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Sample records for female woodworkers exposed

  1. Woodworking & housing: impacts & actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Karen. Koenig

    2015-01-01

    The woodworking industry relies heavily on the construction-based markets, particularly those companies involved in cabinetry, furniture, millwork and components. Market conditions, trends and investments all have an impact. It's against this backdrop, that the sixth annual housing market study was conducted in early 2015. A joint effort by Virginia Tech, the U.S...

  2. Evaluation of Nasal Mucociliary Transport Rate by99mTc-Macroaggregated Albumin Rhinoscintigraphy in Woodworkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostbil, Zeki; Polat, Cahit; Uysal, İsmail Önder; Bakır, Salih; Karakuş, Askeri; Altındağ, Serdar

    2011-01-01

    Woodworkers in the furniture industry are exposed to wood dust in their workplaces. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of occupational wood dust exposure on the nasal mucociliary transport rates (NMTRs) in woodworkers. Twenty five woodworkers and 30 healthy controls were included in this study. Wood dust concentration in workplaces was measured using the sampling device. 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin (99mTc-MAA) rhinoscintigraphy was performed, and NMTR was calculated in all cases. In statistical analysis, an independent samples t-test was used to compare NMTR of woodworkers and control subjects. We found that the mean NMTR of the woodworkers was lower than that of the healthy controls. However, there was not a statistically significant difference between them (P = 0.066). In conclusion, our findings suggested that wood dust exposure may not impair nasal mucociliary transport rate in woodworkers employed in joinery workshops. PMID:21804940

  3. Evaluation of Nasal Mucociliary Transport Rate byTc-Macroaggregated Albumin Rhinoscintigraphy in Woodworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostbil, Zeki; Polat, Cahit; Uysal, Ismail Önder; Bakır, Salih; Karakuş, Askeri; Altındağ, Serdar

    2011-01-01

    Woodworkers in the furniture industry are exposed to wood dust in their workplaces. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of occupational wood dust exposure on the nasal mucociliary transport rates (NMTRs) in woodworkers. Twenty five woodworkers and 30 healthy controls were included in this study. Wood dust concentration in workplaces was measured using the sampling device. (99m) Tc-macroaggregated albumin ((99m)Tc-MAA) rhinoscintigraphy was performed, and NMTR was calculated in all cases. In statistical analysis, an independent samples t-test was used to compare NMTR of woodworkers and control subjects. We found that the mean NMTR of the woodworkers was lower than that of the healthy controls. However, there was not a statistically significant difference between them (P = 0.066). In conclusion, our findings suggested that wood dust exposure may not impair nasal mucociliary transport rate in woodworkers employed in joinery workshops.

  4. Impairment of nasal mucociliary clearance in woodworkers in the furniture industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, A.; Evans, J. C.; Hadfield, Esme H.; Macbeth, R. G.; Morgan, A.; Walsh, M.

    1974-01-01

    Black, A., Evans, J. C., Hadfield, Esme H., Macbeth, R. G., Morgan, A., and Walsh, M. (1974).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,31, 10-17. Impairment of nasal mucociliary clearance in woodworkers in the furniture industry. Measurements of mucociliary clearance from the anterior end of the middle turbinate were made using technetium-99m-labelled particles in nine woodworkers from the furniture industry and in 12 controls, none of whom had been occupationally exposed to wood dust. Clearance rates in the controls ranged from 1·9 to 18·5 mm min-1 with a mean of 6·8. These values are in good agreement with measurements reported elsewhere for normal subjects. Only one of the woodworkers had a clearance rate which fell within the normal range and he had been occupationally exposed for the shortest period (6 years). In four woodworkers clearance was very slow (furniture industry for more than 10 years. PMID:4821406

  5. Housing & woodworking: latest trends & impacts

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    Urs Buehlmann; Matt Bumgardner; Karen. Koenig

    2014-01-01

    Trends in housing and other construction-related sectors continue to have a significant impact on the wood products industry, particularly cabinetry, furniture, millwork and components. This fifth annual survey assesses the market conditions for secondary woodworking manufacturers involved in construction-based sectors and includes information on their status and...

  6. Woodworking & housing: Positive trends and actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matt Bumgardner; Karen. Koenig

    2016-01-01

    This exclusive study looks at the housing market's impact on woodworking businesses and the actions taken to increase wood product sales. A majority of the woodworking industry remains intrinsically tied to the housing industry, particularly businesses involved in producing cabinetry, furniture, millwork and components. For that reason, construction market...

  7. Generation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH during woodworking operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evin Danisman Bruschweiler

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposures to wood dust have been associated with an elevated risk of sinonasal cancer (SNC. Wood dust is recognized as a human carcinogen but the specific cancer causative agent remains unknown. One possible explanation is a co-exposure to; wood dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. PAHs could be generated during incomplete combustion of wood due to heat created by use of power tools.To determine if PAHs are generated from wood during common woodworking operations, PAHs concentrations in wood dust samples collected in an experimental chamber operated under controlled conditions were analyzed. In addition, personal air samples from workers exposed to wood dust (n=30 were collected.Wood dust was generated using tree different power tools: vibrating sander, belt sander, and saw; and six wood materials: fir, Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF, beech, mahogany, oak and wood melamine. Monitoring of wood workers was carried out by means of personnel sampler device during wood working operations. We measured 21 PAHs concentrations in wood dust samples by capillary gas chromatographic-ion trap mass spectrometric analysis (GC-MS.Total PAH concentrations in wood dust varied greatly (0.24 – 7.95 ppm with the lowest being in MDF dust and the highest in wood melamine dust. Personal exposures to PAHs observed were between 37.5-119.8 ng m-3 among workers during wood working operations.Our results suggest that PAH exposures during woodworking operation are present and hence could play a role in the mechanism of cancer induction related to wood dust exposure.

  8. Airborne endotoxin in woodworking (joinery) shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Martin; Andrew, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    Symptoms such as shortness of breath and cough have been noted in woodworking facilities even where wood dust itself is well-controlled. Suspicion has fallen on other possible contaminants in the workplace atmosphere, including bacterial endotoxin. A few studies have indicated potentially high endotoxin exposure with exposure to fresh wood in sawmills and in the production of fiberboard and chipboard, but fewer studies have been carried out on exposure to endotoxin in dry wood work, for example in joineries. A study of the endotoxin content of airborne wood dust samples from US woodworking facilities is presented, from the re-analysis of samples which previously had been taken to establish mass collection relationships between the IOM sampler, the closed-face 37 mm plastic cassette (CFC) sampler and the Button sampler. Endotoxin was strongly correlated with total dust, but the endotoxin content of a few fresh wood samples was found to be up to ten times higher per unit of wood dust than for dried-wood samples, and this difference was significant. No long-term time-weighted average sample exceeded the recommended limit value of 50 EU m(-3) (EU, endotoxin units)used in the Netherlands, although a number of the IOM samples came close (seven samples or 44% exceeded 20 EU m(-3)) and one short-term (48 minute) sample registered a high value of 73 EU m(-3). The geometric mean concentration from the IOM samples (11 EU m(-3)) is within the range of geometric means found from Australian joineries (3.7-60, combined: 24 EU m(-3)). In contrast, the corresponding values from the CFC (3.6 EU m(-3)), and the Button sampler (2.1 EU m(-3)) were much lower and no samples exceeded 20 EU m(-3). Endotoxin is likely only to be a significant problem in working with dried woods when associated with very high dust levels, where the wood dust itself is likely to be a cause for concern. The results from the few samples in this study where fresh wood was being worked were similar to results

  9. Sterility among female lizards (Uta stansburiana) exposed to continuous γ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, F.B.; Medica, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    A natural population of the lizard Uta stansburiana occupying a fenced 9-ha area in southern Nevada was exposed to essentially continuous γ irradiation from an arificial source between February 1964 and September 1973. Tissue doses were estimated using implanted lithium fluoride microdosimeters. Females became sterile as early as 11 months of age, but many were still fertile at ages of 20 months and a very few may have reproduced at 32 months. Dosimetry showed some females to be sterile after accumulated doses of around 500 rad, while others may have required 1000 or more rad. One female estimated to have received over 1200 rad was still reproductive. Irradiated females may pass through a state of half sterility, during which time they possess one functional ovary. Female U. stansburiana are sterilized at lower doses than the sterilizing dose (1500 rad) previously suggested for the leopard lizard, Crotaphytus wislizenii

  10. Investment activities in the U.S. secondary woodworking industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Karen. Koenig

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. secondary woodworking industry has shown signs of improvement after the steep losses in sales volume associated with the housing crisis that began in 2007. Employment in several sectors has begun to increase, suggesting that companies that survived the downturn are positioning to increase sales growth. It is likely that investment plans to improve firm-level...

  11. The Woodworker's Website: A Project Management Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jance, Marsha

    2014-01-01

    A case study that focuses on building a website for a woodworking business is discussed. Project management and linear programming techniques can be used to determine the time required to complete the website project discussed in the case. This case can be assigned to students in an undergraduate or graduate decision modeling or management science…

  12. Ergonomics work stations decreases the health impairment and saves electrical energy at the woodworking workshop in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudiajeng, Lilik; Adiputra, Nyoman; Leibbrandt, Richard

    2012-12-01

    This research was conducted to assess the positive effect of the ergonomics work station on the health impairment and electrical energy usage at the woodworking workshop in Bali, Indonesia. Woodworking workshops are dangerous, particularly when they are used improperly. Workers are exposed to health hazards that cause health impairment and inefficiencies in their work conditions. A preliminary study at a woodworking workshop at the Bali State Polytechnic showed that the work station was not suitable to body size of the participants and caused awkward postures. In addition, there was also an inappropriate physical work environment. Both inappropriate work station and physical work environment caused participants to be less active and motivated. This paper reports on an experimental study into the effects of an ergonomic intervention at this workshop. The participants were 2 groups of male students with 10 participants in each group. The first group performed the task with the original work station as a control group, while the second group performed the task with the new work station. The study found a significant difference between groups (p work station decreased the working heart rate (16.7%), the total score of musculoskeletal disorders (17.3%), and the total score of psychological fatigue (21.5%). Furthermore, it also decreased the electrical energy usage (38.7%). This shows that an ergonomics intervention on work station decreased the health impairment and saved electrical energy usage. It also protected the workers from woodworking hazards and allowed participants to perform their tasks in healthy, safe, convenient and efficient work conditions.

  13. Effect of Amphetamine on Adult Male and Female Rats Prenatally Exposed to Methamphetamine

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    Romana Šlamberová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the cross-sensitization induced by prenatal methamphetamine (MA exposure to adult amphetamine (AMP treatment in male and female rats. Rat mothers received a daily injection of MA (5 mg/kg or saline throughout the gestation period. Adult male and female offspring (prenatally MA- or saline-exposed were administered with AMP (5 mg/kg or saline (1 ml/kg in adulthood. Behaviour in unknown environment was examined in open field test (Laboras, active drug-seeking behaviour in conditioned place preference test (CPP, spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM, and levels of corticosterone (CORT were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA. Our data demonstrate that in Laboras test, AMP treatment in adulthood increased general locomotion (time and distance travelled regardless of the prenatal exposure and sex, while AMP increased exploratory activity (rearing only in prenatally MA-exposed animals. AMP induced sensitization only in male rats, but not in females when tested drug-seeking behaviour in the CPP test. In the spatial memory MWM test, AMP worsened the performance only in females, but not in males. On the other hand, males swam faster after chronic AMP treatment regardless of the prenatal drug exposure. EIA analysis of CORT levels demonstrated higher level in females in all measurement settings. In males, prenatal MA exposure and chronic adult AMP treatment decreased CORT levels. Thus, our data demonstrated that adult AMP treatment affects behaviour of adult rats, their spatial memory and stress response in sex-specific manner. The effect is also influenced by prenatal drug exposure.

  14. 29 CFR 570.55 - Occupations involved in the operation of power-driven woodworking machines (Order 5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... woodworking machines (Order 5). 570.55 Section 570.55 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... woodworking machines (Order 5). Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 28455, May 20, 2010. (a) Finding and declaration of fact. The following occupations involved in the operation of power-driven wood-working machines...

  15. Prolonged menstrual cycles in female workers exposed to ethylene glycol ethers in the semiconductor manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, G-Y; Wang, J-D; Cheng, T-J; Chen, P-C

    2005-08-01

    It has been shown that female workers exposed to ethylene glycol ethers (EGEs) in the semiconductor industry have higher risks of spontaneous abortion, subfertility, and menstrual disturbances, and prolonged waiting time to pregnancy. To examine whether EGEs or other chemicals are associated with long menstrual cycles in female workers in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey during the annual health examination at a wafer manufacturing company in Taiwan in 1997. A three tiered exposure-assessment strategy was used to analyse the risk. A short menstrual cycle was defined to be a cycle less than 24 days and a long cycle to be more than 35 days. There were 606 valid questionnaires from 473 workers in fabrication jobs and 133 in non-fabrication areas. Long menstrual cycles were associated with workers in fabrication areas compared to those in non-fabrication areas. Using workers in non-fabrication areas as referents, workers in photolithography and diffusion areas had higher risks for long menstrual cycles. Workers exposed to EGEs and isopropanol, and hydrofluoric acid, isopropanol, and phosphorous compounds also showed increased risks of a long menstrual cycle. Exposure to multiple chemicals, including EGEs in photolithography, might be associated with long menstrual cycles, and may play an important role in a prolonged time to pregnancy in the wafer manufacturing industry; however, the prevalence in the design, possible exposure misclassification, and chance should be considered.

  16. Attenuation of the cortisol response to stress in female rainbow trout chronically exposed to dietary selenomethionine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiseman, Steve, E-mail: steve.wiseman@usask.ca [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Thomas, Jith K.; McPhee, Landon; Hursky, Olesya; Raine, Jason C. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Pietrock, Michael [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Giesy, John P. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Department of Zoology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Hecker, Markus [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5CB (Canada); Janz, David M. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: Trout exposed to Se-Met had greater concentration of cortisol compared to controls. Transcript abundance of mc2r was greater in trout exposed to Se-Met. Trout exposed to Se-Met had a reduced cortisol response to a handling stressor. Cortisone concentration was greater in Se-Met exposed trout post-handling stressor. - Abstract: Selenomethionine (Se-Met) is the major dietary form of selenium (Se). While Se is a required nutrient, it can also influence the physiological stress response because it stimulates greater concentrations of cortisol in blood plasma of exposed fish. However, little is known about the effects of exposure to Se on the ability to cope with a secondary stressor. In the current study, female rainbow trout were exposed to an environmentally relevant dietary concentration (8.47 mg Se/kg dry mass (dm)) of Se-Met for 126 d, after which time fish were subjected to a 3-min handling stressor and sampled at 2 h and 24 h post-stressor exposure. Concentrations of cortisol, cortisone, glucose, and lactate in blood plasma and concentrations of glycogen and triglycerides in liver and muscle were determined. Abundances of transcripts of proteins involved in corticosteroidogenesis were determined using quantitative RT-PCR. Concentrations of cortisol were significantly greater in blood plasma of trout exposed to Se-Met, relative to control trout sampled prior to the handling stressor. A typical response of cortisol to the handling stressor was observed in the control trout. However, trout exposed to Se-Met were unable to mount a cortisol response to the handling stressor. Concentrations of cortisone, the inactive metabolite of cortisol, were significantly greater following the handling stressor in trout exposed to Se-Met. In trout exposed to Se-Met, transcript abundance of melanocortin 2 receptor (mc2r) and peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (pbr) were greater, which is consistent with the conclusion that synthesis of cortisol was greater. However

  17. Attenuation of the cortisol response to stress in female rainbow trout chronically exposed to dietary selenomethionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiseman, Steve; Thomas, Jith K.; McPhee, Landon; Hursky, Olesya; Raine, Jason C.; Pietrock, Michael; Giesy, John P.; Hecker, Markus; Janz, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: Trout exposed to Se-Met had greater concentration of cortisol compared to controls. Transcript abundance of mc2r was greater in trout exposed to Se-Met. Trout exposed to Se-Met had a reduced cortisol response to a handling stressor. Cortisone concentration was greater in Se-Met exposed trout post-handling stressor. - Abstract: Selenomethionine (Se-Met) is the major dietary form of selenium (Se). While Se is a required nutrient, it can also influence the physiological stress response because it stimulates greater concentrations of cortisol in blood plasma of exposed fish. However, little is known about the effects of exposure to Se on the ability to cope with a secondary stressor. In the current study, female rainbow trout were exposed to an environmentally relevant dietary concentration (8.47 mg Se/kg dry mass (dm)) of Se-Met for 126 d, after which time fish were subjected to a 3-min handling stressor and sampled at 2 h and 24 h post-stressor exposure. Concentrations of cortisol, cortisone, glucose, and lactate in blood plasma and concentrations of glycogen and triglycerides in liver and muscle were determined. Abundances of transcripts of proteins involved in corticosteroidogenesis were determined using quantitative RT-PCR. Concentrations of cortisol were significantly greater in blood plasma of trout exposed to Se-Met, relative to control trout sampled prior to the handling stressor. A typical response of cortisol to the handling stressor was observed in the control trout. However, trout exposed to Se-Met were unable to mount a cortisol response to the handling stressor. Concentrations of cortisone, the inactive metabolite of cortisol, were significantly greater following the handling stressor in trout exposed to Se-Met. In trout exposed to Se-Met, transcript abundance of melanocortin 2 receptor (mc2r) and peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (pbr) were greater, which is consistent with the conclusion that synthesis of cortisol was greater. However

  18. 25 CFR 309.17 - What are examples of woodwork that are Indian products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are examples of woodwork that are Indian products... INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.17 What are examples of woodwork that are Indian products? (a..., hunting hats, spirit masks, bows and arrows, atlatls, redwood dug out canoes, war clubs, flutes, dance...

  19. Machine and Woodworking Tool Safety. Module SH-24. Safety and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on machine and woodworking tool safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module discusses specific practices and precautions concerned with the efficient operation and use of most machine and woodworking tools in use today. Following the introduction, 13 objectives (each keyed to a page in the…

  20. [Effects of 1-bromopropane on neurological and hematological changes of female exposed workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Hua; Zhou, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Qiang-Yi; Ichihara, Gaku; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Ding, Xun-Cheng

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the health effects of 1-bromopropane (1-BP) on female exposed workers. Four 1-BP manufacturing plants were investigated. Workers were interviewed with questionnaire and examined with neurobehavioral core test battery, nerve conduction velocity tests of nervus tibialis and nervus suralis, vibration sensation test, hematological and biochemical tests. Ambient 1-BP concentration was measured with detection tube, and time-weighed average levels of individual workers were estimated with passive samplers. 1-BP concentration in the plants ranged from 0 to 402.40 mg/m3 (Geomean 32.19 mg/m3). Time-weighted average exposure levels (TWA-8 h) ranged from 0.35 to 535.19 mg/m3 (Geomean 14.08 mg/m3). Compared with the control group, 1-BP exposed workers showed reduced motor nerve conduction velocity [(44.8 +/- 8.7) m/s] and sensory nerve conduction velocity [(45.5 +/- 4.9) m/s], prolonged distal latency [(7.5 +/- 2.1) ms], reduced toe vibration perception, and altered neurobehavior parameters(POMS vigor, tension, anxiety, confusion) significantly (P system, and lead to abnormal hematological and biomedical indicators.

  1. Evaluation of selenium in biological sample of arsenic exposed female skin lesions and skin cancer patients with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolachi, Nida F.; Kazi, Tasneem G., E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com; Wadhwa, Sham K.; Afridi, Hassan I.; Baig, Jameel A.; Khan, Sumaira; Shah, Faheem

    2011-08-01

    The antagonistic effects between selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) suggest that low Se status plays an important role in arsenism development. The objective of present study was to assess Se contents in biological samples of As exposed females have skin lesions and cancer with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients. The biological samples (blood and scalp hair) of As exposed group comprises, female skin cancer (ESC) patients admitted in cancer hospitals have skin lesions (ESL) and exposed referents have not both diseases (ER), belongs to As exposed area of Pakistan. For comparative purposes, age matched female skin cancerous patient (RP) and non-cancerous females (NER) belong to non-exposed areas were also selected. The As and Se in acid digests of biological samples were pre-concentrated by complexing with chelating agent (ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate), and resulted complexes were extracted into non-ionic extractant (Triton X-114), prior to analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The enhancement factor of about 25 was obtained by pre-concentrating 10 mL of sample solutions. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by using certified reference material (BCR 397) with certified values for Se and As and standard addition method at three concentration levels in real samples. No significant differences was observed (p > 0.05) when comparing the values obtained by the proposed method, added and certified values of both elements. The biological samples of ESC patients had 2-3 folds higher As and lower Se levels as compared to RP (p < 0.001). Understudied exposed referents have high level of As and lower Se contents as compared to referents subjects of non-exposed area (p < 0.01). The higher concentration of As and lower levels of Se in biological samples of cancerous patients are consisted with reported studies. - Research Highlights: {yields} Advance extraction method for the enrichment of arsenic and selenium in biological

  2. Evaluation of selenium in biological sample of arsenic exposed female skin lesions and skin cancer patients with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolachi, Nida F.; Kazi, Tasneem G.; Wadhwa, Sham K.; Afridi, Hassan I.; Baig, Jameel A.; Khan, Sumaira; Shah, Faheem

    2011-01-01

    The antagonistic effects between selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) suggest that low Se status plays an important role in arsenism development. The objective of present study was to assess Se contents in biological samples of As exposed females have skin lesions and cancer with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients. The biological samples (blood and scalp hair) of As exposed group comprises, female skin cancer (ESC) patients admitted in cancer hospitals have skin lesions (ESL) and exposed referents have not both diseases (ER), belongs to As exposed area of Pakistan. For comparative purposes, age matched female skin cancerous patient (RP) and non-cancerous females (NER) belong to non-exposed areas were also selected. The As and Se in acid digests of biological samples were pre-concentrated by complexing with chelating agent (ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate), and resulted complexes were extracted into non-ionic extractant (Triton X-114), prior to analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The enhancement factor of about 25 was obtained by pre-concentrating 10 mL of sample solutions. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by using certified reference material (BCR 397) with certified values for Se and As and standard addition method at three concentration levels in real samples. No significant differences was observed (p > 0.05) when comparing the values obtained by the proposed method, added and certified values of both elements. The biological samples of ESC patients had 2-3 folds higher As and lower Se levels as compared to RP (p < 0.001). Understudied exposed referents have high level of As and lower Se contents as compared to referents subjects of non-exposed area (p < 0.01). The higher concentration of As and lower levels of Se in biological samples of cancerous patients are consisted with reported studies. - Research Highlights: → Advance extraction method for the enrichment of arsenic and selenium in biological matrices

  3. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) female ticks exposed to castor oil (Ricinus communis): an ultrastructural overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, B R; Furquim, K C S; Nunes, P H; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2013-02-01

    Tick control has been accomplished through the use of synthetic acaricides, which has created resistant individuals, as well as contaminating the environment and nontarget organisms. Substances of plant origin, such as oils and extracts of eucalyptus and neem leaves, have been researched as an alternative to replace the synthetic acaricides. Ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil have recently been shown as a promising alternative in eliminating bacterial contamination during ethanol fermentation, by acting as an effective biocide. The same positive results have been observed when these esters are added to the food given to tick-infested rabbits. This study tested the effect of these substance on the reproductive system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, added to rabbit food, more specifically on oogenesis. For this, four groups were established: four control groups (CG1, CG2, CG3, and CG4) and four treatment groups (TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG4) with one rabbit in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. After full 4 days feeding (semi-engorgement), the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. In this study, it was observed that R. sanguineus females exposed to esters had their ovaries modified, which was demonstrated through transmission electron microscopy techniques. The addition of ricinoleic esters to the diet of tick-infested rabbits revealed how toxic such substances are for the cytoplasmic organelles of oocytes and pedicel cells. These compounds can change the morphophysiology of germ and somatic cells, consequently influencing their viability and, therefore, confirming that the ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil are a promising substance in the control of R. sanguineus.

  4. NanoTIO2 (UV-Titan does not induce ESTR mutations in the germline of prenatally exposed female mice

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    Boisen Anne Mette

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate air pollution has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Animal studies have shown that inhalation of air particulates induces mutations in the male germline. Expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR loci in mice are sensitive markers of mutagenic effects on male germ cells resulting from environmental exposures; however, female germ cells have received little attention. Oocytes may be vulnerable during stages of active cell division (e.g., during fetal development. Accordingly, an increase in germline ESTR mutations in female mice prenatally exposed to radiation has previously been reported. Here we investigate the effects of nanoparticles on the female germline. Since pulmonary exposure to nanosized titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2 produces a long-lasting inflammatory response in mice, it was chosen for the present study. Findings Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed by whole-body inhalation to the nanoTiO2 UV-Titan L181 (~42.4 mg UV-Titan/m3 or filtered clean air on gestation days (GD 8–18. Female C57BL/6 F1 offspring were raised to maturity and mated with unexposed CBA males. The F2 descendents were collected and ESTR germline mutation rates in this generation were estimated from full pedigrees (mother, father, offspring of F1 female mice (192 UV-Titan-exposed F2 offspring and 164 F2 controls. ESTR mutation rates of 0.029 (maternal allele and 0.047 (paternal allele in UV-Titan-exposed F2 offspring were not statistically different from those of F2 controls: 0.037 (maternal allele and 0.061 (paternal allele. Conclusions We found no evidence for increased ESTR mutation rates in F1 females exposed in utero to UV-Titan nanoparticles from GD8-18 relative to control females.

  5. Intrauterine programming mechanism for hypercholesterolemia in prenatal caffeine-exposed female adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Luo, Hanwen W; Hu, Wen; Hu, Shuwei W; Yuan, Chao; Wang, Guihua H; Zhang, Li; Yu, Hong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin B; Wang, Hui

    2018-05-02

    ac and H3K14ac) and expression of HMGCR. This GC-dependent cholesterol metabolism programming effect was sustained through adulthood, leading to the occurrence of hypercholesterolemia.-Xu, D., Luo, H. W., Hu, W., Hu, S. W., Yuan, C., Wang, G. H., Zhang, L., Yu, H., Magdalou, J., Chen, L. B., Wang, H. Intrauterine programming mechanism for hypercholesterolemia in prenatal caffeine-exposed female adult rat offspring.

  6. Congenital malformations in embryos of female mice exposed to alcohol and nicotinamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Soares Simões dos Santos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the incidence of congenital malformations among the offspring of female mice exposed to alcohol or alcohol plus nicotinamide. Methods: Three groups of pregnant C57BL/6J mice were studied; G1 received alcohol (5 g/kg in saline solution (20% - vol/vol; G2 received nicotinamide, 50 mg/ml associated to alcohol; and G3, only saline solution; all by intraperitoneal injection on the seventh day of pregnancy. The animals were killed in a CO2 chamber on day 18 of pregnancy. The intrauterine content was assessed and the number of complete and reabsorbed fetuses was counted. The complete fetuses had their weight and crown-rump length measured and malformations were identified. Rresults: G1 showed the highest number of malformations: micrognathia, low set ears, hypertrophic nose, scoliosis, and atrophy of the lower and upper limbs. Weight was significantly different among the groups (p = 0.0139, and in G1 it was below average as compared to G3 (p = 0.3133. As for length, the lowest values were found in G2 and G3 showed the highest ones. There was a significant difference among the groups (p = 0.0145. Cconclusions: Ethanol, when administered to pregnant mice was teratogenic. However, length of G1 fetuses was, in average, higher than that of other groups. Nicotinamide decreased the number of malformations and may be a possible protector against alcohol effects.

  7. ADVANCED DESIGN SOLUTIONS FOR HIGH-PRECISION WOODWORKING MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lucisano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the aim at performing the highest precision during woodworking, a mix of alternative approaches, fruitfully integrated in a common design strategy, is essential. This paper represents an overview of technical solutions, recently developed by authors, in design of machine tools and their final effects on manufacturing. The most advanced solutions in machine design are reported side by side with common practices or little everyday expedients. These design actions are directly or indirectly related to the rational use of materials, sometimes very uncommon, as in the case of magnetorheological fluids chosen to implement an active control in speed and force on the electro-spindle, and permitting to improve the quality of wood machining. Other actions are less unusual, as in the case of the adoption of innovative anti-vibration supports for basement. Tradition or innovation, all these technical solutions contribute to the final result: the highest precision in wood machining.

  8. Short-term social memory deficits in adult female mice exposed to tannery effluent and possible mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela, Fernanda Neves; Rabelo, Letícia Martins; Vaz, Boniek Gontijo; de Oliveira Costa, Denys Ribeiro; Pereira, Igor; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-10-01

    The accumulated organic residues in tannery-plant courtyards are an eating attraction to small rodents; however, the contact of these animals with these residues may change their social behavior. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate whether the exposure to tannery effluent (TE) can damage the social recognition memory of female Swiss mice, as well as to assess whether vitamin C supplementation could provide information about how TE constituents can damage these animals' memory. We have observed that resident females exposed to TE (without vitamin supplementation) did not explore the anogenital region, their body or chased intruding females for shorter time or with lower frequency during the retest session of the social recognition test, fact that indicates social recognition memory deficit in these animals. Such finding is reinforced by the confirmation that there was no change in the animals' olfactory function during the buried food test, or locomotor changes in females exposed to the pollutant. Since no behavioral change was observed in the females exposed to TE and treated with vitamin C (before or after the exposure), it is possible saying that these social cognitive impairments seem to be directly related to the imbalance between the cellular production of reactive oxygen species and the counteracting antioxidant mechanisms (oxidative stress) in female mice exposed to the pollutant (without vitamin supplementation). Therefore, the present study evidences that the direct contact with tannery effluent, even for a short period-of-time, may cause short-term social memory deficits in adult female Swiss mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Altered reward sensitivity in female offspring of cocaine-exposed fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Delaney K; Rice, Richard C; Martinez Rivera, Arlene; Donohoe, Mary; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M

    2017-08-14

    Recent rodent studies have demonstrated that parental cocaine exposure can influence offspring behavior, supporting the idea that environmental insults can impact subsequent generations. However, studies on the effects of paternal cocaine exposure are limited and multiple inconsistencies exist. In the current study, we behaviorally characterize the effects of paternal cocaine exposure in a C57BL/6J intergenerational mouse model. Male sires were administered cocaine hydrochloride (20mg/kg) or saline (0.01mL/g) once a day for 75days, and bred with drug naïve females twenty-four hours after the final injection. Offspring, separated by sex, were tested in a battery of behaviors. We found that paternal cocaine exposure altered sensitivity to the rewarding and stimulant effects of psychostimulants and natural reward (sucrose) in female offspring; female cocaine-sired offspring showed blunted cocaine preference using cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) at a low dose (5mg/kg), but displayed similar preference at a higher dose (10mg/kg) compared to saline-sired controls. Additionally, cocaine-sired female offspring exhibited higher psychomotor sensitivity to cocaine (10mg/kg) and amphetamine (2mg/kg) and consumed more sucrose. Cocaine-sired males exhibited increased psychomotor effects of cocaine and amphetamine. Male offspring also displayed an anxiety-like phenotype. No effect of paternal cocaine exposure was observed on depressive-like, learning and memory or social behavior in male or female offspring. Collectively, our findings show that paternal, chronic cocaine exposure induces intergenerational behavioral effects in male and female offspring with greatest impact on sensitivity to psychostimulants and sucrose in females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Serum concentrations of pituitary and adrenal hormones in female pigs exposed to two photoperiods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeling, R R; Rampacek, G B; Mabry, J W; Cunningham, F L; Pinkert, C A

    1983-11-01

    Serum concentrations of pituitary and adrenal hormones were determined in lactating sows and ovariectomized (OVX) gilts exposed to 8 h (8L:16D) or 16 h of light (16L:8D). In addition serum prolactin (PRL) concentrations were determined after a thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) challenge. At 103 +/- 2 d of gestation or 3 wk after ovariectomy of nulliparous gilts on d 7 to 9 of the estrous cycle (d - 10), blood samples were collected from jugular vein cannulae at 30-min intervals for 8 h beginning at 0800 h. Immediately after the last sample, 13 sows and five OVX gilts were assigned to 8L:16D and 14 sows and five OVX gilts were assigned to 16L:8D/d and placed in two identical chambers in the farrowing house. Blood sampling was repeated on d 7, 14 and 21 of lactation in the sows and on d 7, 14, 21 and 28 in the OVX gilts. In Exp. 1, serum cortisol (C) concentrations were similar for sows exposed to 8L:16D (n = 7) and 16L:8D (n = 6) treatments, whereas in Exp. 2, serum C concentrations for sows exposed to 8L:16D (n = 6) were lower than those exposed to 16L:8D (n = 6) on d 7, 14 and 21. Photoperiod failed to influence serum concentrations of PRL, luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone in the lactating sows or PRL in the OVX gilts. Photoperiod also failed to affect mean basal serum concentrations, peak height and peak frequency for PRL and LH in the lactating sows or for PRL in the OVX gilts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Female cancer survivors exposed to alkylating-agent chemotherapy have unique reproductive hormone profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lauren; Sammel, Mary D; Schanne, Allison; Lechtenberg, Lara; Prewitt, Maureen; Gracia, Clarisa

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate reproductive hormone patterns in women exposed to alkylating-agent chemotherapy. Prospective cohort. University hospital. Normally menstruating mid-reproductive-age women (20-35 years old) who had previously been exposed to alkylating-agent chemotherapy for cancer treatment were compared with two healthy control populations: similarly-aged women and late-reproductive-age women (43-50 years old). Subjects collected daily urine samples for one cycle. Integrated urinary pregnanediol glucuronide (PDG) and estrone conjugate (E1c) and urinary excretion of gonadotropins (FSH and LH). Thirty-eight women (13 survivors, 11 same-age control subjects, 14 late-reproductive-age control subjects) provided 1,082 urine samples. Cycle length, luteal phase length, and evidence of luteal activity were similar among the groups. As expected, ovarian reserve was impaired in cancer survivors compared with same-age control subjects but similar between survivors and late-reproductive-age control subjects. In contrast, survivors had total and peak PDG levels that were similar to same-age control subjects and higher than those observed in late-reproductive-age control subjects. Survivors had higher E1c levels than both same-age and late-reproductive-age control subjects. There was no difference in urinary gonadotropins among the groups. Women exposed to alkylating agents have a unique reproductive hormone milieu that is not solely explained by age or ovarian reserve. The urinary hormone profile observed in survivors appears more similar to same-age control subjects than to late-reproductive-age women with similar ovarian reserve, which may suggest that age plays a more important role than ovarian reserve in the follicular dynamics of survivors. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of reproductive function of female rats exposed to radiofrequency fields (27. 12 MHz) near a shortwave diathermy device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-Woodman, P.D.; Hadley, J.A.; Richardson, L.; Bright, D.; Porter, D.

    1989-04-01

    In recent years, there has been increased concern regarding effects of operator exposure to the electromagnetic (EM) field associated with shortwave diathermy devices. The present study was designed to investigate the effects, on rats, of repeated exposure to such an EM field. Following repeated exposure for 5 wk, a reduction in fertility occurred as indicated by a reduced number of matings in exposed rats compared to sham-irradiated rats and a reduction in the number of rats that conceived after mating. The data suggest that female operators could experience reduced fertility, if they remained close to the console for prolonged periods. This has particular significant for the physiotherapy profession.

  13. To what do firms attribute success? An application of attribution theory to the secondary woodworking industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Bumgardner; Urs. Buehlmann

    2015-01-01

    Small firms are a critical component of the secondary woodworking industry and are important to hardwood lumber demand in the US. Understanding managers' perceptions of competitiveness in these firms is important to those working with the industry to help maintain a viable wood manufacturing base. One area of interest relative to the overall business environment...

  14. Vocal Fry Use in Adult Female Speakers Exposed to Two Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Todd A; Summers, Connie; Walls, Sydney

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have identified the widespread use of vocal fry among American women. Popular explanations for this phenomenon appeal to sociolinguistic purposes that likely take significant time for second language users to learn. The objective of this study was to determine if mere exposure to this vocal register, as opposed to nuanced sociolinguistic motivations, might explain its widespread use. This study used multigroup within- and between-subjects design. Fifty-eight women from one of three language background groups (functionally monolingual in English, functionally monolingual in Spanish, and Spanish-English bilinguals) living in El Paso, Texas, repeated a list of nonwords conforming to the sound rules of English and another list of nonwords conforming to the sound rules of Spanish. Perceptual analysis identified each episode of vocal fry. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in their frequency of vocal fry use despite large differences in their amount of English-language exposure. All groups produced more vocal fry when repeating English than when repeating Spanish nonwords. Because the human perceptual system encodes for vocal qualities even after minimal language experience, the widespread use of vocal fry among female residents in the United States likely is owing to mere exposure to English rather than nuanced sociolinguistic motivations. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cancer mortality among female and male workers occupationally exposed to inorganic lead in the printing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilychova, Svetlana A; Zaridze, David G

    2012-02-01

    Evaluation of the carcinogenicity of lead for humans has been based primarily on the results of studies on occupationally exposed men, although gender differences in lead metabolism have been reported. In addition, most of the previous studies have been limited by a failure to identify and control for co-exposures to other known occupational carcinogens. The present study follows an industrial cohort of workers, mostly women, with moderate lead exposure and no confounding by other occupational exposures. Workers, employed at least 2 years between 1950 and 1978 in manual and mechanical (linotype) typesetting and type foundries in 27 printing plants in Moscow, were included in the cohort, which comprised 1423 men and 3102 women. The cohort was followed up during 1979-2003 and contributed 93,682 person-years of observation. Follow-up was 97.7% complete. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% CIs, based on mortality rates of the Moscow general population and adjusted for gender, age and calendar time, were calculated for the total cohort as well as subcohorts stratified by various exposure parameters. Among women, mortality from all causes, circulatory diseases and all cancers combined was lower than that in the Moscow general population and was similar across work groups. Among men, there was excess overall mortality, mainly due to increased mortality from ischaemic heart disease. For both sexes, no significant excess risk for any cancer site was observed, although some dose-response patterns were found. In the overall cohort, mortality from cancers of the kidney and pancreas increased up to twofold in the highest tertile of cumulative lead exposure based on duration and a relative ranking of the three subcohorts (9 deaths; SMR=2.12, 95% CI 1.10 to 4.07) and (18 deaths; SMR=2.32, 95% CI 1.46 to 3.68), respectively. Similar mortality trends for these two cancers were found in analyses by gender. Consistencies by sex and exposure level make a strong case for a

  16. Dose-rate effects for mammary tumor development in female Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to X and γ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.; Gragtmans, N.J.; Myers, D.K.; Jones, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    Mammary tumour development was followed in two experiments involving a total of 2229 female Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to various doses of X or γ rays at different dose rates. The data for another 462 rats exposed to tritiated water in one of these experiments were also analyzed. The incidence of adenocarcinomas and fibroadenomas at a given time after exposure increased linearly in proportion to total radiation dose for most groups. However, no significant increase in adenocarcinomas was observed with chronic γ exposures up to 1.1 Gy, and the increase in fibroadenomas observed with chronic gamma exposures at a dose rate of 0.0076 Gy h -1 up to an accumulated dose of 3.3 Gy was small compared to that observed after acute exposures. The incidence of all mammary tumors increased almost linearly with the log of dose rate in the range 0.0076 to 26.3 Gy h -1 for 3 Gy total dose of gamma rays. The effects of X rays appeared to be less influenced by dose rate than were the effects of γ rays. (author)

  17. Comparative toxic responses of male and female lizards (Eremias argus) exposed to (S)-metolachlor-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Wang, Dezhen; Tian, Zhongnan; Di, Shanshan; Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Diao, Jinling

    2017-08-01

    Soil contamination caused by the widespread use of pesticides is one of the main environmental problems facing conservation organizations. (S)-metolachlor (SM) is a selective pre-emergent herbicide that poses potential risks to soil-related organisms such as reptiles. The present study elucidated the toxic effects of SM (3 and 30 mg/kg soil weight) in Eremias argus. The results showed that growth pattern was similar between the sexes in breeding season. For males, both kidney coefficient (KC) and testis coefficient in the exposure group were significantly different from those in the control group, while only KC in the high-dose group was significantly higher for females. Based on histopathological analysis, the livers of female lizards were more vulnerable than those of males in the exposure group. A reduction in total egg output was observed in SM exposed lizards. Accumulation studies indicated that skin exposure may be an important route for SM uptake in E. argus, and that the liver and lung have strong detoxification abilities. In addition, the body burdens of the lizards increased with increasing SM concentration in the soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Woodworking injuries: a comparative study of work-related and hobby-related accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, F; Bonin, S; Jeunet, L; Pauchot, J; Tropet, Y; Obert, L

    2014-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to describe the injury characteristics and demographics of patients injured during woodworking activities, upon their arrival to the emergency department in a regional of France where this industry is prevalent. The secondary objective was to compare patient and injury characteristics for work-related and hobby-related accidents. A cohort of 87 patients who had suffered a woodworking accident over a two-year period was evaluated; 79 were available for follow-up. The context and circumstances of the accident, nature and location of the injuries and patient demographics were recorded. Hobby-related accidents accounted for two-thirds of the accidents (51/79). Most of the injured workers were either loggers (35%) or carpenters (46%). The hand was injured in 53 cases (67%). Work-related accidents resulted in significantly more serious consequences in terms of hospital stay, work stoppage, resumption of work or retraining than hobby-related accidents. For the workplace accidents, 86% occurred on new machines; more than 25% of the machines involved in accidents at home were over 15 years. Sixty-eight per cent of workers were wearing their safety gear, while only 31% of those injured during recreational woodworking wore the appropriate gear. Several elements of prevention should be improved: information about the need to maintain the equipment, protect the worker with suitable clothing, and learn which maneuvers are considered hazardous. Safety gear should be regularly inspected in the workplace. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  19. Alterations in body weight and blood glucose level of female hamsters exposed to electromagnetic fields of cell phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Lotfi

    2010-02-01

    Group 2 was exposed to electromagnetic field emitted by cell phones for 10 days (short term and group 3 for 50 day (long term. In the latter groups, the exposure was 1 hour per day. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were weighed and blood glucose concentrations were determined by obtaining blood samples from 8 randomly selected hamsters in each group.  The blood glucose level was significantly higher in long-term exposed group in comparison with the control and short-term exposed groups (175, 11.6 and 107 mg/dl, respectively (p

  20. Gonad development and plasma steroid profiles by HRGC/HRMS during one reproductive cycle in reference and leachate-exposed female perch (Perca fluviatilis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noaksson, Erik; Gustavsson, Bodil; Linderoth, Maria; Zebuehr, Yngve; Broman, Dag; Balk, Lennart

    2004-01-01

    Endocrine processes were studied in reference female perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Lake Djursjoen and in leachate-exposed females from Lake Molnbyggen during one reproductive cycle. A high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) technique enabled the analysis of circulating sex steroids [progesterone (P), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP), androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), and 17β-estradiol (E2)], the maturation-inducing hormone (MIH) 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17α,20β-P), and glucocorticoids [11-deoxycortisol (11-DC) and cortisol]. Body and organ measurements, ratio of sexually mature (SM) females, and frequencies of body lesions, were also recorded. High frequencies of body lesions and a low ratio of SM females were generally found in Molnbyggen. These females also had lower gonadosomatic index (GSI) and liver-somatic index (LSI) in the early stages of vitellogenesis, indicating either a delayed onset of oogenesis or an impaired vitellogenesis. Non-reproducing females from both lakes showed a similar LSI cycle as SM females. Increasing T and A levels in SM females from Djursjoen coincided with the GSI peak at the time of spawning. These two androgens were on several occasions lower in SM females from Molnbyggen, possibly the result of a disrupted 17,20-lyase activity of the P450 17α enzyme because only minor effects were observed on circulating P and 17α-OHP levels. E2 and E1 levels increased during vitellogenesis in females from both lakes, with E1 levels more closely resembling the peaks of A and GSI. Peak levels of 17α,20β-P at the time of spawning confirmed its function as the MIH in perch, while the simultaneous peak of 11-DC suggests that it also may be involved in final maturation of the oocytes

  1. Posttraumatic Stress, Coping Flexibility, and Risky Drinking Among Trauma-Exposed Male and Female College Students: The Mediating Effect of Delay of Gratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyraz, Güler; Cherry, Megan L; Cherry, Marcus A; Aarstad-Martin, Samantha; Cloud, Cody; Shamp, Lindsey M

    2018-02-23

    The co-occurence of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and risky drinking has been demonstrated in diverse populations, including college students. However, the mechanisms underlying this co-occurrence, as well as the protective factors that may reduce risky drinking among trauma-exposed college students have yet to be fully understood in the literature. The present study builds upon self-regulation theories and previous empirical work to determine whether the effects of PTS and coping flexibility on risky drinking were mediated by delay of gratification among trauma-exposed college students. In addition, the potential moderating effect of gender on these relationships was examined. Participants included 624 trauma-exposed college students (68.4% female) attending a public university in the southeast region of the United States. Data were collected through an online survey. The hypothesized model was examined using a multigroup structural equation modeling approach. As hypothesized, PTS had a significant, positive indirect effect on risky drinking through delay of gratification; however, the effect of PTS on delay of gratification was stronger for males than for females. Results also indicated that the indirect effect of coping flexibility on risky drinking through delay of gratification was significant and negative for males and females. Conclusions/Importance: The findings of this study suggest that delay of gratification might be an important mechanism underlying the co-occurrence of PTS and risky drinking. In addition, our results highlight the potential benefits of coping flexibility for college students coping with PTS.

  2. Stress responses of adolescent male and female rats exposed repeatedly to cat odor stimuli, and long-term enhancement of adult defensive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Lisa D; Muir, Katherine E; Perrot, Tara S

    2013-07-01

    In order to characterize the short- and long-term effects of repeated stressor exposure during adolescence, and to compare the effects of using two sources of cat odor as stressor stimuli, male and female adolescent rats (postnatal day (PND) ∼ 38-46) were exposed on five occasions to either a control stimulus, a cloth stimulus containing cat hair/dander, or a section of cat collar previously worn by a cat. Relative to control stimulus exposure, activity was suppressed and defensive behavior enhanced during exposure to either cat odor stimulus (most pervasively in rats exposed to the collar). Only cloth-exposed rats showed elevated levels of corticosterone (CORT), and only after repeated stressor exposure, but interestingly, rats exposed to the collar stimulus during adolescence continued to show increased behavioral indices of anxiety in adulthood. In this group, the time an individual spent in physical contact with a cagemate during the final adolescent exposure was negatively related to stress-induced CORT output in adulthood, which suggests that greater use of social support during adolescent stress may facilitate adult behavioral coping, without necessitating increased CORT release. These findings demonstrate that adolescent male and female rats respond defensively to cat odor stimuli across repeated exposures and that exposure to such stressors during adolescence can augment adult anxiety-like behavior in similar stressful conditions. These findings also suggest a potential role for social behavior during adolescent stressor exposure in mediating long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Cancer incidence among workers exposed to softwood dust in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailyte, Giedre

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cancer incidence in a cohort of woodworkers exposed to softwood dust in a Lithuanian wooden joinery products factory. The study population consisted of 1518 workers (1080 men and 438 women) employed in the factory for at least 1 year between 1947 and 1996 and living in Lithuania on 1 January 1978, when the follow-up for cancer incidence began. The follow-up period for cancer was 1978-2007. Cancer risk was assessed by standardised incidence ratios (SIR) with reference to the national population. Overall cancer incidence was not increased among woodworkers. However, the number of mouth and pharynx cancer cases among male woodworkers was significantly increased compared with expected numbers (SIR 2.19, 95% CI 1.17 to 3.74). A higher risk was found for cancer of the buccal cavity than for pharyngeal cancer (SIRs 2.83 and 1.45, respectively). The SIR for larynx cancer was also elevated (SIR 1.39, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.64) among men, while the number of lung cancer cases was higher than expected only among women (SIR 2.07, 95% CI 00.57 to 5.31). This results of this study support the hypothesis that exposure to softwood dust may increase the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer. No support was found for an increased risk of other respiratory cancers among workers exposed to softwood dust.

  4. Agricultural Construction Volume II. Oxy-Gas and Other Cutting/Welding Processes. Woodworking, Metals, Finishing. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admire, Myron; Maricle, Gary

    This guide contains instructor's materials for teaching a secondary agricultural construction course consisting of instructional units on oxy-gas and other cutting and welding processes (10 lessons), woodworking (6 lessons), metals (10 lessons), and finishing (4 lessons). The materials for each unit include student objectives, a list of…

  5. Decreased duration of pentobarbital-induced narcosis in immature and adult female rats prenatally exposed to cimetidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, D.A.; Iba, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of prenatal cimetidine exposure (PreCM) on the duration of pentobarbital-induced narcosis (DPN) was assessed in immature (14- and 28-day old) and adult (50-60-day old) male and female rats. PreCM exposure was accomplished by treating mothers with cimetidine (CM) (20 mg/kg, ip) daily for the last two days of gestation and then (0.01% in drinking water) throughout lactation. Pregnant mothers of untreated offspring (Con) received saline. PreCM decreased DPN to 505 +/- 33 min (from 611 +/- 23 min in Con) and 393 +/- 190 min (from 686 +/- 44 min in Con) in 14-day old male and female rats, respectively. Similarly, PreCM decreased DPN to 88 +/- 15 min (from 134 +/- 3 min in Con) and 102 +/- 19 min (from 171 +/- 44 min in Con) in 28-day old male and female rats, respectively. At 21 days, PreCM did not alter DPN in either sex. At 50-60 days, however, it decreased DPN to 144 +/- 41 min (from 238 +/- 7 min in Con) in females but had no effect in males; PreCM also increased the plasma clearance of administered 14 C-pentobarbital more in females than in males. The effects of PreCM, particularly the long-term effects, were most prominent in female rats and were the opposite of those of postnatal treatment with CM. The results together with those of studies with hepatic microsomes suggest that PreCM may have resulted in the induction of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes during the perinatal period

  6. Adaptive Response in Female Fathead Minnows Exposed to an Aromatase Inhibitor: Computational Modeling of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic computational model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict dose-response and time-course ...

  7. Postnatal treatment with metyrapone attenuates the effects of diet-induced obesity in female rats exposed to early-life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Margaret O; Herald, Joseph B; Wills, Caleb T; Unfried, Stanley G; Cohn, Dianne M; Loria, Analia S

    2017-02-01

    Experimental studies in rodents have shown that females are more susceptible to exhibiting fat expansion and metabolic disease compared with males in several models of fetal programming. This study tested the hypothesis that female rat pups exposed to maternal separation (MatSep), a model of early-life stress, display an exacerbated response to diet-induced obesity compared with male rats. Also, we tested whether the postnatal treatment with metyrapone (MTP), a corticosterone synthase inhibitor, would attenuate this phenotype. MatSep was performed in WKY offspring by separation from the dam (3 h/day, postnatal days 2-14). Upon weaning, male and female rats were placed on a normal (ND; 18% kcal fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal fat). Nondisturbed littermates served as controls. In male rats, no diet-induced differences in body weight (BW), glucose tolerance, and fat tissue weight and morphology were found between MatSep and control male rats. However, female MatSep rats displayed increased BW gain, fat pad weights, and glucose intolerance compared with control rats (P obesity risk factors, including elevated adiposity, hyperleptinemia, and glucose intolerance. These findings show that exposure to stress hormones during early life could be a key event to enhance diet-induced obesity and metabolic disease in female rats. Thus, pharmacological and/or behavioral inflection of the stress levels is a potential therapeutic approach for prevention of early life stress-enhanced obesity and metabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Perceived Burdensomeness, Thwarted Belongingness, and Fearlessness about Death: Associations With Suicidal Ideation among Female Veterans Exposed to Military Sexual Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Lindsey L; Bahraini, Nazanin H; Menefee, Deleene S

    2017-12-01

    Military sexual trauma (MST) is prevalent among female Veterans and is associated with increased risk for suicidal self-directed violence. Yet research examining processes which contribute to suicidal ideation and attempts among MST survivors has been sparse, focusing primarily on psychiatric symptoms or diagnoses, rather than employing a theory-driven approach. The interpersonal-psychological theory (Joiner, 2005) is a leading theory of suicide that may be particularly relevant for understanding suicidal ideation among female Veterans who have experienced MST. We examined whether constructs derived from the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and fearlessness about death; Joiner, 2005) were associated with suicidal ideation among female Veterans who had experienced MST, when adjusting for known risk factors for suicide. Ninety-two female Veterans with a history of MST completed the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire, Acquired Capability for Suicide Scale - Fearlessness about Death Scale, and Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. Perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and fearlessness about death were each associated with suicidal ideation in the past week, adjusting for prior suicide attempts, current depressive symptoms, and current symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. When including all three interpersonal-psychological constructs in the model, only perceived burdensomeness and fearlessness about death were significantly associated with suicidal ideation. These findings provide knowledge regarding interpersonal processes that may contribute to suicidal ideation among this high-risk, yet understudied, population. These results also underscore the importance of assessing for interpersonal-psychological constructs-particularly perceived burdensomeness and fearlessness about death-when working with female Veterans who have experienced MST. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Differences in behavior associated to anxiety in male and Female rats exposed to a chronic stress protocol: Early maternal separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duenas Gómez, Zulma Janeth

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available During the first stages of life, the environment and maternal interactions are essential for normal mammalian neuronal maturity and behavior. In fact, it has been demonstrated that disruption of mother-pup interaction during early life exert long-lasting effects on the development of central nervous, endocrine, and immune systems and behavioral responses. The principal aim of our work was to study the consequences of early maternal separation (EMS on adult male and female anxiety. The behaviors was evaluated using the Elavated Plus-Maze (EPM. Separation procedure was carried out in postnatal days 1 to 21 twice daily: three hours in the morning and three hours in the afternoon. As a control group we used animals that stayed with the mother but were manipulated daily for one minute in the morning and in the afternoon. In postnatal day 22, animals were distributed by sex and then kept in standard lab conditions. Behavioral testing in the EPM was performed at 90/95 days of age. All subjects were videotaped. Records included number of entries, time spent in each arm, and the frequency and time stretching, deeping, rearing, and grooming. Our results showed that separated females have more open arm entries and spent more time there, and exhibit more deeping and less grooming compared to females in the control group and males of the experimental and control group. Thus, based on the anxiolytic profile that female rat shows in the EPM, these data suggest that EMS affects differentially male and female adult rats

  10. Chronic sinusitis and woodworking as risk factors for cancer of the maxillary sinus in northeast Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, H; Hozawa, J; Saito, H; Murai, K; Hirata, H; Takasaka, T; Togawa, K; Konno, A; Kimura, Y; Kikuchi, A

    1989-01-01

    In the period 1983 to 1985, 66 patients presented to six Japanese university hospitals with squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus. Using self-administered questionnaires, a case-control study was conducted to examine history of nasal diseases, occupational exposures, and other possible risk factors for this disease. For each patient, two controls were selected from the general population, matched to the patient by sex, age (+/- 5 years), and district of residence. A history of chronic sinusitis was associated with a 2.3-fold increase in risk (p = 0.05). A high relative risk was also observed in males with an occupational history of woodworking or joinery, particularly when these jobs involved sanding or lathing practices (RR = 7.5, p = 0.02). No association between cigarette smoking and maxillary sinus cancer was observed in this study and no evidence was found that indoor air pollution in the home is involved in cancer development.

  11. Assessment of female reproductive endpoints in Sprague-Dawley rats developmentally exposed to Diuron: potential ovary toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Tony Fernando; Guerra, Marina Trevisan; Perobelli, Juliana Elaine; de Toledo, Fabíola Choqueta; da Silva, Denise Salioni; De Grava Kempinas, Wilma; Barbisan, Luís Fernando

    2011-10-01

    Diuron is widely used in agriculture but its deleterious effects on the reproductive system and mammary gland are still poorly understood. This study evaluated whether early-life-stage exposure to Diuron alters puberty onset or susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Pregnant rats received basal diet or diet containing Diuron at 500, 750, and 1,250 ppm, from gestational day 12 to the end of lactation (postnatal day 21 [PND21]). After weaning, female offspring continued receiving basal diet or diet containing Diuron until PND 51. At PND 51, female Sprague-Dawley offspring received a single dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) for initiation of mammary carcinogenesis. The animals were sacrificed on PND 51, 75, and 226 to 233 (week 25) for mammary gland morphology, reproductive organs and tumor analysis, respectively. There were no significant differences among groups on vaginal opening, estrous cycle, mammary morphology, or carcinogenesis. However, reductions in ovary weight and corpora lutea were observed at PND 75 in the group treated with Diuron at 1,250 ppm. The findings suggesting that Diuron exposure (1,250 ppm) may have been potentially toxic to the ovaries. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Nutritional status and the influence of TV consumption on female body size ideals in populations recently exposed to the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jucker, Jean-Luc; Thornborrow, Tracey; Beierholm, Ulrik; Burt, D Michael; Barton, Robert A; Evans, Elizabeth H; Jamieson, Mark A; Tovée, Martin J; Boothroyd, Lynda G

    2017-08-16

    Television consumption influences perceptions of attractive female body size. However, cross-cultural research examining media influence on body ideals is typically confounded by differences in the availability of reliable and diverse foodstuffs. 112 participants were recruited from 3 Nicaraguan villages that differed in television consumption and nutritional status, such that the contribution of both factors could be revealed. Participants completed a female figure preference task, reported their television consumption, and responded to several measures assessing nutritional status. Communities with higher television consumption and/or higher nutritional status preferred thinner female bodies than communities with lower television consumption and/or lower nutritional status. Bayesian mixed models estimated the plausible range of effects for television consumption, nutritional status, and other relevant variables on individual preferences. The model explained all meaningful differences between our low-nutrition villages, and television consumption, after sex, was the most likely of these predictors to contribute to variation in preferences (probability mass >95% when modelling only variables with zero-order associations with preferences, but only 90% when modelling all possible predictors). In contrast, we found no likely link with nutritional status. We thus found evidence that where media access and nutritional status are confounded, media is the more likely predictor of body ideals.

  13. On Upbringing of Pupils' Self-Educational Ability in Industrial Arts Eeducation (2) : On Improvement of Manufacture Desire on Woodworking Technology Education with Teaching Materials on Computer-

    OpenAIRE

    大迫, 靖雄; 田口, 浩継; オオサコ, ヤスオ; タグチ, ヒロツグ; Ohsako, Yasuo; Taguchi, Hirotugu

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we do woodworking technology education in the two teaching methods (both the normal teaching plan and the teaching plan with teaching materials on computer) at junior high school, and investigate on improvement of the manufacture desire connected with upbringing of pupils' self-educatinal ability of industrial arts education with teaching materials on computer. The results obtained are summarized as follows : (1) Woodworking technology education by the teaching plan with teachi...

  14. Cerebral haemodynamics in female teenagers exposed to ionizing irradiation in low doses and living in 'clean' areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumova, G.I.; Naumov, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    Thirty seven girls living in various districts of the Mogilev Region and having received absorbed irradiation dose at thyroid gland owing to iodine 131 more than 1 Gy and 65 ones living in relatively free from radionuclide areas were examined. The results indicated changes in cerebral haemodynamics in the first group. Vegetative vessels dystonia syntrom had been revealed at 31 exposed to iodine 131 irradiation patients (83%) and at 16 patients (25%) from the control group. The changes tended to induce hypotonia of small cerebral peripheral blood vessels with indices asymmetry of left and right cerebral hemispheres

  15. Methylation changes in muscle and liver tissues of male and female mice exposed to acute and chronic low-dose X-ray-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalchuk, Olga; Burke, Paula; Besplug, Jill; Slovack, Mark; Filkowski, Jody; Pogribny, Igor

    2004-01-01

    The biological and genetic effects of chronic low-dose radiation (LDR) exposure and its relationship to carcinogenesis have received a lot of attention in the recent years. For example, radiation-induced genome instability, which is thought to be a precursor of tumorogenesis, was shown to have a transgenerational nature. This indicates a possible involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in LDR-induced genome instability. Genomic DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic mechanisms. Existing data on radiation effects on DNA methylation patterns is limited, and no one has specifically studied the effects of the LDR. We report the first study of the effects of whole-body LDR exposure on global genome methylation in muscle and liver tissues of male and female mice. In parallel, we evaluated changes in promoter methylation and expression of the tumor suppressor gene p16 INKa and DNA repair gene O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). We observed different patterns of radiation-induced global genome DNA methylation in the liver and muscle of exposed males and females. We also found sex and tissue-specific differences in p16 INKa promoter methylation upon LDR exposure. In male liver tissue, p16 INKa promoter methylation was more pronounced than in female tissue. In contrast, no significant radiation-induced changes in p16 INKa promoter methylation were noted in the muscle tissue of exposed males and females. Radiation also did not significantly affect methylation status of MGMT promoter. We also observed substantial sex differences in acute and chronic radiation-induced expression of p16 INKa and MGMT genes. Another important outcome of our study was the fact that chronic low-dose radiation exposure proved to be a more potent inducer of epigenetic effects than the acute exposure. This supports previous findings that chronic exposure leads to greater genome destabilization than acute exposure

  16. Health education: Effect on knowledge and practice of workplace personal hygiene and protective measures among woodworkers in Enugu, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeugwu, L; Aguwa, E N; Arinze-Onyia, S U; Okeke, T A

    2017-07-01

    There has been increasing incidence of occupational diseases among woodworkers due to exposure to preventable hazards in the workplace. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of health education on the knowledge and practice of workplace hygiene and protective measures among woodworkers in Enugu timber market. This was a before and after study conducted among 290 woodworkers using interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire and manual on workplace hazards prevention. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 and P-value of 0.05 was set as the significance level. Two hundred and ninety respondents participated in the study; 282 (97.2%) were males, most completed secondary education and had worked for less than 10 years (71% and 58.3%, respectively). The mean knowledge score of participants pre- and postintervention were 89.5% ± 9.03 and 98.5% ± 1.84, respectively (P Personal hygiene practices showed mixed responses most of which improved post intervention. The most common reason for eating in workplace was excessive workload (60.3%), while lack of PPEs (29.3%) and lack of training (23.8%) were the most common reasons for nonuse of PPEs. Majority of the participants had good knowledge of workplace hygiene but had poor use of PPEs. Health education intervention improved the use of PPEs and should be recommended.

  17. Work-related symptoms and dose-response relationships for personal exposures and pulmonary function among woodworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandryk, J; Alwis, K U; Hocking, A D

    1999-05-01

    Four sawmills, a wood chipping mill, and five joineries in New South Wales, Australia, were studied for the effects of personal exposure to wood dust, endotoxins. (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi on lung function among woodworkers. Personal inhalable and respirable dust sampling was carried out. The lung function tests of workers were conducted before and after a workshift. The mean percentage cross-shift decrease in lung function was markedly high for woodworkers compared with the controls. Dose-response relationships among personal exposures and percentage cross-shift decrease in lung function and percentage predicted lung function were more pronounced among joinery workers compared with sawmill and chip mill workers. Woodworkers had markedly high prevalence of regular cough, phlegm, and chronic bronchitis compared with controls. Significant associations were found between percentage cross-shift decrease in FVC and regular phlegm and blocked nose among sawmill and chip mill workers. Both joinery workers and sawmill and chip mill workers showed significant relationships between percentage predicted lung function (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FEF25-75%) and respiratory symptoms. Wood dust and biohazards associated with wood dust are potential health hazards and should be controlled.

  18. Adult mortality and blood feeding behavioral effects of α-amyrin acetate, a novel bioactive compound on in vivo exposed females of Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenniappan, Kuppusamy; Kadarkari, Murugan

    2012-06-01

    The effect of α-amyrin acetate on mortality and blood feeding behavior in females of Anopheles stephensi was assessed by in vivo exposure on treated guinea pig skin. In vivo exposure to α-amyrin acetate caused mosquito knock down in the form of rapidly and normally reversible paralysis and the subsequent record at the end of a 24 h, revealed mortality rates of females increased from 0.0% (Control) to 76.9% at 1.6% α-amyrin acetate, the highest concentration which implies the contact toxicity of the α-amyrin acetate received through the sensitive parts of test species. The mean probing time responses significantly increased (P blood feeding rates and the mean engorgement times were significantly shorter when compared to the control. The mean blood feeding rates of exposed females decreased from 91.7% (control) to 41.5% at 0.8% α-amyrin acetate concentrations, the mean engorgement time also decreased from 278.6 s (Control) to 158.7 s at 0.8% α-amyrin acetate concentrations. Mean blood feeding rates and mean engorgement time were statistically significant (P blood meal size have played a more important role in decline of fecundity. In vivo exposure to α-amyrin acetate caused increased mean probing time, decreased blood engorgement time and feeding rate and declined fecundity which reduce the overall survival and reproductive capacity of the malaria vector A. stephensi.

  19. A computational model of the hypothalamic - pituitary - gonadal axis in female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas exposed to 17α-ethynylestradiol and 17β-trenbolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazorchak James M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals (e.g., estrogens, androgens and their mimics are known to affect reproduction in fish. 17α-ethynylestradiol is a synthetic estrogen used in birth control pills. 17β-trenbolone is a relatively stable metabolite of trenbolone acetate, a synthetic androgen used as a growth promoter in livestock. Both 17α-ethynylestradiol and 17β-trenbolone have been found in the aquatic environment and affect fish reproduction. In this study, we developed a physiologically-based computational model for female fathead minnows (FHM, Pimephales promelas, a small fish species used in ecotoxicology, to simulate how estrogens (i.e., 17α-ethynylestradiol or androgens (i.e., 17β-trenbolone affect reproductive endpoints such as plasma concentrations of steroid hormones (e.g., 17β-estradiol and testosterone and vitellogenin (a precursor to egg yolk proteins. Results Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations, the model was calibrated with data from unexposed, 17α-ethynylestradiol-exposed, and 17β-trenbolone-exposed FHMs. Four Markov chains were simulated, and the chains for each calibrated model parameter (26 in total converged within 20,000 iterations. With the converged parameter values, we evaluated the model's predictive ability by simulating a variety of independent experimental data. The model predictions agreed with the experimental data well. Conclusions The physiologically-based computational model represents the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in adult female FHM robustly. The model is useful to estimate how estrogens (e.g., 17α-ethynylestradiol or androgens (e.g., 17β-trenbolone affect plasma concentrations of 17β-estradiol, testosterone and vitellogenin, which are important determinants of fecundity in fish.

  20. Assessment of immunotoxicity in female Fischer 344/N and Sprague Dawley rats and female B6C3F1 mice exposed to hexavalent chromium via the drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipkowski, Kelly A; Sheth, Christopher M; Smith, Matthew J; Hooth, Michelle J; White, Kimber L; Germolec, Dori R

    2017-12-01

    Sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD), an inorganic compound containing hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), is a common environmental contaminant of groundwater sources due to widespread industrial use. There are indications in the literature that Cr(VI) may induce immunotoxic effects following dermal exposure, including acting as both an irritant and a sensitizer; however, the potential immunomodulatory effects of Cr(VI) following oral exposure are relatively unknown. Following the detection of Cr(VI) in drinking water sources, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) conducted extensive evaluations of the toxicity and carcinogenicity of SDD following drinking water exposure, including studies to assess the potential for Cr(VI) to modulate immune function. For the immunotoxicity assessments, female Fischer 344/N (F344/N) and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and female B 6 C 3 F 1 mice were exposed to SDD in drinking water for 28 consecutive days and evaluated for alterations in cellular and humoral immune function as well as innate immunity. Rats were exposed to concentrations of 0, 14.3, 57.3, 172, or 516 ppm SDD while mice were exposed to concentrations of 0, 15.6, 31.3, 62.5, 125, or 250 ppm SDD. Final mean body weight and body weight gain were decreased relative to controls in 250 ppm B 6 C 3 F 1 mice and 516 ppm SD rats. Water consumption was significantly decreased in F344/N and SD rats exposed to 172 and 516 ppm SDD; this was attributed to poor palatability of the SDD drinking water solutions. Several red blood cell-specific parameters were significantly (5-7%) decreased in 250 ppm mice; however, these parameters were unaffected in rats. Sporadic increases in the spleen IgM antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were observed, however, these increases were not dose-dependent and were not reproducible. No significant effects were observed in the other immunological parameters evaluated. Overall, exposure to Cr(VI) in drinking water had limited effects on

  1. Biomonitoring with Micronuclei Test in Buccal Cells of Female Farmers and Children Exposed to Pesticides of Maneadero Agricultural Valley, Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Yslas, Idalia Jazmin; Arellano-García, María Evarista; García-Zarate, Marco Antonio; Ruíz-Ruíz, Balam; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Feminization of the agricultural labor is common in Mexico; these women and their families are vulnerable to several health risks including genotoxicity. Previous papers have presented contradictory information with respect to indirect exposure to pesticides and DNA damage. We aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effect in buccal mucosa from female farmers and children, working in the agricultural valley of Maneadero, Baja California. Frequencies of micronucleated cells (MNc) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in 2000 cells were obtained from the buccal mucosa of the study population (n = 144), divided in four groups: (1) farmers (n = 37), (2) unexposed (n = 35), (3) farmers' children (n = 34), and (4) unexposed children (n = 38). We compared frequencies of MNc and NA and fitted generalized linear models to investigate the interaction between these variables and exposition to pesticides. Differences were found between farmers and unexposed women in MNc (p < 0.0001), CC (p = 0.3376), and PN (p < 0.0001). With respect to exposed children, we found higher significant frequencies in MNc (p < 0.0001), LN (p < 0.0001), CC (p < 0.0001), and PN (p < 0.004) when compared to unexposed children. Therefore working as a farmer is a risk for genotoxic damage; more importantly indirectly exposed children were found to have genotoxic damage, which is of concern, since it could aid in future disturbances of their health.

  2. Biomonitoring with Micronuclei Test in Buccal Cells of Female Farmers and Children Exposed to Pesticides of Maneadero Agricultural Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Jazmin Castañeda-Yslas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Feminization of the agricultural labor is common in Mexico; these women and their families are vulnerable to several health risks including genotoxicity. Previous papers have presented contradictory information with respect to indirect exposure to pesticides and DNA damage. We aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effect in buccal mucosa from female farmers and children, working in the agricultural valley of Maneadero, Baja California. Frequencies of micronucleated cells (MNc and nuclear abnormalities (NA in 2000 cells were obtained from the buccal mucosa of the study population (n=144, divided in four groups: (1 farmers (n=37, (2 unexposed (n=35, (3 farmers’ children (n=34, and (4 unexposed children (n=38. We compared frequencies of MNc and NA and fitted generalized linear models to investigate the interaction between these variables and exposition to pesticides. Differences were found between farmers and unexposed women in MNc (p<0.0001, CC (p=0.3376, and PN (p<0.0001. With respect to exposed children, we found higher significant frequencies in MNc (p<0.0001, LN (p<0.0001, CC (p<0.0001, and PN (p<0.004 when compared to unexposed children. Therefore working as a farmer is a risk for genotoxic damage; more importantly indirectly exposed children were found to have genotoxic damage, which is of concern, since it could aid in future disturbances of their health.

  3. Pathology of Serially Sacrificed Female B6C3F1 Mice Continuously Exposed to Very Low-Dose-Rate Gamma Rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, I B; Komura, J; Tanaka, S

    2017-03-01

    We have previously reported on life span shortening as well as increased incidence rates in several neoplasms in B6C3F1 mice that were continuously exposed to 21 mGy/day of gamma rays for 400 days. To clarify whether the life shortening was due to early appearance of neoplasms (shortened latency) or increased promotion/progression, 8-week-old female specific-pathogen-free B6C3F1 mice were gamma-ray irradiated at a low dose rate of 20 mGy/day for 400 days. At 100 days postirradiation, 60-90 mice were sacrificed, and thereafter every 100 days alongside the age-matched nonirradiated controls, for 700 days. Additional groups were allowed to live out their natural life span. Pathological examination was performed on all mice to identify lesions, non-neoplastic and neoplastic, as well as to determine the cause of death. Body weights were significantly increased in irradiated mice from sacrifice days 200-500. Incidence rates for spontaneously occurring non-neoplastic lesions, such as adrenal subcapsular cell hyperplasia, fatty degeneration of the liver, atrophy and tubulostromal hyperplasia of the ovaries, were significantly increased in irradiated mice. Significantly increased incidence rates with no shortening of latency periods were observed in irradiated mice for malignant lymphomas, hepatocellular adenomas/carcinomas, bronchioloalveolar adenomas, harderian gland adenoma/adenocarcinoma. Shortened latencies with significantly increased incidence rates were observed for adrenal subcapsular cell adenomas and ovarian neoplasms (tubulostromal adenoma, granulosa cell tumors) in irradiated mice. Life span shortening in mice exposed to 20 mGy/day was mostly due to malignant lymphomas. Multiple primary neoplasms were significantly increased in mice exposed to 20 mGy/day from sacrifice days 400-700 and in the life span group. Our results confirm that continuous low-dose-rate gamma-ray irradiation of female B6C3F1 mice causes both cancer induction (shortened latency) and

  4. Dating furniture and coopered vessels without waney edge - Reconstructing historical wood-working in Austria with the help of dendrochronology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Andrea; Nemestothy, Sebastian; Kadnar, Julia; Grabner, Michael

    In the present study, 208 furniture and 168 coopered vessels from three Austrian museums were examined. Dendrochronology was used to date objects and to extract further information such as the necessary time for seasoning, wood loss through wood-working and methods of construction. In most cases sampling was done by sanding the cross section and making digital photographs using a picture frame and measuring digitally. The dendrochronological dates of the sampled furniture range between 1524 and 1937. The group of furniture includes cupboards, chests, tables, benches, commodes and beds. In many cases furniture was artfully painted and sometimes even shows a painted year. With the help of dendrochronology it was proved that some objects had been painted for some time after construction, or had been over-painted. Most furniture, however, was painted immediately after completion. In this case, the seasoning and storage time of the boards and the wood loss due to shaping can be verified. As an average value, 14 years have passed between the dendrochronological date of the outermost ring and the painting. The time span includes time of seasoning and storage and the rings lost by wood-working. This leads, on the one hand to a short storage time of less than 10 years and on the other hand to very little wood loss due to manufacturing. Those boards being less shaped turned out to be back panels of cupboards, therefore they are recommended to be sampled for dating. Coopered vessels were dated between 1612 and 1940. There was evidence that staves were split and not sawn in many cases. The staves were often split out of the outermost part of the tree and hardly any wood was worked away which was proved by the close dendrochronological dates of the single staves of a vessel. Since there is a short time of storage and only little wood loss through wood-working, dating of objects without a waney edge becomes reasonable.

  5. Air formaldehyde and solvent concentrations during surface coating with acid-curing lacquers and paints in the woodworking and furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorud, Syvert; Gjolstad, Merete; Ellingsen, Dag G; Molander, Paal

    2005-06-01

    An investigation of contemporary exposure to formaldehyde and organic solvents has been carried out during surface coating with acid-curing lacquers and paints in the Norwegian woodworking and furniture industry over a period of 3 years. The investigation covered 27 factories of different sizes and with different types of production, and totally 557 parallel formaldehyde and solvent samples were collected. The formaldehyde concentration (geometric mean) was 0.15 ppm (range 0.01-1.48 ppm) with about 10% of the samples exceeding the Norwegian occupational exposure limit of 0.5 ppm. The solvent concentration as additive effect (geometric mean) was 0.13 (range 0.0004-5.08) and about 5% of the samples exceeded the Norwegian occupational exposure limit. The most frequently occurring solvents from acid-curing lacquers were n-butyl acetate, ethanol, ethyl acetate and 1-butanol, which were found in 88-98% of the samples. Toluene, n-butyl acetate and 1-butanol were the only solvents with maximum concentrations exceeding their respective occupational exposure limits. Curtain painting machine operators were exposed to the highest concentrations of both formaldehyde (geometric mean 0.51 ppm, range 0.08-1.48 ppm) and organic solvents (additive effect, geometric mean 1.18, range 0.02-5.08). Other painting application work tasks such as automatic and manual spray-painting, manual painting and dip painting, showed on average considerably lower concentrations of both formaldehyde (geometric means 0.07-0.16 ppm) and organic solvents (additive effect, geometric mean 0.02-0.18). Non-painting work tasks also displayed moderate concentrations of formaldehyde (geometric means 0.11-0.17 ppm) and organic solvents (additive effect, geometric mean 0.04-0.07).

  6. Comprehensive study of the effects of age, iron deficiency, diabetes mellitus, and cadmium burden on dietary cadmium absorption in cadmium-exposed female Japanese farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Hyogo; Oguma, Etsuko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Kayoko; Ikeda, Yoko; Machida, Munehito; Kayama, Fujio

    2004-01-01

    The absorption rate of dietary cadmium (Cd) was investigated among 38 female farmers who had been exposed to Cd at levels close to the current provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI); these levels were much higher than those examined in previous studies. The study group composed of 7 diabetics and their 13 age-matched controls and 6 anemic subjects and their 12 controls. With their informed consent, the study participants were confined in an inn for 7 nights and 8 days to collect all feces and urine and duplicates of all food consumed. The dietary Cd absorption rate was calculated for each subject from her total Cd intake and fecal excretion. The means and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the diabetic group and the anemic group did not differ significantly from those of their respective controls. By individual analysis using all 38 subjects, however, significant Pearson's correlation coefficients were observed between Cd absorption rate and age, serum ferritin, serum iron, and blood and urine Cd levels. Among these, multiple regression analysis revealed that only age was a significant factor contributing to Cd absorption rate. The actual Cd absorption rate in the youngest age group (20-39 years) was 44.0%, which was highly accelerated compared with the rate in the total subject group of 6.5%, while zero to negative balance was observed in the older subjects. These results demonstrate that age, rather than iron deficiency, diabetes mellitus (DM), or Cd burden, is the only independent factor affecting the Cd absorption rate, suggesting that young women are always at high risk

  7. Mortality of tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) females exposed to a high ratio of gamma-irradiated males as an index of radiation impact on sexual vigor of males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.

    1990-01-01

    A 40 or 60 krad dose of gamma radiation reduce slightly sexual activity of the males but male activity is greatly reduced as the radiation dose increases from 60 to 120 krad. Females of the mold mite, Tyrophagus, putrescentiae (Schrank), molested by males present at a 3:1 or 5:1 ratio live shorter than females kept with one male. The SAG test can be applied to compare sexual activity of males treated with different dosage of gamma irradiation

  8. Attraction of Foreign Investments in the Sphere of Economic Development of the Forest Resource Potential and Woodworking Industry: Institutional and Territorial Preconditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzyubenko Oleksandr M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that it is possible to overcome the existing investment deficit in the forestry and woodworking segments of the forestry sector of the national economy on the basis of expanding the list of forms, methods and sources of attracting foreign investments into the sphere of economic development of the forest resource potential and wood processing. There revealed main trends in the dynamics of expenses for the maintenance and operation of equipment, as well as the maintenance and operation of forest roads across the regional forestry and hunting management departments. The priorities of improving the institutional environment for attracting foreign investments in the sphere of economic development of the forest resource potential and woodworking industry are substantiated based on implementing by state forest enterprises joint projects with foreign partners, as well as projects within the framework of public-private partnership agreements.

  9. Changes in brain development of rat fetus exposed to 137Cs γ rays in different pregnant periods of the female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yuefeng; Wang Mingming

    2004-01-01

    Pregnant rats in 11d and 16d of their pregnancy were given one-off whole body exposure by 137 Cs γ rays to 0.2, 0.4, 0.9 and 2.0 Gy, respectively. Changes were observed in conditioned drinking response and cerebrum hippocampi cone cell number of the baby rats exposed to the γ rays in different periods of their embryo development. As a result, that pregnant rats exposed to 137 Cs γ rays in different pregnant periods may induce significant decrease in cerebrum hippocampi cone cell number and achieving rate of conditioned drinking response of the babies. The dose-response relationship can be described by Y=a-b log 10 D. The achieving rate of conditioned drinking response were significantly correlated to cerebrum hippocampi cone cell number in the babies, and the achieving rate of conditioned drinking response of the babies exposed at pregnant 11d was lower than others exposed at pregnant 16d

  10. Computational Modeling of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis to Predict Adaptive Responses in Female Fathead Minnows Exposed to an Aromatase Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic computational model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict dose response and time-course...

  11. Clinical observation of a 16-year-old female exposed to radiation in utero: follow-up after the Shanxi Xinzhou radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Li; Zhang Zhaohui; Chen Sen; Ma Liwen; Chen Yamai; Zhang Shuluan; Jia Tingzhen; Liu Ying; Liu Qingjie; Su Xu; Qin Bin; Wang Zuoyuan

    2011-01-01

    A follow-up study of the late effects of intrauterine exposure to irradiation has been made on a 16-year-old girl whose mother was exposed to external 60 Co irradiation during the Xinzhou radiation accident 16 years previously. The outcomes of the general medical examinations, conventional chromosome aberration analyses and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) are presented and the China-revised Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (C W ISC) was used to identify her IQ level, which was well below normal for her age. The biological dose of the radiation to which she was exposed when she was in her mother's uterus was inferred to be 1.85 Gy. Although there is no evidence of any other developmental changes or tumour induction at this stage in her life, the child's total intelligence level does appear to have been affected. (note)

  12. Semisterility in F/sub 1/ male progeny of female rats exposed to fractional 300 R X-rays and the effect of cysteamine or cystamine retreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baev, I; Bajrakova, A [Nauchno-Izsledovatelski Inst. po Radiologiya i Radiatsionna Khigiena, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1975-01-01

    Female rats are fractionally irradiated with a total dose of 800 R (on 20 consecutive days x 40 R) with or without chemical protection. Radioprotectors - cysteamine or cystamine - are administered in doses of 5 mg per rat intraperitoneally (cysteamine), resp. 20 mg per rat orally (cystamine) prior to each irradiation procedure. The fertility of the male offsprings born to irradiated mothers crossed with intact males six months after treatment is studied. For that purpose, each male of this progeny have been coupled with five intact females and the embryonic death rate in the second generation is checked up. The percentage of semisterile animals is high. Preliminary treatment of the mother with cysteamine or cystamine resulted in a more severe injury than the one following protection-free irradiation.

  13. Semisterility in F1 male progeny of female rats exposed to fractional 300 R X-rays and the effect of cysteamine or cystamine retreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baev, I.; Bajrakova, A.

    1975-01-01

    Female rats are fractionally irradiated with a total dose of 800 r (on 20 consecutive days x 40 r) with or without chemical protection. Radioprotectors - cysteamine or cystamine - are administered in doses of 5 mg per rat intraperitoneally (cysteamine), resp. 20 mg per rat orally (cystamine) prior to each irradiation procedure. The fertility of the male offsprings born to irradiated mothers crossed with intact males six months after treatment is studied. For that purpose, each male of this progeny have been coupled with five intact females and the embryonic death rate in the second generation is checked up. The percentage of semisterile animals is high. Preliminary treatment of the mother with cysteamine or cystamine resulted in a more severe injury than the one following protection-free irradiation. (Ch.K.)

  14. Biomonitoring with Micronuclei Test in Buccal Cells of Female Farmers and Children Exposed to Pesticides of Maneadero Agricultural Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Idalia Jazmin Castañeda-Yslas; María Evarista Arellano-García; Marco Antonio García-Zarate; Balam Ruíz-Ruíz; María Guadalupe Zavala-Cerna; Olivia Torres-Bugarín

    2016-01-01

    Feminization of the agricultural labor is common in Mexico; these women and their families are vulnerable to several health risks including genotoxicity. Previous papers have presented contradictory information with respect to indirect exposure to pesticides and DNA damage. We aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effect in buccal mucosa from female farmers and children, working in the agricultural valley of Maneadero, Baja California. Frequencies of micronucleated cells (MNc) and nuclear abnormali...

  15. Adaptation, Resilience, and Secure Attachment States of Mind in Young South African Female Students Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Katherine; Durbach, Carla

    2018-03-01

    Much research details the psychological risks to individuals exposed as children to intimate partner violence (IPV). However, resilience has been a neglected area of study within this population. This article details adaptive responses in six participants exposed to IPV in childhood. Adult attachment interviews (AAI) and follow-up semi-structured interviews analyzed using an interpretive thematic analysis revealed common themes relating to psychological defenses and adaptive strategies. Despite exposure to IPV in childhood, these six women were found to have secure attachment states of mind. Resilience was found not to be necessarily synonymous with the absence of distress. Despite the presence of suffering, it remained strongly associated with adaptive, robust defenses to manage distress and to retain caregiving relationships with parents. These defenses appeared to provide participants with ways to survive their traumatic environments and to remain connected to needed but frightening caregiving figures, and facilitated processing of trauma. Adaptation often entailed using compliance and caregiving responses in childhood in response to role reversal in parent-child relationships, but also the relinquishing of these roles in adulthood. Participants' abilities to coherently acknowledge and discuss their early experiences and retain compassion for their parents seemed linked to their abilities to attain some distance from troubling aspects of their pasts. In doing so, they separated from the unstable relationships of their parents, which fostered transitions to more integrated states of mind.

  16. Changes in the endocrine system which controls reproduction in female rats neonatally exposed to a low-dose of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freud, A.

    1988-06-01

    Exposure of animals to high doses of ionizing radiation causes irreversible damage to the reproductive system and brings upon infertility. The results of this work indicate that neonatal exposure of female rats on day 8 of life to gamma irradiation of 6 R and 15 R causes reduction in number of offspring these rats produce when mature. The latter results from hormonal changes in the endocrine system which controls reproduction. However, one could not define one site of the hypothalamo - hypophyseal - ovarian axis which when damaged would be responsible for the radiation-induced damage to the productive system. (Author)

  17. Data describing lack of effects of 17α-ethinyl estradiol on mammary gland morphology in female mice exposed during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Charlotte D; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2017-10-01

    Ethinyl estradiol (EE) is a synthetic estrogen used in pharmaceutical contraceptives. In many studies evaluating estrogenic endocrine disruptors, EE is used as a positive control for estrogenicity. However, the effects of EE often differ from the effects of other xenoestrogens, suggesting that these other compounds might act via distinct mechanisms. Reported here are data describing the effect of low doses of EE during pregnancy and lactation on the morphology of the lactating mammary gland in CD-1 mice. The data suggest that these low doses have few if any discernable effects on mammary gland morphology. Alterations to cell proliferation and the expression of estrogen receptor (ER)α were also not observed. These companion data were collected from the same females analyzed for effects of EE on maternal behavior and brain recently published in Reproductive Toxicology (Catanese & Vandenberg, 2017).

  18. Data describing lack of effects of 17α-ethinyl estradiol on mammary gland morphology in female mice exposed during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte D. LaPlante

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethinyl estradiol (EE is a synthetic estrogen used in pharmaceutical contraceptives. In many studies evaluating estrogenic endocrine disruptors, EE is used as a positive control for estrogenicity. However, the effects of EE often differ from the effects of other xenoestrogens, suggesting that these other compounds might act via distinct mechanisms. Reported here are data describing the effect of low doses of EE during pregnancy and lactation on the morphology of the lactating mammary gland in CD-1 mice. The data suggest that these low doses have few if any discernable effects on mammary gland morphology. Alterations to cell proliferation and the expression of estrogen receptor (ERα were also not observed. These companion data were collected from the same females analyzed for effects of EE on maternal behavior and brain recently published in Reproductive Toxicology (Catanese & Vandenberg, 2017.

  19. Adverse metabolic phenotype of female offspring exposed to preeclampsia in utero: a characterization of the BPH/5 mouse in postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Elizabeth F; Lob, Heinrich E; Song, Jiunn; Xia, YunWei; Butler, Scott; Liu, Chin-Chi; Redman, Leanne M; Sones, Jenny L

    2017-04-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a devastating disorder of pregnancy that classically presents with maternal hypertension and proteinuria after 20 wk of gestation. In addition to being a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity/mortality, epidemiological and prospective studies have revealed long-term consequences for both the mother and baby of preeclamptic pregnancies, including chronic hypertension as well as other cardiovascular diseases and metabolic derangements. To better understand the effect of in utero exposure of PE on offspring, we utilized the BPH/5 mouse, a spontaneous model of the maternal and fetal PE syndrome. We hypothesized that young BPH/5 offspring would have altered metabolic and cardiovascular phenotypes. Indeed, BPH/5 growth-restricted offspring showed excess catch-up growth by early adulthood due to hyperphagia and increased white adipose tissue (WAT) accumulation, with inflammation markers isolated to the reproductive WAT depot only. Both excessive WAT accumulation and the inflammatory WAT phenotype were corrected by pair-feeding young BPH/5 female mice. We also found that young BPH/5 female mice showed evidence of leptin resistance. Indeed, chronic hyperleptinemia has been shown to characterize other rodent models of PE; however, the maternal metabolic profile before pregnancy has not been fully understood. Furthermore, we found that these mice show signs of cardiovascular anomalies (hypertension and cardiomegaly) and altered signaling within the reproductive axis in early life. Future studies will involve challenging the physiological metabolic state of BPH/5 mice through pair-feeding to reduce WAT before pregnancy and determining its causal role in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Bone mineral density, chemical composition and biomechanical properties of the tibia of female rats exposed to cadmium since weaning up to skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzóska, M M; Majewska, K; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, J

    2005-10-01

    The influence of exposure to cadmium (Cd) during skeletal development on the risk of bone fractures at the stage of skeletal maturity was investigated on a female rat model of human exposure. The tibias of rats treated with 1, 5 or 50 mg Cd/l in drinking water for 3, 6, 9 and 12 months (since weaning) were used. The exposure to Cd dose- and time-dependently influenced the tibia bone mineral density (BMD) and chemical composition. In skeletally matured animals, at each level of the exposure to Cd, the BMD at the whole tibia and its diaphysis as well as the percentage of minerals content in the bone, including the content of zinc, copper and iron, were decreased compared to control. Moreover, in the 50 mg Cd/l group, the percentage of organic components content increased. The Cd-induced changes, at all levels of exposure, resulted in weakening in the yield strength and fracture strength of the tibia (a three-point bending test of the diaphysis and compression test with vertical loading) of the skeletally matured females. A very important and clinically useful finding of this study is that a decrease (even by several percent) in the tibia BMD results in weakness in the bone biomechanical properties and that the BMD may predict the risk of its fracture at the exposure to Cd. Moreover, the results together with our previous findings seem to suggest that tibia, due to higher vulnerability of its diaphysis, compared to the femoral diaphysis, to damage by Cd may be more useful than femur to investigate the effect of Cd on the cortical bone. The present study revealed that a low exposure to Cd (1 mg Cd/l), corresponding to low human environmental exposure, during the skeletal development affects the tibia mineral status leading to weakening in its mechanical properties at the skeletal maturity. The findings allow for the conclusion that environmental exposure to Cd during childhood and adolescence may enhance the risk of low BMD and fractures at adulthood.

  1. Economic and ecological advantages of innovative project implementation at woodworking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina N. Yepifanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation to innovative development involves the strategic focus onto manufacturing high-tech products in the priority sectors of the economy. Implementation of innovative projects aimed at reducing the energy component in overall costs of enterprise is demanded and necessary. The aim of the research is to prove the economic and ecological benefits of using at domestic wood industry enterprises the wood pellets as an alternative biofuel. The main economic indicators of the project for the pellets production presented indicate the expenses-to-profits ratio; studied is the cost of season heating in Ukraine of 1000 m2 with both traditional and alternative fuels. Noted is that the use of pellets as ecological biofuel is more economical in comparison with electricity and gas. Exposed are the economic benefits of the pellet boiler heating by different fuels.

  2. Specific-locus experiments show that female mice exposed near the time of birth to low-LET ionizing radiation exhibit both a low mutational response and a dose-rate effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, P.B.; Lee, S.S.; Kelly, E.M.; Bangham, J.W.; Raymer, G.D.; Hunsicker, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    Female mice were exposed to 300 R of 73-93 R/min X-radiation either as fetuses at 18.5d post conception (p.c.) or within 9h after birth. Combining the similar results from these 2 groups yielded a specific-locus mutation frequency of 9.4x10 -8 mutation/locus/R, which is statistically significantly higher than the historical-control mutation frequency, but much lower than the rate obtained by irradiating mature and maturing oocytes in adults. Other females, exposed at 18.5 days p.c. to 300 R of 0.79 R/min γ-radiation, yielded a mutation frequency that was statistically significantly lower than the frequency at high dose rates. The low-dose-rate group also had markedly higher fertility. It appears that the doe-rate effect for mutations induced near the time of birth may be more pronounced than that reported for mature and maturing oocytes of adults. A hypothesis sometimes advanced to explain low mutation frequencies recovered from cell populations that experience considerable radiation-induced cell killing is that there is selection against mutant cells. The reason for the relatively low mutational response following acute irradiation in the experiments is unknown; however, the finding of a dose-rate effect in these oocytes in the presence of only minor radiation-induced cell killing (as judged from fertility) makes it seem unlikely that selection was responsible for the low mutational response following acute exposure. Had selection been an important factor, the mutation frequency should have increased when oocyte killing was markedly reduced. (author). 32 refs.; 5 figs.; 5 tabs

  3. Administration of the Antioxidant N-Acetyl-Cysteine in Pregnant Mice Has Long-Term Positive Effects on Metabolic and Behavioral Endpoints of Male and Female Offspring Prenatally Exposed to a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Berry

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests the consumption of high-fat diet (HFD during pregnancy to model maternal obesity and the associated increase in oxidative stress (OS, might act as powerful prenatal stressors, leading to adult stress-related metabolic or behavioral disorders. We hypothesized that administration of antioxidants throughout gestation might counteract the negative effects of prenatal exposure to metabolic challenges (maternal HFD feeding during pregnancy on the developing fetus. In this study, female C57BL/6J mice were fed HFD for 13 weeks (from 5-weeks of age until delivery and were exposed to the N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC antioxidant from 10-weeks of age until right before delivery. Body weight of the offspring was assessed following birth, up to weaning and at adulthood. The metabolic, neuroendocrine and emotional profile of the adult offspring was tested at 3-months of age. Prenatal HFD increased mother’s body weight and offspring’s weight at the time of weaning, when administered in conjunction with NAC. In females, NAC administration reduced high levels of leptin resulting from prenatal HFD. Prenatal NAC administration also resulted in greater glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity while increasing adiponectin levels, as well as increasing exploratory behavior, an effect accompanied by reduced plasma corticosterone levels in response to restraint stress. Analysis of glutathione levels in the hypothalamus and in brown adipose tissue indicates that, while HFD administration to pregnant dams led to reduced levels of glutathione in the offspring, as in the male hypothalamus, NAC was able to revert this effect and to increase glutathione levels both in the periphery (Brown Adipose Tissue, both males and females and in the central nervous system (males. Overall, results from this study indicate that the body redox milieu should be tightly regulated during fetal life and that buffering OS during pregnancy can have important

  4. Administration of the Antioxidant N-Acetyl-Cysteine in Pregnant Mice Has Long-Term Positive Effects on Metabolic and Behavioral Endpoints of Male and Female Offspring Prenatally Exposed to a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Alessandra; Bellisario, Veronica; Panetta, Pamela; Raggi, Carla; Magnifico, Maria C; Arese, Marzia; Cirulli, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests the consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy to model maternal obesity and the associated increase in oxidative stress (OS), might act as powerful prenatal stressors, leading to adult stress-related metabolic or behavioral disorders. We hypothesized that administration of antioxidants throughout gestation might counteract the negative effects of prenatal exposure to metabolic challenges (maternal HFD feeding during pregnancy) on the developing fetus. In this study, female C57BL/6J mice were fed HFD for 13 weeks (from 5-weeks of age until delivery) and were exposed to the N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) antioxidant from 10-weeks of age until right before delivery. Body weight of the offspring was assessed following birth, up to weaning and at adulthood. The metabolic, neuroendocrine and emotional profile of the adult offspring was tested at 3-months of age. Prenatal HFD increased mother's body weight and offspring's weight at the time of weaning, when administered in conjunction with NAC. In females, NAC administration reduced high levels of leptin resulting from prenatal HFD. Prenatal NAC administration also resulted in greater glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity while increasing adiponectin levels, as well as increasing exploratory behavior, an effect accompanied by reduced plasma corticosterone levels in response to restraint stress. Analysis of glutathione levels in the hypothalamus and in brown adipose tissue indicates that, while HFD administration to pregnant dams led to reduced levels of glutathione in the offspring, as in the male hypothalamus, NAC was able to revert this effect and to increase glutathione levels both in the periphery (Brown Adipose Tissue, both males and females) and in the central nervous system (males). Overall, results from this study indicate that the body redox milieu should be tightly regulated during fetal life and that buffering OS during pregnancy can have important long

  5. Exposing diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Kamilla; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    professionals´ meetings with patients and relatives. In the paper we draw data from focus group discussions with interdisciplinary groups of health care professionals working in the area of care for older people. The video narratives used to initiate discussions are developed through ethnographic fieldwork...... in the homes of older people and in pedagogical institutions targeting older people. In the paper we look at the potentials and challenges in working with ethnographic video narratives as a pedagogical tool. Our findings indicate that the use of video narratives has the potential to expose the diversity...... focus on their own professional discipline and its tasks 2) stimulates collaborative learning when they discuss their different interpretations of the ethnographic video narratives and achieve a deeper understanding of each other’s work and their clients’ lifeworlds, which might lead to a better...

  6. Buildings exposed to fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 24 lectures presented to the colloquium cover the following subject fields: (1) Behaviour of structural components exposed to fire; (2) Behaviour of building materials exposed to fire; (3) Thermal processes; (4) Safety related, theoretical studies. (PW) [de

  7. Female offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vivienne de Vogel; Marijke Louppen

    2017-01-01

    Although girls and women represent only a minority of the forensic mental health and prison populations, studies worldwide suggest that there has been a steady increase in the number of females being convicted for committing offenses, especially violent offenses. In this chapter, an overview will

  8. Female infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.A.; Yoder, I.

    1984-01-01

    Infertility, defined as 1 year of unprotected intercourse without conception, is becoming of increasingly important medical concern. Fertility in both the male and the female is at its peak in the twenties. Many couples today have postponed marriage and/or childbearing into their 30s until careers are established, but at that point fertility may be diminished. The current epidemic of venereal disease has been associated with an increasing incidence of tubal scarring. In addition, the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) and birth control pills for contraception have let to later problems with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovulation disturbances. The problem of infertility intensifies as the number of babies available for adoption decreases. Therefore, it is estimated that approximately 10-20% of couples will eventually seek medical attention for an infertility-related problem. Fortunately, marked improvements in the results of tubal surgery are concurrently occurring secondary to refinements in microsurgical techniques, and many medical alternatives to induce ovulation are being developed. The male factor causes infertility in 30-40 % of couples, and the female factor is responsible in approximately 50% of couples. No cause is found in 10-20% of couples. This chapter discusses the role of coordinated imaging in the diagnosis and therapy of infertility in the female

  9. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.E.J.; Soetens, F.

    2005-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  10. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; González, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    : Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17-76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected...... and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results: Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal......, probably related to exposure to pesticides. Due to the potentially negative long term health effects of genetic damage on reproduction and the development of cancer, preventive measures are recommended. Effective control with imports and sales, banning of the most toxic pesticides, education...

  11. Female condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, W

    1997-06-01

    Early versions of a female condom were available in the 1920s and 1960s, but they were little used and soon forgotten. It took the arrival of AIDS, and the urgent need for a wider range of female-controlled barrier techniques, to rekindle scientific interest in this method. In the 1980s, three groups in Europe and the USA began development of new female condom designs, comprising 'Femidom (Reality)', the 'Bikini Condom', and 'Women's Choice'. Apart from differences in their physical design, Femidom differs from the others in that it is made of a polyurethane membrane, which has several advantages over latex. Of the three, Femidom is the most advanced in terms of development and clinical testing, and it is the only one to have reached the marketing stage. Laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that its contraceptive efficacy is similar to that documented for the male condom, though a direct comparison is not possible because no comparative clinical trials have, as yet, been undertaken. Reported 'typical-use' pregnancy rates range from 12.4 to 22.2% at 6 months of use in the USA and Latin America, respectively, while a study in the UK observed a rate of 15% at 12 months. As with all barrier methods, most failures appear to be associated with poor compliance or incorrect use. 'Perfect-use' pregnancy rates were substantially lower, indicating that Femidom can be very effective, if used consistently and correctly. Evidence for Femidom's effectiveness to protect against transmission of sexual disease-causing organisms, including HIV, is still very limited and based largely on laboratory studies. Whilst, in theory, the condom should confer reliable protection, its efficacy in clinical use will depend upon correct and consistent use and upon the product's ability to maintain an effective physical barrier throughout penetrative intercourse. In this respect, the results of recent and ongoing clinical studies are expected with much interest. How valuable Femidom will

  12. Female alcoholism: Gender differences as victimogenic predispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović-Vilić Slobodanka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is an analysis of stereotypical social reactions to women’s alcoholism in the micro and macro social and cultural environment. The social stigma and blame that female alcohol abusers are exposed to have become part of deeply rooted gender-related labels. In a broader social context, they lead to discrimination and social exclusion. In the contemporary society, female alcoholism is turning into a growing social and health problem and because of that it is essential to make the social environment more sensitive to the issue of female alcoholism in order to eliminate the causes of female alcoholism and fully support women’s medical treatment,. It would have a preventive effect in suppressing female alcoholism and it would significantly reduce victimization of women who are, in such circumstances, much more vulnerable and exposed to physical and sexual violence. The aim of this paper is to point out to the basic phenomenological and etiological feature of female alcoholism, prejudices and stereotypical attitudes they are exposed to, social and cultural implications of female alcoholism, which is perceived as a predisposition for women’s victimization and exposure to violence, so as to promote a different social approach to female alcoholism and advocate for instituting social and educational policy based on the concept of gender equality and support of social control measures.

  13. The exposed breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingman, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    The skin and lungs are two tissues that are frequently bombarded with cancer-initiating factors, such as ultraviolet rays from the sun and smoke and pollutants in the air we breathe. Yet breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in Australian women, affecting one in eight before the age of 85. It is more common than skin melanoma and lung cancer. Why, then, does the breast so commonly get cancer when it is not a tissue that is particularly exposed to the environmental agents that increase cancer risk in other major organs? Is there something unique about this tissue that makes it particularly susceptible? The breast undergoes cellular changes over the course of the monthly menstrual cycle, and and these changes affect cancer susceptibility. Rising levels of the hormones oestrogen and progesterone occur immediately after the egg is released from the ovary, and these hormones cause the breast cells to divide and change to accommodate further development if pregnancy occurs. If the woman becomes pregnant, the cells in the breast continue to develop and become the milk-producing structures required to feed a newborn baby. But if pregnancy does not occur there is a drop in progesterone, which triggers the death of the newly developed breast cells. This occurs at the same time women have their period. Then the cycle starts again, and continues every month until menopause, unless the woman becomes pregnant.

  14. Exposing the faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    UK NIREX, the body with responsibility for finding an acceptable strategy for deposition of radioactive waste has given the impression throughout its recent public consultation that the problem of nuclear waste is one of public and political acceptability, rather than one of a technical nature. However the results of the consultation process show that it has no mandate from the British public to develop a single, national, deep repository for the burial of radioactive waste. There is considerable opposition to this method of managing radioactive waste and suspicion of the claims by NIREX concerning the supposed integrity and safety of this deep burial option. This report gives substance to those suspicions and details the significant areas of uncertainty in the concept of effective geological containment of hazardous radioactive elements, which remain dangerous for tens of thousands of years. Because the science of geology is essentially retrospective rather than predictive, NIREX's plans for a single, national, deep 'repository' depend heavily upon a wide range of assumptions about the geological and hydrogeological regimes in certain areas of the UK. This report demonstrates that these assumptions are based on a limited understanding of UK geology and on unvalidated and simplistic theoretical models of geological processes, the performance of which can never be directly tested over the long time-scales involved. NIREX's proposals offer no guarantees for the safe and effective containment of radioactivity. They are deeply flawed. This report exposes the faults. (author)

  15. [A survey of occupational health among polyether-exposed workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xu-ying; Yu, Bin; Zhang, Chun-ping; Zheng, Guan-hua; Bai, Lan; Zhang, Pan-pan

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the occupational health of the workers simultaneously exposed to acrylonitrile, epoxyethane, epoxypropane, and styrene. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 70 front-line workers simultaneously exposed to acrylonitrile, epoxyethane, epoxypropane, and styrene (exposure group) and 50 managers (control group) in a polyether manufacturer; in addition, air monitoring at workplace and occupational health examination were also performed. The obtained data were analyzed. The female workers in exposure group and the spouses of male workers in exposure group had significantly higher spontaneous abortion rates than their counterparts in control group (P polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean levels of DNA damage than the control group (P polyether-exposed working years and those with not less than 20 polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean micronucleus rates than the control group (P polyether-exposed working years (P > 0.05); the workers with not less than 5 and less than 20 polyether-exposed working years and workers with not less than 20 polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean micronucleus rates than those with less than 5 polyether-exposed working years (P polyether manufacturer.

  16. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  17. Hearing Loss in Persons Exposed and not Exposed to Occupational Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalova, Martina; Mrazkova, Eva; Sachova, Petra; Vojkovska, Kristyna; Tomaskova, Hana; Janoutova, Jana; Janout, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to compare hearing loss in individuals at risk and those not at risk for occupational noise and to compare working loss by gender. The analysis used data from a current Czech Ministry of Health grant project called Epidemiological and Genetic Study of the Frequency of Hearing Loss (2011 to 2015; NT12246-5/2011). The analyzed sample comprised 4988 participants. Hearing was tested using pure-tone threshold audiometry, tympanometry, and measurement of the stapedius reflex. Females at risk and those not at risk for occupational noise who were younger than 44 years and older than 75 years were found to have no statistically significant differences at any pure-tone threshold audiometry frequency. In females aged 45 to 74 years, statistically significant differences were found. In males, hearing loss was observed as early as 18 years of age. When comparing males and females at no risk for occupational noise, there were no statistically significant differences at any of the frequencies in those younger than 29 years. In females aged 30 years or older, statistically significant differences were observed at various frequencies in all age groups. When comparing males and females at risk for occupational noise, statistically significant differences were more frequent than in employees not exposed to noise. Hearing loss in females does not significantly vary depending on occupational exposure. The opposite is true for males. However, the maximum differences in mean levels did not exceed 10 dB. It is therefore clear that noise is a preventable factor, and the use of personal protective equipment is warranted.

  18. Dim Light at Night Increases Body Mass of Female Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Aubrecht, Taryn G.; Jenkins, Richelle; Nelson, Randy J.

    2014-01-01

    During the past century the prevalence of light at night has increased in parallel with obesity rates. Dim light at night (dLAN) increases body mass in male mice. However, the effects of light at night on female body mass remain unspecified. Thus, female mice were exposed to a standard light/dark (LD; 16h light at ~150 lux/8h dark at ~0 lux) cycle or to light/dim light at night (dLAN; 16h light at ~150 lux/8h dim light at ~5 lux) cycles for six weeks. Females exposed to dLAN increased the rat...

  19. Self catheterization - female

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... female Images Bladder catheterization, female References Davis JE, Silverman MA. Urologic procedures. In: Roberts JR, ed. Roberts ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  20. Estimation of exposed dose, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shunzo

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive atomic fallouts in Nishiyama district of Nagasaki Prefecture are reported on the basis of the survey since 1969. In 1969, the amount of 137 Cs in the body of 50 inhabitants in Nishiyama district was measured using human counter, and was compared with that of non-exposured group. The average value of 137 Cs (pCi/kg) was higher in inhabitants in Nishiyama district (38.5 in men and 24.9 in females) than in the controls (25.5 in men and 14.9 in females). The resurvey in 1971 showed that the amount of 137 Cs was decreased to 76% in men and 60% in females. When the amount of 137 Cs in the body was calculated from the chemical analysis of urine, it was 29.0 +- 8.2 in men and 29.4 +- 26.2 in females in Nishiyama district, and 29.9 +- 8.2 in men and 29.4 +- 11.7 in females in the controls. The content of 137 Cs in soils and crops (potato etc.) was higher in Nishiyama district than in the controls. When the internal exposure dose per year was calculated from the amount of 137 Cs in the body in 1969, it was 0.29 mrad/year in men and 0.19 mrad/year in females. Finally, the internal exposure dose immediately after the explosion was estimated. (Serizawa, K.)

  1. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  2. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  3. Incidence of brain tumours in rats exposed to an aerosol of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Incidence of brain tumours was investigated in 3390 female and male Wistar rats exposed to an aerosol of 239 PuO 2 , or as sham-exposed controls. Lung doses ranged from 0.05 to 22 Gy. In females, six brain tumours were found in 1058 control rats (incidence, 0.6%) and 24 brain tumours in 2134 rats exposed to Pu (incidence, 1.1%); the survival-adjusted level of significance was p = 0.29 for comparing control with exposed females. In males, two brain tumours were found in 60 control rats (incidence, 3.3%) and seven brain tumours in 138 rats exposed to Pu (incidence, 5.1%); the survival-adjusted level of significance was p = 0.33. Brain tumour incidence was about five times greater in male than in female rats (p = 0.0001), a highly significant sex difference in brain tumour incidence. Tumour types were distributed similarly among control and Pu-exposed groups of both sexes; most were astrocytomas. Mean lifespans for rats with brain tumours were not significantly different between control and Pu-exposed rats. (author)

  4. Female feticide in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  5. Reprocessing of nonoptimally exposed holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, G.S.; Robertson, C.E.; Tamashiro, F.M.

    1980-01-01

    Two reprocessing techniques have been investigated that are capable of correcting the effects of nonoptimum optical density of photographic amplitude holograms recorded on Agfa-Gevaert type 10E75 plates. In some cases a reprocessed hologram will exhibit a diffraction efficiency even higher than that obtainable from a hologram exposed and processed to the optimum density. The SNR of the reprocessed holograms is much higher than that of the same holograms belached with cupric bromide. In some cases the SNR approaches the optimum value for a properly exposed amplitude hologram. Subjective image quality and resolution of reprocessed hologram reconstructins appear to be no different than for normal single-development holograms. Repeated reprocessing is feasible and in some cases desirable as a means of increasing diffraction efficiency

  6. Female terrorism : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacques, Karen; Taylor, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The sharp growth in the number of publications examining female involvement in terrorism has produced a valuable but un-integrated body of knowledge spread across many disciplines. In this paper, we bring together 54 publications on female terrorism and use qualitative and quantitative analyses to

  7. Female Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen-van den Brink, te Henriet

    1994-01-01

    To gain insight on factors that impede economic independence of women, this book concentrates on female labor supply in relation to child care, male-female wage differentials, the division of unpaid labor, and marital conflicts between women and men. It may very well be that restrictions on the

  8. Behavioral changes in fish exposed to phytoestrogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clotfelter, Ethan D.; Rodriguez, Alison C.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral effects of exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens in male fighting fish, Betta splendens. Adult fish were exposed to a range of concentrations of genistein, equol, β-sitosterol, and the positive control 17β-estradiol. The following behaviors were measured: spontaneous swimming activity, latency to respond to a perceived intruder (mirror reflection), intensity of aggressive response toward a perceived intruder, probability of constructing a nest in the presence of a female, and the size of the nest constructed. We found few changes in spontaneous swimming activity, the latency to respond to the mirror, and nest size, and modest changes in the probability of constructing a nest. There were significant decreases, however, in the intensity of aggressive behavior toward the mirror following exposure to several concentrations, including environmentally relevant ones, of 17β-estradiol, genistein, and equol. This suggests that phytoestrogen contamination has the potential to significantly affect the behavior of free-living fishes. - Environmentally relevant concentrations of phytoestrogens reduce aggressive behavior in fish

  9. Female urethral carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Masahiko; Kondo, Atsuo; Sakakibara, Toshihumi

    1988-01-01

    Urethral carcinoma in 2 females has been treated with irradiation together with adjunct chemotherapy. In case 1, a 73-year-old female with squamous cell carcinoma was successfully treated with irradiation of 4,000 rad and peplomycin of 60 mg intravenously given. She has been free from the disease for the past 43 months. In case 2, a 61-year-old female with transitional cell carcinoma was initially treated with irradiation of 5,000 rad together with peplomycin 90 mg, which was followed by another 5,000 rad irradiation. The tumor recurred and the patient was operated on for cystourethrectomy and partial resection of the vagina. A further chemotherapy of cisplatin, peplomycin, and mitomycin C was instituted. She died of the tumor recurrence 23 months after the first visit to our clinic. Diagnosis and treatment modalities on the female urethral carcinoma are briefly discussed. (author)

  10. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Female Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor femenino About Human Reproduction All living things ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  11. Female pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in women; Baldness - female; Hair loss in women; Androgenetic alopecia in women; Hereditary balding or thinning in women ... in the skin called a follicle. In general, baldness occurs when the hair follicle shrinks over time, ...

  12. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for some competitive female athletes, problems such as low self-esteem, a tendency toward perfectionism, and family stress place ... depression, pressure from coaches or family members, or low self-esteem and can help her find ways to deal ...

  13. Advances in treating exposed fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira Giglio, Pedro; Fogaça Cristante, Alexandre; Ricardo Pécora, José; Partezani Helito, Camilo; Lei Munhoz Lima, Ana Lucia; Dos Santos Silva, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The management of exposed fractures has been discussed since ancient times and remains of great interest to present-day orthopedics and traumatology. These injuries are still a challenge. Infection and nonunion are feared complications. Aspects of the diagnosis, classification and initial management are discussed here. Early administration of antibiotics, surgical cleaning and meticulous debridement are essential. The systemic conditions of patients with multiple trauma and the local conditions of the limb affected need to be taken into consideration. Early skeletal stabilization is necessary. Definitive fixation should be considered when possible and provisional fixation methods should be used when necessary. Early closure should be the aim, and flaps can be used for this purpose.

  14. Female Sex Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Intyre, Maria Kleivan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This project explores the phenomenon of North American and Western European women, who travel to the Global South and engage in sexual encounters with the local men. This project has positioned itself as a postcolonial critique, arguing that female sex tourism is a form of neocolonialism. It has also investigated the term romance tourism, where it has found that as a result of essentialist gender stereotyping, the female version of sex tourism has been titled ‘romance tourism’. The p...

  15. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine P. Dabney; Robert H. Tai

    2013-01-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female...

  16. The lonely female partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Poul; Pedersen, Birthe D; Osther, Palle J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the experiences of female partners to men with prostate cancer. The women found the capacity to manage their lives through mutual love in the family and through their faith.......The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the experiences of female partners to men with prostate cancer. The women found the capacity to manage their lives through mutual love in the family and through their faith....

  17. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İdil Ünal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment alternatives of FPHL.

  18. Stigmatisation of a Formerly Obese Young Female

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Sonia A.; Boyland, Emma J.; Halford, Jason C.G.; Harrold, Joanne A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Weight loss does not necessarily decrease the negative appraisal of a formerly overweight individual. Since past weight history tends to be disclosed in several contexts, this study aims to investigate whether negative appraisals are gender-specific and if they are modulated by the evaluators’ own BMI. Methods 202 young adults (106 male and 96 female) viewed a picture of a young attractive female (target) accompanied by one of two statements about her past weight (overweight (OW) or always kept a normal weight (NW)), and then rated her using the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS). Results Female evaluators rated the target with the OW statement more negatively than the target with the NW statement. In contrast, males exposed to the OW statement rated the target as having fewer emotional/psychological problems and being less stupid/uncreative. BMI only influenced ratings in males, where those with higher BMI ascribed more negative attributes to the target with the NW statement than the OW statement. Conclusion Information on weight history impacts upon the appraisal of peers. These effects are dependent on gender and BMI. Knowing that a young female was overweight triggered negative evaluations from females but did not appear to impact the judgment of males. PMID:24107842

  19. Stigmatisation of a Formerly Obese Young Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia A. Tucci

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weight loss does not necessarily decrease the negative appraisal of a formerly overweight individual. Since past weight history tends to be disclosed in several contexts, this study aims to investigate whether negative appraisals are gender-specific and if they are modulated by the evaluators' own BMI. Methods: 202 young adults (106 male and 96 female viewed a picture of a young attractive female (target accompanied by one of two statements about her past weight (overweight (OW or always kept a normal weight (NW, and then rated her using the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS. Results: Female evaluators rated the target with the OW statement more negatively than the target with the NW statement. In contrast, males exposed to the OW statement rated the target as having fewer emotional/psychological problems and being less stupid/uncreative. BMI only influenced ratings in males, where those with higher BMI ascribed more negative attributes to the target with the NW statement than the OW statement. Conclusion: Information on weight history impacts upon the appraisal of peers. These effects are dependent on gender and BMI. Knowing that a young female was overweight triggered negative evaluations from females but did not appear to impact the judgment of males.

  20. Online Female Escort Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Griffith

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Female escorts represent an occupational group that charges a fee for sex, which can be regarded as an extreme form of short-term mating. The present study examined if the fees charged by escorts are related to traits typically associated with female short-term mate value. A total of 2,925 advertisements for female escorts offering sexual services in the United States were examined, as a customized software program was used to download all the advertisements from an online escort directory. The advertisement content was coded, and relationships between advertised physical characteristics and the hourly rate charged by female escorts were examined. The analyses showed that higher fees were associated with female escorts who advertised a waist-to-hip ratio near 0.7, lower weight and body mass index, younger age, and photographic displays of breast and buttocks nudity. The findings provide evidence that evolutionarily relevant traits associated with female short-term mate value are systematically related to fees charged for sexual services.

  1. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    To strengthen the national framework for care of adolescents and women affected by female genital cutting (FGC) in Canada by providing health care professionals with: (1) information intended to strengthen their knowledge and understanding of the practice; (2) directions with regard to the legal issues related to the practice; (3) clinical guidelines for the management of obstetric and gynaecological care, including FGC related complications; and (4) guidance on the provision of culturally competent care to adolescents and women with FGC. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in September 2010 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., Circumcision, Female) and keywords (e.g., female genital mutilation, clitoridectomy, infibulation). We also searched Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses in 2010 and 2011. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2011. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Summary Statements 1. Female genital cutting is internationally recognized as a harmful practice and a violation of girls' and women's rights to life, physical integrity, and health. (II-3) 2. The immediate and long-term health risks and complications of female genital cutting can be serious and life threatening. (II-3) 3. Female genital cutting continues to be practised in many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, and Sudan. (II-3) 4. Global migration

  2. Females do not express learned helplessness like males do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla, Christina; Edgecomb, Carol; Whetstone, Abigail S; Shors, Tracey J

    2008-06-01

    Women are more likely than men to suffer from stress-related mental disorders, such as depression. In the present experiments, we identified sex differences in one of the most common animal models of depression, that of learned helplessness. Male and female rats were trained to escape a mild footshock each day for 7 days (controllable stress). Each rat was yoked to another rat that could not escape (uncontrollable stress), but was exposed to the same amount of shock. One day later, all stressed rats and unstressed controls were tested on a more difficult escape task in a different context. Most males exposed to uncontrollable stress did not learn to escape and were therefore helpless. In contrast, most females did learn to escape on the more difficult escape task, irrespective of whether they had been exposed to controllable or uncontrollable stress. The sex differences in helplessness behavior were not dependent on the presence of sex hormones in adulthood, because neither ovariectomy of females nor castration of males abolished them. The absence of helplessness in females was neither dependent on organizational effects of testosterone during the day of birth, because masculinized females did not express helplessness as adults. Thus, sex differences in helplessness behavior are independent of gonadal hormones in adulthood and testosterone exposure during perinatal development. Learned helplessness may not constitute a valid model for depressive behavior in women, at least as reflected by the response of female rats to operant conditioning procedures after stressful experience.

  3. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  4. Male goat vocalizations stimulate the estrous behavior and LH secretion in anestrous goats that have been previously exposed to bucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo, José Alberto; Vielma, Jesús; Hernandez, Horacio; Flores, José Alfredo; Duarte, Gerardo; Fernández, Ilda Graciela; Keller, Matthieu; Gelez, Hélène

    2012-09-01

    We investigated whether live vocalizations emitted by bucks interacting with anestrous females stimulate secretion of LH, estrous behavior and ovulation in anestrous goats. In experiment 1, bucks rendered sexually active by exposure to long days followed by natural photoperiod were exposed in a light-proof-building to five anestrous females. Buck vocalizations were reproduced through a microphone-amplifier-loudspeaker system to an open pen where one group of goats (n=6) was exposed for 10 days to these live vocalizations. Another group of females (n=6) was isolated from males and vocalizations. The proportion of goats displaying estrous behavior was significantly higher in females exposed to buck vocalizations than in females isolated from males. The proportion of goats that ovulated did not differ between the 2 groups (exposed to males versus isolated). In experiment 2, female goats that either had previous contact with males (n=7), or no previous contact with males (n=7) were exposed to live buck vocalizations, reproduced as described in experiment 1, for 5 days. The number and amplitude of LH pulses did not differ between groups before exposition to buck vocalizations. Five days of exposure to male vocalizations significantly increased LH pulsatility only in females that had previous contact with males, while LH pulse amplitude was not modified. We concluded that live buck vocalizations can stimulate estrous behavior and LH secretion in goats if they have had previous contact with bucks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine P. Dabney

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

  6. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-06-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

  7. Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.

  8. Female athlete triad update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  9. Male depression in females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Yücel, Mete

    2010-02-01

    Scientific evidence for a male-typed depression ("male depression") is still limited, but mainly supports this concept with respect to single externalizing symptoms or symptom clusters. In particular, studies on non-clinical populations including males and females are lacking. The present study aims at assessing general well-being, the risk and the symptoms of male depression dependent on biological sex and gender-role orientation on instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) personality traits in an unselected community sample of males and females. Students (518 males, 500 females) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were asked to participate in a "stress study" and complete the following self-report questionnaires: the WHO-5 Well-being Index [Bech, P., 1998. Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. Mosby-Wolfe, London], the Gotland Scale for Male Depression [Walinder, J., Rutz, W., 2001. Male depression and suicide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (suppl 2), 21-24] and the German Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire [Runge, T.E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P.M., et al., 1981. Masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. A comparison between students in the United States and West Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 12, 142-162]. General well-being of the students was significantly lower compared to population norms. Contrary to expectations, female students had a greater risk of male depression than male students (28.9% vs. 22.4%; p<0.05). Overall, prototypic depressive symptoms as well as externalizing symptoms were more pronounced in females. In the subgroup of those at risk for male depression, biological sex and kind of symptoms were unrelated. Principal component analyses revealed a similar symptom structure for males and females. Low scores on masculinity/instrumentality significantly predicted higher risk of male depression, independent of biological sex. The study sample is not

  10. Teacher Sexual Misconduct: Grooming Patterns and Female Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, James

    2010-01-01

    Educator sexual misconduct has received increasing attention over the past decade. The attention has exposed a number of concerning issues, including a lack of formal research in the area and difficulties in recognizing and prosecuting cases. Public responses to high profile cases of sexual misconduct involving female teachers suggest that…

  11. Sexual initiation and contraceptive use among female adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    regression model to quantify the effects of a set of factors on female .... based on a weighing of benefits (such as school fees, .... urban areas are exposed to a more diverse life style .... received money or gift or favours in return for sex.

  12. Successful female leaders empower women's behavior in leadership tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latu, I.M.; Schmid Mast, M.; Lammers, J.; Bombari, D.

    2013-01-01

    Women are less likely than men to be associated with leadership, and the awareness of this stereotype may undermine women's performance in leadership tasks. One way to circumvent this stereotype threat is to expose women to highly successful female role models. Although such exposures are known to

  13. Cyberspace violence against girls and adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, June F

    2006-11-01

    Children and adolescents today are the first generation raised in a society in which technological literacy is essential for effective citizenship in the 21st century. With many more youth using digital technologies for educational and recreational purposes, there has been an increase in social problems in cyberspace, exposing them to different forms of cyberviolence. This article gives an overview of the developments in cyberspace, describes different types of cyberviolence, and focuses on cyberbullying among girls and adolescent females as both victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. At-risk online activities among girls and adolescent females as well as strategies to promote cybersafety are presented. Current research and future directions for research are reviewed.

  14. Do (Female) Founders Influence (Female) Joiners to Become Founders too?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam

    -founder (gender) homophily affects the likelihood of female and male joiners to become founders themselves. We find a relatively large and robust positive effect among female joiners that can be attributed to the role modeling function of female founders. Female entrepreneurs hiring personnel may thus have...

  15. Females and Toxic Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    labeled as toxic, can he or she be rehabilitated?; Are there leadership styles that can be promoted to combat toxic leadership?; and Are the senior...examines leadership styles that are favorable for female leaders, and offers Transformational/Adaptive leadership as a style promising rehabilitative tools

  16. Perspectives on Female Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Janulevièienë, Rûta

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the contents of the academic evidence and debate on female entrepreneurship in the West with the current stream of research and thinking in the Central and Eastern European Countries with a view to identifying similarities and differences in thoughts and findin...

  17. Female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a controversial condition, which has prompted much debate regarding its aetiology, components, and even its existence. Our inability to work together as clinicians, psychologists, patients, and advocates hinders our understanding of FSD, and we will only improve...

  18. Female sexual arousal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Pfaus, James; Laan, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined in one entity.

  19. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  20. The female athlete triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazis, Keren; Iglesias, Elba

    2003-02-01

    The female athlete triad is a syndrome consisting of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The syndrome is increasing in prevalence as more women are participating in sports at a competitive level. Behaviors such as intense exercise or disordered eating patterns can lead to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitarian-ovarian (HPO) axis, resulting in amenorrhea. Hypothalamic amenorrhea can lead to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Adolescents may particularly be at risk because it is during this crucial time that females attain their peak bone mass. Prevention of the female athlete triad through education and identification of athletes at risk may decrease the incidence of long-term deleterious consequences. Treatment of the female athlete triad is initially aimed at increasing caloric intake and decreasing physical activity until there is resumption of normal menses. Treatment of decreased bone mineral density and osteoporosis in the adolescent population, however, is controversial, with new treatment modalities currently being investigated in order to aid in the management of this disorder.

  1. Female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-10-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig's type) B) The "Christmas tree pattern" where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation.

  2. Medically induced amenorrhea in female astronauts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Varsha; Wotring, Virginia E

    2016-01-01

    Medically induced amenorrhea can be achieved through alterations in the normal regulatory hormones via the adoption of a therapeutic agent, which prevents menstrual flow. Spaceflight-related advantages for medically induced amenorrhea differ according to the time point in the astronaut's training schedule. Pregnancy is contraindicated for many pre-flight training activities as well as spaceflight, therefore effective contraception is essential. In addition, the practicalities of menstruating during pre-flight training or spaceflight can be challenging. During long-duration missions, female astronauts have often continuously taken the combined oral contraceptive pill to induce amenorrhea. Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) are safe and reliable methods used to medically induce amenorrhea terrestrially but as of yet, not extensively used by female astronauts. If LARCs were used, daily compliance with an oral pill is not required and no upmass or trash would need disposal. Military studies have shown that high proportions of female personnel desire amenorrhea during deployment; better education has been recommended at recruitment to improve uptake and autonomous decision-making. Astronauts are exposed to similar austere conditions as military personnel and parallels can be drawn with these results. Offering female astronauts up-to-date, evidence-based, comprehensive education, in view of the environment in which they work, would empower them to make informed decisions regarding menstrual suppression while respecting their autonomy.

  3. Dim light at night increases body mass of female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Taryn G; Jenkins, Richelle; Nelson, Randy J

    2015-05-01

    During the past century, the prevalence of light at night has increased in parallel with obesity rates. Dim light at night (dLAN) increases body mass in male mice. However, the effects of light at night on female body mass remain unspecified. Thus, female mice were exposed to a standard light/dark (LD; 16 h light at ∼150 lux/8 h dark at ∼0 lux) cycle or to light/dim light at night (dLAN; 16 h light at ∼150 lux/8 h dim light at ∼5 lux) cycles for six weeks. Females exposed to dLAN increased the rate of change in body mass compared to LD mice despite reduced total food intake during weeks five and six, suggesting that dLAN disrupted circadian rhythms resulting in deranged metabolism.

  4. Parenting in females exposed to intimate partner violence and childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Anna E; Cranston, Christopher C; Shadlow, Joanna O

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was related to lower parenting self-efficacy and more permissive parenting. In women at a domestic violence shelter (n = 45), child sexual abuse was related to current sexual coercion of the partner, and authoritative parenting was related to higher parenting self-efficacy. These results indicate that having a history of child sexual abuse should be taken into consideration when dealing with mothers in violent relationships.

  5. Parenting in Females Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence and Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…

  6. The Color of Self-Love: Exposing Racism in Black Female Masturbation Research

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Elena

    2010-01-01

    The idea that research on ethnicity and sexuality has increased, while other social science research on ethnicity has potentially decreased, suggests that there may be something unique about the intersection of ethnicity and sexuality specifically which has sparked the interest of researchers. Patricia Hill Collins supports this concept with her assertion that “sexuality can be seen as a site of intersectionality, a specific constellation of social practices that demonstrate how oppressions c...

  7. Neurobehavioral evaluation of Venezuelan workers exposed to organic solvent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, E; Yanes, L; Feo, O; Maizlish, N

    1995-01-01

    To assess the applicability of the World Health Organization (WHO) Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery (NCTB), we evaluated 53 male and 29 female Venezuelan workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents in an adhesive factory, and 56 male and 11 female workers unexposed to any type of neurotoxic chemical. The average age of unexposed workers was 30 years and 33 years for those exposed, average schooling for both groups was 8 years, and the mean duration of exposure was 7 years. The NCTB, which assesses central nervous system functions, is composed of seven tests that measure simple motor function, short-term memory, eye-hand coordination, affective behavior, and psychomotor perception and speed. The battery includes: profile of mood states (POMS); Simple Reaction Time for attention and response speed; Digit Span for auditory memory; Santa Ana manual dexterity; Digit-Symbol for perceptual motor speed; the Benton visual retention for visual perception and memory; and Pursuit Aiming II for motor steadiness. In each of 13 subtests, the exposed group had a poorer performance than the nonexposed group. The range of differences in mean performance was between 5% and 89%, particularly in POMS (tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, depression-rejection, fatigue-inertia, confusion-bewilderment), Simple Reaction Time, Digit-Symbol, and Santa Ana Pegboard (p memory, confusion, paresthesias in upper and lower extremities, and sleep disturbances. We conclude that the methodology is applicable to the population studied. The tests of the NCTB were accepted by the subjects and were administered satisfactorily, except for occasional difficulties in verbal comprehension in subtests of POMS, which is the only test that requires more demanding verbal skills. The magnitude of the behavioral deficits is consistent with the probable high level of exposure and with the range of deficits previously reported in workers with long-term solvent exposures.

  8. Female Sexual Arousal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.  Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined...... and psychological disorders, as well as to discuss different medical and psychological assessment and treatment modalities. Methods.  The experts of the International Society for Sexual Medicine's Standard Committee convened to provide a survey using relevant databases, journal articles, and own clinical experience....... Results.  Female Arousal Disorders have been defined in several ways with focus on the genital or subjective response or a combination of both. The prevalence varies and increases with increasing age, especially at the time of menopause, while distress decreases with age. Arousal disorders are often...

  9. [Hypertension in females].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cífková, Renata

    2015-05-01

    Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disorder affecting more males in younger age groups; in the age group of 45-64, it is equally frequent in both genders, it is more common in elderly females. Blood pressure increases more in females around the menopause. Use of hormonal replacement therapy is not associated with an BP increase but, because of increased risk of coronary events, stroke, and thromboembolic events, HRT is not re-commended in CVD prevention. There is a similar decrease in BP by antihypertensive drugs in both genders as well as benefit from antihypertensive treatment. Women report about a double rate of adverse events of antihypertensive drugs. Oral contraception use is associated with a mild BP increase in most women and development of overt hypertension in about 5 %. Pre-eclampsia is associated with increased risk of developing CVD later in life (more frequent development of hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke).

  10. female collegiate athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Ayers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches, on power (vertical jump height, strength (1RM back squat, and speed (40-yard sprint in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01. However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46. Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.

  11. Leukemias in the progeny of exposed parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosenko, M.M.; Gudkova, N.V.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of leukemias among the progeny of exposed parents. The parents were exposed as a result of discharge of radioactive waste from the Mayak atomic plant into the Techa river in the Southern Urals. The doses per parents gonads, ranging from 0.035 to 1.27 Sv, were due to external exposure in 1950-1956 and to incorporation of Cs-137. Nine cases with leukemia and four with lympohoma were recorded in 13.500 antenatally exposed subjects and descendants of exposed parents over the period of 1950 to 1988. The leukemia morbidity index for the progeny of exposed parents was 2.51, which virtually not statistically differ from that in control group. Refs. 7, figs. 3, tabs. 3

  12. Women's sexual and emotional responses to male- and female-produced erotica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; van Bellen, G.; Hanewald, G.

    1994-01-01

    Whether erotic films made by women are more arousing for women than erotic films made by men was studied. Forty-seven subjects were exposed to both a woman-made, female-initiated, and female centered, erotic film excerpt. Photoplethysmographic vaginal pulse amplitude was recorded continuously.

  13. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca(2+)]i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca(2+)], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca 2+ ] i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca 2+ ], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers showed higher PS

  15. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Hernández, Gerardo [Section of Methodology of Science, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica [Faculty of Medicine, UJED, Durango, DGO (Mexico); Maldonado-Vega, María [CIATEC, León, GTO (Mexico); Rosas-Flores, Margarita [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor, E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  16. Female Athletes Facing Discrimination: Curriculum Regarding Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palis, Regina

    There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…

  17. The properties degradation of exposed GFRP roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Mohammad; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Kaavessina, Mujtahid; Setyanto, Djoko

    2018-02-01

    There is much consideration of roof selection as a protector of a building against the outside weather, such as lightweight, strong stiff, corrosion resistant and guarantee for the availability of products. Based on these considerations, glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) roof is a roof which can fulfill the requirement. The objective of this research is to investigate the degradation of physical and mechanical properties of GFRP roof exposed in outside weather. This GFRP roof composite was produced using a sheet molding compound (SMC) supplied by PT Intec Persada, Tangerang, Indonesia. There are two kinds GFRP roofs evaluated in this research that are GFRP roof exposed within 7 years and new GFRP roof that has not been exposed. The GFRP roofs were cut manually for preparing the specimens for hardness test, tensile test, SEM and FTIR test. The results show that the GFRP roof exposed within 7 years had the degradation of properties compared to the new GFRP roof. The exposed GFRP roof had lower strength and hardness compared to the new GFRP roof. The SEM observation indicates that exposed GFRP roof had the debonding of fiber on the surface, and in contrast, there are no debonding of fiber in the new GFRP roof surface. It can be recommended that the exposed GFRP roof may be repaired to enhance its performance and can re-increase its properties using the coating.

  18. 90 days bioassay in sprague-dawley rats exposed to 20KHz magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-Ho [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National Univ. Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ji-Eun; Lee, Yun-Sil [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pack, Jeong-Ki [ETRI, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Done-SIk [College of Engineering, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Sprague Dawley rats (20 rats/group [10 males, 10 females] in sham and magnetic field exposed groups) were exposed in carrousel irradiator to an 20 KHz magnetic field for 8 hrs/day, 5 days/week, for 90 days. Urine analysis (pH, SG, protein, ketone body, RBC, WBC, glucose, bilirubin, and urobilinogen), blood analysis (WBC, RBC, HGB; henoglubin concentration, HCT; hematocrit, MCV; mean corpuscular volume, MCH; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCHC; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and PLT; platelet or thrombocyte count), blood biochemistry (total protein, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase), histopathological analysis for organs such as liver, kidney, testis, ovary, spleen, brain, heart, and lung were performed. When compared to the sham control rats, there were no significant differences in above analysis of magnetic field exposed rats. From the results, there were no significant differences between control and exposed fetus.

  19. High-resolution Mass Spectrometry of Skin Mucus for Monitoring Physiological Impacts in Fish Exposed to Wastewater Effluent at a Great Lakes AOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-resolution mass spectrometry is advantageous for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fish exposed to complex wastewater effluent. We evaluated this technique using skin mucus from male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promela...

  20. High‐resolution mass spectrometry of skin mucus for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fathead minnows exposed to wastewater effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    High‐resolution mass spectrometry is advantageous for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fish exposed to complex wastewater effluent. We evaluated this technique using skin mucus from male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales pr...

  1. Disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, A.; Motyka, T.

    1991-01-01

    A plan has been established for disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides used in Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium production or Materials Test Facility (MTF) R ampersand D operations. The recommended plan assumes that the first tritium-exposed metal hydrides will be disposed of after startup of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) Expansion Project in 1992, and thus the plan is consistent with the new disposal requiremkents that will be in effect for the SWDF Expansion Project. Process beds containing tritium-exposed metal hydride powder will be disposed of without removal of the powder from the bed; however, disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydride powder that has been removed from its process vessel is also addressed

  2. Exposing Latent Information in Folksonomies for Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    1.73 $.") http://www.w3.org/2006/07/SWD/ SKOS /reference/20081001/ Spiteri, L.F. (2007) "The structure and form of folksonomy tags: The road to the...Exposing Latent Information in Folksonomies for Reasoning January 14, 2010 Sponsored by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DOD...DATES COVERED (From - To! 4/14/2009-12/23/2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exposing Latent Information in Folksonomies for Reasoning Sa. CONTRACT

  3. Genetic and demographic responses of mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) populations exposed to mercury for multiple generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatara, C.P.; Mulvey, M.; Newman, M.C.

    1999-12-01

    Genetic and demographic responses of mosquitofish were examined after multiple generations of exposure to mercury. Previous studies of acute lethal exposures of mosquitofish to either mercury or arsenic demonstrated a consistent correlation between time to death and genotype at the glucosephosphate isomerase-2 (Gpi-2) locus. A mesocosm study involving mosquitofish populations exposed to mercury for 111 d showed significant female sexual selection and fecundity selection at the Gpi-2 locus. Here the mesocosm study was extended to populations exposed to mercury for several (approx. four) generations. After 2 years, control and mercury-exposed populations met Hardy-Weinberg expectations and showed no evidence of genetic bottlenecks. The mean number of heterozygous loci did not differ significantly between the mercury-exposed and control populations. Significant differences in allele frequencies at the Gpi-2 locus were observed between the mercury-exposed and control populations. Relative to the initial and control allele frequencies, the GPI-2{sup 100} allele frequency was lower, the Gpi-2{sup 66} allele frequency increased, but the Gpi-2{sup 38} allele frequency did not change in mercury-exposed populations. No significant differences were found in standard length, weight, sex ratio, or age class ratio between the control and mercury-exposed populations. Allele frequency changes at the Gpi-2 locus suggest population-level response to chronic mercury exposure. Changes in allele frequency may be useful as indicators of population response to contaminants, provided that the population in question is well understood.

  4. Reduced recruitment in Hyalella azteca (Saussure, 1858) exposed to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, M Shuhaimi; Pascoe, David

    2002-09-01

    Neonates of the amphipod Hyalella azteca were exposed for a 35-day period in the laboratory to a range of copper concentrations, nominally 18 microg/l, 40 microg/l, 70 microg/l and 260 microg/l. The reproductive status of the population was assessed by recording recruitment, the number of precopulatory pairs and number of gravid females. At the end of the experiment, the body lengths of individuals were measured using image analysis. There was a significant decrease in the final population size of H. azteca with increasing copper concentration and compared with the control. Copper significantly reduced recruitment of juveniles and length composition of the final population and there was also a trend toward reduced precopula number with increasing copper concentrations.

  5. Psychological distress of adolescents exposed to Hurricane Hugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, S B; Weinrich, M; Weinrich, S; Hardin, T L; Garrison, C

    1994-07-01

    To ascertain the effects of a natural disaster on adolescents, 1482 South Carolina high school students who were exposed to Hurricane Hugo were surveyed 1 year after the disaster. Subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire measuring Hugo exposure, nonviolent and violent life events, social support, self-efficacy, and psychological distress. Results showed that the students reported minimal exposure to the hurricane and psychological distress variables approximated national norms. As exposure increased, adolescents reported increased symptoms of psychological distress; i.e., anger, depression, anxiety, and global mental distress. Females and white students experienced higher levels of distress. In most cases, other stressful life events were at least as strong a predictor of psychological distress as was exposure to the hurricane. Self-efficacy and social support were protective.

  6. Fitness cost of pheromone production in signaling female moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Thiéry, Denis

    2011-06-01

    A secondary sexual character may act as an honest signal of the quality of the individual if the trait bears a cost and if its expression is phenotypically condition dependent. The cost of increasing the trait should be tolerable for individuals in good condition but not for those in a poor condition. The trait thus provides an honest signal of quality that enables the receiver to choose higher quality mates. Evidence for sex pheromones, which play a major role in shaping sexual evolution, inflicting a signaling cost is scarce. Here, we demonstrate that the amount of the major component of the pheromone in glands of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera) females at signaling time was significantly greater in large than in small females, that male moths preferred larger females as mates when responding to volatile signals, and small virgin females, but not large ones, exposed to conspecific pheromone, produced, when mated, significantly fewer eggs than nonexposed females. The latter indicates a condition-dependent cost of signaling. These results are in accordance with the predictions of condition-dependent honest signals. We therefore suggest that female signaling for males using sex pheromones bears a cost and thus calling may serve as honest advertisement for female quality. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Effects of ionizing radiation on codling moth Cydia pomonella (L) female's ability to attract males in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.; Mohamad, F.

    2010-01-01

    Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. males and females were exposed to three levels of gamma radiation (0, 250 and 350 Gy). Females were used in pheromone traps (instead of pheromone capsules) inside wire cages at a rate of one female / trap. Males were released in a 2 * 2 m square in the middle of the orchard and the number of caught males (wild and released ) in female baited traps was recorded. Results showed an inverse relationship between radiation dose and the ability of females to attract males (wild and released). Contrary to that, result showed that the higher the dose, the lower was the number of males caught in female baited traps. (author)

  8. Long-term effects of prenatal X ray on development and fertility of human females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.B.; Tonascia, J.A.; Merz, T.

    1976-01-01

    This continuing epidemiologic study investigates possible effects of X-ray exposure during foetal life on the subsequent development and fertility of human females and on their offspring. The study population comprises 1458 females exposed in utero to maternal diagnostic X ray such as pelvimetry, and 1458 unexposed controls matched by hospital of birth, parity, race and birthdate (1947-1952). Phase I of the study showed a 10-15% increase in fertility in young exposed women, based on ascertainment of live births and foetal deaths registered in Baltimore City. This statistically significant difference (p=0.011) remained after adjustment for differences between exposed and control women in economic, social and medical factors. Phase II of the study, a direct follow-up of exposed control pairs of women now aged 22-28, continues to show more total pregnancies among exposed women. Exposed-in-utero women had 15% more total pregnancies than controls in 1960-1969, and 7% more in 1970-1975. Exposed and control women are similar in number of siblings, number of children wanted, contraceptive use, and frequency of therapeutic abortion. Other findings suggest possible exposed-control differences in growth, development and behaviour. Exposed women have completed fewer grades of school, have poorer general health, more menstrual problems, more of certain diseases and accidents, and are heavier for height than controls. (author)

  9. Successful female leaders empower women's behavior in leadership tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Latu, Ioana M.; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Lammers, Joris; Bombari, Dario

    2013-01-01

    Women are less likely than men to be associated with leadership, and the awareness of this stereotype may undermine women's performance in leadership tasks. One way to circumvent this stereotype threat is to expose women to highly successful female role models. Although such exposures are known to decrease women's leadership aspirations and self-evaluations, it is currently unknown what the effects of role models are on actual behavior during a challenging leadership task. We investigated whe...

  10. Melatonin and female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Taketani, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Manabu; Lee, Lifa; Tamura, Isao; Maekawa, Ryo; Aasada, Hiromi; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Sugino, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is secreted during the dark hours at night by the pineal gland. After entering the circulation, melatonin acts as an endocrine factor and a chemical messenger of light and darkness. It regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. It also affects the brain, immune, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, bone and endocrine functions and acts as an oncostatic and anti-aging molecule. Many of melatonin's actions are mediated through interactions with specific membrane-bound receptors expressed not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral tissues. Melatonin also acts through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms, for example serving as a scavenger for reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. At both physiological and pharmacological concentrations, melatonin attenuates and counteracts oxidative stress and regulates cellular metabolism. Growing scientific evidence of reproductive physiology supports the role of melatonin in human reproduction. This review was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin on female reproduction and to summarize our findings in this field. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. CERN's first female firefighter

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, the women's changing room in the Fire Station, built in 2005, has always been empty. With the arrival of Séverine Peverelly, CERN's first female firefighter, it now has a purpose. Séverine Peverelly took up her post as a firefighter in April. Séverine, who comes from Gap in France, took up her post as a firefighter in the CERN fire brigade at the beginning of April. "We were looking for a new member," explains David Peyron, Head of the Fire and Rescue Service. It didn't matter if it was a man or a woman; we needed a firefighter with the right skills, and Séverine just happened to have them." With ten years experience working in French fire services, Séverine was looking for a new challenge. "What attracted me to CERN was the international dimension, because that creates additional challenges," she explains. And these can be considerable! For one thing, every country has its own way of worki...

  12. Reproductive function in mice exposed to ancestral and direct irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, D.J.; Sprackling, L.S.

    1978-01-01

    Reproduction was studied in 13 inbred strains of mice that had been exposed continuously to 60 Co gamma radiation for varying numbers of generations. At weaning the mice were removed from the irradiation chamber and were tested for reproductive performance. Ancestral and direct levels of irradiation were determined for each animal. Each irradiated or control female was scored as fertile or sterile, and in utero litter counts were made in pregnant females that were dissected past the 10th day of pregnancy. The number of resorptions, dead embryos, and live embryos were counted, and the ratio of living embryos to the total number of embryos was determined for each litter. The overall fertility curves were sigmoid in the range of doses below those which caused complete sterility, which indicated some sort of cumulative damage. In 11 of the 13 strains studied, an increase in ancestral and/or direct irradiation led to significant decreases in fertility. The means of the number alive in the litters for the control and irradiated mice in each strain showed a definite trend toward fewer live mice in utero after irradiation. Least-squares analyses of variance were made to detect possible effects of any of six irradiation variables (ancestral linear, ancestral quadratic, ancestral cubic, direct linear, direct quadratic, or direct cubic) or of strain differences on total litter size and on ratio. Strain effects were significant in each instance. Litter size was more likely to be affected by radiation variables than ratios were

  13. Proximally exposed A-bomb survivors. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Nanao

    1992-01-01

    Methods for observing chromosomes can be chronologically divided into the era of non-differential staining technique (1962-1975) and the era of differential staining method (since 1976). This paper reviews the literature of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells found in the two eras. Findings during the era of 1962-1975 include the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells, comparison of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells and T lymphocytes, and annual variation of chromosomal aberrations. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations was high in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors (90.5% and 52.6% in A-bomb survivors exposed within 500 m and at 501-1,000 m, respectively); on the contrary, it was low in those exposed far from 1,000 m (6.2% or less). The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells was lower than that in T lymphocytes (21.5% vs 27.1% in those exposed within 500 m and 14.1% vs 23% in those exposed at 501-1,000 m). Annual analysis for chromosomal aberrations has shown the somewhat dependence upon medullary hematopoiesis and virus infection. The advent of differential staining technique since 1976 has made it possible to clarify the type of chromosomal aberrations and site of breakage. Of 710 bone marrow cells taken from 13 A-bomb survivors exposed within 1,000 m, 121 cells (from 11 A-bomb survivors) exhibited chromosomal aberrations. In differential staining analysis, all 121 cells but one were found to be of stable type, such as translocation and inversion. Furthermore, the site of breakage was found to be non-randomly distributed. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells has advantages of reflecting dynamic condition of these cells and determining gradual progression into leukemia. (N.K.)

  14. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  15. An androgenic agricultural contaminant impairs female reproductive behaviour in a freshwater fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Saaristo

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are a large group of environmental pollutants that can interfere with the endocrine system function of organisms at very low levels. One compound of great concern is trenbolone, which is widely used as a growth promoter in the cattle industry in many parts of the world. The aim of this study was to test how short-term (21-day exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of 17β-trenbolone (measured concentration 6 ng/L affects reproductive behaviour and fin morphology in the eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki. The mosquitofish is a sexually dimorphic livebearer with males inseminating females using their modified anal fin, the gonopodium, as an intromittent organ. Although the species has a coercive mating system, females are able to exert some control over the success of male mating attempts by selectively associating with, or avoiding, certain males over others. We found that females exposed to trenbolone approached males less and spent more time swimming away from males than non-exposed (control females. By contrast, we found no difference in the behaviour of exposed and non-exposed males. Furthermore, exposure did not affect the anal fin morphology of males or females. This is the first study to demonstrate that exposure to an androgenic EDC can impair female (but not male behaviour. Our study illustrates how anthropogenic contaminants can have sex-specific effects, and highlights the need to examine the behavioural responses of environmental contaminants in both sexes.

  16. Effect of female genital mutilation on female sexual function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    52.6% of cases were convinced with FGM. Conclusion: FGM was a risk factor for dysmenorrhea, obstructed labor and postpartum hemorrhage. Cases had lower mean sexual function; moreover, half of them convinced with FGM practice and with its continuation. Keywords: Female genital mutilation; Female sexual function; ...

  17. Female condom awareness, use and concerns among Nigerian female undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunlola, M A; Morhason-Bello, I O; Owonikoko, K M; Adekunle, A O

    2006-05-01

    A cross-sectional study of female condom awareness, usage and concerns among the female undergraduates of the University of Ibadan was conducted in September 2004. The results of 850 out of the 879 female students interviewed were used for analysis (96.6%). Over 80% had knowledge of the female condom as a form of modern contraception and the majority of them learnt about it through the mass media (39.9%) and health workers (34.4%). However, only 11.3% had ever used the female condom, with most (40%) using it to prevent both unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections including HIV (STI/HIV). The sexual partners' approval was appreciable, accounting for about 42.7% among those that had experience of the female condom usage. Major concerns mentioned such as difficulty of inserting it into the vagina and lack of sexual satisfaction, were not different from those in earlier studies. The result of this study looks promising judging from a high awareness level of the female condom, even though its usage is low. The female condom may be an alternative strategy to combat unsafe sexual practises and its sequelae in a country like Nigeria that is male dominated.

  18. Female sexual arousal in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S

    2011-05-01

    Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Female fitness optimum at intermediate mating rates under traumatic mating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolanda Lange

    Full Text Available Traumatic mating behaviors often bear signatures of sexual conflict and are then typically considered a male strategy to circumvent female choice mechanisms. In an extravagant mating ritual, the hermaphroditic sea slug Siphopteron quadrispinosum pierces the integument of their mating partners with a syringe-like penile stylet that injects prostate fluids. Traumatic injection is followed by the insertion of a spiny penis into the partner's gonopore to transfer sperm. Despite traumatic mating, field mating rates exceed those required for female fertilization insurance, possibly because costs imposed on females are balanced by direct or indirect benefits of multiple sperm receipt. To test this idea, we exposed animals to a relevant range of mating opportunity regimes and assessed the effects on mating behavior and proxies of female fitness. We find penis intromission duration to decrease with mating rates, and a female fecundity maximum at intermediate mating rates. The latter finding indicates that benefits beyond fertilization insurance can make higher mating rates also beneficial from a female perspective in this traumatically mating species.

  20. Association of Positive History of Pulmonary Tuberculosis with Female Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Eshrati

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiology of infertility has direct influence on the plan and outcome of its management.In this paper we showed the effect of history of tuberculosis (TB on female infertility among infertilecouples admitted to Royan infertility management center.Material and Methods: This case control study was performed on cases that were diagnosed withfemale infertility (308 women. Controls were women whose husbands were infertile due to some malefactor (314 women. Those who had both female and male infertility were excluded from the study. Theobserved variables were BMI>25 kg/m2, positive history of smoking, tuberculosis, sexually transmitteddisease and pelvic inflammatory diseases.Results: The age adjusted odds ratio of history of tuberculosis for female infertility was 6.21(95 CI:1.31-29.56.The attributable risk in exposed group was about 1%.Conclusion: According to our study, positive history of tuberculosis may be responsible for femaleinfertility.

  1. Girls, girls, girls: Gender composition and female school choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Gender segregation in employment may be explained by women's reluctance to choose technical occupations. However, the foundations for career choices are laid much earlier. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose these subjects if they are in single-sex classes. One possible explanation is that coeducational settings reinforce gender stereotypes. In this paper, we identify the causal impact of the gender composition in coeducational classes on the choice of school type for female students. Using natural variation in the gender composition of adjacent cohorts within schools, we show that girls are less likely to choose a traditionally female dominated school type and more likely to choose a male dominated school type at the age of 14 if they were exposed to a higher share of girls in previous grades. PMID:24850996

  2. Girls, girls, girls: Gender composition and female school choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2012-08-01

    Gender segregation in employment may be explained by women's reluctance to choose technical occupations. However, the foundations for career choices are laid much earlier. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose these subjects if they are in single-sex classes. One possible explanation is that coeducational settings reinforce gender stereotypes. In this paper, we identify the causal impact of the gender composition in coeducational classes on the choice of school type for female students. Using natural variation in the gender composition of adjacent cohorts within schools, we show that girls are less likely to choose a traditionally female dominated school type and more likely to choose a male dominated school type at the age of 14 if they were exposed to a higher share of girls in previous grades.

  3. Exposing the Mathematical Wizard: Approximating Trigonometric Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2011-01-01

    For almost all students, what happens when they push buttons on their calculators is essentially magic, and the techniques used are seemingly pure wizardry. In this article, the author draws back the curtain to expose some of the mathematics behind computational wizardry and introduces some fundamental ideas that are accessible to precalculus…

  4. Exposing Library Services with AngularJS

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Voß; Moritz Horn

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the JavaScript framework AngularJS and specific AngularJS modules for accessing library services. It shows how information such as search suggestions, additional links, and availability can be embedded in any website. The ease of reuse may encourage more libraries to expose their services via standard APIs to allow usage in different contexts.

  5. Expose Mechanical Engineering Students to Biomechanics Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui

    2011-01-01

    To adapt the focus of engineering education to emerging new industries and technologies nationwide and in the local area, a biomechanics module has been developed and incorporated into a mechanical engineering technical elective course to expose mechanical engineering students at ONU (Ohio Northern University) to the biomedical engineering topics.…

  6. Stabilizer for seismically exposed bridge cranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelke, M.; Kuhr, H.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns a stabilizer for seismically exposed bridge cranes in reactor buildings. The trolley and the crane bridge are fitted with the stabilizer consisting of a bipartite safety catch which is connected with a joint and able to take up the vertical loads during an earthquake. This stabilizer is suitable for all kinds of bridge cranes operated in seismically active regions

  7. Dose coefficients for individual occupationally exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This Regulation refers to the requirements of the Regulation CNEN-NN.3.01, 'Basic Act of Radiological Protection', aiming its application to the dose calculation, with purposes of conformity verification with limits and restrictions of doses and level of reference for individual occupationally exposed, according to the express in its section 5

  8. Project VALOR: Trajectories of Change in PTSD in Combat Exposed Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    gender role stereotypes /stigma among military personnel (Hosoda & Stone, 2000), may contribute to disparities in MST endorsement, particularly...Current gender stereotypes and their evaluative content. Perceptual and motor skills, 90(3c), 1283-1294. • Kimerling, R., Street, A. E., Pavao, J...PTSD in combat-exposed OIF/OEF/OND male and female veterans. The objective of the current study is to systematically expand the longitudinal

  9. The developmental neurobehavioral effects of fenugreek seeds on prenatally exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalki, Loubna; Bennis, Mohamed; Sokar, Zahra; Ba-M'hamed, Saâdia

    2012-01-31

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum (L.)), is a medicinal plant whose seeds and leaves are widely used in Moroccan traditional medicine. Consumption of fenugreek seeds during pregnancy has been associated with a range of congenital malformations, including hydrocephalus, anencephaly and spina bifida. In previous work we have shown that exposure of pregnant mice to aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds (AEFS) leads to reduced litter size, intrauterine growth retardation, and malformations. However, there have been no studies to date of its longer-term neurobehavioral effects. We investigated these effects in prenatally exposed mice. Pregnant females were exposed to 0, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day AEFS, by gavage, for the whole period of gestation. Pups body weight was measured at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 day of age. Behavior of progeny was evaluated three weeks after birth using the open field, the rotarod test and the continuous alternation task by the T-maze. At 28 postnatal day age, brain of progeny was removed and cut for histological evaluation. The progeny of exposed mice displayed reduced body weight at birth (1000 mg/kg group: 27%; 500 mg/kg group: 32%) and reduced brain weight (10% in both treated groups). Both males and females mice prenatally exposed to AEFS displayed a significant decrease in the locomotor activity, in the boli deposits during the open field test and in motor coordination. These results seem to show that exposure to AEFS induces a depressive effect in the offspring. Assessment on a continuous alternation T-maze test showed a significant reduction in successful spontaneous alternations in males and females but only in the 1000 mg/kg group. These results suggest that prenatal exposure of mice to high dose of fenugreek seeds causes growth retardation and altered neurobehavioral performance in the post-weaning period in both male and female. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Female desistance: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodermond, E.; Kruttschnitt, C.; Slotboom, A.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    To examine whether, and if so how, male-based theories of desistance also apply to female offenders, this article reviews 44 studies on female desistance. Where available, gender differences in desistance are considered. Having children and supportive relationships is found to be important for

  11. Fibrosis biomarkers in workers exposed to MWCNTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatkhutdinova, Liliya M.; Khaliullin, Timur O.; Vasil'yeva, Olga L.; Zalyalov, Ramil R.; Mustafin, Ilshat G.; Kisin, Elena R.; Birch, M. Eileen; Yanamala, Naveena; Shvedova, Anna A.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with their unique physico-chemical properties offer numerous technological advantages and are projected to drive the next generation of manufacturing growth. As MWCNT have already found utility in different industries including construction, engineering, energy production, space exploration and biomedicine, large quantities of MWCNT may reach the environment and inadvertently lead to human exposure. This necessitates the urgent assessment of their potential health effects in humans. The current study was carried out at NanotechCenter Ltd. Enterprise (Tambov, Russia) where large-scale manufacturing of MWCNT along with relatively high occupational exposure levels was reported. The goal of this small cross-sectional study was to evaluate potential biomarkers during occupational exposure to MWCNT. All air samples were collected at the workplaces from both specific areas and personal breathing zones using filter-based devices to quantitate elemental carbon and perform particle analysis by TEM. Biological fluids of nasal lavage, induced sputum and blood serum were obtained from MWCNT-exposed and non-exposed workers for assessment of inflammatory and fibrotic markers. It was found that exposure to MWCNTs caused significant increase in IL-1β, IL6, TNF-α, inflammatory cytokines and KL-6, a serological biomarker for interstitial lung disease in collected sputum samples. Moreover, the level of TGF-β1 was increased in serum obtained from young exposed workers. Overall, the results from this study revealed accumulation of inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers in biofluids of workers manufacturing MWCNTs. Therefore, the biomarkers analyzed should be considered for the assessment of health effects of occupational exposure to MWCNT in cross-sectional epidemiological studies. - Highlights: • The effects of MWCNT exposure in humans remain unclear. • We found increased KL-6/TGF-β levels in the biofluids of MWCNT-exposed workers.

  12. Fibrosis biomarkers in workers exposed to MWCNTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatkhutdinova, Liliya M., E-mail: liliya.fatkhutdinova@gmail.com [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Khaliullin, Timur O., E-mail: Khaliullin.40k@gmail.com [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, WVU, Morgantown, WV (United States); Vasil' yeva, Olga L., E-mail: volgaleon@gmail.com [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Zalyalov, Ramil R., E-mail: zalyalov.ramil@gmail.com [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Mustafin, Ilshat G., E-mail: ilshat64@mail.ru [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Kisin, Elena R., E-mail: edk8@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Birch, M. Eileen, E-mail: mib2@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Yanamala, Naveena, E-mail: wqu1@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Shvedova, Anna A., E-mail: ats1@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, WVU, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with their unique physico-chemical properties offer numerous technological advantages and are projected to drive the next generation of manufacturing growth. As MWCNT have already found utility in different industries including construction, engineering, energy production, space exploration and biomedicine, large quantities of MWCNT may reach the environment and inadvertently lead to human exposure. This necessitates the urgent assessment of their potential health effects in humans. The current study was carried out at NanotechCenter Ltd. Enterprise (Tambov, Russia) where large-scale manufacturing of MWCNT along with relatively high occupational exposure levels was reported. The goal of this small cross-sectional study was to evaluate potential biomarkers during occupational exposure to MWCNT. All air samples were collected at the workplaces from both specific areas and personal breathing zones using filter-based devices to quantitate elemental carbon and perform particle analysis by TEM. Biological fluids of nasal lavage, induced sputum and blood serum were obtained from MWCNT-exposed and non-exposed workers for assessment of inflammatory and fibrotic markers. It was found that exposure to MWCNTs caused significant increase in IL-1β, IL6, TNF-α, inflammatory cytokines and KL-6, a serological biomarker for interstitial lung disease in collected sputum samples. Moreover, the level of TGF-β1 was increased in serum obtained from young exposed workers. Overall, the results from this study revealed accumulation of inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers in biofluids of workers manufacturing MWCNTs. Therefore, the biomarkers analyzed should be considered for the assessment of health effects of occupational exposure to MWCNT in cross-sectional epidemiological studies. - Highlights: • The effects of MWCNT exposure in humans remain unclear. • We found increased KL-6/TGF-β levels in the biofluids of MWCNT-exposed workers.

  13. Desire and the female analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaverien, J

    1996-04-01

    The literature on erotic transference and countertransference between female analyst and male patient is reviewed and discussed. It is known that female analysts are less likely than their male colleagues to act out sexually with their patients. It has been claimed that a) male patients do not experience sustained erotic transferences, and b) female analysts do not experience erotic countertransferences with female or male patients. These views are challenged and it is argued that, if there is less sexual acting out by female analysts, it is not because of an absence of eros in the therapeutic relationship. The literature review covers material drawn from psychoanalysis, feminist psychotherapy, Jungian analysis, as well as some sociological and cultural sources. It is organized under the following headings: the gender of the analyst, sexual acting out, erotic transference, maternal and paternal transference, gender and power, countertransference, incest taboo--mothers and sons and sexual themes in the transference.

  14. Perspective for Female Medical Physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Syed Mansoor; Hasnain, Aziz Fatima

    2009-01-01

    Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.

  15. Psychological distress in young adults exposed to war-related trauma in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llabre, Maria M; Hadi, Fawzyiah; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S

    2015-01-01

    We tested a conceptual model of the effect of war-trauma exposure in childhood on psychological distress in young adulthood. Participants included 151 urban Kuwaiti children (51% female; M age = 10.62 years) exposed to the 1990-1991 Gulf crisis (assessed in 1993); participants also included 140 parents (81% female; M age mothers = 36.50 years; M age fathers = 41 years). In 2003, 120 participants were reassessed as young adults (50% female; M age = 21.19 years). The conceptual model was evaluated with structural equations. War-trauma exposure was associated with psychological distress in children and parents, but parents reported larger effects than children. Parents' psychological distress did not contribute to children's psychological distress. Children's psychological distress did not dissipate over time. Social support may function as a potential mediator of the effect of war-trauma exposure on psychological distress. Findings support the importance of early detection and treatment of children exposed to war trauma. Findings also implicate social support as a factor to consider in clinical interventions for children exposed to war trauma.

  16. THE MEANING OF ALPHA FEMALE IN FEMALE LIBRARIAN: Building a Positive Image of Libraries through Female Librarians as Alpha Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Winoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available MAKNA DIRI ALPHA FEMALE PADA PUSTAKAWAN PEREMPUAN: Membangun Citra Positif Perpustakaan Melalui Kiprah Pustakawan Perempuan Sebagai Alpha Female Abstract The profession of librarians is often associated with women. This can be justified if we refer to data and research results that have been done in several countries. However, many women who work in the library, this does not necessarily describe that library work is a simple and easy job. However, on the contrary, work in the field of library is increasingly complex and demands the competence and mastery of information technology. Moreover, the expectations of some users who demand a fast and quality service. Therefore to answer this problem required a female librarian who has the competence, intelligent and able to become a leader for his group and can show the characteristics as a professional. As for the description of people like this people call it with the term alpha female. With the birth of alpha female figures among female librarians is expected to change the positive image of librarians and library institutions. This is because the female alpha figure in the female librarian is a figure of women who are considered "perfect" are still rare today. Keywords: library, librarian, symbolic interaction, alpha female. Abstrak Profesi pustakawan kerapkali dikaitkan dengan kaum perempuan. Hal ini dapat dibenarkan jika kita merujuk pada data dan hasil riset yang telah dilakukan di beberapa negara. Namun demikian banyaknya kaum perempuan yang bekerja di perpustakaan, ini tidak serta merta menggambarkan bahwa pekerjaaan perpustakaan merupakan pekerjaan yang sederhana dan mudah. Namun justru sebaliknya pekerjaaan di bidang perpustakaan saat ini semakin kompleks dan menuntut kompetensi dan penguasaan teknologi informasi. Apalagi harapan sebagian pengguna yang menuntut suatu pelayanan ayang cepat dan berkualitas. Oleh karena demikian untuk menjawab permasalahan ini diperlukan sosok pustakawan

  17. Effect of chronic ethanol consumption in female rats subjected to experimental sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, C.L. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Aguiar-Nemer, A.S. [Departamento de Nutrição, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Castro-Faria-Neto, H.C. [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barros, F.R. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, E.M.S. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Silva-Fonseca, V.A. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-12-10

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the interference of ethanol consumption by female rats with cytokines involved in the sepsis process and its correlation with mortality, the main outcome of sepsis. Female Wistar rats in estrus phase were evaluated in three experiments. Experiment 1 (n=40) was performed to determine survival rates. Experiment 2 (n=69) was designed for biochemical analysis, measurement of cytokine and estrogen levels before and after sepsis, and experiment 3 (n=10) was performed to evaluate bacterial growth by colony counts of peritoneal fluid. In all experiments, treated animals were exposed to a 10% ethanol/water solution (v/v) as the single drinking source, while untreated animals were given tap water. After 4 weeks, sepsis was induced in the rats by ip injection of feces. In experiment 1, mortality in ethanol-exposed animals was delayed compared with those that drank water (48 h; P=0.0001). Experiment 2 showed increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and decreased interleukin-6 (IL-6) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor in septic animals exposed to ethanol compared to septic animals not exposed. Sepsis also increased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in both ethanol- and water-exposed groups. Biochemical analysis showed higher creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and decreased glucose levels in septic animals that were exposed to ethanol. In experiment 3, septic animals exposed to ethanol showed decreased numbers of colony-forming units than septic animals exposed to water. These results suggest that ethanol consumption delays the mortality of female rats in estrus phase after sepsis induction. Female characteristics, most probably sex hormones, may be involved in cytokine expression.

  18. Effect of chronic ethanol consumption in female rats subjected to experimental sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, C.L.; Aguiar-Nemer, A.S.; Castro-Faria-Neto, H.C.; Barros, F.R.; Rocha, E.M.S.; Silva-Fonseca, V.A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the interference of ethanol consumption by female rats with cytokines involved in the sepsis process and its correlation with mortality, the main outcome of sepsis. Female Wistar rats in estrus phase were evaluated in three experiments. Experiment 1 (n=40) was performed to determine survival rates. Experiment 2 (n=69) was designed for biochemical analysis, measurement of cytokine and estrogen levels before and after sepsis, and experiment 3 (n=10) was performed to evaluate bacterial growth by colony counts of peritoneal fluid. In all experiments, treated animals were exposed to a 10% ethanol/water solution (v/v) as the single drinking source, while untreated animals were given tap water. After 4 weeks, sepsis was induced in the rats by ip injection of feces. In experiment 1, mortality in ethanol-exposed animals was delayed compared with those that drank water (48 h; P=0.0001). Experiment 2 showed increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and decreased interleukin-6 (IL-6) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor in septic animals exposed to ethanol compared to septic animals not exposed. Sepsis also increased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in both ethanol- and water-exposed groups. Biochemical analysis showed higher creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and decreased glucose levels in septic animals that were exposed to ethanol. In experiment 3, septic animals exposed to ethanol showed decreased numbers of colony-forming units than septic animals exposed to water. These results suggest that ethanol consumption delays the mortality of female rats in estrus phase after sepsis induction. Female characteristics, most probably sex hormones, may be involved in cytokine expression

  19. FEMALE SEXUAL AUTONOMY: THE FEMALE CONDOM IN EROTIC PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grayce Alencar Albuquerque

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to learn about the experiences of women from a Health Strategy in view of the experience of sexual autonomy in the face of the female condom. It is an exploratory and qualitative study, completed in April 2010, which used semi-structured interview as data collection technique and the theory of social constructionism to aid in data analysis. Of the total of 25 women participants, after six months, only 12 were still in continuous use of the female condom. They pointed out the female condom as able to provide them with bargaining power, since it is inserted into their bodies. For some, the difficulty of trading remained for failure partner's approval. It is observed that in practice, the female condom becomes hostage of gender relations.

  20. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Lains Mota

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training, surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.

  1. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522

  2. In utero exposure to nanosized carbon black (Printex90) does not induce tandem repeat mutations in female murine germ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner; Shipley, Thomas; Jackson, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation of particles has been shown to induce mutations in the male germline in mice following both prenatal and adult exposures in several experiments. In contrast, the effects of particles on female germ cell mutagenesis are not well established. Germline mutations are induced during active...... cell division, which occurs during fetal development in females. We investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to carbon black nanoparticles (CB) on induction of mutations in the female mouse germline during fetal development, spanning the critical developmental stages of oogenesis. Pregnant C57BL/6...... mutation rates in the resulting F2 generation were determined from full pedigrees (mother, father, offspring) of F1 female mice (178 CB-exposed and 258 control F2 offspring). ESTR mutation rates in CB-exposed F2 female offspring were not statistically different from those of F2 female control offspring....

  3. Stability of people exposed to water flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Martínez-Gomariz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our cities are formed by several elements which are exposed to floods of a magnitude according to the importance of the rainfall event and the design of the urban drainage system. The most important components in the cities are the pedestrians who develop various activities during rain events. Focusing on pedestrians, the research on their stability when they are exposed to water flows provides the necessary knowledge to understand and manage the associated hazard for them. In this research, several experiments with humans were carried out in order to determine the stability limits to pedestrians crossing through a water flow in a real scale platform. The results obtained and by comparing those with human stability criteria proposed by other authors and guidelines provide a more restrictive criterion.

  4. Children exposed to war/terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A

    2003-12-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of psychological morbidities in children who have been exposed to war-related traumas or terrorism as well as the diversity of war-related casualties and their associated psychological responses. The psychological responses to war-related stressors are categorized as (1) little or no reaction, (2) acute emotional and behavioral effects, and (3) long-term effects. Specific categories of war-related casualties discussed include refugee status, traumatic bereavement, effects of parental absence, and child soldiers. Psychological responses associated with terrorism and bioterrorism are presented. Lastly, mediators of the psychological response to war-related stressors are discussed, to include exposure effects, gender effects, parental, family and social factors, and child-specific factors. Children exposed to war-related stressors experience a spectrum of psychological morbidities including posttraumatic stress symptomatology, mood disorders, externalizing and disruptive behaviors, and somatic symptoms determined by exposure dose effect. Specific questions for future research are identified.

  5. Antioxidants for female subfertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showell, Marian G; Mackenzie-Proctor, Rebecca; Jordan, Vanessa; Hart, Roger J

    2017-07-28

    A couple may be considered to have fertility problems if they have been trying to conceive for over a year with no success. This may affect up to a quarter of all couples planning a child. It is estimated that for 40% to 50% of couples, subfertility may result from factors affecting women. Antioxidants are thought to reduce the oxidative stress brought on by these conditions. Currently, limited evidence suggests that antioxidants improve fertility, and trials have explored this area with varied results. This review assesses the evidence for the effectiveness of different antioxidants in female subfertility. To determine whether supplementary oral antioxidants compared with placebo, no treatment/standard treatment or another antioxidant improve fertility outcomes for subfertile women. We searched the following databases (from their inception to September 2016) with no language or date restriction: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group (CGFG) specialised register, the Cochrane Central Register of Studies (CENTRAL CRSO), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and AMED. We checked reference lists of appropriate studies and searched for ongoing trials in the clinical trials registers. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared any type, dose or combination of oral antioxidant supplement with placebo, no treatment or treatment with another antioxidant, among women attending a reproductive clinic. We excluded trials comparing antioxidants with fertility drugs alone and trials that only included fertile women attending a fertility clinic because of male partner infertility. Two review authors independently selected eligible studies, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. The primary review outcome was live birth; secondary outcomes included clinical pregnancy rates and adverse events. We pooled studies using a fixed-effect model, and calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the dichotomous

  6. Studies on persons exposed to plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.; Stebbings, J.H.; Hempelmann, L.H.; Haxton, L.K.; York, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of four studies of persons exposed, or potentially exposed, to plutonium are summarized. The studies are: a five-year update on clinical examinations and health experience of 26 Manhattan District workers heavily exposed at Los Alamos in 1944 to 1945; a 30-year mortality follow-up of 224 white male workers with plutonium body burdens of 10 nCi or more; a review of cancer mortality rates between 1950 and 1969 among Los Alamos County, New Mexico, male residents, all of whom have worked in or have lived within a few kilometers of a major plutonium plant and other nuclear facilities; and a review of cancer incidence rates between 1969 and 1974 in male residents of Los Alamos County. No excess of mortality due to any cause was observed in the 224 male subjects with the highest plutonium exposures at Los Alamos. Clinical examinations of the Manhattan District workers, whose average age in 1976 was 56 years, show them to be active persons with diseases that are not unusual for their ages. The two deaths in this group over the past 30 years have not been due to cancer. Mortality and incidence data indicate no excess of lung cancer in Los Alamos County males

  7. Incidence of lung tumors in LX mice exposed to (1) free radicals; (2) SO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peacock, P R; Spence, J B

    1967-01-01

    60 to 65 3-month-old LX mice were exposed to either radio frequency-generated free radicals for 3 hr/day, 5 days/week, or 500 ppM SO/sub 2/ for 5 min/day, 5 days/week, for more than 2 yr (results only on mice surviving > 300 days). Incidence of primary neoplasia (adenoma) in mice exposed to SO/sub 2/ increased from 31% (control) to 54% in males and from 17% to 43% in females. Incidence of neoplasia in mice exposed to free radicals increased 10 and 6% above controls for males and females, respectively. The action of SO/sub 2/ was thought to be that of nonspecific inflammation leading to hyperplasia and lymphatic engorgement, which precede and predispose adenoma.

  8. Lung function status of some Nigerian men and women chronically exposed to fish drying using burning firewood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, E J; Esin, R A; Immananagha, K K; Siziya, S; Osim, E E

    1999-05-01

    To determine the lung function status of some Nigerian men and women chronically exposed to fish drying using burning firewood. Case control study. Ibaka, Utaewa and Ikanga fishing settlements. 183 males and 192 females engaged in fishing, aged 20 to 45 years who have been exposed for a minimum of five years as cases. The control group comprised sex matched male (142) and female (152) Nigerians from the same area who were not exposed to any known air pollutant. Lung function indices: FVC, FEV1, FEV1% and PEFR. Lung function indices were significantly lower in men engaged in fishing than in their controls: FVC [mean (SD): 2.98 (0.20) vs 3.52 (0.29), p firewood can impair lung function and cause respiratory and other symptoms.

  9. TC in female pelvic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Fontes, M

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about the role of imaging in the female pelvis. The CT is an important key in the diagnosis of gynecological malignant pathologies such as Ovarian, endometrial cervical, bladder, vaginal and vulvar cancer

  10. A Case of Female Intersex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-09

    Mar 9, 1974 ... At operation a reasonably small uterus (5 X 3 X 2 cm), was found with ... tissue made a detailed anatomical dissection and investi- .... relative term, because no human being is completely male or female. ... while pregnant.

  11. Burnout in Female Faculty Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Vu, Lisa; Beck, Keli; Moore, Justin B

    2017-04-01

    Despite approximately equal numbers of male and female medical school graduates, women are entering academic medicine at a lower rate than their male colleagues. Of those who do assume a faculty position, female faculty members report higher levels of burnout, often attributable to gender-specific difficulties in clinical expectations and maintenance of work-life balance. Many of these struggles are attributable to issues that are amenable to supportive policies, but these policies are inconsistent in their availability and practice. This commentary presents evidence for inconsistencies in the day-to-day experience of female faculty members, and proposes solutions for the mitigation of the challenges experienced more often by female faculty members with the goal of diversifying and strengthening academic medicine.

  12. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C.

  13. Association between exposure to media and body weight concern among female university students in five Arab countries: a preliminary cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam

    2014-03-01

    Mass media play an important role in changing body image. This study aimed to determine the role of media (magazines and television) in body weight concern among university females in five Arab countries. A total sample of 1134 female university students was selected at convenience from universities in five Arab countries: Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Oman and Syria. The females' ages ranged from 17 to 32. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to assess the exposure to mass media regarding weight concerns. For the variables on exposure to mass media, girls were divided into two groups: infrequently exposed and frequently exposed. In general, the females who were exposed to mass media had a greater risk of having dieted to lose weight and changing their ideas of a perfect body shape than those who were not exposed or infrequently exposed. The association of exposure to magazines with having dieted to lose weight was only significant among females in Bahrain (pbody weight concerns of females. The association of exposure to television with females' idea of a perfect body shape was only statistically significant in females in Egypt (pmedia on the body weight concern of female university students may lead these women to practise unhealthy weight control diets.

  14. Estradiol and song affect female zebra finch behavior independent of dopamine in the striatum

    OpenAIRE

    Svec, Lace A.; Lookingland, Keith J.; Wade, Juli

    2009-01-01

    Female songbirds display preferences for certain song characteristics, but the neural and hormonal mechanisms mediating these preferences are not fully clear. The present study sought to further explore the role of estradiol, as well as assess potential roles of dopaminergic systems, on behavioral responses to song. Adult female zebra finches were treated with estradiol and exposed to tutored or untutored song or silence. Behavior was quantified and neurochemistry of the nucleus accumbens and...

  15. Social implications of the battle of the sexes: sexual harassment disrupts female sociality and social recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Safi K; James, Richard; Ramnarine, Indar W; Croft, Darren P

    2009-07-22

    Across sexually reproducing species, males and females are in conflict over the control of reproduction. At the heart of this conflict in a number of taxa is male harassment of females for mating opportunities and female strategies to avoid this harassment. One neglected consequence that may result from sexual harassment is the disruption of important social associations. Here, we experimentally manipulate the degree of sexual harassment that wild female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) experience by establishing replicated, semi-natural pools with different population sex ratios. We quantify the effects of sexual harassment on female social structure and the development of social recognition among females. When exposed to sexual harassment, we found that females had more disparate social networks with limited repeated interactions when compared to females that did not experience male harassment. Furthermore, females that did not experience harassment developed social recognition with familiar individuals over an 8-day period, whereas females that experienced harassment did not, an effect we suggest is due to disruption of association patterns. These results show that social network structure and social recognition can be affected by sexual harassment, an effect that will be relevant across taxonomic groups and that we predict will have fitness consequences for females.

  16. 29 CFR 1910.213 - Woodworking machinery requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... location, making it unnecessary for him to reach over the cutter to make adjustments. This does not apply... knife projection of which shall not exceed one-eighth inch beyond the cylindrical body of the head. (2... operator's hand from coming in contact with the revolving knives. The guard shall automatically adjust...

  17. Risk Management Improvement of Engineering Projects in Woodworking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Bartkutė

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Risk is a complex phenomenon that has physical, monetary, cultural and social dimensions. Every company wants tosave money, time, increase quality, optimise manufacturing, but each factor may involve different risks with different influenceto company, its reputation. The aim of the research is to find better risk management improvement decisions, using techniquesthat could help to reduce risk impact in wood-based nonstandard production with shorter project time, smoother design process,lower costs, better project coordination, increased ability to manage problems, technical solutions.

  18. ANALYSIS OF FLEXIBLE BARRIERS USED AS SAFETY PROTECTION IN WOODWORKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pavlovic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Machine tools use physical barriers, made by flexible thermoplastic materials, to protect the environment and the operators against the projections of wood chips and parts of cutting tools. These barriers constitute a partial closure and allow the passage of the workpiece, being simultaneously able to contain sharp fragments projected at high speed. The present research was conducted with the aim to evaluate the real effectiveness of these barriers, to investigate their dynamic behaviour by numerical simulations. Results showed that these barriers, if properly considered, could retain heavier masses and higher speeds. The research also allowed, in fact, to investigate the influence of several factors in design, selection and use, as material, shape, position, assemblages and many others, highlighting weaknesses and identifying possible measures to increase its effectiveness.

  19. Visual exposure to obesity: Experimental effects on attraction toward overweight men and mate choice in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E; Christiansen, P

    2015-09-01

    Cultural differences in ideal body weight are well established, but less research has examined attraction toward potential mates of heavier body weights. We examined whether exposure to obesity increases physical attraction toward overweight men. In Studies 1 and 2, we examined the effect that exposure to obese vs healthy weight men had on female attraction toward an overweight man. Study 3 examined whether females who are regularly exposed to males of heavier body weights reported a greater attraction toward overweight men. Study 4 tested whether females in an online dating study were more likely to choose to date an overweight man, after having been exposed to obesity. Exposure to obesity altered visual perceptions of what normal and therefore healthy body weights were and this resulted in greater attraction toward an overweight man (Studies 1 and 2). Females regularly exposed to men of heavier body weight reported a greater attraction toward overweight men (Study 3). After exposure to obesity, females in an online dating study were more likely to choose to date an overweight man ahead of a healthy weight man (Study 4). Exposure to male obesity increases female attraction toward overweight men and may affect mate choice.

  20. EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Rabbow

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS, carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form, lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface. Radiation dosimeters distributed over the whole facility complemented the scientific payload. Three extravehicular activities later the chemical samples were returned to Earth on March 2, 2016, with Soyuz 44S, having spent 588 days in space. The biological samples arrived back later, on June 18, 2016, with 45S, after a total duration in space of 531 days. The exposure of the samples to Low Earth Orbit vacuum lasted for 531 days and was divided in two parts: protected against solar irradiation during the first 62 days, followed by exposure to solar radiation during the subsequent 469 days. In parallel to the space mission, a Mission Ground Reference (MGR experiment with a flight identical Hardware and a complete flight identical set of samples was performed at the premises of DLR (German Aerospace Center in Cologne by MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center, according to the mission data either downloaded from the ISS (temperature data, facility status, inner pressure status or provided by RedShift Design and Engineering BVBA, Belgium (calculated ultra violet radiation fluence data. In this paper, the EXPOSE-R2 facility, the experimental samples, mission parameters, environmental parameters, and the overall mission and MGR sequences are described, building the background for the research papers of the individual experiments, their analysis and results.

  1. Female circumcision and child mortality in urban Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamud, O A

    1991-01-01

    In Somalia, a demographer analyzed urban data obtained from the Family Health Survey to examine the effect female circumcision has on child mortality and the mechanism of that effect. Girls undergo female circumcision between 5-12 years old in Somalia. Since sunni circumcision (removal of the clitoral prepuce and tip of the clitoris) and clitoridectomy (removal of the entire clitoris) did not affect child mortality, he used them as the reference group. Infibulation (entire removal of the clitoris and of the labia minora and majora with the remains of the labia majora being sewn together allowing only a small opening for passage of urine) did affect child mortality. Female children who underwent infibulation and whose mothers most likely also underwent infibulation experienced higher mortality (13-72%) than those from other circumcised mothers. Female mortality exceeded male mortality indicating possible son preference. Mothers with clitoridectomy or infibulation had significantly higher infant mortality than those with sunni circumcision with the strongest effects during the neonatal period (95% and 42% higher mortality, respectively; p=.01). The effect of female circumcision on child mortality decreased with increased child's age. This higher than expected mortality among women with clitoridectomy may have been because women with infibulation had more stillbirths which were not counted as births. The exposed vagina of clitoridectomized women is more likely to be infected resulting in high risk of stillbirths and premature births than the closed vagina of infibulated women. The researcher suggested that the policies promoting education and consciousness raising may eventually eradicate female circumcision. This longterm campaign should use mass media, senior women of high status, and respected religious leaders. Legislation prohibiting this practice would only drive it underground under unsanitary conditions. Demographers should no longer ignore female circumcision

  2. Towards harmonized qualifications for radiation exposed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briso, Hugo A.

    2008-01-01

    The accelerated process of globalization affecting mankind doesn't exclude safety matters. Indeed, some trans national corporations are increasingly offering specialized engineering services such as industrial radiography or well lodging. As well, a growing scientific exchange involves the mobility of nuclear researchers in different areas, for instance radiochemistry, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Such a breakdown in the technological frontiers must necessarily be reflected by the regulatory solutions. Particularly, diverse levels of theoretical-practical training for radiation exposed personnel coexist in the Latin-American Region, being an especially sensitive problem for radiation protection matters. The spectrum goes from post-graduate courses required for radiation protection officers in some countries, while in others only basic recommendations are required for the operating personnel. Another scheme consists of medium level course for the operating personnel, while radiation protection officers don't have special requirements. Many educational private institutions teach non standardized courses which only give broad concepts of radiation protection. On the other hand, usually nothing is said about the operational training, or else its certification is entrusted to the employer itself. In some countries multiple Regulatory Authorities apply dissimilar criteria to assess safety matters, including the evaluation of workers applications. The necessary regional integration makes indispensable to establish common standards for granting authorizations. Having similar or homogeneous requirements for the universe of radiation exposed personnel, i.e. source operators, radiation protection officers, qualified experts and technical support people would be easier for the Regulatory Authorities to have common methodologies of evaluation for the applicants. An IAEA supported technical cooperation project related to this paper seeks to establish standardized

  3. Female genital mutilation in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J A; Debelle, G D

    1995-06-17

    The practice of female genital mutilation predates the founding of both Christianity and Islam. Though largely confined among Muslims, the operation is also practiced in some Christian communities in Africa such that female genital mutilation takes place in various forms in more than twenty African countries, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and by some Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia. In recent decades, ethnic groups which practice female genital mutilation have immigrated to Britain. The main groups are from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen. In their own countries, an estimated 80% of women have had the operation. Female genital mutilation has been illegal in Britain since 1985, but it is practiced illegally or children are sent abroad to undergo the operation typically at age 7-9 years. It is a form of child abuse which poses special problems. The authors review the history of female genital mutilation and describe its medical complications. Assuming that the size of the population in Britain of ethnic groups which practice or favor female genital mutilation remains more or less unchanged, adaptation and acculturation will probably cause the practice to die out within a few generations. Meanwhile, there is much to be done. A conspiracy of silence exists in medical circles as well as widespread ignorance. Moreover, none of a number of well-known obstetric and pediatric textbooks mentions female genital mutilation, while the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children has neither information nor instructional material. It is high time that the problem was more widely and openly discussed.

  4. Adverse reproductive outcomes among female veterinarians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenker, M.B.; Samuels, S.J.; Green, R.S.; Wiggins, P.

    1990-01-01

    Because female veterinarians are exposed to several known reproductive hazards, the authors conducted a reproductive survey of all female graduates of a US veterinary school (n = 537) and law school (comparison group, n = 794). Analysis was confined to pregnancies completed after the second year of professional school and from 1966 to 1986. Based on one randomly chosen eligible pregnancy per woman (veterinarians, n = 176; lawyers, n = 229), spontaneous abortion rates, adjusted for elective abortions, were 13.3% for the veterinarians and 15.1% for the lawyers; these did not differ significantly. A Cox life table regression model controlling for age, smoking, alcohol use, and prior spontaneous abortion also showed no significant difference in spontaneous abortion rates between the two populations. Using all pregnancies, veterinarians who reported performing five or more radiographic examinations per week had a marginally elevated risk of spontaneous abortion, but the statistical significance disappeared when analysis was limited to one random pregnancy per woman. For one random eligible birth per woman, the mean birth weight did not differ significantly between the veterinarians and lawyers, even after controlling for possible confounders in regression analyses. A higher rate of reportable birth defects was observed among the veterinarians than among the lawyers (relative risk = 4.2, 95% confidence interval 1.2-15.1), but this unexpected result must be considered hypothesis-generating. The authors did not find an overall increased risk for spontaneous abortion or low birth weight infants among veterinarians compared with lawyers, but veterinarians who reported performing five or more radiographic examinations per week may have been at increased risk for spontaneous abortion

  5. Lymphocytic subsets in occupationally exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.; Kovac, R.; Wottawa, A.

    1989-04-01

    The percentage of CD2, CD4, CD8 and NK cells of peripheral blood was investigated in persons occupationally exposed to very low doses of ionizing radiation. Investigations were carried out by monoclonal antibodies and flow-cytometry. While significant effects of age and smoking habits on the relative number of CD8 cells and CD4/CD8 ratios could be established, no influence of the very low radiation exposure on the profile of lymphocytic cells in blood was found, except a very slight effect on the relative number of total T cells (= CD2 cells). 7tabs., 2figs., 16refs. (Author)

  6. Renographic curve of persons exposed to mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenic, J.; Jurgova, T.; Zimacek, J.; Petrovicova, J.; Bilicky, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the group of 72 workers which were exposed to fumes of metallic mercury we evaluated possible nephrotoxic effect of Hg 0 . We also used nuclear renography for evaluation of kidney. Nephrotoxic effect of Hg 0 was proved by increased proteinuria and relatively frequent findings of pathological renogram. In the group with pathological renogram, elimination of Hg 0 in urine (1822.8 nmol.dm -3 ) was increased. In the group with normal finding the value was 883.7 nmol.dm -3 . These findings pointed at toxic effect of Hg 0 on kidney and suitability of radionuclide examination for disclosing of subclinical pathological changes. (authors)

  7. Spoiled Onions: Exposing Malicious Tor Exit Relays

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Philipp; Lindskog, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Several hundred Tor exit relays together push more than 1 GiB/s of network traffic. However, it is easy for exit relays to snoop and tamper with anonymised network traffic and as all relays are run by independent volunteers, not all of them are innocuous. In this paper, we seek to expose malicious exit relays and document their actions. First, we monitored the Tor network after developing a fast and modular exit relay scanner. We implemented several scanning modules for detecting common attac...

  8. Uniform Protection for Multi-exposed Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2014-01-01

    the Quality Calculus that computes the combinations of data required to reach a program point and relates them to a notion of cost. In this way, we can compare the security deployed on different paths that expose the same resource. The analysis is formalised in terms of flow logic, and is implemented......Ensuring that information is protected proportionately to its value is a major challenge in the development of robust distributed systems, where code complexity and technological constraints might allow reaching a key functionality along various paths. We propose a protection analysis over...

  9. Backfilling of trenches exposed to waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This paper treats the numerical prediction of initial and long-term morphology of small pipeline trenches. For this purpose a refined flow and sediment transport description is applied such that the entire mathematical problem is formulated and solved on a curvilinear grid using a k - ε turbulence......-closure. The backfilling process of trenches exposed to either waves or a steady current is of importance in relation to the implementation of pipelines in the marine environment. With respect to the sedimentation of trenches, the non-dimensional Trench-Keulegan-Carpenter number, KC = a/L, where a is the excursion length...

  10. Analyses of Concrete Structures Exposed to Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian

    The text book contains the data and methods necessary for fire safety design of concrete constructions. The methods relate to standard fire as well as to any time of any other fire course.Material data are presented for concretes exposed to fire, and calculation methods are given for the ultimate...... bending capacity of beams and slabs, the ultimate shear capacity of beams, for the instability of columns and walls and for the deflection of prestressed and non-prestressed beams, slabs, walls and columns.All methods have been derived and compared to tests by Kristian Hertz....

  11. Significant accumulation of persistent organic pollutants and dysregulation in multiple DNA damage repair pathways in the electronic-waste-exposed populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xiaobo; Jing, Yaqing; Wang, Jianhai; Li, Keqiu [Basic Medical College, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Yang, Qiaoyun [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Zhao, Yuxia [Basic Medical College, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Li, Ran [State Key Joint Laboratory for Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering and Center for Environment and Health, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ge, Jie [Department of Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin 300060 (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin 300060 (China); Qiu, Xinghua, E-mail: xhqiu@pku.edu.cn [State Key Joint Laboratory for Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering and Center for Environment and Health, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Guang, E-mail: lig@tijmu.edu.cn [Basic Medical College, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Electronic waste (e-waste) has created a worldwide environmental and health problem, by generating a diverse group of hazardous compounds such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Our previous studies demonstrated that populations from e-waste exposed region have a significantly higher level of chromosomal aberrancy and incidence of DNA damage. In this study, we further demonstrated that various POPs persisted at a significantly higher concentration in the exposed group than those in the unexposed group. The level of reactive oxygen species and micronucleus rate were also significantly elevated in the exposed group. RNA sequencing analysis revealed 31 genes in DNA damage responses and repair pathways that were differentially expressed between the two groups (Log 2 ratio >1 or <−1). Our data demonstrated that both females and males of the exposed group have activated a series of DNA damage response genes; however many important DNA repair pathways have been dysregulated. Expressions of NEIL1/3 and RPA3, which are critical in initiating base pair and nucleotide excision repairs respectively, have been downregulated in both females and males of the exposed group. In contrast, expression of RNF8, an E3 ligase involved in an error prone non-homologous end joining repair for DNA double strand break, was upregulated in both genders of the exposed group. The other genes appeared to be differentially expressed only when the males or females of the two groups were compared respectively. Importantly, the expression of cell cycle regulatory gene CDC25A that has been implicated in multiple kinds of malignant transformation was significantly upregulated among the exposed males while downregulated among the exposed females. In conclusion, our studies have demonstrated significant correlations between e-waste disposing and POPs accumulation, DNA lesions and dysregulation of multiple DNA damage repair mechanisms in the residents of the e-waste exposed region. - Highlights:

  12. [Female erotic dreams and female seed in ancient Greek medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andò, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses passages of the Hippocratic Corpus, of Aristotle and Galen about oneirogmòs, spermatic emission during sleep, referring specifically to women. Into the Hippocratic texts there is only one gynaecological case among many cases about males: for them this nocturnal emission is symptom of dangerous illness and De genitura gives a causal explanation of such phaenomenon. Instead, in Aristotle and Galen erotic dream is evidence for or against emission of female seed and female contribution to generation. As the argument ofHistoria animalium book X shows clear theoretical differences from that of De generatione animalium, the topic of erotic dream also concerns issues of authenticity.

  13. Melatonin protects uterus and oviduct exposed to nicotine in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Saadat Seyedeh Nazanin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is associated with higher infertility risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate protective effects of melatonin on the uterus and oviduct in mice exposed to nicotine. Adult female mice (n=32 were divided into four groups. Group A: control animals received normal saline, Group B: injected with nicotine 40 μg/kg, Group C: injected with melatonin 10 μg, Group D: injected with nicotine 40 μg/kg and melatonin 10 μg. All animals were treated over 15 days intraperitoneally. On the 16th day, animals in the estrus phase were dissected and their uterus and oviducts were removed. Immunohistochemistry was recruited for studying apoptosis and for detection of estrogen receptor (ER alpha in luminal epithelium of the uterus and oviduct. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for serum estradiol level determination. Nicotine in group B decreased estradiol level and ERalpha numbers both in the uterus and oviduct (p<0.05. Co-administration of melatonin-nicotine in Group D ameliorated the histology of the uterus and oviduct, increased ERalpha numbers and reduced apoptosis in the uterus and oviduct compared with the nicotine Group B (p<0.05. This study indicates that nicotine impairs the histology of the uterus and oviduct and co-administration of melatonin-nicotine ameliorates these findings, partly through alteration in ERalpha numbers and reduction of apoptosis

  14. Female Consumers Recreational Shopping Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjot Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the core meaning of intrinsic shopping to understand their experimental aspects of recreational and leisure shopping. The study focus only on female shoppers of age group ranging from 25-30, and understand their mall experiences because this segment is newly transform into self dependent segment which have less social and familial liabilities and have enough enthusiasm to explore the world or their boundaries. The Grounded theory use for identification of recreational shopping themes which are (a seeking experiences and (b experimental shopping and each have respective sub themes. The themes are connected to the key idea that shoppers are motivated by their expectations and desires. The study uses social constructivism to find and understand the shopper meanings in real terms rather than imposing and judgment on them. The findings described the way people do recreational shopping and how shopping malls use as leisure space and become facilitators of recreational shopping activities. Females use malls to fulfill their recreational and leisure shopping experiences as this is the great way of enjoying shopping for females of small towns. In malls females not only enjoy product experiences but services experiences also which makes their shopping interesting. The way the female of this age category use malls help the marketers and retailers to understand this segment shopping patterns.

  15. Occupational health care of radiation exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahim Rahman Hamzah

    1995-01-01

    The medical problems encountered by the earlier pioneer workers in radiation at the turn of the century are well known. In the 1928, the ICRP (International Committee for Radiological Protection) was instituted and the ALARA principle of radiation protection was evolved. Occupational health care is about maintaining the health and safety of workers in their workplaces. This involves using medical, nursing and engineering practices to achieve its objectives. In certain occupations, including those where workers are exposed to ionising radiation, some of these principles are enshrined in the legislation and would require statutory compliance. Occupational health care of radiation workers seek to prevent ill health arising from exposure to radiation by consolidating the benefits of exposures control and dosimetry. This is via health surveillance for spillages, contamination and exposures to unsealed sources of radiation. It is unlikely that can plan and hope to cater for a Chernobyl type of disaster. However, for the multitude of workers in industry exposed to radiation, control models are available. These are from the more in industrialize countries with a nuclear based energy industry, and where radioactive gadgetry are used in places ranging from factories and farms to construction sites. These models involve statutory requirements on the standard of work practices, assessment of fitness to work and the monitoring of both the worker and the workplace. A similar framework of activity is present in Malaysia. This will be further enhanced with the development of her general health and safety at work legislation. (author)

  16. Protection of man: the exposed individual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnstedt, A.; Knebel, J.U. [Programme Nuclear Safety Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Breustedt, B. [Institute for Radiation Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Present methods for quantifying radiation exposure rely on a standardized reference man (75 kg) with defined average anatomical and physiological data. But individual person actually exposed differs from this idealized standard man. Therefore the focus of investigations at the Institute for Radiation Research (Institut fuer Strahlenforschung, ISF) which was founded at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, KIT) in 2009 is based on the vision to place the exposed individual with its anatomical and physiological particularities, under consideration of age, gender, body height, body shape and environment, in the centre of an individual-related quantification of the external and internal radiation exposure. Research work at the ISF is aiming at quantifying radiation exposure by improved determination of doses essentially caused by external radiation fields and the intake of radionuclides into the body. The three main topics of the institute are - external dosimetry (e.g. using a (voxel) model of the hand to simulate skin dose distribution); - internal dosimetry (e.g. body size related efficiency calibration of in-vivo counting equipment); - numerical methods/modeling (e.g. development of a mathematical/voxel-hybrid model of the human body). (authors)

  17. Zirconium ignition in exposed fuel channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, E., E-mail: merezra@technion.ac.il; Hasan, D.; Nekhamkin, Y.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We demonstrate the idea of runaway zirconium–steam reactions in severe accidents in today's LWRs. • We predict the thermal-hydraulics conditions relevant to cladding oxidation in an exposed fuel channel of a partially uncovered core. • The Semenov theory of metal combustion is extended to define a criterion for runaway oxidation reaction in fuel cladding. - Abstract: A theoretical model based on simultaneous solution of the heat and mass transfer equations is developed for predicting the rate of thermo-chemical reaction between zirconium cladding and a hot steam environment. Ignition conditions relevant to cladding oxidation in an exposed fuel channel of a partially uncovered core are predicted based on the theory of metal combustion. A range of decay power, convective heat transfer coefficients, and initial temperatures leading to uncontrolled runaway cladding oxidation is identified. The model could be readily integrated as part of a fuel channel analysis code for predicting possible outcomes of different accident mitigation procedures in light water nuclear reactors under LOCA conditions.

  18. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in the blood plasma of examines occupationally exposed to low doses: sex differences and confounding factor consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunic, Z.; Djuric, J.; Sukalo, I.; Blagojevic, D; Spasic, M.B.; Saicic, Z.S.

    1998-01-01

    Studies on glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in humans demonstrated that the changes in enzyme activities are substrate selective, as well as sex-dependent. Contrary to males, GST activities are found to be relatively stable with age in females. The paper deals with determination of GST activities in the blood plasma of healthy examines occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. The control group consisted of the examines not exposed to sources of ionizing radiation by profession. Simultaneously, standard hematological and biochemical analyses were performed, respectively. Groups were subdivided by sex and smoking habits. GST activity (nmol GSH/min/L plasma) in male control group was 4.71±0.18 (1.05) and in female 4.53±0.15 (0.97). Exposure to ionizing radiation led to an increased GST activity in the blood plasma of both sexes (exposed males 5.17±0.35 (1.22), exposed females 4.91±1.00 (2.64). Values in the group of exposed females vary widely. Differences between GST activity of male smokers (5.12±0.19 (1.07)) and male controls, as well as between female smokers (4.93±0.22 (1.39)) and female controls were observed. Difference in GST value distributions was evident in the group of female smokers in comparison with female controls. Presented results indicate that measuring GST activity in the blood plasma might be an useful parameter for examination of ionizing radiation effects. (author)

  19. Participation of rural Zimbabwean female students in mathematics: The influence of perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gudyanga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was premised on the influence of perceptions on the participation of Ordinary Level rural African Zimbabwean female students in mathematics. Qualitative research design grounded in the interpretive paradigm was employed. Eighteen Ordinary Level female students and six teachers purposively selected from three rural co-educational secondary schools participated in the study. Data were generated through lesson observations and semi-structured question type interview guide. Findings revealed that rural female students perceived mathematics as a difficult subject, masculine and irrelevant to their future aspirations. Participants outlined that their perceptions were rooted in the prevailing cultural belief that mathematics is a masculine subject and negative stereotypes about girls’ maths abilities. Further findings indicate that female students’ participation in mathematics was highly influenced by their perception towards the subject. These perceptions result in the development of a general negative attitude to the subject that caused fewer female students to participate in mathematics in large numbers. We recommended parents and teachers to work hard to eliminate the negative gender and cultural stereotypes in order to enhance female students’ confidence in mathematics abilities. Schools should employ female mathematics teachers and expose female students to female role models who have succeeded in life in order to encourage more participation of female students in mathematics. Schools are made responsible for smoothing out difficulties generated by the prevailing culture. There is a gap in knowledge base pertaining to the Zimbabwean rural girls’ participation in Mathematics.

  20. Female Fitness in the Blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Andreasson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes self-portrayals and gender constructions among female personal trainers within an Internet-mediated framework of fitness culture. The empirical material comes from a close examination of three strategically selected blogs. The result shows that some of the blogs clearly build upon what Connell calls emphasized femininity, as a means of legitimizing and constructing appropriate female fitness. In addition, there are also tendencies of sexualization in text and imagery present. As such, these self-representations are framed within a cultural history of body fitness dominated by stereotypical ways of perceiving masculinity and femininity. However, this does not capture the entire presentation of the self among the analyzed fitness bloggers. The blogs also point in the direction of ongoing negotiations and subversions of traditional gender norms. Among other things, they show how irony and humor are used as a means of questioning normative gender constructions while empowering female fitness and bodyliness.

  1. Mitochondrial functionality in female reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Gąsior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In most animal species female germ cells are the source of mitochondrial genome for the whole body of individuals. As a source of mitochondrial DNA for future generations the mitochondria in the female germ line undergo dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes. In addition to maintaining the intact template of mitochondrial genome from one generation to another, mitochondrial role in oocytes is much more complex and pleiotropic. The quality of mitochondria determines the ability of meiotic divisions, fertilization ability, and activation after fertilization or sustaining development of a new embryo. The presence of normal number of functional mitochondria is also crucial for proper implantation and pregnancy maintaining. This article addresses issues of mitochondrial role and function in mammalian oocyte and presents new approaches in studies of mitochondrial function in female germ cells.

  2. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brazdova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility.

  3. Female circumcision: persistence amid conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, J H

    1998-01-01

    The continuing practice of female circumcision (removal of varying degrees of external genitalia) was perhaps the most emotional issue discussed at the Ninth International Congress on Women's Health Issues, held in June in Alexandria, Egypt. The results of two studies presented at the Congress have resulted to an argument. Others view female circumcision as a traditional folk practice, similar to scarring of the skin or elongation of the lips among certain African tribes and should not be subjected to "cultural imperialism" from abroad. Instead, the procedure could best be eradicated through focused education--telling patients that it is not required by Islam and that it can be detrimental to health. However, this suggestion was hotly debated by members of the audience who insisted that female circumcision should be considered as a form of child abuse and thus properly addressed as a political issue.

  4. Changes in operant behavior of rats exposed to lead at the accepted no-effect level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Selbeck, E; Gross-Selbeck, M

    1981-11-01

    After weaning, male and female Wistar rats were fed a daily diet containing 1 g lead acetate/kg food until a level of about 20 micrograms/100 mL blood was obtained. The male rats were subjected to the different behavioral tests, whereas the females were mated to untreated males and further exposed until weaning of the offspring. Behavioral testing of the male offspring was performed between 3 and 4 months of age. General behavior of both groups was tested in the open-field task including locomotion, local movements, and emotionality. The conditioned instrumental behavior was tested in the Skinner box from simple to more complex programs. The blood-lead level was measured by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. No behavioral changes became apparent in the open-field task and in the preliminary operant training. In the more complex programs (DRH = Differential Reinforcement of High Rates), the rats exposed to lead after weaning showed slight changes of DRH performance. By contrast, in pre- and neonatally exposed animals, DRH performance was significantly increased, although blood-lead levels had returned to normal at the time of testing. A comparison of lead effects in animals to possible effects in man is discussed in this paper, and it is concluded that lead exposure to man at doses which presently are suggested to be innocuous may result in subclinical functional changes of the central nervous system.

  5. Mortality and causes of death among workers exposed to phosgene in 1943-45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polednak, A.P.; Hollis, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Mortality and causes of death from death certificates were analyzed among workers exposed to phosgene while working at a uranium-processing plant in Tennessee in 1943-45. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated by using death rates for U.S. white males. As of 1979, SMRs for all causes and for various selected causes were similar in 694 male chemical workers chronically exposed to low levels of phosgene in 1943-45 and in 9280 male controls who worked at the same plant. SMRs for diseases of the respiratory system were 107 (14 observed vs. 13.07 expected) in the chemical workers and 119 (292 observed vs. 245.75 expected) in the controls. In a group of 106 males who were acutely exposed to high levels of phosgene, there were 41 deaths observed vs. 33.87 expected (SMR = 121; 95% confidence limits = 86 and 165). One death, occurring within 24 hours of exposure, was from pulmonary edema due to phosgene poisoning (coded to accidental causes). Five deaths were coded to diseases of the respiratory system (SMR = 266; 95% CL = 86 and 622); in 2 of these 5 deaths, bronchitis due to phosgene exposure had been reported in 1945. Among 91 female workers with acute high-level phosgene exposure, frequencies of symptoms and early health effects (pneumonitis and bronchitis) differed from those reported for the 106 male cases; preliminary data on vital status of these females are too incomplete for analysis, and further follow-up is needed

  6. Serum butanol extractable iodine values for adolescents exposed in utero - Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrow, G N; Hamilton, H B; Man, E B

    1961-10-18

    Serum BEI determinations were performed on 249 fifteen year old exposed and nonexposed apparently normal children all of whom were in utero at the time of the atomic bombing in Nagasaki, Japan. The girls were more mature in growth and development than the boys; the boys were probably near the peak stress of adolescent development. No statistically significant difference of BEI values was found between exposed and control groups. The trimester of gestation of the children at the time of exposure appeared to have no conclusive effect on the BEI value, but the number of subjects from each trimester was too small for satisfactory statistical analysis. Eleven females with goiter were analyzed separately. There was a slight preponderance of goiter in the exposed group, but the difference was not significant. The mean BEI value for the males was significantly lower than that for the females. The mean BEI values for Japanese adolescents are higher than for adolescents in the Middle Atlantic and New England states in the United States. 31 references, 2 tables.

  7. Effect of female genital mutilation on female sexual function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manal Ibrahim Hanafi Mahmoud

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... FGM act) and female sexual function index (a 19-item self-reported questionnaire for assessing ... married educated women had FGM with their 272 matched controls (their matching was .... Urine retention. 73. 30.6 ... strata.14 This was also proved by the current work (39.3% of ... It is a single author paper.

  8. Decolonizing the Female Sexuality: What Nigerian Female Writers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women's experience of oppressions in the sphere of sexuality, it argues, is central to the issue of a liberal existence, and such oppressions are largely premised on traditional epistemologies which are basically patriarchal. Drawing upon various female-authored literary texts from Nigeria, it illustrates how Nigerian feminist ...

  9. Rural female adolescence: Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values.

  10. Sex-specific responses of Populus yunnanensis exposed to elevated CO{sub 2} and salinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling Li; Yuanbin Zhang; Chunyang Li [Chinese Academy of Sciences. Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chengdu (Switzerland); Jianxun Luo, Sichuan Academy of Forestry, Chengdu (Switzerland)); Korpelainen, H. [Univ. of Helsinki. Dept. of Agricultural Sciences, Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-04-15

    Populus yunnanensis Dode., a native dioecious woody plant in southwestern China, was employed as a model species to study sex-specific morphological, physiological and biochemical responses to elevated CO{sub 2} and salinity. To investigate the effects of elevated CO{sub 2}, salinity and their combination, the cuttings were exposed to two CO{sub 2} regimes (ambient CO{sub 2} and double ambient CO{sub 2}) and two salt treatments in growth chambers. Males exhibited greater downregulation of net photosynthesis rate (A{sub net}) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) than females at elevated CO{sub 2}, whereas these sexual differences were lessened under salt stress. On the other hand, salinity induced a higher decrease in Anet and CE, more growth inhibition and leaf Cl{sup -} accumulation and more damage to cell organelles in females than in males, whereas the sexual differences in photosynthesis and growth were lessened at elevated CO{sub 2}. Moreover, elevated CO{sub 2} exacerbated membrane lipid peroxidation and organelle damage in females but not in males under salt stress. Our results indicated that: (1) females are more sensitive and suffer from greater negative effects than do males under salt stress, and elevated CO{sub 2} lessens the sexual differences in photosynthesis and growth under salt stress; (2) elevated CO{sub 2} tends to aggravate the negative effects of salinity in females; and (3) sex-specific reactions under the combination of elevated CO{sub 2} and salinity are distinct from single-stress responses. Therefore, these results provide evidence for different adaptive responses between plants of different sexes exposed to elevated CO{sub 2} and salinity. (Author)

  11. Reproduction in female South American domestic camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumar, J B

    1999-01-01

    Alpacas and llamas are induced ovulators. They show marked reproductive seasonality in the Andean region, but under Northern Hemisphere conditions of feeding and management, they are non-seasonal breeders. Puberty is attained when they reach 50% of adult body weight. When they are not exposed to a male, females show successive waves of follicular maturation and atresia. Growth, maintenance and regression of a follicle each require an average of 4 and 6 days in alpacas and llamas, respectively. After sterile mating, progesterone concentrations in blood were increased from day 5, reached maximum concentrations on day 7-8, and declined rapidly at 9-10 days after mating. A fertile mating results in formation of a corpus luteum that remains functional throughout gestation. The duration of gestation is 340-346 days. Almost all fetuses were found to occupy the left uterine horn, even though ovulation occurs from both ovaries with equal frequency. Several methods of pregnancy diagnosis have been described. Mating is recommended within 15-20 days after parturition to obtain good fertility rates and one offspring per year. The factors that contribute to high rates of embryonic mortality are unknown. Reproductive technologies, such as AI, superovulation, embryo transfer and IVF, have not been used very extensively in these species but can be successfully applied.

  12. To be a worker (exposed?) or not to be a worker (exposed?) that is the question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, M.

    2008-01-01

    The notion of personnel is detailed in this article in order to know exactly what personnel is considered as exposed and what radiation doses are under this term. The regulatory texts are studied in different articles of the French law and show that different kind of exposed personnel are considered. The definitions are varying with the notion of risk, of radiation doses and the work itself. This article asks for a better and more precise definition that will help the actors of radiation protection. (N.C.)

  13. Radiation safety aspects pertaining to female patients and staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patni, Nidhi

    2017-01-01

    Many organizations in the world are committed to gender parity. Increasing number of women is working in the fields of radiation medicine and in industries dealing with radiation. Women patients may be exposed to radiation in radiology, radiation oncology, nuclear medicine, interventional cardiology, dentistry etc. Radiation safety of women staff and women patients is different from their male counterparts because of conception and pregnancy. So, fetal health is a matter of concern in the above. Also, the excess relative risk of radiation induced cancers in females relates to higher risk of thyroid cancer and high radiosensitivity as compared to males

  14. Breast cancer risk in female survivors of Hodgkin's lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Sparidans, Judith; van't Veer, Mars B

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: We assessed the long-term risk of breast cancer (BC) after treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). We focused on the volume of breast tissue exposed to radiation and the influence of gonadotoxic chemotherapy (CT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a cohort study among 1,122 female 5-year...... survivors treated for HL before the age of 51 years between 1965 and 1995. We compared the incidence of BC with that in the general population. To assess the risk according to radiation volume and hormone factors, we performed multivariate Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 17...

  15. Mixtures of environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals affect mammary gland development in female and male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Boberg, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Estrogenic chemicals are able to alter mammary gland development in female rodents, but little is known on the effects of anti-androgens and mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with dissimilar modes of action. Pregnant rat dams were exposed during gestation and lactation to mixtures...

  16. Androgens and cognitive abilities: Mental rotations skills and handedness in adult females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Caroline P.L.; Johannsen, T.H.; Mortensen, E.L.

    2006-01-01

    Research on animal and human populations has suggested elevated spatial abilities as well as higher incidence of left-handedness in genetic females exposed to abnormally high androgen levels perinatally. However, findings in humans are inconsistent. We administered the Mental Rotations Test...

  17. In Utero Phthalate Effects in the Female Rat: A Model for MRKH Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by uterine and vaginal canal aplasia in normal karyotype human females and is a syndrome with poorly define etiology. Reproductive toxicity of phthlate esters (PEs) occurs in rat offspring exposed in utero. a phenome...

  18. In utero phthalate effects in the female rat: a model for MRKH syndrome##

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by uterine and vaginal canal aplasia in normal karyotype human females and is a syndrome with poorly defined etiology. Reproductive toxicity of phthalate esters (PEs) occurs in rat offspring exposed in utero, a phen...

  19. Associations between Bisphenol A Exposure and Reproductive Hormones among Female Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maohua Miao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The associations between Bisphenol-A (BPA exposure and reproductive hormone levels among women are unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted among female workers from BPA-exposed and unexposed factories in China. Women’s blood samples were collected for assay of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, 17β-Estradiol (E2, prolactin (PRL, and progesterone (PROG. Their urine samples were collected for BPA measurement. In the exposed group, time weighted average exposure to BPA for an 8-h shift (TWA8, a measure incorporating historic exposure level, was generated based on personal air sampling. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine linear associations between urine BPA concentration and reproductive hormones after controlling for potential confounders. A total of 106 exposed and 250 unexposed female workers were included in this study. A significant positive association between increased urine BPA concentration and higher PRL and PROG levels were observed. Similar associations were observed after the analysis was carried out separately among the exposed and unexposed workers. In addition, a positive association between urine BPA and E2 was observed among exposed workers with borderline significance, while a statistically significant inverse association between urine BPA and FSH was observed among unexposed group. The results suggest that BPA exposure may lead to alterations in female reproductive hormone levels.

  20. Associations between Bisphenol A Exposure and Reproductive Hormones among Female Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Maohua; Yuan, Wei; Yang, Fen; Liang, Hong; Zhou, Zhijun; Li, Runsheng; Gao, Ersheng; Li, De-Kun

    2015-10-22

    The associations between Bisphenol-A (BPA) exposure and reproductive hormone levels among women are unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted among female workers from BPA-exposed and unexposed factories in China. Women's blood samples were collected for assay of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17β-Estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), and progesterone (PROG). Their urine samples were collected for BPA measurement. In the exposed group, time weighted average exposure to BPA for an 8-h shift (TWA8), a measure incorporating historic exposure level, was generated based on personal air sampling. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine linear associations between urine BPA concentration and reproductive hormones after controlling for potential confounders. A total of 106 exposed and 250 unexposed female workers were included in this study. A significant positive association between increased urine BPA concentration and higher PRL and PROG levels were observed. Similar associations were observed after the analysis was carried out separately among the exposed and unexposed workers. In addition, a positive association between urine BPA and E2 was observed among exposed workers with borderline significance, while a statistically significant inverse association between urine BPA and FSH was observed among unexposed group. The results suggest that BPA exposure may lead to alterations in female reproductive hormone levels.

  1. Soccer and Zumba as health promotion among female hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barene, Svein

    health care workers a high-risk group for non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and hypertension. In addition, health care workers generally have high physical demanding work tasks, which expose them to physical loads that may impair their musculoskeletal health, work...... concept Zumba, we wanted to evaluate short and long term health effects from these two physical activities among female hospital employees. The primary outcome of the study was cardiovascular fitness (VO2max), whereas body composition, biomarkers in blood, musculoskeletal pain, as well as the work......-related outcomes work ability and perceived physical exertion during work comprised the secondary outcomes. In addition, we measured the adherence to the training and drop-out throughout the intervention period. Methods A 40-weeks cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted on 107 female hospital employees...

  2. Brain damage among the prenatally exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Schull, W.J.; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi.

    1991-01-01

    Significant effects on the developing brain of exposure to ionizing radiation are seen among those individuals exposed in the 8th through the 25th week after fertilization. These effects, particularly in the most sensitive period, 8-15 weeks after fertilization, manifest themselves as an increased frequency of severe mental retardation (SMR), a diminution in IQ score and in school performance, and an increase in the occurrence of seizures. Of 30 SMR cases, 18 (60%) had small heads. About 10% of the individuals with small head sizes observed among the in utero clinical sample were mentally retarded. When all of the cases of mental retardation are included in the analysis, a linear dose-response model fits the data adequately and no evidence of a threshold emerges; however, if the two probable nonradiation-related cases of Down's syndrome are excluded from the 19 SMR cases exposed 8-15 weeks after fertilization, the evidence of a threshold is stronger. The 95% lower bound of the threshold based on the new dosimetry system appears to be in the range of 0.12-0.23 Gy. In the 16-25 week period, the 95% lower bound of the threshold is 0.21 Gy both with and without inclusion of two probable nonradiation-related retarded cases. In a regression analysis of IQ scores and school performance data, a greater linearity is suggested with the new dosimetry (DS86) than with the old (T65DR), but the mean IQ score and the mean school performance of those exposed in utero to doses under 0.10 Gy are similar, and not statistically different from the means in the control group. The risk ratios for unprovoked seizures, following exposure during the 8th through the 15th week after fertilization, are 4.4 (90% confidence interval: 0.5-40.9) after 0.10-0.49 Gy and 24.9 (4.1-191.6) after 0.50 Gy or more when the mentally retarded are included and 4.4 (0.5-40.9) and 14.5 (0.4-199.6), respectively, when they are excluded. (author)

  3. Neoplastic and life-span effects of chronic exposure to tritium. II. Rats exposed in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahill, D.F.; Wright, J.F.; Godbold, J.H.; Ward, J.M.; Laskey, J.W.; Tompkins, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects on neoplasia incidence and life-span of exposure in utero to a major environmental radionuclide. Sprague-Dawley rats were continuously exposed to tritiated water (HTO) from conception through birth in doses of 0, 1, 10, 50, and 100 μCi HTO/ml body water. HTO administration was terminated at birth. Calculated cumulative doses during gestation were approximately 0, 6.6, 66, 330, and 660 rads of total body irradiation. Under these exposure conditions, the two highest doses resulted in sterile offspring. Animals surviving through 30 days postnatally were defined as the study population and observed until their deaths. Intrauterine exposures to doses up to 66 rads had no significant effects on either sex with respect to lifespan, overall neoplasia incidence, incidence rate, or onset of mammary fibroadenomas. Females exposed to 330 or 660 rads were sterile and had lower incidence rates of mammary fibroadenomas than did controls; at 660 rads females had a lower incidence of overall neoplasia and reduced mean lifespans. Sterile male offspring had reduced mean longevity after irradiation at 660 rads. Regardless of dose group, females had significantly higher incidences of neoplasia and longer life-spans than males

  4. Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan N. Fink

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrocyclic trichothecenes, mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, have been implicated in adverse reactions in individuals exposed to mold-contaminated environments. Cellular and humoral immune responses and the presence of trichothecenes were evaluated in patients with mold-related health complaints. Patients underwent history, physical examination, skin prick/puncture tests with mold extracts, immunological evaluations and their sera were analyzed for trichothecenes. T-cell proliferation, macrocyclic trichothecenes, and mold specific IgG and IgA levels were not significantly different than controls; however 70% of the patients had positive skin tests to molds. Thus, IgE mediated or other non-immune mechanisms could be the cause of their symptoms.

  5. Reactivity of lithium exposed graphite surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harilal, S.S.; Allain, J.P.; Hassanein, A.; Hendricks, M.R.; Nieto-Perez, M.

    2009-01-01

    Lithium as a plasma-facing component has many attractive features in fusion devices. We investigated chemical properties of the lithiated graphite surfaces during deposition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy. In this study we try to address some of the known issues during lithium deposition, viz., the chemical state of lithium on graphite substrate, oxide layer formation mechanisms, Li passivation effects over time, and chemical change during exposure of the sample to ambient air. X-ray photoelectron studies indicate changes in the chemical composition with various thickness of lithium on graphite during deposition. An oxide layer formation is noticed during lithium deposition even though all the experiments were performed in ultrahigh vacuum. The metal oxide is immediately transformed into carbonate when the deposited sample is exposed to air.

  6. Lifetime assessment of service-exposed components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalwa, G.; Weber, H.

    1988-01-01

    A longtime prognosis on the operation of creep-exposed components requires a lifetime analysis. The basis for such an analysis can be improved by an analysis of microstructure and material properties. Actually the grade of material exhaustion has to be regarded as proper assessment quantity. However, stress and time safety also are valuable assessment quantities which should be taken into consideration, especially when the grade of exhaustion is uncertain because of inaccurate input parameters. A correct assessment of the damage state cannot be made without taking into consideration the failure mechanism which has to be assumed for a specific component. With respect to creep the most critical component of a steamline system is the pipe bend because of the risk of large damage events. For this case component metallography by replicas is suggested as preventive test method. The continuation of service of a creep damage pipe bend cannot be recommended. (orig./MM) [de

  7. Water infiltration into exposed fractured rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, T.C.; Evans, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Fractured rock media are present at many existing and potential waste disposal sites, yet characterization data and physical relationships are not well developed for such media. This study focused on water infiltration characteristics of an exposed fractured rock as an approach for defining the upper boundary condition for unsaturated-zone water percolation and contaminant transport modeling. Two adjacent watersheds of 0.24 and 1.73 ha with slopes up to 45% were instrumented for measuring rainfall and runoff. Fracture density was measured from readily observable fracture traces on the surface. Three methods were employed to evaluate the rainfall-runoff relationship. The first method used the annual totals and indicated that only 22.5% of rainfall occurred as runoff for the 1990-1991 water year, which demonstrates a high water intake rate by the exposed fracture system. The second method employed total rainfall and runoff for individual storms in conjunction with the commonly used USDA Soil Conservation Service curve number method developed for wide ranges of soils and vegetation. Curve numbers between 75 and 85 were observed for summer and winter storms with dry antecedent runoff conditions, while values exceeded 90 for wet conditions. The third method used a mass-balance approach for four major storms, which indicated that water intake rates ranged from 2.0 to 7.3 mm h -1 , yielding fracture intake velocities ranging from 122 to 293 m h -1 . The three analyses show the complexity of the infiltration process for fractured rock. However, they contribute to a better understanding of the upper boundary condition for predicting contaminant transport through an unsaturated fractured rock medium. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Exposing the Myths, Defining the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavov, S.

    2013-01-01

    With this official statement, the WEC calls for policymakers and industry leaders to ''get real'' as the World Energy Council as a global energy body exposes the myths by informing the energy debate and defines a path to a more sustainable energy future. The World Energy Council urged stakeholders to take urgent and incisive actions, to develop and transform the global energy system. Failure to do so could put aspirations on the triple challenge of WEC Energy Trilemma defined by affordability, accessibility and environmental sustainability at serious risk. Through its multi-year in-depth global studies and issue-mapping the WEC has found that challenges that energy sector is facing today are much more crucial than previously envisaged. The WEC's analysis has exposed a number of myths which influence our understanding of important aspects of the global energy landscape. If not challenged, these misconceptions will lead us down a path of complacency and missed opportunities. Much has, and still is, being done to secure energy future, but the WEC' s studies reveal that current pathways fall short of delivering on global aspirations of energy access, energy security and environmental improvements. If we are to derive the full economic and social benefits from energy resources, then we must take incisive and urgent action to modify our steps to energy solutions. The usual business approaches are not effective, the business as usual is not longer a solution. The focus has moved from large universal solutions to an appreciation of regional and national contexts and sharply differentiated consumer expectations.(author)

  9. Clinical investigation of proximate exposed group, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako; Hasegawa, Kazuyo; Kato, Masafumi; Kumasawa, Toshihiko

    1984-01-01

    In order to investigate effects of the A-bombing on prevalence of diabetes mellitus, follow-up studies were made on 5907 A-bomb survivors who received glucose tolerance test (GTT) during 20 years between 1963 and 1983. The A-bomb survivors were divided into the group A (1899 men and 1165 women exposed within 1.9 km from the hypocenter) and the group B (1725 men and 1118 women exposed 3.0 km or farther from it). Among non-obese survivors, 21.9% and 21.8% were being treated for diabetes mellitus or were evaluated as having diabetic type on GTT in the group A and the group B, respectively; while this was seen in 52.1% of obese survivors in the group A and 49.9% in the group B. There was no difference between the groups. In non-obese survivors, the annual development rate from the normal type to the diabetic type was 0.89% in the group A and 0.65% in the group B; the annual development rate from the borderline type to the diabetic type was 5.73% in the group A and 5.49% in the group B, showing no differences between the groups. The annual development rate from the normal or borderline type to the diabetic type was two times or higher in obese survivors than in non-obese survivors irrespective of exposure status. Regarding the number of diabetic survivors who became non-diabetic type in spite of having no treatment, and prevalence of diabetic complications, no difference was seen between the groups. These results suggest that the A-bombing has scarcely influenced the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and clinical course. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Clinical course of brain stroke in the persons exposed to ionizing radiation under the production conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchmanov, A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose was to study the risk factors and clinical course of brain strokes in professionally exposed workers being employed in plutonium production in comparison with a control group. The method and materials of study -clinical supervision and clinical database creation on 162 cases of brain stroke (128 males and 34 females) developed among professionally exposed workers. Age of patient varied from 21 to 68 years (in average -51.6 y.). The control group consisted of patients with the same diagnosis, worked on the same enterprise, but non-exposed to radiation. Data on the totally accumulated dose of external gamma radiation were received on the base of the individual dosimeters (from 0.1 cSv to 52 cSv, in average about 13 cSv); the plutonium-239 body content was estimated accordingly to the level of urine radionuclide excretion (from 0.4 kBq to 1.6 kBq, in average about 0.33 kBq). Muscle's hypertinsion and pathological great-toe reflexes in paretic legs and hands, hemianopsia, impressive and ataxic aphasia prevailed in the patients with ischemic brain strokes in system of internal carotid artery, exposed to radiation. The changes of muscle's tension, ataxia and nystagmus were marked more often in the professionals with ischemic brain strokes in system of vertebrobasilar artery. The illness proceeded more easy and with smaller frequency of frustration of consciousness and algesthesia, irrespective of a type ischemic brain strokes in the people exposed to ionizing radiation, than in patients of non-irradiated group. It was found that the arterial hypertension appeared to be the main risk factor for the brain stroke in both groups of patients (in 81.48% and 91.15% of cases). There was no marked differences in significance of risk factors and in main clinical parameters of various types of ischemic brain strokes among the patients professionally exposed to radiation in comparison with a control group. (author)

  11. Female Reproductive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Female Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor femenino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  12. Determinants of Aged Female Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Les Leanne

    Older women (N=50) were asked a series of questions about reference groups, sex roles, sexuality, sexual desire at different stages in the life cycle, appropriateness of certain types of sexual behavior, adjustment to aging, life satisfaction, organizational activities, and male/female interaction. Quantitative and qualitative data provided the…

  13. An Update on Gifted Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Carolyn M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses selected issues and literature concerning gifted female students, examining achievement and aptitude, career choice, self-perceptions of ability, course taking, parental influences, the glamorization of sex differences, stereotyping, effects of classroom groupings and teaching strategies, and effects of single-sex schools and…

  14. Chapter 22: Female Reproductive Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The female reproductive system provides multiple targets for environmental toxicants with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Moreover, the functional impact of a chemical can differ, depending on the species involved and the parameters of exposure. While cross-species compa...

  15. [Characteristic features of female murderers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patla, Mariusz; Teleśnicki, Stanisław

    2005-01-01

    65 female murderers were observed in the Forensic Psychiatry Ward. In 61 cases the victims were closely connected with the victim. The intellectual capacity of these women was similar to the average population. 41 women were abused before murder. Only in 7% of cases pathological abnormalities in CNS were not observed. In the examined group 5% were classified as insane.

  16. Hydro aerobics as means for physical state improvement of female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Balamutova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The questions of organization and conducting studies were considered by using system of hydro aerobics exercises for improving physical training of female students. Sixty female students took part in the experiment. All the tested girls were divided into two groups, 30 persons each. The tested group of female students made aerobic exercises on the dry land according to a plan. The female students of experimental group made hydro aerobics exercises according to the programme. Several methods were used: anthropometry, control methods of the functional parameters of the body, testing of the physical training indicators, methods of mathematical statistics. The reliable positive improvements of cardiovascular and respiratory systems were in the experimental group of the girls. The effect of the reliable decrease of fat mass of the tested female students was exposed among anthropometrical characteristics.

  17. A survey of occupational health hazards among 7,610 female workers in China's electronics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenlan; Lao, Xiang Qian; Pang, Shulan; Zhou, Jianjiao; Zhou, Anshou; Zou, Jianfang; Mei, Liangying; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the occupational hazards among Chinese female workers in the electronics industry, the authors systematically sampled a total of 8,300 female workers at random across 4 provinces in a variety of electronics factories. A detailed questionnaire was used to collect information on occupational hazards and the occurrence of occupation-related diseases. The results show that 4,283 female workers (51.9%) were exposed to 1 or more occupational hazards. The most common chemical hazard was organic solvent, and the second most common was heavy metals. The ergonomic hazards included repetitive movements, poor standing posture, and the lifting of heavy goods. More than 60% of the female workers self-reported occupation-related diseases. These results showed that occupational health hazards were common in the electronics industry in China and that they caused serious occupation-related health problems for the female workers therein.

  18. Work of female rural doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, Jo

    2004-04-01

    To identify the impact of family life on the ways women practice rural medicine and the changes needed to attract women to rural practice. Census of women rural doctors in Victoria in 2000, using a self-completed postal survey. General and specialist practice. Two hundred and seventy-one female general practitioners and 31 female specialists practising in Rural, Remote and Metropolitan Area Classifications 3-7. General practitioners are those doctors with a primary medical degree and without additional specialist qualifications. Interaction of hours and type of work with family responsibilities. Generalist and specialist women rural doctors carry the main responsibility for family care. This is reflected in the number of hours they work in clinical and non-clinical professional practice, availability for on-call and hospital work, and preference for the responsibilities of practice partnership or the flexibility of salaried positions. Most of the doctors had established a satisfactory balance between work and family responsibilities, although a substantial number were overworked in order to provide an income for their families or meet the needs of their communities. Thirty-six percent of female rural general practitioners and 56% of female rural specialists preferred to work fewer hours. Female general practitioners with responsibility for children were more than twice as likely as female general practitioners without children to be in a salaried position and less likely to be a practice partner. The changes needed to attract and retain women in rural practice include a place for everyone in the doctor's family, flexible practice structures, mentoring by women doctors and financial and personal recognition. Women make up less than a quarter of the rural general practice workforce and an even smaller percentage of the specialist rural medical workforce. As a result their experiences are not well articulated in research on rural medical practice and their needs are

  19. The experience of aggression by female teachers in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. van der Merwe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a country with exceptionally high levels of frustration and trauma. Research shows that a third of all people in South Africa are exposed to some kind of violence. This causes insecurity and fear, which creates high levels of stress. High stress levels fuels aggression in the workplace. It was observed that female teachers often experience aggression in the workplace. This has a negative effect on their overall sense of well-being as well as their mental health. A purposive sample was selected through two private schools in Gauteng, South Africa, and consisted of eight female teachers. Data was collected by means of in-depth phenomenological interviews, field notes, naive sketches and observation. One central question was posed to the purposefully selected participants: What is your experience of aggression in your workplace? Thematic coding was used to analyse the data. Three themes were identified: different perceptions influenced female teachers' experience of aggression; the pressure in the school system formed an integral part of the experience of aggression and the experienced effect of aggression on the female teachers.

  20. The experience of aggression by female teachers in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. van der Merwe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a country with exceptionally high levels of frustration and trauma. Research shows that a third of all people in South Africa are exposed to some kind of violence. This causes insecurity and fear, which creates high levels of stress. High stress levels fuels aggression in the workplace. It was observed that female teachers often experience aggression in the workplace. This has a negative effect on their overall sense of well-being as well as their mental health. A purposive sample was selected through two private schools in Gauteng, South Africa, and consisted of eight female teachers. Data was collected by means of in-depth phenomenological interviews, field notes, naive sketches and observation. One central question was posed to the purposefully selected participants: What is your experience of aggression in your workplace? Thematic coding was used to analyse the data. Three themes were identified: different perceptions influenced female teachers' experience of aggression; the pressure in the school system formed an integral part of the experience of aggression and the experienced effect of aggression on the female teachers.

  1. Future electoral impacts of having a female mayor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Arvate

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We explore an electoral quasi-experiment where a woman nearly won or lost to a man in a mayoral election. Our data combines municipal Brazilian election results, which occur every four years, with municipal level votes for female and male candidates in state and federal deputy elections, whose districts are larger than the municipalities. Our results show that when voters are exposed to a female leader, the relative number of votes given to female candidates increases. This result depends on the political environment in which the exposure occurs. These effects on the electorate's response tend to be stronger: 01. in municipalities where there is a previous higher proportion of female councilors, and 02. when the mayors have higher education levels. Our results provide evidence that the observed electorate's gender preferences in politics are alterable, but that policy interventions aimed to equalize access will be more effective if they are targeted at underrepresented populations that have the correct skill requirements to perform in leadership positions.

  2. Long-term effects of prenatal x-ray of human females. II. Growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M B; Tonascia, J

    1981-09-01

    Experimental studies and studies of survivors of in-utero exposure to atomic bomb blasts have shown significant stunting of growth and mental retardation following these exposures. Central nervous system damage following very low doses of x-ray at around the time of birth has also been observed in experimental animals. This long term follow-up studies of 1458 human females exposed in utero to diagnostic x-rays and of 1458 matched unexposed controls studied in Baltimore, Maryland, included measurements of height, weight and school achievement. Women who had been exposed to x-rays in utero were significantly shorter in their mid-twenties than were their matched, unexposed controls, even after adjustment for other social and economic factors. However, additional follow-up revealed that mothers of exposed women were also shorter than the control mothers. Short stature appeared to be a selective factor for x-ray during pregnancy (mostly pelvimetry, 1947-1952). Mothers' and daughters' heights were similarly correctly among exposed and control mother-daughter pairs, suggesting that the height differences between exposed daughters and their controls were due to these selective factor rather than to any direct effect of radiation on growth. Exposed women reported poorer school achievement than control women. However, except for a higher proportion of exposed women leaving school because of pregnancy, these measurements were no longer significantly different when rates were simultaneously adjusted for socioeconomic differences between exposed and control women.

  3. Long-term effects of prenatal x-ray of human females: growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.B.; Tonascia, J.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental studies and studies of survivors of in-utero exposure to atomic bomb blasts have shown significant stunting of growth and mental retardation following these exposures. Central nervous system damage following very low dosage of x-ray at around the time of birth has also been observed in experimental animals. This long term followup study of 1458 human females exposed in-utero to diagnostic x-rays and of 1458 matched unexposed controls studied in Baltimore, Maryland, included measurements of height, weight, and school achievement. Women who had been exposed to x-rays in-utero were significantly shorter in their mid-twenties than were their matched, unexposed controls, even after adjustment for other social and economic factors. However, additional followup revealed that mothers of exposed women were also shorter than the control mothers. Short stature appeared to be a selective factor for x-ray during pregnancy (mostly pelvimetry, 1947 to 1952). Mothers' and daughters' heights were similarly correlated among exposed and controlled mother-daughter pairs, suggesting that the height differences between exposed daughters and their controls were due to these selective factors rather than to any direct effect of radiation on growth. Exposed women reported poorer school achievement than control women. However, except for a higher proportion of exposed women leaving school because of pregnancy, these measurements were no longer significantly different when rates were simultaneously adjusted for socioeconomic differences between exposed and control women

  4. Long-term effects of prenatal x-ray of human females: reproductive experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.B.; Tonascia, J.

    1981-01-01

    A cohort of singleton black human females exposed to diagnostic x-ray in utero and controls matched by parity, hospital of birth and birthdate have been followed to ages 25 to 30 years in Baltimore, Maryland. The search for possible effects of prenatal irradiation has focused on health, growth, development, and reproductive experience of exposed and control women. This paper reports findings related to reproductive experience. From an original data set of 1458 matched exposed-control pairs of women, questionnaire responses were received from 1109 exposed and 1124 control women including 852 each from pairs in which both the exposed and control woman responded. After careful search for alternative explanations of the findings, the authors concluded that females exposed in utero to low doses of x-ray (probably 1 to 5 rads) had significant increases in their rates of early onset of menses, births at age 15 years or less, numbers of living children, stillbirths, and sterilizing operations by their mid-twenties. These findings are compatible with animal studies in which prenatal irradiation kills many oocytes, but accelerates the development of remaining cells to stages more closely correlated with fertility. Although these animals subsequently became sterile, this cannot be tested in the current study because significantly more of the irradiated women have had surgical sterilizations

  5. Coupled external fixator and skin flap transposition for treatment of exposed and nonunion bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-gang; Ding, Jing; Wang, Neng

    2011-02-01

    To discuss the effect of coupled external fixator and skin flap transposition on exposed and nonunion bones. The data of 12 cases of infected nonunion and exposed bone following open fracture treated in our hospital during the period of March 1998 to June 2008 were analysed. There were 10 male patients, 2 female patients, whose age were between 19-52 years and averaged 28 years. There were 10 tibial fractures and 2 femoral fractures. The course of diseases lasted for 12-39 months with the mean period of 19 months. All the cases were treated by the coupled external fixator and skin flap transposition. Primary healing were achieved in 10 cases and delayed healing in 2 cases in whom the tibia was exposed due to soft tissue defect and hence local flap transposition was performed. All the 12 cases had bony union within 6-12 months after operation with the average time of 8 months. They were followed up for 1-3 years and all fractures healed up with good function and no infection recurrence. The coupled external fixator and skin flap transposition therapy have shown optimal effects on treating infected, exposed and nonunion bones.

  6. Micronucleus frequency in exfoliated buccal cells from hairdresser who expose to hair products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Hui Yee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hairdresser is one of the fastest growing occupations in today’s society. Hairdresser help styling, cutting, colouring, perming, curling, straightening hair and various treatment to customer. Somehow, hairdresser are constantly exposed to chemical substances such as aromatic amines, hydrogen peroxide, thioglycolic acid, formaldehyde in hair products which can cause damage to human’s genome. Micronucleus is one of the effective biomarker for processes associated with the induction of DNA damage. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the micronucleus frequencies in buccal mucosa epithelial cells of hairdresser who were exposed to chemical of hair products. Method: This study was conducted on twenty female subjects, who were divided into 2 groups: exposed and non-exposed (control group. All subjects recruited were working in the same beauty salon. Buccal cells were obtained from each individual by using cytobrush. The cells were stained with modified Feulgen-Ronssenback method and counting of micronucleus per 1000 cell was done under light microscope. The data were analyzed using independent t-test and one-way Anova (p<0.05. Result: The result showed a significant difference in micronucleus frequency between 2 groups. There were a significantly increase of micronucleus frequency in hairdressers and increase of  micronucleus frequency with the longer duration of exposure. Conclusion: It concluded that the chemical substances of hair products had affected the micronucleus frequency ofthe epithelial cells in buccal mucosa of hairdressers.

  7. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized slaughtering...

  8. ECG changes in factory workers exposed to 27.2  MHz radiofrequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingsong; Xu, Guoyong; Lang, Li; Yang, Aichu; Li, Shilin; Yang, Liwen; Li, Chaolin; Huang, Hanlin; Li, Tao

    2013-05-01

    To research the effect of 27.2 MHz radiofrequency radiation on electrocardiograms (ECG), 225 female workers operating radiofrequency machines at a shoe factory were chosen as the exposure group and 100 female workers without exposure from the same factory were selected as the control group. The 6 min electric field strength that the female workers were exposed to was 64.0 ± 25.2 V/m (mean ± SD), which exceeded 61 V/m, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference root mean square levels for occupational exposure. A statistical difference was observed between the exposed group and the control group in terms of the rate of sinus bradycardia (χ(2)  = 11.48, P = 0.003). When several known risk factors for cardiovascular disease were considered, including smoking, age, alcohol ingestion habit, and so on, the exposure duration was not an effective factor for ECG changes, sinus arrhythmia, or sinus bradycardia according to α = 0.05, while P = 0.052 for sinus arrhythmia was very close to 0.05. We did not find any statistical difference in heart rate, duration of the QRS wave (ventricular depolarization), or corrected QT intervals (between the start of the Q wave and end of the T wave) between the exposed and control groups. Occupational exposure to radiofrequency radiation was not found to be a cause of ECG changes after consideration of the confounding factors. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A structural comparison of female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenheimer Carrier, Lydia; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Pellis, Sergio; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-10-01

    In certain populations, female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) mount both males and females. Vasey (2007) proposed that female-female sexual mounting in Japanese macaques may be a neutral evolutionary by-product of a purported adaptation, namely, female-male mounting. In this study, we aim to further examine the proposed link between female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques by comparing the structural characteristics that define both forms of mounting. We do so using Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation (EWMN), a globographic reference system that can be used to describe the position of body segments. No significant differences were observed in the female mounters' positioning of eight different body segments (i.e., lower torso, mid-torso, upper torso, upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg, and foot) during female-male and female-female mounting. This finding lends support to the conclusion that female-female and female-male mounting are structurally, and thus, evolutionarily, related. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Gene expression signatures in peripheral blood cells from Japanese women exposed to environmental cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakeshita, Satoru; Kawai, Tomoko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Oguma, Etsuko; Horiguchi, Hyogo; Kayama, Fujio; Aoshima, Keiko; Shirahama, Satoshi; Rokutan, Kazuhito; Arisawa, Kokichi

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of environmental cadmium (Cd) exposure on the gene expression profile of peripheral blood cells, using an original oligoDNA microarray. The study population consisted of 20 female residents in a Cd-polluted area (Cd-exposed group) and 20 female residents in a non-Cd-polluted area individually matched for age (control group). The mRNA levels in Cd-exposed subjects were compared with those in respective controls, using a microarray containing oligoDNA probes for 1867 genes. Median Cd concentrations in blood (3.55 μg/l) and urine (8.25 μg/g creatinine) from the Cd-exposed group were 2.4- and 1.9-times higher than those of the control group, respectively. Microarray analysis revealed that the Cd-exposed group significantly up-regulated 137 genes and down-regulated 80 genes, compared with the control group. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Application (IPA) revealed that differentially expressed genes were likely to modify oxidative stress and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathways. Among differentially expressed genes, the expression of five genes was positively correlated with Cd concentrations in blood or urine. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) analysis validated the significant up-regulation of CASP9, TNFRSF1B, GPX3, HYOU1, SLC3A2, SLC19A1, SLC35A4 and ITGAL, and down-regulation of BCL2A1 and COX7B. After adjustment for differences in the background characteristics of the two groups, we finally identified seven Cd-responsive genes (CASP9, TNFRSF1B, GPX3, SLC3A2, ITGAL, BCL2A1, and COX7B), all of which constituted a network that controls oxidative stress response by IPA. These seven genes may be marker genes useful for the health risk assessment of chronic low level exposure to Cd

  11. Age- and gender-dependent impairments of neurobehaviors in mice whose mothers were exposed to lipopolysaccharide during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Meng, Xiu-Hong; Ning, Huan; Zhao, Xian-Feng; Wang, Qun; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Gui-Hai; Xu, De-Xiang

    2010-02-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intrauterine infection has been associated with neurodevelopmental injury in rodents. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the dynamic changes of neurobehaviors in mice whose mothers were exposed to LPS during pregnancy. The pregnant mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with LPS (8 microg/kg) daily from gestational day (gd) 8 to gd 15. A battery of neurobehavioral tasks was performed in mice at postnatal day (PND) 70, 200, 400 and 600. Results showed that the spatial learning and memory ability, determined by radial six-arm water maze (RAWM), were obviously impaired in two hundred-day-old female mice and four hundred-day-old male mice whose mothers were exposed to LPS during pregnancy. Open field test showed that the number of squares crossed and peripheral time, a marker of anxiety and exploration activity, were markedly increased in two hundred-day-old female mice following prenatal LPS exposure. In addition, prenatal LPS exposure significantly shortened the latency to the first grid crossing in six hundred-day-old female offspring. Moreover, sensorimotor impairment in the beam walking was observed in two hundred-day-old female mice whose mothers were exposed to LPS during pregnancy. Species-typical behavior examination showed that prenatal LPS exposure markedly increased weight burrowed in seventy-day-old male offspring and six hundred-day-old female offspring. Correspondingly, prenatal LPS exposure significantly reduced weight hoarded in two hundred-day-old female offspring. Taken together, these results suggest that prenatal LPS exposure induces neurobehavioral impairments at adulthood in an age- and gender-dependent manner. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Maternal Behavior Induction and Pup Exposure on Neurogenesis in Adult, Virgin Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Miyako; Bridges, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    The states of pregnancy and lactation bring about a range of physiological and behavioral changes in the adult mammal that prepare the mother to care for her young. Cell proliferation increases in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the female rodent brain during both pregnancy and lactation when compared to that in cycling, diestrous females. In the present study, the effects of maternal behavior induction and pup exposure on neurogenesis in nulliparous rats were examined in order to determine whether maternal behavior itself, independent of pregnancy and lactation, might affect neurogenesis. Adult, nulliparous, Sprague-Dawley, female rats were exposed daily to foster young in order to induce maternal behavior. Following the induction of maternal behavior each maternal subject plus females that were exposed to pups for a comparable number of test days, but did not display maternal behavior, and subjects that had received no pup exposure were injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, 90 mg/kg, i.v.). Brain sections were double-labeled for BrdU and the neural marker, NeuN, to examine the proliferating cell population. Increases in the number of double-labeled cells were found in the maternal virgin brain when compared with the number of double-labeled cells present in non-maternal, pup-exposed nulliparous rats and in females not exposed to young. No changes were evident in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus as a function of maternal behavior. These data indicate that in nulliparous female rats maternal behavior itself is associated with the stimulation of neurogenesis in the SVZ. PMID:19712726

  13. Association between sociodemographic characteristics and anxiety levels of violence-exposed patients admitted to emergency clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocagil, Hilal; Izci, Filiz; Hocagil, Abdullah Cüneyt; Findikli, Ebru; Korkmaz, Sevda; Koc, Merve Iris

    2016-01-01

    Background Here we aimed to investigate sociodemographic characteristics, psychiatric history, and association between sociodemographic characteristics and anxiety levels of violence-exposed patients admitted to emergency clinic. Methods This study consists of 73 violence-exposed patients admitted to emergency clinic who were literate and agreed to participate in the study. A sociodemographic data form created by us to investigate alcohol-substance abuse, suicide attempt, previous history of trauma, self and family history of psychiatric disorders and Beck Anxiety Inventory was given to the patients. Results Of the patients exposed to violence 63% (n=46) were female and 27% (n=27) were male. Of these patients, 68.5% (n=50) were married, 43.8% (n=25) were workers, 34.2% were housewives, 11% were unemployed, and 11% were civil servants. Of the violence-exposed patients, 56.2% (n=41) were primary school, 21.9% (n=16) were high school, and 21.9% (n=16) were university graduates. Smoking and alcohol use rates were 54.8% (n=40) and 17.8% (n=13), respectively. The most common trauma type was assault using physical force with a ratio of 78.1% (n=57). In addition, anxiety scores were high in 42.5% (n=31) and moderate in 9.6% (n=7) of the patients. Mentioned psychiatric disorder was present in 17.8% (n=13) of the patients and 19.2% (n=14) of the patients’ relatives. The correlation between sociodemographic characteristics and anxiety scores revealed that married patients had higher anxiety scores (Pviolence-exposed patients admitted to emergency room were females, 56.2% were primary school graduates, and 43.8% were factory workers; this result shows that low socioeconomical status and education level affect exposure to trauma especially in females. In addition, ~20% of the patients and patients’ relatives had a psychiatric disorder and 53.4% of perpetrators were parents, spouses, and children; this result shows that psychiatric history and family relations are one of the

  14. Socio-psycho-historical observation on the twin. Sampling methods and case study of the atomic bomb exposed twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S; Satow, Y; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Munaka, M; Kurihara, M [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1980-07-01

    The so-called ''twin control study'', mainly on the monozygotic twins one of which was A-bomb exposed and the other was non-exposed were carried out. Sampling was conducted utilizing the materials as follows: 1) The survey on casualities of A-bomb exposed families in Hiroshima which was undertaken in 1946. 2) The survey of A-bomb survivors in 1965. 3) A-bomb exposed family survey conducted between 1973 to 1975. 4) Investigations of A-bomb victims exposed in the proximal areas from the hypocenter. From the above mentioned materials 470 pairs were selected, of which 220 were exposed. Among them 172 pairs were twins of the same sex. Female and male pair were also employed. In one case they were exposed, while the others were nonexposed. Two pairs were examined under the following methods: 1) Depth interview to ascertain familial casualities with reference to the family life cycle. 2) Socio-historical research. 3) Motoaki's Jinkaku Shindan Kensa (Modified Rorschach test by H. Motoaki), and T.A.T. test. Results obtained were summarized as follows: 1) Both pairs of twins were of similar appearance and personality traits, and had a strong feeling of companionship for each other. 2) In family relationships, the persons studied were very conscious of the role expectations of elder and younger siblings in the twin pairs. 3) Through depth interviews and projective tests, A-bomb exposed pairs still showed deep psychological stresses, resulting from the A-bomb disaster. 4) Both among the exposed twins and within the nonexposed control group twin siblings had a close feeling of companionship for each other. However, nonexposed twins could not understand the psychological experience of twins who had been subjected to the atomic disaster.

  15. Survival of adult female elk in yellowstone following wolf restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S.B.; Mech, L.D.; White, P.J.; Sargeant, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Counts of northern Yellowstone elk (Cervus elaphus) in northwestern Wyoming and adjacent Montana, USA, have decreased at an average rate of 6-8% per year since wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced in 1995. Population growth rates of elk are typically sensitive to variations in adult female survival; populations that are stable or increasing exhibit high adult female survival. We used survival records for 85 radiocollared adult female elk 1-19 years old to estimate annual survival from March 2000 to February 2004. Weighted average annual survival rates were approximately 0.83 (95% CI = 0.77-0.89) for females 1-15 years old and 0.80 (95% CI = 0.73-0.86) for all females. Our estimates were much lower than the rate of 0.99 observed during 1969-1975 when fewer elk were harvested by hunters, wolves were not present, and other predators were less numerous. Of 33 documented deaths included in our analysis, we attributed 11 to hunter harvest, 14 to predation (10 wolf, 2 unknown, 1 cougar [Puma concolor], and 1 bear [Ursus sp.]), 6 to unknown causes, and 2 to winter-kill. Most deaths occurred from December through March. Estimates of cause-specific annual mortality rates were 0.09 (0.05-0.14) for all predators, 0.08 (0.04-0.13) for hunting, and 0.07 (0.03-0.11) for wolves specifically. Wolf-killed elk were typically older (median = 12 yr) than hunter-killed elk (median = 9 yr, P = 0.03). However, elk that winter outside the park where they were exposed to hunting were also younger (median = 7 yr) than elk that we did not observe outside the park (median = 9 yr, P wolves and hunters may reflect characteristics of elk exposed to various causes of mortality, as well as differences in susceptibility. Unless survival rates of adult females increase, elk numbers are likely to continue declining. Hunter harvest is the only cause of mortality that is amenable to management at the present time.

  16. Social representations of female orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie-Ajayi, Maya; Joffe, Hélène

    2009-01-01

    This study examines women's social representations of female orgasm. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted with British women. The data were thematically analysed and compared with the content of female orgasm-related writing in two women's magazines over a 30-year period. The results indicate that orgasm is deemed the goal of sex with emphasis on its physiological dimension. However, the women and the magazines graft onto this scientifically driven representation the importance of relational and emotive aspects of orgasm. For the women, particularly those who experience themselves as having problems with orgasm, the scientifically driven representations induce feelings of failure, but are also resisted. The findings highlight the role played by the social context in women's subjective experience of their sexual health.

  17. Differential impact of dimethoate on the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer Canestrini (Gamasida: Laelapidae) exposed at different life stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Krogh, P. H.

    The acute toxicity of dimethoate was examined on different life stages (larvae, protonymph, deutonymph, male and female) of the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer. The mites were exposed for 7 days in an artificial soil to 0, 2, 4, and 6 mg kg-1. A comparison of LC50 values ranked the sensitivity...... of the life stages to be: Larvae (LC50 = 3.8) > protonymph (LC50 = 5.3) > male (LC50 = 5.6) > deutonymph (LC50 = 7.1) > female (LC50 = 7.6). A life table response analysis may show how the results affect the population dynamics of H. aculeifer....

  18. Bone maturation in children exposed in utero to the atomic bomb. [Closure of epiphyseal centers in hands and wrists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W J; Keehn, R J; Ihno, Y; Hattori, F; Kogure, T; Imamura, K

    1972-01-20

    Five hundred and fifty-six subjects exposed while in utero to the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bombs, and comparison subjects were observed by posteroanterior hand and wrist roentgenograms for epiphyseal closure. There were delays in closure of 6-7 and 8-9 months for males and females respectively, as compared for Japanese and American children. These findings did not correlate with the A-bomb exposure doses of the mothers of these children. Brachymesophalangia occurred in 11% of males and 19% of females in Hiroshima. Possible contributory factors to the relative delay in maturation are discussed. (auth)

  19. Biological monitoring results for cadmium exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, M A; Freeman, C S; Grossman, E A; Martonik, J

    1996-11-01

    As part of a settlement agreement with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) involving exposure to cadmium (Cd), a battery production facility provided medical surveillance data to OSHA for review. Measurements of cadmium in blood, cadmium in urine, and beta 2-microglobulin in urine were obtained for more than 100 workers over an 18-month period. Some airborne Cd exposure data were also made available. Two subpopulations of this cohort were of primary interest in evaluating compliance with the medical surveillance provisions of the Cadmium Standard. These were a group of 16 workers medically removed from cadmium exposure due to elevations in some biological parameter, and a group of platemakers. Platemaking had presented a particularly high exposure opportunity and had recently undergone engineering interventions to minimize exposure. The effect on three biological monitoring parameters of medical removal protection in the first group and engineering controls in platemakers is reported. Results reveal that both medical removal from cadmium exposures and exposure abatement through the use of engineering and work practice controls generally result in declines in biological monitoring parameters of exposed workers. Implications for the success of interventions are discussed.

  20. Exposing the “One China” Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-yuan Tseng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, when the governments from both sides across the Taiwan Strait began having contacts, both of them, at the People’s Republic of China (PRC’s request, expressed verbally, and in relation to functional issues, that they advocated the “one China” principle, though what “one China” actually meant was open to different interpretations, and the shift that elevated the 1992 “one China” interpretations from the functional level to the political level did not occur until April 2005. Since President Tsai Ing-wen was sworn in and the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP became the ruling party of the Republic of China (ROC on Taiwan in early 2016, the PRC has used Tsai’s rejection of this so-called “1992 consensus” as a pretext to discontinue all intergovernmental communication channels with the ROC on Taiwan, while also cutting down on cross-strait civil exchanges in travel and education. This thinkpiece article aims to scrutinise this “one China” principle, how it has developed over the years, and expose its underlying realities.

  1. [Clinical comments on female homosexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeul, M

    1993-02-01

    In psychoanalytic theory, homosexual women are regarded as being possessed by violent hatred of the mother. They are held to identify with the male or the phallic and to display an absence of "normal" femaleness. Their attendant immaturity makes them incapable of love. The author takes issue with the assumption that normality is synonymous with mature, reciprocal heterosexuality. With reference to a case study of a homosexual woman, she traces the structure of a lesbian love relationship. The patient is the involuntary witness of sexual intercourse between the parents. The mixture of alarm and excitement which this arouses sparks off female desires that revive early libidinous experiences with the mother. The girl desires her mother, without however identifying with the father. In her later relationships with women she does not relate to her partners as a disguised man but as a woman. Identification with the father serves as a defence against the desire for-and the fear of-identification at a female level.

  2. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy LL

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lauren L Levy, Jason J Emer Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification. Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride, prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost, and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, female pattern hair loss, minoxidil, finasteride, antiandrogens, spironolactone

  3. The pregnant female surgical resident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifflette V

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Vanessa Shifflette,1 Susannah Hambright,2 Joseph Darryl Amos,1 Ernest Dunn,3 Maria Allo4 1Associates in Surgical Acute Care, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 2Methodist Surgical Associates, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 3Graduate Medical Education - General Surgery, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 4Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, CA, USA Background: Surgery continues to be an intense, time-consuming residency. Many medical students decide against surgery as a profession due to the long work hours and family strain. The pregnant female surgical resident has an added stress factor compared to her male counterpart. Methods: We distributed an electronic, online 26-question survey to 32 general surgery programs in the southwestern region of the United States. Each program distributed our survey to the female surgical residents who had been pregnant during residency in the last 5 years. Each program was re-contacted 6 weeks after the initial contact. Most questions were in a 5-point Likert scale format. The responses were collected and analyzed using the Survey Monkey website. Results: An unvalidated survey was sent to 32 general surgery programs and 26 programs responded (81%. Each program was asked for the total number of possible responses from female residents that met our criteria (60 female residents. Seven of the programs (27% stated that they have had zero residents pregnant. We had 22 residents respond (37%. Over half of the residents (55% were pregnant during their 2nd or 3rd year of residency, with only 18% pregnant during a research year. Thirty-one percent had a lower American Board of Surgery In-Training Exam (ABSITE score. Ninety percent of the residents were able to take 4 weeks or more for maternity leave. Most of the residents (95% stated that they would do this again during residency given the opportunity, but many of the residents felt that returning back to work

  4. 3. Impact of altered gravity on CNS development and behavior in male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.; Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Sulkowski, V. A.; Sulkowski, Z. L.; Baxter, M. G.

    The present study examined the effect of altered gravity on CNS development. Specifically, we compared neurodevelopment, behavior, cerebellar structure and protein expression in rat neonates exposed perinatally to hypergravity. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 1.5G-1.75G hypergravity on a 24-ft centrifuge starting on gestational day (G) 10, through giving birth on G22/G23, and nursing their offspring through postnatal day (P) 21. Cerebellar mass on P6 was decreased in 1.75G-exposed male pups by 27.5 percent; in 1.75G-exposed female pups it was decreased by 22.5 percent. The observed cerebellar changes were associated with alterations in neurodevelopment and motor behavior. Exposure to hypergravity impaired performance on the following neurocognitive tests: (1) righting time on P3 was more than doubled in 1.75G-exposed rats and the effect appeared more pronounced in female pups, (2) startle response on P10 was delayed in both male and female HG pups; HG pups were one-fifth as likely to respond to a clapping noise as SC pups, and (3) performance on a rotorod on P21 was decreased in HG pups; the duration of the stay on rotorod recorded for HG pups of both sexes was one tenth of the SC pups. Furthermore, Western blot analysis of selected cerebellar proteins suggested gender-specific changes in glial and neuronal proteins. On P6, GFAP expression was decreased by 59.2 percent in HG males, while no significant decrease was observed in female cerebella. Synaptophysin expression was decreased in HG male neonates by 29.9 percent and in HG female neonates by 20.7 percent as compared to its expression in SC cerebella. The results of this experiment suggest that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar development and behavior differently in male and female neonates. If one accepts that hypergravity is a good paradigm to study the effect of microgravity on the CNS, and since males and females were shown to respond differently to hypergravity, it can be

  5. Invocation Receptivity in Female of Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fik

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The target of this work was verified effect of transport females in the car for advance state of receptivity in young females broiler rabbits. We used nulliparous females of broiler hybrid HYCOLE (age 4-5 months, weight 3.5-3.8 kg. Experiment was realizated twice. First in half of November (31 females, second in half of February (32 females. Females was layed individually in boxes. After they were transported by car 1 hour (50 km. Before and after experiment we detected state of receptivity in females with coloration of vulva. The state of receptivity was determited from 1 for 4 colour of vulva. ( 1 – anemic coloration of vulva, 2- pink, 3 – red, 4- violet. We detected positive state of transport, on the receptivity. In November before transport was average of receptivity 1.87, after transport 2.25. The state of receptivity will be improve in 12 females (38.71 %. Improve from 1 to 2 was detected in 4 females, from 2 to 3 in 8 females. Improved from 2 to 4 , or from 3 to 4 wasn´t noticed in this group. The state of receptivity wasn´t changed in 19 females (61.29 %. In the state of receptivity 1 stayed 2 females, in the state 2 stayed 15 females, in the state 3 stayed 2 females and in the state 4 wasn´t any female. In February after the end of experiment, state of receptivity was improved with transport in the car from 2.19 to 2.65. The state of receptivity was improved in 13 females  (40.63 %.  Improve from 1 to 2 we detected in 1 female, from 2 to 3 we detected in 8 females, from 2 to 4 we detected in 2 females, from 3 to 4 in 2 females. In 19 females (59.38% we don´t noticed change state of receptivity. In the state of receptivity 1 were 2 females, in 2 were 11 females, in 3 were 5 females, in 4 was 1 female.

  6. NanoTIO2 (UV-Titan) does not induce ESTR mutations in the germline of prenatally exposed female mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner; Shipley, Thomas; Hougaard, Karin Sørig

    2012-01-01

    Particulate air pollution has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Animal studies have shown that inhalation of air particulates induces mutations in the male germline. Expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) loci in mice are sensitive markers of mutagenic effects o...

  7. Tert-buthylhydroquinone pre-conditioning exerts dual effects in old female rats exposed to 3-nitropropionic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Silva-Palacios

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The brain is a very susceptible organ to structural and functional alterations caused by oxidative stress and its vulnerability increases with age. Understanding the antioxidant response activated by the transcription factor Nrf2 has become very important in the aging field in order to activate cellular protection. However, the role of Nrf2 inducers during old age has not been completely understood. Our aim was to activate the Nrf2 pathway by pre-treating old rats with a widely used Nrf2-inducer, tert-buthylhydroquinone (tBHQ, prior to 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP insult, in order to evaluate its effects at a behavioral, morphological and biochemical levels. 3-NP has been used to reproduce the biochemical and pathophysiological characteristics of Huntington's disease due to an oxidative effect. Our results suggest that tBHQ confers an important protective effect against 3-NP toxicity; nevertheless, Nrf2 seems not to be the main protective pathway associated to neuroprotection. Hormetic responses include the activation of more than one transcription factor. Nrf2 and NFκB are known to simultaneously initiate different cellular responses against stress by triggering parallel mechanisms, therefore NFκB nuclear accumulation was also evaluated. Keywords: Aging, Nrf2 signaling, Tert-Buthylhydroquinone, Oxidative stress, 3-Nitropropionic acid

  8. Suppression of wnt /beta-catenin signaling in bone of female rats exposed to ethanol post-lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic alcohol abuse is a major risk factor for development of osteoporosis. However, the mechanisms through which chronic alcohol intake induces bone loss remain unclear. Alcohol-induced oxidative stress might be the key event in tissue injury. In this report, we chronically infused EtOH (12g/kg/d...

  9. Degradation of HEPA filters exposed to DMSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; LeMay, J.

    1994-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) sprays are being used to remove the high explosive (HE) from nuclear weapons in the process of their dismantlement. A boxed 50 cfm HEPA filter with an integral prefilter was exposed to DMSO vapor and aerosols that were generated by a spray nozzle to simulate conditions expected in the HE dissolution operation. After 198 hours of operation, the pressure drop of the filter had increased from 1.15 inches to 2.85 inches, and the efficiency for 0.3 μm dioctyl sebacate (DOS) aerosols decreased from 99.992% to 98.6%. Most of the DMSO aerosols had collected as a liquid pool inside the boxed HEPA. The liquid was blown out of the filter exit with 100 cfm air flow at the end of the test. Since the filter still met the minimum allowed efficiency of 99.97% after 166 hours of exposure, we recommend replacing the filter every 160 hours of operation or sooner if the pressure drop increases by 50%. Examination of the filter showed that visible cracks appeared at the joints of the wooden frame and a portion of the sealant had pulled away from the frame. Since all of the DMSO will be trapped in the first HEPA filter, the second HEPA filter should not suffer from DMSO degradation. Thus the combined efficiency for the first filter (98.6%) and the second filter (99.97%) is 99.99996% for 0.3μm particles. If the first filter is replaced prior to its degradation, each of the filters will have 99.97% efficiency, and the combined efficiency will be 99.999991%. The collection efficiency for DMSO/HE aerosols will be much higher because the particle size is much greater

  10. Degradation of HEPA filters exposed to DMSO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Larsen, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) sprays are being used to remove the high explosive (HE) from nuclear weapons in the process of their dismantlement. A boxed 50 cmf HEPA filter with an integral prefilter was exposed to DMSO vapor and aerosols that were generated by a spray nozzle to simulate conditions expected in the HE dissolution operation. After 198 hours of operation, the pressure drop of the filter had increased form 1.15 inches to 2,85 inches, and the efficiency for 0.3 {mu}m dioctyl sebacate (DOS) aerosols decreased form 99.992% to 98.6%. Most of the DMSO aerosols had collected as a liquid pool inside the boxed HEPA. The liquid was blown out of the filter exit with 100 cmf air flow at the end of the test. Since the filter still met the minimum allowed efficiency of 99.97% after 166 hours of exposure, we recommend replacing the filter every 160 hours of operation or sooner if the pressure drop increases by 50%. Examination of the filter showed that visible cracks appeared at the joints of the wooden frame and a portion of the sealant had pulled away from the frame. Since all of the DMSO will be trapped in the first HEPA filter, the second HEPA filter should not suffer from DMSO degradation. Thus the combined efficiency for the first filter (98.6%) and the second filter (99.97%) is 99.99996% for 0.3 {mu}m particles. If the first filter is replaced prior to its degradation, each of the filters will have 99.97% efficiency, and the combined efficiency will be 99.999991%. The collection efficiency for DMSO/HE aerosols will be much higher because the particle size is much greater.

  11. Metabolic profile and genotoxicity in obese rats exposed to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Debora C; Sinzato, Yuri K; Bueno, Aline; Dallaqua, Bruna; Lima, Paula H; Calderon, Iracema M P; Rudge, Marilza V C; Campos, Kleber E

    2013-08-01

    Experimental studies have shown that exposure to cigarette smoke has negative effects on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress status. Cigarette smoke exposure in nonpregnant and pregnant rats causes significant genotoxicity (DNA damage). However, no previous studies have directly evaluated the effects of obesity or the association between obesity and cigarette smoke exposure on genotoxicity. Therefore, the aim of the present investigation was to evaluate DNA damage levels, oxidative stress status and lipid profiles in obese Wistar rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Female rats subcutaneously (s.c.) received a monosodium glutamate solution or vehicle (control) during the neonatal period to induce obesity. The rats were randomly distributed into three experimental groups: control, obese exposed to filtered air, and obese exposed to tobacco cigarette smoke. After a 2-month exposure period, the rats were anesthetized and killed to obtain blood samples for genotoxicity, lipid profile, and oxidative stress status analyses. The obese rats exposed to tobacco cigarette smoke presented higher DNA damage, triglycerides, total cholesterol, free fatty acids, VLDL-c, HDL-c, and LDL-c levels compared to control and obese rats exposed to filtered air. Both obese groups showed reduced SOD activity. These results showed that cigarette smoke enhanced the effects of obesity. In conclusion, the association between obesity and cigarette smoke exposure exacerbated the genotoxicity, negatively impacted the biochemical profile and antioxidant defenses and caused early glucose intolerance. Thus, the changes caused by cigarette smoke exposure can trigger the earlier onset of metabolic disorders associated with obesity, such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  12. Longitudinal lung function decline and wood dust exposure in the furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, G; Schlünssen, V; Schaumburg, I; Taudorf, E; Sigsgaard, T

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between change in lung function and cumulative exposure to wood dust. In total, 1,112 woodworkers (927 males, 185 females) and 235 reference workers (104 males, 185 females) participated in a 6-yr longitudinal study. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC), height and weight were measured, and questionnaire data on respiratory symptoms, wood dust exposure and smoking habits were collected. Cumulative inhalable wood dust exposure was assessed using a study-specific job exposure matrix and exposure time. The median (range) for cumulative wood dust exposure was 3.75 (0-7.55) mg x year x m(-3). A dose-response relationship between cumulative wood dust exposure and percent annual decrease in FEV(1) was suggested for female workers. This was confirmed in a linear regression model adjusted for confounders, including smoking, height and age. An additional difference of -14.50 mL x yr(-1) and -27.97 mL x yr(-1) was revealed for females exposed to 3.75-4.71 mg x yr x m(-3) or to >4.71 mg x yr x m(-3), respectively, compared with non-/low-exposed females. For females, a positive trend between wood dust exposure and the cumulative incidence proportion of FEV(1)/FVC <70% was suggested. In conclusion, in the present low-exposed cohort, female woodworkers had an accelerated decline in lung function, which may be clinically relevant.

  13. Computational dosimetry in embryos exposed to electromagnetic plane waves over the frequency range of 10 MHz-1.5 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Hiroki; Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Soichi; Saito, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Masaharu; Ito, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents calculated specific absorption rate (SAR) dosimetry in 4 and 8 week Japanese pregnant-woman models exposed to plane waves over the frequency range of 10 MHz-1.5 GHz. Two types of 2 mm spatial-resolution pregnant-woman models comprised a woman model, which is similar to the average-sized Japanese adult female in height and weight, with a cubic (4 week) embryo or spheroidal (8 week) one. The averaged SAR in the embryos exposed to vertically and horizontally polarized plane waves at four kinds of propagation directions are calculated from 10 MHz to 1.5 GHz. The results indicate that the maximum average SAR in the embryos exposed to plane waves is lower than 0.08 W kg -1 when the incident power density is at the reference level of ICNIRP guideline for general public environment. (note)

  14. Educating about female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Victoria; Farrington, Rebecca; Mulongo, Peggy

    2017-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is illegal in the UK but nevertheless practised in some immigrant communities. Effective educational approaches are required to inform policy and to direct resources, often in the voluntary sector. The opinions in this article arise from discussions with professionals and members of FGM-practising communities. We highlight the importance of sharing experiences and expertise across health and social care professionals as well as working in partnership with culturally sensitive Non-Governmental Organisations. Enlisting the support of men and religious leaders is crucial to breaking down barriers in male-dominated communities and dispelling myths about FGM being a 'requirement' of faith.

  15. Charismatic female leadership and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meret, Susi

    2015-01-01

    Research on the leadership and electorates of populist right-wing parties emphasizes that most of these parties are charismatic and male-dominated, both as regards their leadership and voters. However, while studies about the gender gap focus mainly on demand-side factors, such as electoral support......, socio-economic characteristics and the voters' attitudes towards issues such as immigration, those that analyse the role and position of gender issues are still rare. Similarly, or even more, overlooked is an analysis of the rhetoric, style, charisma and discourse of populist female leaders...

  16. Androgen excess fetal programming of female reproduction: a developmental aetiology for polycystic ovary syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, D H; Barnett, D K; Bruns, C M; Dumesic, D A

    2005-01-01

    The aetiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remains unknown. This familial syndrome is prevalent among reproductive-aged women and its inheritance indicates a dominant regulatory gene with incomplete penetrance. However, promising candidate genes have proven unreliable as markers for the PCOS phenotype. This lack of genetic linkage may represent both extreme heterogeneity of PCOS and difficulty in establishing a universally accepted PCOS diagnosis. Nevertheless, hyperandrogenism is one of the most consistently expressed PCOS traits. Animal models that mimic fetal androgen excess may thus provide unique insight into the origins of the PCOS syndrome. Many female mammals exposed to androgen excess in utero or during early post-natal life typically show masculinized and defeminized behaviour, ovulatory dysfunction and virilized genitalia, although behavioural and ovulatory dysfunction can coexist without virilized genitalia based upon the timing of androgen excess. One animal model shows particular relevance to PCOS: the prenatally androgenized female rhesus monkey. Females exposed to androgen excess early in gestation exhibit hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhoea and enlarged, polyfollicular ovaries, in addition to LH hypersecretion, impaired embryo development, insulin resistance accompanying abdominal obesity, impaired insulin response to glucose and hyperlipidaemia. Female monkeys exposed to androgen excess late in gestation mimic these programmed changes, except for LH and insulin secretion defects. In utero androgen excess may thus variably perturb multiple organ system programming and thereby provide a single, fetal origin for a heterogeneous adult syndrome.

  17. Effects of ionizing radiation on codling moth cydia pomonella (L) female's ability to attract males in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, F.; Mansour, M.

    2009-06-01

    Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. males and females were exposed to three levels of gamma radiation (0, 250 and 350 Gy). Females were used in pheromone traps (instead of pheromone capsules) inside wire cages at a rate of one female / trap. Males were released in a 2 x 2 m square in the middle of the orchard and the number of caught males (wild and released ) in female baited traps was recorded. Results showed an inverse relationship between radiation dose and the ability of females to attract males (wild and released). Contrary to that, result showed that the higher the dose, the lower was the number of males caught in female baited traps. (author)

  18. What's wrong with female circumcision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D

    1994-03-16

    Why should the multicultural society of Canada outlaw female genital mutilation (FGM) as proposed by federal Justice Minister Allan Rock or allow avoidance of the procedure to be a legitimate reason for gaining refugee status? Is this anti-FGM position simply an ethnocentric stance that would be called racism in other circumstances? Canadian objections to FGM can not arise from objections about mutilation of a child's sexual organs because male circumcision is legal in Canada, although it, too, is medically questionable. Perhaps Rock is being patriarchal in reserving his concern for females. In Somali culture, women determine the nature and extent of FGM, so Rock may simply be exhibiting his inability to understand other cultures. On the other hand, it is politically incorrect for Canadian government workers to criticize other cultures, and immigrants are assured that their values and beliefs will be accommodated in Canada. Thus, polygamy among Somali immigrants is ignored. The question is why should FGM be a major exception and invoke efforts at repression instead of a respect for diversity.

  19. Hormesis and Female Sex Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvar Theodorsson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hormone replacement after menopause has in recent years been the subject of intense scientific debate and public interest and has sparked intense research efforts into the biological effects of estrogens and progestagens. However, there are reasons to believe that the doses used and plasma concentrations produced in a large number of studies casts doubt on important aspects of their validity. The concept of hormesis states that a substance can have diametrically different effects depending on the concentration. Even though estrogens and progestagens have proven prone to this kind of dose-response relation in a multitude of studies, the phenomenon remains clearly underappreciated as exemplified by the fact that it is common practice to only use one hormone dose in animal experiments. If care is not taken to adjust the concentrations of estrogens and progestagens to relevant biological conditions, the significance of the results may be questionable. Our aim is to review examples of female sexual steroids demonstrating bidirectional dose-response relations and to discuss this in the perspective of hormesis. Some examples are highlighted in detail, including the effects on cerebral ischemia, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and anxiety. Hopefully, better understanding of the hormesis phenomenon may result in improved future designs of studies of female sexual steroids.

  20. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

  1. Educator Sexual Misconduct: Exposing or Causing Learners to Be Exposed to Child Pornography or Pornography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Coetzee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available he law recognises that non-contact sexual offences can cause harm and several offences were created to regulate non-contact sexual child abuse offences. Several of these offences deal with the exposure or causing exposure of children to child pornography or pornography. Sexual grooming of children and the “Exposure or display of or causing exposure or display of child pornography or pornography to children” are criminalised in sections 18(2 and 19 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters Amendment Act 32 of 2007. And offences in relation to exposing children to disturbing, harmful and age-inappropriate materials are criminalised in sections 24A(2 and (4 of the Films and Publications Act 65 of 1996. In this article the author considered the content of the offences of “Exposure or display of or causing exposure or display of child pornography or pornography to children” in relation to the other offences dealing with exposure of children to child pornography or pornography. Benchmarked against these criminal offences the author then conceptualised exposing learners, or causing the exposure of learners to child pornography or pornography as forms of educator misconduct. The seriousness that should be attached to these forms of misconduct was considered in light of the various criminal offences. The review of the criminal offences and the forms of educator misconduct brought the ineffectiveness of current forms of serious educator misconduct to the fore. There is no form of serious misconduct that covers the transgression of educators who expose learners to child pornography or pornography that can be classified as “XX”. In conclusion a suggestion is made with regard to how a new form of serious misconduct could be worded so as to cover this gap, eg An educator must be dismissed if he or she is found guilty of – (g exposing a learner to or causing exposure of a learner to material classified as “Refused” or

  2. No pain, no gain: Male plasticity in burrow digging according to female rejection in a sand-dwelling wolf spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Matilde; Baldenegro, Fabiana; Bollatti, Fedra; Peretti, Alfredo V; Aisenberg, Anita

    2017-07-01

    Behavioral plasticity allows individuals to reversibly respond to short-term variations in their ecological and social environment in order to maximize their fitness. Allocosa senex is a burrow-digging spider that inhabits the sandy coasts of South America. This species shows a reversal in typical sex roles expected in spiders: females are wanderers that visit males at their burrows and initiate courtship. They prefer males with long burrows for mating, and males prefer virgin over mated females. We tested whether female sexual rejection induced males to enlarge their burrows and if female reproductive status affected males' responses. We exposed males who had constructed burrows to: a) virgin females or b) mated females, (n=16 for each category). If female rejection occurred, we repeated the trial 48h later with the same female. As control, we maintained a group of males without female exposure (unexposed group, n=32). Rejected males enlarged their burrows more frequently and burrows were longer compared to unexposed males. However, frequency and length of enlargement did not differ according to female reproductive status. Males of A. senex showed plasticity in digging behavior in response to the availability of females, as a way to maximize the possibilities of future mating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Going beyond the most exposed people in a dose assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjerpe, Thomas; Broed, Robert [Facilia AB, Gustavslundsvaegen 151C, SE-167 51 Bromma (Sweden); Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment, EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, FI-28 100 Pori (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    The dose assessment in a long-term radiation safety assessment often focus on assessing dose of a representative person to be used for determining compliance with a radiation dose constraint. This representative person is often assumed to receive a dose that is representative of the most exposed people, i.e., the more highly exposed individuals in the population. This is not always sufficient, the Finnish regulations for disposal of nuclear waste has radiation dose constraint to the most exposed people as well as for larger groups of exposed people. This work presents the methodology to assessing dose of a representative person for a larger group of exposed people as applied by Posiva in the TURVA-2012 safety case for the spent nuclear fuel disposal at Olkiluoto. In addition, annual doses from the set of biosphere calculation cases analysed in TURVA-2012 are presented and discussed. Special focus is given on explaining the differences in exposure levels and exposure routes between the estimated annual doses to representative persons for most exposed people and a larger exposed group. The results show that the annual doses to a larger group of people ranges from one to three orders of magnitude below the annual doses to the most exposed people. Furthermore, the exposure route related to food ingestion is less significant for the larger group of people compared to the most exposed people and that the exposure route related to water ingestion shows the opposite behaviour. (authors)

  4. Psychosocial and sexual aspects of female circumcision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Abdel-Azim

    Sexual behavior is a result of interaction of biology and psychology. Sexual excitement of the female can be triggered by stimulation of erotogenic areas; part of which is the clitoris. Female ... Cultural traditions and social pressures can.

  5. The protective role of maternal racial socialization for African American adolescents exposed to community violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jessica S; Lambert, Sharon F; Smith Bynum, Mia

    2015-08-01

    Urban African American youth's disproportionate exposure to community violence and increased risk for its adverse consequences have heightened interest in identifying protective factors that mitigate the effects of community violence exposure for these youth. Thus, the present study examined whether maternal racial socialization messages protect African American adolescents against the adverse effects of community violence exposure. Participants were a community sample of African American adolescents (N = 106; mean age = 15.41 years) and their female guardians. For community-violence-exposed youth, maternal racial socialization messages protected against aggressive behaviors and depressive symptoms, such that maternal messages about cultural pride attenuated the association between community violence exposure and parent-reported aggressive behaviors, and cultural appreciation of legacy messages attenuated the association between community violence exposure and adolescent-reported depressive symptoms. Findings highlight the need to integrate race-relevant factors into preventive interventions targeting African American youth at risk for or exposed to community violence, and suggest that family interventions promoting parents' efficacy to implement racial socialization practices are useful for youth exposed to violence. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Characteristics of Female College Student Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, Stuart H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined female college students' (N=466) drug use, marihuana use in particular. Results indicated that the gap in marihuana usage patterns between females and males has substantially narrowed. Female marihuana users used other drugs quite extensively and had friends who use marihuana. Peer influence was a major factor in drug use. (JAC)

  7. Normal development of the female reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The embryonic development of the female reproductive system involves a progression of events that is conserved across vertebrate species. The early gonad progresses from a form that is undifferentiated in both genotypic males and females. Rudimentary male (Wolffian) and female (M...

  8. Causes of Sexual Promiscuity Among Female Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated causes of sexual promiscuity among female undergraduate students in university of Lagos. The sample comprised 150 female undergraduate students randomly selected from all the five female hostels in University of Lagos. A researcher-constructed questionnaire was administered to test the three ...

  9. Response of exposed bark and exposed lichen to an urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, A.M.J. [Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Oliveira do Hospital (Portugal). Oliveira do Hospital College of Technology and Management; Freitas, M.C.; Canha, N. [URSN, Sacavem (Portugal). Inst. Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN); Verburg, T.G.; Wolterbeek, H.T. [Technical Univ. of Delft (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation, Radionuclides and Reactors

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study is to understand emission sources of chemical elements using biomonitoring as a tool. The selected lichen and bark were respectively Parmotrema bangii and Criptomeria japonica, sampled in the pollution-free atmosphere of Azores (Sao Miguel island), Portugal, and were exposed in the courtyards of 22 basic schools of Lisbon. The exposure was from January to May 2008 and from June to October 2008 (designated through the text as winter and summer respectively). The chemical element concentrations were determined by INAA. Conductivity of the lichen samples was measured. Factor analysis (MCTTFA) was applied to winter/summer bark/lichen exposed datasets. Arsenic emission sources, soil with anthropogenic contamination, a Se source, traffic, industry, and a sea contribution, were identified. In lichens, a physiological source based on the conductivity values was found. The spatial study showed contribution of sources to specific school positioning. Conductivity values were high in summer in locations as international Lisbon airport and downtown. Lisbon is spatially influenced by marine air mass transportation. It is concluded that one air sampler in Lisbon might be enough to define the emission sources under which they are influenced. (orig.)

  10. Ecophysiological tolerance of duckweeds exposed to copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoun-Boule, Myriam [Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Botany, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3000-456 (Portugal)], E-mail: mkb@ci.uc.pt; Vicente, Joaquim A.F.; Nabais, Cristina [Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Botany, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3000-456 (Portugal); Prasad, M.N.V. [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Freitas, Helena [Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Botany, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3000-456 (Portugal)

    2009-01-18

    Although essential for plants, copper can be toxic when present in supra-optimal concentrations. Metal polluted sites, due to their extreme conditions, can harbour tolerant species and/or ecotypes. In this work we aimed to compare the physiological responses to copper exposure and the uptake capacities of two species of duckweed, Lemna minor (Lm(EC1)) and Spirodela polyrrhiza (SP), from an abandoned uranium mine with an ecotype of L. minor (Lm(EC2)) from a non-contaminated pond. From the lowest Cu concentration exposure (25 {mu}M) to the highest (100 {mu}M), Lm(EC2) accumulated higher amounts of copper than Lm(EC1) and SP. Dose-response curves showed that Cu content accumulated by Lm(EC2) increases linearly with Cu treatment concentrations (r{sup 2} = 0.998) whereas quadratic models were more suitable for Lm(EC1) and SP (r{sup 2} = 0.999 and r{sup 2} = 0.998 for Lm(EC1) and SP, respectively). A significant concentration-dependent decline of chlorophyll a (chl a) and carotenoid occurred as a consequence of Cu exposure. These declines were significant for Lm(EC2) exposed to the lowest Cu concentration (25 {mu}M) whereas for Lm(EC1) and SP a significant decrease in chl a and carotenoids was observed only at 50 and 100 {mu}M-Cu. Electric conductivity (EC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased after Cu exposure, indicating oxidative stress. Significant increase of EC was observed in Lm(EC2) for all Cu concentrations whereas the increase for Lm(EC1) and SP became significant only after an exposure to 50 {mu}M-Cu. On the contrary, for Lm(EC1), SP, and Lm(EC2), MDA content significantly increased even at the lowest concentration. Protein content and catalase (CAT) activity showed a decrease with an increase in Cu concentration. For the species Lm(EC1) and SP, a significant effect of copper on CAT activity was observed only at the highest concentration (100 {mu}M-Cu) whereas, for Lm(EC2), this effect started to be significant after an exposure to 50 {mu

  11. Ecophysiological tolerance of duckweeds exposed to copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanoun-Boule, Myriam; Vicente, Joaquim A.F.; Nabais, Cristina; Prasad, M.N.V.; Freitas, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Although essential for plants, copper can be toxic when present in supra-optimal concentrations. Metal polluted sites, due to their extreme conditions, can harbour tolerant species and/or ecotypes. In this work we aimed to compare the physiological responses to copper exposure and the uptake capacities of two species of duckweed, Lemna minor (Lm(EC1)) and Spirodela polyrrhiza (SP), from an abandoned uranium mine with an ecotype of L. minor (Lm(EC2)) from a non-contaminated pond. From the lowest Cu concentration exposure (25 μM) to the highest (100 μM), Lm(EC2) accumulated higher amounts of copper than Lm(EC1) and SP. Dose-response curves showed that Cu content accumulated by Lm(EC2) increases linearly with Cu treatment concentrations (r 2 = 0.998) whereas quadratic models were more suitable for Lm(EC1) and SP (r 2 = 0.999 and r 2 = 0.998 for Lm(EC1) and SP, respectively). A significant concentration-dependent decline of chlorophyll a (chl a) and carotenoid occurred as a consequence of Cu exposure. These declines were significant for Lm(EC2) exposed to the lowest Cu concentration (25 μM) whereas for Lm(EC1) and SP a significant decrease in chl a and carotenoids was observed only at 50 and 100 μM-Cu. Electric conductivity (EC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased after Cu exposure, indicating oxidative stress. Significant increase of EC was observed in Lm(EC2) for all Cu concentrations whereas the increase for Lm(EC1) and SP became significant only after an exposure to 50 μM-Cu. On the contrary, for Lm(EC1), SP, and Lm(EC2), MDA content significantly increased even at the lowest concentration. Protein content and catalase (CAT) activity showed a decrease with an increase in Cu concentration. For the species Lm(EC1) and SP, a significant effect of copper on CAT activity was observed only at the highest concentration (100 μM-Cu) whereas, for Lm(EC2), this effect started to be significant after an exposure to 50 μM-Cu. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity

  12. Female habitual self-mutilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, A R; Conterio, K

    1989-03-01

    Data are presented on 240 female habitual self-mutilators. The typical subject is a 28-year-old Caucasian who first deliberately harmed herself at age 14. Skin cutting is her usual practice, but she has used other methods such as skin burning and self-hitting, and she has injured herself on at least 50 occasions. Her decision to self-mutilate is impulsive and results in temporary relief from symptoms such as racing thoughts, depersonalization, and marked anxiety. She now has or has had an eating disorder, and may be concerned about her drinking. She has been a heavy utilizer of medical and mental health services, although treatment generally has been unsatisfactory. In desperation over her inability to control her self-mutilative behavior this typical subject has attempted suicide by a drug overdose.

  13. Epigenetic regulation of female puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomniczi, Alejandro; Wright, Hollis; Ojeda, Sergio R

    2015-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in recent years toward deciphering the molecular and genetic underpinnings of the pubertal process. The availability of powerful new methods to interrogate the human genome has led to the identification of genes that are essential for puberty to occur. Evidence has also emerged suggesting that the initiation of puberty requires the coordinated activity of gene sets organized into functional networks. At a cellular level, it is currently thought that loss of transsynaptic inhibition, accompanied by an increase in excitatory inputs, results in the pubertal activation of GnRH release. This concept notwithstanding, a mechanism of epigenetic repression targeting genes required for the pubertal activation of GnRH neurons was recently identified as a core component of the molecular machinery underlying the central restraint of puberty. In this chapter we will discuss the potential contribution of various mechanisms of epigenetic regulation to the hypothalamic control of female puberty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

  15. The effects of in vitro exposure to white spirit on [Ca2+] in synaptosomes from rats exposed prenatally to white spirit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelfors, S.; Hass, Ulla; Ravn-Jonsen, A.

    1999-01-01

    Female rats were exposed to white spirit (400 and 800 ppm for 6 hr/day) at day 7-20 during pregnancy. Thirty-five days after birth all female offspring were sacrificed, the brains removed, and the synaptosomal fractions prepared for in vitro studies. The cytosolic calcium concentration was measured...... using the FURA-2 technique. The results show that cytosolic calcium was increased in synaptosomes from rats exposed to white spirit prenatally compared to synaptosomes from unexposed rats. When synaptosomes were exposed to white spirit in vitro, the cytosolic calcium concentration changes were identical...... in all groups of rats. The membrane leakage measured as FURA-2 leakage from the synaptosomes identical in all three groups of animals. The results suggest that prenatal exposure to white spirit induces long-lasting and possibly irreversible changes in calcium homeostasis in the rat nervous system....

  16. Gene expression fingerprints of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to pulp and paper mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denslow, Nancy D; Kocerha, Jannet; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Gross, Timothy; Holm, Stewart E

    2004-08-18

    Effluents from pulp and paper mills that historically have used elemental chlorine in the bleaching process have been implicated in inhibiting reproduction in fish. Compounds with estrogenic and androgenic binding affinities have been found in these effluents, suggesting that the impairment of reproduction is through an endocrine-related mode of action. To date, a great deal of attention has been paid to phytoestrogens and resin acids that are present in mill process streams as a result of pulping trees. Estrogen and estrogen mimics interact directly with the estrogen receptor and have near immediate effects on gene transcription by turning on the expression of a unique set of genes. Using differential display (DD) RT-PCR, we examined changes in gene expression induced by exposure to paper mill effluents. Largemouth bass were exposed to 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80% paper mill effluent concentrations in large flow-through tanks for varied periods of time including 7, 28 or 56 days. Plasma hormone levels in males and females and plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) in females decreased with dose and time. Measurements of changes in gene expression using DD RT-PCR suggest that the gene expression patterns of male fish do not change much with exposure, except for the induction of a few genes including CYP 1A, a protein that is induced through the action of the Ah receptor in response to dioxin and similar polyaromatic hydrocarbons. However, in the case of females, exposure to these effluents resulted in an up-regulation of CYP 1A that was accompanied by a generalized down-regulation of genes normally expressed during the reproductive season. These antiestrogenic changes are in agreement with previous studies in bass exposed to these effluents, and could result in decreased reproductive success in affected populations.

  17. Prenatal Exposure to Unconventional Oil and Gas Operation Chemical Mixtures Altered Mammary Gland Development in Adult Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapouckey, Sarah A; Kassotis, Christopher D; Nagel, Susan C; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2018-03-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) operations, which combine hydraulic fracturing (fracking) and directional drilling, involve the use of hundreds of chemicals, including many with endocrine-disrupting properties. Two previous studies examined mice exposed during early development to a 23-chemical mixture of UOG compounds (UOG-MIX) commonly used or produced in the process. Both male and female offspring exposed prenatally to one or more doses of UOG-MIX displayed alterations to endocrine organ function and serum hormone concentrations. We hypothesized that prenatal UOG-MIX exposure would similarly disrupt development of the mouse mammary gland. Female C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to ~3, ~30, ~ 300, or ~3000 μg/kg/d UOG-MIX from gestational day 11 to birth. Although no effects were observed on the mammary glands of these females before puberty, in early adulthood, females exposed to 300 or 3000 μg/kg/d UOG-MIX developed more dense mammary epithelial ducts; females exposed to 3 μg/kg/d UOG-MIX had an altered ratio of apoptosis to proliferation in the mammary epithelium. Furthermore, adult females from all UOG-MIX-treated groups developed intraductal hyperplasia that resembled terminal end buds (i.e., highly proliferative structures typically seen at puberty). These results suggest that the mammary gland is sensitive to mixtures of chemicals used in UOG production at exposure levels that are environmentally relevant. The effect of these findings on the long-term health of the mammary gland, including its lactational capacity and its risk of cancer, should be evaluated in future studies. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  18. Construction of Chinese reference female phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Yinxiangzi; Liu Lixing; Xia Xiaobin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a Voxel-based Chinese Reference female Phantom (VCRP-woman) is developed from an individual female phantom which was based on high resolution cross-sectional color photographs. An in-house C ++ program was developed to adjust the phantom. Finally, a reference female phantom with have the same height, weighte and similar organs masses with the Chinese reference adult female data. The adjusted phantom is then imported to MCNPX to calculate the organs absorbed dose and effective dose conversion coefficients. Results are compared between VCRP-woman and the ICRP adult reference female phantom. (authors)

  19. Psychopharmacologic treatment of children prenatally exposed to drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulvershorn, Leslie A; Schroeder, Kristen M; Wink, Logan K; Erickson, Craig A; McDougle, Christopher J

    2015-05-01

    This pilot study compared the pharmacologic treatment history and clinical outcomes observed in pediatric outpatients with psychiatric disorders exposed to drugs of abuse in utero to those of an age-matched, sex-matched and psychiatric disorder-matched, non-drug-exposed group. In this matched cohort study, medical records of children treated at an academic, child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinic were reviewed. Children with caregiver-reported history of prenatal drug exposure were compared with a non-drug-exposed control group being cared for by the same providers. Patients were rated with the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scale (CGI-S) throughout treatment. The changes in pre-treatment and post-treatment CGI-S scores and the total number of medication trials were determined between groups. The drug-exposed group (n = 30) had a higher total number of lifetime medication trials compared with the non-drug-exposed group (n = 28) and were taking significantly more total medications, at their final assessment. Unlike the non-drug-exposed group, the drug-exposed group demonstrated a lack of clinical improvement. These results suggest that in utero drug-exposed children may be more treatment-refractory to or experience greater side effects from the pharmacologic treatment of psychiatric disorders than controls, although we cannot determine if early environment or drugs exposure drives these findings. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Unusual presentation of necrotizing fasciitis in an HIV exposed infant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... presentation of NF, in this instance, it presented on the scalp, in an HIV exposed neonate. It also stressed the importance prompt diagnosis of all skin lesions in HIV exposed neonates, and the role of early diagnosis and aggressive multi disciplinary team management in salvaging NF which is a potentially fatal condition.

  1. Animal Cruelty by Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The first objective of this study was to determine if children exposed to domestic violence were significantly more likely to be cruel to animals than children not exposed to violence. The second was to determine if there were significant age and gender differences between children who were and were not cruel to animals. Method: A…

  2. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed bison...

  3. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a...

  4. Respiratory tract toxicity in rats exposed to Mexico City air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, O R; Gross, E A; James, R A; Janszen, D B; Ross, P W; Roberts, K C; Howard, A M; Harkema, J R; Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Morgan, K T

    2001-03-01

    The rat has been used extensively as a health sentinel, indicator, or monitor of environmental health hazards, but this model has not been directly validated against human exposures. Humans in Mexico City show upper respiratory tract lesions and evidence of pulmonary damage related to their environmental inhalation exposure. In this study, male and female F344 rats were exposed (23 hr/day) in Mexico City to local Mexico City air (MCA)* for up to seven weeks. Controls were maintained at the same location under filtered air. Prior to these exposures, several steps were taken. First, the nasal passages of normal male rats shipped from the United States and housed in Mexico City were examined for mycoplasma infection; no evidence of infection was found. In addition, a mobile exposure and monitoring system was assembled and, with an ozone (O3) exposure atmosphere, was tested along with supporting histopathology techniques and analysis of rat nasal and lung tissues. Last, the entire exposure model (equipment and animals) was transported to Mexico City and validated for a three-week period. During the seven-week study there were 18 one-hour intervals during which the average O3 concentration of MCA in the exposure chamber exceeded the US National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 0.120 ppm 03 (hourly average, not to be exceeded more than once per year). This prolonged exposure of healthy F344 rats to MCA containing episodically low to moderate concentrations of 03 (as well as other urban air pollutants) did not induce inflammatory or epithelial lesions in the nasal airways or lung as measured by qualitative histologic techniques or quantitative morphometric techniques. These findings agree with those of previous controlled O3 inhalation studies, but they are in contrast to reports indicating that O3-polluted MCA causes significant nasal mucosal injury in adults and children living in southwestern Mexico City. Taken together, these findings may suggest that human

  5. Role of amygdala kisspeptin in pubertal timing in female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Adekunbi

    Full Text Available To investigate the mechanism by which maternal obesity disrupts reproductive function in offspring, we examined Kiss1 expression in the hypothalamic arcuate (ARC and anteroventral periventricular (AVPV nuclei, and posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD of pre-pubertal and young adult offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard or energy-dense diet for six weeks prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male and female offspring were weaned onto normal diet on postnatal day (pnd 21. Brains were collected on pnd 30 or 100 for qRT-PCR to determine Kiss1 mRNA levels. Maternal obesity increased Kiss1 mRNA expression in the MePD of pre-pubertal male and female offspring, whereas Kiss1 expression was not affected in the ARC or AVPV at this age. Maternal obesity reduced Kiss1 expression in all three brain regions of 3 month old female offspring, but only in MePD of males. The role of MePD kisspeptin on puberty, estrous cyclicity and preovulatory LH surges was assessed directly in a separate group of post-weanling and young adult female rats exposed to a normal diet throughout their life course. Bilateral intra-MePD cannulae connected to osmotic mini-pumps for delivery of kisspeptin receptor antagonist (Peptide 234 for 14 days were chronically implanted on pnd 21 or 100. Antagonism of MePD kisspeptin delayed puberty onset, disrupted estrous cyclicity and reduced the incidence of LH surges. These data show that the MePD plays a key role in pubertal timing and ovulation and that maternal obesity may act via amygdala kisspeptin signaling to influence reproductive function in the offspring.

  6. Review of hazards to female reproductive health in veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheftel, Joni M; Elchos, Brigid L; Rubin, Carol S; Decker, John A

    2017-04-15

    OBJECTIVE To review publications that address female reproductive health hazards in veterinary practice, summarize best practices to mitigate reproductive risks, and identify current knowledge gaps. DESIGN Systematized review. SAMPLE English-language articles describing chemical, biological, and physical hazards present in the veterinary workplace and associations with adverse reproductive outcomes or recommendations for minimizing risks to female reproductive health. PROCEDURES Searches of the CAB abstracts database were performed in July 2012 and in May 2015 with the following search terms: veterinarians AND occupational hazards and vets.id AND occupational hazards.sh. Searches of the PubMed database were conducted in November 2012 and in May 2015 with the following medical subject heading terms: occupational exposure AND veterinarians; anesthetics, inhalation/adverse effects AND veterinarians; risk factors AND pregnancy AND veterinarians; pregnancy outcome AND veterinarians; and animal technicians AND occupational exposure. Two additional PubMed searches were completed in January 2016 with the terms disinfectants/toxicity AND female AND fertility/drug effects and veterinarians/psychology AND stress, psychological. No date limits were applied to searches. RESULTS 4 sources supporting demographic trends in veterinary medicine and 118 resources reporting potential hazards to female reproductive health were identified. Reported hazards included exposure to anesthetic gases, radiation, antineoplastic drugs, and reproductive hormones; physically demanding work; prolonged standing; and zoonoses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Demographic information suggested that an increasing number of women of reproductive age will be exposed to chemical, biological, and physical hazards in veterinary practice. Information on reproductive health hazards and minimizing risk, with emphasis on developing a safety-focused work culture for all personnel, should be discussed starting

  7. Vitamin D deficiency among healthy Egyptian females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botros, Raif M; Sabry, Inas M; Abdelbaky, Rania S; Eid, Yara M; Nasr, Merihan S; Hendawy, Laila M

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is becoming endemic in many parts of the world. To study vitamin D status in Egyptian females of different age groups. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 404 females, who were categorized into group 1 (51 nursing females); group 2 (50 pregnant females); group 3 (208 females of childbearing age); group 4 (38 elderly females); and group 5 (57 geriatric females). Females completed a questionnaire regarding dietary calcium and vitamin D intake, sun exposure, and clothing habits, and performed laboratory tests including calcium, PO4, alkaline phosphatase, intact PTH, and 25-OH vitamin D levels. Median and IQR of vitamin D levels across groups 1, 2, 3 and 5 were in the deficient range, being lowest in groups 3, 5, and 1, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 72.6% of the nursing group, 54% of the pregnant group, 72% of the childbearing age group, 39.5% of the elderly group, and 77.2% of the geriatric group. Vitamin D was significantly higher in non-veiled females [23ng/dl] as compared to veiled females [16.7ng/dl]. Vitamin D levels with poor, fair, and good sun exposure were 14.1, 14, and 37ng/dl, respectively. These results show a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy Egyptian females. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Receptive females mitigate costs of sexual conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harano, T

    2015-02-01

    Males typically gain fitness from multiple mating, whereas females often lose fitness from numerous mating, potentially leading to sexual conflict over mating. This conflict is expected to favour the evolution of female resistance to mating. However, females may incur male harassment if they refuse to copulate; thus, greater female resistance may increase costs imposed by males. Here, I show that the evolution of resistance to mating raises fitness disadvantages of interacting with males when mating is harmful in female adzuki bean beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis. Females that were artificially selected for higher and lower remating propensity evolved to accept and resist remating, respectively. Compared with females that evolved to accept remating, females that evolved to resist it suffered higher fitness costs from continuous exposure to males. The costs of a single mating measured by the effect on longevity did not differ among selection line females. This study indicates that receptive rather than resistant females mitigate the fitness loss resulting from sexual conflict, suggesting that even though mating is harmful, females can evolve to accept additional mating. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Smith

    Full Text Available Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until delivery. After delivery, offspring and mothers were exposed to E-cigarette vapors for an additional 14 days from postnatal day 2 through 16. Following their last exposure serum cotinine levels were measured in female juvenile mice. Male mice underwent behavioral testing at 14 weeks of age to assess sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive functional domains.Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0% nicotine/PG exposed mice and untreated controls. In the water maze test after reversal training, the 2.4% nicotine/PG mice spent more than 25% of time in the new location whereas the other groups did not.Adult male mice exhibited increased levels of activity in the zero maze and open field tests when exposed to E-cigarette vapor containing nicotine during late prenatal and early postnatal life. These findings indicate that nicotine exposure from E-cigarettes may cause persistent behavioral changes when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth.

  10. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dani; Aherrera, Angela; Lopez, Armando; Neptune, Enid; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Klein, Jonathan D; Chen, Gang; Lazarus, Philip; Collaco, Joseph M; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A

    2015-01-01

    Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG) or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until delivery. After delivery, offspring and mothers were exposed to E-cigarette vapors for an additional 14 days from postnatal day 2 through 16. Following their last exposure serum cotinine levels were measured in female juvenile mice. Male mice underwent behavioral testing at 14 weeks of age to assess sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive functional domains. Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0% nicotine/PG exposed mice and untreated controls. In the water maze test after reversal training, the 2.4% nicotine/PG mice spent more than 25% of time in the new location whereas the other groups did not. Adult male mice exhibited increased levels of activity in the zero maze and open field tests when exposed to E-cigarette vapor containing nicotine during late prenatal and early postnatal life. These findings indicate that nicotine exposure from E-cigarettes may cause persistent behavioral changes when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth.

  11. Spectrum of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes of hospital workers occupationally exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maffei, Francesca; Angelini, Sabrina; Forti, Giorgio Cantelli; Violante, Francesco S.; Lodi, Vittorio; Mattioli, Stefano; Hrelia, Patrizia

    2004-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations frequency was estimated in peripheral lymphocytes from hospital workers occupationally exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation and controls. Chromosome aberrations yield was analyzed by considering the effects of dose equivalent of ionizing radiation over time, and of confounding factors, such as age, gender and smoking status. Frequencies of aberrant cells and chromosome breaks were higher in exposed workers than in controls (P=0.007, and P=0.001, respectively). Seven dicentric aberrations were detected in the exposed group and only three in controls, but the mean frequencies were not significantly different. The dose equivalent to whole body of ionizing radiation (Hwb) did appear to influence the spectrum of chromosomal aberrations when the exposed workers were subdivided by a cut off at 50 mSv. The frequencies of chromosome breaks in both subgroups of workers were significantly higher than in controls (≤50 mSv, P=0.041; >50 mSv, P=0.018). On the other hand, the frequency of chromatid breaks observed in workers with Hwb >50 mSv was significantly higher than in controls (P=0.015) or workers with Hwb ≤50 mSv (P=0.046). Regarding the influence of confounding factors on genetic damage, smoking status and female gender seem to influence the increase in chromosome aberration frequencies in the study population. Overall, these results suggested that chromosome breaks might provide a good marker for assessing genetic damage in populations exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation

  12. Self-reported hearing performance in workers exposed to solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Fuente

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare hearing performance relating to the peripheral and central auditory system between solvent-exposed and non-exposed workers. METHODS: Forty-eight workers exposed to a mixture of solvents and 48 non-exposed control subjects of matched age, gender and educational level were selected to participate in the study. The evaluation procedures included: pure-tone audiometry (500 - 8,000 Hz, to investigate the peripheral auditory system; the Random Gap Detection test, to assess the central auditory system; and the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap, to investigate subjects' self-reported hearing performance in daily-life activities. A Student t test and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were computed to determine possible significant differences between solvent-exposed and non-exposed subjects for the hearing level, Random Gap Detection test and Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap. Pearson correlations among the three measures were also calculated. RESULTS: Solvent-exposed subjects exhibited significantly poorer hearing thresholds for the right ear than non-exposed subjects. Also, solvent-exposed subjects exhibited poorer results for the Random Gap Detection test and self-reported poorer listening performance than non-exposed subjects. Results of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap were significantly correlated with the binaural average of subject pure-tone thresholds and Random Gap Detection test performance. CONCLUSIONS: Solvent exposure is associated with poorer hearing performance in daily life activities that relate to the function of the peripheral and central auditory system.

  13. Female genitalia concealment promotes intimate male courtship in a water strider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang S Han

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Violent coercive mating initiation is typical for animals with sexual conflict over mating. In these species, the coevolutionary arms-race between female defenses against coercive mating and male counter-adaptations for increased mating success leads to coevolutionary chases of male and female traits that influence the mating. It has been controversial whether one of the sexes can evolve traits that allow them to "win" this arms race. Here, we use morphological analysis (traditional and scanning electron micrographs, laboratory experiments and comparative methods to show how females of a species characterized by typical coercive mating initiation appear to "win" a particular stage of the sexual conflict by evolving morphology to hide their genitalia from direct, forceful access by males. In an apparent response to the female morphological adaptation, males of this species added to their typically violent coercive mounting of the female new post-mounting, pre-copulatory courtship signals produced by tapping the water's surface with the mid-legs. These courtship signals are intimate in the sense that they are aimed at the female, on whom the male is already mounted. Females respond to the signals by exposing their hidden genitalia for copulatory intromission. Our results indicate that the apparent victory of coevolutionary arms race by one sex in terms of morphology may trigger evolution of a behavioral phenotype in the opposite sex.

  14. The Physiology of Female Sexual Function and the Pathophysiology of Female Sexual Dysfunction (Committee 13A)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levin, Roy J.; Both, Stephanie; Georgiadis, Janniko; Kukkonen, Tuuli; Park, Kwangsung; Yang, Claire C.

    Introduction: The article consists of six sections written by separate authors that review female genital anatomy, the physiology of female sexual function, and the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction but excluding hormonal aspects. Aim: To review the physiology of female sexual function

  15. Malignant tumors in people exposed as children to atomic bomb in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Takayoshi; Matsuo, Takeshi; Mori, Yo; Nonaka, Masaru; Oribe, Takashi

    1976-01-01

    In order to determine both the conditions under which malignant tumors occurred and the pathological specificity of those tumors in people exposed as children (at the age of 0-9) to the atomic bomb in Nagasaki, a comparative study was made of malignant tumors (including brain tumor but excluding leukemia) in 88 exposed cases taken from the data of the committee for the statistical analysis of tumors in Nagasaki and from other literature, and in unexposed cases of malignancy. The following items were analyzed; the distance from the bombed area (doses), the age at the time that the disease occurred, the latent period, the annual incidence of disease, the site of tumor, and the type of tissue. The results are summarized as follows, although they are inconclusive because of the small number of cases. The incidence of malignant lymphoma, cancer of the tyroid gland, brain tumor, sarcoma, and cancer of the ovary had a tendency to be higher in the exposed cases than in the unexposed cases. From the standpoint of sex, there was a tendency that cancer of the stomach and malignant lymphoma occurred more often in females than in males. On the other hand, sarcoma and brain tumor were seen more often in males. From the standpoint of the relationships among these factors: the distance from the bombed area, the latent period, and the type of tumor, it was suggested that cancer of the thyroid gland, brain tumor and cancer of the stomach were observed especially in cases which had been exposed as children. In addition, it was considered that the influence of not only a short distance from the bombed area but also a middle distance from that area can not be neglected. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. The differences in phenolic content in rivers exposed and non-exposed to anthropogenic contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałowicz, Jaromir; Bukowska, Bozena; Duda, Wirgiliusz

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the work was to determine the differences in a kind, number and concentrations of phenol, chlorophenols, chlorocatechols chlorinated methoxyphenols (chloroguaiacols, chlorosyringols) and 3,4,5-trichloroveratrole in the drainage of the Dzierzazna river, the flow non-exposed to anthropogenic contamination and in the Ner river, the flow exposed to anthropogenic pollution. The samples of water were collected in the Dzierzazna river in the Swoboda locality, the inflow of the Dzierzazna river - the Ciosenka river and, also, in the spring situated in Ciosny Sady locality. Water of the Ner river was collected in points near Łódź, Konstantynów, Poddebice and Dabie towns. The compounds were condensed (adsorbed) and eluted with methylene chloride on octadecyl C18 layer in a Baker Separex system. The obtained eluent was separated using the method of gas chromatography and analysed using mass spectrometry technique. In samples collected from the drainage of the Dzierzazna river phenol, chlorophenols, guaiacol, trichloroguaiacol, tetrachloroguaiacol, trichlorosyringol and 3,4,5-trichloroveratole were determined. As no anthropogenic sources are situated within the drainage of the Dzierzazna river, we may suppose that most of the determined compounds are mainly of natural origin. No or trace concentrations of chlorinated methoxyphenols were noted in the water of the Ner river, but a higher number, and concentrations of chlorophenols and additionally chlorocatechols were determined in this flow. It is also apparent that changes in a number and concentrations of phenols in the water of the Ner river did not prove a seasonal character, which was typical of the Dzierzazna drainage waters.

  17. Prenatal Testosterone Programming of Insulin Resistance in the Female Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance, a common feature of metabolic disorders such as obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome, is a risk factor for development of diabetes. Because sex hormones orchestrate the establishment of sex-specific behavioral, reproductive, and metabolic differences, a role for them in the developmental origin of insulin resistance is also to be expected. Female sheep exposed to male levels of testosterone during fetal life serve as an excellent translational model for delineating programming of insulin resistance. This chapter summarizes the ontogeny of insulin resistance, the tissue-specific changes in insulin sensitivity, and the various factors that are involved in the programming and maintenance of the insulin resistance in adult female sheep that were developmentally exposed to fetal male levels of testosterone during the sexual-differentiation window.

  18. Clinical course of brain stroke in the persons exposed to ionizing radiation under the production conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchmanov, A. [State Research Center of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biophysics

    2000-05-01

    The purpose was to study the risk factors and clinical course of brain strokes in professionally exposed workers being employed in plutonium production in comparison with a control group. The method and materials of study -clinical supervision and clinical database creation on 162 cases of brain stroke (128 males and 34 females) developed among professionally exposed workers. Age of patient varied from 21 to 68 years (in average -51.6 y.). The control group consisted of patients with the same diagnosis, worked on the same enterprise, but non-exposed to radiation. Data on the totally accumulated dose of external gamma radiation were received on the base of the individual dosimeters (from 0.1 cSv to 52 cSv, in average about 13 cSv); the plutonium-239 body content was estimated accordingly to the level of urine radionuclide excretion (from 0.4 kBq to 1.6 kBq, in average about 0.33 kBq). Muscle's hypertinsion and pathological great-toe reflexes in paretic legs and hands, hemianopsia, impressive and ataxic aphasia prevailed in the patients with ischemic brain strokes in system of internal carotid artery, exposed to radiation. The changes of muscle's tension, ataxia and nystagmus were marked more often in the professionals with ischemic brain strokes in system of vertebrobasilar artery. The illness proceeded more easy and with smaller frequency of frustration of consciousness and algesthesia, irrespective of a type ischemic brain strokes in the people exposed to ionizing radiation, than in patients of non-irradiated group. It was found that the arterial hypertension appeared to be the main risk factor for the brain stroke in both groups of patients (in 81.48% and 91.15% of cases). There was no marked differences in significance of risk factors and in main clinical parameters of various types of ischemic brain strokes among the patients professionally exposed to radiation in comparison with a control group. (author)

  19. Filming Critical Female Perspectives: Edward Yang’s The Terrorizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-man Chang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available From his first film—a twenty-minute short, “Expectations” (1982—to his last—a three-hour masterpiece, 'Yi Yi' (2000—Edward Yang, one of the leading figures of the Taiwan New Cinema movement, devoted his career to portraying the impact of neoliberal capitalism on the lives of the citizens of Taipei. Interestingly, Yang’s films often employ female perspectives to criticize Taiwan’s education system and transnational corporations for perpetuating neoliberal capitalism’s ideology of self-fulfillment and upward mobility. This paper draws upon feminist film theory to investigate the ways in which Yang’s third feature, 'The Terrorizers' (1986, utilizes various innovative cinematic languages to engender a multitude of women’s perspectives to expose male voyeurism and ultimately criticize the impact of neoliberal capitalism in Taipei.

  20. [Images and representations of the female body in Brazilian magazines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Márcia Rebeca Rocha; de Oliveira, Jeane Freitas; do Nascimento, Enilda Rosendo; Carvalho, Evanilda Souza de Santana

    2013-06-01

    This documentary, qualitative, descriptive study has the objective to analyze images and representations of the female body and their relation to drug use in the content of articles published in four magazines with national circulation (Veja, Isto E, Boa Forma, Claúdia). The articles selected were submitted to the technique of content analysis, with three thematic groups identified: the body as an incentive to use drugs; risks to the body resulting from drug use; and the search for the perfect body through drug use. The data showed that the media reproduces rigid aesthetic standards, exposing women to social and health offenses that stimulate drug use, either autonomously or by prescription. The search for beauty and the appeal to feminine eroticism, published through the communication channels analyzed limit the social importance of women by using images that link them to the status of sexual object.

  1. FEMALE FARMWORKERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF HEAT-RELATED ILLNESS AND PREGNANCY HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Flocks, Joan; Mac, Valerie Vi Thien; Runkle, Jennifer; Tovar-Aguilar, Jose Antonio; Economos, Jeannie; McCauley, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    While agricultural workers have elevated risks of heat-related illnesses (HRI), pregnant farmworkers exposed to extreme heat face additional health risk, including poor pregnancy health and birth outcomes. Qualitative data from five focus groups with 35 female Hispanic and Haitian nursery and fernery workers provide details about the women’s perceptions of HRI and pregnancy. Participants believe that heat exposure can adversely affect general, pregnancy, and fetal health, yet feel they lack c...

  2. The first step toward diagnosing female genital schistosomiasis by computer image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmen, Sigve Dhondup; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Lillebø, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Schistosoma haematobium causes female genital schistosomiasis (FGS), which is a poverty-related disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, it is co-endemic with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and biopsies from genital lesions may expose the individual to increased risk of HIV infection...... statistics, we estimate that the computer color analysis yields a sensitivity of 80.5% and a specificity of 66.2% for the diagnosis of FGS....

  3. A Quantitative Analysis of Factors Affecting Retention of Female Aviators in U.S. Naval Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    various reasons and is controlled by either US law or military regulations, and it equates to a basic quid pro quo scenario. The Navy offers the...Fitzgerald (2005) used time dependent modeling to investigate the effects of sexual harassment on turnover in the military. They discovered that females...exposed to sexual harassment were likely to leave either the job or organization to escape it, depending on the extent of the perceived threat

  4. Perinatal exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals reduces female rat follicle reserves and accelerates reproductive aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Hass, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during development can have negative consequences later in life. In this study we investigated the effect of perinatal exposure to mixtures of human relevant EDCs on the female reproductive system. Rat dams were exposed to a mixture of phthalates,...

  5. Gender differences in self-reported physical and psychosocial exposures in jobs with both female and male workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.E.; Beek, van der A.J.; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, van W.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine whether men and women with the same job are equally exposed to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal complaints. METHODS: Men (n = 491) and women (n = 342) in 8 jobs with both female and male workers completed a questionnaire on

  6. Gender differences in self-reported physical and psychosocial exposures in jobs with both female and male workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.E.; van der Beek, A.J.; Bongers, P.M.; van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to determine whether men and women with the same job are equally exposed to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal complaints. Methods: Men (n = 491) and women (n = 342) in 8 jobs with both female and male workers completed a questionnaire on

  7. Assimilating to a Boy's Body Shape for the Sake of Performance: Three Female Athletes' Body Experiences in a Sporting Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Jenny; Barker-Ruchti, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores three female swimmers' relationships with their male coaches and the body practices they were exposed to within Australian swimming. Particular attention is given to how the relationships and practices might relate to gender. Additionally, the article examines how (if at all) the conduct contributed to the social construction…

  8. An exposure study with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris): Toxicokinetics and reproductive effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, Evi van den; Eens, Marcel; Covaci, Adrian; Dirtu, Alin C.; Jaspers, Veerle L.B.; Neels, Hugo; Pinxten, Rianne

    2009-01-01

    We exposed female European starlings to a pentabromodiphenyl ether (Penta-BDE) mixture through subcutaneous implants, and examined levels and profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) together with reproductive effects. Sum PBDE levels increased significantly in the serum of the exposed females from 218 ± 43 to 23,400 ± 2035 pg/ml. Sum PBDE concentrations in the eggs of the exposed group ranged from 130 ± 12 to 220 ± 37 ng/g wet weight (ww). The profile in serum after egg laying was very similar to that in eggs. There were no detectable levels of HO-PBDEs in both serum and eggs. Fewer females of the exposed group initiated egg laying compared to the control group, although the difference was not significant. In addition, egg weight and volume were significantly higher in the exposed group. These results suggest that, at the investigated exposure levels (150 μg sum PBDEs/bird), PBDEs may have a negative effect on reproductive performance. - Exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of PBDEs may result in adverse reproductive effects in a terrestrial songbird species, the European starling

  9. Methylmercury Exposure Induces Sexual Dysfunction in Male and Female Drosophila Melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ved; Srikumar, Syian; Aamer, Sarah; Pandareesh, Mirazkar D; Chauhan, Abha

    2017-09-24

    Mercury, an environmental health hazard, is a neurotoxic heavy metal. In this study, the effect of methylmercury (MeHg) exposure was analyzed on sexual behavior in Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), because neurons play a vital role in sexual functions. The virgin male and female flies were fed a diet mixed with different concentrations of MeHg (28.25, 56.5, 113, 226, and 339 µM) for four days, and the effect of MeHg on copulation of these flies was studied. While male and female control flies (no MeHg) and flies fed with lower concentrations of MeHg (28.25, 56.5 µM) copulated in a normal manner, male and female flies exposed to higher concentrations of MeHg (113, 226, and 339 µM) did not copulate. When male flies exposed to higher concentrations of MeHg were allowed to copulate with control female flies, only male flies fed with 113 µM MeHg were able to copulate. On the other hand, when female flies exposed to higher concentrations of MeHg were allowed to copulate with control male flies, none of the flies could copulate. After introduction of male and female flies in the copulation chamber, duration of wing flapping by male flies decreased in a MeHg-concentration-dependent manner from 101 ± 24 seconds (control) to 100.7 ± 18, 96 ±12, 59 ± 44, 31 ± 15, and 3.7 ± 2.7 seconds at 28.25, 56.5, 113, 226, and 339 µM MeHg, respectively. On the other hand, grooming in male and female flies increased in a MeHg-concentration-dependent manner. These findings suggest that MeHg exposure causes sexual dysfunction in male and female Drosophila melanogaster . Further studies showed that MeHg exposure increased oxidative stress and decreased triglyceride levels in a concentration-dependent manner in both male and female flies, suggesting that MeHg-induced oxidative stress and decreased triglyceride levels may partly contribute to sexual dysfunction in fruit flies.

  10. Effect of administration of vitamins C and E on fertilization capacity of rats exposed to noise stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Saki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of administration of Vitamins C and E on fertilization capacity in rats exposed to noise stress. 40 adult male rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups. Group 1 as controls who were not exposed to noise and groups 2-5 exposed to noise with 90-120 dB intensity and 300-350 Hz frequency from 7 pm to 7 am everyday for 50 days. Group 2 exposed to noise and did not receive Vitamins. Group 3 received vitamin C, Group 4 received Vitamin E. Group 5 received Vitamins C and E concomitantly. After 50 days, serum Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, Luteinizing hormone (LH and testosterone were calculated. Then each rat was left with three female rats for mating. Pregnant females were sacrificed on the 19 th day of pregnancy and evaluated for the presence and number of viable, dead and absorbed fetuses. The level of FSH, LH and testosterone significantly decreased in rats exposed to noise (P < 0.05. By administration of Vitamins in groups 3-5 we observed that the level of hormones significantly increased in compared to group 2 (P < 0.05. The fertilization capacity of male rats in groups 3-5 significantly increased in compared to group 2 (P < 0.05. There was significant difference between groups 1 and 2 in case of fertilization capacity (P = 0.001. The data in this study strongly suggests a negative role for noise stress on level of FSH, LH and testosterone level and also fertilization capacity of male rats. To complement the information it is suggested that this research be done on human samples.

  11. The average Indian female nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Surendra B; Kale, Satish M; Jaiswal, Sumeet; Khare, Nishant; Math, Mahantesh

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to delineate the anthropometric measurements of the noses of young women of an Indian population and to compare them with the published ideals and average measurements for white women. This anthropometric survey included a volunteer sample of 100 young Indian women ages 18 to 35 years with Indian parents and no history of previous surgery or trauma to the nose. Standardized frontal, lateral, oblique, and basal photographs of the subjects' noses were taken, and 12 standard anthropometric measurements of the nose were determined. The results were compared with published standards for North American white women. In addition, nine nasal indices were calculated and compared with the standards for North American white women. The nose of Indian women differs significantly from the white nose. All the nasal measurements for the Indian women were found to be significantly different from those for North American white women. Seven of the nine nasal indices also differed significantly. Anthropometric analysis suggests differences between the Indian female nose and the North American white nose. Thus, a single aesthetic ideal is inadequate. Noses of Indian women are smaller and wider, with a less projected and rounded tip than the noses of white women. This study established the nasal anthropometric norms for nasal parameters, which will serve as a guide for cosmetic and reconstructive surgery in Indian women.

  12. Survey on Urinary Levels of Aflatoxins in Professionally Exposed Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Ferri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Feed mill workers may handle or process maize contaminated with aflatoxins (AFs. This condition may lead to an unacceptable intake of toxins deriving from occupational exposure. This study assessed the serological and urinary levels of AFs in workers exposed to potentially contaminated dusts in two mills. From March to April 2014, blood and urine samples were collected, on Monday and Friday morning of the same working week from 29 exposed workers and 30 non-exposed controls. AFs (M1, G2, G1, B1, B2 and aflatoxicol (AFOH A were analyzed. Each subject filled in a questionnaire to evaluate potential food-borne exposures to mycotoxins. AFs contamination in environmental dust was measured in both plants. No serum sample was found to be positive. Seventy four percent of urine samples (73.7% revealed AFM1 presence. AFM1 mean concentration was 0.035 and 0.027 ng/mL in exposed and non-exposed workers, respectively (p = 0.432; the concentration was slightly higher in Friday’s than in Monday’s samples, in exposed workers, 0.040 versus (vs. 0.031 and non-exposed controls (0.030 vs. 0.024, p = 0.437. Environmental AFs contamination ranged from 7.2 to 125.4 µg/kg. The findings of this study reveal the presence of higher AFs concentration in exposed workers than in non-exposed controls, although these differences are to be considered consistent with random fluctuations.

  13. The comparison of health status between male and female medical radiation workers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Guochao; Tian, Youjia; Zhang, Fengmei; Feng, Zhihui; Chen, Qianshu; Qu, Jianying; Lim, David

    2017-01-01

    To assess the health statue of chronically exposed Chinese medical radiation workers. A cross-sectional study of 530 medical radiation workers in a city of China was conducted to document the health status and the monitored annually absorbed doses. Long-term and low-dose radiation exposure can affect a number of health indicators in the individuals, which covered the cardiovascular system, hematologic system, ophthalmology, liver and kidney s functions, chromosome aberration and micronucleus. The differences in the health status between male and female individuals were associated with job types and exposed years of service. The monitored doses of individuals were lower than the limit value of the national standard. The health status in chronically exposed individuals demonstrated some gender difference associated with length of exposure and work type. This study provides some evidence to understand the health status of medical radiation workers in China and have the potentially to inform screening and clinical diagnosis. (authors)

  14. A STUDY OF FISCHER 344 RATS EXPOSED TO SILICA DUST FOR SIX MONTHS AT CONCENTRATIONS OF 0, 2, 10 OR 20 MG / M3.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KUTZMAN,R.S.

    1984-02-01

    The major objective of this study was to relate the results of a series of functional tests to the compositional and structural alterations in the rat lung induced by subchronic exposure to silica dust. Fischer-344 rats were exposed for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 6 months to either 0, 2, 10, or 20 mg SiO{sub 2}/m{sup 3}. The general appearance of the exposed rats was not different from that of the controls. Interestingly, female rats exposed to silica dust, at all tested concentrations, gained more weight than the controls. The lung weight and the lung-to-body weight ratio was greater in the male rats exposed to the highest concentration of silica dust.

  15. Triphenyltin alters lipid homeostasis in females of the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyssimachou, Angeliki [Environmental Chemistry Department, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Navarro, Juan Carlos [Institute of Aquaculture of Torre de la Sal, CSIC, 12595 Ribera de Cabanes, Castellon (Spain); Bachmann, Jean [Department of Ecology and Evolution-Ecotoxicology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt, D-60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Porte, Cinta, E-mail: cinta.porte@cid.csic.e [Environmental Chemistry Department, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    Molluscs are sensitive species to the toxic effects of organotin compounds, particularly to masculinisation. Both tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) have been recently shown to bind to mollusc retinoid X receptor (RXR). If RXR is involved in lipid homeostasis, exposure to TPT would have an immediate effect on endogenous lipids. To test this hypothesis, the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis was exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of TPT (30, 125, 500 ng/L as Sn) in a semi-static water regime for 7 days. Percentage of lipids and total fatty acid content decreased significantly in TPT-exposed females while the activity of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase, involved in fatty acid catabolism, increased. In addition, fatty acid profiles (carbon chain length and unsaturation degree) were significantly altered in exposed females but not in males. This work highlights the ability of TPT to disrupt lipid metabolism in M. cornuarietis at environmentally realistic concentrations and the higher susceptibility of females in comparison to males. - Short-term exposure to the fungicide TPT disrupts lipid metabolism in M. cornuarietis at environmentally realistic concentrations.

  16. Triphenyltin alters lipid homeostasis in females of the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyssimachou, Angeliki; Navarro, Juan Carlos; Bachmann, Jean; Porte, Cinta

    2009-01-01

    Molluscs are sensitive species to the toxic effects of organotin compounds, particularly to masculinisation. Both tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) have been recently shown to bind to mollusc retinoid X receptor (RXR). If RXR is involved in lipid homeostasis, exposure to TPT would have an immediate effect on endogenous lipids. To test this hypothesis, the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis was exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of TPT (30, 125, 500 ng/L as Sn) in a semi-static water regime for 7 days. Percentage of lipids and total fatty acid content decreased significantly in TPT-exposed females while the activity of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase, involved in fatty acid catabolism, increased. In addition, fatty acid profiles (carbon chain length and unsaturation degree) were significantly altered in exposed females but not in males. This work highlights the ability of TPT to disrupt lipid metabolism in M. cornuarietis at environmentally realistic concentrations and the higher susceptibility of females in comparison to males. - Short-term exposure to the fungicide TPT disrupts lipid metabolism in M. cornuarietis at environmentally realistic concentrations.

  17. Triphenyltin alters lipid homeostasis in females of the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyssimachou, Angeliki; Navarro, Juan Carlos; Bachmann, Jean; Porte, Cinta

    2009-05-01

    Molluscs are sensitive species to the toxic effects of organotin compounds, particularly to masculinisation. Both tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) have been recently shown to bind to mollusc retinoid X receptor (RXR). If RXR is involved in lipid homeostasis, exposure to TPT would have an immediate effect on endogenous lipids. To test this hypothesis, the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis was exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of TPT (30, 125, 500 ng/L as Sn) in a semi-static water regime for 7 days. Percentage of lipids and total fatty acid content decreased significantly in TPT-exposed females while the activity of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase, involved in fatty acid catabolism, increased. In addition, fatty acid profiles (carbon chain length and unsaturation degree) were significantly altered in exposed females but not in males. This work highlights the ability of TPT to disrupt lipid metabolism in M. cornuarietis at environmentally realistic concentrations and the higher susceptibility of females in comparison to males.

  18. Impact of three endocrine disruptors, Bisphenol A, Genistein and Vinclozolin on female rat enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedeon, K; Berdal, A; Babajko, A

    2016-06-28

    Concerns about the potential adverse effectsof endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been increasingover the last three decades. BisphenolA (BPA), genistein (G) and vinclozolin (V) arethree widely used EDs sharing similar effects.Since populations are exposed to many diverseEDs simultaneously, we demonstratedrecently their impact alone or combined onmale rat tooth enamel. The purpose of thisstudy was therefore to assess their effects onfemale rat tooth enamel in order to understandwhy they are differentially sensitive. Ratswere exposed daily in utero and after birth tolow doses of EDs during the critical fetal andsuckling periods when amelogenesis takesplace. Enamel of rats exposed to EDs presentedopaque areas of hypomineralization. Theproportion of affected rats was the highestin the groups of rats treated with BPA aloneand higher in males than in females (in all thegroups). Comparison of enamel key gene expressionlevels showed modulations of Klk4and Enamelin in males but no significant variationsin females. These findings show thatfemale rats are less affected than males bythe three EDs chosen in this study and suggestthat enamel hypomineralization may differbetween males and females.

  19. LHRH and LH in peripubertal female rats following prenatal and/or postnatal ethanol exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.L.; Harms, P.G.; Petersen, H.D.; McArthur, N.H.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to ethanol (ETHO) on LHRH and LH were investigated. Pregnant and/or lactating dams were fed ETHOD during: (1) gestation, (2) lactation, or (3) gestation-lactation. Female offspring were decapitated at 30 or 40 days-of-age; trunk blood was collected for plasma LH RIA; and hypothalamic tissues were collected for LHRH RIA. Hypothalamic LHRH content of all ETOH-exposed groups was less than that of non-ETOH-fed controls at 30 and 40 days-of-age. Plasma LH concentrations of all ETOH-exposed groups were less than those of non-ETOD-fed controls at 30 and 40 days-of-age. Also, at 30 and 40 days-of-age, the plasma LH concentrations of the animals exposed to ETOH during lactation and gestation-lactation were less than those of the animals exposed to ETOH during gestation. These data suggest that ETOH exposure during gestation and/or lactation negatively affects hypothalamic LHRH content of femal rat offspring. Decreased hypothalamic LHRH content with corresponding lowered plasma LH concentration suggests that ETOH influences development or maturation of hypothalamic LHRH neurons by possibly decreasing their number or synthesizing capability

  20. Vulnerability on the streets: female sex workers and HIV risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyett, P M; Warr, D J

    1997-10-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with 24 purposively selected female sex workers who were perceived to be vulnerable to risks associated with their lifestyle and occupation. Brothel workers were found to be considerably less exposed to risk than the women working on the streets. Client resistance was the major obstacle to women maintaining safe sex practices. Physical threats and coercion from clients, the absence of legal protection for street workers, the workers' extreme social isolation and lack of community support added to the difficulties experienced by women in their attempts to insist on condoms for all sex services. Youth, homelessness and heavy drug use had contributed to women being at times even more vulnerable because they had less capacity to manage situations of potential violence or STD risk. Whether through sex work or in their private relationships, HIV remains a risk for some of these women. This study highlights the dangers associated with illegal sex work. While decriminalization of prostitution would reduce some of the dangers to which women were exposed and increase women's capacity to insist on safe sex practices, it is also important for community education programmes to address men's failure to accept responsibility for condom use when seeking the services of sex workers.

  1. Psychosocial and sexual aspects of female circumcision

    OpenAIRE

    S. Abdel-Azim

    2013-01-01

    Sexual behavior is a result of interaction of biology and psychology. Sexual excitement of the female can be triggered by stimulation of erotogenic areas; part of which is the clitoris. Female circumcision is done to minimize sexual desire and to preserve virginity. This procedure can lead to psychological trauma to the child; with anxiety, panic attacks and sense of humiliation. Cultural traditions and social pressures can affect as well the unexcised girl. Female circumcision can reduce fem...

  2. Study of females genital tract microflora diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Vertelytė, Justina

    2016-01-01

    Study of females genital tract microflora diversity SUMMARY Study of female genital tract microflora diversity Authors of Master’s degree scientific research work: Justina Vertelytė Head of Master’s degree scientific research work: dr Silvija Kiverytė Vilnius, 2016 The aim of research work was to investigate and analyze the composition of the microflora of the female genital tract using the methods of microbiological smear, vaginal wet mount and PCR. The objectives of the work were to evaluat...

  3. Genetic sex separation of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, by exposing eggs to dieldrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hanano; Benedict, Mark Q; Malcolm, Colin A; Oliva, Clelia F; Soliban, Sharon M; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2012-06-19

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been used with success for suppressing or eliminating important insect pests of agricultural or veterinary importance. In order to develop SIT for mosquitoes, female elimination prior to release is essential as they are the disease-transmitting sex. A genetic sexing strain (GSS) of Anopheles arabiensis was created based on resistance to dieldrin, and methods of sex separation at the egg stage were developed. The use of this strain for SIT will require sexually sterile males: useful radiation doses for this purpose were determined for pupae and adults. For the creation of the sexing strain, dieldrin-resistant males were irradiated with 40 Gy using a 60Co source and were subsequently crossed to homozygous susceptible virgin females. Individual families were screened for semi-sterility and for male resistance to dieldrin. For sex separation, eggs of a resulting GSS, ANO IPCL1, were exposed to varying concentrations of dieldrin for different durations. Percent hatch, larval survival, and male and female emergence were recorded. Radiation induced sterility was determined following adult and pupa exposure to gamma rays at 0-105 Gy. Mortality induced by dieldrin treatment, and levels of sterility post radiation were investigated. ANO IPCL1 contains a complex chromosome aberration that pseudo-links the male-determining Y chromosome and dieldrin resistance, conferring high natural semi-sterility. Exposure of eggs to 2, 3, and 4 ppm dieldrin solutions resulted in complete female elimination without a significant decrease of male emergence compared to the controls. A dose of 75 Gy reduced the fertility to 3.8 and 6.9% when males were irradiated as pupae or adults respectively, but the proportions of progeny of these males reaching adulthood were 0.6 and 1.5% respectively The GSS ANO IPCL1 was shown to be a suitable strain for further testing for SIT though high semi-sterility is a disadvantage for mass rearing.

  4. Female infant in Egypt: mortality and child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Beheiri, F; El-drini, H; Manala-od; Bulbul, A

    1981-01-01

    Deviation from the normative sex-pattern of infant deaths is so large in Egypt that nearly 1/3 of female deaths can be attributed to a sex-specific cause: lesser care of the female child. This article reports on child neglect which may account for the relatively lower survival rate of the female infant, despite its biological advantage over the male. This knowledge is seen as vital in planning interventions. The investigation answers 3 questions relating to the sex-specific factors of death among female infants: do girls display a poorer level of nutrition compared to boys? Is there evidence to show that sickness episodes of female infants are treated more carelessly than those of male infants? Are there reasons to believe that girls are more exposed to life-threatening psychological factors than are boys? A group of 598 families in low-income districts of Cairo was randomly chosen to receive regular monthly visits by a team of trained field invstigators over a 1-year period. The sample is thought to represent life in urban quarters of Egypt, described as pervasively rural in orientations despite urban occupations and living conditions. The study finds no significant sex difference in nutritional status until the 6th month of life. Around this period, 2/5 of the female group but 1/4 of the male show signs of malnutrition as measured by weight. The difference continues to increase and is very statistically significant by the end of the year. Nutritional status of female infants tended to decline with an addition of daughters in the family. Also, at birth orders 2 ot 5 and in large families of 4-5 children, the relative nutritional disadvantage of the female infant is statistically significant. Moreover, a very distinct sex-difference in dietary patterns is observed as no boy was deprived of supplementary feeding during the 2nd 1/2 of the year but only 1/15 girls received food other than breast milk during this period. Despite some evidence highly suggestive of

  5. Pregnancy outcomes in female hairdressers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, Elena; Moen, Bente E; García, Ana M; Sánchez-Paya, José; Baste, Valborg

    2010-12-01

    The hairdressing occupation may entail exposure to a wide range of chemical products, psychosocial and physical stress. All these factors may affect the health of a pregnant hairdresser and her offspring. Our aim was to analyse whether employment in this profession is associated with adverse reproductive effects. Female hairdressers working in the 248 hairdressing salons in Alicante (Spain), who became pregnant for the first time after 1990 were included (n = 94). The incidence of spontaneous abortions, number of children born and their birth weight and preterm delivery among hairdressers was compared with a control group of shop assistants and office workers (n = 138). Information was collected through personal interviews at their work place. A structured questionnaire was used gathering information concerning exposure variables including the use of chemical products, ventilation at the salons, work-related stress and hours of standing work. In addition, socio-demographic factors and smoking information were obtained. Crude and adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated using logbinomial regression. Hairdressers showed a non-significant increased risk of spontaneous abortions (RR = 1.6, 95%CI 0.9-2.7). There were no differences in preterm delivery and birth weight of the children born of mothers in the two groups. Among hairdressers, the RR of spontaneous abortion among those with high perceived work-related stress was 2.4 (95%CI: 0.2-28.3) relative to those with low or normal perceived stress. A slightly increased risk of spontaneous abortion among hairdressers was found, mainly associated with perceived work-related stress. Observed results deserve further research.

  6. The evolution of female sex pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ally R. HARARI, Hadass STEINITZ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of female sex pheromones in natural selection, particularly as a means for species recognition to avoid the generation of hybrid offspring with low fitness, has been widely explored and is generally accepted by scholars. However, the significance of sex pheromones in shaping mate choice (sexual selection and in competition over breeding resources (social selection has been largely ignored. The effect of sexual selection on sex pheromones as a sexually dimorphic signaling trait has been discounted because the amount of pheromone released by females is typically minute, while the role of sex pheromones in competition over breeding resources (other than mates has not yet been considered. As a result of natural selection, variation in sex pheromones among females is expected to be low, and males are not expected to choose their mates among pheromone-releasing conspecific females. Sexual selection, on the other hand, should drive the increase in pheromone variance among females, and males are expected to choose females based on this variation. Moreover, social selection resulting from more general social interactions, for example competition among females for breeding sites and food, should also promote variance among female sex pheromones. Here, we review the current evidence for each of the three selection processes acting on sex pheromones of female moths as an advertising trait. We suggest that the three selection types are not mutually exclusive but rather act together to promote different fitness components in diverse ecological situations [Current Zoology 59 (4: 569–578, 2013].

  7. sexuality, contraception and unintended pregnancy among female

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. E. P. Gharoro

    knowledge of family planning. Condom ... relationship between respondents with multiple ... cause of healthy life lost. ... power imbalance between women ... working on female reproductive health ..... consequences among student nurses.

  8. Special nutritional concerns for the female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Kathe A

    2006-06-01

    Inadequate dietary intake is the primary nutritional concern of today's female athlete. As these athletes fail to consume enough energy to support the physical demands of training, they become at risk for disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, conditions collectively identified as the female athlete triad. This review addresses nutritional concerns of the female athlete, identification of those at risk, relationship of energy intake to menstrual irregularities, and recently identified chronic diseases associated with the female athlete triad. Strategies are offered to prevent harmful behaviors leading to the comorbidities associated with inadequate dietary intakes.

  9. Comparison of male and female foot shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gangming; Houston, Vern L; Mussman, Martin; Garbarini, Maryanne; Beattie, Aaron C; Thongpop, Chaiya

    2009-01-01

    Morphological and geometric differences between male and female feet can be the decisive factor of whether well-fitting, functional, and comfortable footwear is available for both men and women. Optical scans, plaster wrap casts, and a set of manual measurements from the right feet of 51 female participants, aged 20 to 59 years (32 +/- 10.2 years), and 39 male participants, aged 22 to 71 years (47.1 +/- 12.1 years), were taken to determine which parameters were the most significant in characterizing pedal geometry and which had the largest difference between male and female feet. Analysis showed that the heel-to-ball length (ball length) of the male participants' feet (181.5 mm) was significantly longer, on average, than that of the female participants' feet (165.0 mm). The width of the male paticipants' feet at the ball, instep, and heel regions, as well as the ball circumference, normalized by the ball length, were all significantly larger on average, than the female test participants' feet. However, toe region, instep, and medial and lateral malleoli heights were larger, on average, for the female participants than for the male. The results show that female feet differ in size and shape from male feet and are not algebraically scaled, smaller versions of male feet, as is often assumed. The study shows that the average male participants' feet are longer than that of the female participants' feet, while the female feet are relatively narrower but higher than those of the male participants.

  10. Queering gender in contemporary female Bildung narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šnircová Soňa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores, in the context of feminist discussions about the Bildungsroman, a contemporary British novel that offers shocking images of female coming of age at the turn of the millennium. Queering gender and introducing male elements into the heroine’s process of maturation, the analysed novel appears to raise questions about the continuous relevance of the feminist distinction between male and female version of the genre. The paper however argues that although significantly rewriting both female Bildung and pornographic narratives, Helen Walsh’s Brass can still be read as a variation of the female Bildungsroman and an example of its contemporary developments.

  11. The Retention of Female Unrestricted Line Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pecenco, Elena G

    2005-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the retention of female Naval officers, focusing on the relationship between officer selection metrics and retention beyond minimum service obligation and the effect of lateral...

  12. A prospective-controlled study of pregnant veterinary staff exposed to inhaled anesthetics and X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuhaiber, S.; Radee, I. C.; Sakkar, M.; Koren, G.; Einarson, A.

    2002-01-01

    Most veterinary staff are women of reproductive age. They are exposed to 'waste' anesthetic gas and ionizing radiation in their workplace, which may endanger fetal safety. Presently, exposure of female veterinary staff to these health hazards has not been adequately addressed in the medical literature. Our primary objective was to investigate the incidence of major malformations associated with occupational exposure to inhaled anesthetics and/or radiation among pregnant veterinary staff. The secondary objective was to determine the rates of other adverse outcomes. We prospectively collected data on and followed-up women occupationally exposed to inhaled anesthetics and/or radiation in veterinary practices in Ontario, and compared them to controls matched for maternal age gestational age at the time of call to the Motherisk Program. A total of 95 women wee prospectively enrolled and followed-up. Among the participants there were 87 (93.5%) and 88 (92.8%) live births in the study and control groups, respectively. There were 4 (4.8%) major birth defects in the study group and 3 (3.4%) in the control group. The rates of spontaneous abortion were also similar, 6 (6.4%) cases in the study group and 7(7.4%) cases in the control group. These results suggest that Ontario female veterinary staff exposed to inhaled anesthetics and/or radiation do not seem to be at an increased risk for major malformations above baseline risk. (author)

  13. Care of HIV-exposed and HIV-infected neonates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, further reduction in MTCT may be possible if newborns at high risk of acquiring HIV ... infants of breastfeeding mothers with newly diagnosed HIV infection, dual NVP/ .... birth HIV DNA PCR testing for HIV-exposed low birth weight.

  14. UDS in lymphocytes of occupationally radiation exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.; Kovac, R.

    1982-01-01

    To determine a possible effect of low dose radiation on DNA repair processes, peripheral lymphocytes of mine workers exposed to 222 Rn in the thermal gallery of Badgastein (Austria) and employees of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf, exposed to varying doses of gamma radiation, were investigated. The capacity for unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) induced by in vitro UV irradiation was measured by autoradiography of isolated lymphocytes of exposed persons and unexposed controls. In all 222 Rn-exposed mine workers a significant increase of UDS above control values could be observed. Gamma irradiation 31 mrad had a significant effect on UDS, indicating a stimulation of DNA repair capability by chronic low dose exposure. (Author)

  15. Pulmonary function evaluations of dogs exposed to uranium ore dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loscutoff, S.M.; Buschbom, R.L.; Palmer, R.F.; Cross, F.T.

    1980-01-01

    Pulmonary function evaluations were conducted on dogs exposed to carnotite uranium ore dust. Significant changes were detected in the slope of the single-breath N 2 washout curve, suggesting an uneven distribution of ventilation

  16. Administrative norms on radiofrequency radiation for occupationally exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxeboel, G.

    1982-01-01

    The report presents a proposal for administrative norms on radiofrequency (RF) radiation for occupationally exposed persons. The norms establish maximum allowable field exposure in a frequency range from 1 MHz too 300 GHz. (RF)

  17. Micronuclei frequency in children exposed to environmental mutagens: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neri, Monica; Fucic, Aleksandra; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2003-01-01

    Cytogenetic monitoring has been traditionally used for the surveillance of populations exposed to genotoxic agents. In recent years sensitivity problems emerged in surveys of populations exposed to low levels of mutagens, and therefore alternative approaches have been explored. Biomonitoring....... The limited number of published papers indicates that the conduct of properly designed studies on the effect of environmental pollutants in children may be difficult. This review confirmed the usefulness of MN assay in biomonitoring studies conducted in children, revealing that in many circumstances...

  18. Epidemiological studies of some populations exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, J.L.

    1985-08-01

    During 1984 September 19 and 20, a meeting was held at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Pinawa, Manitoba to discuss current epidemiological studies of populations exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Twelve representatives from three countries attended the meeting and eleven papers were extensively discussed. The majority of these papers described studies of populations occupationally exposed to radiation. The report contains summaries of the papers presented and of the discussions that took place

  19. Behavioural changes in mice exposed to low level microwave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goiceanu, C.; Gradinaru, F.; Danulescu, R.; Balaceanu, G.; Sandu, D. D.; Avadanei, O. G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our study is to point out some changes in mice behaviour due possibly to exposure to low-level microwave fields. Animals spontaneous behaviour were monitored and the exploring behaviour and motor activity were assessed. Ten selected Swiss male mice were exposed to low-level microwave fields of about 1 mW/cm 2 power density for a relatively long period of time (13 weeks), comparing to their lifetime. The exposure system consists in a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) Cell. A control lot of ten Swiss male mice was used. All twenty mice were selected to be of same age and of 202 g initial body weight. Each animal was placed in his own holder. The behaviour of the animals, from both exposed and control lots, was assessed by using a battery of three behavioural tests. The test sessions were performed every two weeks. During exposure period it was recorded a progressive but moderate loss of motor activity for both exposed and controls, probably due to weight gain and aging. Concerning exploratory activity there is a significant difference between control and exposed animals. Control mice had approximately constant performances in time. On the other hand exposed mice showed a progressive decrease in time of their exploratory ability. Motor activity of exposed animals does not seem to be affected by microwave exposure, in spite of moderate loss in time of motor activity in both lots, as long as it was recorded a quite similar evolution. The difference in performances of exposed and controls concerning exploratory activity seem to emphasise an effect of long-term low-level microwave exposure. The progressive loss in time of exploratory activity of exposed mice, in contrast with controls, could be due to the interference of microwaves with central nervous activity. (authors)

  20. Ethylene thiourea: thyroid function in two groups of exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.M.

    1984-08-01

    Ethylene thiourea is manufactured at one factory in the United Kingdom and is mixed into masterbatch rubber at another. Clinical examinations and thyroid function tests were carried out over a period of three years on eight process workers and five mixers and on matched controls. The results show that the exposed mixers, but not exposed process workers, have significantly lower levels of total thyroxine (T4) than the controls. One mixer had an appreciably raised level of thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH).

  1. Ethylene thiourea: thyroid function in two groups of exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D M

    1984-08-01

    Ethylene thiourea is manufactured at one factory in the United Kingdom and is mixed into masterbatch rubber at another. Clinical examinations and thyroid function tests were carried out over a period of three years on eight process workers and five mixers and on matched controls. The results show that the exposed mixers, but not exposed process workers, have significantly lower levels of total thyroxine (T4) than the controls. One mixer had an appreciably raised level of thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH).

  2. Effects on circulating steroid hormones and gene expression along the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis in adult Japanese quail exposed to 17β-trenbolone across multiple generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Chen, Yu; Henry, Paula F.; Maddox, Catherine M.; Sprague, Dan

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the androgenic growth promoter 17β-trenbolone (17βTB) on adult Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) exposed across three generations. The F0 generation was exposed after sexual maturity to 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppm through feed. The F1 generation was exposed in ovo by maternal transfer and through feed at the same doses as their parents. The F2 generation was exposed in ovo only. Levels of plasma sex steroids, gonadal Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA and select brain neuroendocrine peptide mRNAs were measured. In males, testosterone levels did not differ in any generation from those in controls. Estradiol was significantly elevated in 17βTB treated F0 and F1 males. In F0 and F1 females, testosterone was suppressed by 17βTB, whereas estradiol was significantly higher at 40 ppm in F0 and at 10 ppm in F1 females. CYP19A1 expression in F1 males and females increased suggesting a compensatory response to the androgenic effects of 17βTB. Few significant effects were observed in the F2 birds indicating that in ovo exposure had limited effects on the monitored endpoints. Overall, our results confirmed endocrine disrupting effects of dietary 17βTB in Japanese quail but the response was dependent on sex, developmental stage at initiation of exposure, and dose.

  3. Lighting programs for male and female meat quails (Coturnix coturnix) raised in equatorial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, G C; Freitas, E R; Watanabe, P H; Figueiredo, C W S; Silva, L P; Nascimento, G A J; Lima, R C; Nepomuceno, R C; Sá, N L

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of lighting programs for male and female meat quails raised in an equatorial region on performance and carcass traits. A total of 1,500 sexed quails (Coturnix coturnix) was distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, with 2 sexes (male and female) and 3 lighting programs (natural, intermittent, and continuous) with 5 replicates of 50 birds. The lighting programs were applied in the period from 7 to 49 d of age, being natural (12 h and 30 min of natural light and 11 h and 30 min of dark), intermittent (12 h and 30 min of natural light and 5 h and 30 min of artificial light, alternating lighting periods with one h and 06 min and periods of darkness with one h and 12 min), and continuous (23 h of natural + artificial light and one h of dark). Regardless of lighting program, female quails were heavier than males, and birds subjected to natural light weighed less than those exposed to continuous and intermittent lighting programs. Quails exposed to intermittent and continuous light presented higher weight gain and feed intake, and worse feed conversion ratio compared to birds under a natural light regimen. It is concluded that in an equatorial region, it is possible to use a lighting program with only natural light for raising male and female meat quails from 7 to 49 d of age. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Male pheromone protein components activate female vomeronasal neurons in the salamander Plethodon shermani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldhoff Pamela W

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mental gland pheromone of male Plethodon salamanders contains two main protein components: a 22 kDa protein named Plethodon Receptivity Factor (PRF and a 7 kDa protein named Plethodon Modulating Factor (PMF, respectively. Each protein component individually has opposing effects on female courtship behavior, with PRF shortening and PMF lengthening courtship. In this study, we test the hypothesis that PRF or PMF individually activate vomeronasal neurons. The agmatine-uptake technique was used to visualize chemosensory neurons that were activated by each protein component individually. Results Vomeronasal neurons exposed to agmatine in saline did not demonstrate significant labeling. However, a population of vomeronasal neurons was labeled following exposure to either PRF or PMF. When expressed as a percent of control level labeled cells, PRF labeled more neurons than did PMF. These percentages for PRF and PMF, added together, parallel the percentage of labeled vomeronasal neurons when females are exposed to the whole pheromone. Conclusion This study suggests that two specific populations of female vomeronasal neurons are responsible for responding to each of the two components of the male pheromone mixture. These two neural populations, therefore, could express different receptors which, in turn, transmit different information to the brain, thus accounting for the different female behavior elicited by each pheromone component.

  5. Intranasal Oxytocin Administration Dampens Amygdala Reactivity towards Emotional Faces in Male and Female PTSD Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Saskia Bj; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Nawijn, Laura; Frijling, Jessie L; Veltman, Dick J; Olff, Miranda

    2016-05-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling psychiatric disorder. As a substantial part of PTSD patients responds poorly to currently available psychotherapies, pharmacological interventions boosting treatment response are needed. Because of its anxiolytic and pro-social properties, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been proposed as promising strategy for treatment augmentation in PTSD. As a first step to investigate the therapeutic potential of OT in PTSD, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over functional MRI study examining OT administration effects (40 IU) on amygdala reactivity toward emotional faces in unmedicated male and female police officers with (n=37, 21 males) and without (n=40, 20 males) PTSD. Trauma-exposed controls were matched to PTSD patients based on age, sex, years of service and educational level. Under placebo, the expected valence-dependent amygdala reactivity (ie, greater activity toward fearful-angry faces compared with happy-neutral faces) was absent in PTSD patients. OT administration dampened amygdala reactivity toward all emotional faces in male and female PTSD patients, but enhanced amygdala reactivity in healthy male and female trauma-exposed controls, independent of sex and stimulus valence. In PTSD patients, greater anxiety prior to scanning and amygdala reactivity during the placebo session were associated with greater reduction of amygdala reactivity after OT administration. Taken together, our results indicate presumably beneficial neurobiological effects of OT administration in male and female PTSD patients. Future studies should investigate OT administration in clinical settings to fully appreciate its therapeutic potential.

  6. Long-term moderate treadmill exercise promotes stress-coping strategies in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanza, Jaume F; Sanchez-Roige, Sandra; Cigarroa, Igor; Gagliano, Humberto; Fuentes, Silvia; Armario, Antonio; Capdevila, Lluís; Escorihuela, Rosa M

    2015-11-05

    Recent evidence has revealed the impact of exercise in alleviating anxiety and mood disorders; however, the exercise protocol that exerts such benefit is far from known. The current study was aimed to assess the effects of long-term moderate exercise on behavioural coping strategies (active vs. passive) and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal response in rats. Sprague-Dawley male and female rats were exposed to 32-weeks of treadmill exercise and then tested for two-way active avoidance learning (shuttle-box). Two groups were used as controls: a non-handled sedentary group, receiving no manipulation, and a control group exposed to a stationary treadmill. Female rats displayed shorter escape responses and higher number of avoidance responses, reaching criterion for performance earlier than male rats. In both sexes, exercise shortened escape latencies, increased the total number of avoidances and diminished the number of trials needed to reach criterion for performance. Those effects were greater during acquisition in female rats, but remained over the shuttle-box sessions in treadmill trained male rats. In females, exercise did not change ACTH and corticosterone levels after shuttle-box acquisition. Collectively, treadmill exercise improved active coping strategies in a sex-dependent manner. In a broader context, moderate exercise could serve as a therapeutic intervention for anxiety and mood disorders.

  7. Oviposition preference hierarchy in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae: influence of female age and experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim-Bravo Iara S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of two factors, age and previous experience, on the oviposition hierarchy preference of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 females was studied. Two populations were analyzed: one reared in laboratory during 17 years and the other captured in nature. In the first experiment the oviposition preference for four fruits, papaya, orange, banana and apple was tested at the beginning of oviposition period and 20 days past. The results showed that the wild females as much the laboratory ones had an oviposition preference hierarchy at the beginning of peak period of oviposition. However this hierarchic preference disappeared in a later phase of life. In the second experiment the females were previously exposed to fruits of different hierarchic positions and afterwards their choice was tested in respect to the oviposition preference for those fruits. The results showed that there was an influence of the previous experience on the posterior choice of fruits to oviposition when the females were exposed to fruits of lower hierarchic position.

  8. Ovarian and Uterine Functions in Female Survivors of Childhood Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktem, Ozgur; Kim, Samuel S; Selek, Ugur; Schatmann, Glenn; Urman, Bulent

    2018-02-01

    Adult survivors of childhood cancers are more prone to developing poor reproductive and obstetrical outcomes than their siblings and the general population as a result of previous exposure to chemotherapy and radiation during childhood. Chemotherapy drugs exert cytotoxic effects systemically and therefore can damage the ovaries, leading to infertility, premature ovarian failure, and, to a lesser extent, spontaneous abortions. They have very limited or no deleterious effects on the uterus that can be recognized clinically. By contrast, radiation is detrimental to both the ovaries and the uterus, thereby causing a greater magnitude of adverse effects on the female reproductive function. These include infertility, premature ovarian failure, miscarriage, fetal growth restrictions, perinatal deaths, preterm births, delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants, preeclampsia, and abnormal placentation. Regrettably, the majority of these adverse outcomes arise from radiation-induced uterine injury and are reported at higher incidence in the adult survivors of childhood cancers who were exposed to uterine radiation during childhood in the form of pelvic, spinal, or total-body irradiation. Recent findings of long-term follow-up studies evaluating reproductive performance of female survivors provided some reassurance to female cancer survivors by documenting that pregnancy and live birth rates were not significantly compromised in survivors, including those who had been treated with alkylating agents and had not received pelvic, cranial, and total-body irradiation. We aimed in this narrative review article to provide an update on the impact of chemotherapy and radiation on the ovarian and uterine function in female survivors of childhood cancer. Adult survivors of childhood cancers are more prone to developing a number of poor reproductive and obstetrical outcomes than their siblings and the general population as a result of previous exposure to chemotherapy and radiation

  9. The female condom: controlled by women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The polyurethane female condom is stronger than the latex male condom. Thus, the single-use female condom is less likely to break and has a longer shelf life than the single-use male condom. The ring at the closed end of the condom helps women insert the condom and secures the condom inside the vagina. The outer ring remains outside the vagina and protects the labia and the base of the penis. Female condom use reduces the likelihood of transmission of infectious diseases. The female condom is as effective at preventing pregnancy as the male condom and the diaphragm. Its life-table pregnancy rate in a multicenter clinical trial in the US and Latin America was 15.1% (12.4% in US and 22.% in Latin America). The 6-month failure rate during perfect use was 4.3%. In laboratory studies, no sexually transmitted organism, including HIV, penetrated the female condom. In a human use study, 14% of controls and 14.7% of non-perfect users were reinfected with trichomonas while none of the perfect users were reinfected. Advantages of the female condom follow: allows for greater sensitivity and greater protection than the male condom, is controlled by the female, can be used with any lubricant (even oil-based lubricants), and can be inserted well before intercourse. Disadvantages include cost (5 times costlier than the male condom), unsightly coverage of female genitalia, noisy during use, and breakage (although breakage rates were lower than for latex condoms: 1% vs. 2-5%). Method acceptability studies among various populations show that the inner rings and movement of the female condom during use were the most common complaints. Many women liked the female condom and would recommend it to others. Only a few women complained about insertion problems, yet it took some women at least two tries to insert the female condom.

  10. Social isolation disrupts innate immune responses in both male and female prairie voles and enhances agonistic behavior in female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Melissa-Ann L; Carlton, Elizabeth D; Demas, Gregory E; Grippo, Angela J

    2015-04-01

    Psychosocial stress, specifically social isolation, is an important risk factor for the development of a variety of psychological and physiological disorders. Changes in immune function have been hypothesized to mediate this relationship. The current study used the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) model of isolation-induced depressive-like behavior to test whether social isolation led to changes in innate immune function. Specifically, we used hemolytic complement (CH50) and bacteria killing assays to assess innate immunity, in paired or singly housed male and female prairie voles. Further, in a second experiment we tested whether females exposed to an additional short-term social stressor, a resident-intruder trial, would show changes in immune function as well as enhanced hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) activity as indicated by elevated plasma corticosterone levels. Socially isolated animals, regardless of sex, had significantly reduced CH50s and bacteria killing ability. Socially isolated females exposed to a resident-intruder stressor also showed reduced CH50s and bacteria killing ability as well as significant increases in aggressive behavior, however, they did not show elevated circulating corticosterone levels. Collectively, these data will help inform our understanding of the relationship between social isolation and physiological and psychological health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adolescent environmental enrichment prevents behavioral and physiological sequelae of adolescent chronic stress in female (but not male) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brittany L; Morano, Rachel L; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Myers, Brent; Solomon, Matia B; Herman, James P

    2017-11-22

    The late adolescent period is characterized by marked neurodevelopmental and endocrine fluctuations in the transition to early adulthood. Adolescents are highly responsive to the external environment, which enhances their ability to adapt and recover from challenges when given nurturing influences, but also makes them vulnerable to aberrant development when exposed to prolonged adverse situations. Female rats are particularly sensitive to the effects of chronic stress in adolescence, which manifests as passive coping strategies and blunted hypothalamo-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) stress responses in adulthood. We sought to intervene by exposing adolescent rats to environmental enrichment (EE) immediately prior to and during chronic stress, hypothesizing that EE would minimize or prevent the long-term effects of stress that emerge in adult females. To test this, we exposed male and female rats to EE on postnatal days (PND) 33-60 and implemented chronic variable stress (CVS) on PND 40-60. CVS consisted of twice-daily unpredictable stressors. Experimental groups included: CVS/unenriched, unstressed/EE, CVS/EE and unstressed/unenriched (n = 10 of each sex/group). In adulthood, we measured behavior in the open field test and forced swim test (FST) and collected blood samples following the FST. We found that environmental enrichment given during the adolescent period prevented the chronic stress-induced transition to passive coping in the FST and reversed decreases in peak adrenocortical responsiveness observed in adult females. Adolescent enrichment had little to no effect on males or unstressed females tested in adulthood, indicating that beneficial effects are specific to females that were exposed to chronic stress.

  12. Determinants of female sexual orgasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontula, Osmo; Miettinen, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Background The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality. Objective This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner’s sexual techniques. Design In Finland, five national sex surveys that are based on random samples from the central population register have been conducted. They are representative of the total population within the age range of 18–54 years in 1971 (N=2,152), 18–74 years in 1992 (N=2,250), 18–81 years in 1999 (N=1,496), 18–74 years in 2007 (N=2,590), and 18–79 years in 2015 (N=2,150). Another dataset of 2,049 women in the age group of 18–70 years was collected in 2015 via a national Internet panel. Results Contrary to expectations, women did not have orgasms that are more frequent by increasing their experience and practice of masturbation, or by experimenting with different partners in their lifetime. The keys to their more frequent orgasms lay in mental and relationship factors. These factors and capacities included orgasm importance, sexual desire, sexual self-esteem, and openness of sexual communication with partners. Women valued their partner’s orgasm more than their own. In addition, positive determinants were the ability to concentrate, mutual sexual initiations, and partner’s good sexual techniques. A relationship that felt good and worked well emotionally, and where sex was approached openly and appreciatively, promoted orgasms. Conclusion The findings indicate that women differ greatly from one another in terms of their tendency and capacity to experience orgasms. The improvements in gender

  13. Determinants of female sexual orgasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmo Kontula

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality. Objective: This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner’s sexual techniques. Design: In Finland, five national sex surveys that are based on random samples from the central population register have been conducted. They are representative of the total population within the age range of 18–54 years in 1971 (N=2,152, 18–74 years in 1992 (N=2,250, 18–81 years in 1999 (N=1,496, 18–74 years in 2007 (N=2,590, and 18–79 years in 2015 (N=2,150. Another dataset of 2,049 women in the age group of 18–70 years was collected in 2015 via a national Internet panel. Results: Contrary to expectations, women did not have orgasms that are more frequent by increasing their experience and practice of masturbation, or by experimenting with different partners in their lifetime. The keys to their more frequent orgasms lay in mental and relationship factors. These factors and capacities included orgasm importance, sexual desire, sexual self-esteem, and openness of sexual communication with partners. Women valued their partner’s orgasm more than their own. In addition, positive determinants were the ability to concentrate, mutual sexual initiations, and partner’s good sexual techniques. A relationship that felt good and worked well emotionally, and where sex was approached openly and appreciatively, promoted orgasms. Conclusion: The findings indicate that women differ greatly from one another in terms of their tendency and capacity to experience orgasms. The

  14. Female sexuality, regulation and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, R; Price, J

    1994-06-01

    India was the context for this discussion of female sexuality, rigid social norms, women's strategies for resistance, the evolution of norms from colonial India, prostitution, myths, and self-help women's activities. Sexuality is a changing set of ideas, and women have contributed to the redefinition. The biological view without consideration of the sociocultural and historical influences proscribes what is deviant and may be used to reinforce patriarchy and colonialism. Management and control of sexuality has been influenced by class, religion, caste, and ethnicity. During the colonial period, women's sexuality and treatment was challenged by the missionaries. The abolishment of "sati" as a traditional practice was used by the British to expand their rule and control over a wider regional area. Attempts were also made to regulate prostitution as means of protecting the health of the British army. The law requiring registration, examination, and commitment for treatment of prostitutes was not adhered to by the women involved. The notion of mothers as irresponsible came into being about 1900, and encouraged abandonment of traditional child- rearing ways for the Western standard of health and hygiene, and lifestyle. In Bengal, motherhood and mother qoddesses became the symbol of the liberation movement. The maternal role could be strengthened through education. The notion of mother and nationhood was supported by the women's movement in Great Britain and the US through positive eugenics ideas of quality race, which supported the ruling elite of British and Indians. Thus, the high class women were to be protected from early marriage, and encouraged to produce children fit to govern; the poor were to be protected from prostitution and overpopulation. Post colonial ideas about sexuality reflected a number of influences both from within and outside India. Health was a focus, and program targets were those who were outside the norm: women with too many children

  15. Laparoscopic evaluation of female infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haiderr, G.; Rani, S.; Zehra, N.; Munir, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sub-fertility is inability to ensure child bearing when it is wanted. Prevalence of sub-fertility in industrialised countries has been quoted as 20%, and seems to be on the rise. Traditional way to assess the uterine cavity, tubal structure and tubal patency was hysterosalpingography but it has now been largely superseded by laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. The objective of this study was to highlight the role of laparoscopy in establishing diagnosis of female infertility. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Gynaecology Unit of Liaquat University of Medical Health Sciences, Hyderabad, Pakistan from August 28, 2000 to July 1, 2001. Total 200 sub-fertile patients attended the gynaecology OPD. Out of these 30 patients were selected for laparoscopy and dye test who were suspected cases of endometriosis, abnormal HSG and unexplained infertility. Those patients who had medical disorders and contraindication for laparoscopy were excluded from study. Detailed history of every patient was recorded on a proforma and physical examination was performed. Laparoscopy was scheduled in proliferative phase of menstrual cycle. Data were analysed using SPSS 11. Frequency and percentages were calculated to describe the results. Results: Out of 200 sub-fertile patients total 30 patients were selected for laparoscopy. Twenty (66%) patients were in primary infertility group while 10 (33%) patients were in secondary infertility group. Eleven (55%) patients of primary infertility belong to age group of 18-25 years while 6(60%) patients of secondary infertility belong to age group of 26- 33 years. Mean duration of sub fertility at time of presentation in primary infertility group was 1.95 years while in secondary infertility was 2.70 years. In primary infertility group main associated symptoms were dysmenorrhoeal in 8 (40%), irregular cycles 5 (25%), and dyspareunia in 4 (20%). In secondary infertility group 3 (30%) patients had dysmenorrhoeal and dyspareunia while 2

  16. Do male and female gammarids defend themselves differently during chemical stress?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gismondi, E., E-mail: gismondi.eric@gmail.com; Cossu-Leguille, C.; Beisel, J.-N.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Gammarus roeseli females are less sensitive to cadmium than males. •Energy mobilization under chemical stress is difference according to gender. •Gender could take into account to an overview of xenobiotics effects on population. -- Abstract: To investigate xenobiotic impacts on organism physiology, several studies involve biomarker assessment. However, most studies do not take into account the toxic effect on both males and females. Here, we have investigated the influence of gender on the detoxification response (reduced glutathione, metallothionein, γ-glutamylcystein ligase and carotenoid), energy reserves (protein, lipids and glycogen) and biomarker of toxic effects (malondialdehyde) in Gammarus roeseli exposed to cadmium. A principal component analysis revealed that G. roeseli males and females were differently impacted by cadmium. We observed lower malondialdehyde levels in females than in males, whatever the condition tested (i.e. control, 2 and 8 μg Cd L{sup −1}), although the pattern of responses of control and exposures to 2 or 8 μg L{sup −1} was the same for both genders. Results could be linked to apparently more effective detoxification displayed by females than by males. Protein concentrations were unchanged in both genders, lipids contents were always significantly decreased and glycogen contents decreased only in females. This study supports the importance of taking into account the gender in ecotoxicological studies to have an overview of xenobiotics effects on a population.

  17. Do male and female gammarids defend themselves differently during chemical stress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gismondi, E.; Cossu-Leguille, C.; Beisel, J.-N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Gammarus roeseli females are less sensitive to cadmium than males. •Energy mobilization under chemical stress is difference according to gender. •Gender could take into account to an overview of xenobiotics effects on population. -- Abstract: To investigate xenobiotic impacts on organism physiology, several studies involve biomarker assessment. However, most studies do not take into account the toxic effect on both males and females. Here, we have investigated the influence of gender on the detoxification response (reduced glutathione, metallothionein, γ-glutamylcystein ligase and carotenoid), energy reserves (protein, lipids and glycogen) and biomarker of toxic effects (malondialdehyde) in Gammarus roeseli exposed to cadmium. A principal component analysis revealed that G. roeseli males and females were differently impacted by cadmium. We observed lower malondialdehyde levels in females than in males, whatever the condition tested (i.e. control, 2 and 8 μg Cd L −1 ), although the pattern of responses of control and exposures to 2 or 8 μg L −1 was the same for both genders. Results could be linked to apparently more effective detoxification displayed by females than by males. Protein concentrations were unchanged in both genders, lipids contents were always significantly decreased and glycogen contents decreased only in females. This study supports the importance of taking into account the gender in ecotoxicological studies to have an overview of xenobiotics effects on a population

  18. Health surveillance of medical personnel occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation sources: Biomonitoring and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumen, V.; Prlic, I.; Radalj, Z.; Horvat, D.; Cerovac, H.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present the complete results of periodical health surveillance of medical personnel occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation sources, conducted according to established law regulations in Croatia. The report comprises a total of 21 examinees (11 female, 10 male), mean age 43,19 ± 9,85 years, originating from different professional groups and working in a radiation zone 14,7 ± 8,27 years on the average. Within the framework of this study, the results of their biomonitoring, including haematological parameters (whole blood count), ophthalmological findings (fundus oculi), cytogenetic test (conventional structural chromosomal aberration analysis) and peripheral blood flow survey (capillaroscopy and dermothermometry) will be presented. Filmdosimetric data for the referred period will also be reported. (author)

  19. Association between sociodemographic characteristics and anxiety levels of violence-exposed patients admitted to emergency clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocagil H

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hilal Hocagil,1 Filiz Izci,2 Abdullah Cüneyt Hocagil,1 Ebru Findikli,3 Sevda Korkmaz,4 Merve Iris Koc5 1Department of Emergency, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, 2Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Istanbul Bilim University, Istanbul, 3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras, 4Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, 5Department of Psychiatry, Erenkoy Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders, Istanbul, Turkey Background: Here we aimed to investigate sociodemographic characteristics, psychiatric history, and association between sociodemographic characteristics and anxiety levels of violence-exposed patients admitted to emergency clinic.Methods: This study consists of 73 violence-exposed patients admitted to emergency clinic who were literate and agreed to participate in the study. A sociodemographic data form created by us to investigate alcohol-substance abuse, suicide attempt, previous history of trauma, self and family history of psychiatric disorders and Beck Anxiety Inventory was given to the patients.Results: Of the patients exposed to violence 63% (n=46 were female and 27% (n=27 were male. Of these patients, 68.5% (n=50 were married, 43.8% (n=25 were workers, 34.2% were housewives, 11% were unemployed, and 11% were civil servants. Of the violence-exposed patients, 56.2% (n=41 were primary school, 21.9% (n=16 were high school, and 21.9% (n=16 were university graduates. Smoking and alcohol use rates were 54.8% (n=40 and 17.8% (n=13, respectively. The most common trauma type was assault using physical force with a ratio of 78.1% (n=57. In addition, anxiety scores were high in 42.5% (n=31 and moderate in 9.6% (n=7 of the patients. Mentioned psychiatric disorder was present in 17.8% (n=13 of the patients and 19.2% (n=14 of the patients’ relatives. The correlation between sociodemographic

  20. Pharmacological manipulation of serotonin receptors during brain embryogenesis favours stress resiliency in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Lavanco

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Manipulations of the serotonin transmission during early development induce long-lasting changes in the serotonergic circuitry throughout the brain. However, little is known on the developmental consequences in the female progeny. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring the behavioural effects of pre- and postnatal stimulation of the serotonergic system by 5-methoxytryptamine in adolescent female rats on behavioural reactivity and anxiety- like phenotype. Our results show that perinatal 5- methoxythyptamine decreased total distance travelled and rearing frequency in the novel enviroment, and increased the preference for the centre of the arena in the open field test. Moreover, perinatal 5-methoxytryptamine increased the percentages of entries and time spent on the open arms of the elevated plus maze, with respect to perinatally vehicle-exposed rats. Thus, perinatal stimulation of serotonin receptors does not impair the functional response to the emotional challenges in female rats, favouring the occurrence of a stress-resilient phenotype.

  1. Challenging Dualisms in Female Perceptions of IT Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenine Beekhuyzen

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the way that professional women working in the IT industry discuss the nature of their work and it is suggested that the way women talk about their work reinforces widely held impressions of the Information Technology industry. Structuration theory illuminated how this talk is not always consistent with the womens' lived experiences. The interview data revealed contradictions in these dualisms, indicating that these polarised views of women and IT work are being undermined by women in the IT industry. This paper suggests that mentoring, interactions with professional IT organisations, and professional IT women talking to females in their IT education years can give new ideas to the perceptions of IT and thus challenge these dualisms. The interviews were coded using NUD*IST, which allowed the researchers to explore the interviewees perceptions of IT work. In this paper, the perceptions of the interviewees are discussed as structures of signification that need to be altered in order to successfully challenge these dualisms. It is suggested that exposing females in their IT education years to the professional IT women who are challenging these dualisms is an essential part of transforming these structures of signification. This research is part of an ongoing project (WinIT commenced in 1995, which seeks to understand the declining female participation in IT education and work. In order to have a better understanding of the way women help configure the institutional realm of IT work, we propose that more qualitative studies of women at work in IT as well as women talking about IT are needed.

  2. Application of endocrine disruptor screening program fish short-term reproduction assay: Reproduction and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to Bermuda pond sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael; Fort, Chelsea E; Fort, Hayley M; Bacon, Jamie P

    2015-06-01

    A modified tier 1 Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) 21-d fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) was used to evaluate the effects of sediment exposure from freshwater and brackish ponds in Bermuda on reproductive fecundity and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Reproductively active male and female fish were exposed to control sediment and sediment from 2 freshwater ponds (fathead minnow) and 2 marine ponds (killifish) contaminated with polyaromatic hydrocarbons and metals via flow-through exposure for 21 d. Reproductive fecundity was monitored daily. At termination, the status of the reproductive endocrine system was assessed by the gonadosomatic index, gonadal histology, plasma steroids (estrogen [E2], testosterone [T], and 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT]), steroidogenic enzymes (aromatase and combined 3β/17β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [3β/17β-HSD]), and plasma vitellogenin (VTG). Decreased reproductive fecundity, lower male body weight, and altered endocrinological measures of reproductive status were observed in both species. Higher plasma T levels in female minnows and 11-KT levels in both male and female minnows and female killifish exposed to freshwater and brackish sediments, respectively. Decreased female E2 and VTG levels and gonadal cytochrome P19 (aromatase) activity were also found in sediment exposed females from both species. No effect on female 3β/17β-HSD activity was found in either species. The FSTRA provided a robust model capable of modification to evaluate reproductive effects of sediment exposure in fish. © 2015 SETAC.

  3. FEMALE DRAMATISTS, DISTINCTION AND THE NIGERIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    azunwo eziwho emenik

    work beneficial to students of literary research and the humanities in general. ... They do but to a limit due to their status in the society which can be tied ... on female body images, uses „women‟s language‟, expresses the female psyche or .... time Zulu Sofola used the position of influence and prominence she enjoys, as a ...

  4. Female genital mutilation : Conditions of decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldwell, JC; Orubuloye, IO; Caldwell, P

    Female genital mutilation (or female circumcision) has been experienced by over 100 million women in sub-Saharan Africa and the Nile valley Efforts to suppress the practice were made in the earlier decades of the present century, especially by missionaries in Kenya in the 1920s and early 1930s.

  5. Male versus Female Attitudes toward Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the extent to which differences existed between public attitudes of males versus females. Method: One hundred adults, 50 males and 50 females, were chosen at random from each of 50 study samples comprising a total of 3371 respondents in a database archive who had completed the "Public Opinion Survey of Human…

  6. Gender and computer games : Exploring females' dislikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Tilo; Klimmt, Christoph

    On average, girls and women are less involved with video games than are boys and men, and when they do play, they often prefer different games. This article reports two studies that investigated the dislikes of German females with regard to video games. Study 1 applied conjoint analysis to female

  7. Promoting the female condom to refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Papo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available UNHCR and its partners have been providing male condoms since the late 1990s. However, uptake remains alarmingly low. Will the agency be more successful in promoting the female condom, a female-initiated barrier method of contraception and disease prevention?

  8. Are Female Top Managers Really Paid Less?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiler, P.H.M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Are female top managers paid less than their male counterparts? Is the gender gap higher in male-dominated industries? What effect on pay do female non-executive directors and remuneration consultants exert? While we find no pay gap for the figure-head (CEO), there is strong pay

  9. Are female top managers really paid less?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiler, P.H.M.; Renneboog, Luc

    2015-01-01

    We study the gender pay gap for all top managers (CEO and executive directors) of listed UK companies and find mixed evidence: female CEOs do not face a pay gap, but the other female executive directors (e.g. CFO, COO, Deputy CEO) are discriminated against (while controlling for position, tenure,

  10. Barriers to Professional Advancement among Female Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Virginia E.

    It appears that there is nothing inherently associated with femaleness which should preclude the ascendence of women into management positions. However, barriers do exist and they stem from such factors as societal sex-role stereotypes, attitudes toward women in management, attitudes toward female competence, and the prevalence of the male…

  11. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  12. Gender Verification of Female Olympic Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Barry D.; Genel, Myron; Robinowitz, Carolyn B.; Turner, Patricia L.; Woods, Gary L.

    2002-01-01

    Gender verification of female athletes has long been criticized by geneticists, endocrinologists, and others in the medical community. Recently, the International Olympic Committee's Athletic Commission called for discontinuation of mandatory laboratory-based gender verification of female athletes. This article discusses normal sexual…

  13. Wellness of Minority Female Counselor Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingford, M. Ann; Trice-Black, Shannon; Butler, S. Kent

    2013-01-01

    Minority female counselor educators are faced with numerous challenges. This qualitative study revealed that for female minority counselor educators, these challenges continue to negatively affect their professional and personal experiences. It is through operational wellness practices and optimal balance and functioning that minority female…

  14. Neurogenetics: sex and the female brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Levine, Joel D

    2014-09-08

    Male flies put on a multimedia show during courtship involving dance, song, perfume and even vibrations; if a female likes it, she pauses to let him know. Recent studies shed new light on how development and experience contribute to neural mechanisms of female sexual receptivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexual and Contraceptive Practices among Female Undergraduates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CONCLUSION: There is a high level of sexual activity and low contraceptive use among female undergraduate students in Southwest Nigeria. More reproductive health education and promotion is necessary to safeguard their sexual health. KEYWORDS: sexual behaviour, contraception, female undergraduates, Nigeria ...

  16. Female genital mutilation: psychological and reproductive health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the reproductive health and psychological effects of female genital mutilation, in one traditional area in the Upper East region (i.e. Kayoro Traditional Area) of Ghana. The results of the study revealed that, the practice of FGM actually affects the physical (deforming the female genitalia), psychological (the ...

  17. Supporting the emergence of female student entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Kruse, Merethe

    2011-01-01

    intends to activate unused entrepreneurial potential at the AAA and increase the number of female design students who start their own business, during or after completion of study. The aim is that an independent career is made available for all, and not only for groups of particularly resourceful 'born......' entrepreneurs, where female students are underrepresented. This paper will show how enterprising elements...

  18. Career Management Issues of Female Business Expatriates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmer, Jan; Leung, Alicia S. M.

    2002-01-01

    Responses to a career management survey from 309 male and 79 female business expatriates revealed that, controlling for demographic differences, females could less often meet their career goals with the corporation. They were less likely to regard expatriation as a useful career move. Explanations were derived from relevant research literature.…

  19. Neurogenetics : sex and the female brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Levine, Joel D

    2014-01-01

    Male flies put on a multimedia show during courtship involving dance, song, perfume and even vibrations; if a female likes it, she pauses to let him know. Recent studies shed new light on how development and experience contribute to neural mechanisms of female sexual receptivity.

  20. Modus operandi of female serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W; Hilton, T

    1998-04-01

    The modus operandi of female serial killers was examined from a chronology of 58 cases in America and 47 cases in 17 other countries, compiled over 25-year intervals. Female serial killers in other countries accounted for a disproportionately greater number of victims, but those in America managed a longer killing career when associated with a low profile modus operandi.

  1. Intersex occurrence in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss male fry chronically exposed to ethynylestradiol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Depiereux

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the male-to-female morphological and physiological transdifferentiation process in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to exogenous estrogens. The first objective was to elucidate whether trout develop intersex gonads under exposure to low levels of estrogen. To this end, the gonads of an all-male population of fry exposed chronically (from 60 to 136 days post fertilization--dpf to several doses (from environmentally relevant 0.01 µg/L to supra-environmental levels: 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/L of the potent synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol (EE2 were examined histologically. The morphological evaluations were underpinned by the analysis of gonad steroid (testosterone, estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone levels and of brain and gonad gene expression, including estrogen-responsive genes and genes involved in sex differentiation in (gonads: cyp19a1a, ER isoforms, vtg, dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b; brain: cyp19a1b, ER isoforms. Intersex gonads were observed from the first concentration used (0.01 µg EE2/L and sexual inversion could be detected from 0.1 µg EE2/L. This was accompanied by a linear decrease in 11-KT levels, whereas no effect on E2 and T levels was observed. Q-PCR results from the gonads showed downregulation of testicular markers (dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b with increasing EE2 exposure concentrations, and upregulation of the female vtg gene. No evidence was found for a direct involvement of aromatase in the sex conversion process. The results from this study provide evidence that gonads of male trout respond to estrogen exposure by intersex formation and, with increasing concentration, by morphological and physiological conversion to phenotypic ovaries. However, supra-environmental estrogen concentrations are needed to induce these changes.

  2. Intersex Occurrence in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Male Fry Chronically Exposed to Ethynylestradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depiereux, Sophie; Liagre, Mélanie; Danis, Lorraine; De Meulder, Bertrand; Depiereux, Eric; Segner, Helmut; Kestemont, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the male-to-female morphological and physiological transdifferentiation process in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to exogenous estrogens. The first objective was to elucidate whether trout develop intersex gonads under exposure to low levels of estrogen. To this end, the gonads of an all-male population of fry exposed chronically (from 60 to 136 days post fertilization – dpf) to several doses (from environmentally relevant 0.01 µg/L to supra-environmental levels: 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/L) of the potent synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol (EE2) were examined histologically. The morphological evaluations were underpinned by the analysis of gonad steroid (testosterone, estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone) levels and of brain and gonad gene expression, including estrogen-responsive genes and genes involved in sex differentiation in (gonads: cyp19a1a, ER isoforms, vtg, dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b; brain: cyp19a1b, ER isoforms). Intersex gonads were observed from the first concentration used (0.01 µg EE2/L) and sexual inversion could be detected from 0.1 µg EE2/L. This was accompanied by a linear decrease in 11-KT levels, whereas no effect on E2 and T levels was observed. Q-PCR results from the gonads showed downregulation of testicular markers (dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b) with increasing EE2 exposure concentrations, and upregulation of the female vtg gene. No evidence was found for a direct involvement of aromatase in the sex conversion process. The results from this study provide evidence that gonads of male trout respond to estrogen exposure by intersex formation and, with increasing concentration, by morphological and physiological conversion to phenotypic ovaries. However, supra-environmental estrogen concentrations are needed to induce these changes. PMID:25033040

  3. Training and Extended Operations in Females

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruby, Brent

    1999-01-01

    ... (military field training) or with specific sport competitions, it was the purpose of our studies to apply a variety of measurement techniques to an unpredictable field environment where the subjects were exposed...

  4. Examining science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools: A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Kecia C.

    , exposure to science, parent influence, peer influence, teacher expectations, strategies for academic success in science, and perception of self in a predominantly Caucasian population. This information should be used to create interactive suburban middle school science classrooms that encourage the participation of African American females. These females should experience increased involvement with activities that expose them to science that is relevant to their lives. As a result, these females will be inspired to excel in science and one day enter into science careers.

  5. [Mental health status in railway female workers and its occupational influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, F L; Liu, Z M; Liu, Z S; Zou, J F; Yu, W L; Li, H M; Li, J; Kong, L M; Jiang, Q

    2018-02-20

    Objective: To investigate the mental health status of railway female workers and related influencing factors, and to provide a scientific strategy for labor protection regulations in railway female workers. Methods: Cluster sampling was used to select 5033 female workers from Jinan, Nanning, Qinghai-Tibet, and Wuhan railway systems in China from January to August, 2016. A uniform reproductive health questionnaire, as well as the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) , was used to investigate their general information (age, marital status, education level, and family income) , work type (day shift, night shift, or work on shift) , work position, and the presence or absence of exposure to occupational hazardous factors. The score on each factor of SCL-90 and the positive rate of mental health status were calculated. Results: The positive rate of mental health status was 10.6% in railway female workers. The workers exposed to occupational hazardous factors had a significantly higher positive rate of mental health status than those not exposed to occupational hazardous factors (14.20% vs 8.02%, P mental health status between workers with different ages, marital status, education levels, histories of abortion, or annual family income levels ( P mental health problems ( OR =1.797, 95% CI : 1.393-2.318; OR =0.641, 95% CI : 0.498-0.827; OR =0.586, 95% CI : 0.439-0.783; OR =0.580, 95% CI : 0.378-0.890) . Conclusion: Railway female workers have lower levels of mental health than the general population and are under significant occupational stress. Exposure to occupational hazardous factors, night shift, overwork, and carrying heavy objects are associated with the development of mental health problems in railway female workers.

  6. Neurogenesis and Helplessness are Mediated by Controllability in Males but not in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shors, Tracey J.; Mathew, Jason; Sisti, Helene M.; Edgecomb, Carol; Beckoff, Steven; Dalla, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have implicated neurogenesis in the hippocampus in animal models of depression, especially those related to controllability and learned helplessness. Here, we tested the hypothesis that uncontrollable, but not controllable stress would reduce cell proliferation in the hippocampus of male and female rats, and would relate to the expression of helplessness behavior. Methods To manipulate controllability, groups of male and female rats were trained in one session (acute stress) or over seven sessions (repeated stress) to escape a footshock, while yoked controls could not escape, but were exposed to the same amount of stress. Cell proliferation was assessed with immunohistochemistry of BrdU and immunofluorescence of BrdU and NeuN. Separate groups were exposed to either controllable or uncontrollable stress and their ability to learn to escape during training on a more difficult task was used as a behavioral measure of helplessness. Results Acute stress reduced cell proliferation in males, but did not affect proliferation in the female hippocampus. When animals were given the opportunity to learn to control the stress over days, males produced more cells than the yoked males without control. Repeated training with controllable stress did not influence proliferation in females. Under all conditions, males were more likely than females to express helplessness behavior, even males that were not previously stressed. Conclusions The modulation of neurogenesis by controllability was evident in males but not in females, as was the expression of helplessness behavior, despite the fact that men are less likely than women to experience depression. PMID:17306770

  7. Antenatal Diagnosis of an XXX Female

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krone, Lawrence R.; Prichard, Lorraine L.; Bradshaw, Christy L.; Jones, Oliver W.; Peterson, Raymond M.; Dixson, Barbara K.

    1975-01-01

    This report describes the first antenatal diagnosis of an XXX female. Over 150 postnatal cases of XXX females have been described. There is no specific phenotype associated with the sex chromosome abnormality and most such persons are fertile. The frequency of XXX females in mental institutions is 3.9 per 1,000 female subjects whereas the frequency in consecutive newborn infants is 1.1 per 1,000 newborns. Chi-square analysis shows this difference cannot be due to chance. On the other hand, data from consecutive newborn studies suggest that intellectual development in XXX newborns is within normal range. Available evidence favors normal development in XXX female infants although the risk for developmental disabilities may be higher for the XXX than for the XX infant. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:1154778

  8. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  9. Determinants of Female Labor Force Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Adiqa Kausar Kiani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors related to female entering the labor market. For example, household income, household expenditure, education and status of the head of the household (male/ female. The degree of correlation between each variable and female labor force participation rate varies throughout the country. This study focused on the factors due to which women enter in labor market. Tobit model is used for this analysis. It is concluded that education and household expenditures have positive but insignificant impact on the female LF, whereas household income and head of the household has negative impact on FLF. It is suggested that in order to improve the working condition of female labor force government should take necessary action, for example women education etc.

  10. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and their correlation to pulmonary function abnormalities in individuals exposed to environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, G.H.; Ali, M.; Ahmed, J.; Abbas, M.N.

    1999-01-01

    To find out the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and their correlation to pulmonary function abnormalities in individuals exposed to polluted air, 438 workers, and their family members were studied at Thermal Power Station (TPS), Sheikhmanda (Quetta). Individuals with a stay of less than three years at TPS and patients with known chronic respiratory infections (tuberculosis and its squelae, bronchiectasis) were excluded from the study. Remaining 175 males (mean age 43.4 years) and 71 females (mean age 34.2 years) were divided into three groups A, B, C on the basis of their exposure time to polluted air per day during the three years. Each groups was further subdivided into smoker and non-smoker members. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms was significantly higher in the individuals exposed to polluted air as compared to non-exposed individuals (P<0.05). A strong positive correlation (r=0.91) exists between respiratory symptoms and respiratory function abnormalities in smoker groups; however, no definite correlation (r=0.06) was found between respiratory symptoms and respiratory function abnormalities in non-smoker groups. Function abnormalities was noted only in smoker groups and non-smokers of even maximally exposed group (group C) had almost no respiratory function abnormalities. (author)

  11. The transgenerational inheritance of autism-like phenotypes in mice exposed to valproic acid during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang Soon; Gonzales, Edson Luck; Kim, Ki Chan; Yang, Sung Min; Kim, Ji-Woon; Mabunga, Darine Froy; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Han, Seol-Heui; Bahn, Geon Ho; Shin, Chan Young

    2016-11-07

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneously pervasive developmental disorder in which various genetic and environmental factors are believed to underlie its development. Recently, epigenetics has been suggested as a novel concept for ASD aetiology with a proposition that epigenetic marks can be transgenerationally inherited. Based on this assumption of epigenetics, we investigated the transgenerational inheritance of ASD-like behaviours and their related synaptic changes in the VPA animal model of ASD. The first generation (F1) VPA-exposed offspring exhibited autistic-like impaired sociability and increased marble burying. They also showed increased seizure susceptibility, hyperactivity and decreased anxiety. We mated the VPA-exposed F1 male offspring with naïve females to produce the second generation (F2), and then similarly mated the F2 to deliver the third generation (F3). Remarkably, the autism-like behavioural phenotypes found in F1 persisted to the F2 and F3. Additionally, the frontal cortices of F1 and F3 showed some imbalanced expressions of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic markers, suggesting a transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. These results open the idea that E/I imbalance and ASD-like behavioural changes induced by environmental insults in mice can be epigenetically transmitted, at least, to the third generation. This study could help explain the unprecedented increase in ASD prevalence.

  12. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterstein, Dana E; Tijerina, Pamella B; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B; Zelikoff, Judith T

    2016-04-12

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13-16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4-6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology.

  13. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterstein, Dana E.; Tijerina, Pamella B.; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S.; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B.; Zelikoff, Judith T.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13–16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4–6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology. PMID:27077873

  14. Vitellogenin and vitellogenin receptor gene expression and 20-hydroxyecdysone concentration in Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to chlordecone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Anne; Hanikenne, Marc; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Forget-Leray, Joëlle; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Gismondi, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide widely used in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) to control the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. Although it was previously highlighted that chlordecone may affect the reproduction and growth of vertebrate species, little information is available on the chlordecone effects in invertebrates. The present study investigated the effects of chlordecone on a hormone and a protein having key roles in reproduction and growth of the decapod crustacean Macrobrachium rosenbergii, by measuring the 20-hydroxyecdysone concentration, vitellogenin, and vitellogenin receptor gene expression, as well as the bioconcentration of chlordecone in exposed prawns. First, the results revealed that chlordecone was accumulated in M. rosenbergii. Then, it was found that Vg and VgR gene expression were increased in male and female M. rosenbergii exposed to chlordecone for 90 and 240 days, while the 20-hydroxyecdysone concentrations were decreased. This work suggests that chlordecone accumulates in prawn tissues and could affect key molecules involved in the reproduction and the growth of the invertebrate M. rosenbergii. However, many questions remain unresolved regarding the impacts of chlordecone on growth and reproduction and the signaling pathways responsible for these effects, as well as the potential role of confounding factors present in in situ studies.

  15. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana E. Lauterstein

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13–16 mg/mL or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND 4–6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq. Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology.

  16. [Influencing factors for hearing loss in workers exposed to noise in a cement plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X M; Wu, H; Jiao, J; Li, Y H; Zhang, Z R; Zhou, W H; Yu, S F

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the incidence of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and related influencing factors in workers exposed to noise in a cement plant. Methods: In October 2015, cluster sampling was used for questionnaire investigation and health examination of workers exposed to noise in a cement plant in Henan Province, China. The association of demographic features, living habits, cumulative noise exposure (CNE) , hypertension, and hyperlipidemia with NIHL was analyzed. Results: There was mainly medium-or high-frequency noise in the working place of this cement plant. The prevalence rate of NIHL was 18.4%, and male workers had a significantly higher prevalence rate than female workers (χ(2)=28.09, P workers who smoked had a significantly higher prevalence rate of NIHL than those who did not smoke (χ(2)=14.15, P workers with a drinking habit had a significantly higher prevalence rate of NIHL than those without such habit (χ(2)=7.95, P workers who did not wear earplugs had a significantly higher prevalence rate of NIHL than those who wore earplugs (χ(2)=19.93, P workers with hyperlipidemiahad a significantly higher prevalence rate of NIHL than those without hyperlipidemia (χ(2)=12.43, P workers in a cement plant have a high prevalence rate of NIHL, and CNE, sex, age, degree of education, use of earplugs, and hyperlipidemia may be influencing factors for NIHL.

  17. Gender Inequality in Female-Dominated Occupation: The Earnings of Male and Female Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Richard R.; Schneider, Jeffrey M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines earnings differentials between male and female teachers, using data from the 1987 Schools and Staffing Survey by the U.S. Department of Education. The estimated cost of being a female teacher is 5% in annual contract salary. In the female-dominated teaching profession, despite regulated pay scales and other structures to ensure pay…

  18. Microarray analysis of gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from dioxin-exposed human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHale, Cliona M.; Zhang, Luoping; Hubbard, Alan E.; Zhao, Xin; Baccarelli, Andrea; Pesatori, Angela C.; Smith, Martyn T.; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2007-01-01

    Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is classified as a human carcinogen and exerts toxic effects on the skin (chloracne). Effects on reproductive, immunological, and endocrine systems have also been observed in animal models. TCDD acts through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway influencing largely unknown gene networks. An industrial accident in Seveso, Italy in 1976 exposed thousands of people to substantial quantities of TCDD. Twenty years after the exposure, this study examines global gene expression in the mononuclear cells of 26 Seveso female never smokers, with similar age, alcohol consumption, use of medications, and background plasma levels of 22 dioxin congeners unrelated to the Seveso accident. Plasma dioxin levels were still elevated in the exposed subjects. We performed analyses in two different comparison groups. The first included high-exposed study subjects compared with individuals with background TCDD levels (average plasma levels 99.4 and 6.7 ppt, respectively); the second compared subjects who developed chloracne after the accident, and those who did not develop this disease. Overall, we observed a modest alteration of gene expression based on dioxin levels or on chloracne status. In the comparison between high levels and background levels of TCDD, four histone genes were up-regulated and modified expression of HIST1H3H was confirmed by real-time PCR. In the comparison between chloracne case-control subjects, five hemoglobin genes were up-regulated. Pathway analysis revealed two major networks for each comparison, involving cell proliferation, apoptosis, immunological and hematological disease, and other pathways. Further examination of the role of these genes in dioxin induced-toxicity is warranted

  19. Radiation risk factors in incidence anortality among exposed individuals of East Kazakhstand m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazbek Apsalikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lengthy clinical and epidemiological studies at the Research Institute of Radiation Medicine and Ecology have discovered basic patterns of long-term effects from ionizing radiation in population groups exposed to radiation risk. Methodology for calculating injury from radiation risk factors has been developed and implemented to minimize the effects of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS. Material and methods: We analyzed materials from the database of the Scientific Medical Register that were exposed to radiation as a result of SNTS. We analyzed both male and female populations of the Abay, Beskaragai and Zhanasemei, Kokpekti (control areas of East-Kazakhstan region (EKR from 2008-2012. These populations were split into three groups allocated by the generation. The first group represented persons born from the period of 01/01/1930 -08/01/1949 and their children born from the period of 10/09/1949-12/31/1962. The second group were persons born after 01/01/1963. The third group served as the control and were persons who immigrated to these areas after 1990. Results: There was an increased incidence of cancer (21.5%, p < 0.000734, cardiovascular diseases (10.2%; respiratory problems (9.6%, gastrointestinal issues (9.1%, p < 0.00371-0.00679 in the first group. The effect of the radiation dose has not been fully stuided among the subjects in the second group.The major causes of excess mortality in the first group were neoplams (30.6%, hypertension (23.8%, and myocardial infarction (22.6%. The effects of radiation influenced mortality in the second group were 2-2.5 times lower than the first group.Conclusion: There is a correlation between the size of the radiation dose, the risk profile, and age at the moment of radiation exposure with trends of morbidity and mortality in the radiation exposed areas.

  20. Chronic ethanol exposure increases voluntary home cage intake in adult male, but not female, Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Melissa; McGinnis, Molly M; McCool, Brian A

    2015-12-01

    The current experiment examined the effects of 10 days of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure on anxiety-like behavior and home cage ethanol intake using a 20% intermittent access (M, W, F) paradigm in male and female Long-Evans rats. Withdrawal from alcohol dependence contributes to relapse in humans and increases in anxiety-like behavior and voluntary ethanol consumption in preclinical models. Our laboratory has shown that 10 days of CIE exposure produces both behavioral and neurophysiological alterations associated with withdrawal in male rats; however, we have yet to examine the effects of this exposure regime on ethanol intake in females. During baseline, females consumed more ethanol than males but, unlike males, did not show escalations in intake. Rats were then exposed to CIE and were again given intermittent access to 20% ethanol. CIE males increased their intake compared to baseline, whereas air-exposed males did not. Ethanol intake in females was unaffected by CIE exposure. Notably, both sexes expressed significantly elevated withdrawal-associated anxiety-like behavior in the plus maze. Finally, rats were injected with the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716A (0, 1, 3, 10mg/kg, i.p.) which reduced ethanol intake in both sexes. However, females appear to be more sensitive to lower doses of this CB1 receptor antagonist. Our results show that females consume more ethanol than males; however, they did not escalate their intake using the intermittent access paradigm. Unlike males, CIE exposure had no effect on drinking in females. It is possible that females may be less sensitive than males to ethanol-induced increases in drinking after a short CIE exposure. Lastly, our results demonstrate that males and females may have different pharmacological sensitivities to CB1 receptor blockade on ethanol intake, at least under the current conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of reproductive function in persons exposed to chronic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossenko, M.M.; Ostroumova, E.V.; Vyushkova, O.V.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the reproductive function in individuals exposed to radiation in the riverside villages on the Techa in the Southern Urals. The exposure of the population, numbering 28000, occurred in 1950-1956 as a result of discharges into the river of radioactive wastes from the Mayak facility for processing weapon plutonium. The residents were exposed to chronic radiation, both external and internal. The range of exposure doses to gonads was sufficiently wide: 20-1270 mSv. However, the distribution of doses among the exposed individuals was ununiform, and the proportion of people whose dose was below 120 mGy accounted for 74%. The following characteristics of exposed women were analyzed: menstrual function, outcomes of pregnancy, birth rates, health status for newborns. The analysis of the menstrual function in exposed women showed that in persons exposed in childhood, menarche was registered at the age of 14.3 years, on the average (based on literature sources, menarche is attained at the age of 13 for unexposed population). The mean age at menopause was 47.9 years for exposed women (the respective mean value for Russia is 50.8 years). Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in 9000 exposed women. The rate of medical and criminal abortions was estimated as 79 per 100 labors. The rate of spontaneous abortions for exposed women was slightly higher, 3.11%, than for controls, 2.30%; these difference, however, were statistically insignificant. The total loss of fetus or neonate (unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy: spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, early neonatal death) was estimated to be 4.58% at zero dose. Exposure to gonads at the dose 1 Sv, estimated using the above-indicated method, yielded 3% of additional unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy. It was shown, based on the analysis of birth rates for the Techa Cohort that they had not undergone any essential changes over the first 25 years of exposure compared to the respective coefficients for

  2. Analysis of reproductive function in persons exposed to chronic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossenko, M.M.; Ostroumova, E.V.; Vyushkova, O.V. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the reproductive function in individuals exposed to radiation in the riverside villages on the Techa in the Southern Urals. The exposure of the population, numbering 28000, occurred in 1950-1956 as a result of discharges into the river of radioactive wastes from the Mayak facility for processing weapon plutonium. The residents were exposed to chronic radiation, both external and internal. The range of exposure doses to gonads was sufficiently wide: 20-1270 mSv. However, the distribution of doses among the exposed individuals was ununiform, and the proportion of people whose dose was below 120 mGy accounted for 74%. The following characteristics of exposed women were analyzed: menstrual function, outcomes of pregnancy, birth rates, health status for newborns. The analysis of the menstrual function in exposed women showed that in persons exposed in childhood, menarche was registered at the age of 14.3 years, on the average (based on literature sources, menarche is attained at the age of 13 for unexposed population). The mean age at menopause was 47.9 years for exposed women (the respective mean value for Russia is 50.8 years). Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in 9000 exposed women. The rate of medical and criminal abortions was estimated as 79 per 100 labors. The rate of spontaneous abortions for exposed women was slightly higher, 3.11%, than for controls, 2.30%; these difference, however, were statistically insignificant. The total loss of fetus or neonate (unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy: spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, early neonatal death) was estimated to be 4.58% at zero dose. Exposure to gonads at the dose 1 Sv, estimated using the above-indicated method, yielded 3% of additional unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy. It was shown, based on the analysis of birth rates for the Techa Cohort that they had not undergone any essential changes over the first 25 years of exposure compared to the respective coefficients for

  3. Genotoxicity and fetal abnormality in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats exposed to cigarette smoke prior to and during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, D C; Volpato, G T; Sinzato, Y K; Lima, P H O; Souza, M S S; Iessi, I L; Kiss, A C I; Takaku, M; Rudge, M V C; Calderon, I M P

    2011-10-01

    Maternal hyperglycemia during early pregnancy is associated with increased risk of abnormalities in the offspring. Malformation rates among the offspring of diabetic mothers are 2-5-fold higher than that of the normal population, and congenital malformations are the major cause of mortality and morbidity in the offspring of diabetic mothers. Metabolic changes, such as hyperglycemia and the metabolites obtained from cigarettes both increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the embryo or fetus, causing DNA damage. To evaluate the maternal and fetal genotoxicity, and to assess the incidence of fetal anomaly in diabetic female rats exposed to cigarette smoke at different stages of pregnancy in rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin administration and cigarette smoke exposure was produced by a mechanical smoking device that generated mainstream smoke that was delivered into a chamber. Female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to: non-diabetic (ND) and diabetic (D) groups exposed to filtered air; a diabetic group exposed to cigarette smoke prior to and during pregnancy (DS) and a diabetic group only exposed to cigarette smoke prior to pregnancy (DSPP). On pregnancy day 21, blood samples were obtained for DNA damage analysis and fetuses were collected for congenital anomaly assessment. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05 for all analysis. Exposure of diabetic rats to tobacco smoke prior to pregnancy increased fetal DNA damage, but failed to induce teratogenicity. Thus, these results reinforce the importance for women to avoid exposure to cigarette smoke long before they become pregnant. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Assessment of reproductive effects in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, M S; Ruessler, D S; Denslow, N D; Holm, S E; Schoeb, T R; Gross, T S

    2001-11-01

    This study evaluated the potential effects of different concentrations of bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluent (B/UKME) on several reproductive endpoints in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The kraft mill studied produces a 50/50 mix of bleached/unbleached market pulp with an estimated release of 36 million gal of effluent/day. Bleaching sequences were C90d10EopHDp and CEHD for softwood (pines) and hardwoods (mainly tupelo, gums, magnolia, and water oaks), respectively. Bass were exposed to different effluent concentrations (0 [controls, exposed to well water], 10, 20, 40, or 80%) for either 28 or 56 days. At the end of each exposure period, fish were euthanized, gonads collected for histological evaluation and determination of gonadosomatic index (GSI), and plasma was analyzed for 17beta-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, and vitellogenin (VTG). Largemouth bass exposed to B/UKME responded with changes at the biochemical level (decline in sex steroids in both sexes and VTG in females) that were usually translated into tissue/organ-level responses (declines in GSI in both sexes and in ovarian development in females). Although most of these responses occurred after exposing fish to 40% B/UKME concentrations or greater, some were observed after exposures to 20% B/UKME. These threshold concentrations fall within the 60% average yearly concentration of effluent that exists in the stream near the point of discharge (Rice Creek), but are above the <10% effluent concentration present in the St. Johns River. The chemical(s) responsible for such changes as well as their mode(s) of action remain unknown at this time.

  5. Analysis of the mortality of the progeny of exposed parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosenko, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the values, time course, and structure of mortality of the progeny of exposed residents of villages on the banks of the Techa river in the Urals. The exposure was caused by discharge of radioactive waste of Mayak radiochemical plant for the manufacture of bomb plutonium into the river. A total of 76x10 6 m 3 liquid waste with a total activity of 2,75x10 6 Ci was discharged into the river from 1949 to 1956. The population of villages on the banks of the river, 26554 subjects was exposed to external and internal radiation. The doses per gonads caused by external exposure and incorporation of evenly distributed radionuclides (mainly 137 Cs) ranged 20 to 1270 mSv. A total of 23869 children were born to exposed subjects since the beginning of exposure; 3160 of these were exposed in utero. The mortality rates int he studied cohort was nothigher than in controls. However, deaths from the so-called endogenous causes were more frequent for the descendants of exposed subjects: neonatal diseases, congenital developmental defects, and states that could not be accurately defined. Correlation of the number of deaths from congenital developmental defects to the collective gonadal dose permitted us to assess the risk as 0.004 perSv, this being in agreement with the estimates of the International Committee for Radiation Protection. 7 refs.; 2 figs.; 6 tabs

  6. Serum-thyroxine levels in microwave-exposed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.T.; Lebda, N.; Michaelson, S.M.; Pettit, S.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of the response of the thyroid gland in animals exposed to microwave irradiation is controversial. Animal experimentation has contributed to the controversy because both increased and decreased thyroid functions have been reported. The thyroxine concentration in rats as representative of thyroid function in animals exposed to 2.45-GHz, 120-Hz amplitude-modulated microwaves has been studied. These studies covered a long time span; rats from two commercial sources (BS and CR) were used and subjected to different numbers of exposures, and therefore these data were evaluated for their stability. Two factors could influence in the result significantly, i.e., source of animal and number of sham exposures. Rats used in the 2-hr exposures were from two different commercial sources; rats from CR had a higher (but normal) thyroxine concentration than did rats from BS. Therefore the data of these animals were separated by commercial source for reevaluation. Instead of increased thyroxine concentration in rats exposed at 25, 30, and 40 mW/cm 2 , changes were not noted in any microwave-exposed rats. The influence of sham exposure revealed that appropriate concurrent control and specification of animal source are needed in longitudinal studies. Furthermore, statistical procedures used can greatly influence the conclusions. Thus the specificity of changes in thyroxine concentration in rats exposed to microwaves because of its sporadic occurrence and because of inconsistencies among experiments was doubted

  7. Fighting Back Against the Encroachment of Patriarchal Power on Female Domains in Wuthering Heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Akcesme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wuthering Heights can be read as a novel of warfare against women and women-associated spaces to be conquered to prove male superiority, authority and power. This paper aims to discuss how Emily Bronte challenged not only the established Victorian literary traditions but also the prevailing ideals of the Victorian society by subverting the hierarchically constructed power and gender relations with an emphasis on various strategies employed by Heathcliff and Edgar in the war they launch against nature, property and women to conquer, possess and control domestic households, external nature and female body. Their strategies include reductionism which includes the commodification and objectification of female body, separation of women from their female bond, family and female spaces, physical and emotional uprooting which causes the loss of independence, self-confidence and positive self-image, masculinization of nature and home, brutalization through which the female characters are exposed to male violence and oppression and destruction of a sense of security, commitment and resistance. The female characters are disconnected not only from their domestic households and nature but also from female bonds. The sense of placelessness and homelessness along with the lack of female solidarity is aggravated by transforming home and the natural world into an imprisoning, dominating and tyrannical web for women. Bronte ends the novel with a hope that subjugation and subordination does not have to be the inevitable destiny for women who can fight back to restructure the existing power relations and reclaim their bodies and home along with nature turned against them.

  8. Motivation Factors for Female Entrepreneurship in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cantú Cavada

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to analyse motivation factors for female entrepreneurship in Mexico. In the proposed article, the authors discuss the factors which compelled women to start their enterprises in Mexico. Research Design & Methods: Based on in-depth interviews with female entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship experts, the authors show which factors motivated women to start their own business in Mexico. Findings: The study proves that women in Mexico are motivated by a combination of push and pull factors, where the majority of the factors are pull factors. The findings of the study help to conclude that female entrepreneurship development is influenced by different factors including the entrepreneurs’ personal traits, social and economic factors. Due to their conservative traditional attitude, risk adverse tendency, and non-cooperation of family members, etc. women entrepreneurs are sometimes deterred to start a business in Mexico. Implications & Recommendations: It is necessary to raise the awareness of different factors that promote female entrepreneurship in Mexico. Governmental programmes which support female entrepreneurship, business incubators, and networking could be very helpful for women when starting their own business. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in studying motivational factors for female entrepreneurship in Mexico. The Mexican society faces a big revolution towards female entrepreneurship. Based on the change of family structure and traditions, women nowadays are having more opportunities to develop as entrepreneurs.

  9. Female Clergy as Agents of Religious Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Niemelä

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on female clergy as potential agents of change in the Church. I argue that the adoption of female clergy is one of the main factors that cause the Church to change its practices, policies and theological orientation. The first female ministers were ordained in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland in 1988. This is fairly late compared to other Nordic countries. However, the number of female ministers and female students has been growing fast and nowadays about 70 percent of theology students are female.The paper is based on quantitative surveys conducted among the members of the Clergy Union in 2002, 2006 and 2010 (N = about 1,000 each and among the applicants for university studies in theology in 2010. The research shows that clergywomen are changing the Church in a clearly more liberal direction. They do it in various areas of church life: they change the perception of faith and dogma, the policies of the Church as well as daily practices in parishes. Clergymen are notably more traditional in their orientation, even young clergymen. Therefore it is especially the female clergy who serve as agents of religious change in the Church.

  10. Female headship, feminization of poverty and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimenyi, M S; Mbaku, J M

    1995-07-01

    Female-headed households are at greater risk of slipping into poverty than male-headed households. Indeed, sex and marital status of the head of household are the most important determinants of a family's poverty status in the US. Divorce, separation, death of a husband, and out-of-wedlock births can lead to female headship. Transfer payments, especially the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program, are blamed for contributing to increased marital instability and out-of-wedlock births. The authors examined the role of welfare benefits in influencing female headship. Preliminary results using standard estimation procedures indicate that transfers do not significantly influence female headship. Standard estimation procedures are, however, erroneous because they ignore differences in propensities to establish mother-only households. Therefore, adjusting for differences in propensities to establish female-headed households, the level of welfare benefits is indeed an important factor in explaining the variation in the changes in the birth rates to unmarried women. The use of a weighted measure suggests that welfare benefits, by increasing female headship of women who otherwise have low propensities to be female heads, have played a significant role in the feminization of poverty.

  11. Male and Female Perception of Physical Attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Garza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR and breast size are morphological traits that are associated with female attractiveness. Previous studies using line drawings of women have shown that men across cultures rate low WHRs (0.6 and 0.7 as most attractive. In this study, we used additional viewing measurements (i.e., first fixation duration and visual regressions to measure visual attention and record how long participants first focused on the female body and whether they regressed back to an area of interest. Additionally, we manipulated skin tone to determine whether they preferred light- or dark-skinned women. In two eye tracking experiments, participants rated the attractiveness of female nude images varying in WHR (0.5–0.9, breast size, and skin tone. We measured first fixation duration, gaze duration, and total time. The overall results of both studies revealed that visual attention fell mostly on the face, the breasts, and the midriff of the female body, supporting the evolutionary view that reproductively relevant regions of the female body are important to female attractiveness. Because the stimuli varied in skin tone and the participants were mainly Hispanic of Mexican American descent, the findings from these studies also support a preference for low WHRs and reproductively relevant regions of the female body.

  12. Female Sex Offenders: Public Awareness and Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Calli M; Anderson, Amy L

    2016-12-01

    Traditional gender roles, sex scripts, and the way female sex offenders are portrayed in the media may lead to misconceptions about who can commit sexual offenses. Sexual crimes by women may go unnoticed or unreported if there is a general lack of awareness that females commit these crimes. Data from the 2012 Nebraska Annual Social Indicators Survey were used to determine whether the public perceives women as capable sex offenders and the perceived causes of female sex offending. The traditional focus on male sex offenders by researchers, media, and politicians, in addition to gender stereotypes, introduces the possibility of group differences (e.g., between men and women) in perceptions of female sex offenders. Consequently, two secondary analyses were conducted that tested for group differences in both the public's perception of whether females can commit sex offenses and the explanations selected for why females sexually offend. The findings suggest that the public does perceive women as capable sex offenders, although there were group differences in the causal attributions for female sex offending.

  13. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and mutagenicity in bus drivers and mail carriers exposed to urban air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Wallin, Håkan; Binderup, Mona Lise

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies in Denmark have shown that bus drivers and tramway employees were at an increased risk for developing several types of cancer and that bus drives from central Copenhagen have high levels of biomarkers of DNA damage.AIMS: The present study evaluates 1-hydroxypyrene....../mol creatinine [CI: 0.37-1.47] and female bus drivers 1.90 revertants/mol creatinine [CI: 1.01-2.79] higher mutagenic activity in urine than mail carriers. CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that bus drivers are more exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and mutagens than mail carriers. Mail...

  14. Gender differences in risky sexual behavior among urban adolescents exposed to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins Fantasia, Heidi; Sutherland, Melissa A; Kelly-Weeder, Susan

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an ecological lens to explore gender differences in risky sexual behavior among urban adolescents exposed to violence. This was a secondary analysis of data from a larger behavioral intervention trial that targeted drinking behaviors among adolescents. Data from a total of 2,560 male and female urban adolescents between the ages of 14 and 21 were analyzed for personal, interpersonal, and community exposure to violence and risky sexual behavior. Violence has an impact on sexual risk. For females, carrying a weapon (p= 0.020) and feeling safe in intimate relationships (p= 0.029) were individual correlates of risky sexual behavior, while for males, race/ethnicity (p= 0.019) and being in a physical fight (p= 0.001) were significant correlates of risky sexual behavior. Risky sexual behavior among adolescents may lead to negative reproductive health outcomes. Nurse practitioners are in an excellent position to affect change in this population through their frequent contact with adolescents in a variety of community and school-based venues. Nurse practitioners are also well-prepared to identify at-risk adolescents and provide them with individualized care, education, and support. ©2012 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2012 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  15. Gender-specific impairments on cognitive and behavioral development in mice exposed to fenvalerate during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiu-Hong; Liu, Ping; Wang, Hua; Zhao, Xian-Feng; Xu, Zhong-Mei; Chen, Gui-Hai; Xu, De-Xiang

    2011-06-24

    In human and rodent models, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the development of cognition and behaviors. Fenvalerate is a potential EDC. The purpose of this study was to examine whether pubertal fenvalerate exposure altered behavioral development. Mice were orally administered with either vehicle or fenvalerate (7.5 or 30 mg/kg/day) from postnatal day (PND) 28 to PND56. Learning and memory were assessed by Morris Water Maze. Aggressive performance was evaluated by aggressive behavior test. Anxiety-related activities were detected by three tests: open-field, plus-maze and black-white alley. Sensorimotor function was analyzed using beam walking and tightrope. Results found that the impairment for spatial learning and memory was more severe in fenvalerate-exposed female mice than in male mice. In addition, pubertal fenvalerate exposure inhibited aggressive behavior in males. Moreover, pubertal fenvalerate exposure increased anxiety activities in females. Altogether, these results suggest that pubertal fenvalerate exposure impairs spatial cognition and behavioral development in a gender-dependent manner. These findings identify fenvalerate as candidate environmental risk factors for cognitive and behavioral development, especially in the critical period of development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimation of dose distribution in occupationally exposed individuals to FDG-{sup 18}F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Isabelle V. Batista de; Cabral, Manuela O. Monteiro; Vieira, Jose Wilson, E-mail: ilacerda.bolsista@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: manuela.omc@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Oliveira, Mercia Liane de; Andrade Lima, Fernando R. de, E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The use of unsealed radiation sources in nuclear medicine can lead to important incorporation of radionuclides, especially for occupationally exposed individuals (OEIs) during production and handling of radiopharmaceuticals. In this study, computer simulation was proposed as an alternative methodology for evaluation of the absorbed dose distribution and for the effective dose value in OEIs. For this purpose, the Exposure Computational Model (ECM) which is named as FSUP (Female Adult Mesh - supine) were used. This ECM is composed of: voxel phantom FASH (Female Adult MeSH) in the supine position, the MC code EGSnrc and an algorithm simulator of general internal source. This algorithm was modified to adapt to specific needs of the positron emission from FDG-{sup 18}F. The obtained results are presented as absorbed dose/accumulated activity. To obtain the absorbed dose distribution it was necessary to use accumulative activity data from the in vivo bioassay. The absorbed dose distribution and the value of estimated effective dose in this study did not exceed the limits for occupational exposure. Therefore, the creation of a database with the distribution of accumulated activity is suggested in order to estimate the absorbed dose in radiosensitive organs and the effective dose for OEI in similar environment. (author)

  17. Workplace Activity in Health Professionals Exposed to Chemotherapy Drugs: An Otoneurological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes, Natália Martinez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The manipulation of antineoplastic drugs presents high risk for accidents and occupational diseases. Objective To evaluate the auditory and vestibular systems of workers who are exposed to chemotherapeutic treatment in the University Hospital of Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Brazil, and to identify the use of individual protection equipment, related to the obtained results. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study using a quantitative method. We evaluate 33 male and female workers, ranging from 21–60 years old, of the nursing and pharmacy sectors. The workers underwent conventional Audiologic Assessment; Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions; and Computerized Vectoelectronystagmography. Results The majority of the sample was female (90.9%. Individual protection equipment was used by 90.9% of the workers. Complaints of dizziness were reported by 56.25% of nursing workers and 52.94% of pharmacy workers. Audiological and vestibular assessment results were within normal limits, 96.97% and 74.20%, respectively. However, audiometric configuration of notch type was identified in 75.75% of all workers. Audiometric notches (76% and altered caloric test (100% were often associated with decreased use of coal masks. Conclusion Among the workers evaluated, the vestibulocochlear system was within the normal limits. The presence of notch configuration indicates the need to use individual protection equipment.

  18. Unveiling the oxidative metabolism of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) experimentally exposed to entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi Alves, Victor Menezes; da Silva, Jairo Pinheiro; Nora Castro, Rosane; Salgueiro, Fernanda Barbosa; Perinotto, Wendell Marcelo de Souza; Gôlo, Patrícia Silva; Camargo, Mariana Guedes; Angelo, Isabele da Costa; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro

    2016-10-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus is an important tick in tropical regions due to the high economic losses caused by its parasitism. Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana are well-known entomopathogenic fungi that can afflict R. microplus ticks. The development of new targets and strategies to control this parasite can be driven by studies of this tick's physiology. Recently, it was reported that when exposed to adverse physiological conditions, ticks can activate fermentative pathways, indicating transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism by which entomopathogenic fungi influence R. microplus metabolism has not been clarified, limiting understanding of the tick-fungus association. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of infection of ticks by M. anisopliae and B. bassiana on the amount of selected carboxylic acids present in the hemolymph, enabling increased understanding of changes previously reported. The results showed preservation in the concentrations of oxalic, lactic, and pyruvic acids in the hemolymph 24 and 48 h after dropping from cattle; while there were variations in the concentration of these carboxylic acids after infection of female ticks to M. anisopliae and B. bassiana. Significant increases were observed in the concentration of oxalic and lactic acids and significant reduction of pyruvic acid for both observation times (24 and 48 h) after infection by entomopathogenic fungi. These results indicate that B. bassiana and M. anisopliae infection alters the basal metabolism of R. microplus females, resulting in the activation of fermentative pathways.

  19. Estimation of dose distribution in occupationally exposed individuals to FDG-18F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, Isabelle V. Batista de; Cabral, Manuela O. Monteiro; Vieira, Jose Wilson

    2014-01-01

    The use of unsealed radiation sources in nuclear medicine can lead to important incorporation of radionuclides, especially for occupationally exposed individuals (OEIs) during production and handling of radiopharmaceuticals. In this study, computer simulation was proposed as an alternative methodology for evaluation of the absorbed dose distribution and for the effective dose value in OEIs. For this purpose, the Exposure Computational Model (ECM) which is named as FSUP (Female Adult Mesh - supine) were used. This ECM is composed of: voxel phantom FASH (Female Adult MeSH) in the supine position, the MC code EGSnrc and an algorithm simulator of general internal source. This algorithm was modified to adapt to specific needs of the positron emission from FDG- 18 F. The obtained results are presented as absorbed dose/accumulated activity. To obtain the absorbed dose distribution it was necessary to use accumulative activity data from the in vivo bioassay. The absorbed dose distribution and the value of estimated effective dose in this study did not exceed the limits for occupational exposure. Therefore, the creation of a database with the distribution of accumulated activity is suggested in order to estimate the absorbed dose in radiosensitive organs and the effective dose for OEI in similar environment. (author)

  20. Sex hormone concentrations and gonad histology in brown trout (Salmo Trutta) exposed to 17β-estradiol and bisphenol A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B Bjerregaard, Lisette; Lindholst, Christian; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: The impact of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and bisphenol A (BPA) on steroid hormone levels and gonad development in brown trout (Salmo trutta) was determined. Exposure took place from 0 to 63 days post-fertilisation (dpf) and gonad development was followed till 400 dpf. The onset...... began during the first weeks of embryonic development. Few consistent effects were found on the sex differentiation of the brown trout. Only one intersex fish (4.5%) was found among male fish at 400 dpf exposed to 500 ng E2/l. Females with male germ cells among the normally developing oocytes were...... observed in all groups (in up to 50% of the female fish, independently of exposure regime). The fact that exposure to 500 ng E2/l only caused subtle effects in a small number of individuals indicates that exposure during early life stages results in little to no induction of endocrine disruption in brown...

  1. Neuroinflammation and Behavior in HIV-1 Transgenic Rats Exposed to Chronic Adolescent Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Sydney A; Harrell, Constance S; Bekhbat, Mandakh; Gangavelli, Apoorva; Wu, Matthew J; Kelly, Sean D; Reddy, Renuka; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2016-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved prognosis for people living with HIV (PLWH) and dramatically reduced the incidence of AIDS. However, even when viral load is controlled, PLWH develop psychiatric and neurological disorders more frequently than those living without HIV. Adolescents with HIV are particularly susceptible to the development of psychiatric illnesses and neurocognitive impairments. While both psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders have been found to be exacerbated by stress, the extent to which chronic stress and HIV-1 viral proteins interact to impact behavior and relevant neuroinflammatory processes is unknown. Determination of the individual contributions of stress and HIV to neuropsychiatric disorders is heavily confounded in humans. In order to isolate the influence of HIV-1 proteins and chronic stress on behavior and neuroinflammation, we employed the HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat model, which expresses HIV-1 proteins with a gag and pol deletion, allowing for viral protein expression without viral replication. This Tg line has been characterized as a model of HAART-controlled HIV-1 infection due to the lack of viral replication but continued presence of HIV-1 proteins. We exposed male and female adolescent HIV-1 Tg rats to a mixed-modality chronic stress paradigm consisting of isolation, social defeat and restraint, and assessed behavior, cerebral vascularization, and neuroinflammatory endpoints. Stress, sex, and presence of the HIV-1 transgene impacted weight gain in adolescent rats. Female HIV-1 Tg rats showed decreases in central tendency during the light cycle in the open field regardless of stress exposure. Both male and female HIV-1 Tg rats exhibited decreased investigative behavior in the novel object recognition task, but no memory impairments. Adolescent stress had no effect on the tested behaviors. Microglia in female HIV-1 Tg rats exhibited a hyper-ramified structure, and gene expression of complement factor B was

  2. The Impact of Female Attractiveness in Spy

    OpenAIRE

    Pangjaya, Veronika Juliani; Handojo, Priska Febrinia

    2017-01-01

    This thesis discusses the impact of female attractiveness on the female character which is related to the way Spy sees attractive women and what the impacts to them are. There are criteria for female attractiveness that are displayed by the film such as physical attributes and traits. In order to show the criteria of attractive women and the responses that they get, I use stereotyping theory. Women who are physically attractive get better treatment, but in order to get that, they have to dres...

  3. Screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.R.

    1997-12-31

    This publication resulted from a World Health Organisation initiated project to investigate the harmonisation of definitions, approaches and methodologies for the screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dust. The first part of the book provides definitions of screening and surveillance and describes the main elements of such programmes. The second part discusses the practical aspect of the screening and surveillance of working populations exposed to crystalline silica, coal mine dust and asbestos. Although no single set of guidelines is applicable to the development and implementation of a programme for the screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dust, the recommendations, together with certain caveats, should provide a useful starting point. Annexes provide examples of existing programmes in various countries and environments and discuss the use and interpretation of questionnaires, lung spirometry and chest radiography. Overall the book should be of interest to occupational health professionals.

  4. Cytogenetic investigation of subjects professionally exposed to radiofrequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Annemarie; Van Gorp, Urbain; Verschaeve, Luc

    2006-03-01

    Nowadays, virtually everybody is exposed to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) from mobile phone base station antennas or other sources. At least according to some scientists, this exposure can have detrimental health effects. We investigated cytogenetic effects in peripheral blood lymphocytes from subjects who were professionally exposed to mobile phone electromagnetic fields in an attempt to demonstrate possible RFR-induced genetic effects. These subjects can be considered well suited for this purpose as their RFR exposure is 'normal' though rather high, and definitely higher than that of the 'general population'. The alkaline comet assay, sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosome aberration tests revealed no evidence of RFR-induced genetic effects. Blood cells were also exposed to the well known chemical mutagen mitomycin C in order to investigate possible combined effects of RFR and the chemical. No cooperative action was found between the electromagnetic field exposure and the mutagen using either the comet assay or SCE test.

  5. Histomorphological patterns in osseous rests exposed at fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, C.; Tiesler, V.; Oliva, A.I.; Quintana, P.

    2005-01-01

    Histomorphology as part of morphological research studies bony structure on the tissue level. Its methods are applied in this investigation to evaluate histomorphological impact patterns in heat-exposed bony material, particularly color changes, fissure patterns, volumetric reduction, and changes in the size of Haversian canals. These variables were evaluated in exposed thin sections of porcine long bones, obtained during two experimental series. The first one was conducted under stable thermal conditions in a furnace by measuring heat impact in stepped time (I to S hours) and temperature intervals (200 to 800 C). During a second experimental phase, bony samples were exposed to direct fire in defined time and heat intervals. The treated specimens were then sectioned and microscopically scrutinized. The results presented here were designed to offer new analytical, measurable standards in the investigation of forms of heat exposition of the human body, applicable in forensics and the study of ancient Maya posthumous body treatments. (Author)

  6. Urine nickel concentrations in nickel-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacki, E J; Parsons, G E; Roy, B R; Mikac-Devic, M; Kennedy, C D; Sunderman, F W

    1978-01-01

    Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was employed for analyses of nickel concentrations in urine samples from nickel-exposed workers in 10 occupational groups and from non-exposed workers in two control groups. Mean concentrations of nickel in urine were greatest in workers who were exposed to inhalation of aerosols of soluble nickel salts (e.g., workers in nickel plating operations and in an electrolytic nickel refinery). Less marked increases in urine nickel concentrations were found in groups of metal sprayers, nickel battery workers, bench mechanics and are welders. No significant increases in mean concentrations of nickel were found in urine samples from workers who performed grinding, buffing and polishing of nickel-containing alloys or workers in a coal gasification plant who employed Raney nickel as a hydrogenation catalyst. Measurements of nickel concentrations in urine are more sensitive and practical than measurements of serum nickel concentrations for evaluation of nickel exposures in industrial workers.

  7. Liver function in workers exposed of the cosmetics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, T; Caciari, T; Rosati, M V; Biagi, M; De Sio, S; Andreozzi, G; Schifano, M P; Capozzella, A; Pimpinella, B; Tomei, G; Tomei, F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether occupational exposure to substances used in the cosmetic factories may cause effects on the liver and blood counts in exposed workers. The study included 48 exposed workers and 86 unexposed controls. All workers included in the study underwent blood count, white blood count, total, direct and indirect bilirubin, transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and cholinesterase. The differences between the means and frequencies were compared using the Student's t-test and chi-square test with Yates correction and were considered significant when the p value was cosmetics industry had liver test values above the range. We noted a statistically significant higher prevalence of GPT (p cosmetics industry compared with the control group. The results obtained suggest that occupational exposure to low doses of substances used in the cosmetic industry is able to influence some liver parameters in occupationally exposed workers.

  8. Characteristics of Female Solo and Female Co-Offenders and Male Solo Sexual Offenders Against Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca; Gillespie, Steven M; Elliott, Ian A; Eldridge, Hilary J

    2017-09-01

    Studies have highlighted differences in the victim choice, offender, and offense characteristics of female and male sexual offenders. However, little is known about how solo and co-offending females differ from solo male sexual offenders. We compared the characteristics of 20 solo and 20 co-offending females (co-offended with a male and/or female accomplice), and 40 male sexual offenders against children. We found that solo female offenders showed the most evidence of personal problems, including depression and sexual dissatisfaction. Compared with male offenders, female co-offenders showed poorer self-management, but better sexual self-regulation. Male offenders had a greater history of offending and showed more evidence of sexual abuse supportive cognitions relative to both solo and co-offending females. These results are consistent with the need for a gender-specific approach to working with sexual offenders and may have implications for understanding the often complex treatment needs of these clients.

  9. Ice nucleation of ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salam

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The ice nucleation characteristics of montmorillonite mineral dust aerosols with and without exposure to ammonia gas were measured at different atmospheric temperatures and relative humidities with a continuous flow diffusion chamber. The montmorillonite particles were exposed to pure (100% and diluted ammonia gas (25 ppm at room temperature in a stainless steel chamber. There was no significant change in the mineral dust particle size distribution due to the ammonia gas exposure. 100% pure ammonia gas exposure enhanced the ice nucleating fraction of montmorillonite mineral dust particles 3 to 8 times at 90% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw and 5 to 8 times at 100% RHw for 120 min exposure time compared to unexposed montmorillonite within our experimental conditions. The percentages of active ice nuclei were 2 to 8 times higher at 90% RHw and 2 to 7 times higher at 100% RHw in 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite compared to unexposed montmorillonite. All montmorillonite particles are more efficient as ice nuclei with increasing relative humidities and decreasing temperatures. The activation temperature of montmorillonite exposed to 100% pure ammonia was 15°C higher than for unexposed montmorillonite particles at 90% RHw. In the 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite experiments, the activation temperature was 10°C warmer than unexposed montmorillonite at 90% RHw. Degassing does not reverse the ice nucleating ability of ammonia exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles suggesting that the ammonia is chemically bound to the montmorillonite particle. This is the first experimental evidence that ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles can enhance its activation as ice nuclei and that the activation can occur at temperatures warmer than –10°C where natural atmospheric ice nuclei are very scarce.

  10. Intrapulmonary reactions of workers exposed to dust and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, T; Nakadate, T; Sakurai, M; Sakurai, Y

    1984-01-01

    Forty-one dust-and-ozone-exposed and 37 nonexposed workers, belonging to the Research and Development Division of a photo-copier manufacturing industry, were examined to assess the effect of the exposure to carbon, iron and resin dust and ozone in the air of the work environment by means of questionnaires on their physical condition, smoking habits and exposure history by interview, chest X-rays, testing of ventilatory functions, transcutaneous PO2 (tcPO2) test and H2O2-induced hemolysis test. The following results were obtained. Respirable dust concentrations in the air of the work place were 0.1-1.0 mg/m3, total dust concentrations 0.2-2.0 mg/m3, and ozone concentrations 0.004-0.06 ppm (0.008-0.12 mg/m3). According to the Japanese Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses, the exposed workers showed a higher rate of profusion 0/1 and over, and category 1 and over (1/0 and over) than the nonexposed workers. Ventilatory function testing revealed no difference between exposed workers and nonexposed workers, but small airway narrowing was suspected in smoking workers in comparison with nonsmoking workers. Transcutaneous PO2 showed no difference between exposed and nonexposed workers, between smoking and nonsmoking workers, and between any of the paired six combinations out of the four groups of workers, i.e., nonsmoking and nonexposed, nonsmoking and exposed, smoking and nonexposed, and smoking and exposed. It was estimated by H2O2-induced hemolysis test that smoking and/or dust exposure, especially long-term exposure, gave rise to aggravation of fragility of the erythrocyte membrane by lipid peroxidation with ozone or active oxygen produced by the reaction of dust and alveolar macrophages.

  11. [Hepatotoxicity in healthy infants exposed to nevirapine during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveli, Pablo; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Soler-Palacín, Pere; Martín-Nalda, Andrea; Rovira-Girabal, Núria; Fortuny-Guasch, Clàudia; Figueras-Nadal, Concepció

    2016-01-01

    The use of nevirapine in HIV-infected pregnant women is discouraged due to its potential to cause hepatotoxicity. There is limited information available on the toxicity in non-HIV infected newborn exposed to this drug during pregnancy. The aim of the study is to determine the extent of hepatotoxicity in the newborn exposed to nevirapine and HIV during pregnancy. A cross-sectional, observational, multicenter study was conducted on a cohort of healthy infants born to HIV-infected mothers, in whom the first determination of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), before 6weeks of age, was collected. Patients were allocated to 2groups according to exposure to nevirapine during pregnancy. Hepatotoxicity was rated according to the AIDS Table for Grading the Severity of Adult and Pediatric Adverse Events (DAIDS). This study included 160newborns from 159pregnancies (88exposed to nevirapine-based regimens and 71 exposed to protease inhibitors-based therapies). No cases of hepatotoxicity were observed according to the DAIDS Table for Grading. Two cases of ALT above normal values (2.8%; 95%CI: 0.3-9.8%) were observed in patients not exposed to nevirapine, and one case (1.1%; 95%CI: 0.0-6.1%) in the group exposed to nevirapine (P=.585). The lack of differences between groups suggests that highly active antiretroviral treatment regimens including nevirapine administered during pregnancy do not involve a higher risk of liver disease compared to other treatment combinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  12. Females of a gift-giving spider do not trade sex for food gifts: a consequence of male deception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandulli-Alonso, Irene; Quaglia, Agustín; Albo, Maria J

    2017-05-15

    Polyandry is commonly maintained by direct benefits in gift-giving species, so females may remate as an adaptive foraging strategy. However, the assumption of a direct benefit fades in mating systems where male gift-giving behaviour has evolved from offering nutritive to worthless (non-nutritive) items. In the spider Paratrechalea ornata, 70% of gifts in nature are worthless. We therefore predicted female receptivity to be independent of hunger in this species. We exposed poorly-fed and well-fed females to multiple males offering nutritive gifts and well-fed females to males offering worthless gifts. Though the treatments strongly affected fecundity, females of all groups had similar number of matings. This confirms that female receptivity is independent of their nutritional state, i.e. polyandry does not prevail as a foraging strategy. In the spider Pisaura mirabilis, in which the majority (62%) of gifts in nature are nutritive, female receptivity depends on hunger. We therefore propose that the dependence of female receptivity on hunger state may have evolved in species with predominantly nutritive gifts but is absent in species with predominantly worthless gifts.

  13. Contaminations of inner surface of magnesium fluoride windows in the `Expose-R' experiment on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurat, V. E.

    2017-10-01

    A series of experiments was carried out previously on board of the International Space Station in `EXPOSE-R', a multi-user expose facility, provided by European Space Agency attached to the external surface of the Russian Segment. In one experiment, spores of microorganisms and species of higher plant seeds, in heat-sealed polymer bags were irradiated by solar radiation passed through MgF2 windows in a high space vacuum. After sample exposure, it was found that in many cases the inner surfaces of windows were contaminated. Analysis of the contamination revealed the presence of chemical groups CH2, CH3, NH, OH, C═O, Si-CH3 (Demets et al. in 2015). Their presence in deposits was explained by photofixation of gaseous precursors - some of the vapours of glues and additives in polymeric materials in the core facility of `Expose-R'. Carbon-, oxygen- and silicon-containing groups may be deposited from outer intrinsic atmosphere. This atmosphere is connected with sample compartments and core facility. However, the presence of NH groups on inner surfaces of windows was not expected. This paper shows that the process responsible for carbon-, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing group formation can be a photopolymerization of caprolactam, which is released from the outer Nylon 6 layer of polymer bags under Solar vacuum ultraviolet radiation.

  14. Analysis of early mortality rates of survivors exposed within Japanese wooden houses in Hiroshima by exposed distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru; Ohkita, Takeshi.

    1986-01-01

    Mortality for 3,215 A-bomb survivors who were exposed in Japanese wooden houses at ≤ 1,300 m from the hypocenter on August 6, 1945 was examined. An overall mortality was 51 % (1,640/3,215 survivors) within 61 days after the exposure. According to the distance from the hypocenter, it was 100 % in A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤ 600 m, and 20 % in those exposed between 1,201 m and 1,300 m. The mortality decreased with increasing the distance from the hypocenter. In conjunction with the duration after the exposure and the distance from the hypocenter, the mortality was 100 % 12 days after the exposure in survivors exposed at ≤ 600 m. In survivors exposed at > 800 m, the mortality tended to be higher two weeks after the exposure than immediately after that. The distance from the hypocenter causing 50 per cent mortality was estimated to be 1,026 m from August 6 to October 5; 1,002 m from August 6 to September 10; 887 m from August 7 to September 10; and 867 m from August 20 to September 16. However, these figures were probably lower than the real mortality rates, since no information was available when whole family died. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Survival of Spores of Trichoderma longibrachiatum in Space: data from the Space Experiment SPORES on EXPOSE-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Katja; Lux-Endrich, Astrid; Panitz, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    In the space experiment `Spores in artificial meteorites' (SPORES), spores of the fungus Trichoderma longibrachiatum were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years on board the EXPOSE-R facility outside of the International Space Station. The environmental conditions tested in space were: space vacuum at 10-7-10-4 Pa or argon atmosphere at 105 Pa as inert gas atmosphere, solar extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) radiation at λ > 110 nm or λ > 200 nm with fluences up to 5.8 × 108 J m-2, cosmic radiation of a total dose range from 225 to 320 mGy, and temperature fluctuations from -25 to +50°C, applied isolated or in combination. Comparable control experiments were performed on ground. After retrieval, viability of spores was analysed by two methods: (i) ethidium bromide staining and (ii) test of germination capability. About 30% of the spores in vacuum survived the space travel, if shielded against insolation. However, in most cases no significant decrease was observed for spores exposed in addition to the full spectrum of solar UV irradiation. As the spores were exposed in clusters, the outer layers of spores may have shielded the inner part. The results give some information about the likelihood of lithopanspermia, the natural transfer of micro-organisms between planets. In addition to the parameters of outer space, sojourn time in space seems to be one of the limiting parameters.

  16. Secondary Amenorrhea among Female Athletes. Current Understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasiene, Gwen Hagenbuch

    1983-01-01

    Research pertaining to female athletes' problems with secondary amenorrhea is reviewed. Studies point to stress, weight loss, anorexia nervosa, obesity, arduous athletic training, and age of onset of training as factors which may contribute to this disorder. (PP)

  17. Imaging of the female urethral diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singla, P.; Long, S.S.; Long, C.M.; Genadry, R.R.; Macura, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    Female urethral diverticulum is a localized out-pouching of the urethra that is becoming increasingly prevalent, but often poses a diagnostic challenge. Traditionally, conventional voiding cystourethrography has been used to make the preoperative diagnosis. With the development of higher-resolution images acquired through ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the anatomy and various abnormalities of the female urethra can be better elucidated. This article focuses on the imaging features of female urethral diverticulum, with emphasis on diagnostic pearls, particularly using MRI. Female urethral diverticulum can be best identified by their location in the posterolateral urethra and by their communication with the urethral lumen. Improved imaging techniques combined with increased physician awareness of urethral diverticulum will lead to more prompt and accurate diagnosis of this entity, leading to better treatment of affected patients

  18. FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION: ARE WE WINNING?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-30

    Jul 30, 2013 ... Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria ... practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) in countries like Nigeria. .... Table 1(b) 519 (92%) of the ..... Behrendt, A. and Moritz, S. Posttraumatic stress. 12.

  19. Questionnaires for assessment of female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra; Pfaus, James G

    2011-01-01

    There are many methods to evaluate female sexual function and dysfunction (FSD) in clinical and research settings, including questionnaires, structured interviews, and detailed case histories. Of these, questionnaires have become an easy first choice to screen individuals into different categories...

  20. Menstrual cycle disorders in female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarska, M; Witkoś, J; Drosdzol-Cop, A; Dąbrowska, J; Dąbrowska-Galas, M; Hartman, M; Plinta, R; Skrzypulec-Plinta, V

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relation between increased physical activity and menstrual disorders in adolescent female volleyball players. The study was conducted on 210 Polish female volleyball players, aged 13-17 years, the authorship questionnaire was used. The results of the study showed that irregular menstruation occurred in 19% of girls, spotting between menstrual periods in 27% and heavy menstruation was reported in 33% of girls. Out of all volleyball female players participating in the study, 94 girls (45%) declared absence of menstrual periods after regular cycles. Statistical analysis showed that the more training hours per week, the bigger probability of the occurrence of irregular menstruation. It was concluded that the number of hours of volleyball training per week affects regularity of menstrual cycles in female volleyball players. The absence of menstruation might be caused by the duration of training per week or years of training.