 11 young bulls and 11 cows of Aosta Red Pied and Black Pied were bought at retail. Fatty acids content showed in most cases, except for C18:1, significant differences between the three categories. Veal calves had the lowest proportion of SFA and highest of PUFA, therefore they had the best PUFA/SFA ratio but the worst n-6/n-3 ratio due to the highest proportion of C18:2n-6. Besides veal calves was healthier by having best atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices. Black Pied young bulls, in comparison to Red Pied young bulls, showed a significant lower proportion of C10:0, C18:1, and a significant higher proportion of C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and C20:4n-6. Consequently they had a significant lower MUFA content but a higher PUFA content therefore a significant better PUFA/SFA ratio.

  15. Breeding biology and conservation of the Marsh Seedeater Sporophila palustris

    OpenAIRE

    Vizentin-Bugoni, J; Areta, JI; Di Giacomo, AG; Di Giacomo, AS; Jacobs, F; Coimbra, MAA; Dias, RA

    2013-01-01

    The Marsh Seedeater Sporophila palustris is one of the most endangered and least known of the capuchino seedeaters. Breeding populations are patchy, occurring in north-east Argentina, southern Brazil, and Uruguay. We present data on the breeding biology of the species, and describe nests and eggs, behaviour (including courtship, nesting, incubation and parental care), breeding sites and food items. Marsh Seedeaters breed in well-preserved grasslands with wet soils and tall vegetation. In gene...

  16. Survey on the requirements in organic plant breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Wilbois, Klaus-Peter; Messmer, Monika

    2016-01-01

    In the German speaking countries, an Internet survey was conducted on the requirements in organic plant breeding from the beginning of May until the end of June 2015. The survey was supported by main representatives from the organic branch (Bioland, Naturland, BioSuisse, Demeter, BÖLW) and aimed at gathering up the requirements of the organic industry (incl. breeding, farming, processing and trade sector) when it comes to plant breeding and prioritizing breeding goals and crops to be dealt wi...

  17. Possibilities and requirements for organic dairy breeding lines

    OpenAIRE

    Kargo, Morten; Hjortø, Line; Thomasen, Jørn Rind

    2016-01-01

    Possibilities and requirements for organic dairy breeding lines Until now, improvements in the efficiency of organic dairy production have mainly occurred through better management, feeding and production strategies, using the dairy cattle breeds developed in conventional production systems. The potential of breeding lines of dairy cattle that are genetically adapted to organic milk production is essentially unexploited even though specific lines offer the potential to breed for cows with...

  18. Finger length ratio (2D:4D) in adults with gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Bernd; Noll, Thomas; Delsignore, Aba; Milos, Gabriella; Schnyder, Ulrich; Hepp, Urs

    2009-06-01

    From early childhood, gender identity and the 2nd to 4th finger length ratio (2D:4D) are discriminative characteristics between sexes. Both the human brain and 2D:4D may be influenced by prenatal testosterone levels. This calls for an examination of 2D:4D in patients with gender identity disorder (GID) to study the possible influence of prenatal testosterone on gender identity. Until now, the only study carried out on this issue suggests lower prenatal testosterone levels in right-handed male-to-female GID patients (MtF). We compared 2D:4D of 56 GID patients (39 MtF; 17 female-to-male GID patients, FtM) with data from a control sample of 176 men and 190 women. Bivariate group comparisons showed that right hand 2D:4D in MtF was significantly higher (feminized) than in male controls, but similar to female controls. The comparison of 2D:4D ratios of biological women revealed significantly higher (feminized) values for right hands of right handed FtM. Analysis of variance confirmed significant effects for sex and for gender identity on 2D:4D ratios but not for sexual orientation or for the interaction among variables. Our results indirectly point to the possibility of a weak influence of reduced prenatal testosterone as an etiological factor in the multifactorially influenced development of MtF GID. The development of FtM GID seems even more unlikely to be notably influenced by prenatal testosterone.

  19. Predicting Breeding Values in Animals by Kalman Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karacaoren, B; Janss, L L G; Kadarmideen, H N

    2012-01-01

    May 2004-March 2005 for 7 times approximately at monthly intervals from dairy cows (n=80) stationed at the Chamau research farm of Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Switzerland. Benefits of KF were demonstrated using random walk models via simulations. Breeding values were predicted over...... be useful in animal breeding industry for obtaining online estimation of breeding values over days in milk....

  20. Short Note Breeding phenology and moult of the endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The breeding phenology and moult cycle of the vulnerable and range-restricted Bannerman's Weaver Ploceus bannermani was studied on the Obudu Plateau in the eastern region of Nigeria. The peak breeding season was between August and October; a major cause of breeding failure was egg predation by children.

  1. teristics of ten white-woolled sheep breeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skin and wool samples of fully grown white-woolled rams of ten different sheep breeds were investigated. An index was con- structed according to which the breeds could be classified into three groups, taking 11 characteristics into consideration. This classification is discussed with reference to individual breeds.

  2. Observations on the breeding biology of the Seychelles Fody on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observations on the breeding biology of the Seychelles Fody on Cousine Island. ... Breeding pairs form small, probably temporary, territories that are defended by both partners against other fodies, including the introduced Madagascar Fody, Foudia madagascariensis. The Seychelles Fody often breeds semi-colonially and ...

  3. The Pedigree Dog Breeding Debate in Ethics and Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenkerk, Bernice; Nijland, Hanneke J.

    2017-01-01

    Pedigree dog breeding has been the subject of public debate due to health problems caused by breeding for extreme looks and the narrow genepool of many breeds. Our research aims to provide insights in order to further the animal-ethical, political and society-wide discussion regarding the future of

  4. Pedigree analysis of eight Spanish beef cattle breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; Altarriba, Juan; Díaz, Clara; Quintanilla, Raquel; Cañón, Javier; Piedrafita, Jesús

    2003-01-01

    The genetic structure of eight Spanish autochthonous populations (breeds) of beef cattle were studied from pedigree records. The populations studied were: Alistana and Sayaguesa (minority breeds), Avileña – Negra Ibérica and Morucha ("dehesa" breeds, with a scarce incidence of artificial insemination), and mountain breeds, including Asturiana de los Valles, Asturiana de la Montaña and Pirenaica, with extensive use of AI. The Bruna dels Pirineus breed possesses characteristics which make its classification into one of the former groups difficult. There was a large variation between breeds both in the census and the number of herds. Generation intervals ranged from 3.7 to 5.5 years, tending to be longer as the population size was larger. The effective numbers of herds suggest that a small number of herds behaves as a selection nucleus for the rest of the breed. The complete generation equivalent has also been greatly variable, although in general scarce, with the exception of the Pirenaica breed, with a mean of 3.8. Inbreeding effective population sizes were actually small (21 to 127), especially in the mountain-type breeds. However, the average relatedness computed for these breeds suggests that a slight exchange of animals between herds will lead to a much more favourable evolution of inbreeding. The effective number of founders and ancestors were also variable among breeds, although in general the breeds behaved as if they were founded by a small number of animals (25 to 163). PMID:12605850

  5. Pedigree analysis of eight Spanish beef cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañón Javier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic structure of eight Spanish autochthonous populations (breeds of beef cattle were studied from pedigree records. The populations studied were: Alistana and Sayaguesa (minority breeds, Avileña – Negra Ibérica and Morucha ("dehesa" breeds, with a scarce incidence of artificial insemination, and mountain breeds, including Asturiana de los Valles, Asturiana de la Montaña and Pirenaica, with extensive use of AI. The Bruna dels Pirineus breed possesses characteristics which make its classification into one of the former groups difficult. There was a large variation between breeds both in the census and the number of herds. Generation intervals ranged from 3.7 to 5.5 years, tending to be longer as the population size was larger. The effective numbers of herds suggest that a small number of herds behaves as a selection nucleus for the rest of the breed. The complete generation equivalent has also been greatly variable, although in general scarce, with the exception of the Pirenaica breed, with a mean of 3.8. Inbreeding effective population sizes were actually small (21 to 127, especially in the mountain-type breeds. However, the average relatedness computed for these breeds suggests that a slight exchange of animals between herds will lead to a much more favourable evolution of inbreeding. The effective number of founders and ancestors were also variable among breeds, although in general the breeds behaved as if they were founded by a small number of animals (25 to 163.

  6. Breeding of Greater and Lesser Flamingos at Sua Pan, Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to fledging was unknown owing to the rapid drying of the pan in late March 1999. No Greater Flamingo breeding was seen that season. Exceptional flooding during 1999–2000 produced highly favourable breeding conditions, with numbers of Greater and Lesser Flamingos breeding estimated to be 23 869 and 64 287 pairs, ...

  7. Characterization of four indigenous sheep breeds of Balochistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of four indigenous sheep breeds of Balochistan, Pakistan by random amplified polymorphic DNAs. ... The highest number of polymorphic loci 40 was observed in the Mengali breed, while the lowest 28 was in Balochi. Further, 33 and 31 polymorphic loci were seen in Beverigh and Harnai breeds, ...

  8. Inbreeding in the Danish populations of five Nordic sheep breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Christian; Norberg, Elise

    2008-01-01

    In Denmark there are small populations of five Nordic sheep breeds, two of which are Danish in origin. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in inbreeding for these breeds. All five breeds have been recording pedigrees for decades, so pedigree completeness is adequate. The rate...

  9. Genomic prediction across dairy cattle populations and breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lei

    Genomic prediction is successful in single breed genetic evaluation. However, there is no achievement in acoress breed prediction until now. This thesis investigated genomic prediction across populations and breeds using Chinese Holsterin, Nordic Holstein, Norwgian Red, and Nordic Red. Nordic Red...

  10. Achievements in NS rapeseed hybrids breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased production of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is evident on a global scale, but also in Serbia in the last decade. Rapeseed is used primarily for vegetable oil and processing industry, but also as a source of protein for animal feed and green manure. Following the cultivation of varieties, breeding and cultivation of hybrid rapeseed started in the 1990's, to take advantage of heterosis in F1 generation, while protecting the breeder's rights during seed commercialization. The breeding of hybrid oilseed rape requires high quality starting material (lines with good combining abilities for introduction of male sterility. Ogura sterility system is primarily used at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia. To use this system, separate lines are modified with genes for cytoplasmic male sterility (cms female line - mother line and restoration of fertility (Rf male lines - father line. In order to maintain the sterility of the mother line it is necessary to produce a maintainer line of cytoplasmic male sterility. Creation of these lines and hybrids at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops was successfully monitored with intense use of cytogenetic laboratory methods. The structure and vitality of pollen, including different phases during meiosis were checked so that cms stability was confirmed during the introduction of these genes into different lines. Rapeseed breeding program in Serbia resulted in numerous varieties through collaboration of researchers engaged in breeding and genetics of this plant species. So far, in addition to 12 varieties of winter rapeseed and two varieties of spring rapeseed, a new hybrid of winter rapeseed NS Ras was registered in Serbia. NS Ras is an early-maturing hybrid characterized by high seed yield and oil content. Average yield of NS Ras for two seasons and three sites was 4256 kg ha-1 of seed and 1704 kg ha-1 of oil. Three promising winter rapeseed hybrids are in the process of

  11. Haploids: Constraints and opportunities in plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Sangam L; Britt, Anne B; Tripathi, Leena; Sharma, Shivali; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Ortiz, Rodomiro

    2015-11-01

    The discovery of haploids in higher plants led to the use of doubled haploid (DH) technology in plant breeding. This article provides the state of the art on DH technology including the induction and identification of haploids, what factors influence haploid induction, molecular basis of microspore embryogenesis, the genetics underpinnings of haploid induction and its use in plant breeding, particularly to fix traits and unlock genetic variation. Both in vitro and in vivo methods have been used to induce haploids that are thereafter chromosome doubled to produce DH. Various heritable factors contribute to the successful induction of haploids, whose genetics is that of a quantitative trait. Genomic regions associated with in vitro and in vivo DH production were noted in various crops with the aid of DNA markers. It seems that F2 plants are the most suitable for the induction of DH lines than F1 plants. Identifying putative haploids is a key issue in haploid breeding. DH technology in Brassicas and cereals, such as barley, maize, rice, rye and wheat, has been improved and used routinely in cultivar development, while in other food staples such as pulses and root crops the technology has not reached to the stage leading to its application in plant breeding. The centromere-mediated haploid induction system has been used in Arabidopsis, but not yet in crops. Most food staples are derived from genomic resources-rich crops, including those with sequenced reference genomes. The integration of genomic resources with DH technology provides new opportunities for the improving selection methods, maximizing selection gains and accelerate cultivar development. Marker-aided breeding and DH technology have been used to improve host plant resistance in barley, rice, and wheat. Multinational seed companies are using DH technology in large-scale production of inbred lines for further development of hybrid cultivars, particularly in maize. The public sector provides support to

  12. Infestations of the bont tick Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae) on different breeds of cattle in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norval, R A; Sutherst, R W; Kerr, J D

    1996-10-01

    Infestations of adults and nymphs of Amblyomma hebraeum were counted on Brahman (Br), Brahman x Simmental (BS), Sanga (Sa) and Hereford (He) steers exposed to infested pastures at Mbizi in southern Zimbabwe in 1986-1987. Herefords were always the most heavily infested, while the Sanga tended to carry the fewest ticks with the Brahman and Brahman x Simmental groups being in between. The ratios of the engorged females on the four breeds were 2.3:1.4:1.4:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The ratios of the standard nymphs were 2.2:1.4:1.7:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The results confirm earlier observations in Africa and support the view that there are genetic differences between breeds in the expression of resistance to this tick species.

  13. Reproductive performance of different breeds of broiler rabbits under sub-temperate climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the effect of breed, season, age and weight of doe at mating on reproductive performance of 4 broiler rabbit breeds, Grey Giant, White Giant, Soviet Chinchilla, and New Zealand White, reared under standard management practices in sub-temperate climatic conditions of India. They were first mated at 6 to 7 mo of age, whereupon an extensive breeding system (re-mating after weaning was followed. Weaning was done 42 d after kindling. The data from the records on reproduction consisting of 503 matings and 377 kindlings were analysed. The parameters considered were fertility rate, litter size at birth (LSB, litter weight at birth (LWB, litter size at weaning (LSW, litter weight at weaning (LWW, doe weight at mating (DWM, gestation length and sex ratio. Among 4 breeds, the LSB, LWB and LSW were higher in Grey Giant followed by White Giant, Soviet Chinchilla and New Zealand White. The LSB and LSW in Grey Giant breed differed significantly (P<0.05 from Soviet Chinchilla and New Zealand White. Season had significant (P<0.05 effect on LSW with higher values during spring (5.68±0.24, followed by summer (5.29±0.30, winter (5.13±0.25 and autumn (4.17±0.49. The body weight of doe at service significantly influenced fertility. The fertility increased as body weight increased. The age of the doe at mating had a significant effect on LSW, with higher values for does more than 2 yr and less than 1 yr old compared to 1- to 2-yr old does. The parity did not affect any of the parameters studied. It is concluded that the factors studied affect the reproductive performance of rabbit does. Grey Giant breed showed the highest litter size at birth and weaning, and the highest litter size and weight at weaning was in spring.

  14. Genomic selection in wheat: optimum allocation of test resources and comparison of breeding strategies for line and hybrid breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longin, C Friedrich H; Mi, Xuefei; Würschum, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    The implementation of genomic selection in breeding programs can be recommended for hybrid and line breeding in wheat. High prediction accuracies from genomic selection (GS) were reported for grain yield in wheat asking for the elaboration of efficient breeding strategies applying GS. Our objectives were therefore, (1) to optimize the number of lines, locations and testers in different multi-stage breeding strategies with and without GS, (2) to elaborate the most efficient breeding strategy based on the selection gain and its standard deviation, and (3) to investigate the potential of GS to improve the relative efficiency of hybrid versus line breeding in wheat. We used the open source software package "selectiongain" to optimize the allocation of resources in different breeding strategies by predicting the expected selection gain for a fixed budget. Classical two-stage phenotypic selection was compared with three GS breeding strategies for line and hybrid breeding in wheat. The ranking of the alternative breeding strategies varied largely in dependence of the GS prediction accuracy. Fast-track breeding strategies based solely on GS were only advantageous for high GS prediction accuracies that is >0.50 and >0.65 for hybrid and line breeding, respectively. However, a GS prediction accuracy across breeding cycles of 0.3 or even less must be assumed as realistic for grain yield in wheat. For this low GS prediction accuracy, the use of GS is advantageous for line but especially for hybrid breeding in wheat. Furthermore, the use of GS in hybrid wheat breeding increased the relative efficiency of hybrid versus line breeding and, thus, might be an important pillar for the establishment of hybrid wheat.

  15. Molecular sexing of threatened Gyps vultures: an important strategy for conservation breeding and ecological studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorpade, Prabhakar B; Gupta, Praveen K; Prakash, Vibhu; Cuthbert, Richard J; Kulkarni, Mandar; Prakash, Nikita; Das, Asit; Sharma, Anil K; Saini, Mohini

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades populations of three resident species of Gyps vulture have declined dramatically and are now threatened with extinction in South Asia. Sex identification of vultures is of key importance for the purpose of conservation breeding as it is desirable to have an equal sex ratio in these monogamous species which are housed together in large colony aviaries. Because vultures are monomorphic, with no differences in external morphology or plumage colour between the sexes, o...

  16. Studies on mutant breeding of Hibiscus syriacus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ki Un; Kim, Young Taik

    1997-01-01

    Hibiscus has been known as a national flower of Korea. Hibiscus has such a characteristic of self-incompatibility that all the plant exist as natural hybrids and have heterogeneous genes. Many domestic 91 varieties of Hibiscus syriacus were collected. Radiosensitivity of H. Syriacus irradiated with {gamma}-ray was investigated in plant cuttings. The plant height was reduced by 45% in 5KR irradiated group, compared to control group. The radiation dose of 5KR could be recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus cuttings. Radiosensitivity of {gamma}-ray irradiated Hibiscus seed were investigated. The germination rate, survival rate and plant height was better in the 4KR irradiation plot than control. The radiation dose of 10{approx}12KR are recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus. Promising mutant lines were selected form the varieties of Hwarang, Wolsan no. 176, Ilpyondansim, Emille, Hanol, Yongkwang, Saeyongkwang, Chungmu, Imjinhong, Arang, Hungdansim-1 and Hongdansim-2. (author). 66 refs., 16 tabs., 13 figs.

  17. Breeding and maintaining high-quality insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Insects have a large potential for sustainably enhancing global food and feed production, and commercial insect production is a rising industry of high economic value. Insects suitable for production typically have fast growth, short generation time, efficient nutrient utilization, high...... reproductive potential, and thrive at high density. Insects may cost-efficiently convert agricultural and industrial food by-products into valuable protein once the technology is finetuned. However, since insect mass production is a new industry, the technology needed to efficiently farm these animals is still...... in a starting phase. Here, we discuss the challenges and precautions that need to be considered when breeding and maintaining high-quality insect populations for food and feed. This involves techniques typically used in domestic animal breeding programs including maintaining genetically healthy populations...

  18. Studies on mutant breeding of Hibiscus syriacus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ki Un; Kim, Young Taik.

    1997-01-01

    Hibiscus has been known as a national flower of Korea. Hibiscus has such a characteristic of self-incompatibility that all the plant exist as natural hybrids and have heterogeneous genes. Many domestic 91 varieties of Hibiscus syriacus were collected. Radiosensitivity of H. Syriacus irradiated with γ-ray was investigated in plant cuttings. The plant height was reduced by 45% in 5KR irradiated group, compared to control group. The radiation dose of 5KR could be recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus cuttings. Radiosensitivity of γ-ray irradiated Hibiscus seed were investigated. The germination rate, survival rate and plant height was better in the 4KR irradiation plot than control. The radiation dose of 10∼12KR are recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus. Promising mutant lines were selected form the varieties of Hwarang, Wolsan no. 176, Ilpyondansim, Emille, Hanol, Yongkwang, Saeyongkwang, Chungmu, Imjinhong, Arang, Hungdansim-1 and Hongdansim-2. (author). 66 refs., 16 tabs., 13 figs

  19. Sex ratios of Mountain Plovers from egg production to fledging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. Riordan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Skewed sex ratios can have negative implications for population growth if they do not match a species' life history. A skewed tertiary sex ratio has been detected in a population of Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus, a grassland shorebird experiencing population declines. To study the cause of the observed male skew, we examined three early life stages between egg and fledgling in eastern Colorado from 2010 to 2012. This allows us to distinguish between egg production and chick survival as an explanation for the observed skew. We examined the primary sex ratio in eggs produced and the secondary sex ratio in hatched chicks to see if the sex ratio bias occurs before hatching. We also determined the sex ratio at fledging to reveal sex-specific mortality of nestlings. The primary sex ratio was 1.01 (± 0.01 males per female. The secondary sex ratio consisted of 1.10 (± 0.02 males per female. The probability of a chick surviving to fledging differed between males (0.55 ± 0.13 and females (0.47 ± 0.15, but the precision of these survival estimates was low. Sex ratios in early life stages of the Mountain Plover do not explain the skewed sex ratio observed in adults in this breeding population.

  20. Future breeding for organic and low-input agriculture: integrating values and modern breeding tools for improving robustness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    Organic production and also the attention for plant breeding for organic agriculture is still increasing in Europe. The question often raised is how much does plant breeding for the organic sector differ from modern plant breeding and does a ban on GMO also include refraining from molecular marker

  1. Sunflower breeding for resistance to abiotic stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Škorić D.

    2009-01-01

    Due to a specific structure of its main organs (root, stem, leaves, head), sunflower can be successfully grown on marginal soils and in semi-arid conditions and it is more resistant to abiotic stresses than other field crops. In sunflower breeding for resistance to abiotic stresses, the greatest progress has been made in selection for drought resistance. Breeders use over 30 different parameters in sunflower screening for drought resistance, with physiological ones being the predominant type....

  2. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This third issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter highlights forthcoming events including regional (Afra) training course on 'molecular characterization of genetic biodiversity in traditional and neglected crops selected for improvement through mutation techniques' and seminar on 'mutation techniques and biotechnology for tropical and subtropical plant improvement in Asia and Pacific regions'. Status of existing co-ordinated and technical co-operation research projects is also summarized

  3. Mutation breeding of autotetraploid Achimenes cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broertjes, C.

    1976-01-01

    Colchicine-induced autotetraploids of three Achimenes cultivars were irradiated with X-rays or fast neutrons. The results were compared, in one cultivar, with those of the irradiated diploid form. The mutation frequency after irradiation of the autotetraploid was a 20-40 fold higher as compared to the corresponding diploid. These results may open new possibilities for mutation breeding, though they are hard to explain. Several promising mutants were selected. (author)

  4. ITER breeding blanket module design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Kikuchi, Shigeto

    1998-11-01

    The ITER breeding blanket employs a ceramic breeder and Be neutron multiplier both in small spherical pebble form. Radial-poloidal cooling panels are arranged in the blanket box to remove the nuclear heating in these materials and to reinforce the blanket structure. At the first wall, Be armor is bonded onto the stainless steel (SS) structure to provide a low Z plasma-compatible surface and to protect the first wall/blanket structure from the direct contact with the plasma during off-normal events. Thermo-mechanical analyses and investigation of fabrication procedure have been performed for this breeding blanket. To evaluate thermo-mechanical behavior of the pebble beds including the dependency of the effective thermal conductivity on stress, analysis methods have been preliminary established by the use of special calculation option of ABAQUS code, which are briefly summarized in this report. The structural response of the breeding blanket module under internal pressure of 4 MPa (in case of in-blanket LOCA) resulted in rather high stress in the blanket side (toroidal end) wall, thus addition of a stiffening rib or increase of the wall thickness will be needed. Two-dimensional elasto-plastic analyses have been performed for the Be/SS bonded interface at the first wall taking a fabrication process based on HIP bonding and thermal cycle due to pulsed plasma operation into account. The stress-strain hysteresis during these process and operation was clarified, and a procedure to assess and/or confirm the bonding integrity was also proposed. Fabrication sequence of the breeding blanket module was preliminarily developed based on the procedure to fabricate part by part and to assemble them one by one. (author)

  5. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This year seems to be very promising for the Plant Breeding and Genetic sub-Programme. At the demand of geneticists, plant breeders, and more recently molecular geneticists for information on released mutant varieties of specific crops, the FAO/IAEA Mutant Varieties Database (MVD) was transferred to the web site and is now available through Internet under the following URL: http://www-mvd.iaea.org. The idea to collect and transfer information on crop varieties developed with the use of mutation techniques to plant breeders ws conceived at almost the same time as the establishment of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section (PBG), Joint FAO/IAEA Division. The first classified list of induced mutant varieties was presented by Sigurbjoernsson at the Pullman Symposium, and published in 1969. Since the first issue of the MBNL (May, 1972) information on newly released mutant varieties was published at the end of each issue under the title 'List of Mutant Varieties'. The full list of 2252 mutant varieties has been published in the Mutation Breeding Review No. 12 (December 2000) to close this period of collecting data on mutant varieties. Such condensed but full information on mutant varieties should help geneticists, molecular biologists and plant breeders to asses the value of mutation techniques in germplasm enhancement, and stimulate the use of induced variation

  6. Breeding wheat for disease resistance in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, P.N.; Kinyua, M.G.; Karanja, L.; Maling'a, J.

    2001-01-01

    Yellow rust caused by Puccinia striformis and stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis tritici are most destructive diseases in Kenya. In wheat improvement, development of varieties of wheat with resistance to these diseases has been among the foremost contributions in wheat breeding. In breeding programs each disease is considered as a separate problem. Attention has been given to varieties resistant to stem rust, yellow rust and leaf rust among other diseases. In the year 2001 program stem rust and yellow rust were recorded in all the sites where NPT was performed. Breeding for resistance for the two diseases is approached through the Introductions and Hybridisation. The Doubled Haploid Technique is used to quicken the time of homozygous lines production. The introduction and the homozygous lines are then evaluated for yield and disease resistance in the field under preliminary yield trials and the National Performance Trials (NPT) in 2001, 18 lines and 2 check varieties were included in the NPT. The results show that there were some differences in reaction to the three diseases where lines R946, K7972-1 and R899 had the lowest score of the diseases in all sites. In the commercial variety trial the results show that all the varietieshave become susceptible to stem rust and so the need to develop new cultivars which will be resistance to the rusts. Yombi a newly developed variety showed a substantially high level resistance. (author)

  7. The ecology of cooperative breeding behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sheng-Feng; Emlen, Stephen T; Koenig, Walter D; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2017-06-01

    Ecology is a fundamental driving force for the evolutionary transition from solitary living to breeding cooperatively in groups. However, the fact that both benign and harsh, as well as stable and fluctuating, environments can favour the evolution of cooperative breeding behaviour constitutes a paradox of environmental quality and sociality. Here, we propose a new model - the dual benefits framework - for resolving this paradox. Our framework distinguishes between two categories of grouping benefits - resource defence benefits that derive from group-defended critical resources and collective action benefits that result from social cooperation among group members - and uses insider-outsider conflict theory to simultaneously consider the interests of current group members (insiders) and potential joiners (outsiders) in determining optimal group size. We argue that the different grouping benefits realised from resource defence and collective action profoundly affect insider-outsider conflict resolution, resulting in predictable differences in the per capita productivity, stable group size, kin structure and stability of the social group. We also suggest that different types of environmental variation (spatial vs. temporal) select for societies that form because of the different grouping benefits, thus helping to resolve the paradox of why cooperative breeding evolves in such different types of environments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  8. Captive breeding of the white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum, and the Cape buffalo, Syncerus caffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, J D; Dott, H M; Matthee, A; Hunt, L

    2006-09-01

    Breeding records of 40 white rhinoceros and 155 Cape buffalo were analysed. Three rhinoceros cows bred in captivity, themselves conceived for the first time at 84, 87 and 95 months of age, respectively. Rhinoceros cows breed throughout the year. There is no evidence of a relationship between calving interval and month of birth. Calving intervals were normally distributed about the mean of 34 months and there were no significant differences between bulls, cows or sex of calf. There was no difference in the sex ratio of calves born to young cows nor older cows. The male:female ratio of the calves was 1:1. Younger cows did not have shorter birth intervals. Although captive Cape buffaloes breed throughout the year, there is a preponderance of births in midsummer. There was some evidence that larger cows produce heavier calves and that season of birth may influence birth weight. Male calves weighed 41.20 +/- 0.68 kg vs 39.00 +/- 0.73 kg (range 24-60 kg) for female calves but this difference was not significant. Calving intervals were normally distributed about the mean of 395 days and the male:female ratio of the calves was 1:1.2.

  9. Characters analysis of genetic improvement at the males population from Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Dronca

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze, within a group of 26 males from Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog breed, 13 characters of genetically improved, characters stipulated in, „Selection sheet and body measurements for Romanian shepherds".The animals were registered with the Romanian Mioritic Association Club fromRomania.  Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog, was selected from a natural population breed inCarpathian Mountains. In order to develop a genetic improvement program at this effective of 26 males from Romanian Sheperd Dog breed, found in evidence of Romanian Mioritic Association Club from Romania, should be considered the following conclusions on variance those 13 characters studied in this paper, respectively, the variability was middle for the width of skull and ear  and low for the other 11 characters analyzed. Also, this paper highlighted the following reports of the characters analyzed at the males taken in the study: the ratio between the average of length and width skull was 1.005:1, the ratio between the average of length skull and the average of length muzzle was 1.31:1 and between average of the width of skull and the muzzle was 1.82:1. By Comparing between them length, width and depth of muzzle, resulted a ratio of 1.38:1:1.10.

  10. Captive breeding of the white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum, and the Cape buffalo, Syncerus caffer : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Skinner

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Breeding records of 40 white rhinoceros and 155 Cape buffalo were analysed. Three rhinoceros cows bred in captivity, themselves conceived for the first time at 84, 87 and 95 months of age, respectively. Rhinoceros cows breed throughout the year. There is no evidence of a relationship between calving interval and month of birth. Calving intervals were normally distributed about the mean of 34 months and there were no significant differences between bulls, cows or sex of calf. There was no difference in the sex ratio of calves born to young cows nor older cows. The male:female ratio of the calves was Younger cows did not have shorter birth intervals. Although captive Cape buffaloes breed throughout the year, there is a preponderance of births in midsummer. There was some evidence that larger cows produce heavier calves and that season of birth may influence birth weight. Male calves weighed 41.20 + 0.68 kg vs 39.00 + 0.73 kg (range 24-60 kg for female calves but this difference was not significant. Calving intervals were normally distributed about the mean of 395 days and the male:female ratio of the calves was 1:1.2.

  11. The biodiversity and genetic structure of Balearic sheep breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, A L; Landi, V; Martinez, A; Delgado, J V

    2015-06-01

    The Balearic sheep breeds, Mallorquina, Menorquina, Roja Mallorquina, Ibicenca and one possible new genetic group, Formentera, constitute a unique genetic resource in the Mediterranean farming landscape, displaying high genetic diversity levels and being well differentiated among themselves and with respect to the continental sheep breeds. We used a microsatellite panel of markers to study genetic diversity and relationships with other Spanish breeds. The results reported in this study have important implications for the use, conservation and breeding of Balearic sheep stocks. A mean number of 7.59 alleles was found among the Balearic sheep breeds for the microsatellites scored. The whole mean value of observed heterozygosity amounted to 0.62, whereas the expected heterozygosity value was 0.69, suggesting the presence of a great degree of genetic variability, although a significant deficit of heterozygotes was detected for some markers. Genetic distance estimates showed that Balearic sheep are differentiated from the other Spanish breeds and in particular, from the Merino type. The Ibicenca breed showed the highest distance value from other breeds. The neighbour-net method of analysis clustered the Roja Mallorquina, Menorquina and Mallorquina breeds. The Structure results clearly demonstrated the genetic differentiation among the four Balearic sheep breeds, with the Ibicenca and Formentera races joined, with slight migration among them. Few external genetic influences from the Spanish mainland breeds were detected. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Genetic diversity in some local chicken breeds using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cassandro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic relationships among Veneto native breeds of chickens were studied on the basis of microsatellites polymorphisms. A total of 100 DNA samples from 2 local chicken breeds (45 Robusta Lionata and 43 Robusta Maculata and a commercial broiler line (12 Golden Comet were analyzed using 19 microsatellite markers. The average number of alleles per locus was 4.05 and the expected heterozigosity resulted lower for the local breeds than the broiler line. The Robusta Lionata breed and the broiler line showed a significant deficit and excess of heterozygotes, respectively, deviating from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Nei’s standard genetic distances corrected for bias due to sampling of individuals (Da, based on allele frequencies, were calculated among breeds. The local breeds resulted very similar confirming the same genetic origin. The results suggested that microsatellite markers are a useful tool for studying the genetic diversity among local chicken breeds.

  13. Genomic evaluation of cattle in a multi-breed context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mogens Sandø; Su, Guosheng; Janss, Luc

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain accurate genomic breeding values a large number of reference animals with both phenotype and genotype data are needed. This poses a challenge for breeds with small reference populations. One option to overcome this obstacle is to use a multi-breed reference population. However...... that the effect of multi-breed reference populations on the accuracy of genomic prediction is highly affected by the genetic distance between breeds. When combining populations of the same breeds from different countries, large increases in accuracy are seen, whereas for admixed populations with some exchange...... of sires, substantial but smaller gains are found. Little or no benefit is found when combining distantly related breeds such as Holstein and Jersey and using the widely used genomic BLUP model. By using more sophisticated Bayesian variable selection models that put more focus on genomic markers in strong...

  14. Observations on anopheline breeding in relation to aquatic plants in different breeding habitats of Kheda (Gujarat).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Rajni; Srivastava, H C

    2004-09-01

    Water bodies infested with aquatic vegetations may pose problems in mosquito control through bio-environmental methods. Paucity of information pertaining to association of mosquito breeding with aquatic vegetation was the basis for present investigation. The mosquito breeding sites infested with solitary/dominating plant community viz., Eichhornia crassipes, Ipomoea aquatica, Hydrilla verticillata, Nymphea neuchali, Trapa bispinosa, Lemna paucicostata, Trachelomonas spp., Azolla pinnata, Algae spp. and Cynodon dactylon were selected for the study. The investigation revealed that breeding of eleven anopheline species was associated with Eichhornia in different habitats followed by Hydrilla, algae and Cynodon (8 each), Ipomoea and Trapa (6), Lemna. and Nymphea (5), Azolla and Trachelomonas (4). An. subpictus was associated with all types of vegetation. An. annularis, An. nigerrimus and An. barbirostris were associated with nine plant species. An. culicifacies, the principal malaria vector was found breeding in association with seven aquatic plants and showed strong association with Cynodon, Hydrilla and algae. The species diversity in habitats infested with Hydrilla, algae and Cynodon seems to be most favourable for the breeding of An. culicifacies. It is suggested that thinning or removal of such vegetations at regular interval may help to reduce vector population and enhance the efficacy of biological control agents particularly the larvivorous fishes in such habitats.

  15. Natural breeding places of phlebotomine sandflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciangeli, M D

    2004-03-01

    Methods of finding larvae and pupae of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are described and the known types of breeding sites used by sandflies are listed. Three ways of detecting sandfly breeding places are the use of emergence traps placed over potential sources to catch newly emerged adult sandflies; flotation of larvae and pupae from soil, etc., and desiccation of media to drive out the larvae. Even so, remarkably little information is available on the ecology of the developmental stages of sandflies, despite their importance as vectors of Leishmania, Bartonella and phleboviruses affecting humans and other vertebrates in warmers parts of the world. Regarding the proven or suspected vectors of leishmaniases, information on breeding sites is available for only 15 out of 29 species of sandflies involved in the Old World and 12 out of 44 species of sandflies involved in the Americas, representing approximately 3% of the known species of Phlebotominae. Ecotopes occupied by immature phlebotomines are usually organically rich moist soils, such as the rain forest floor (Lutzomyia intermedia, Lu. umbratilis, Lu. whitmani in the Amazon; Lu. gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. trapidoi in Panama), or contaminated soil of animal shelters (Lu. longipalpis s.l. in South America, Phlebotomus argentipes in India; P. chinensis in China; P. ariasi, P. perfiliewi, P. perniciosus in Europe). Developmental stages of some species (P. langeroni and P. martini in Africa; P. papatasi in Eurasia; Lu. longipalpis s.l. in South America), have been found in a wide range of ecotopes, and many species of sandflies employ rodent burrows as breeding sites, although the importance of this niche is unclear. Larvae of some phlebotomines have been found in what appear to be specialized niches such as Lu. ovallesi on buttress roots of trees in Panama; P. celiae in termite hills in Kenya; P. longipes and P. pedifer in caves and among rocks in East Africa. Old World species found as immatures in

  16. Directional gear ratio transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafever, A. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Epicyclic gear transmissions which transmit output at a gear ratio dependent only upon the input's direction are considered. A transmission housing envelops two epicyclic gear assemblies, and has shafts extending from it. One shaft is attached to a sun gear within the first epicyclic gear assembly. Planet gears are held symmetrically about the sun gear by a planet gear carrier and are in mesh with both the sun gear and a ring gear. Two unidirectional clutches restrict rotation of the first planet gear carrier and ring gear to one direction. A connecting shaft drives a second sun gear at the same speed and direction as the first planet gear carrier while a connecting portion drives a second planet gear carrier at the same speed and direction as the first ring gear. The transmission's output is then transmitted by the second ring gear to the second shaft. Input is transmitted at a higher gear ratio and lower speed for all inputs in the first direction than in the opposite direction.

  17. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  18. Genome-wide association mapping for yield and other agronomic traits in an elite breeding population of tropical rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Hasina; Spindel, Jennifer E; Lalusin, Antonio; Borromeo, Teresita; Gregorio, Glenn; Hernandez, Jose; Virk, Parminder; Collard, Bertrand; McCouch, Susan R

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association mapping studies (GWAS) are frequently used to detect QTL in diverse collections of crop germplasm, based on historic recombination events and linkage disequilibrium across the genome. Generally, diversity panels genotyped with high density SNP panels are utilized in order to assay a wide range of alleles and haplotypes and to monitor recombination breakpoints across the genome. By contrast, GWAS have not generally been performed in breeding populations. In this study we performed association mapping for 19 agronomic traits including yield and yield components in a breeding population of elite irrigated tropical rice breeding lines so that the results would be more directly applicable to breeding than those from a diversity panel. The population was genotyped with 71,710 SNPs using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), and GWAS performed with the explicit goal of expediting selection in the breeding program. Using this breeding panel we identified 52 QTL for 11 agronomic traits, including large effect QTLs for flowering time and grain length/grain width/grain-length-breadth ratio. We also identified haplotypes that can be used to select plants in our population for short stature (plant height), early flowering time, and high yield, and thus demonstrate the utility of association mapping in breeding populations for informing breeding decisions. We conclude by exploring how the newly identified significant SNPs and insights into the genetic architecture of these quantitative traits can be leveraged to build genomic-assisted selection models.

  19. Categorization of the pelvic limb standing posture in nine breeds of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanci, S S; Ocal, M K

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the study was to categorize objectively nine breeds of healthy dogs according to pelvic limb standing posture. A total of 135 dogs from different breeds were used and the standing angles of the hip, stifle, and tarsal joints, together with the percentages of the greater trochanter, patella and tuber calcanei heights, with respect to crista iliaca height, were used as discriminant variables for the categorization of pelvic limb posture. All included breeds were allocated to three groups of the standing pelvic limb posture. The best discriminant variables between the three groups were the percentage of patellar height, and the standing angles of the stifle and tarsal joints. German shepherds, Anatolian shepherds, golden retrievers, Rottweilers, Belgian Malinois and Dobermann pinschers were well separated between 89% and 100% success rate for the categorization. The minimal success rate was determined in Berner sennenhunds as the ratio of 75%. It was also determined that Dobermann pinschers had the straightest pelvic limbs, while German shepherds had the most angulated pelvic limbs. Further studies are required to document the impact of postural differences in active and passive structure diseases of the locomotor system of the pelvic limb among dog breeds. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Study on the temperature control mechanism of the tritium breeding blanket for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changle; Qiu, Yang; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Lei; Yao, Damao; Li, Guoqiang; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Songtao; Wan, Yuanxi

    2017-12-01

    The Chinese fusion engineering testing reactor (CFETR) will demonstrate tritium self- sufficiency using a tritium breeding blanket for the tritium fuel cycle. The temperature control mechanism (TCM) involves the tritium production of the breeding blanket and has an impact on tritium self-sufficiency. In this letter, the CFETR tritium target is addressed according to its missions. TCM research on the neutronics and thermal hydraulics issues for the CFETR blanket is presented. The key concerns regarding the blanket design for tritium production under temperature field control are depicted. A systematic theory on the TCM is established based on a multiplier blanket model. In particular, a closed-loop method is developed for the mechanism with universal function solutions, which is employed in the CFETR blanket design activity for tritium production. A tritium accumulation phenomenon is found close to the coolant in the blanket interior, which has a very important impact on current blanket concepts using water coolant inside the blanket. In addition, an optimal tritium breeding ratio (TBR) method based on the TCM is proposed, combined with thermal hydraulics and finite element technology. Meanwhile, the energy gain factor is adopted to estimate neutron heat deposition, which is a key parameter relating to the blanket TBR calculations, considering the structural factors. This work will benefit breeding blanket engineering for the CFETR reactor in the future.

  1. Peak power ratio generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  2. Effects on milk production in F1 crossbred of Alpine goat breed (♂ and Albanian goat breed (♀

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan Hajno

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available About 950,000 goats, farmed mostly in hilly and mountainous areas of Albania, contribute about 8% of the country’s total milk production. In order to increase milk production, farmers are currently using crosses of the local goat breed with exotic breeds, mainly the Alpine breed from France. This study examines milk production data of first lactation from 45 goats of the local breed, 82 goats of the Alpine breed and 58 F1 crosses (♂Alpine breed x ♀local breed. The goats were kept on small-scale farms according to the traditional Albanian system. Milking was carried out in the morning and evening. Kids were weaned at 65 days of age after which milking started. Milk yield was recorded twice with a 15-day interval between the two readings. Total milk yield was calculated using the Fleischmann method. The F1 goats produced 37.8 kg more milk than local breed goats although the lactation length (P<0.05 of F1 goats was six days shorter compared to that of local breed goats (P<0.05. Analysis of variance showed a highly significant effect (P<0.01 of the genotype factor on milk production. The average Cappio-Borlino curves of three genotypes indicated that the lactation curves of local breed and F1 crosses were similar. Although the F1 cross goats had 50% of their genomes from a genetically improved breed they were still able to deal with the difficult conditions that characterize the traditional extensive farming systems in Albania. Breeding pure Alpine breed or its crosses with the local goat breed improved milk production in an extensive traditional system.

  3. Breeding without Mendelism: theory and practice of dairy cattle breeding in the Netherlands 1900-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Bert

    2008-01-01

    In the 1940s and 1950s, Dutch scientists became increasingly critical of the practices of commercial dairy cattle breeders. Milk yields had hardly increased for decades, and the scientists believed this to be due to the fact that breeders still judged the hereditary potential of their animals on the basis of outward characteristics. An objective verdict on the qualities of breeding stock could only be obtained by progeny testing, the scientists contended: the best animals were those that produced the most productive offspring. Some scientists had been making this claim since the beginning of the twentieth century. Why was it that their advice was apparently not heeded by breeders for so long? And what were the methods and beliefs that guided their practices? In this paper I intend to answer these questions by analysing the practical realities of dairy farming and stock breeding in The Netherlands between 1900 and 1950. Breeders continued to employ traditional breeding methods that had proven their effectiveness since the late eighteenth century. Their methods consisted in inbreeding--breeding in 'bloodlines,' as they called it--and selection on the basis of pedigree, conformation and milk recording data. Their aims were 'purity' and 'uniformity' of type. Progeny testing was not practiced due to practical difficulties. Before World War II, scientists acknowledged that genetic theory was of little practical use to breeders of livestock. Still, hereditary theory was considered to be helpful to assess the value of the breeders' methods. For instance, striving for purity was deemed to be consistent with Mendelian theory. Yet the term purity had different connotations for scientists and practical workers. For the former, it referred to homozygosity; for the latter, it rather buttressed the constancy of a distinct commercial 'brand.' Until the 1940s, practical breeders and most scientists were agreed that selecting animals purely for production was ill-advised. Cows of

  4. Breeding blanket design for ITER and prototype (DEMO) fusion reactors and breeding materials issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsu, H.; Enoeda, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of the designs of the ITER breeding blanket and DEMO blankets is introduced placing emphasis on the breeding materials selection and related issues. The former design is based on the up-to-date design activities, as of October 1997, being performed jointly by Joint Central Team (JCT) and Home Teams (HT`s), while the latter is based on the DEMO blanket test module designs being proposed by each Party at the TBWG (Test Blanket Working Group) meetings. (J.P.N.)

  5. Owner perceived differences between mixed-breed and purebred dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Studies about the behaviours of mixed-breed dogs are rare, although mixed-breeds represent the majority of the world's dog population. We have conducted two surveys to investigate the behavioural, demographic, and dog keeping differences between purebred and mixed-breed companion dogs. Questionnaire data were collected on a large sample of dogs living in Germany (N = 7,700 purebred dogs representing more than 200 breeds, and N = 7,691 mixed-breeds). We found that according to their owners, mixed-breeds were (1) less calm, (2) less sociable toward other dogs, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p dog keeping factors differed between purebred and mixed-breed dogs, and two factors showed considerable (> 10%) differences: neutering was more frequent among mixed-breeds, and they were acquired at older ages than purebreds (p dog keeping factors, we found that mixed-breeds were (1) more trainable than purebreds, (2) less calm, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p dogs, mixed-breeds represent a special group with characteristic behavioural traits.

  6. Owner perceived differences between mixed-breed and purebred dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Studies about the behaviours of mixed-breed dogs are rare, although mixed-breeds represent the majority of the world’s dog population. We have conducted two surveys to investigate the behavioural, demographic, and dog keeping differences between purebred and mixed-breed companion dogs. Questionnaire data were collected on a large sample of dogs living in Germany (N = 7,700 purebred dogs representing more than 200 breeds, and N = 7,691 mixed-breeds). We found that according to their owners, mixed-breeds were (1) less calm, (2) less sociable toward other dogs, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p dog keeping factors differed between purebred and mixed-breed dogs, and two factors showed considerable (> 10%) differences: neutering was more frequent among mixed-breeds, and they were acquired at older ages than purebreds (p dog keeping factors, we found that mixed-breeds were (1) more trainable than purebreds, (2) less calm, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p dogs, mixed-breeds represent a special group with characteristic behavioural traits. PMID:28222103

  7. Ocular biometry by computed tomography in different dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwitt, Carolin L H; Baines, Stephen J; Mahoney, Paul; Tanner, Andrew; Heinrich, Christine L; Rhodes, Michael; Featherstone, Heidi J

    2017-09-01

    To (i) correlate B-mode ocular ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) (prospective pilot study), (ii) establish a reliable method to measure the normal canine eye using CT, (iii) establish a reference guide for some dog breeds, (iv) compare eye size between different breeds and breed groups, and (v) investigate the correlation between eye dimensions and body weight, gender, and skull type (retrospective study). B-mode US and CT were performed on ten sheep cadaveric eyes. CT biometry involved 100 adult pure-bred dogs with nonocular and nonorbital disease, representing eleven breeds. Eye length, width, and height were each measured in two of three planes (horizontal, sagittal, and equatorial). B-mode US and CT measurements of sheep cadaveric eyes correlated well (0.70-0.71). The shape of the canine eye was found to be akin to an oblate spheroid (a flattened sphere). A reference guide was established for eleven breeds. Eyes of large breed dogs were significantly larger than those of medium and small breed dogs (P dogs were significantly larger than those of small breed dogs (P guide was established for eleven breeds. Eye size correlated with breed size and body weight. Because correlation between B-mode US and CT was shown, the obtained values can be applied in the clinical setting, for example, for the diagnosis of microphthalmos and buphthalmos. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  8. Fitness consequences of timing of migration and breeding in cormorants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Gienapp

    Full Text Available In most bird species timing of breeding affects reproductive success whereby early breeding is favoured. In migratory species migration time, especially arrival at the breeding grounds, and breeding time are expected to be correlated. Consequently, migration time should also have fitness consequences. However, in contrast to breeding time, evidence for fitness consequences of migration time is much more limited. Climate change has been shown to negatively affect the synchrony between trophic levels thereby leading to directional selection on timing but again direct evidence in avian migration time is scarce. We here analysed fitness consequences of migration and breeding time in great cormorants and tested whether climate change has led to increased selection on timing using a long-term data set from a breeding colony on the island of Vorsø (Denmark. Reproductive success, measured as number of fledglings, correlated with breeding time and arrival time at the colony and declined during the season. This seasonal decline became steeper during the study period for both migration and breeding time and was positively correlated to winter/spring climate, i.e. selection was stronger after warmer winters/springs. However, the increasing selection pressure on timing seems to be unrelated to climate change as the climatic variables that were related to selection strength did not increase during the study period. There is indirect evidence that phenology or abundances of preferred prey species have changed which could have altered selection on timing of migration and breeding.

  9. Assigning breed origin to alleles in crossbred animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Jérémie; Calus, Mario P L; Sevillano, Claudia A; Windig, Jack J; Bastiaansen, John W M

    2016-08-22

    For some species, animal production systems are based on the use of crossbreeding to take advantage of the increased performance of crossbred compared to purebred animals. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may differ between purebred and crossbred animals for several reasons: (1) differences in linkage disequilibrium between SNP alleles and a quantitative trait locus; (2) differences in genetic backgrounds (e.g., dominance and epistatic interactions); and (3) differences in environmental conditions, which result in genotype-by-environment interactions. Thus, SNP effects may be breed-specific, which has led to the development of genomic evaluations for crossbred performance that take such effects into account. However, to estimate breed-specific effects, it is necessary to know breed origin of alleles in crossbred animals. Therefore, our aim was to develop an approach for assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals (termed BOA) without information on pedigree and to study its accuracy by considering various factors, including distance between breeds. The BOA approach consists of: (1) phasing genotypes of purebred and crossbred animals; (2) assigning breed origin to phased haplotypes; and (3) assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals based on a library of assigned haplotypes, the breed composition of crossbred animals, and their SNP genotypes. The accuracy of allele assignments was determined for simulated datasets that include crosses between closely-related, distantly-related and unrelated breeds. Across these scenarios, the percentage of alleles of a crossbred animal that were correctly assigned to their breed origin was greater than 90 %, and increased with increasing distance between breeds, while the percentage of incorrectly assigned alleles was always less than 2 %. For the remaining alleles, i.e. 0 to 10 % of all alleles of a crossbred animal, breed origin could not be assigned. The BOA approach accurately assigns

  10. MHC variability in heritage breeds of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J E; Lund, A R; McCarron, A M; Pinegar, K N; Korver, D R; Classen, H L; Aggrey, S; Utterbach, C; Anthony, N B; Berres, M E

    2016-02-01

    The chicken Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is very strongly associated with disease resistance and thus is a very important region of the chicken genome. Historically, MHC (B locus) has been identified by the use of serology with haplotype specific alloantisera. These antisera can be difficult to produce and frequently cross-react with multiple haplotypes and hence their application is generally limited to inbred and MHC-defined lines. As a consequence, very little information about MHC variability in heritage chicken breeds is available. DNA-based methods are now available for examining MHC variability in these previously uncharacterized populations. A high density SNP panel consisting of 101 SNP that span a 230,000 bp region of the chicken MHC was used to examine MHC variability in 17 heritage populations of chickens from five universities from Canada and the United States. The breeds included 6 heritage broiler lines, 3 Barred Plymouth Rock, 2 New Hampshire and one each of Rhode Island Red, Light Sussex, White Leghorn, Dark Brown Leghorn, and 2 synthetic lines. These heritage breeds contained from one to 11 haplotypes per line. A total of 52 unique MHC haplotypes were found with only 10 of them identical to serologically defined haplotypes. Furthermore, nine MHC recombinants with their respective parental haplotypes were identified. This survey confirms the value of these non-commercially utilized lines in maintaining genetic diversity. The identification of multiple MHC haplotypes and novel MHC recombinants indicates that diversity is being generated and maintained within these heritage populations. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Studies on mutation breeding of hibiscus syriacuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hee Sub; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek

    1995-12-01

    Hibiscus has been known as a national flower of Korea. Hibiscus has ahch a characteristic of self-incompatibility that all the plants exist as natural hybrids and have heterogeneous genes. Thirth two domestic varieties were propagated. Radiosensitivity of H. syriacus irradiated with gamma ray was investigated in plant cuttings. The plant height was reduced by 45 percent in 5 kR irradiated group compared to control group. The radiation dose of 5 kR could be rrecommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus cuttings. Promising mutant lines were selected form the varieties of Hwarang Wolsan 176, I1pyondansim and Emille. 6 tabs., 2 figs., 13 refs., 4 ills. (Author)

  12. Breeding of proanthocyanidin free malting barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Anna Maria

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Haze formation in stored beer is due to colloidal precipitation of proteins with polyphenols of which proanthocyanidins are the most important group. 70-80% of proanthocyanidin in beer are from barley malt. Today breweries attain haze stability by using enzymes, additives or adsorbents. A better solution would be to remove proanthocyanidins. Carlsberg Plant Breeding uses induced mutations to breed proanthocyanidin-free malting barley. After mutagen treatment with sodium azide M1 seeds are planted in the field and M2 seeds are harvested in bulk. A single seed, non-destructive method has been developed to identify mutant kernels lacking proanthocyanidins in the testa. The method involves the inclusion of M2 seeds - 50 at a time - in semisolid clay blocks, whereafter a small part of the endosperm, testa and pericarp are exposed by sanding the seeds. The clay block is then placed in a vanillin-HCI solution so that the uncovered tissues can react with the solution. A red colour will develop in the testa of normal seeds, whereas the testa layers of proanthocyanid-free seeds remain colourless. So far, more than 600 mutants have been induced in over 100 barley varieties, spring as well as winter-types, from barley producing areas around the world. The mutants can be assigned to at least 7 loci, all of which can block the biosynthetic pathway for the proanthocyanidins. Mutants in the ant-18 and ant-19 loci show poor kernel development. Only a few mutants are known in the ant-12, ant-22 and ant-25 loci. Breeding work is focussed on mutants belonging to the ant-13 and ant-17 loci. Whereas the malting quality of ant-17 lines suffer from apparent abnormal enzyme development in the aleurone layer, this defect does not exist in ant-13 lines. Brewing trials with proanthocyanidin-free malt have shown excellent haze stability without changes in beer flavour. Breeding work based on the ant-13 lines led to disease resistant lines with good malting quality, while grain yield

  13. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    These last six months, the Plant Breeding and Genetics (PBG) Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division (NAFA/AGE) implemented five Research Coordination Meetings (RCMs) and one Consultants Meeting for a new Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Molecular tools for quality improvement in vegetatively propagated crops including banana and cassava' (8-11 November 2004, Vienna). Other salient points were the training courses we implemented this semester in the framework of different Technical Cooperation (TC) projects.Details about these activities inside this Newsletter

  14. Breeding replacement gilts for organic pig herds

    OpenAIRE

    Leenhouwers, J. I.; Ten Napel, J.; Hanenberg, E. H. A. T.; Merks, J. W. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, breeding structures and commercial sow lines were evaluated by economic and genetic simulation studies for their suitability to provide the Dutch organic pig sector with replacement gilts. Sow and litter performance from over 2000 crossbred sows from 2006 to 2007 were collected on 11 to 14 Dutch organic pig herds, respectively, and compared with conventional herds. Results showed that organic herds had lower farrowing rates (3.6% to 7.5%), more live born piglets per litter (0.4...

  15. Strategy for larch breeding in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eysteinsson, T. [Iceland Forest Service, Egilsstadir (Iceland)

    1995-12-31

    An accelerated breeding program for Siberian larch was initiated in Iceland in 1992. Siberian larch is an important exotic species, but not fully adapted to Icelandic conditions. Selections are made based on adaptive traits such as growth rhythm and resistance to damage as well as form and growth rate. Seed will be produced in containerised, greenhouse orchards, necessitating selection for fecundity to best use expensive greenhouse space. Research will concentrate on developing flower induction treatments for Siberian larch and ways to maximize seed production and viability. 19 refs

  16. Review: Towards the agroecological management of ruminants, pigs and poultry through the development of sustainable breeding programmes. II. Breeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phocas, F; Belloc, C; Bidanel, J; Delaby, L; Dourmad, J Y; Dumont, B; Ezanno, P; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Foucras, G; Frappat, B; González-García, E; Hazard, D; Larzul, C; Lubac, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Moreno, C R; Tixier-Boichard, M; Brochard, M

    2016-11-01

    Agroecology uses ecological processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to develop productive and resilient livestock and crop production systems. In this context, breeding innovations are necessary to obtain animals that are both productive and adapted to a broad range of local contexts and diversity of systems. Breeding strategies to promote agroecological systems are similar for different animal species. However, current practices differ regarding the breeding of ruminants, pigs and poultry. Ruminant breeding is still an open system where farmers continue to choose their own breeds and strategies. Conversely, pig and poultry breeding is more or less the exclusive domain of international breeding companies which supply farmers with hybrid animals. Innovations in breeding strategies must therefore be adapted to the different species. In developed countries, reorienting current breeding programmes seems to be more effective than developing programmes dedicated to agroecological systems that will struggle to be really effective because of the small size of the populations currently concerned by such systems. Particular attention needs to be paid to determining the respective usefulness of cross-breeding v. straight breeding strategies of well-adapted local breeds. While cross-breeding may offer some immediate benefits in terms of improving certain traits that enable the animals to adapt well to local environmental conditions, it may be difficult to sustain these benefits in the longer term and could also induce an important loss of genetic diversity if the initial pure-bred populations are no longer produced. As well as supporting the value of within-breed diversity, we must preserve between-breed diversity in order to maintain numerous options for adaptation to a variety of production environments and contexts. This may involve specific public policies to maintain and characterize local breeds (in terms of both phenotypes and genotypes), which could

  17. The Pebble-Bed HTR as a net-breeding reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruetten, H.J.; Lee, C.E.; Teuchert, E.

    1978-07-01

    The most suitable way to achieve breeding in the Pebble-Bed HTR is the installment of a symbiotic prebreeder-breeder system. This report presents the parametric research on both the prebreeder and the netbreeder designs. An optimization of its fuel utilization leads to a lifetime-averaged breeding ratio of 1.00 in the breeding variant. This reference design is named 'netbreeder'. Detailed information is given about the nuclear, thermohydraulic and economic properties of the reference system. Its potential for fuel utilization is outlined in a comparison of its uranium-ore requirement with that of alternative reactor systems: Compared with a typical PWR and with a 'conventional' HTR (conversion ratio 0.71) the symbiotic prebreeder-netbreeder system is marked by a distinctly better fuel utilization. In a limited open-end type scenario of nuclear power its cumulative ore requirements are even lower than that of a combincation of PWRs and LMFBRs using oxide fuel. In an unlimited scenario this statement holds for a time span of 75 to 80 years. (orig.) [de

  18. Influence of cross-breeding of native breed sows of Zlotnicka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZUZA

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... 1The Poznan University of Life Sciences, Department of Pig Breeding and Production, ul. Wolynska 33,. 60-637 ... ZS x D had significantly higher share of meat cuts in comparison with purebred fatteners ZS and crossbred fatteners ZS x (ZS x D). ... Proximate composition of diets. Item. Diet. Starter. Grower.

  19. Male-female interaction during breeding and non-breeding seasons in Akodon azarae (Rodentia, Muridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez Olga V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyad encounters between male and female adults of Akodon azarae (Fischer, 1829 were analyzed by means of observational techniques in a natural closure during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. The animals were held in observation during 21 days, with daily 15-minute recordings of interindividual separation distance, relative displacements, characteristics of the male-female interaction, copulation, and construction and exclusive or shared use of nests by each pair. The couples, which bred successfully, showed, on average, the longest separation distance between male and female allowed by the closure. During the first two weeks of gestation the females exhibited more displacements than their respective mates did. The male-pregnant female encounters were significantly more aggressive than those recorded between pairs which did not breed successfully. During the non-breeding season a shorter average distance between individuals and a frequent use of nests shared by the pair were recorded. The results obtained are discussed within the framework of the social system of A. azarae.

  20. Elephant reproduction: improvement of breeding efficiency and development of a breeding strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thitaram, C.

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of reproduction of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) has become of major concern. Captive breeding programs worldwide have met with limited success and few ex situ elephant populations are self-sustaining. The low birth rate and high mortality cause the captive population to

  1. RESEARCH ON MILK PRODUCTION AT GOATS FROM CARPATHIAN BREED IN RELATION WITH BREEDING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion RĂDUCUŢĂ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to quantify the qualitative and quantitative parameters of milk production at goats from Carpathian breed in relation with the breeding system (extensive versus semi-intensive. To determine the total quantity of milk, the milk production control it included suckling period of kids and milking period of goats. For determining the quality of milk it was made the analysis of chemical composition of milk in the main constituents, namely water and dry matter, content of fat, protein, lactose and minerals. The biological material studied in this paper was represented by the adult goats from Carpathian breed belonging of two private farms from the south region of country. The size of the control group during the whole lactation was 25 heads for each farm. The research took into account two farms of goats differentiated by breeding system practiced, respectively extensive and semi-intensive. The obtained results showed that regarding the quantitative milk production the best performance was achieved by animals from semi-intensive farm (253.21 liters versus 208.50 liters and in terms of milk quality by the animals from extensive farm.

  2. Effect of mortality rate, breed type and breed on total herd efficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing in the National Beef Performance Testing Scheme (1980-1985), was investigated by means of a computer simulation program. Simulation runs were ... developments and computer-based genetic evaluation, the potential for greater ..... 1988), while composite and SangalZebu breed types have superior adaptive capacity.

  3. Characterization of the genetic profile of five Danish dog breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Kristensen, T. N.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Pointing Dog (ODP; n = 24), and 5) Greenland Dog (GD; n = 23). The aims of the investigation were to characterize the genetic profile of the abovementioned dog breeds by quantifying the genetic differentiation among them and the degree of genetic homogeneity within breeds. The genetic profile......This investigation presents results from a genetic characterization of 5 Danish dog breeds genotyped on the CanineHD BeadChip microarray with 170,000 SNP. The breeds investigated were 1) Danish Spitz (DS; n = 8), 2) Danish-Swedish Farm Dog (DSF; n = 18), 3) Broholmer (BR; n = 22), 4) Old Danish...... was determined by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and through a Bayesian clustering method. Both the PCA and the Bayesian clustering method revealed a clear genetic separation of the 5 breeds. The level of genetic variation within the breeds varied. The expected heterozygosity (H) as well...

  4. Genetic breeding of silkworms: from traditional hybridization to molecular design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, San-Yuan; Xia, Qing-You

    2017-11-20

    Sericulture is one of the great inventions of the Chinese people and has become an important cultural feature of China. As China is the long-lasting center of silk production, genetic breeding of silkworm was highly developed historically, and has formed a comprehensive system for breeding and preservation of new varieties. However, silkworm breeding reached a bottleneck recently, because most of the traditional genetic resources have been utilized and silkworm strains have become homogeneous. Meanwhile, sericulture in China meets huge challenges in the 21 st century. In recent years, with the development and rapid application of molecular biology, genomics, transgene and genome editing, silkworm genetic breeding has entered a new era. In this review, we summarize the development of silkworm genetic breeding, especially the progress and perspective of transgene and genome editing in genetic engineering of silkworms. We also discuss the future development of silkworm genetic breeding.

  5. GENEALOGICAL DECOMPOSITION OF THE EFFECTIVE POPULATION SIZE: A CASE STUDY ON CROATIAN AUTOCHTHONOUS CATTLE BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reljanović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective population size (Ne is one of the most important tools used to assess genetic diversity for conservation purposes. Using pedigree data of three Croatian autochthonous cattle breeds (Buša, Istrian and Slavonian Syrmian Podolian the effective maternal (NeF, paternal (NeM and combined maternal-paternal (NeFM population size was estimated. Additionally, we estimated the effective population size based on the census population sex ratio (Nes, the effective population size from the individual increase in inbreeding (NeFi and the effective population size from individual increase in coancestry (NeCi. We compared these sizes with the values obtained for 20 additional cattle populations, as well as with the newly calculated NeFM. The effective population sizes calculated for three autochthonous breeds were consistently the lowest in amongst all the considered cattle breeds. Utilisation of extremely small numbers of breeding males is the main reason for the observed reduction in the effective population size. The decomposition of effective population size into maternal and paternal components is shown to be an informative parameter in detecting the reduction of the effective population size as a consequence of unequal sex contribution. Still, the impact of the pedigree depth and completeness on the NeF, NeM and NeFM estimation remain to be analysed. A large deviation between Nes and all other methods of Ne estimation was observed and it is our recommendation that breeders and stakeholders should consider using alternative methods of Ne estimation when planning breeding programmes as well as in the determination of the endangered status of animal populations.

  6. BREEDING AND GENETICS SYMPOSIUM: Climate change and selective breeding in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Lim, P; Kause, A; Mulder, H A; Olesen, I

    2017-04-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food production sector and it contributes significantly to global food security. Based on Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, aquaculture production must increase significantly to meet the future global demand for aquatic foods in 2050. According to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and FAO, climate change may result in global warming, sea level rise, changes of ocean productivity, freshwater shortage, and more frequent extreme climate events. Consequently, climate change may affect aquaculture to various extents depending on climatic zones, geographical areas, rearing systems, and species farmed. There are 2 major challenges for aquaculture caused by climate change. First, the current fish, adapted to the prevailing environmental conditions, may be suboptimal under future conditions. Fish species are often poikilothermic and, therefore, may be particularly vulnerable to temperature changes. This will make low sensitivity to temperature more important for fish than for livestock and other terrestrial species. Second, climate change may facilitate outbreaks of existing and new pathogens or parasites. To cope with the challenges above, 3 major adaptive strategies are identified. First, general 'robustness' will become a key trait in aquaculture, whereby fish will be less vulnerable to current and new diseases while at the same time thriving in a wider range of temperatures. Second, aquaculture activities, such as input power, transport, and feed production contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. Selection for feed efficiency as well as defining a breeding goal that minimizes greenhouse gas emissions will reduce impacts of aquaculture on climate change. Finally, the limited adoption of breeding programs in aquaculture is a major concern. This implies inefficient use of resources for feed, water, and land. Consequently, the carbon footprint per kg fish produced is greater than when fish from

  7. Examination of alternative nuclear breeding methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfuss, D.J.; Augenstein, B.W.; Mooz, W.E.; Sher, P.A.

    1978-07-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of the economics of using external source neutrons (provided by a DT fusion device or by a high-energy accelerator providing a proton or deuteron particle beam) for breeding fissile fuel, and compares these costs with those of the most intensively investigated reactor breeder (or internal neutron source breeder), the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). A simple evaluation model is used that calculates the net present discounted value, using a 10 percent discount rate of the cost to satisfy a specific demand for electricity over the period to 2050. Present discounted values of costs are estimated for four energy technologies: the uranium-fueled light water reactor (LWR), the LMFBR, the fusion hybrid breeder, and the accelerator-driven breeder. The latter two technologies produce fissile fuel which is then consumed in ordinary converter reactors. The discounted costs to produce electrical energy using the three breeding technologies to satisfy this demand are calculated and compared to a standard or base case where the LWR satisfies the demand. The cost differences between the base case and the three alternatives are compared to estimate the savings possible over the LWR base case. The conclusion is that the fusion hybrid breeder and the accelerator breeder, given our present information about the various technologies, promise to be competitive with reactor-based breeders such as the LMFBR and offer a number of qualitative advantages as well

  8. Induced mutations in pomoid trees breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, Faysal

    1986-01-01

    Induction of mutations in fruit trees by ionizing radiation complements a cross-breeding program. The objectives are: 1) the improvements of methods of induction, identification and selection of useful mutations, and 2) the initiation of useful mutations either for immediate use as improved cultivars or as a parent material for conventional cross-breeding. The induction of mutants in pomoid fruits, with special emphasis on apple, was realized by gamma-ray treatment of dormant scions subsequently propagated on a rootstoch in the nursery. The aim was to obtain compacts, presuming the feasibility of selecting compact shoots formed by the irradiated scions in the first vegetative generation and also assuming that chance of finding (e.g. fruit mutants) would be thus increased rather than lessened. Selection was carried out on one-season old shoots, formed on the same material for two or three seasons, by using a cut-back at the end of the first and second season. The procedure was highly effective. Moderate exposures, resulting in 60% survival gave high mutation frequencies. Buds 6-10 on the primary shoot gave higher frequencies of recognizable mutations than either buds 1-5 or 11-15. Preliminary results seem to indicate that, at least in some apple cultivars, there is opportunity to obtain compact growth types with good biological characteristics. 8 refs. (author)

  9. Promiscuity and the evolution of cooperative breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Helen C; El Mouden, Claire; Wild, Geoff; West, Stuart

    2012-04-07

    Empirical data suggest that low levels of promiscuity have played a key role in the evolution of cooperative breeding and eusociality. However, from a theoretical perspective, low levels of promiscuity can favour dispersal away from the natal patch, and have been argued to select against cooperation in a way that cannot be explained by inclusive fitness theory. Here, we use an inclusive fitness approach to model selection to stay and help in a simple patch-structured population, with strict density dependence, where helping increases the survival of the breeder on the patch. Our model predicts that the level of promiscuity has either no influence or a slightly positive influence on selection for helping. This prediction is driven by the fact that, in our model, staying to help leads to increased competition between relatives for the breeding position-when promiscuity is low (and relatedness is high), the best way to aid relatives is by dispersing to avoid competing with them. Furthermore, we found the same results with an individual-based simulation, showing that this is not an area where inclusive fitness theory 'gets it wrong'. We suggest that our predicted influence of promiscuity is sensitive to biological assumptions, and that if a possibly more biologically relevant scenario were examined, where helping provided fecundity benefits and there was not strict density dependence, then low levels of promiscuity would favour helping, as has been observed empirically.

  10. [Book review] Massachusetts breeding bird atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Chandler S.

    2005-01-01

    A glance at the dust jacket of this handsome volume drives home the conservation message that breeding bird atlases are designed to promote—that bird populations are changing over vast areas and, unless we become aware of changes in status and take remedial action, some species will disappear from our neighborhoods and even our county or state. A case in point involves the closely related Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) and Blue- winged Warbler (Vermivora pinus). The males are shown in the atlas with their breeding distribution maps. When I was an active birder in the Boston suburbs in the 1930s, the Golden-winged Warbler was a common breeder and it was a treat to find a Blue-winged Warbler. The atlas map 40 years later (1974–1979) shows only five confirmed records statewide for the Golden-winged Warbler, compared with 73 for the Blue-winged Warbler, and the Golden-winged Warbler is now listed as endangered by the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. Nationally, it is a species of management concern.

  11. Tornadic storm avoidance behavior in breeding songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Buehler, David A.; Andersen, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Migration is a common behavior used by animals of many taxa to occupy different habitats during different periods. Migrant birds are categorized as either facultative (i.e., those that are forced to migrate by some proximal cue, often weather) or obligate (i.e., those that migrate on a regular cycle). During migration, obligate migrants can curtail or delay flights in response to inclement weather or until favorable winds prevail, and they can temporarily reorient or reverse direction when ecological or meteorological obstacles are encountered. However, it is not known whether obligate migrants undertake facultative migrations and make large-scale movements in response to proximal cues outside of their regular migration periods. Here, we present the first documentation of obligate long-distance migrant birds undertaking a facultative migration, wherein breeding golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) carrying light-level geolocators performed a >1,500 km 5-day circumvention of a severe tornadic storm. The birds evacuated their breeding territories >24 hr before the arrival of the storm and atmospheric variation associated with it. The probable cue, radiating >1,000 km from tornadic storms, perceived by birds and influencing bird behavior and movements, is infrasound (i.e., sound below the range of human hearing). With the predicted increase in severity and frequency of similar storms as anthropogenic climate change progresses, understanding large-scale behavioral responses of animals to such events will be an important objective of future research.

  12. IMPLEMENTATION OF DNA MARKERS TO IMPROVE BREEDING OF FORAGE LEGUMES

    OpenAIRE

    S. Grljušić; M. Tucak; T. Čupić; S. Popović

    2008-01-01

    The low rates of estimated genetic gains in forage legumes breeding have emphasized the need for new breeding methods that would increase efficiency in forage selection and provide reliable improvement. Information on application of molecular methodologies and tools for the enhancement of the current empirical phenotype-based selection moved us toward implementation of DNA markers to our breeding activities. Firstly, attention was given to identification of genetic variability within the fora...

  13. Economic and agricultural impact of mutation breeding in fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel Roy, P.

    1990-01-01

    Constraints of conventional cross breeding in fruit trees, wide market acceptance of definite cultivars, especially in apple, pear, citrus and wine grape, and the increased impact of natural mutants provide incentives for mutation breeding. Only few induced mutants in fruit trees have been commercialized and are being planted on a large scale. The main method followed in mutation breeding of tree fruit has been acute irradiation of meristematic multicellular buds but, Chimera formation and reversion present a serious problem. 87 refs, 4 tabs

  14. Uncertain breeding: a short history of reproduction in monotremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple-Smith, P; Grant, T

    2001-01-01

    Although much is known about the biology of monotremes, many important aspects of their reproduction remain unclear. Studies over the last century have provided valuable information on various aspects of monotreme reproduction including the structure and function of their reproductive system, breeding behaviour, sex determination and seasonality. All three living genera of monotremes have been successfully maintained in captivity, often for long periods, yet breeding has been rare and unpredictable. When breeding has occurred, however, significant gains in knowledge have ensued; for example a more accurate estimate of the gestation period of the platypus and the incubation period for the Tachyglossus egg. One of the great challenges for zoos has been to understand why breeding of monotremes is difficult to achieve. Analysis of breeding successes of platypuses and short-beaked echidnas provides some insights. The evidence suggests that although annual breeding seasons are regionally predictable, individual adult females breed unpredictably, with some showing breeding intervals of many years. The reason for this variation in individual breeding intervals may be resource-dependant, influenced by social factors or may even be genetically induced. Better knowledge of factors that influence breeding intervals may improve the success of monotreme captive breeding programmes. More certainty in captive breeding is also an important issue for enterprises wishing to trade in Australian wildlife since current legislation limits export of Australian fauna for display to at least second-generation captive-bred individuals. Given their unique evolutionary position, knowledge of reproduction in monotremes needs to be gained in advance of any future population declines so that appropriate strategies can be developed to ensure their survival.

  15. Maternal genealogical patterns of chicken breeds sampled in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Hocking, P M; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genealogical pattern of chicken breeds sampled in Europe. Sequence polymorphisms of 1256 chickens of the hypervariable region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used. Median-joining networks were constructed to establish evolutionary relationships among mtDNA haplotypes of chickens, which included a wide range of breeds with different origin and history. Chicken breeds which have had their roots in Europe for more than 3000 years were categorized by their founding regions, encompassing Mediterranean type, East European type and Northwest European type. Breeds which were introduced to Europe from Asia since the mid-19th century were classified as Asian type, and breeds based on crossbreeding between Asian breeds and European breeds were classified as Intermediate type. The last group, Game birds, included fighting birds from Asia. The classification of mtDNA haplotypes was based on Liu et al.'s (2006) nomenclature. Haplogroup E was the predominant clade among the European chicken breeds. The results showed, on average, the highest number of haplotypes, highest haplotype diversity, and highest nucleotide diversity for Asian type breeds, followed by Intermediate type chickens. East European and Northwest European breeds had lower haplotype and nucleotide diversity compared to Mediterranean, Intermediate, Game and Asian type breeds. Results of our study support earlier findings that chicken breeds sampled in Europe have their roots in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia. This is consistent with historical and archaeological evidence of chicken migration routes to Europe. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  16. Offspring sex ratio bias and sex related characteristics of eggs in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factors influencing sex of egg and sex ratio in laying chicken may lead to finding potential solutions for the problem of killing of day old male chicks, which is the current practice in breeding of laying hens. In studies described in this thesis, it was investigated if the sex of

  17. Offspring sex ratio bias and sex related characteristics of eggs in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factors influencing sex of egg and sex ratio in laying chicken may lead to finding potential solutions for the problem of killing of day old male chicks, which is the current practice in breeding of laying hens. In studies described in this thesis, it was investigated if the sex

  18. The influence of stocking rate and male:female ratio on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding ostriches are concentrated on relatively small areas and through trampling have a most significant impact on the vegetation in the Little Karoo. Reproductive performance, as influenced by stocking rate and M:F ratio, was investigated. Stocking rates for the large flocks ranged from 114 to 210 birds/ha, and stocking ...

  19. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    There have been a number of important events related to the activity of the Plant Breeding and Genetics sub-programme in the past six months. The joint FAO/IAEA RCMs on 'Molecular characterization of mutated genes controlling important traits for seed crop improvement' and 'Mutational analysis of root characters in annual food plants related to plant performance' were held in June, in Krakow, Poland. It was the third RCM of the CRP on crop plant genomics and the second in the CRP on root systems. More than 40 scientists from twenty countries participated in the meeting. Significant progress was achieved in presented projects of diverse areas of both CRPs. Although genomics and root genetics are methodologically among the most rapidly developing disciplines, the participants successfully tried to follow the latest developments. The Consultants Meeting on 'Physical mapping technologies for the identification and characterization of mutated genes contributing to crop quality' was also held in June, in Vienna. Physical mapping technologies provide new tools for the rapid advancement of breeding programs and are highly applicable to neglected crops in developing countries. Furthermore, they open new opportunities for developing modern approaches to plant improvement research. Consultants recommended the organization of a Co-ordinated Research Project dealing with application of these new technologies to breeding programmes with the use of induced mutations for crop improvement. It is expected that the new CRP will be initiated this year. In close collaboration with EU COST 851 'Gametic cells and molecular breeding for crop improvement' project we started with preparation and editing of a book on 'Doubled haploid production in crop plants. A manual'. More than 40 manuscripts were collected, reviewed by a team of EU COST 851 experts and are now in the final editing phase. Similarly, we finished editorial work on publishing the training material from the FAO/IAEA Training

  20. A New Rose of Sharon Variety, 'Changhae' Developed by A Mutation Breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H.S.; Park, I.S.; Lim, Y.T.; Kim, J.K.; Lee, G.J.; Kim, D.S.; Kim, J.B.; Kang, S.Y.

    2006-01-01

    'Changhae' is a new Hibiscus variety developed by a mutation breeding by using a gamma ray irradiation. One hundred seeds of the original variety, 'Suminokura', grown in a breeding field in the Namyangju, Gyeonggi Province were irradiated with a 100 Gy gamma ray from a ∨60Co source at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in 1993 (Fig. 1). The original variety, 'Suminokura' belonged to the I-b category represented by a single flower, with an intermediate ratio of petal length/petal width, and a red purple color with a red-eye in the center of it's flower

  1. Tritium breeding in DT-DD hybrid pellet for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Haruhiko; Kawata, Shigeo; Niu, Keishiro.

    1983-06-01

    The phenomenology of thermonuclear burn with a secondary reaction is investigated by using a method of numerical simulation for a DT-DD hybrid pellet with a high density. The simulation is carried out by use of a one-dimensional hydrodynamic Lagrangian code, showing the capability of tritium breeding in the hybrid pellet. The breeding ratio in the pellet is clarified to be able to exceed unity when the following two conditions are satisfied. 1) The amount of tritium is remarkably less than the amount of deuterium initially stored in the pellet, so that the amount of tritium produced by DD reactions is beyond the initial amount of tritium. 2) The pellet has a so high temperature and a so high rhoR, that the amount of tritium does not decrease anomalously through the secondary DT reaction, because the rate of DT reactions decreases as the temperature increases above 70 keV. (author)

  2. Owner perceived differences between mixed-breed and purebred dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borbála Turcsán

    Full Text Available Studies about the behaviours of mixed-breed dogs are rare, although mixed-breeds represent the majority of the world's dog population. We have conducted two surveys to investigate the behavioural, demographic, and dog keeping differences between purebred and mixed-breed companion dogs. Questionnaire data were collected on a large sample of dogs living in Germany (N = 7,700 purebred dogs representing more than 200 breeds, and N = 7,691 mixed-breeds. We found that according to their owners, mixed-breeds were (1 less calm, (2 less sociable toward other dogs, and (3 showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p 10% differences: neutering was more frequent among mixed-breeds, and they were acquired at older ages than purebreds (p < 0.001 for both, which could result in the observed behaviour differences. After controlling for the distribution of the demographic and dog keeping factors, we found that mixed-breeds were (1 more trainable than purebreds, (2 less calm, and (3 showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p < 0.001 for all. We discuss that these differences at least partly might be due to selective forces. Our results suggest that instead of being the "average" dogs, mixed-breeds represent a special group with characteristic behavioural traits.

  3. Selective breeding programmes for medium-sized fish farms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tave, Douglas

    1995-01-01

    .... This manual contains chapters on general principles, basic genetics, selection for qualitative phenotypes, selection for quantitative phenotypes, and how to conduct simple selective breeding programmes...

  4. Conventional breeding strategies to enhance the sustainability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conventional breeding strategies to enhance the sustainability of Musa biodiversity conservation for endemic cultivars. M Pillay, R Ssebuliba, J Hartman, D Vuylsteke, D Talengera, W Tushemereirwe ...

  5. Will genomic selection be a practical method for plant breeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Akihiro; Isobe, Sachiko N

    2012-11-01

    Genomic selection or genome-wide selection (GS) has been highlighted as a new approach for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in recent years. GS is a form of MAS that selects favourable individuals based on genomic estimated breeding values. Previous studies have suggested the utility of GS, especially for capturing small-effect quantitative trait loci, but GS has not become a popular methodology in the field of plant breeding, possibly because there is insufficient information available on GS for practical use. In this review, GS is discussed from a practical breeding viewpoint. Statistical approaches employed in GS are briefly described, before the recent progress in GS studies is surveyed. GS practices in plant breeding are then reviewed before future prospects are discussed. Statistical concepts used in GS are discussed with genetic models and variance decomposition, heritability, breeding value and linear model. Recent progress in GS studies is reviewed with a focus on empirical studies. For the practice of GS in plant breeding, several specific points are discussed including linkage disequilibrium, feature of populations and genotyped markers and breeding scheme. Currently, GS is not perfect, but it is a potent, attractive and valuable approach for plant breeding. This method will be integrated into many practical breeding programmes in the near future with further advances and the maturing of its theory.

  6. Population viability analysis on domestic horse breeds (Equus caballus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Bach, Lars; Loeschcke, Volker

    2009-01-01

    management scenarios in which one of the studbooks was closed. According to the Vortex analysis, 2 of the breeds (Knabstrupper and Jutland) will persist for the next 200 yr, whereas the smaller breed (Frederiksborg) could become extinct within 40 yr. The sensitivity analyses indicated that the variables...... (Frederiksborg ) at its present 30% level. Monitoring of the breeds in the future, however, may be exploited to adjust the breeding strategies. We suggest that the large amount of data required by Vortex makes it very useful for analyzing domestic animals because of the comprehensive data material often...

  7. On the Breeds of Cattle - Historic and Current Classifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felius, Marleen; Koolmees, Peter A; Theunissen, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Classification of cattle breeds contributes to our understanding of the history of cattle and is essential for an effective conservation of genetic diversity. Here we review the various classifications over the last two centuries and compare the most recent classifications with genetic data....... This is largely in agreement with the breed clusters indicated by a biochemical and molecular genetic analysis, which reflect either groups of breeds with a common geographic origin or single breeds that have expanded by export and/or crossbreeding. We propose that this information is also relevant for managing...

  8. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    Implementation of a new CRP on Physical mapping technologies for the identification and characterization of mutated genes contributing to crop quality, organization of mutant germplasm database and repository, implementation of new TC projects and activation of work on molecular characterization of Musa putative germplasm as well as sequencing of BAC clones were the major activities of our sub-Programme on Plant Breeding and Genetics during the last six months. A lot of work has been concentrated on organizing a mutant germplasm repository. The first collections of rice and linseed mutants have already arrived and their descriptions have been introduced into the mutated germplasm database. We found this activity especially important to stimulate exchange of crop germplasm among plant breeders. Similarly there is an urgent need to collect mutants of various crops as necessary material for functional genomics and germplasm enhancement. Nevertheless, many crop research institutes are initiating large-scale mutation programmes with the use of their own plant material. To help them in selecting the mutagen, doses and mutation treatment procedure, we published the third issue of Mutation Breeding Newsletter Index of No. 21-44. The Index is also available through our website http://www.iaea.org/programmes/nafa/d2/index.html. The numerous requests for issues of the Mutation Breeding Newsletter already received from various countries indicate the value of this 80-page index for plant breeders and research institutes. We were invited to present the activities, achievements and trends of our sub-Programme at two very important, international meetings: The International Conference on the Status of Plant and Animal Genome Research, known as the Plant and Animal Genome (PAG XI), and The International Congress on 'In the Wake of the Double Helix - From the Green Revolution to the Gene Revolution'. At this last meeting, an initiative was taken to organize the Crop Root Research

  9. BREEDING AND UTILIZATION OF ARABIAN HORSE TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Mandić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Arab horse raising has a hundred year old tradition. A real stud farm raising started by purchasing original reproductive material from Asia in 1895, 1897 and 1899. Apart from state stud in Goražde, Arab horse was also raised in several private stud farms, especially in Slavonia and Srijem region. By the end of the II World war Arab horse raising was restricted to only 2-3 stud farms, regardless the above mentioned oldest Arab stud farm Goražde. According to reports refering to end of 1940 in former Yugoslavia there were slightly more than 150 grown up thoroughbred Arab heads, stallions and mares in both private and public property. A number of well known stud farms was reduced, thus, Arab horse raising was limited only to stud farms Goražde, Inocens Dvor and Karađorđevo. Sires were mostly used in Bosnian-mountain horse breeding whereas in plain areas they were used for ceossing with heavy draft mares or raising of, in that time numerous represented, nonius breed. The year 1970 was characterized by Arab horses reduction, thereby raising stagnation. Horse raising was closed, so, 77 Sabich stallion, bought in Germany, started again Arab horse raising, firstly in Goražde. It was also attributed by raising establishment of agricultural economy Višnjica near Slatina. At the same time Arab horse raising increased slowly at individual raisers in Kutina, Vrbovsko, Istria, Čađavica and Zagreb vicinity. According to available data from 1999 there were approx. 132 stallions and mares due to horse raisers scattered throught Croatia. All male and female reproductive heads were mostly used as raising heads for thoroughbred raising or for crossing with other breeds which is justified by the data from the period 1930-1935. On the other hand one part of reproductive heads, especially males, were used as sports heads for gallop races and distance riding as Arab horses were used by their arrival to present areas and by Arab horse raising tradition.

  10. Cholistan and Cholistani Breed of Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Farooq, H. A. Samad*, F. Sher1, M. Asim1 and M. Arif Khan2

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cholistan, once a green and prosperous land with the source of water being the ancient Hakra River, was also the cradle of great Hakra Valley Civilization. It is sprawled at an area of 26,000 Km2, located between the latitudes 27º42´and 29º45´North and longitudes 69º52´and 75º24´East. The bioclimatic system of Cholistan falls under the category of “tropical desert” with very scanty rainfall. Geomorphologically, the soils of Cholistan are a complex blend of river alluvium and Aeolin sands. Based on topography, type of soil and vegetation, this desert is divided into two geomorphic regions: the Lesser Cholistan (the Northern 7,770 Km² region and the Greater Cholistan (the Southern 18,130 Km² region. The primary source of water is rainfall which is utilized through natural depressions or man-made ponds called “Tobas” and “Dahars.” The secondary source is underground water which is brackish and salty and not fit for human/animal consumption. Two livestock production systems prevail under pastoralism in Cholistan viz. transhumanie and nomadic. Despite an uncertain, unpredictable rainfall, low humidity and extremes in temperatures, Cholistan has long been famous for raising different breeds of livestock, contributing a significant share to national milk, meat and wool output. The total livestock population estimated during 2006 was 12,09528, out of which 47% were cattle. Cholistani cattle are considered to be ancestor of the Sahiwal and are a thermo-tolerant, tick-resistant breed. Preliminary data on some productive and reproductive traits of Cholistani cows maintained at Govt. Livestock Station, Jugait Peer, Bahawalpur during the period 2005 to 2009 revealed the avergae values for the productive traits i.e. lactation length, lactation yield, dry period, service period and fat percentage in milk as 165 days, 1235 liters, 155 days, 121 days and 4.8%, respectively. Similarly, the average values for reproductive traits i.e. age at

  11. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The most important event related to the activity of the Plant Breeding and Genetics sub-programme in the past six months was the 2nd FAO/IAEA Interregional Training Course on 'Mutant Germplasm Characterization using Molecular Markers' which was held at Seibersdorf, 4-29 November 2002. In addition to basic molecular and marker techniques, which were also a subject of the first training course last year, fluorescence in situ hybridisation methods were included in the teaching and demonstration programme. As we informed you in the last edition of this Newsletter, a laboratory manual was published with detailed protocols on molecular markers techniques entitled 'Mutant germplasm characterization using molecular markers. A Manual'. (IAEA Training Course Series No. 19). (available for free distribution under conditions provided on page 11 of this Newsletter). We have also finished editing a book on 'Doubled haploid production in crop plants. A Manual.' This book was prepared in close collaboration with EU COST 851 activities. Ken Kasha (Canada), Brian Forster (UK) and lwona Szarejko (Poland) helped to edit more than 40 protocols for doubled haploid production in at least 23 crop species. The preparation of this manual reflects our our interest in the development and application of this technology for crop improvement. Two CRPs and numerous Technical Co-operation projects greatly contributed to the development of doubled haploid methods and also to implementation of this technology in crop improvement programmes of many countries. Numerous other important activities have been undertaken by the Plant Breeding and Genetics sub-programme during the last 6 months. A consultants meeting on 'Low cost technology in plant tissue culture' was held in Vienna and its results will be summarized in the form of an IAEA-TECDOC which is now in the final stage of preparation. In addition to the implementation of five Co-ordinated Research Projects, nine workshops and national or regional

  12. RESULTS AND PROSPECTS OF PEA BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Kotlyar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the laboratory of leguminous crops of the “All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of vegetable breeding and seed production”, more than 100 samples of pea are studied annually. As a result, pre-breeding collection of the sources of agronomical valuable traits was developed. It is utilized for development of new pea varieties resistant to lodging. In 2012- 2014, the crossing were conducted. As a result of selection in F2-F6, the lines of different groups of maturity with lodging resistance were selected. These transgressing forms are suitable for canning, deep freezing, and drying. The following samples are recommended for development of high yielded varieties: «102- 82А5Б4» is the middle-early variety, the progenitor of early ripening cv. «Korsar» applied for the state variety trial in 2015 and two promising samples «15 КСИ 15» and «9 КСИ». The «16-05» is the middle-early variety, the transgressive form for the trait «seed amount per nod» with high attachment of lower bean. The sample «K-8915» is the middle-early genotype, high productive, with high attachment of lower bean. The sample «Troyika» is recommended for development of high productive, late ripening initial breeding material. As a result of step crossing this sample is characterized by late maturity, by three bean per nod, and by high attaching of lower bean. The sample «CM-10 m» is distinct in the aphyllous type of leaf, resistance to powdery mildew, paired bean, suitable for canning and drying. This sample was selected as a transgressive form for stem anatomy structure (spongy cell tissue from sample developed by complex step hybridization. Owing the distinctive feature in the stem anatomy structure, this sample can be recommended as a main parental form for development of varieties resistant to lodging.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA of seven Italian sheep breeds shows faint signatures of domestication and suggests recent breed formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Marco; Valentini, Alessio; Marsan, Paolo Ajmone; Pariset, Lorraine

    2013-10-01

    Italy represented a crucial zone for migration and formation of sheep breeds. However, few data on Italian breeds have been published so far. We analysed seven Italian sheep breeds using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing to gain information on their genetic diversity and history. A 721 bp mtDNA control region fragment was amplified and sequenced in a total of 138 samples belonging to seven breeds and to Italian mohuflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) to investigate genetic diversity and phylogenetic evolution. We retrieved 68 variable sites and 79 haplotypes. The sheep breeds in our study are quite diverse, and phylogenetic analyses resulted in 3.6% of the samples belonging to A, 2.2% to D and 94.2% to B mtDNA haplogroups. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed a separation of breeds on both dimensions. The results of this study provide data on Italian breeds, presently scarcely investigated, and contribute to the knowledge of Italian sheep breeds and will be useful to the understanding of population genetics and breed evolution.

  14. The human operational sex ratio: effects of marriage, concealed ovulation, and menopause on mate competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J Colette

    2012-12-01

    Among mammals, male-male competition for sexual access to females frequently involves fighting. Larger body size gives males an advantage in fighting, which explains why males tend to be larger than females in many species, including anthropoid primates. Mitani et al. derived a formula to measure the operational sex ratio (OSR) to reflect the degree of male-male competition using the number of reproductively available males to females who are cycling and capable of conceiving. The OSR should predict the degree of sexual dimorphism in body mass-at least if male-male competition involves much fighting or threatening. Here, we use hunter-gatherer demographic data and the Mitani et al. formula to calculate the human OSR. We show that humans have a much lower degree of body mass sexual dimorphism than is predicted by our OSR. We suggest this is because human competition rarely involves fighting. In human hunter-gatherer societies, differences in the ages of marriage have an impact on competition in that the age of males at first marriage is younger when there is a lower percentage of married men with two or more wives, and older when there is a higher percentage of married men with two or more wives. We discuss the implications of this for females, along with the effects of two key life history traits that influence the OSR, concealed ovulation and menopause. While menopause decreases the number of reproductively available females to males and thus increases male-male competition, concealed ovulation decreases male-male competition. Finally, we discuss the importance of mostly monogamous mate bonds in human evolution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CAGE BREEDING OF WARM WATER FRESHWATER FISH SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Safner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, Croatia became actively involved in the contemporary trend of breeding fish in floating cages. In addition to various species of marine fishes, breeding was attempted with trout, carp, catfish, cisco and salmon. Of the above freshwater fish species, specific standards were established only for the cage breeding of rainbow trout. Cage breeding of the remaining species remained at the level of occasional attempts, with more of an experimental than a commercial character. The regular attempts to master this technique for cage breeding of warm water freshwater fish species were aimed at achieving the known benefits of such breeding, such as simplicity of implementing technological measures, easier establishment of the breeding system, simpler manipulation, the possibility of denser colonies per unit volume with a high level of production, easier adaptations to market conditions and fewer initial structural investments. Despite the many advantages, the main reasons for the lack of greater implementation of the cage breeding technology for warm water species of freshwater fish include problems in obtaining the appropriate category and quantity of healthy fry, the specificity and applicability of physical and chemical properties of the recipients and human error. In evaluating the advantages and disadvantages, the final decision on the justification of cage breeding for individual warm water freshwater species must be based on both biological and economic factors. Based on the knowledge of cage breeding acquired to date, the rule for virtually all intensive breeding systems is that it is only recommended for those species with high market demand and a high market price. The technology that demands nutrition with highly concentrated feed and other production expenditures is costly, and is therefore not profitable with less expensive fish species. Furthermore, production must be market oriented, i.e. the appropriate market research measures

  16. Terms and definitions of conversion ratio for High Conversion Light Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Shoichiro

    1990-01-01

    Conversion ratio is an important index as a term to indicate fuel source utilization. It was used to indicate breeding ratio in FBR and its definition was discussed in the paper. Studies for High Conversion Light Water Reactor have been started and the conversion ratio has been used as an index of fuel utilization. Its definition is not unique and there are some confusions among the papers. In this data the author tries to review various definitions of conversion ratio and clarify their physical meaning and its relation among the definitions. (author)

  17. Issues and perspectives in dairy sheep breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierlorenzo Secchiari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review consists of two parts. In the first part, the authors briefly describe the state of the art of breedingprogrammes for Italian dairy sheep; then they report new models for genetic evaluation and consider the problem ofgenotype x environment interaction and the impact of farming systems on the genetic merit of animals. In the secondpart new breeding goals regarding the evolution of milk quality concept and the increasing importance of functional traitsare reported. Regarding milk quality, the authors especially focus on the traits related to cheese-making ability and onthe nutraceutical aspects of milk. Among functional traits, resistance to diseases (mastitis and Scrapie has been highlightedfor its great importance in livestock species. Finally, the perspectives of marker-assisted selection have also beenreported.

  18. Breeding Potential in Danish Apple Cultivar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne

    The diversity in plant genetic resources is a prerequisite for genetic improvement of cultivated crop species. Lack of in-depth characterization and evaluation of gene bank accessions is a major obstacle for their potential utilization. The Danish apple (Malus domestica L.) gene bank collection...... previously reported. Unique fingerprints were obtained for all accessions except for distinctive subclonal sports and synonym accessions. The cultivar ensemble was shown to hold 22% triploid accessions. We developed a new protocol for genotyping S-RNase alleles in apple and revealed 25 different alleles....... In addition, several of the SNP markers presented can be used directly in selection for specific traits in breeding lines. However, further characterization and evaluation of additional important horticultural traits are still needed for upmost utilization of the apple gene bank collection....

  19. Development of Radiation Breeding Technology of Macroalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jongil; Park, J. H.; Song, B. S.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, H. J.; Yang, H. Y.

    2013-01-15

    Macroalgae has been utilized as food material from long time ago, and recently newly recognized as functional materials and the source of bio-fuel. But, the study on the macroalgae is just beginning and the study on radiation effect and radiation breeding technology was not reported. In this study, the effect of radiation on the macroalgae Porphyra was investigated for the development of new mutant strains. Prphyra was successively cultivated in the laboratory chamber with optimized growth condition. Also, the radiation sensitivity of Porphyra was determined. To develop the mutant strain, irradiated Porphyra strains were screened for better growth and higher resistance against oxidative stress. The selected Porphyra was further cultivated in ocean site. Also, several genes from mutant Porphyra was heterologous expressed and studied for its dunctionality. This results can provide mutation technology of macroalgae and further contribute in the activation of fishery industry and national health enhancement.

  20. Studies on mutation breeding of hibiscus Syriacus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Heui Sub; Lee, Ki Woon; Im, Yong Taek

    1994-12-01

    Hibiscus(Hibiscus syracuse L.) has been know as a national flower of Korea science old times. Although there are some ancient records that the Hibiscus had been planted in large quantities in Korea, Japanese had dug out all the good plants of Hibiscus in this country during their colonial period. But Hibiscus has such a characteristics of self-incompatibility that all the plants exist as a hybrid naturally and have heterogeneous genes. Therefore many good characters can be taken out from the surviving plants. Many domestic 78 varieties of Hibiscus syracuse were collected and propagated 26 varieties cuttings. Radiosensitivity of gamma-ray irradiated Hibiscus syracuse were investigated the germination rate, survival rate, plant height was with the increase of 4 kR better than control. The radiation doses of 10-12 kR are recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus. 6 figs, 11 tabs, 41 refs. (Author)

  1. Studies on mutation breeding of hibiscus Syriacus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Heui Sub; Lee, Ki Woon; Im, Yong Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Hibiscus(Hibiscus syracuse L.) has been know as a national flower of Korea science old times. Although there are some ancient records that the Hibiscus had been planted in large quantities in Korea, Japanese had dug out all the good plants of Hibiscus in this country during their colonial period. But Hibiscus has such a characteristics of self-incompatibility that all the plants exist as a hybrid naturally and have heterogeneous genes. Therefore many good characters can be taken out from the surviving plants. Many domestic 78 varieties of Hibiscus syracuse were collected and propagated 26 varieties cuttings. Radiosensitivity of gamma-ray irradiated Hibiscus syracuse were investigated the germination rate, survival rate, plant height was with the increase of 4 kR better than control. The radiation doses of 10-12 kR are recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus. 6 figs, 11 tabs, 41 refs. (Author).

  2. Breeding objectives for Angus and Charolais specialized sire lines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding indigenous cows to terminal sires may facilitate production of calves in the emerging sector that better meet commercial feedlot requirements. ... On average, relative emphasis given to breeding values for survival, direct weaning weight, postweaning daily gain, postweaning daily feed intake, dressing percent, and ...

  3. Food abundance explains the breeding season of a tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The timing of breeding in birds is a life-history trait that generally depends on food availability, but other factors may play a role, particularly in tropical areas where food availability is less seasonal than in temperate or polar areas. We studied the factors affecting the breeding season of the Crab Plover Dromas ardeola, ...

  4. Acceleration of peanut breeding programs by molecular marker assisted selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut breeding has played a significant role in yield increases and disease control. Conventional breeding focuses on field selection and phenotypic analysis and it typically takes 12-15 years before a new cultivar can be released. Molecular markers developed from sequencing data can be of great ...

  5. Reproductive biology and breeding of Barbus paludinosus and B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before the rainy season, Barbus migrate to the marshes, marginal swamps and the Mnembo River mouth to breed. Fishery management recommendations to ensure successful breeding and recruitment of Barbus into the fishery include: (1) a closed season for active fishing gears targeting Barbus spp. and juvenile tilapias ...

  6. Index-in-retrospect and breeding objectives characterizing genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicate that relatively little directional selection has been applied to Nguni as a breed, and that historically bulls and heifers were selected according to divergent criteria. Breeding objectives indicated that production, profitability and sustainability goals were largely complementary, but reflected a change from past ...

  7. An update on conventional and molecular breeding approaches for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2014-03-05

    Mar 5, 2014 ... Gossypium hirsutum is the most cultivated species in many countries. Breeding for high cotton yield is still the primary goal of cotton breeding programs, but improving fibre quality has become increasingly important. The enhancement of fibre quality traits like fibre length, strength, and fibre fineness is an.

  8. Sheep resources of Ethiopia : genetic diversity and breeding strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebremichael, S.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty percent of the world domestic animal breeds are classified as being “at risk” of extinction. Seventy percent of the mammalian breeds, for which no risk status data are available, are found in the developing world. This is a serious constraint to effective prioritization and planning of

  9. Genetic trends in South African terminal sire sheep breeds | Zishiri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science ... Genetic trends were constructed for early growth traits in the Dormer and Ile de France terminal sire sheep breeds. The traits that ... Regressions of average annual breeding values on birth year indicated significant genetic gains in all early growth traits during the evaluation period.

  10. The responses of three nigerian indigenous goat breeds to primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Responses of three Nigerian breeds of goat; Red Sokoto (RS), West African Dwarf (WAD) and Sahel White (SW) were investigated following primary and secondary experimental infections ... On day 42 post infection, (n=12) goats, (4 per breed) of the infected animals were humanely euthanized and worm count determined.

  11. Hematological and male hormonal profile of two cattle breeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baseline data on the hematology of White Fulani and Muturu breeds of Cattle have been reported. However, very few documented studies have been carried out with regards to the reproductive hormonal profile of these breeds. Satisfactory reproductive performance is important to effective management and production as a ...

  12. Intellectual Property Rights in the Breeding Industry : Farmers’ Interests

    OpenAIRE

    Niels Louwaars; Rob Tripp; Derek Eaton

    2006-01-01

    Intellectual property rights (IPRs) in plant breeding are being introduced or strengthened in developing countries as a result of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) of the World Trade Organization. Although living organisms have traditionally been excluded from patent protection, pressures to promote plant breeding in several industrialized coun...

  13. Validating the breeding value for maternal preweaning gain in beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Validating the breeding value for maternal preweaning gain in beef cattle with measured milk production. MD MacNeil, VR Leesburg, TB Mott. Abstract. The objective of this research was to validate the maternal breeding value for preweaning gain as a predictor of genetic differences in milk production. Phenotypic variation ...

  14. Developing a typology for local cattle breed farmers in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soini, K.; Diaz, C.; Gandini, G.; Haas, de Y.; Lilja, T.; Martin-Collado, D.; Pizzi, F.; Hiemstra, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing cultural diversity among local breed farmers is crucial for the successful development and implementation of farm animal genetic resources FAnGr conservation policies and programmes. In this study based on survey data collected in the EUropean REgional CAttle breeds project from six

  15. Breeding ecology of the Seychelles Black Parrot Coracopsis barklyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of breeding ecology is required for many conservation interventions. The Seychelles Black Parrot Coracopsis barklyi, endemic to the island of Praslin, is vulnerable to extinction. We aimed to improve understanding of C. barklyi breeding ecology to aid conservation planning. We present the results of four years of ...

  16. The breeding biology of the greywing francolin Francolinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1992-03-13

    Mar 13, 1992 ... We studied the breeding biology of the greywing francolin Francolinus africanus on the Stormberg Plateau of the eastern Cape Province, South Africa during 1988-1991. Timing of breeding, nesting behaviour, clutch size, egg size, and clutch survival rates were recorded and compared with published and ...

  17. Genetic variation of indigenous chicken breeds in China and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Genetic variation of indigenous chicken breeds in China and a Recessive White breed using AFLP fingerprinting. Yushi Gao. 1,2#. , Yunjie Tu. 1,2. , Haibin Tong. 1. , Kehua Wang. 1. , Xiujun Tang. 1 and Kuanwei Chen. 1. 1 Institute of Poultry, Academy of Agricultural Sciences in China, Yangzhou, 225003, Jiangsu, China.

  18. The effect of cat Felis catus predation on three breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding success of Pterodroma macroptera, Procellaria aequinoctialis and Pachyptila vittata salvini in three cat-free and three control areas were used to evaluate the effects of cat Felis catus predation on the avifauna of Marion Island. Breeding success of all three species was significantly higher in the combined cat-free ...

  19. Some factors itilluencing the breeding season of Praomys natalensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of a demographic study of Praomys nata/ensis in an agricultural area on the Rhodesian highveld, a preliminary investigation was carried out into some of the factors which might be of importance in determining the timing of its breeding season. Information on breeding and nutrition was obtained by both live and ...

  20. A Collaborative Breeding Strategy for Organic Potatoes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    Average potato yields in Dutch organic farming are rather low and variable, due to the disease known as late blight (Phytophthora infestans). Potato breeding companies, organic farmers and breeding scientists from the Louis Bolk Institute and Wageningen University, have joined forces in an umbrella