WorldWideScience

Sample records for female test devices

  1. Blast Mitigation Sea Analysis - Evaluation of Lumbar Compression Data Trends in 5th Percentile Female Anthropomorphic Test Device Performance Compared to 50th Percentile Male Anthropomorphic Test Device in Drop Tower Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-21

    Kelly Bosch, PE Proceedings of the ASME 2016 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering...imparted on the occupant • Ideal EA device would reduce peak load and duration to reduce injury probability 5th Percentile Female – 200 g Pulse

  2. Anthropometric comparison of Anthropometric Test Device (ATD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropometric test device (ATD) is surrogate used in automotive crash testing. Female ATDs used worldwide in the evaluation of vehicle safety performance was produced based on anthropometry of U.S. population. This work is aimed at assessing the difference between the anthropometric dimensions of Nigerian female ...

  3. Appearance test device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tadao.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention photographs glass solidification products of high level radioactive wastes by a camera to inspect the state for the surface of the glass solidification products. Namely, illumination light is irradiated to the surface of a material to be tested containing radioactive substances to photograph the surface to be tested and the photographed images are displayed. A photographing unit enhousing an illumination light source and the camera for photographing the surface to be detected is movable in the longitudinal direction of the object to be detected. A first reflector is disposed for reflecting the illumination light from the light source in a horizontal direction intersecting the longitudinal direction described above and reflecting the reflection light from the object to be tested to the camera. A second reflector is disposed to a position opposing to the end face of the object to be detected for entering the illumination light from the first reflector to the end face of the object to be tested and reflecting the reflection light from the end face of the object to be detected to the first reflector. In a device thus composed, the upper and lower end faces of the object to be tested can be illuminated and photographed without facing the photographing unit to the object to be inspected. (I.S.)

  4. Female condom -- new barrier device soon to be available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, S

    1991-09-01

    The "female condom," a new contraceptive which may offer women protection against STDs, could soon be out in the market. Currently being developed, the female condom is a disposable sheath made of latex or plastic which is worn inside the vagina. One such prototype, made of polyurethane plastic, has already undergone extensive testing and is expected to be on the market in Europe in the fall and worldwide in 1992. At 17 cm in length, this female contraceptive resembles a large male condom with a ring at both ends. One ring is placed outside the vulva, while the other ring is positioned inside the vagina. This design prevents contract between the vagina and the penis, theoretically protecting against STDs. Researchers worldwide are presently conducting clinical trials as to the efficacy and acceptability of the female condom. Although data on the efficacy of the new contraceptive is not yet available, some preliminary reports on its acceptability suggest that women seeking protection from STDs and AIDS -- especially high risk women -- will likely use the device if it becomes available. In a study in Cameroon, 36 out of 38 prostitutes said they liked the female condom, and 33 said that they would use it in the future. While both men and women in Thailand preferred the male condoms, women preferred using the female condom than having unprotected sex. Some believe that the new contraceptive will provide the means for a woman to protect herself when her partner is not being cooperative. The female condoms, however, has its drawback. Foremost among then is its price, which could be as high as $2 (8-20 times the price of a male condoms). Other reported disadvantages with the female condom include reduction of pleasure of spontaneity, and its appearance.

  5. Currently available devices for female sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Lynne; Magos, Adam

    2005-09-01

    Sterilization is now the method of family planning most commonly used in the world. Over the last 150 years, research has evolved in the search for the ideal method of female sterilization. The procedure should ideally have high efficacy, be readily accessible and be personally and culturally acceptable. The method should be simple, quick, easily learned and be able to be performed in an outpatient setting without general anesthesia. The most common and effective method for sterilization has, thus far, been via the laparoscopic route. Hysteroscopic sterilization, however, potentially fulfills many of these ideal criteria, but until recently has remained more of a concept than a reality.

  6. Penetration testing using mobile devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shelembe, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available et.al, 2006) ? An attempt to compromise the security of the mechanism undergoing the test, it can be host or network based (Fiocca, 2009) Difference: pen-testing and hacking is permission Its purpose is to find system vulnerabilities ? CSIR 2012... is not enough, cell-phones can hack too ? Pocket sized device is more convenient, since it is easy to carry around at anytime ? A power plug is not innocent, need to look for activity other than just traditional PCs / devices ? CSIR 2012 Slide 6 Mobile...

  7. Electromedical devices test laboratories accreditation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murad, C; Rubio, D; Ponce, S; Alvarez Abri, A; Terron, A; Vicencio, D; Fascioli, E

    2007-01-01

    In the last years, the technology and equipment at hospitals have been increase in a great way as the risks of their implementation. Safety in medical equipment must be considered an important issue to protect patients and their users. For this reason, test and calibrations laboratories must verify the correct performance of this kind of devices under national and international standards. Is an essential mission for laboratories to develop their measurement activities taking into account a quality management system. In this article, we intend to transmit our experience working to achieve an accredited Test Laboratories for medical devices in National technological University

  8. Virtual Turbine Engine Test Bench Using MGET Test Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Seonghee; Kong, Changduk; Ki, Jayoung

    2015-05-01

    Test device using virtual engine simulator can help reduce the number of engine tests through tests similar to the actual engine tests and repeat the test under the same condition, and thus reduce the engine maintenance and operating costs [1]. Also, as it is possible to easily implement extreme conditions in which it is hard to conduct actual tests, it can prevent engine damages that may happen during the actual engine test under such conditions. In this study, an upgraded MGET test device was developed that can conduct both real and virtual engine test by applying real-time engine model to the existing MGET test device that was developed and has been sold by the Company. This newly developed multi-purpose MGET test device is expected to be used for various educational and research purposes.

  9. Performance test of wet type decontamination device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E. P.; Kim, E. G.; Min, D. K.; Jun, Y. B.; Lee, H. K.; Seu, H. S.; Kwon, H. M.; Hong, K.P.

    2003-01-01

    The intervention area located at rear hot cell can be contaminated by hot cell maintenance work. For effective decontamination of the intervention floor a wet type decontamination device was developed. The device was assembled with a brush rotating part, a washing liquid supplying part, an intake part for recovering contaminated liquid and a device moving cart part. The device was made of stainless steel for easy decontamination and corrosion resistance. The function test carried out at intervention area of the PIE facility showed good performance

  10. Light-emitting device test systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Mark; Brodie, Alan; George, James; Guan, Yu; Nyffenegger, Ralph

    2018-01-23

    Light-emitting devices, such as LEDs, are tested using a photometric unit. The photometric unit, which may be an integrating sphere, can measure flux, color, or other properties of the devices. The photometric unit may have a single port or both an inlet and outlet. Light loss through the port, inlet, or outlet can be reduced or calibrated for. These testing systems can provide increased reliability, improved throughput, and/or improved measurement accuracy.

  11. Apparatus for testing semiconductor devices and capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for testing semiconductor devices. The apparatus tests the impedance of the semiconductor devices in both conducting and non-conducting states to detect semiconductors whose impedance in the conducting state is too high or whose impedance in the non-conducting state is too low. The apparatus uses a battery source for low voltage d.c. The circuitry for detecting when the impedance is too high in the conducting state includes a lamp in series with the battery source and the semiconductor device, whereby the impedance of the semiconductor device determines whether sufficient current will flow through the lamp to cause the lamp to illuminate. A d.c. to d.c. converter is provided to boost the voltage from the battery source to a relatively high voltage d.c. The relatively high voltage d.c. can be connected by a switch to circuitry for detecting when the impedance of the semiconductor device in the non-conducting state is too low. The circuitry for detecting when the impedance of the semiconductor device is too low includes a resistor which senses the current flowing in the device and converts the current into a voltage proportional to the leakage current. This voltage is then compared against a fixed reference. Further circuitry is provided for providing a visual indication when the voltage representative of leakage in relation to the reference signal indicates that there is excessive current flow through the semiconductor device

  12. Performance Tests for Bubble Blockage Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Kwang Soon; Wi, Kyung Jin; Park, Rae Joon; Wan, Han Seong

    2014-01-01

    Postulated severe core damage accidents have a high threat risk for the safety of human health and jeopardize the environment. Versatile measures have been suggested and applied to mitigate severe accidents in nuclear power plants. To improve the thermal margin for the severe accident measures in high-power reactors, engineered corium cooling systems involving boiling-induced two-phase natural circulation have been proposed for decay heat removal. A boiling-induced natural circulation flow is generated in a coolant path between a hot vessel wall and cold coolant reservoir. In general, it is possible for some bubbles to be entrained in the natural circulation loop. If some bubbles entrain in the liquid phase flow passage, flow instability may occur, that is, the natural circulation mass flow rate may be oscillated. A new device to block the entraining bubbles is proposed and verified using air-water test loop. To avoid bubbles entrained in the natural circulation flow loop, a new device was proposed and verified using an air-water test loop. The air injection and liquid circulation loop was prepared, and the tests for the bubble blockage devices were performed by varying the geometry and shape of the devices. The performance of the bubble blockage device was more effective as the area ratio of the inlet to the down-comer increased, and the device height decreased. If the device has a rim to generate a vortex zone, the bubbles will be most effectively blocked

  13. Electronic voltage and current transformers testing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Chen, Ruimin; Xiao, Yong; Sun, Weiming

    2012-01-01

    A method for testing electronic instrument transformers is described, including electronic voltage and current transformers (EVTs, ECTs) with both analog and digital outputs. A testing device prototype is developed. It is based on digital signal processing of the signals that are measured at the secondary outputs of the tested transformer and the reference transformer when the same excitation signal is fed to their primaries. The test that estimates the performance of the prototype has been carried out at the National Centre for High Voltage Measurement and the prototype is approved for testing transformers with precision class up to 0.2 at the industrial frequency (50 Hz or 60 Hz). The device is suitable for on-site testing due to its high accuracy, simple structure and low-cost hardware.

  14. A versatile magnetic refrigeration test device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Petersen, Thomas Frank; Pryds, Nini

    2008-01-01

    of the applied magnetic field. An advanced two-dimensional numerical model has previously been implemented in order to help in the optimization of the design of a refrigeration test device. Qualitative agreement between the results from model and the experimental results is demonstrated for each of the four...... different parameter variations mentioned above. (C) 2008 American Institute of Physics....

  15. APR1400 Fluidic Device Sensitivity Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Nam Hyun; Chu, In Cheol; Min, Kyong Ho; Song, Chul Hwa

    2005-12-01

    In the safety injection tank at the emergency core cooling system of APR1400, a new safety design feature, passive fluidic device is equipped which includes no active driving system. It is essential to evaluate the new design feature with various experiments. For this reason, three categories of sensitivity tests have been performed in the present study. As the first sensitivity experiment, the effect of the height of the stand pipe was investigated. The second sensitivity test was conducted with removing the insert plate gasket to examine its effect. The effect of the expansion of the control nozzle width was ascertained from the third sensitivity test. The results of each test showed that the passive fluidic device which will be equipped in the SIT tank of APR1400 has great integrity and repeatability

  16. Photostress Testing Device for Diagnosing Retinal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Swan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Retinal diseases such as Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD affect nearly one in three elderly patients. ARMD damages the central vision photoreceptors in the fovea. The Photostress Test is a simple technique for testing for the early effects of ARMD. Here, the illumination sources in a novel self-administered Photostress Testing device were modeled for safety and distribution in illumination software. After satisfying the design constraints in the model, a prototype of the illumination system was fabricated and tested to confirm the modeling results. The resultant prototype can be used to aid in the diagnosis of retinal disease and is well within retinal safety levels.

  17. Testing Framework for Mobile Device Forensics Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Anobah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of mobile communication and computing devices, in particular smart mobile phones, is almost paralleled with the increasing number of mobile device forensics tools in the market. Each mobile forensics tool vendor, on one hand claims to have a tool that is best in terms of performance, while on the other hand each tool vendor seems to be using different standards for testing their tools and thereby defining what support means differently. To overcome this problem, a testing framework based on a series of tests ranging from basic forensics tasks such as file system reconstruction up to more complex ones countering antiforensic techniques is proposed. The framework, which is an extension of an existing effort done in 2010, prescribes a method to clearly circumscribe the term support into precise levels. It also gives an idea of the standard to be developed and accepted by the forensic community that will make it easier for forensics investigators to quickly select the most appropriate tool for a particular mobile device.

  18. Aerosol can puncture device operational test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leist, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    Puncturing of aerosol cans is performed in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 (WRAP 1) process as a requirement of the waste disposal acceptance criteria for both transuranic (TRU) waste and low-level waste (LLW). These cans have contained such things as paints, lubricating oils, paint removers, insecticides, and cleaning supplies which were used in radioactive facilities. Due to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Fire Protection concerns of the baseline system's fire/explosion proof characteristics, a study was undertaken to compare the baseline system's design to commercially available puncturing devices. While the study found no areas which might indicate a risk of fire or explosion, WHC Fire Protection determined that the puncturing system must have a demonstrated record of safe operation. This could be obtained either by testing the baseline design by an independent laboratory, or by substituting a commercially available device. As a result of these efforts, the commercially available Aerosolv can puncturing device was chosen to replace the baseline design. Two concerns were raised with the system. Premature blinding of the coalescing/carbon filter, due to its proximity to the puncture and draining operation; and overpressurization of the collection bottle due to its small volume and by blinding of the filter assembly. As a result of these concerns, testing was deemed necessary. The objective of this report is to outline test procedures for the Aerosolv

  19. Testing device for control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Toshifumi.

    1992-01-01

    A testing device for control rod drives comprises a logic measuring means for measuring an output signal from a control rod drive logic generation circuit, a control means for judging the operation state of a control rod and a man machine interface means for outputting the result of the judgement. A driving instruction outputted from the control rod operation device is always monitored by the control means, and if the operation instruction is stopped, a testing signal is outputted to the control rod control device to simulate a control rod operation. In this case, the output signal of the control rod drive logic generation circuit is held in a control rod drive memory means and intaken into a logic analysis means for measurement and an abnormality is judged by the control means. The stopping of the control rod drive instruction is monitored and the operation abnormality of the control rod is judged, to mitigate the burden of an operator. Further, the operation of the control rod drive logic generation circuit can be confirmed even during a nuclear plant operation by holding the control rod drive instruction thereby enabling to improve maintenance efficiency. (N.H.)

  20. Testing device for pipeline groups and control method for testing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Shinji; Kajiyama, Shigeru; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Tsuchida, Kenji; Tachibana, Yukio; Shigehiro, Katsuya; Mahara, Yoichi.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention comprises a testing device main body disposed to a rail, a movable mechanism positioning from a reference point, a circumferential direction scanning mechanism, an axial direction scanning mechanism, a posture control mechanism, and a testing probe. Upon testing of pipelines, the detection device main body and auxiliary members are moved from a reference point previously set on a rail for numerical control toward pipelines to be tested in a state where the axial direction scanning mechanism and the testing probe are suspended in the axial direction. The testing is conducted by controlling the position of the testing probe in the axial direction of the pipeline by means of the axial direction scanning mechanism, and scanning the testing probe to the outer circumference of the pipeline along the circumferential track by way of the circumferential direction scanning mechanism. The device can be extremely reduced in the thickness, and can be moved with no interference with pipelines and other obstacles by remote operation even under such undesired condition as the pipelines being crowded, so that non-destructive testing can be conducted accurately. (N.H.)

  1. A novel reflex cough testing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Kazunori; Kawamoto, Katsuyuki; Shimizu, Yoko; Fukuhara, Takahiro; Koyama, Satoshi; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Kitano, Hiroya; Takeuchi, Hiromi

    2017-01-18

    The reflex cough test is useful for detecting silent aspiration, a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia. However, assessing the risk of aspiration pneumonia requires measuring not only the cough reflex but also cough strength. Currently, no reflex cough testing device is available that can directly measure reflex cough strength. We therefore developed a new testing device that can easily and simultaneously measure cough strength and the time until the cough reflex, and verified whether screening with this new instrument is feasible for evaluating the risk of aspiration pneumonia. This device consists of a special pipe with a double lumen, a nebulizer, and an electronic spirometer. We used a solution of prescription-grade L-tartaric acid to initiate the cough reflex. The solution was inhaled through a mouthpiece as a microaerosol produced by an ultrasonic nebulizer. The peak cough flow (PCF) of the induced cough was measured with the spirometer. The 70 patients who participated in this study comprised 49 patients without a history of pneumonia (group A), 21 patients with a history of pneumonia (group B), and 10 healthy volunteers (control group). With the novel device, PCF and time until cough reflex could be measured without adverse effects. The PCF values were 118.3 ± 64.0 L/min, 47.7 ± 38.5 L/min, and 254.9 ± 83.8 L/min in group A, group B, and the control group, respectively. The PCF of group B was significantly lower than that of group A and the control group (p reflex was 4.2 ± 5.9 s, 7.0 ± 7.0 s, and 1 s in group A, group B, and the control group, respectively. This duration was significantly longer for groups A and B than for the control group (A: p reflex and the strength of involuntary coughs for assessment of patients at risk of aspiration pneumonia.

  2. Leak test method and test device for iodine filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, Tetsuo; Funabashi, Kiyomi; Miura, Noboru; Miura, Eiichi.

    1995-01-01

    An air introduction device which can change a humidity is disposed upstream of an iodine filter to be tested, and a humidity measuring device is disposed downstream of the iodine filter respectively. At first, dried air reduced with humidity is flown from the air introduction device to the iodine filter, to remove moisture content from an iodine adsorber in the iodine filter. Next, air at an increased humidity is supplied to the iodine filter. The difference between the time starting the supply of the highly humid air and the time detecting the high humidity at the humidity measuring device is measured. When the time difference is smaller than the time difference measured previously in a normal iodine filter, it shows the presence of leak in the iodine filter to be tested. With such procedures, leakage in the iodine filter which removes radioactive iodine from off-gases discharged from the radioactive material handling facilities can be detected easily by using water (steams), namely, a naturally present material. (I.N.)

  3. Test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Matthew; Dameron, Arrelaine; Kempe, Michael

    2014-03-04

    A test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material. An exemplary device comprises a test card having a thin-film conductor-pattern formed thereon and an edge seal which seals the test card to the barrier material. Another exemplary embodiment is an electrical calcium test device comprising: a test card an impermeable spacer, an edge seal which seals the test card to the spacer and an edge seal which seals the spacer to the barrier material.

  4. Nuclide transfer test device in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Yoshiyuki.

    1994-01-01

    The device comprises a pressure-proof vessel having a perforated port, a compression vessel having a sample-containing chamber with circumferential walls having a plurality of small holes being gastightly engaged to the perforated port, a mechanically pressurizing means for vertically compressing the compression chamber, a pressurizing gas supply system for supplying a pressurizing gas to compress the soil specimen in a lateral direction and a sample water-supply system for supplying sample water to the sample containing chamber. The soil sample is pressurized so that the sample water is caused to permeate by isotropic pressure due to equilibrium of vertical compression by mechanical force and lateral compression by the pressurizing gas. The transfer state of radioactive nuclides in the soil can be tested easily in a state where the sample water is caused to permeate in a vertical direction in parallel, to simulate an actual processing circumstance. Namely, since the sample water is caused to permeate to the soil sample in the pressure-proof vessel, a desired test can easily be conducted in a restricted space without undergoing influences of the kind and the dose rate of the radioactive nuclides. (N.H.)

  5. Hacking and penetration testing with low power devices

    CERN Document Server

    Polstra, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Hacking and Penetration Testing with Low Power Devices shows you how to perform penetration tests using small, low-powered devices that are easily hidden and may be battery-powered. It shows how to use an army of devices, costing less than you might spend on a laptop, from distances of a mile or more. Hacking and Penetration Testing with Low Power Devices shows how to use devices running a version of The Deck, a full-featured penetration testing and forensics Linux distribution, and can run for days or weeks on batteries due to their low power consumption. Author Philip Polstra shows how to

  6. Female False Positive Exercise Stress ECG Testing - Fact Verses Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Benjamin T; Scalia, William M; Scalia, Gregory M

    2018-03-07

    Exercise stress testing is a well validated cardiovascular investigation. Accuracy for treadmill stress electrocardiograph (ECG) testing has been documented at 60%. False positive stress ECGs (exercise ECG changes with non-obstructive disease on anatomical testing) are common, especially in women, limiting the effectiveness of the test. This study investigates the incidence and predictors of false positive stress ECG findings, referenced against stress echocardiography (SE) as a standard. Stress echocardiography was performed using the Bruce treadmill protocol. False positive stress ECG tests were defined as greater than 1mm of ST depression on ECG during exertion, without pain, with a normal SE. Potential causes for false positive tests were recorded before the test. Three thousand consecutive negative stress echocardiograms (1036 females, 34.5%) were analysed (age 59+/-14 years. False positive (F+) stress ECGs were documented in 565/3000 tests (18.8%). F+ stress ECGs were equally prevalent in females (194/1036, 18.7%) and males (371/1964, 18.9%, p=0.85 for the difference). Potential causes (hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, known coronary disease, arrhythmia, diabetes mellitus, valvular heart disease) were recorded in 36/194 (18.6%) of the female F+ ECG tests and 249/371 (68.2%) of the male F+ ECG tests (preinforce the value of stress imaging, particularly in women. Copyright © 2018 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). All rights reserved.

  7. Round robin performance testing of organic photovoltaic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren; Zubillaga, Oihana; de Seoane, José María Vega

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the issue of poor intercomparability of measurements of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices among different laboratories. We present a round robin performance testing of novel OPV devices among 16 laboratories, organized within the framework of European Research Infrastructure...

  8. High temperature aqueous stress corrosion testing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornstein, A.N.; Indig, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a device for stressing tensile samples contained within a high temperature, high pressure aqueous environment, thereby permitting determination of stress corrosion susceptibility of materials in a simple way. The stressing device couples an external piston to an internal tensile sample via a pull rod, with stresses being applied to the sample by pressurizing the piston. The device contains a fitting/seal arrangement including Teflon and weld seals which allow sealing of the internal system pressure and the external piston pressure. The fitting/seal arrangement allows free movement of the pull rod and the piston

  9. HIV testing behaviors among female sex workers in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yan; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Xiuyun; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Despite the recognized importance of HIV testing in prevention, care and treatment, HIV testing remains low in China. Millions of female sex workers (FSW) play a critical role in China's escalating HIV epidemic. Limited data are available regarding HIV testing behavior among this at-risk population. This study, based on a cross-sectional survey of 1,022 FSW recruited from communities in Southwest China, attempted to address the literature gap. Our data revealed that 48% of FSW ever took HIV testing; older age, less education, working in higher-income commercial sex venues and better HIV knowledge were associated with HIV testing. Those who never took HIV testing were more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors including inconsistent condom use with clients and stable partners. A number of psychological and structural barriers to testing were also reported. We call for culturally appropriate interventions to reduce HIV risks and promote HIV testing for vulnerable FSW in China.

  10. Small female rib cage fracture in frontal sled tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Greg; Lessley, David; Ash, Joseph; Poplin, Jerry; McMurry, Tim; Sochor, Mark; Crandall, Jeff

    2017-01-02

    The 2 objectives of this study are to (1) examine the rib and sternal fractures sustained by small stature elderly females in simulated frontal crashes and (2) determine how the findings are characterized by prior knowledge and field data. A test series was conducted to evaluate the response of 5 elderly (average age 76 years) female postmortem human subjects (PMHS), similar in mass and size to a 5th percentile female, in 30 km/h frontal sled tests. The subjects were restrained on a rigid planar seat by bilateral rigid knee bolsters, pelvic blocks, and a custom force-limited 3-point shoulder and lap belt. Posttest subject injury assessment included identifying rib cage fractures by means of a radiologist read of a posttest computed tomography (CT) and an autopsy. The data from a motion capture camera system were processed to provide chest deflection, defined as the movement of the sternum relative to the spine at the level of T8.  A complementary field data investigation involved querying the NASS-CDS database over the years 1997-2012. The targeted cases involved belted front seat small female passenger vehicle occupants over 40 years old who were injured in 25 to 35 km/h delta-V frontal crashes (11 to 1 o'clock). Peak upper shoulder belt tension averaged 1,970 N (SD = 140 N) in the sled tests. For all subjects, the peak x-axis deflection was recorded at the sternum with an average of -44.5 mm or 25% of chest depth. The thoracic injury severity based on the number and distribution of rib fractures yielded 4 subjects coded as Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 3 (serious) and one as AIS 5 (critical). The NASS-CDS field data investigation of small females identified 205 occupants who met the search criteria. Rib fractures were reported for 2.7% of the female occupants. The small elderly test subjects sustained a higher number of rib cage fractures than expected in what was intended to be a minimally injurious frontal crash test condition. Neither field studies nor

  11. Design of Ablation Test Device for Brick Coating of Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    shirui, YAO; yongcai, CHEN; fei, WANG; jianxin, ZHAO

    2018-03-01

    As a result of the live ammunition test conditions, the barrel resistance of the barrel coating has high cost, time consuming, low efficiency and high test site requirements. This article designed a simple, convenient and efficient test device. Through the internal trajectory calculation by Matlab, the ablation environment produced by the ablation test device has achieved the expected effect, which is consistent with the working condition of the tube in the launching state, which can better reflect the ablation of the coating.

  12. Medical Devices; Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices; Classification of the Organophosphate Test System. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-18

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is classifying the organophosphate test system into class II (special controls). The special controls that apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the organophosphate test system's classification. We are taking this action because we have determined that classifying the device into class II (special controls) will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. We believe this action will also enhance patients' access to beneficial innovative devices, in part by reducing regulatory burdens.

  13. Medical Devices; Hematology and Pathology Devices; Classification of a Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Test System. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-03

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is classifying the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) test system into class II (special controls). The special controls that apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the CIN test system's classification. We are taking this action because we have determined that classifying the device into class II (special controls) will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. We believe this action will also enhance patients' access to beneficial innovative devices, in part by reducing regulatory burdens.

  14. Eddy current testing device using unbalance bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshikawa, H.; Koido, J.; Ishibashi, Y.

    1976-01-01

    An easily readjustable unbalance bridge has been invented and in utilizing the same, an eddy current testing equipment excellent in suppression of the lift-off effect and high in the detection sensitivity has been developed

  15. INTERFACE DEVICE FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF RESIDUAL SURFACE STRESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady A. Perepelkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the organization of connection of a personal computer with a device for nondestructive testing of residual surface stresses. The device works is based on the phenomenon of diffraction of ionizing radiation from the crystal lattice near the surface of the crystallites. Proposed software interface to the organization for each type of user: the device developers, administrators, users. Some aspects of the organization of communication microcontroller to a PC via USB-port

  16. Glass solidification material confinement test device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namiki, Shigekazu.

    1997-01-01

    In a device for confining glass solidification materials, a pipeline connecting a detection vessel and a detector is formed to have a double walled structure, and air blowing holes are formed on the wall of the inner pipe, and an air supply mechanism is connected to inner and outer pipes for supplying blowing air thereby preventing deposition on the inner pipe wall. The air blowing holes are formed by constituting the pipe by using a porous sintered material and porous portions thereof are defined as the air blowing holes, or holes are formed on the pipe wall made of a metal by machining. A blowing boundary layer is formed by blowing the supplied air along the pipe wall of the inner pipe, by which deposition of the sucked materials to the inner wall of the inner pipe is prevented, and all of the materials sucked from the detection vessel are collected to the detector. In addition, an air exit pipe is formed into a double walled structure so as to be supplied blowing air from the air supply mechanism thereby enabling to prevent deposition of sucked materials more reliably. (N.H.)

  17. Leak testing and repair of fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozman, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The leak testing, reporting and vacuum leak repair techniques of the MFTF yin-yang number one magnet system, the world's largest superconducting magnet system, are discussed. Based on this experience, techniques will be developed for testing and repairing leaks on the 42 MFTF-B magnets. The leak-hunting techniques for the yin-yang magnet systems were applied to two helium circuits (the coil bundle and guard vacuum; both require helium flow for magnet cooldown), their associated piping, liquid nitrogen radiation shields, and piping. Additionally, during MFTF-B operation there will be warm water plasma shields and piping that require leak checking

  18. New spark test device for material characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Kildemo, Morten

    2004-01-01

    An automated spark test system based on combining field emission and spark measurements, exploiting a discharging capacitor is investigated. In particular, the remaining charge on the capacitor is analytically solved assuming the field emitted current to follow the Fowler Nordheim expression. The latter allows for field emission measurements from pA to A currents, and spark detection by complete discharge of the capacitor. The measurement theory and experiments on Cu and W are discussed.

  19. Software test attacks to break mobile and embedded devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hagar, Jon Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Address Errors before Users Find Them Using a mix-and-match approach, Software Test Attacks to Break Mobile and Embedded Devices presents an attack basis for testing mobile and embedded systems. Designed for testers working in the ever-expanding world of ""smart"" devices driven by software, the book focuses on attack-based testing that can be used by individuals and teams. The numerous test attacks show you when a software product does not work (i.e., has bugs) and provide you with information about the software product under test. The book guides you step by step starting with the basics. It

  20. Micro-Combined Heat and Power Device Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST has developed a test facility for micro-combined heat and power (micro-CHP) devices to measure their performance over a range of different operating strategies...

  1. Accelerated life testing and temperature dependence of device characteristics in GaAs CHFET devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, M.; Leon, R.; Vu, D. T.; Okuno, J.; Johnson, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    Accelerated life testing of GaAs complementary heterojunction field effect transistors (CHFET) was carried out. Temperature dependence of single and synchronous rectifier CHFET device characteristics were also obtained.

  2. Development and testing of hydrogen ignition devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renfro, D.; Smith, L.; Thompson, L.; Clever, R.

    1982-01-01

    Controlled ignition systems for the mitigation of hydrogen produced during degraded core accidents have been installed recently in several light water reactor (LWR) containments. This paper relates the background of the thermal igniter approach and its application to LWR controlled ignition systems. The process used by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to select a hydrogen mitigation system in general and an igniter type in particular is described. Descriptions of both the Interim Distributed Ignition System and the Permanent Hydrogen Mitigation System installed by TVA are included as examples. Testing of igniter durability at TVA's Singleton Materials Engineering Laboratory and of igniter performance at Atomic Energy of Canada's Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment is presented

  3. Transaxillary Subpectoral Placement of Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices in Young Female Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hyun Oh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe current indications of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs have expanded to include young patients with serious cardiac risk factors, but CIED placement has the disadvantage of involving unsightly scarring and bulging of the chest wall. A collaborative team of cardiologists and plastic surgeons developed a technique for the subpectoral placement of CIEDs in young female patients via a transaxillary approach.MethodsFrom July 2012 to December 2015, subpectoral CIED placement via an axillary incision was performed in 10 young female patients, with a mean age of 25.9 years and mean body mass index of 20.1 kg/m2. In the supine position, with the patient's shoulder abducted, an approximately 5-cm linear incision was made along one of the deepest axillary creases. The submuscular plane was identified at the lateral border of the pectoralis major, and the dissection continued over the clavipectoral fascia until the subpectoral pocket could securely receive a pulse generator. Slight upward dissection also exposed an entrance to the subclavian vein, allowing the cardiology team to gain access to the vein. One patient with dilated cardiomyopathy underwent augmentation mammoplasty and CIED insertion simultaneously.ResultsOne case of late-onset device infection occurred. All patients were highly satisfied with the results and reported that they would recommend the procedure to others.ConclusionsWith superior aesthetic outcomes compared to conventional methods, the subpectoral placement of CIEDs via a transaxillary approach is an effective, single-incision method to hide operative scarring and minimize bulging of the device, and is particularly beneficial for young female or lean patients.

  4. Devices for fatigue testing of electroplated nickel (MEMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Pontoppidan; Ravnkilde, J. T.; Ginnerup, Morten

    2002-01-01

    μm and an effective length from 4μm to 27μm. Maximum stresses of the test beam were calculated to be 500MPa to 2100MPa by use of FEM tools. The test results indicate very promising fatigue properties of nano-nickel, as none of the test devices have shown fatigue failure or even initiation of cracks......In-situ fatigue test devices with integrated electrostatic actuator were fabricated in electroplated nanocrystalline nickel (nano-nickel). The devices feature in-plane approximately pure bending with fixed displacement of the test specimen of the dimensions: widths from 2μm to 3.7μm, a height of 7...... after 108 cycles. The combination of high strength and toughness, which is known for nanocrystalline materials, together with very small test specimens and low surface roughness could be the explanation for the good fatigue properties....

  5. Tests of Theories of Crime in Female Prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Marc A; Fugett, April; Adkins, Ashtin; Cook, Kelsey

    2017-02-01

    Several general theories of crime were tested with path models on 293 female prisoners in a U.S. State prison. The theories tested included Social Bond and Control, Thrill/Risk Seeking, and a new attachment-based Developmental Dynamic Systems model. A large battery of different instruments ranging from measures of risk taking, to a crime addiction scale, to Childhood Adverse Events, to attachments and clinical issues were used. The older general theories of crime did not hold up well under the rigor of path modeling. The new dynamic systems model was supported that incorporated adverse childhood events leading to (a) peer crime, (b) crime addiction, and (c) a measure derived from the Attachment and Clinical Issues Questionnaire (ACIQ) that takes individual differences in attachments and clinical issues into account. The results were discussed in terms of new approaches to Research Defined Criteria of Diagnosis (RDoC) and new approaches to intervention.

  6. A test device for premixed gas turbine combustion oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, G.A.; Gemmen, R.S.; Yip, M.J.

    1996-03-01

    This report discusses design and operation of a single-nozzle test combustor for studying lean, premixed combustion oscillations from gas turbine fuel nozzles. It was used to study oscillations from a prototype fuel nozzle that produced oscillations during testing in a commercial engine. Similar, but not identical, oscillations were recorded in the test device. Basic requirements of the device design were that the flame geometry be maintained and acoustic losses be minimized; this was achieved by using a Helmholtz resonator as the combustor geometry. Surprisingly, the combustor oscillated strongly at several frequencies, without modification of the resonator. Brief survey of operating conditions suggests that it may be helpful to characterize oscillating behavior in terms of reference velocity and inlet air temperature with the rig backpressure playing a smaller role. The preliminary results do not guarantee that the single-nozzle test device will reproduce arbitrary oscillations that occur on a complete engine test. Nozzle/nozzle interactions may complicate the response, and oscillations controlled by acoustic velocities transverse to the nozzle axis may not be reproduced in a test device that relies on a bulk Helmholtz mode. Nevertheless, some oscillations can be reproduced, and the single-nozzle test device allows both active and passive control strategies to be tested relatively inexpensively.

  7. Wearable device for skin contact thermography: design, construction and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giansanti, D.; Maccioni, G.

    2008-01-01

    The need for wearable devices for thermal monitoring is rising. These devices could be used to continuously monitor patients for breast cancer investigation or vascular, dermatological and rheumatic disorders, in viability studies, or during physical exercise. We designed and constructed a wearable device for skin-contact thermography that uses integrated silicon sensors. The device was validated using a phantom with a dynamic bench test. The thermal resolution was greater than 0.030'C, and the spatial resolution was equal to 1.6x10-5 m'2. We also investigated the device's performance on five clinical subjects. Results of these studies showed a maximal error of less than 0.10'C in each evaluation [it

  8. BIG - a binary generator for testing digital devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annuziata, M.; Sechi, G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents an unusual approach to the testing of digital devices. In order to test real time systems, we have designed, built, and used a digital generator able to send 2047 quadruples of 12-bit words, with a frequency range of up to 0.7 MHz. (orig.)

  9. Microcomputer based test system for charge coupled devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidman, S.

    1981-02-01

    A microcomputer based system for testing analog charge coupled integrated circuits has been developed. It measures device performance for three parameters: dynamic range, baseline shift due to leakage current, and transfer efficiency. A companion board tester has also been developed. The software consists of a collection of BASIC and assembly language routines developed on the test system microcomputer

  10. A test device for premixed gas turbine combustion oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, G.A.; Gemmen, R.S.; Yip, M.J.

    1996-09-01

    This paper discusses the design and operation of a test combustor suitable for studying combustion oscillations caused by a commercial-scale gas turbine fuel nozzle. Aside from the need to be conducted at elevated pressures and temperatures, it is desirable for the experimental device to be flexible in its geometry so as to provide an acoustic environment representative of the commercial device. The combustor design, capabilities, and relevant instrumentation for such a device are presented, along with initial operating experience and preliminary data that suggests the importance of nozzle reference velocity and air temperature.

  11. Consensus stability testing protocols for organic photovoltaic materials and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reese, Matthew O.; Gevorgyan, Suren; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    Procedures for testing organic solar cell devices and modules with respect to stability and operational lifetime are described. The descriptions represent a consensus of the discussion and conclusions reached during the first 3 years of the international summit on OPV stability (ISOS). The proced......Procedures for testing organic solar cell devices and modules with respect to stability and operational lifetime are described. The descriptions represent a consensus of the discussion and conclusions reached during the first 3 years of the international summit on OPV stability (ISOS...

  12. Biometric identification devices -- Laboratory testing vs. real life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    For over fifteen years Sandia National Laboratories has been involved in laboratory testing of biometric identification devices. The key concept of biometric identification devices is the ability for the system to identify some unique aspect of the individual rather than some object a person may be carrying or some password they are required to know. Tests were conducted to verify manufacturer's performance claims, to determine strengths/weaknesses of devices, and to determine devices that meet the US Department of energy's needs. However, during recent field installation, significantly different performance was observed than was predicted by laboratory tests. Although most people using the device believed it operated adequately, the performance observed was over an order of magnitude worse than predicted. The search for reasons behind this gap between the predicted and the actual performance has revealed many possible contributing factors. As engineers, the most valuable lesson to be learned from this experience is the value of scientists and engineers with (1) common sense, (2) knowledge of human behavior, (3) the ability to observe the real world, and (4) the capability to realize the significant differences between controlled experiments and actual installations

  13. Optical tests for using smartphones inside medical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Amir S.; Acobas, Jennifer K.; Phang, Ye Shang; Hassan, David; Bolton, Frank J.; Levitz, David

    2018-02-01

    Smartphones are currently used in many medical applications and are more frequently being integrated into medical imaging devices. The regulatory requirements in existence today however, particularly the standardization of smartphone imaging through validation and verification testing, only partially cover imaging characteristics with a smartphone. Specifically, it has been shown that smartphone camera specifications are of sufficient quality for medical imaging, and there are devices which comply with the FDA's regulatory requirements for a medical device such as a device's field of view, direction of viewing and optical resolution and optical distortion. However, these regulatory requirements do not call specifically for color testing. Images of the same object using automatic settings or different light sources can show different color composition. Experimental results showing such differences are presented. Under some circumstances, such differences in color composition could potentially lead to incorrect diagnoses. It is therefore critical to control the smartphone camera and illumination parameters properly. This paper examines different smartphone camera settings that affect image quality and color composition. To test and select the correct settings, a test methodology is proposed. It aims at evaluating and testing image color correctness and white balance settings for mobile phones and LED light sources. Emphasis is placed on color consistency and deviation from gray values, specifically by evaluating the ΔC values based on the CIEL*a*b* color space. Results show that such standardization minimizes differences in color composition and thus could reduce the risk of a wrong diagnosis.

  14. Generic testability and test methods guidelines for ASIC devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, K.; Takeda, H.

    1996-04-01

    Many industries are switching from analog equipment to digital equipment. This change has become desirable because digital devices have become cost-effective, easily available, highly reliable, easy to qualify and easy to test and replace when needed. The nuclear power industry is beginning to upgrade some of its instrumentation and control equipment from an analog design to digital design. A digital application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) device can be designed to perform the same functions as performed by analog modules. However, the ASIC must be designed for cost-effective testability and qualification. This report provides generic guidelines for designing cost-effective methods for testing and characterizing ASIC devices to accomplish qualification

  15. Abrasion Testing of Critical Components of Hydrokinetic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worthington, Monty [ORPC Alaska; Ali, Muhammad [Ohio University; Ravens, Tom [University of Alaska Anchorage

    2013-12-06

    The objective of the Abrasion Testing of Critical Components of Hydrokinetic Devices (Project) was to test critical components of hydrokinetic devices in waters with high levels of suspended sediment – information that is widely applicable to the hydrokinetic industry. Tidal and river sites in Alaska typically have high suspended sediment concentrations. High suspended sediment also occurs in major rivers and estuaries throughout the world and throughout high latitude locations where glacial inputs introduce silt into water bodies. In assessing the vulnerability of technology components to sediment induced abrasion, one of the greatest concerns is the impact that the sediment may have on device components such as bearings and seals, failures of which could lead to both efficiency loss and catastrophic system failures.

  16. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... follows: During each of the 10 test days, one sample must be taken at the beginning, middle and end of an 8-consecutive hour period with one additional sample taken immediately following the peak capacity...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of effluent...

  17. 33 CFR 159.123 - Coliform test: Type I devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as follows: During each of the 10-test days, one sample must be taken at the beginning, middle, and end of an 8-consecutive hour period with one additional sample taken immediately following the peak...: Type I devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of effluent...

  18. Ultrasonic testing device having an adjustable water column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Dennis P.; Neidigk, Stephen O.; Rackow, Kirk A.; Duvall, Randy L.

    2015-09-01

    An ultrasonic testing device having a variable fluid column height is disclosed. An operator is able to adjust the fluid column height in real time during an inspection to to produce optimum ultrasonic focus and separate extraneous, unwanted UT signals from those stemming from the area of interest.

  19. Female guppies use orange as choice cue: a manipulative test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Female guppies from a feral South African population respond sexually to more orange males in correlative trials. We impaired the female's ability to use orange elements of male colour patterns by conducting choice trials under orange light. Under orange light, there was no relationship between male colour pattern and ...

  20. Vertical Jumping Tests versus Wingate Anaerobic Test in Female Volleyball Players: The Role of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Afonso, Jose; Clemente-Suarez, Vicente Javier; Alvarado, Jose Rafael Padilla; Driss, Tarak; Knechtle, Beat; Torres-Luque, Gema

    2016-01-01

    Single and continuous vertical jumping tests, as well as the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), are commonly used to assess the short-term muscle power of female volleyball players; however, the relationship among these tests has not been studied adequately. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of single and continuous vertical jumps with the WAnT in female volleyball players. Seventy adolescent (age 16.0 ± 1.0 years, body mass 62.5 ± 7.1 kg, height 170.4 ± 6.1 cm, body fat 24.2% ± 4.3%) and 108 adult female volleyball players (age 24.8 ± 5.2 years, body mass 66.5 ± 8.7 kg, height 173.2 ± 7.4 cm, body fat 22.0% ± 5.1%) performed the squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), Abalakov jump (AJ), 30 s Bosco test and WAnT (peak power, Ppeak; mean power, Pmean). Mean power in the Bosco test was correlated (low to large magnitude) with Pmean of the WAnT (r = 0.27, p = 0.030 in adolescents versus r = 0.56, p volleyball players. These findings should be taken into account by volleyball coaches and fitness trainers during the assessment of short-term muscle power of their athletes.

  1. Device for ultrasonic and eddy current testing of bolts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hromek, J.; Kaspar, P.

    1989-01-01

    The device provides pivoting fitting of the bolt of a WWER reactor steam generator while ultrasonic and eddy current probes are brought near. The bolt under study is clamped between a drive funnel and a securing cone. The eddy current probes are adjusted using guide arms to the point requested and are fitted over the bolt such as for their thread segments to engage the bolt thread. The ultrasonic transducers are then adjusted to the required point. The device can be used for testing bolts of a thread size from M54x5 and a maximum length of 600 mm. (J.B.). 1 fig

  2. Standard practice for torque calibration of testing machines and devices

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures and requirements for the calibration of torque for static and quasi-static torque capable testing machines or devices. These may, or may not, have torque indicating systems and include those devices used for the calibration of hand torque tools. Testing machines may be calibrated by one of the three following methods or combination thereof: 1.1.1 Use of standard weights and lever arms. 1.1.2 Use of elastic torque measuring devices. 1.1.3 Use of elastic force measuring devices and lever arms. 1.1.4 Any of the methods require a specific uncertainty of measurement and a traceability derived from national standards of mass and length. 1.2 The procedures of 1.1.1, 1.1.2, and 1.1.3 apply to the calibration of the torque-indicating systems associated with the testing machine, such as a scale, dial, marked or unmarked recorder chart, digital display, etc. In all cases the buyer/owner/user must designate the torque-indicating system(s) to be calibrated and included in the repor...

  3. Biaxial testing for fabrics and foils optimizing devices and procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Beccarelli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a well-structured, critical review of current design practice for tensioned membrane structures, including a detailed analysis of the experimental data required and critical issues relating to the lack of a set of design codes and testing procedures. The technical requirements for biaxial testing equipment are analyzed in detail, and aspects that need to be considered when developing biaxial testing procedures are emphasized. The analysis is supported by the results of a round-robin exercise comparing biaxial testing machines that involved four of the main research laboratories in the field. The biaxial testing devices and procedures presently used in Europe are extensively discussed, and information is provided on the design and implementation of a biaxial testing rig for architectural fabrics at Politecnico di Milano, which represents a benchmark in the field. The significance of the most recent developments in biaxial testing is also explored.

  4. Tamper-indicating devices and safeguards seals evaluation test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, P.R.V.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was asked to evaluate the seals used as tamper-indicating devices (TIDs) at DOE facilities. Initially, a survey determined what seal manufacturers were being used and what similar seal types were available. Once the required specifications for TIDs were defined, a test plan measured the currently available seals against the requirements. Environmental and physical type tests stressed the seals under two broad categories: (1) handling durability and (2) tamper resistance. Results of the testing provide comparative ratings for the various seals, recommendations for using currently available seals, and a new tamper-indicating technology

  5. Pressure-Application Device for Testing Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A portable pressure-application device has been designed and built for use in testing and calibrating piezoelectric pressure transducers in the field. The device generates pressure pulses of known amplitude. A pressure pulse (in contradistinction to a steady pressure) is needed because in the presence of a steady pressure, the electrical output of a piezoelectric pressure transducer decays rapidly with time. The device includes a stainless- steel compressed-air-storage cylinder of 500 cu cm volume. A manual hand pump with check valves and a pressure gauge are located at one end of the cylinder. A three-way solenoid valve that controls the release of pressurized air is located at the other end of the cylinder. Power for the device is provided by a 3.7-V cordless-telephone battery. The valve is controlled by means of a pushbutton switch, which activates a 5 V to +/-15 V DC-to-DC converter that powers the solenoid. The outlet of the solenoid valve is connected to the pressure transducer to be tested. Before the solenoid is energized, the transducer to be tested is at atmospheric pressure. When the solenoid is actuated by the push button, pressurized air from inside the cylinder is applied to the transducer. Once the pushbutton is released, the cylinder pressure is removed from the transducer and the pressurized air applied to the transducer is vented, bringing the transducer back to atmospheric pressure. Before this device was used for actual calibration, its accuracy was checked with a NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) traceable calibrator and commercially calibrated pressure transducers. This work was done by Wanda Solano of Stennis Space Center and Greg Richardson of Lockheed Martin Corp.

  6. Type testing of devices with inserted radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, A.; Droste, B.; Dombrowski, H.

    2006-01-01

    In Germany devices with inserted radioactive sources can get a type approval if they comply with specific requirements. Whoever operates a device whose type has been approved in accordance with the German Radiation Protection Ordinance does not need an individual authorization. Such type approvals for free use are granted by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (B.f.S.) on the basis of type testing performed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (P.T.B.), the national metrology institute, and the Bundesanstalt fur Materialforschung und -prufung (B.A.M.), the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing. Main aspects of the assessment are the activity of the radioactive sources, the dose equivalent rate near the devices, the tamper-proofness and leak-tightness of the sources and the safety of the construction of the devices. With the new Radiation Protection Ordinance in 2001, more stringent requirements for a type approval were established. Experiences with the new regulations and the relevant assessment criteria applied by P.T.B. and B.A.M. will be presented. (authors)

  7. Device-independent parallel self-testing of two singlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xingyao; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; McKague, Matthew; Scarani, Valerio

    2016-06-01

    Device-independent self-testing offers the possibility of certifying the quantum state and measurements, up to local isometries, using only the statistics observed by querying uncharacterized local devices. In this paper we study parallel self-testing of two maximally entangled pairs of qubits; in particular, the local tensor product structure is not assumed but derived. We prove two criteria that achieve the desired result: a double use of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality and the 3 ×3 magic square game. This demonstrate that the magic square game can only be perfectly won by measuring a two-singlet state. The tolerance to noise is well within reach of state-of-the-art experiments.

  8. CERN tests reveal security flaws with industrial network devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lüders, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The CERN high energy particle physics facility at Geneva, Switzerland will incorporate a wide range of COTS industrial control systems within its next generation particle collider, the LHC. In particular, the Internet will be used to facilitate the remote access for accelerator and particle physicists and system experts based at several hundred locations around the globe. The integration of Industrial Ethernet and COTS PLCs within the LHC program focuses extreme attention on the industrial network cyber-security requirement. CERN's response has been to conduct operational research on the security resilience of networked industrial devices. As test team lead Stefan Lüders reports here, industrial networked devices put through the organisation's test procedures have generally shown up unexpected vulnerabilities.

  9. Reproduction of Realistic Background Noise for Testing Telecommunications Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil Corrales, Juan David; Song, Wookeun; MacDonald, Ewen

    2015-01-01

    A method for reproduction of sound, based on crosstalk cancellation using inverse filters, was implemented in the context of testing telecommunications devices. The effect of the regularization parameter, number of loudspeakers, type of background noise, and a technique to attenuate audible......, the performance was equally good when using eight or four loudspeakers, and the reproduction method was shown to be robust for different program materials. The proposed technique to reduce audible artifacts increased the perceived similarity....

  10. Measuring virgin female aggression in the female intruder test (FIT): effects of oxytocin, estrous cycle, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Trynke R; Beiderbeck, Daniela I; Neumann, Inga D

    2014-01-01

    The costs of violence and aggression in our society have stimulated the scientific search for the predictors and causes of aggression. The majority of studies have focused on males, which are considered to be more aggressive than females in most species. However, rates of offensive behavior in girls and young women are considerable and are currently rising in Western society. The extrapolation of scientific results from males to young, non-maternal females is a priori limited, based on the profound sex differences in brain areas and functioning of neurotransmitters involved in aggression. Therefore, we established a paradigm to assess aggressive behavior in young virgin female rats, i.e. the female intruder test (FIT). We found that approximately 40% of un-manipulated adult (10-11 weeks old) female Wistar rats attack an intruder female during the FIT, independent of their estrous phase or that of their intruder. In addition, adolescent (7-8 weeks old) female rats selected for high anxiety behavior (HABs) displayed significantly more aggression than non-selected (NAB) or low-anxiety (LAB) rats. Intracerebroventricular infusion of oxytocin (OXT, 0.1 µg/5 µl) inhibited aggressive behavior in adult NAB and LAB, but not HAB females. Adolescent NAB rats that had been aggressive towards their intruder showed increased pERK immunoreactivity (IR) in the hypothalamic attack area and reduced pERK-IR in OXT neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus compared to non-aggressive NAB rats. Taken together, aggressive behavior in young virgin female rats is partly dependent on trait anxiety, and appears to be under considerable OXT control.

  11. Measuring virgin female aggression in the female intruder test (FIT: effects of oxytocin, estrous cycle, and anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trynke R de Jong

    Full Text Available The costs of violence and aggression in our society have stimulated the scientific search for the predictors and causes of aggression. The majority of studies have focused on males, which are considered to be more aggressive than females in most species. However, rates of offensive behavior in girls and young women are considerable and are currently rising in Western society. The extrapolation of scientific results from males to young, non-maternal females is a priori limited, based on the profound sex differences in brain areas and functioning of neurotransmitters involved in aggression. Therefore, we established a paradigm to assess aggressive behavior in young virgin female rats, i.e. the female intruder test (FIT. We found that approximately 40% of un-manipulated adult (10-11 weeks old female Wistar rats attack an intruder female during the FIT, independent of their estrous phase or that of their intruder. In addition, adolescent (7-8 weeks old female rats selected for high anxiety behavior (HABs displayed significantly more aggression than non-selected (NAB or low-anxiety (LAB rats. Intracerebroventricular infusion of oxytocin (OXT, 0.1 µg/5 µl inhibited aggressive behavior in adult NAB and LAB, but not HAB females. Adolescent NAB rats that had been aggressive towards their intruder showed increased pERK immunoreactivity (IR in the hypothalamic attack area and reduced pERK-IR in OXT neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus compared to non-aggressive NAB rats. Taken together, aggressive behavior in young virgin female rats is partly dependent on trait anxiety, and appears to be under considerable OXT control.

  12. Radiological dispersal device outdoor simulation test: Cesium chloride particle characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Don, E-mail: lee.sangdon@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Snyder, Emily G.; Willis, Robert [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Fischer, Robert; Gates-Anderson, Dianne; Sutton, Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Viani, Brian [Simbol Mining Corp., Pleasanton, CA 94566 (United States); Drake, John [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); MacKinney, John [U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Particles were generated from the detonation of simulated radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) using non-radioactive CsCl powder and explosive C4. The physical and chemical properties of the resulting particles were characterized. Two RDD simulation tests were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: one of the simulated RDDs was positioned 1 m above a steel plate and the other was partially buried in soil. Particles were collected with filters at a distance of 150 m from the origin of the RDD device, and particle mass concentrations were monitored to identify the particle plume intensity using real time particle samplers. Particles collected on filters were analyzed via computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (CCSEM/EDX) to determine their size distribution, morphology, and chemical constituents. This analysis showed that particles generated by the detonation of explosives can be associated with other materials (e.g., soil) that are in close proximity to the RDD device and that the morphology and chemical makeup of the particles change depending on the interactions of the RDD device with the surrounding materials.

  13. Radiological dispersal device outdoor simulation test: Cesium chloride particle characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Don; Snyder, Emily G.; Willis, Robert; Fischer, Robert; Gates-Anderson, Dianne; Sutton, Mark; Viani, Brian; Drake, John; MacKinney, John

    2010-01-01

    Particles were generated from the detonation of simulated radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) using non-radioactive CsCl powder and explosive C4. The physical and chemical properties of the resulting particles were characterized. Two RDD simulation tests were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: one of the simulated RDDs was positioned 1 m above a steel plate and the other was partially buried in soil. Particles were collected with filters at a distance of 150 m from the origin of the RDD device, and particle mass concentrations were monitored to identify the particle plume intensity using real time particle samplers. Particles collected on filters were analyzed via computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (CCSEM/EDX) to determine their size distribution, morphology, and chemical constituents. This analysis showed that particles generated by the detonation of explosives can be associated with other materials (e.g., soil) that are in close proximity to the RDD device and that the morphology and chemical makeup of the particles change depending on the interactions of the RDD device with the surrounding materials.

  14. Interrupter and hybrid-switch testing for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, W.M.; Warren, R.W.; Honig, E.M.; Lindsay, J.D.G.; Bellamo, P.; Cassel, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses recent and ongoing switch testing for fusion devices. The first part describes testing for the TFTR ohmic-heating circuit. In this set of tests, which simulated the stresses produced during a plasma initiation pulse, circuit breakers were required to interrupt a current of 24 kA with an associated recovery voltage of 25 kV. Two interrupter systems were tested for over 1000 operations each, and both appear to satisfy TFTR requirements. The second part discusses hybrid-switch development for superconducting coil protection. These switching systems must be capable of carrying large currents on a continuous basis as well as performing interruption duties. The third part presents preliminary results on an early-counterpulse technique applied to vacuum interrupters. Implementation of this technique has resulted in large increases in interruptible current as well as a marked reduction in contact erosion

  15. Testing of mitosis and meiosis in female and male gametes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Kurilo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Method of quantitative evaluation of the immature germ cells, their pathology in mitosis and meiosis (in semen, embryo and fetal ovaries, of gonad biopsies or fragments of sectioned material is informative method and should be introduced into the clinical practice in andrology and gynecology and fundamental research. Quantitative analysis of mitosis and female meiosis development was initiated on experimental animals and fetal gonads from spontaneous or therapeutic abortions.

  16. Vertical Jumping Tests versus Wingate Anaerobic Test in Female Volleyball Players: The Role of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Single and continuous vertical jumping tests, as well as the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT, are commonly used to assess the short-term muscle power of female volleyball players; however, the relationship among these tests has not been studied adequately. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of single and continuous vertical jumps with the WAnT in female volleyball players. Seventy adolescent (age 16.0 ± 1.0 years, body mass 62.5 ± 7.1 kg, height 170.4 ± 6.1 cm, body fat 24.2% ± 4.3% and 108 adult female volleyball players (age 24.8 ± 5.2 years, body mass 66.5 ± 8.7 kg, height 173.2 ± 7.4 cm, body fat 22.0% ± 5.1% performed the squat jump (SJ, countermovement jump (CMJ, Abalakov jump (AJ, 30 s Bosco test and WAnT (peak power, Ppeak; mean power, Pmean. Mean power in the Bosco test was correlated (low to large magnitude with Pmean of the WAnT (r = 0.27, p = 0.030 in adolescents versus r = 0.56, p < 0.001 in adults. SJ, CMJ and AJ also correlated with Ppeak (0.28 ≤ r ≤ 0.46 in adolescents versus 0.58 ≤ r ≤ 0.61 in adults and with Pmean (0.43 ≤ r ≤ 0.51 versus 0.67 ≤ r ≤ 0.71, respectively of the WAnT (p < 0.05. In summary, the impact of the Bosco test and WAnT on muscle power varied, especially in the younger age group. Single jumping tests had larger correlations with WAnT in adults than in adolescent volleyball players. These findings should be taken into account by volleyball coaches and fitness trainers during the assessment of short-term muscle power of their athletes.

  17. Tritium Systems Test Assembly: design for major device fabrication review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.; Sherman, R.H.

    1977-06-01

    This document has been prepared for the Major Device Fabrication Review for the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA). The TSTA is dedicated to the development, demonstration, and interfacing of technologies related to the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle for fusion reactor systems. The principal objectives for TSTA are: (a) demonstrate the fuel cycle for fusion reactor systems; (b) develop test and qualify equipment for tritium service in the fusion program; (c) develop and test environmental and personnel protective systems; (d) evaluate long-term reliability of components; (e) demonstrate long-term safe handling of tritium with no major releases or incidents; and (f) investigate and evaluate the response of the fuel cycle and environmental packages to normal, off-normal, and emergency situations. This document presents the current status of a conceptual design and cost estimate for TSTA. The total cost to design, construct, and operate TSTA through FY-1981 is estimated to be approximately $12.2 M

  18. GRI testing facility available for pipeline inspection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    As part of a program to help improve detection and characterization of defects that may occur in pipelines, the Gas Research Institute has announced the completion of the first phase of a testing facility for the evaluation of new and existing pipeline inspection technologies. GRI is a private, not-for-profit membership organization based in Chicago. The first phase of the facility consists of a pull rig which includes four 300-foot lengths of pipe with diameters of 12, 24, 30, and 36 inches. NDE inspection devices can be pulled through these pipe segments by a winch at speeds up to 25 miles per hour

  19. CAMAC based Test Signal Generator using Re-configurable device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Atish; Raval, Tushar; Srivastava, Amit K; Reddy, D Chenna

    2010-01-01

    There are many different types of signal generators, with different purposes and applications (and at varying levels of expense). In general, no device is suitable for all possible applications. Hence the selection of signal generator is as per requirements. For SST-1 Data Acquisition System requirements, we have developed a CAMAC based Test Signal Generator module using Re-configurable device (CPLD). This module is based on CAMAC interface but can be used for testing both CAMAC and PXI Data Acquisition Systems in SST-1 tokamak. It can also be used for other similar applications. Unlike traditional signal generators, which are embedded hardware, it is a flexible hardware unit, programmable through Graphical User Interface (GUI) developed in LabVIEW application development tool. The main aim of this work is to develop a signal generator for testing our data acquisition interface for a large number of channels simultaneously. The module front panel has various connectors like LEMO and D type connectors for signal interface. The module can be operated either in continuous signal generation mode or in triggered mode depending upon application. This can be done either by front panel switch or through CAMAC software commands (for remote operation). Similarly module reset and trigger generation operation can be performed either through front panel push button switch or through software CAMAC commands. The module has the facility to accept external TTL level trigger and clock through LEMO connectors. The module can also generate trigger and the clock signal, which can be delivered to other devices through LEMO connectors. The module generates two types of signals: Analog and digital (TTL level). The analog output (single channel) is generated from Digital to Analog Converter through CPLD for various types of waveforms like Sine, Square, Triangular and other wave shape that can vary in amplitude as well as in frequency. The module is quite useful to test up to 32 channels

  20. Preliminary Test on Hydraulic Rotation Device for Neutron Transmutation Doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ki-Jung; Kang, Han-Ok; Kim, Seong Hoon; Park, Cheol

    2014-01-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing a new Research Reactor (KJRR) which will be located at KIJANG in the south-eastern province of Korea. The KJRR will be mainly utilized for isotope production, NTD production, and the related research activities. During the NTD process, the irradiation rig containing the silicon ingot rotates at the constant speed to ensure precisely defined homogeneity of the irradiation. A new NTD Hydraulic Rotation Device (NTDHRD) is being developed to rotate the irradiation rigs at the required speed. In this study, the preliminary test and the analysis for the rotation characteristic of the NTDHRD, which is developed through the conceptual design, are described. A new NTD hydraulic rotation device is being developed for the purpose of application to the KIJANG research reactor (KJRR). The preliminary test and analysis for the rotation characteristic of the NTDHRD, which is developed through the conceptual design, are conducted in experimental apparatus. The film thickness by the thrust bearing is measured and the minimum required mass flow rate for stable rotation is determined

  1. Assessment of a Newly Developed, Active Pneumatic-Driven, Sensorimotor Test and Training Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Haslinger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensorimotor system (SMS plays an important role in sports and in every day movement. Several tools for assessment and training have been designed. Many of them are directed to specific populations, and have major shortcomings due to the training effect or safety. The aim of the present study was to design and assess a dynamic sensorimotor test and training device that can be adjusted for all levels of performance. The novel pneumatic-driven mechatronic device can guide the trainee, allow independent movements or disrupt the individual with unpredicted perturbations while standing on a platform. The test-reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Subjects were required to balance their center of pressure (COP in a target circle (TITC. The time in TITC and the COP error (COPe were recorded for analysis. The results of 22 males and 14 females (23.7 ± 2.6 years showed good to excellent test–retest reliability. The newly designed Active Balance System (ABS was then compared with the Biodex Balance System SD® (BBS. The results of 15 females, 14 males (23.4 ± 1.6 years showed modest correlation in static and acceptable correlation in dynamic conditions, suggesting that ABS could be a reliable and comparable tool for dynamic balance assessments.

  2. High burden of prevalent and recently acquired HIV among female sex workers and female HIV voluntary testing center clients in Kigali, Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braunstein, Sarah L.; Ingabire, Chantal M.; Geubbels, Eveline; Vyankandondera, Joseph; Umulisa, Marie-Michèle; Gahiro, Elysée; Uwineza, Mireille; Tuijn, Coosje J.; Nash, Denis; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    To estimate HIV prevalence and risk factors in population-based samples of female sex workers (FSW) and female voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clients in Rwanda. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 800 FSW and 1,250 female VCT clients in Rwanda, which included interviewing and testing

  3. Human female orgasm as evolved signal: a test of two hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Ryan M; Bailey, Drew H

    2013-11-01

    We present the results of a study designed to empirically test predictions derived from two hypotheses regarding human female orgasm behavior as an evolved communicative trait or signal. One hypothesis tested was the female fidelity hypothesis, which posits that human female orgasm signals a woman's sexual satisfaction and therefore her likelihood of future fidelity to a partner. The other was sire choice hypothesis, which posits that women's orgasm behavior signals increased chances of fertilization. To test the two hypotheses of human female orgasm, we administered a questionnaire to 138 females and 121 males who reported that they were currently in a romantic relationship. Key predictions of the female fidelity hypothesis were not supported. In particular, orgasm was not associated with female sexual fidelity nor was orgasm associated with male perceptions of partner sexual fidelity. However, faked orgasm was associated with female sexual infidelity and lower male relationship satisfaction. Overall, results were in greater support of the sire choice signaling hypothesis than the female fidelity hypothesis. Results also suggest that male satisfaction with, investment in, and sexual fidelity to a mate are benefits that favored the selection of orgasmic signaling in ancestral females.

  4. Development of a Device for a Material Irradiation Test in the OR Test Hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Man Soon; Kang, Y. H.; Kim, B. G.; Choo, K. N.; Sohn, J. M.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J.; Seo, C. K

    2008-05-15

    To develop a technology and a device for the irradiation test for utilization of the OR/IP holes according to the various requirements of users, the properties of the OR/IP holes were investigated and an irradiation device for the OR hole was designed and fabricated. The OR-4, 5 and the IP-9, 10, 11 holes were selected as those suitable to irradiation tests among the test holes located in the out core area. The conceptual design was performed to design a device to irradiate materials using the OR and IP holes. The capsule for the OR holes is fixed by pressing the protection tube using a clamping device, on the other hand the IP capsule is inserted in the hole without a special clamping device. In the basic design of the irradiation device for the OR hole, the capsules having the outside diameter of 50, 52, 54, 56mm were reviewed theoretically to investigate if they meet the hydraulic and vibration conditions required in the HANARO. The results of the pressure drop test showed that the 3 kinds of capsules having diameter of 52, 54, 56mm satisfied the requirement for the pressure difference and flow rate in HANARO. The capsule of {phi}56mm out of the above three satisfied the vibration condition and was finally selected giving consideration of a capacity of specimens. The capsule having a diameter of {phi}56mm was fabricated and the flow rate was measured. Using the velocity data measured at the out-core facility, the heat transfer coefficient, and the temperature on the surface of the capsule was evaluated to confirm it less than the ONB temperature. As a result, the capsule of {phi}56mm was selected for the irradiation test at the OR holes.

  5. NASDA technician test real-time radiation monitoring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A technician from the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) tests the real-time radiation monitoring device on SPACEHAB at Kennedy Space Center in preparation for the STS-89 mission, slated to be the first Shuttle launch of 1998. STS-89 will be the eighth of nine scheduled Mir dockings and will include a double module of SPACEHAB, used mainly as a large pressurized cargo container for science, logistical equipment and supplies to be exchanged between the orbiter Endeavour and the Russian Space Station Mir. The nine-day flight of STS-89 also is scheduled to include the transfer of the seventh American to live and work aboard the Russian orbiting outpost. Liftoff of Endeavour and its seven-member crew is targeted for Jan. 15, 1998, at 1:03 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  6. Device for remote inspection and testing of a structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, B.; Boudou, J.; Castaing, A.; Clasquin, J.; Gallet, B.; Saglio, R.; Samoel, A.

    1976-01-01

    A self-propelled carriage for inspecting the primary vessel of a fast reactor is capable of displacement within the interspace between the primary vessel and the containment vessel in order to inspect and test any predetermined zone of the primary vessel, the carriage being associated with a drive mechanism and applied against the oppositely facing wall of the containment vessel. The carriage is suspended from a composite cable actuated by a handling apparatus for introducing the carriage into the interspace and withdrawing it therefrom. The composite cable supplies electric power as well as the different fluids required for positioning and operation of the inspection devices which are mounted on the carriage. 9 claims, 6 drawing figures

  7. HIV Testing and Counseling Among Female Sex Workers : A Systematic Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tokar, Anna; Broerse, Jacqueline E.W.; Blanchard, James; Roura, Maria

    2018-01-01

    HIV testing uptake continues to be low among Female Sex Workers (FSWs). We synthesizes evidence on barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among FSW as well as frequencies of testing, willingness to test, and return rates to collect results. We systematically searched the MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE,

  8. High Burden of Prevalent and Recently Acquired HIV among Female Sex Workers and Female HIV Voluntary Testing Center Clients in Kigali, Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braunstein, S.L.; Ingabire, C.M.; Geubbels, E.; Vyankandondera, J.; Umulisa, M.M.; Gahiro, E.; Uwineza, M.; Tuijn, C.J.; Nash, D.; van de Wijgert, J.H.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate HIV prevalence and risk factors in population-based samples of female sex workers (FSW) and female voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clients in Rwanda. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 800 FSW and 1,250 female VCT clients in Rwanda, which included

  9. Screen Channel Liquid Acquisition Device Outflow Tests in Liquid Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; Chato, David J.; McQuillen, J. B.; Vera, J.; Kudlac, M. T.; Quinn, F. D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental design and test results of the recently concluded 1-g inverted vertical outflow testing of two 325x2300 full scale liquid acquisition device (LAD) channels in liquid hydrogen (LH2). One of the channels had a perforated plate and internal cooling from a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to enhance performance. The LADs were mounted in a tank to simulate 1-g outflow over a wide range of LH2 temperatures (20.3 - 24.2 K), pressures (100 - 350 kPa), and flow rates (0.010 - 0.055 kg/s). Results indicate that the breakdown point is dominated by liquid temperature, with a second order dependence on mass flow rate through the LAD. The best performance is always achieved in the coldest liquid states for both channels, consistent with bubble point theory. Higher flow rates cause the standard channel to break down relatively earlier than the TVS cooled channel. Both the internal TVS heat exchanger and subcooling the liquid in the propellant tank are shown to significantly improve LAD performance.

  10. Suitability and repeatability of a photostress recovery test device, the macular test device, macular degeneration TEST DEVICE, detector (MDD-2), for diabetes and diabetic retinopathy assessment

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Loughman, James

    2013-10-16

    Diabetic retinopathy can result in impaired photostress recovery time despite normal visual acuity and fundoscopic appearance. The Macular Degeneration Detector (MDD-2) is a novel flash photostress recovery time device. In this study, we examine the repeatability of the MDD-2 in normal and diabetic subjects.

  11. Test measurements on the RF charge breeder device BRIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variale, Vincenzo; Boggia, Antonio; Clauser, Tarcisio; Raino, Antonio; Valentino, Vincenzo; Verrone, Grazia; Bak, Petr; Kustenzov, Gennady; Skarbo, Boris; Tiunov, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The 'charge state breeder' BRIC (BReeding Ion Charge) is based on an EBIS source and it is designed to accept Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) with charge state +1, in a slow injection mode, to increase their charge state up to +n. BRIC has been developed at the INFN section of Bari (Italy) during these last 3 years with very limited funds. Now, it has been assembled at the LNL (Italy) where are in progress the first tests as stand alone source and where, in the future, with some implementation, it will be tested as charge breeder at ISOL/TS facility of that laboratory. BRIC could be considered as a solution for the charge state breeder of the SPES project under study also at the LNL. The new feature of BRIC, with respect to the classical EBIS, is given by the insertion, in the ion drift chamber, of a radio frequency (RF) - quadrupole aiming to filter the unwanted masses and then making a more efficient containment of the wanted ions. In this paper, the first ion charge state measurements and analysis and the effect of the RF field applied on the ion chamber will be reported and discussed. The first RF test measurements seem confirm, as foreseen by simulation results carried out previously, that a selective containment can be obtained. However, most accurate measurements needed to study with more details the effect. For this reason, few implementations of the system are in order to improve the accuracy of the measurements. The proposed modifications of the BRIC device, then, will be also presented and shortly discussed

  12. Extended device profiles and testing procedures for the approval process of integrated medical devices using the IEEE 11073 communication standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janß, Armin; Thorn, Johannes; Schmitz, Malte; Mildner, Alexander; Dell'Anna-Pudlik, Jasmin; Leucker, Martin; Radermacher, Klaus

    2018-02-23

    Nowadays, only closed and proprietary integrated operating room systems (IORS) from big manufacturers are available on the market. Hence, the interconnection of components from third-party vendors is only possible with increased time and costs. In the context of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)-funded project OR.NET (2012-2016), the open integration of medical devices from different manufacturers was addressed. An integrated operating theater based on the open communication standard IEEE 11073 shall give clinical operators the opportunity to choose medical devices independently of the manufacturer. This approach would be advantageous especially for hospital operators and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME) of medical devices. Actual standards and concepts regarding technical feasibility and the approval process do not cope with the requirements for a modular integration of medical devices in the operating room (OR), based on an open communication standard. Therefore, innovative approval strategies and corresponding certification and test procedures, which cover actual legal and normative standards, have to be developed in order to support the future risk management and the usability engineering process of open integrated medical devices in the OR. The use of standardized device and service profiles and a three-step testing procedure, including conformity, interoperability and integration tests are described in this paper and shall support the manufacturers to integrate their medical devices without disclosing the medical devices' risk analysis and related confidential expertise or proprietary information.

  13. Testing limits to airflow perturbation device (APD measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshidi Shaya

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Airflow Perturbation Device (APD is a lightweight, portable device that can be used to measure total respiratory resistance as well as inhalation and exhalation resistances. There is a need to determine limits to the accuracy of APD measurements for different conditions likely to occur: leaks around the mouthpiece, use of an oronasal mask, and the addition of resistance in the respiratory system. Also, there is a need for resistance measurements in patients who are ventilated. Method Ten subjects between the ages of 18 and 35 were tested for each station in the experiment. The first station involved testing the effects of leaks of known sizes on APD measurements. The second station tested the use of an oronasal mask used in conjunction with the APD during nose and mouth breathing. The third station tested the effects of two different resistances added in series with the APD mouthpiece. The fourth station tested the usage of a flexible ventilator tube in conjunction with the APD. Results All leaks reduced APD resistance measurement values. Leaks represented by two 3.2 mm diameter tubes reduced measured resistance by about 10% (4.2 cmH2O·sec/L for control and 3.9 cm H2O·sec/L for the leak. This was not statistically significant. Larger leaks given by 4.8 and 6.4 mm tubes reduced measurements significantly (3.4 and 3.0 cm cmH2O·sec/L, respectively. Mouth resistance measured with a cardboard mouthpiece gave an APD measurement of 4.2 cm H2O·sec/L and mouth resistance measured with an oronasal mask was 4.5 cm H2O·sec/L; the two were not significantly different. Nose resistance measured with the oronasal mask was 7.6 cm H2O·sec/L. Adding airflow resistances of 1.12 and 2.10 cm H2O·sec/L to the breathing circuit between the mouth and APD yielded respiratory resistance values higher than the control by 0.7 and 2.0 cm H2O·sec/L. Although breathing through a 52 cm length of flexible ventilator tubing reduced the APD

  14. Chalcogenide Glass Radiation Sensor; Materials Development, Design and Device Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitkova, Maria; Butt, Darryl; Kozicki, Michael; Barnaby, Hugo

    2013-04-30

    studied the effect of x-rays and γ-rays, on thin film chalcogenide glasses and applied them in conjunction with film incorporating a silver source in a new type of radiation sensor for which we have an US patent application [3]. In this report, we give data about our studies regarding our designed radiation sensor along with the testing and performance at various radiation doses. These studies have been preceded by materials characterization research related to the compositional and structural characteristics of the active materials used in the radiation sensor design. During the work on the project, we collected a large volume of material since every experiment was repeated many times to verify the results. We conducted a comprehensive material research, analysis and discussion with the aim to understand the nature of the occurring effects, design different structures to harness these effects, generated models to aid in the understanding the effects, built different device structures and collected data to quantify device performance. These various aspects of our investigation have been detailed in previous quarterly reports. In this report, we present our main results and emphasize on the results pertaining to the core project goals materials development, sensor design and testing and with an emphasis on classifying the appropriate material and design for the optimal application. The report has three main parts: (i) Presentation of the main data; (ii) Bulleted summary of the most important results; (iii) List of the patent, journal publications, conference proceedings and conferences participation, occurring as a result of working on the project.

  15. Evaluation of reproductive function of female rats exposed to radiofrequency fields (27. 12 MHz) near a shortwave diathermy device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-Woodman, P.D.; Hadley, J.A.; Richardson, L.; Bright, D.; Porter, D.

    1989-04-01

    In recent years, there has been increased concern regarding effects of operator exposure to the electromagnetic (EM) field associated with shortwave diathermy devices. The present study was designed to investigate the effects, on rats, of repeated exposure to such an EM field. Following repeated exposure for 5 wk, a reduction in fertility occurred as indicated by a reduced number of matings in exposed rats compared to sham-irradiated rats and a reduction in the number of rats that conceived after mating. The data suggest that female operators could experience reduced fertility, if they remained close to the console for prolonged periods. This has particular significant for the physiotherapy profession.

  16. Accident situations tests HTR fuel with the device Kufa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerbauer, A. I.; Freis, D.

    2010-01-01

    The ceramic and ceramic-like coating materials in modern high-temperature reactor fuel are designed to ensure mechanical stability and retention of fission products under normal and transient conditions, regardless of the radiation damage sustained in-pile. In hypothetical depressurization and loss-of-forced-circulation (D LOFC) accidents, fuel elements of modular high-temperate reactors are exposed to temperatures several hundred degrees higher than during normal operation, causing increased thermo-mechanical stress on the coating layers. At the Institute for Transuranium Elements of the European Commission, a vigorous experimental program is being pursued with the aim of characterizing the performance of irradiated HTR fuel under such accident conditions. A cold finger device (Kufa), operational in ITUs hot cells since 2006, has been used to perform heating experiments on eight irradiated HTR fuel pebbles from the AVR experimental reactor and from dedicated irradiation campaigns at the High-Flux Reactor in Petten, the Netherlands. Gaseous fission products are collected in a cryogenic charcoal trap, while volatiles,are plated out on a water-cooled condensate plate. A quantitative measurement of the release is obtained by gamma spectroscopy. We highlight experimental results from the Kufa testing as well as the on-going development of new experimental facilities. (Author) 9 refs.

  17. Permeated defect detecting test method and device in reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Yoshishige.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of and a device capable of performing a test for entire inner surfaces of the reactor upon periodical inspection of a BWR type reactor while sufficiently taking countermeasures for radiation rays into consideration. Namely, the present invention comprises following steps. (1) A provisional step for taking a shroud head of a reactor core shroud and incore structural components above and below the shroud out of the reactor, discharging reactor water and water tightly closing openings such as reactor wall perforation holes, (2) a pretreatment step for washing exposed inner surfaces of the reactor and peeling deteriorated materials, (3) a first drying step for drying portions washed and peeled in the step (2), (4) a permeation step for applying a permeation liquid of a defect detecting medium on the exposed inner surfaces of the reactor, (5) a permeation liquid removing step for removing the an excess permeation liquid in the step (4), (6) a second drying step for drying corresponding portions after performing the step (5), and (7) a flaw detecting step for optically observing the corresponding portions after performing the step (6) and detecting flaws. (I.S.)

  18. Nondestructive test for assembly relationship of initiating explosive device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiangang; Zhang Chaozong; Guo Zhiping

    2009-01-01

    A 3D computed tomography (CT) method to inspect assembly relationship of initiating explosive device and to nondestructively evaluate assembly relationship by building geometric model from CT images was described. The experiment result proves that this method accurately inspects assembly relationship of initiating explosive device. (authors)

  19. Underwater Sound Levels at a Wave Energy Device Testing Facility in Falmouth Bay, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Joanne K; Witt, Matthew J; Johanning, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring devices were deployed at FaBTest in Falmouth Bay, UK, a marine renewable energy device testing facility during trials of a wave energy device. The area supports considerable commercial shipping and recreational boating along with diverse marine fauna. Noise monitoring occurred during (1) a baseline period, (2) installation activity, (3) the device in situ with inactive power status, and (4) the device in situ with active power status. This paper discusses the preliminary findings of the sound recording at FabTest during these different activity periods of a wave energy device trial.

  20. Factors that affect the physical science career interest of female students: Testing five common hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

    2013-12-01

    There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using multivariate matching methods on national data drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project (n=7505), we test the following five commonly held beliefs regarding what factors might impact females’ physical science career interest: (i) having a single-sex physics class, (ii) having a female physics teacher, (iii) having female scientist guest speakers in physics class, (iv) discussing the work of female scientists in physics class, and (v) discussing the underrepresentation of women in physics class. The effect of these experiences on physical science career interest is compared for female students who are matched on several factors, including prior science interests, prior mathematics interests, grades in science, grades in mathematics, and years of enrollment in high school physics. No significant effects are found for single-sex classes, female teachers, female scientist guest speakers, and discussing the work of female scientists. However, discussions about women’s underrepresentation have a significant positive effect.

  1. The current situation and development of medical device testing institutes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofang; Mu, Ruihong; Fan, Yubo; Wang, Chunren; Li, Deyu

    2017-04-01

    This article analyses the current situation and development of Chinese medical device testing institutes from the perspectives of the two most important functions - testing functions and medical device standardization functions. Areas Covered: The objective of the Chinese government regulations for medical device industry is to ensure the safety and effectiveness of medical devices for Chinese patients. To support the regulation system, the Chinese government has established medical device testing institutes at different levels for example, the national, provincial, and municipal levels. These testing institutes also play an important role in technical support during medical device premarket registration and post market surveillance, they are also the vital practitioners of Chinese medical device standardization. Expert Commentary: Chinese medical device testing institutes are technical departments established by government, and serve the regulatory functions of government agency. In recent years, with the rapid development of medical device industry as well as constantly increasing international and domestic medical device market, the importance of medical device testing institute is more prominent, However, there are still some problems unsolved, such as their overall capacity remains to be improved, construction of standardization is to be strengthened, etc.

  2. Feasibility test on green energy harvesting from physical exercise devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafi, Nirendra N.; Mourshed, M.; Masud, M. H.; Hossain, M. S.; Kamal, M. R.

    2017-06-01

    The demand of power is increasing day by day due to the increase of world population as well as the industrialization and modernization. Depletion of the world's fossil fuel reserves and the adverse effects of their uses on the environment insist the researchers to find out some means of efficient and cost effective alternative energy sources from small to large scales. In a gymnasium the human metabolism power is used to drive the physical exercise devices. However there are a number of exercise device which can have the potential to generate electricity during physical exercise. By converting the available mechanical energy from these exercise devices into kinetic energy, electric power can be produced. In this work, energy was harvested from the most commonly used physical exercise devices used in the gymnasium - paddling and chin up. The paddle pulley and the chin up pulley were connected to the couple pulley which in turn coupled to an alternator by a V-belt to produce electrical energy and a rechargeable battery was used to store electrical energy. The power generation from the device depends upon the speed at which the alternator runs and the age limit. The electrical energy output was observed 83.6 watt at 1300 rpm and 62.5 watt at1150 rpm alternator speed for the paddling and chin up respectively recorded for an average adult. The device was designed for a constant 49N load on the alternator for both paddling and chin up operation. By running each of these devices for about 12 hours in a day, any gymnasium can avoid burning of almost 23.67 kg and 31.6 kg of diesel fuel per year for chin up and paddling respectively. Also it can cut off the CO2 emission to the environment which reveals itself a standalone green micro gym.

  3. MEMS device for bending test: measurements of fatigue and creep of electroplated nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Pontoppidan; Rasmussen, Anette Alsted; Ravnkilde, Jan Tue

    2003-01-01

    In situ bending test devices with integrated electrostatic actuator were fabricated in electroplated nanocrystalline nickel. The device features approximately pure in-plane bending of the test beam. The excitation of the test beam has fixed displacement amplitude as the actuation electrodes...

  4. LANL12-RS-108J Report on Device Modeler Testing of the Device Modeler Tool Kit. DMTK in FY14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temple, Brian Allen [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pimentel, David A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-28

    This document covers the various testing and modifications of the Device Modeler Tool Kit (DMTK) for project LANL12-RS-108J in FY14. The testing has been comprised of different device modelers and trainees for device modeling using DMTK on the secure network for a few test problems. Most of these problems have been synthetic data problems. There has been a local secure network training drill where one of the trainees has used DMTK for real data. DMTK has also been used on a laptop for a deployed real data training drill. Once DMTK gets into the home team, it will be used for more training drills (TDs) which will contain real data in the future.

  5. Efficiency evaluation test of waste non-destructive analysis device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Kouichi; Ogasawara, Kensuke; Nisizawa, Ichio

    2000-03-01

    A device for non-destructive analysis of plutonium in alpha solid waste has been installed in NUCEF; Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility. The device has been designed to determine the amount of radioisotopes in carton-boxes, 45 l steel cans and 200 l steel cans containing relatively low density waste. Considering the waste density and the heterogeneity of radio-sources, the proper distance between the detector and the waste, and the open degree of the collimator have been settled, because real waste may contain several kinds of material and the heterogeneity of radioactivity. It has been confirmed from the evaluation of the detect limit that plutonium of about 8 MBq can be determined with the accuracy of 10% and the device may be proper for the practical application. (author)

  6. Factors that encourage females to pursue physical science careers: Testing five common hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard

    2012-03-01

    There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using Propensity Score Matching (PSM) on national data (n=7505) drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project, we test five commonly held beliefs including having a single-sex physics class, having a female physics teacher, having female scientist guest speakers in physics class, discussing the work of women scientists in physics class, and discussing the under-representation of women in physics class. The effect of these experiences is compared for female students who are matched on several factors, including parental education, prior science/math interests, and academic background, thereby controlling for the effect of many confounding variables.

  7. Reliability data collection on IC and VLSI devices tested under accelerated life conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, D.M.; Meniconi, M.

    1986-01-01

    As part of a more general investigation into the reliability and failure causes of semiconductor devices, statistical samples of integrated circuit devices (LM741C) and dynamic random access memory devices (TMS4116) were tested destructively to failure using elevated temperature as the accelerating stress. The devices were operated during the life test and the failure data generated were collected automatically using a multiple question-and-answer program and a process control computer. The failure data were modelled from the lognormal, inverse Gaussian and Weibull distribution using an Arrhenius reaction rate model. The failed devices were later decapsulated for failure cause determination. (orig./DG)

  8. An experimental test of condition-dependent male and female mate choice in zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Jeanne Holveck

    Full Text Available In mating systems with social monogamy and obligatory bi-parental care, such as found in many songbird species, male and female fitness depends on the combined parental investment. Hence, both sexes should gain from choosing mates in high rather than low condition. However, theory also predicts that an individual's phenotypic quality can constrain choice, if low condition individuals cannot afford prolonged search efforts and/or face higher risk of rejection. In systems with mutual mate choice, the interaction between male and female condition should thus be a better predictor of choice than either factor in isolation. To address this prediction experimentally, we manipulated male and female condition and subsequently tested male and female mating preferences in zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, a songbird species with mutual mate choice and obligatory bi-parental care. We experimentally altered phenotypic quality by manipulating the brood size in which the birds were reared. Patterns of association for high- or low-condition individuals of the opposite sex differed for male and female focal birds when tested in an 8-way choice arena. Females showed repeatable condition-assortative preferences for males matching their own rearing background. Male preferences were also repeatable, but not predicted by their own or females' rearing background. In combination with a brief review of the literature on condition-dependent mate choice in the zebra finch we discuss whether the observed sex differences and between-studies differences arise because males and females differ in context sensitivity (e.g. male-male competition suppressing male mating preferences, sampling strategies or susceptibility to rearing conditions (e.g. sex-specific effect on physiology. While a picture emerges that juvenile and current state indeed affect preferences, the development and context-dependency of mutual state-dependent mate choice warrants further study.

  9. Error Analysis in a Device to Test Optical Systems by Using Ronchi Test and Phase Shifting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera-Perez, Brasilia; Castro-Ramos, Jorge; Gordiano-Alvarado, Gabriel; Vazquez y Montiel, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    In optical workshops, Ronchi test is used to determine the optical quality of any concave surface, while it is in the polishing process its quality is verified. The Ronchi test is one of the simplest and most effective methods used for evaluating and measuring aberrations. In this work, we describe a device to test converging mirrors and lenses either with small F/numbers or large F/numbers, using LED (Light-Emitting Diode) that has been adapted in the Ronchi testing as source of illumination. With LED used the radiation angle is bigger than common LED. It uses external power supplies to have well stability intensity to avoid error during the phase shift. The setup also has the advantage to receive automatic input and output data, this is possible because phase shifting interferometry and a square Ronchi ruling with a variable intensity LED were used. Error analysis of the different parameters involved in the test of Ronchi was made. For example, we analyze the error in the shifting of phase, the error introduced by the movement of the motor, misalignments of x-axis, y-axis and z-axis of the surface under test, error in the period of the grid used

  10. Device to test the leak-tightness of a container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, A.E.; Davey, P.G.

    1978-01-01

    A device is described by which the sensitivity and exactness leak detectors with flow meters may be increased. For this, the flow meter is equipped with two thermal flow sensers and one heating element acting on the two sensors. (RW) [de

  11. GPS Device Testing Based on User Performance Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-02

    1. Rationale for a Test Program Based on User Performance Metrics ; 2. Roberson and Associates Test Program ; 3. Status of, and Revisions to, the Roberson and Associates Test Program ; 4. Comparison of Roberson and DOT/Volpe Programs

  12. Anthropometry, Body Composition, and Performance in Sport-Specific Field Test in Female Wheelchair Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Cavedon

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Data on the physical and performance characteristics of female wheelchair basketball (WB players are scarce. In several countries female WB players train and compete with male players on mixed teams due to the limited total population of players, which would otherwise lead to large territorial spread for each team. Any differences in terms of physical characteristics and/or WB skill proficiency between male and female WB players would be relevant to team performance in mixed teams. This work examined anthropometry, body composition, and performance in a set of sport-specific field tests in a sample of 13 female WB players representing about 40% of the eligible population in Italy across a range of functional point scores (Point. Point is assigned on an ordinal scale from 1.0 (i.e., players with minimal functional potential through to 4.5 (players with maximum functional potential. Our female sample was then compared against twice as many (n = 26 Point-matched (±0.5 points male players. The two groups were similar for age (P = 0.191; effect size [d] = 0.2, self-reported duration of injury (P = 0.144, d = 0.6, WB experience (P = 0.178, d = 0.5, and volume of training (P = 0.293, d = 0.4. The large majority of measured linear anthropometric variables (10/13 were lower in female players than males (0.001 < P ≤ 0.041. Skinfold-estimated percent body fat was higher (+7.6% in females (30.7 ± 6.0%; P < 0.001, d = 1.3. Mean performance was worse in female than in males in six out of seven sport-specific field tests, scores being significantly lower in females for the maximal pass (7.5 ± 2.0 m for females vs. 10.4 ± 2.8 m for males; P = 0.002, d = 1.2 and suicide tests (55.8 ± 6.4 s for females vs. 45.4 ± 6.7 s for males; P < 0.001, d = 1.6. When performance in subgroups of females (n = 9 chosen across a range of Point was compared with that of males assigned 1.0 or 1.5 Point less (each n = 9, performance differences between male and female WB

  13. The development of an enhanced strain measurement device to support testing of radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncapkher, W.L.; Arviso, M.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive material package designers use structural testing to verify and demonstrate package performance. A major part of evaluating structural response is the collection of reliable instrumentation measurement data. Over the last four decades, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been actively involved in the development, testing, and evaluation of measurement devices for a broad range of applications, resulting in the commercialization of several measurement devices commonly used today. SNL maintains an ongoing program sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and evaluate measurement devices to support testing of packages used to transport radioactive or hazardous materials. The development of the enhanced strain measurement device is part of this program

  14. HIV Testing and Counseling Among Female Sex Workers: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, Anna; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; Blanchard, James; Roura, Maria

    2018-02-20

    HIV testing uptake continues to be low among Female Sex Workers (FSWs). We synthesizes evidence on barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among FSW as well as frequencies of testing, willingness to test, and return rates to collect results. We systematically searched the MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS databases for articles published in English between January 2000 and November 2017. Out of 5036 references screened, we retained 36 papers. The two barriers to HIV testing most commonly reported were financial and time costs-including low income, transportation costs, time constraints, and formal/informal payments-as well as the stigma and discrimination ascribed to HIV positive people and sex workers. Social support facilitated testing with consistently higher uptake amongst married FSWs and women who were encouraged to test by peers and managers. The consistent finding that social support facilitated HIV testing calls for its inclusion into current HIV testing strategies addressed at FSW.

  15. HIV testing in community based research: a case study of female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Female genital schistosomiasis prevalence found was 10.3%, Trichomonas vaginalis, 2.1%, Candida albicans, 9.6%, Gardnerella vaginalis, 11.8% and HIV 6.6%. The study also showed that, the location of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) services in rural communities in the Volta Basin were unavailable. The use ...

  16. Design of device for testing in the gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano H, E.

    1991-02-01

    In eves of the recharge of the Gamma Irradiator, JS-6500 it was detected, that there was contamination in the container that housed the pencils of Co-60, coming from Argentina, country to which the ININ buys it recharges. It was determined that the contamination in the container was it interns and after discussing several solution options it was determined to manufacture a device to make a washing of the pencils. It was touch to the Management of Radiological Safety to determine the conceptual design of the device to make the washing and the way of operation of the same one. The Management of Prototypes and Models was responsibility of the mechanical design and its production. (Author)

  17. Test plan for K Basin Sludge Canister and Floor Sampling Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meling, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides the test plan and procedure forms for conducting the functional and operational acceptance testing of the K Basin Sludge Canister and Floor Sampling Device(s). These samplers samples sludge off the floor of the 100K Basins and out of 100K fuel storage canisters

  18. [Vision test device: possibilities and limits of LCD technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettelt; Brandl, H; Zrenner, E; Lund, O E

    1991-01-01

    An automatic visual acuity test examining visual acuity at 5 m distance is presented. An LCD screen with 400 x 640 pixel is used for graphic display. The Landolt rings are selected randomly. The test presented here complies well with the criteria of DIN 58220. Accuracy estimates for representation of the Landolt rings in raster graphics are discussed. With the method suggested, the testing of visual acuity, one of the most important tests in ophthalmological practice, is simplified and its reliability and results are improved. The method allows tests at short time intervals to trace the time dependency of visual acuity. Furthermore, the test may be delegated to support personnel.

  19. Cortisol secretion after adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH and Dexamethasone tests in healthy female and male dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Victor

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the conclusive diagnosis of Cushing's Syndrome, a stimulating ACTH test or a low suppressive Dexamethasone test is used. Reports in other species than the dog indicate that plasma cortisol concentration after ACTH administration is affected by gender. We investigated the effect of gender on the cortisol response to ACTH and Dexamethasone tests in dogs. Methods Seven healthy adult Cocker Spaniels (4 females and 3 males were assigned to a two by two factorial design: 4 dogs (2 females and 2 males received IV Dexamethasone 0.01 mg/kg, while the other 3 dogs received an IV saline solution (control group. Two weeks later the treatments were reversed. After one month, ACTH was given IV (250 μg/animal to 4 dogs (2 female and 2 males while the rest was treated with saline solution (control group. Cortisol concentrations were determined by a direct solid-phase radioimmunoassay and cholesterol and triglycerides by commercial kits. Results and Discussion No effect of treatment was observed in metabolite concentrations, but females presented higher cholesterol concentrations. ACTH-treated dogs showed an increase in cortisol levels in the first hour after sampling until 3 hours post injection. Cortisol concentrations in Dexamethasone-treated dogs decreased one hour post injection and remained low for 3 hours, thereafter cortisol concentrations increased. The increase in cortisol levels from one to two hours post ACTH injection was significantly higher in females than males. In Dexamethasone-treated males cortisol levels decreased one hour post injection up to 3 hours; in females the decrease was more pronounced and prolonged, up to 5 hours post injection. Conclusion We have demonstrated that cortisol response to ACTH and Dexamethasone treatment in dogs differs according to sex.

  20. Microbiological testing of devices used in maintaining peripheral venous catheters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Paula Rossini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the use of peripheral venous catheters based on microbiological analysis of devices (dressing and three-way stopcocks and thus contribute to the prevention and infection control. Methods: this was a prospective study of microbiological analysis of 30 three-way stopcocks (external surfaces and lumens and 30 dressing used in maintaining the peripheral venous catheters of hospitalized adult patients. Results: all external surfaces, 40% of lumens, and 86.7% of dressing presented bacterial growth. The main species isolated in the lumen were 50% coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, 14.3% Staphylococcus aureus, and 14.3% Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fifty nine percent of multidrug-resistant bacteria were isolated of the three-way stopcocks, 42% of the lumens, and 44% of the dressing with a predominance of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus resistant to methicillin. Besides, 18% gram-negative bacteria with resistance to carbapenems were identified from multidrug-resistant bacteria on the external surfaces of the three-way stopcocks. Conclusion: it is important to emphasize the isolation of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and gram-negative bacteria resistant to methicillin and carbapenems in samples of devices, respectively, which reinforces the importance of nursing care in the maintenance of the biologically safe environment as well as prevention and infection control practices.

  1. The testing of a steam-water separating device used for vertical steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xunshen; Cui Baoyuan; Xue Yunkui; Liu Shixun

    1989-01-01

    The air-water screening tests of a steam-water separating device used for vertical steam generators at low pressure are introduced. The article puts emphasis on the qualification test of the steam-water separating device at hot conditions in a high temperature and pressure water test rig. The performance of the comprehensive test of the steam-water separating device indicates that the humidity of the steam at the drier exit is much less than the specified amount of 0.25%

  2. A nondestructive testing device for determining 235U enrichment in power reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lanhua; Liu Nangai

    1990-07-01

    The development and application of a nondestructive testing device are presented, which is used for determining the 235 U enrichment in the mixed fuel of fuel elements with UO 2 pellets. The testing efficiency is improved because the passive gamma ray method and a hole-bored NaI crystal and four channel multichannel analyzer are used. The false discrimination rate is reduced as the average comparing method is taken. This device is simple in structure and easy in operation. It has provided a new testing tool for the fuel elements production in China. This device has successfully been used in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant in testing its fuel elements

  3. Device for testing continuity and/or short circuits in a cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Arthur R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A device for testing current paths is attachable to a conductor. The device automatically checks the current paths of the conductor for continuity of a center conductor, continuity of a shield and a short circuit between the shield and the center conductor. The device includes a pair of connectors and a circuit to provide for testing of the conductive paths of the cable. The pair of connectors electrically connects the conductive paths of a cable to be tested with the circuit paths of the circuit. The circuit paths in the circuit include indicators to simultaneously indicate the results of the testing.

  4. Determinants and consequences of female attractiveness and sexiness: realistic tests with restaurant waitresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Michael

    2009-10-01

    Waitresses completed an on-line survey about their physical characteristics, self-perceived attractiveness and sexiness, and average tips. The waitresses' self-rated physical attractiveness increased with their breast sizes and decreased with their ages, waist-to-hip ratios, and body sizes. Similar effects were observed on self-rated sexiness, with the exception of age, which varied with self-rated sexiness in a negative, quadratic relationship rather than a linear one. Moreover, the waitresses' tips varied with age in a negative, quadratic relationship, increased with breast size, increased with having blond hair, and decreased with body size. These findings, which are discussed from an evolutionary perspective, make several contributions to the literature on female physical attractiveness. First, they replicate some previous findings regarding the determinants of female physical attractiveness using a larger, more diverse, and more ecologically valid set of stimuli than has been studied before. Second, they provide needed evidence that some of those determinants of female beauty affect interpersonal behaviors as well as attractiveness ratings. Finally, they indicate that some determinants of female physical attractiveness do not have the same effects on overt interpersonal behavior (such as tipping) that they have on attractiveness ratings. This latter contribution highlights the need for more ecologically valid tests of evolutionary theories about the determinants and consequences of female beauty.

  5. Evaluation of a Screening Test for Female College Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Deborah L.; Black, David R.; Leverenz, Larry J.; Coster, Daniel C.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To develop a screening test to detect female college athletes with eating disorders/disordered eating (ED/ DE). No validated eating disorder screening tests specifically for athletes have been available. Design and Setting: In this cross-sectional study, subjects from a large midwestern university completed 3 objective tests and a structured diagnostic interview. Measurements: A new test, developed and pilot tested by the researchers (Athletic Milieu Direct Questionnaire, AMDQ), and 2 tests normed for the general population (Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Bulimia Test-Revised) were used to identify ED/DE athletes. A structured, validated, diagnostic interview (Eating Disorder Examination, version 12.OD) was used to determine which test was most effective in screening female college athletes. Subjects: Subjects included 149 female athletes, ages 18 to 25 years, from 11 Division I and select club sports. Results: ED/DE subjects (35%) were found in almost every sport. Of the ED/DE subjects, 65% exhibited disordered eating, 25% were bulimic, 8% were classified as eating disordered not otherwise specified (NOS), and 2% were anorexic. The AMDQ more accurately identified ED/DE than any test or combination of items. The AMDQ produced superior results on 7 of 9 epidemiologic analyses; sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 77%, meaning that it correctly classified approximately 4 of every 5 persons who were truly exhibiting an eating disorder or disordered eating. Conclusions: We recommend that the AMDQ subsets, which met statistical criteria, be used to screen for ED/DE to enable early identification of athletes at the disordered eating or NOS stage and to initiate interventions before the disorder progresses. PMID:16558658

  6. Constancy tests radiography X-ray devices with CR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durdikova, M.; Zakova, M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the changes in QAP (Quality Assurance Program) as consequence of digitalisation of medical facilities. Digitalisation brings many advantages - more comfort for personal use, images are easy achievable and transferable to workstation, fine quality images by postprocessing are easily achievable. But it must be taken into account that due to simplicity of image make it is sometimes taken more images then necessary .There are two possible ways of digitalisation in radiography: to exchange conventional developer machine by Computer Radiography (CR), that means to use CR reader and cassette with phosphor plate - un-direct digitalisation or to use special radiography X-ray devices with flat-panel detector -direct radiography. (authors)

  7. Design and Testing of Electronic Devices for Harsh Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Nico, Costantino

    This thesis reports an overview and the main results of the research activity carried out within the PhD programme in Information Engineering of the University of Pisa (2010-2012). The research activity has been focused on different fields, including Automotive and High Energy Physics experiments, according to a common denominator: the development of electroni c devices and systems operating in harsh environments. There are many applications that forc e the adoption of design methodologies and strategies focused on this type of envir onments: military, biom edical, automotive, industrial and space. The development of solutions fulfilling specific operational requirements, therefore represents an interesting field of research. The first research activity has been framed within the ATHENIS project, funded by the CORDIS Commission of the European Community, and aiming at the development of a System-on-Chip, a r egulator for alternators employed on vehicles, presenting both configurability an d t...

  8. Radiation Isotope Identification Device (RIIDs) Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher Hodge, Raymond Keegan

    2007-01-01

    Handheld, backpack, and mobile sensors are elements of the Global Nuclear Detection System for the interdiction and control of illicit radiological and nuclear materials. They are used by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other government agencies and organizations in various roles for border protection, law enforcement, and nonproliferation monitoring. In order to systematically document the operational performance of the common commercial off-the-shelf portable radiation detection systems, the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office conducted a test and evaluation campaign conducted at the Nevada Test Site from January 18 to February 27, 2006. Named 'Anole', it was the first test of its kind in terms of technical design and test complexities. The Anole test results offer users information for selecting appropriate mission-specific portable radiation detection systems. The campaign also offered manufacturers the opportunity to submit their equipment for independent operationally relevant testing to subsequently improve their detector performance. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies of the DHS Anole portable radiation detection system test campaign

  9. Anxiolytic effect of clonazepam in female rats: grooming microstructure and elevated plus maze tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nin, Maurício S; Couto-Pereira, Natividade S; Souza, Marilise F; Azeredo, Lucas A; Ferri, Marcelo K; Dalprá, Walesca L; Gomez, Rosane; Barros, Helena M T

    2012-06-05

    Grooming behavior is an adaptation to a stressful environment that can vary in accordance with stress intensity. Direct and indirect GABA(A) receptor agonists decrease duration, frequency, incorrect transitions and uninterrupted bouts of grooming. Hormonal variation during the different phases of the estrous cycle of female rats also changes the grooming behavior. It is known that GABA(A) agonists and endogenous hormones change anxiety-like behaviors observed in the elevated plus maze test, a classical animal model of anxiety. This study was designed to determine the anxiolytic effect of clonazepam in female rats in different estrous phases and to correlate anxiety behaviors in the elevated plus maze and grooming microstructure tests. Our results show that female rats displayed higher anxiety-like behavior scores during the estrus and proestrus phases in the elevated plus maze and that clonazepam (0.25 mg/kg; i.p.) had an anxiolytic effect that was independent of the estrous phase. Grooming behaviors were higher in the proestrus phase but were decreased by clonazepam administration, independent of the estrous phase, demonstrating the anxiolytic effect of this drug in both animal models. Grooming behaviors were moderately associated with anxiolytic-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze test. Here, we describe the anxiolytic effect of clonazepam and the influence of estrous phase on anxiety. Moreover, we show that the grooming microstructure test is a useful tool for detecting anxiolytic-like behaviors in rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of complex programmable logic devices in memory radiation effects test system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yonghong; He Chaohui; Yang Hailiang; He Baoping

    2005-01-01

    The application of the complex programmable logic device (CPLD) in electronics is emphatically discussed. The method of using software MAX + plus II and CPLD are introduced. A new test system for memory radiation effects is established by using CPLD devices-EPM7128C84-15. The old test system's function are realized and, moreover, a number of small scale integrated circuits are reduced and the test system's reliability is improved. (authors)

  11. Testing of low Z coated limiters in tokamak fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitely, J.B.; Mullendore, A.W.; Langley, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Extensive testing on a laboratory scale has been used to select those coatings most suitable for this environment. From this testing which included pulsed electron beam heating, low energy ion bombardment and arcing, chemical vapor deposited coating of TiB 2 and TiC on Poco graphite substrates have been selected and tested as limiters in ISX. Both limiter materials gave clean, stable, reproducible tokamak discharges the first day of operation. After one weeks exposure, the TiC limiter showed only superficial damage with no coating failure. The TiB 2 limiter had some small areas of coating failure. TiC coated graphite limiters have also been briefly tested in the tokamaks Alcator and PDX with favorable results

  12. Performance and Pain Tolerability of Current Diagnostic Allergy Skin Prick Test Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tversky, Jody R; Chelladurai, Yohalakshmi; McGready, John; Hamilton, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Allergen skin prick testing remains an essential tool for diagnosing atopic disease and guiding treatment. Sensitivity needs to be defined for newly introduced devices. Our aim was to compare the performance of 10 current allergy skin prick test devices. Single- and multiheaded skin test devices (n = 10) were applied by a single operator in a prospective randomized manner. Histamine (1 and 6 mg/mL) and control diluent were introduced at 6 randomized locations onto the upper and lower arms of healthy subjects. Wheal and flare reactions were measured independently by 2 masked technicians. Twenty-four subjects provided consent, and 768 skin tests were placed. Mean wheal diameter among devices differed from 3.0 mm (ComforTen; Hollister-Stier, Spokane, Wash) to 6.8 mm (UniTest PC; Lincoln Diagnostics, Decatur, Ill) using 1 mg/mL histamine (P Diagnostics, Decatur, Ill; and Sharp-Test; Panatrex, Placentia, Calif) using 6 mg/mL histamine (P pain score of less than 4 on a 10-point visual analog scale. Pain scores were higher among women, but this did not reach statistical significance. The Multi-Test PC and the UniTest PC had the lowest pain scores compared with the other devices. All 10 skin prick test devices displayed good analytical sensitivity and specificity; however, 3 mm cannot arbitrarily be used as a positive threshold. The use of histamine at 1 mg/mL is unacceptable for certain devices but may be preferable for the most sensitive devices. On average, there was no pain score difference between multiheaded and single-head devices. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Physiologic performance test differences in female volleyball athletes by competition level and player position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Monique; Ransdell, Lynda B; Simonson, Shawn R; Gao, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiologic performance test differences by competition level (high school and Division-I collegiate athletes) and player position (hitter, setter, defensive specialist) in 4 volleyball-related tests. A secondary purpose was to establish whether a 150-yd shuttle could be used as a field test to assess anaerobic capacity. Female participants from 4 varsity high school volleyball teams (n = 27) and 2 Division-I collegiate volleyball teams (n = 26) were recruited for the study. Participants completed 4 performance-based field tests (vertical jump, agility T-test, and 150- and 300-yd shuttle runs) after completing a standardized dynamic warm-up. A 2-way multivariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc adjustments (when appropriate) and effect sizes were used for the analyses. The most important findings of this study were that (a) college volleyball athletes were older, heavier, and taller than high school athletes; (b) high school athletes had performance deficiencies in vertical jump/lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness; (c) lower-body power was the only statistically significant difference in the performance test measures by player position; and (d) the correlation between the 150- and 300-yd shuttle was moderate (r = 0.488). Female high school volleyball players may enhance their ability to play collegiate volleyball by improving their vertical jump, lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness. Furthermore, all player positions should emphasize lower-body power conditioning. These physical test scores provide baseline performance scores that should help strength and conditioning coaches create programs that will address deficits in female volleyball player performance, especially as they transition from high school to college.

  14. A Test Device Module of the Step Motor Driver for HANARO CAR Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Yun-Taek; Doo, Seung-Gyu; Shin, Jin-Won; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Young-San; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, Hyung-Kyoo; Lee, Choong-Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The brand-new control system is reliable and has advantages compared with the old control system, and the installed system covers all functional operations of old system. Nevertheless, packaged RTP systems do not include a step motor or driver, and it is necessary to develop a proper test device to check the step motor and driver without using the RTP system. In particular, the operation of a CAR (Control Absorber Rod) requires many complicated procedures. Occasionally, it takes significant time to prepare for a field test. In this work, a test device module for a step motor diver is shown to emulate a HANARO CAR operation, and the test device system architecture, operational principle, and experiment results are presented. A commercial 8-bit μ-processor is applied to implement the device. A portable test device for HANARO CAR operation is presented. An 8-bit μ-controller is used to emulate a HANARO CAR operation. The digital interface, as well as the functional operation, of the test device module matches that of the currently used driver. This device can be used to check the functional validity of the step motor and driver.

  15. A novel implantable electromechanical ventricular assist device - First acute animal testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, R; Rakhorst, G; Mihaylov, D; Elstrodt, J; Nix, C; Reul, H; Rau, G

    1997-01-01

    A novel ventricular assist device (HIA-EMLVAD-AT1, Helmholtz Institute Aachen-electromechanical Left Ventricular Assist Device-Animal Test Version 1), driven by a uniformly and unidirectionally rotating actuator and a patented hypocycloidic pusherplate displacement gear unit, was developed and

  16. Developing and Testing SpaceWire Devices and Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Steve; Mills, Stuart

    2014-08-01

    SpaceWire is a data-handling network for use on-board spacecraft, which connects together instruments, mass- memory, processors, downlink telemetry, and other on- board sub-systems [1]. SpaceWire is simple to implement and has some specific characteristics that help it support data-handling applications in space: high-speed, low-power, simplicity, relatively low implementation cost, and architectural flexibility making it ideal for many space missions. SpaceWire provides high-speed (2 Mbits/s to 200 Mbits/s), bi- directional, full-duplex data-links, which connect together SpaceWire enabled equipment. Data-handling networks can be built to suit particular applications using point-to-point data-links and routing switches.Since the SpaceWire standard was published in January 2003, it has been adopted by ESA, NASA, JAXA and RosCosmos for many missions and is being widely used on scientific, Earth observation, commercial and other spacecraft. High-profile missions using SpaceWire include: Gaia, ExoMars rover, Bepi- Colombo, James Webb Space Telescope, GOES-R, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Astro-H.The development and testing of the SpaceWire links and networks used on these and many other spacecraft currently under development, requires a comprehensive array of test equipment. In this paper the requirements for test equipment fulfilling key test functions are outlined and then equipment that meets these requirements is described. Finally the all-important software that operates with the test equipment is introduced.

  17. A qualification test for relay contacts as isolation devices in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, C.E.; Behera, A.K.; Polanco, S.; Terry, B.

    1995-01-01

    A methodology is introduced for testing the integrity of relay contacts as isolation devices in Class IE circuits. A design activity that installed a new relay established the need for a new type of qualification test. This paper descries the process of establishing the test methodology, the development of the test plan, and the results of testing. It also describes the limitations of applying the results of any specific test to actual field installations, and offers other potential uses of the methodology

  18. The application of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 test to elite female soccer populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, P S; Bendiksen, M; Dellal, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2) to elite female soccer populations. Elite senior (n = 92), youth (n = 42), domestic (n = 46) and sub-elite female soccer players (n = 19) carried out the Yo-Yo IE2 test on numerous...... occasions across the season. Test-retest coefficient of variation (CV) in Yo-Yo IE2 test performance in domestic female players was 4.5%. Elite senior female players' Yo-Yo IE2 test performances were better (P ... 1490 ± 447, 1261 ± 449, and 994 ± 373 m). For elite senior female players, wide midfielders (2057 ± 550 m) had a higher Yo-Yo IE2 test performance (P 

  19. Testing the mate-choice hypothesis of the female orgasm: disentangling traits and behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlock, James M; Sidari, Morgan J; Harris, Emily Ann; Barlow, Fiona Kate; Zietsch, Brendan P

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the female orgasm in humans and its role in romantic relationships is poorly understood. Whereas the male orgasm is inherently linked to reproduction, the female orgasm is not linked to obvious reproductive or survival benefits. It also occurs less consistently during penetrative sex than does the male orgasm. Mate-choice hypotheses posit that the wide variation in female orgasm frequency reflects a discriminatory mechanism designed to select high-quality mates. We aimed to determine (1) whether women report that their orgasm frequency varies between partners, (2) whether this variation reflects mates' personal characteristics, and (3) whether this variation reflects own and partner sexual behaviour during intercourse. We collected survey data from 103 women who rated (1) the extent to which their orgasm frequency varied between partners, (2) the characteristics of previous sexual partners who induced high-orgasm frequency and those who induced low-orgasm frequency, and (3) the specific behaviours during sex with those partners. This is the first study to test within-woman variation in orgasm and partner traits. Overall, women reported variation in their orgasm rates with different partners. Partners who induced high-orgasm rates were rated as more humorous, creative, warm, faithful, and better smelling than partners who induced low-orgasm rates, and also engaged in greater efforts to induce partner orgasm. Some assumptions and predictions of mate-choice hypotheses of female orgasm were supported, while other aspects of our findings provide reasons to remain sceptical.

  20. Research on Multichannel Test Device of Missile Fuze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyong Zhen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the design of multichannel acquisition circuit based on FPGA which samples and records the Doppler signals, ignition signal and the working condition of fuze security enforcement agencies of missile fuze in real-time in the test of high speed dynamic intersection. Furthermore, for the problem of increasing number of sample channel which causes the complexity of the multiplexer control, a general programmable channel switching method is proposed based on FPGA. In the method, FPGA is the control core, and using the internal ROM resource effectively simplifies the complexity of channel switch in the multichannel acquisition system. This paper analyzes the acquisition system design, and describes the design of hardware circuit and analog switch address coding in detail. The test result shows that the acquisition circuit meets the design requirements with high sampling precision and application value.

  1. Environmental test program for superconducting materials and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haertling, Gene; Randolph, Henry; Hsi, Chi-Shiung; Verbelyi, Darren

    1991-01-01

    This report is divided into two parts. The first dealing with work involved with Clemson University and the second with the results from Westinghouse/Savannah River. Both areas of work involved low noise, low thermal conductivity superconducting grounding links used in the NASA-sponsored Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far Infrared Emission (SAFIRE) Project. Clemson prepared the links from YBa2Cu3O(7-x) superconductor tape that was mounted on a printed circuit board and encapsulated with epoxy resin. The Clemson program includes temperature vs. resistance, liquid nitrogen immersion, water immersion, thermal cycling, humidity, and radiation testing. The evaluation of the links under a long term environmental test program is described. The Savannah River program includes gamma irradiation, vibration, and long-term evaluation. The progress made in these evaluations is discussed.

  2. Design and testing of an innovative solar radiation measurement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badran, Omar; Al-Salaymeh, Ahmed; El-Tous, Yousif; Abdala, Wasfi

    2010-01-01

    After review of studies conducted on the solar radiation measuring systems, a new innovative instrument that would help in measuring the accurate solar radiation on horizontal surfaces has been designed and tested. An advanced instrument with ease of use and high precision that would enable the user to take the readings in terms of solar intensity (W/m 2 ) has been tested. Also, the innovative instrument can record instantaneous readings of the solar intensities as well as the averages value of the solar radiation flux during certain periods of time. The instrument based in its design on being programmed by programmable interfacing controller (PIC). Furthermore, the power supply circuit is fed by the solar energy cells and does not need an external power source.

  3. Development of a Very High Cycle Fatigue (VHCF multiaxial testing device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vieira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The very high cycle region of the S-N fatigue curve has been the subject of intensive research on the last years, with special focus on axial, bending, torsional and fretting fatigue tests. Very high cycle fatigue can be achieved using ultrasonic exciters which allow for frequency testing of up to 30 kHz. Still, the multiaxial fatigue analysis is not yet developed for this type of fatigue analyses, mainly due to conceptual limitations of these testing devices. In this paper, a device designed to produce biaxial fatigue testing using a single piezoelectric axial exciter is presented, as well as the preliminary testing of this device. The device is comprised of a horn and a specimen, which are both attached to the piezoelectric exciter. The steps taken towards the final geometry of the device are presented. Preliminary experimental testing of the developed device is made using thermographic imaging, strain measurements and vibration speeds and indicates good behaviour of the tested specimen.

  4. Fun During Knee Rehabilitation: Feasibility and Acceptability Testing of a New Android-Based Training Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Spickschen, Thomas Sanjay; Colcuc, Christian; Hanke, Alexander; Clausen, Jan-Dierk; James, Paul Abraham; Horstmann, Hauke

    2017-01-01

    The initial goals of rehabilitation after knee injuries and operations are to achieve full knee extension and to activate quadriceps muscle. In addition to regular physiotherapy, an android-based knee training device is designed to help patients achieve these goals and improve compliance in the early rehabilitation period. This knee training device combines fun in a computer game with muscular training or rehabilitation. Our aim was to test the feasibility and acceptability of this new device. 50 volunteered subjects enrolled to test out the computer game aided device. The first game was the high-striker game, which recorded maximum knee extension power. The second game involved controlling quadriceps muscular power to simulate flying an aeroplane in order to record accuracy of muscle activation. The subjects evaluated this game by completing a simple questionnaire. No technical problem was encountered during the usage of this device. No subjects complained of any discomfort after using this device. Measurements including maximum knee extension power, knee muscle activation and control were recorded successfully. Subjects rated their experience with the device as either excellent or very good and agreed that the device can motivate and monitor the progress of knee rehabilitation training. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first android-based tool available to fast track knee rehabilitation training. All subjects gave very positive feedback to this computer game aided knee device.

  5. Inward contaminant leakage tests of the S-Tron Corporation emergency escape breathing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    At the request of S-Tron Corporation, to support their contract with the U.S. Navy, performance tests of the Emergency Escape Breathing Device (EEBD) were conducted in the Environmental Physiology Research Section contaminant leakage chamber. Sulfur ...

  6. [Precautions of physical performance requirements and test methods during product standard drafting process of medical devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jin-Zi; Wan, Min; Xu, Hui; Yao, Xiu-Jun; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Jin-Hong

    2009-09-01

    The major idea of this article is to discuss standardization and normalization for the product standard of medical devices. Analyze the problem related to the physical performance requirements and test methods during product standard drafting process and make corresponding suggestions.

  7. Point of Maintenance Ruggedized Operational Device Evaluation and Observation Test Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorman, Megan

    2002-01-01

    .... The Ruggedized Operational Device Evaluation and Observation (RODEO) test examined hardware packaging, software user interface, and environmental factors associated with the usability of potential Point of Maintenance (POMx) electronic tools...

  8. Microbiological testing of devices used in maintaining peripheral venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Fernanda de Paula; Andrade, Denise de; Santos, Lissandra Chaves de Sousa; Ferreira, Adriano Menis; Tieppo, Caroline; Watanabe, Evandro

    2017-05-15

    to evaluate the use of peripheral venous catheters based on microbiological analysis of devices (dressing and three-way stopcocks) and thus contribute to the prevention and infection control. this was a prospective study of microbiological analysis of 30 three-way stopcocks (external surfaces and lumens) and 30 dressing used in maintaining the peripheral venous catheters of hospitalized adult patients. all external surfaces, 40% of lumens, and 86.7% of dressing presented bacterial growth. The main species isolated in the lumen were 50% coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, 14.3% Staphylococcus aureus, and 14.3% Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fifty nine percent of multidrug-resistant bacteria were isolated of the three-way stopcocks, 42% of the lumens, and 44% of the dressing with a predominance of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus resistant to methicillin. Besides, 18% gram-negative bacteria with resistance to carbapenems were identified from multidrug-resistant bacteria on the external surfaces of the three-way stopcocks. it is important to emphasize the isolation of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and gram-negative bacteria resistant to methicillin and carbapenems in samples of devices, respectively, which reinforces the importance of nursing care in the maintenance of the biologically safe environment as well as prevention and infection control practices. avaliar o uso de cateteres venosos periféricos com base em análises microbiológicas de dispositivos (curativos e torneiras de três vias - T3Vs) e assim contribuir para a prevenção e controle de infecção. estudo prospectivo de análise microbiológica de 30 T3Vs (superfícies externas e lúmens) e 30 curativos utilizados na manutenção dos cateteres venosos periféricos de pacientes adultos hospitalizados. todas as superfícies externas, 40% dos lúmens e 86,7% dos curativos apresentaram crescimento bacteriano. As principais espécies isoladas no lúmen foram 50% Staphylococcus coagulase-negativa, 14

  9. RackSaver neutron absorbing device development and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, R.; O'Leary, P.; Roberts, P.

    1996-01-01

    Siemens Power Corporation (SPC), in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), has developed the RackSaver neutron absorbing insert. The RackSaver insert can be installed onto spent nuclear fuel assemblies to replace deteriorating Boraflex neutron absorbing material installed in some spent-fuel storage racks. This paper describes results of a development and in-pool demonstration program performed to support potential utilization of the RackSaver neutron absorbing insert by affected utilities. The program objective was to advance the RackSaver concept into a field-demonstrated product. This objective was accomplished through three phases: design, licensing and criticality evaluations, and demonstration testing

  10. A Review on Key Issues and Challenges in Devices Level MEMS Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shoaib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review provides information relevant to issues and challenges in MEMS testing techniques that are implemented to analyze the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS behavior for specific application and operating conditions. MEMS devices are more complex and extremely diverse due to the immersion of multidomains. Their failure modes are distinctive under different circumstances. Therefore, testing of these systems at device level as well as at mass production level, that is, parallel testing, is becoming very challenging as compared to the IC test, because MEMS respond to electrical, physical, chemical, and optical stimuli. Currently, test systems developed for MEMS devices have to be customized due to their nondeterministic behavior and complexity. The accurate measurement of test systems for MEMS is difficult to quantify in the production phase. The complexity of the device to be tested required maturity in the test technique which increases the cost of test development; this practice is directly imposed on the device cost. This factor causes a delay in time-to-market.

  11. CORRELATION OF LOW BACK PAIN WITH BODY MASS INDEX, FUNCTIONAL REACH TEST AMONG FEMALE NURSING PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameela .T .V

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among health care workers the highest level of work related back injuries are more affected in nurses. There were many studies done to assess low back pain by using different tools. So this study aimed to identify the prevalence low back pain disability among female nursing professionals and the association between BMI, functional reach test and low back pain, so that a better tool can be used during the clinical examination for the betterment of the patient. The objective of the study is to identify the prevalence of low back pain disability, the association of Low Back Pain(LBP with BMI and functional reach test among female nursing professionals. Methods: A total of 256 subjects were assessed for disability due to back pain using OswestryLBP Disability Questionnaire and the prevalence of disability was determined. The sit and reach test, forward reach test and their BMI were calculated for those who had a disability score of 20 and above (n=87. Results: Data was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation.The study result showed a significant correlation (p=0.03 of sit and reach test with low back pain disability scores. There was a negative correlationseen among BMI and LBP disability score forward reach test and LBP disability score, and BMI and no low back pain disability score. Conclusion: The prevalence of LBP disability among nursing professionals was 33.9%. This study suggest that sit and reach test can be used as an indicator of low back pain. Whereas BMI and forward reach test do not indicate low back pain.

  12. Radiation Testing, Characterization and Qualification Challenges for Modern Microelectronics and Photonics Devices and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2008-01-01

    At GOMAC 2007, we discussed a selection of the challenges for radiation testing of modern semiconductor devices focusing on state-of-the-art memory technologies. This included FLASH non-volatile memories (NVMs) and synchronous dynamic random access memories (SDRAMs). In this presentation, we extend this discussion in device packaging and complexity as well as single event upset (SEU) mechanisms using several technology areas as examples including: system-on-a-chip (SOC) devices and photonic or fiber optic systems. The underlying goal is intended to provoke thought for understanding the limitations and interpretation of radiation testing results.

  13. Remaining Gap in HIV Testing Uptake Among Female Sex Workers in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokoohi, Mostafa; Noori, Atefeh; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Sharifi, Hamid; Khajehkazemi, Razieh; Fahimfar, Noushin; Hosseini-Hooshyar, Samira; Kazerooni, Parvin Afsar; Mirzazadeh, Ali

    2017-08-01

    We estimated the prevalence of recent HIV testing (i.e., having an HIV test during the last 12 months and knew the results) among 1295 HIV-negative Iranian female sex workers (FSW) in 2015. Overall, 70.4% (95% confidence intervals: 59.6, 79.3) of the participants reported a recent HIV testing. Concerns about their HIV status (83.2%) was reported as the most common reason for HIV testing. Incarceration history, having >5 paying partners, having >1 non-paying partner, receiving harm reduction services, utilizing healthcare services, and knowing an HIV testing site were significantly associated with recent HIV testing. In contrast, outreach participants, having one non-paying sexual partner, and self-reported inconsistent condom use reduced the likelihood of recent HIV testing. HIV testing uptake showed a ~2.5 times increase among FSW since 2010. While these findings are promising and show improvement over a short period, HIV testing programs should be expanded particularly through mobile and outreach efforts.

  14. Air-deployable oil spill sampling devices review phase 2 testing. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, L.; Dumouchel, A.; Fingas, M.; Brown, C.E.

    2007-01-01

    SAIC Canada tested air deployable oil sampling devices for the Emergencies Science and Technology Division of Environment Canada in order to determine the applicability and status of these devices. The 3 devices tested were: Canada's SABER (sampling autonomous buoy for evidence recovery), the United States' POPEIE (probe for oil pollution evidence in the environment); and, Sweden's SAR Floatation 2000. They were tested for buoyancy properties, drift behaviour and sampler sorbent pickup ratios. The SAR and SABER both had lesser draft and greater freeboard, while the POPEIE had much greater draft than freeboard. All 3 devices could be used for oil sample collection in that their drift characteristics would allow for the SABER and SAR devices to be placed upwind of the slick while the POPEIE device could be placed downwind of an oil spill. The sorbent testing revealed that Sefar sorbent and Spectra sorbent used in the 3 devices had negative pickup ratios for diesel but performance improved as oil viscosity increased. Both sorbents are inert and capable of collecting oil in sufficient volumes for consistent fingerprinting analysis. 10 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  15. Reliability, validity and usefulness of 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test in Female Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedim Čović

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the reliability, validity and usefulness of the 30-15IFT in competitive female soccer players. METHODS: Seventeen elite female soccer players participated in the study. A within subject test-retest study design was utilized to assess the reliability of the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (IFT. Seven days prior to 30-15IFT, subjects performed a continuous aerobic running test (CT under laboratory conditions to assess the criterion validity of the 30-15IFT. End running velocity (VCT and VIFT, peak heart rate (HRpeak and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max were collected and/or estimated for both tests. RESULTS: VIFT (ICC = 0.91; CV = 1.8%, HRpeak (ICC = 0.94; CV = 1.2%, and VO2max (ICC = 0.94; CV = 1.6% obtained from the 30-15IFT were all deemed highly reliable (p>0.05. Pearson product moment correlations between the CT and 30-15IFT for VO2max, HRpeak and end running velocity were large (r = 0.67, p=0.013, very large (r = 0.77, p=0.02 and large (r = 0.57, p=0.042, respectively. CONCLUSION: Current findings suggest that the 30 -15IFT is a valid and reliable intermittent aerobic fitness test of elite female soccer players. The findings have also provided practitioners with evidence to support the accurate detection of meaningful individual changes in VIFT of 0.5 km/h (1 stage and HRpeak of 2 bpm. This information may assist coaches in monitoring ‘real’ aerobic fitness changes to better inform training of female intermittent team sport athletes. Lastly, coaches could use the 30-15IFT as a practical alternative to laboratory based assessments to assess and monitor intermittent aerobic fitness changes in their athletes. Keywords: 30-15 intermittent fitness test, aerobic, cardiorespiratory fitness, intermittent activity, soccer, high intensity interval training.

  16. Simple artificial training device for respiratory muscle strength and lung volumes in healthy young male and female subjects: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarungrayub, Jirakrit; Pinkaew, Decha; Yankai, Araya; Chautrakoon, Busaba; Kuntain, Rungtiwa

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a simple artificial device for respiratory muscle strength training and lung volumes using either combined or non-combined exercise with elastic bands in healthy young participants. Forty healthy young participants (20 male and 20 female) aged 19-24 years old were randomized into two main experiments with four sub-groups; (1) artificial device (n = 10) & standard device (n = 10) training, and (2) artificial device training combined with elastic band (EB) exercise (n = 10) & standard device training combined with EB (n = 10) exercise. Respiratory muscle strength with maximal peak inspiratory pressure (PImax), and lung volumes; tidal volume (TV), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), expiratory reserve volume (ERV) and vital capacity (VC) were evaluated before and after training once daily for 3 weeks. Moreover, the peak dyspnea score and vital sign parameters were compared between the experimental groups after final training. All parameters had no statistical differences (p > 0.5) between the training devices alone and those combined with EB exercise prior to any experiments. Results from the first experiment showed that training with an artificial device increased all parameters (PImax, VC, IRV, ERV) significantly (p artificial device training combined with EB exercise showed a significant increase in all parameters, except for TV, and they were the same as the increased results in training with the standard device combined with EB exercise. There was no significant difference of data between these groups after the training period. Finally, the results of peak dyspnea score and all vital sign parameters from using the artificial device, with or without EB exercise, showed no statistical difference when compared to use of the standard device. This study proposed that a simple artificial device can be used to train the respiratory muscle with or without elastic band exercise in healthy young subjects

  17. Design of sample analysis device for iodine adsorption efficiency test in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jinnan

    2015-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, iodine adsorption efficiency test is used to check the iodine adsorption efficiency of the iodine adsorber. The iodine adsorption efficiency can be calculated through the analysis of the test sample, and thus to determine if the performance of the adsorber meets the requirement on the equipment operation and emission. Considering the process of test and actual demand, in this paper, a special device for the analysis of this kind of test sample is designed. The application shows that the device is with convenient operation and high reliability and accurate calculation, and improves the experiment efficiency and reduces the experiment risk. (author)

  18. Methods and devices for small specimen testing at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jitsukawa, Shiro; Kizaki, Minoru; Umino, Akira; Shiba, Kiyoyuki; Hishinuma, Akimichi

    1993-01-01

    Devices for a punch test on annular notched specimens, small punch (SP) tests, and miniaturized tension tests in hot cells were developed. A micro-manipulator to handle small specimens and an electro-discharge machine (EDM) to extract miniaturized tension specimens and annular notched specimens from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) disks were also fabricated. These devices were designed and made for remote operation in hot cells. Preliminary tests to evaluate the applicability of test methods were carried out. Correlation between SP test results and tensile properties was not strong. Miniaturized tensile results were reasonably similar to the results with larger specimens. The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) by the punch test on annular notched specimens was higher than that obtained from the SP test. However, materials dependence of the DBTT was different from that measured by standard Charpy V-notch (CVN) tests. This may be due to a specimen size effect

  19. Testing for Bias against Female Test Takers of the Graduate Management Admissions Test and Potential Impact on Admissions to Graduate Programs in Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert E.; Bachrach, Daniel G.

    2003-01-01

    Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) scores and grade point average in graduate core courses were compared for 190 male and 144 female business administration students. No significant differences in course performance were found, but males had been admitted with significantly higher GMAT scores, suggesting a bias against women. (Contains 27…

  20. Barriers and Facilitators to HIV Testing Among Zambian Female Sex Workers in Three Transit Hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Michael M; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Ortblad, Katrina F; Mwale, Magdalene; Chongo, Steven; Kamungoma, Nyambe; Kanchele, Catherine; Fullem, Andrew; Barresi, Leah; Bärnighausen, Till; Oldenburg, Catherine E

    2017-07-01

    Zambia has a generalized HIV epidemic, and HIV is concentrated along transit routes. Female sex workers (FSWs) are disproportionately affected by the epidemic. HIV testing is the crucial first step for engagement in HIV care and HIV prevention activities. However, to date little work has been done with FSWs in Zambia, and little is known about barriers and facilitators to HIV testing in this population. FSW peer educators were recruited through existing sex worker organizations for participation in a trial related to HIV testing among FSWs. We conducted five focus groups with FSW peer educators (N = 40) in three transit towns in Zambia (Livingstone, Chirundu, and Kapiri Mposhi) to elicit community norms related to HIV testing. Emerging themes demonstrated barriers and facilitators to HIV testing occurring at multiple levels, including individual, social network, and structural. Stigma and discrimination, including healthcare provider stigma, were a particularly salient barrier. Improving knowledge, social support, and acknowledgment of FSWs and women's role in society emerged as facilitators to testing. Interventions to improve HIV testing among FSWs in Zambia will need to address barriers and facilitators at multiple levels to be maximally effective.

  1. Reliability of a device for the knee and ankle isometric and isokinetic strength testing in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamin, Marco; Gobbo, Stefano; Bullo, Valentina; Vendramin, Barbara; Duregon, Federica; Frizziero, Antonio; Di Blasio, Andrea; Cugusi, Lucia; Zaccaria, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Lower extremity muscle mass, strength, power, and physical performance are critical determinants of independent functioning in later life. Isokinetic dynamometers are becoming very common in assessing different features of muscle strength, in both research and clinical practice; however, reliability studies are still needed to support the extended use of those devices. The purpose of this study is to assess the test-retest reliability of knee and ankle isokinetic and isometric strength testing protocols in a sample of older healthy subjects, using a new and untested isokinetic multi-joint evaluation system. Sixteen male and fourteen female older adults (mean age 65.2 ± 4.6 years) were assessed in two testing sessions. Each participant performed a randomized testing procedure that includes different isometric and isokinetic tests for knee and ankle joints. All participants concluded the trial safety and no subject reported any discomfort throughout the overall assessment. Coefficients of correlation between measures were calculated showing moderate to strong effects among all test-retest assessments and paired-sample t test showed only one significant difference (pisometric strength provided reliable test-retest measures in healthy older adults. Ib.

  2. Testing the mate-choice hypothesis of the female orgasm: disentangling traits and behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Sherlock

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evolution of the female orgasm in humans and its role in romantic relationships is poorly understood. Whereas the male orgasm is inherently linked to reproduction, the female orgasm is not linked to obvious reproductive or survival benefits. It also occurs less consistently during penetrative sex than does the male orgasm. Mate-choice hypotheses posit that the wide variation in female orgasm frequency reflects a discriminatory mechanism designed to select high-quality mates. Objective: We aimed to determine (1 whether women report that their orgasm frequency varies between partners, (2 whether this variation reflects mates' personal characteristics, and (3 whether this variation reflects own and partner sexual behaviour during intercourse. Design: We collected survey data from 103 women who rated (1 the extent to which their orgasm frequency varied between partners, (2 the characteristics of previous sexual partners who induced high-orgasm frequency and those who induced low-orgasm frequency, and (3 the specific behaviours during sex with those partners. This is the first study to test within-woman variation in orgasm and partner traits. Results: Overall, women reported variation in their orgasm rates with different partners. Partners who induced high-orgasm rates were rated as more humorous, creative, warm, faithful, and better smelling than partners who induced low-orgasm rates, and also engaged in greater efforts to induce partner orgasm. Conclusions: Some assumptions and predictions of mate-choice hypotheses of female orgasm were supported, while other aspects of our findings provide reasons to remain sceptical.

  3. COMPARISON OF A HEAD MOUNTED IMPACT MEASUREMENT DEVICE TO THE HYBRID III ANTHROPOMORPHIC TESTING DEVICE IN A CONTROLLED LABORATORY SETTING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schussler, Eric; Stark, David; Bolte, John H; Kang, Yun Seok; Onate, James A

    2017-08-01

    Reports estimate that 1.6 to 3.8 million cases of concussion occur in sports and recreation each year in the United States. Despite continued efforts to reduce the occurrence of concussion, the rate of diagnosis continues to increase. The mechanisms of concussion are thought to involve linear and rotational head accelerations and velocities. One method of quantifying the kinematics experienced during sport participation is to place measurement devices into the athlete's helmet or directly on the athlete's head. The purpose of this research to determine the accuracy of a head mounted device for measuring the head accelerations experienced by the wearer. This will be accomplished by identifying the error in Peak Linear Acceleration (PLA), Peak Rotational Acceleration (PRA) and Peak Rotational Velocity (PRV) of the device. Laboratory study. A helmeted Hybrid III 50th percentile male headform was impacted via a pneumatic ram from the front, side, rear, front oblique and rear oblique at speeds from 1.5 to 5 m/s. The X2 Biosystems xPatch® (Seattle, WA) sensor was placed on the headform's right side at the approximate location of the mastoid process. Measures of PLA, PRA, PRV from the xPatch ® and Hybrid III were analyzed for Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), and Absolute and Relative Error (AE, RE). Seventy-six impacts were analyzed. All measures of correlation, fixed through the origin, were found to be strong: PLA R 2 =0.967 pstandard yet above the average error of testing devices in both PLA and PRA, but a low error in PRV. PLA measures from the xPatch® system demonstrated a high level of correlation with the PLA data from the Hybrid III mounted data collection system. 3.

  4. A device for quantitative plutonium testing in mixed fuel by its neutron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadzhiev, G.I.; Gorobets, A.K.; Golushko, V.V.; Dunaev, E.S.; Leshchenko, Yu.I.

    1987-01-01

    A device for quantitative plutonium testing in mixed fuel by its neutron emission is described. The method of ''assigned dead time'' for isolation of neutrons of spontaneous fission is used in the device. The main characteristics of the registrating equipment specifying the regime of measuring and affecting testing errors are presented. The results of spontaneous fission neutrons detection in the range up to 100 g of plutonium linearly depend on 240 Pu. Sensitivity of testing makes up about 28 pul./s per 1 g of 240 Pu

  5. Electromyography tests in patients with implanted cardiac devices are safe regardless of magnet placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Masayuki; Silcox, Jade; Haygood, Deavin; Harper-King, Valerie; Alsharabati, Mohammad; Lu, Liang; Morgan, Marla B; Young, Angela M; Claussen, Gwen C; King, Peter H; Oh, Shin J

    2013-01-01

    We compared the problems or complications associated with electrodiagnostic testing in 77 patients with implanted cardiac devices. Thirty tests were performed after magnet placement, and 47 were performed without magnet application. All electrodiagnostic tests were performed safely in all patients without any serious effect on the implanted cardiac devices with or without magnet placement. A significantly higher number of patient symptoms and procedure changes were reported in the magnet group (P magnet group patients had an approximately 11-fold greater risk of symptoms than those in the control group. Our data do not support a recommendation that magnet placement is necessary for routine electrodiagnostic testing in patients with implanted cardiac devices, as long as our general and specific guidelines are followed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The efficacy of test tube warming devices used during oocyte retrieval for IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Queenie Sum Yee; Briton-Jones, Christine May; Tjer, Grace Ching Ching; Chiu, Tony Tak Yu; Haines, Christopher

    2004-10-01

    To investigate whether commonly used test tube warming devices maintain a constant temperature in follicular fluid aspirates. By using a digital thermocouple, temperature was measured and comparisons were made between an analog dry block heater, a digital dry block heater, and a thermostatic test tube heater. For small fluid volumes, temperature in the block heaters increased above 37 degrees C after being in the block for over 2 min. The thermostatic heater maintained a constant temperature, but this was below the factory setting of 36.9 degrees C. Temperature maintenance was influenced by fluid volume in each tube. One of the key factors in the handling of gametes and embryos is the maintenance of constant temperature. Test tube warming devices require verification of their ability to maintain fluid at the desired temperature. Temperature may vary with fluid volume and the type of test tube warming device used.

  7. Development and evaluation of measurement devices used to support testing of radioactive material transportation packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncapher, W.L.; Ammerman, D.J.; Stenberg, D.R.; Bronowski, D.R.; Arviso, M.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive material package designers use structural testing to verify and demonstrate package performance. A major part of evaluating structural response is the collection of instrumentation measurement data. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has an ongoing program to develop and evaluate measurement devices to support testing of radioactive material packages. Measurement devices developed in support of this activity include evaluation channels, ruggedly constructed linear variable differential transformers, and piezoresistive accelerometers with enhanced measurement capabilities. In addition to developing measurement devices, a method has been derived to evaluate accelerometers and strain gages for measurement repeatability, ruggedness, and manufacturers' calibration data under both laboratory and field conditions. The developed measurement devices and evaluation technique will be discussed and the results of the evaluation will be presented

  8. Standard Test Method for Determining the Linearity of a Photovoltaic Device Parameter with Respect To a Test Parameter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method determines the degree of linearity of a photovoltaic device parameter with respect to a test parameter, for example, short-circuit current with respect to irradiance. 1.2 The linearity determined by this test method applies only at the time of testing, and implies no past or future performance level. 1.3 This test method applies only to non-concentrator terrestrial photovoltaic devices. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. Assessment of Current Practice for Tank Testing of Small Marine Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    Discussion Report. Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact. The report is a contribution by Aalborg University (AAU) to the deliverable on Assessment of current practice for tank testing of small marine energy...

  10. 77 FR 17457 - Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial Measuring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Alternative... Work Group (WG) to examine alternative methods for testing the accuracy of commercial measuring devices... participates to promote uniformity among the states in laws, regulations, methods, and testing equipment that...

  11. Construction and characterization of a plasma focus device and diagnostic test ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Arango, Diana Marsela

    2013-01-01

    In this work we designed and built a Plasma Focus device 2kJ power in order to extend the energy range of devices designed in DPTN CCHEN and study the scaling laws type Plasma Focus Device. The operating parameters of this device are: T/ 4 =907ns, C = 8000nF, L = 42nH, E = 2kJ, lo = 276kA. In such a way to optimize the device tests were performed with various electrode configurations, insulator length, to determine the conditions under which it operates in Plasma Focus mode. Subsequent to the construction tests were performed on devices PF-400J (T /4 = 300ns, C = 880nF, L = 38nH, E = 400J, lo = 168kA) y PF-2kJ (device between the hundreds of joules and kilojoules of energy) diagnostic charged particle emission used the Faraday Cup consisting of a biased graphite collector. For a series of shots on the PF-400J and PF-2kJ operated at 27kV and 20kV respectively kinetic energy distribution of proton between 60keV-150keV were found, deuterons between 60KeV-300KeV. With the idea of optimizing the results in future diagnostic type spectrometer Thompson, spectroscopy and diffraction networks in gas mixture will be implemented

  12. Enhanced low dose rate radiation effect test on typical bipolar devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Minbo; Chen Wei; Yao Zhibin; He Baoping; Huang Shaoyan; Sheng Jiangkun; Xiao Zhigang; Wang Zujun

    2014-01-01

    Two types of bipolar transistors and nine types bipolar integrated circuit were selected in the irradiation experiment at different "6"0Co γ dose rate. The base current of bipolar transistor and input bias current of amplifier and comparator was measured, low dose enhance factor of test device was obtained. The results show that bipolar device have enhanced low dose rate sensitivity, enhancement factor of bipolar integrated circuit was bigger than that of transistor, and enhanced low dose rate sensitivity greatly varied with different structure and process of bipolar device. (authors)

  13. Testing of Monitoring Devices for JP-4 Releases in the Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    tests conducted to study the effectiveness, advantages , and limitations of a set of devices. All of the devices (except FiberChem) evaluated are...1,000 ppm and 1 percent butane standards ( Alltech Associates, Inc., Deerfield, Illinois). b. Temperature Program Analysis Two different temperature...in place. The advantage of having the probe is that we did not have to calculate or measure the liquid volume displaced by the probe. The accuracy of

  14. When females trade grooming for grooming : Testing partner control and partner choice models of cooperation in two primate species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fruteau, C.; Lemoine, S.; Hellard, E.; van Damme, E.E.C.; Noe, R.

    2011-01-01

    We tested predictions following from the biological market paradigm using reciprocated grooming sessions among the adult females in a sooty mangabey, Cercocebus atys, group with 35 females (Ivory Coast) and in two groups of vervet monkeys, Chlorocebus aethiops (South Africa) with four and seven

  15. Role of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Stimulation Test in Diagnosing Gonadotropin Deficiency in Both Males and Females with Delayed Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Hong Sun

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggest that isolated use of the gonadorelin stimulation test is almost sufficient to discriminate between HH and CDP in males, but unnecessary in females. The most useful predictor is serum basal or peak LH to differentiate these two disorders in males, but serum basal LH or FSH in females.

  16. Development and Female Crime: A Cross-National Test of Alternative Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffensmeier, Darrell; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Interpol data from 69 countries indicate that the relationship between female percentage of arrests and national development status is mediated by opportunity for "female" consumer crimes and formalization of social control (which makes female crime more visible), but not by gender equality or female economic marginality. Contains 49 references.…

  17. The application of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 test to elite female soccer populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P S; Bendiksen, M; Dellal, A; Mohr, M; Wilkie, A; Datson, N; Orntoft, C; Zebis, M; Gomez-Diaz, A; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2) to elite female soccer populations. Elite senior (n = 92), youth (n = 42), domestic (n = 46) and sub-elite female soccer players (n = 19) carried out the Yo-Yo IE2 test on numerous occasions across the season. Test-retest coefficient of variation (CV) in Yo-Yo IE2 test performance in domestic female players was 4.5%. Elite senior female players' Yo-Yo IE2 test performances were better (P wide midfielders (2057 ± 550 m) had a higher Yo-Yo IE2 test performance (P World Cup Finals (2049 ± 283 vs 1803 ± 342 m). The data demonstrate that the Yo-Yo IE2 test is reproducible and is an indicator of the match-specific physical capacity of female soccer players. Furthermore, the Yo-Yo IE2 test illustrates sensitivity by differentiating intermittent exercise performance of female players in various competitive levels, stages of the season and playing positions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Selected fault testing of electronic isolation devices used in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaran, M.; Hillman, K.; Taylor, J.; Lara, J.; Wilhelm, W.

    1994-05-01

    Electronic isolation devices are used in nuclear power plants to provide electrical separation between safety and non-safety circuits and systems. Major fault testing in an earlier program indicated that some energy may pass through an isolation device when a fault at the maximum credible potential is applied in the transverse mode to its output terminals. During subsequent field qualification testing of isolators, concerns were raised that the worst case fault, that is, the maximum credible fault (MCF), may not occur with a fault at the maximum credible potential, but rather at some lower potential. The present test program investigates whether problems can arise when fault levels up to the MCF potential are applied to the output terminals of an isolator. The fault energy passed through an isolated device during a fault was measured to determine whether the levels are great enough to potentially damage or degrade performance of equipment on the input (Class 1E) side of the isolator

  19. Emulating Dynamic Radio Channels for Radiated Testing of Massive MIMO Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyösti, Pekka; Hentilä, Lassi; Kyröläinen, Jukka

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses a multi-probe anechoic chamber based (MPAC) setup, capable of reconstructing non-stationary radio propagation environments for testing of mm-wave and massive MIMO devices. The test setup is aimed for evaluation of end to end performance of devices, including hybrid beamforming...... operations of antenna arrays and base band processing, in highly time variant channel conditions. In this work we present simulated comparison of an ideal reference radio channel model and corresponding model implemented with limited resources of MPAC components. We give a qualitative analysis of the results...... with non-line of sight (NLOS) channel models, without quantitative evaluation. The example device under test (DUT) is a 8x8 planar array with half wavelength inter-element spacing....

  20. Cardiac autonomic modulation by estrogen in female mice undergoing ambulatory monitoring and in vivo electrophysiologic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Samir; Shusterman, Vladimir; Usiene, Irmute; London, Barry

    2004-04-01

    Estrogen is an important modulator of cardiovascular risk, but its mechanism of action is not fully understood. We investigated the effect of ovariectomy and its timing on the cardiac electrophysiology in mice. Thirty female mice (age 18.8 +/- 3.1 weeks) underwent in vivo electrophysiologic testing before and after autonomic blockade. Fifteen mice were ovariectomized prepuberty (PRE) and ten postpuberty (POST), 2 weeks prior to electrophysiologic testing. Five age-matched sham-operated female mice (Control) served as controls. A subset of 13 mice (5 PRE, 3 POST, and 5 Controls) underwent 24-hour ambulatory monitoring. With ambulatory monitoring, the average (668 +/- 28 vs 769 +/- 52 b/min, P = 0.008) and minimum (485 +/- 47 vs 587 +/- 53 b/min, P = 0.02) heart rates were significantly slower in the ovariectomized mice (PRE and POST groups) compared to the Control group. At baseline electrophysiologic testing, there were no significant differences among the ovariectomized and intact mice in any of the measured parameters. With autonomic blockade, the Control group had a significantly larger change (delta) in the atrioventricular (AV) nodal Wenckebach (AVW) periodicity (deltaAVW = 11.3 +/- 2.9 vs 2.1 +/- 7.3 ms, P = 0.05) and functional refractory period (deltaFRP = 11.3 +/- 2.1 vs 1.25 +/- 6.8 ms, P = 0.02) compared to the ovariectomized mice. These results were not altered by the time of ovariectomy (PRE vs POST groups). Our results suggest that estrogen modulates the autonomic inputs into the murine sinus and AV nodes. These findings, if replicated in humans, might underlie the observed clustering of certain arrhythmias around menstruation and explain the higher incidence of arrhythmias in men and postmenopausal women.

  1. MECP2 gene study in a large cohort: testing of 240 female patients and 861 healthy controls (519 females and 342 males).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maortua, Hiart; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; García-Ribes, Ainhoa; Martínez, María-Jesus; Guillen, Encarna; Domingo, María-Rosario; Calvo, María-Teresa; Guitart, Miriam; Gabau, Elisabeth; Botella, María-Pilar; Gener, Blanca; Rubio, Izaskun; López-Aríztegui, María-Asunción; Tejada, María-Isabel

    2013-09-01

    The MECP2 gene located on Xq28 is one of the most important genes contributing to the spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. Therefore, we present our experience in the molecular study of this gene. MECP2 was thoroughly tested for the presence of mutations (sequencing of four exons and rearrangements) in 120 female patients: 28 with classic Rett syndrome, five with atypical Rett syndrome, and 87 with heterogeneous phenotypes with some Rett-like features. Another 120 female patients with intellectual disability of unknown origin were also studied, but in these cases we only tested exons 3 and 4. Finally, 861 healthy controls (519 females and 342 males) were also studied for exon 3 and 4. Eighteen different pathological mutations were found, five of them previously undescribed, and four large deletions detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. All were de novo mutations not present in the parents. In conclusion, i) MECP2 is one of the most important genes in the diagnosis of genetic intellectual disability in females; ii) MECP2 must be studied not only in patients with classical/atypical Rett syndrome but also in patients with other phenotypes related to Rett syndrome; and iii) for the new variants, it is important to perform complementary studies, including the analysis of large populations of healthy individuals and the use of in silico programs. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Decoupling degradation in exciton formation and recombination during lifetime testing of organic light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, Kyle W.; Suddard-Bangsund, John; Qian, Gang; Holmes, Russell J.

    2017-09-01

    The analysis of organic light-emitting device degradation is typically restricted to fitting the overall luminance loss as a function of time or the characterization of fully degraded devices. To develop a more complete understanding of degradation, additional specific data are needed as a function of luminance loss. The overall degradation in luminance during testing can be decoupled into a loss in emitter photoluminescence efficiency and a reduction in the exciton formation efficiency. Here, we demonstrate a method that permits separation of these component efficiencies, yielding the time evolution of two additional specific device parameters that can be used in interpreting and modeling degradation without modification to the device architecture or introduction of any additional post-degradation characterization steps. Here, devices based on the phosphor tris[2-phenylpyridinato-C2,N]iridium(III) (Ir(ppy)3) are characterized as a function of initial luminance and emissive layer thickness. The overall loss in device luminance is found to originate primarily from a reduction in the exciton formation efficiency which is exacerbated in devices with thinner emissive layers. Interestingly, the contribution to overall degradation from a reduction in the efficiency of exciton recombination (i.e., photoluminescence) is unaffected by thickness, suggesting a fixed exciton recombination zone width and degradation at an interface.

  3. Hearing Tests on Mobile Devices: Evaluation of the Reference Sound Level by Means of Biological Calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalski, Marcin; Kipiński, Lech; Grysiński, Tomasz; Kręcicki, Tomasz

    2016-05-30

    Hearing tests carried out in home setting by means of mobile devices require previous calibration of the reference sound level. Mobile devices with bundled headphones create a possibility of applying the predefined level for a particular model as an alternative to calibrating each device separately. The objective of this study was to determine the reference sound level for sets composed of a mobile device and bundled headphones. Reference sound levels for Android-based mobile devices were determined using an open access mobile phone app by means of biological calibration, that is, in relation to the normal-hearing threshold. The examinations were conducted in 2 groups: an uncontrolled and a controlled one. In the uncontrolled group, the fully automated self-measurements were carried out in home conditions by 18- to 35-year-old subjects, without prior hearing problems, recruited online. Calibration was conducted as a preliminary step in preparation for further examination. In the controlled group, audiologist-assisted examinations were performed in a sound booth, on normal-hearing subjects verified through pure-tone audiometry, recruited offline from among the workers and patients of the clinic. In both the groups, the reference sound levels were determined on a subject's mobile device using the Bekesy audiometry. The reference sound levels were compared between the groups. Intramodel and intermodel analyses were carried out as well. In the uncontrolled group, 8988 calibrations were conducted on 8620 different devices representing 2040 models. In the controlled group, 158 calibrations (test and retest) were conducted on 79 devices representing 50 models. Result analysis was performed for 10 most frequently used models in both the groups. The difference in reference sound levels between uncontrolled and controlled groups was 1.50 dB (SD 4.42). The mean SD of the reference sound level determined for devices within the same model was 4.03 dB (95% CI 3

  4. Hearing Tests Based on Biologically Calibrated Mobile Devices: Comparison With Pure-Tone Audiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalski, Marcin; Grysiński, Tomasz; Kręcicki, Tomasz

    2018-01-10

    Hearing screening tests based on pure-tone audiometry may be conducted on mobile devices, provided that the devices are specially calibrated for the purpose. Calibration consists of determining the reference sound level and can be performed in relation to the hearing threshold of normal-hearing persons. In the case of devices provided by the manufacturer, together with bundled headphones, the reference sound level can be calculated once for all devices of the same model. This study aimed to compare the hearing threshold measured by a mobile device that was calibrated using a model-specific, biologically determined reference sound level with the hearing threshold obtained in pure-tone audiometry. Trial participants were recruited offline using face-to-face prompting from among Otolaryngology Clinic patients, who own Android-based mobile devices with bundled headphones. The hearing threshold was obtained on a mobile device by means of an open access app, Hearing Test, with incorporated model-specific reference sound levels. These reference sound levels were previously determined in uncontrolled conditions in relation to the hearing threshold of normal-hearing persons. An audiologist-assisted self-measurement was conducted by the participants in a sound booth, and it involved determining the lowest audible sound generated by the device within the frequency range of 250 Hz to 8 kHz. The results were compared with pure-tone audiometry. A total of 70 subjects, 34 men and 36 women, aged 18-71 years (mean 36, standard deviation [SD] 11) participated in the trial. The hearing threshold obtained on mobile devices was significantly different from the one determined by pure-tone audiometry with a mean difference of 2.6 dB (95% CI 2.0-3.1) and SD of 8.3 dB (95% CI 7.9-8.7). The number of differences not greater than 10 dB reached 89% (95% CI 88-91), whereas the mean absolute difference was obtained at 6.5 dB (95% CI 6.2-6.9). Sensitivity and specificity for a mobile

  5. Sipping test update device for fuel elements cladding inspections in IPR-r1 TRIGA reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R.R.; Mesquita, A.Z.; Andrade, E.P.D.; Gual, Maritza R., E-mail: rrr@cdtn.br, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br, E-mail: edson@cdtn.br, E-mail: maritzargual@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    It is in progress at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN (Nuclear Technology Development Center), a research project that aims to investigate possible leaks in the fuel elements of the TRIGA reactor, located in this research center. This paper presents the final form of sipping test device for TRIGA reactor, and results of the first experiments setup. Mechanical support strength tests were made by knotting device on the crane, charged with water from the conventional water supply, and tests outside the reactor pool with the use of new non-irradiated fuel elements encapsulated in stainless steel, and available safe stored in this unit. It is expected that tests with graphite elements from reactor pool are done soon after and also the test experiment with the first fuel elements in service positioned in the B ring (central ring) of the reactor core in the coming months. (author)

  6. Sipping test update device for fuel elements cladding inspections in IPR-r1 TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R.R.; Mesquita, A.Z.; Andrade, E.P.D.; Gual, Maritza R.

    2015-01-01

    It is in progress at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN (Nuclear Technology Development Center), a research project that aims to investigate possible leaks in the fuel elements of the TRIGA reactor, located in this research center. This paper presents the final form of sipping test device for TRIGA reactor, and results of the first experiments setup. Mechanical support strength tests were made by knotting device on the crane, charged with water from the conventional water supply, and tests outside the reactor pool with the use of new non-irradiated fuel elements encapsulated in stainless steel, and available safe stored in this unit. It is expected that tests with graphite elements from reactor pool are done soon after and also the test experiment with the first fuel elements in service positioned in the B ring (central ring) of the reactor core in the coming months. (author)

  7. Reliability of Strength Testing using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and Free Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Kirk L.; Loehr, James A.; Laughlin, Mitzi A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Hagan, R. Donald

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) was developed for use on the International Space Station as a countermeasure against muscle atrophy and decreased strength. This investigation examined the reliability of one-repetition maximum (1RM) strength testing using ARED and traditional free weight (FW) exercise. Methods: Six males (180.8 +/- 4.3 cm, 83.6 +/- 6.4 kg, 36 +/- 8 y, mean +/- SD) who had not engaged in resistive exercise for at least six months volunteered to participate in this project. Subjects completed four 1RM testing sessions each for FW and ARED (eight total sessions) using a balanced, randomized, crossover design. All testing using one device was completed before progressing to the other. During each session, 1RM was measured for the squat, heel raise, and deadlift exercises. Generalizability (G) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for each exercise on each device and were used to predict the number of sessions needed to obtain a reliable 1RM measurement (G . 0.90). Interclass reliability coefficients and Pearson's correlation coefficients (R) also were calculated for the highest 1RM value (1RM9sub peak)) obtained for each exercise on each device to quantify 1RM relationships between devices.

  8. A new device to test cutting efficiency of mechanical endodontic instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Alessio Giansiracusa; Plotino, Gianluca; Al-Sudani, Dina; Grande, Nicola M.; Putorti, Ermanno; Sonnino, GianPaolo; Cotti, Elisabetta; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to introduce a new device specifically designed to evaluate the cutting efficiency of mechanically driven endodontic instruments. Material/Methods Twenty new Reciproc R25 (VDW, Munich, Germany) files were used to be investigated in the new device developed to test the cutting ability of endodontic instruments. The device consists of a main frame to which a mobile plastic support for the hand-piece is connected and a stainless-steel block containing a Plexiglas block against which the cutting efficiency of the instruments was tested. The length of the block cut in 1 minute was measured in a computerized program with a precision of 0.1mm. The instruments were activated by using a torque-controlled motor (Silver Reciproc; VDW, Munich, Germany) in a reciprocating movement by the “Reciproc ALL” program (Group 1) and in counter-clockwise rotation at 300 rpm (Group 2). Mean and standard deviations of each group were calculated and data were statistically analyzed with a one-way ANOVA test (P0.05). Conclusions The cutting testing device evaluated in the present study was reliable and easy to use and may be effectively used to test cutting efficiency of both rotary and reciprocating mechanical endodontic instruments. PMID:24603777

  9. Efficacy and safety of a low-level laser device in the treatment of male and female pattern hair loss: a multicenter, randomized, sham device-controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Joaquin J; Wikramanayake, Tongyu C; Bergfeld, Wilma; Hordinsky, Maria; Hickman, Janet G; Hamblin, Michael R; Schachner, Lawrence A

    2014-04-01

    Male and female pattern hair loss are common, chronic dermatologic disorders with limited therapeutic options. In recent years, a number of commercial devices using low-level laser therapy have been promoted, but there have been little peer-reviewed data on their efficacy. To determine whether treatment with a low-level laser device, the US FDA-cleared HairMax Lasercomb®, increases terminal hair density in both men and women with pattern hair loss. Randomized, sham device-controlled, double-blind clinical trials were conducted at multiple institutional and private practices. A total of 146 male and 188 female subjects with pattern hair loss were screened. A total of 128 male and 141 female subjects were randomized to receive either a lasercomb (one of three models) or a sham device in concealed sealed packets, and were treated on the whole scalp three times a week for 26 weeks. Terminal hair density of the target area was evaluated at baseline and at 16- and 26-week follow-ups, and analyzed to determine whether the hypothesis formulated prior to data collection, that lasercomb treatment would increase terminal hair density, was correct. The site investigators and the subjects remained blinded to the type of device they dispensed/received throughout the study. The evaluator of masked digital photographs was blinded to which trial arm the subject belonged. Seventy-eight, 63, 49, and 79 subjects were randomized in four trials of 9-beam lasercomb treatment in female subjects, 12-beam lasercomb treatment in female subjects, 7-beam lasercomb treatment in male subjects, and 9- and 12-beam lasercomb treatment in male subjects, compared with the sham device, respectively. Nineteen female and 25 male subjects were lost to follow-up. Among the remaining 122 female and 103 male subjects in the efficacy analysis, the mean terminal hair count at 26 weeks increased from baseline by 20.2, 20.6, 18.4, 20.9, and 25.7 per cm2 in 9-beam lasercomb-treated female subjects, 12-beam

  10. A novel and compact nanoindentation device for in situ nanoindentation tests inside the scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Huang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In situ nanomechanical tests provide a unique insight into mechanical behaviors of materials, such as fracture onset and crack propagation, shear band formation and so on. This paper presents a novel in situ nanoindentation device with dimensions of 103mm×74mm×60mm. Integrating the stepper motor, the piezoelectric actuator and the flexure hinge, the device can realize coarse adjustment of the specimen and precision loading and unloading of the indenter automatically. A novel indenter holder was designed to guarantee that the indenter penetrates into and withdraws from the specimen surface vertically. Closed-loop control of the indentation process was established to solve the problem of nonlinearity of the piezoelectric actuator and to enrich the loading modes. The in situ indentation test of Indium Phosphide (InP inside the scanning electron microscope (SEM was carried out and the experimental result indicates the feasibility of the developed device.

  11. Nickel allergy in patch-tested female hairdressers and assessment of nickel release from hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Milting, Kristina; Bregnhøj, Anne

    2009-01-01

    the proportion of hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks that released an excessive amount of nickel and to determine the prevalence of nickel allergy among patch-tested female hairdressers. MATERIALS: Random hairdressers' stores in Copenhagen were visited. The dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test was used to assess...... excessive nickel release. The prevalence of nickel allergy among female hairdressers from the database at Gentofte Hospital was compared with the prevalence of nickel allergy among other consecutively patch-tested dermatitis patients. RESULTS: DMG testing showed that 1 (0.5%; 95% CI = 0 - 2.0) of 200 pairs...

  12. Development and testing of new upper-limb prosthetic devices: research designs for usability testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to describe usability testing and introduce designs and methods of usability testing research as it relates to upper-limb prosthetics. This article defines usability, describes usability research, discusses research approaches to and designs for usability testing, and highlights a variety of methodological considerations, including sampling, sample size requirements, and usability metrics. Usability testing is compared with other types of study designs used in prosthetic research.

  13. Intraoperative Cochlear Implant Device Testing Utilizing an Automated Remote System: A Prospective Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Amanda R; Carlson, Matthew L; Sladen, Douglas P

    2018-03-01

    Intraoperative cochlear implant device testing provides valuable information regarding device integrity, electrode position, and may assist with determining initial stimulation settings. Manual intraoperative device testing during cochlear implantation requires the time and expertise of a trained audiologist. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the feasibility of using automated remote intraoperative cochlear implant reverse telemetry testing as an alternative to standard testing. Prospective pilot study evaluating intraoperative remote automated impedance and Automatic Neural Response Telemetry (AutoNRT) testing in 34 consecutive cochlear implant surgeries using the Intraoperative Remote Assistant (Cochlear Nucleus CR120). In all cases, remote intraoperative device testing was performed by trained operating room staff. A comparison was made to the "gold standard" of manual testing by an experienced cochlear implant audiologist. Electrode position and absence of tip fold-over was confirmed using plain film x-ray. Automated remote reverse telemetry testing was successfully completed in all patients. Intraoperative x-ray demonstrated normal electrode position without tip fold-over. Average impedance values were significantly higher using standard testing versus CR120 remote testing (standard mean 10.7 kΩ, SD 1.2 vs. CR120 mean 7.5 kΩ, SD 0.7, p automated testing with regard to the presence of open or short circuits along the array. There were, however, two cases in which standard testing identified an open circuit, when CR120 testing showed the circuit to be closed. Neural responses were successfully obtained in all patients using both systems. There was no difference in basal electrode responses (standard mean 195.0 μV, SD 14.10 vs. CR120 194.5 μV, SD 14.23; p = 0.7814); however, more favorable (lower μV amplitude) results were obtained with the remote automated system in the apical 10 electrodes (standard 185.4 μV, SD 11.69 vs. CR

  14. High Pressure Soxhlet Type Leachability testing device and leaching test of simulated high-level waste glass at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senoo, Muneaki; Banba, Tsunetaka; Tashiro, Shingo; Shimooka, Kenji; Araki, Kunio

    1979-11-01

    A High Pressure Soxhlet Type Leachability Testing Device (HIPSOL) was developed to evaluate long-period stability of high-level waste (HLW) solids. For simulated HLW solids, temperature dependency of the leachability was investigated at higher temperatures from 100 0 C to 300 0 C at 80 atm. Leachabilities of cesium and sodium at 295 0 C were 20 and 7 times higher than at 100 0 C, respectively. In the repository, the temperatures around solidified products may be hundred 0 C. It is essential to test them at such elevated temperatures. HIPSOL is also usable for accelerated test to evaluate long-period leaching behavior of HLW products. (author)

  15. Device Design and Test of Fatigue Behaviour of Expansion Anchor Subjected to Tensile Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study on the fatigue behaviour of expansion anchor (M16, grade 8.8 for overhead contact system in electrification railways, a set of safe, practical loading device is designed and a fatigue test campaign was carried out at structural laboratory of China Academy of Building Research on expansion anchor embedded in concrete block. The mobile frame of the loading device was designed well by finite-element simulation. According to some fatigue performance test of expansion anchor with different size and form, the device have been assessed experimentally its dependability. The results were found that no fatigue damage phenomenon occurred in all specimens after 2×106 cycles tensile fatigue test in this specific series. It shows that in the condition of medium level or slightly lower maximum stress limit and nominal stress range, expansion bolt has good fatigue resistance. The biggest relative displacement and the residual relative displacement after test (Δδ = δ2-δ1 was also strongly lower than the symbol of the fatigue test failure index of this specific series (0.5mm in the high cycle fatigue regime. The ultimate tension failures mode after fatigue tests in all tested samples take place in the concrete anchorage zone. The reduction range of the ultimate tensile strength properties of the anchorage system was not obvious, and the concrete was seen to be the weakest link of the system.

  16. Tests, measurements, and characterization of electro-optic devices and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadekar, S.G.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on tests, measurements and characterization of electro-optic devices and systems. Topics covered include: Measurement of spectral dynamics in single-quantum-well lasers, High power computer controlled laser diode characterization tester, and Laser diode characterization instrumentation

  17. Eddy current testing device for metallic tubes at least locally curved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigeon, Marcel; Vienot, Claude.

    1975-01-01

    Steam generators, condensers and heat exchangers generally consist of metallic tube bundles, the tubes having a complex geometry. The invention concerns an Eddy current testing device for metallic tubes at least locally curved, operating by translation of a probe inside the tubes [fr

  18. High-energy heavy ion testing of VLSI devices for single event ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    per describes the high-energy heavy ion radiation testing of VLSI devices for single event upset (SEU) ... The experimental set up employed to produce low flux of heavy ions viz. silicon ... through which they pass, leaving behind a wake of elec- ... for use in Bus Management Unit (BMU) and bulk CMOS ... was scheduled.

  19. Manufacturing and testing flexible microfluidic devices with optical and electrical detection mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivan, M.G.; Vivet, F.; Meinders, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Flexible microfluidic devices made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) were manufactured by soft lithography, and tested in detection of ionic species using optical absorption spectroscopy and electrical measurements. PDMS was chosen due to its flexibility and ease of surface modification by exposure

  20. Preliminary results on tests of a Cerenkov ring imaging device employing a photoionizing PWC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durkin, S.; Honma, A.; Leith, D.W.G.S.

    1978-08-01

    A brief description of techniques and problems of ring imaging Cerenkov detectors employing photoionizing PWC's is discussed. Preliminary results on a one dimensional ring imaging device tested at SLAC in May and June of 1978 are then presented. These results include rough measurements of the Cerenkov ring in nitrogen, argon, neon, and helium produced by a collimated positron beam.

  1. Endovascular Device Testing with Particle Image Velocimetry Enhances Undergraduate Biomedical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Priya; Ankeny, Casey J.; Ryan, Justin; Okcay, Murat; Frakes, David H.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the use of a new system, HemoFlow™, which utilizes state of the art technologies such as particle image velocimetry to test endovascular devices as part of an undergraduate biomedical engineering curriculum. Students deployed an endovascular stent into an anatomical model of a cerebral aneurysm and measured intra-aneurysmal flow…

  2. A Report on Deliverable Three: Determine a Standard Performance Test for Military Suction Device Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-20

    evaluating device suction while either wetted or completely immersed is highly important to predict performance in battlefield scenarios. Summary...mechanical, electrical, and environmental. OBJECTIVE: Research and review current test methods outlined in ISO 10079 and published journal articles...of contemporary oropharyngeal suction. The American journal of emergency medicine 17, 611- 613 (1999). 4. Hodgetts, T., Mahoney, P., Evans, G

  3. Development and Testing of an Integrated Sandia Cooler Thermoelectric Device (SCTD).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry A.; Staats, Wayne Lawrence,; Leick, Michael Thomas; Zimmerman, Mark D.; Radermacher, Reinhard; Martin, Cara; Nasuta, Dennis; Kalinowski, Paul; Hoffman, William

    2014-12-01

    This report describes a FY14 effort to develop an integrated Sandia Cooler T hermoelectric D evice (SCTD) . The project included a review of feasible thermoelectric (TE) cooling applications, baseline performance testing of an existing TE device, analysis and design development of an integrated SCTD assembly, and performance measurement and validation of the integrated SCTD prototype.

  4. Power Cycling Test Method for Reliability Assessment of Power Device Modules in Respect to Temperature Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Ui-Min; Blaabjerg, Frede; Jørgensen, Søren

    2018-01-01

    Power cycling test is one of the important tasks to investigate the reliability performance of power device modules in respect to temperature stress. From this, it is able to predict the lifetime of a component in power converters. In this paper, representative power cycling test circuits......, measurement circuits of wear-out failure indicators as well as measurement strategies for different power cycling test circuits are discussed in order to provide the current state of knowledge of this topic by organizing and evaluating current literature. In the first section of this paper, the structure...... of a conventional power device module and its related wear-out failure mechanisms with degradation indicators are discussed. Then, representative power cycling test circuits are introduced. Furthermore, on-state collector-emitter voltage (VCE ON) and forward voltage (VF) measurement circuits for wear-out condition...

  5. Development of a method of testing irradiation devices by gamma scanning inside a research nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Francois.

    1975-01-01

    A tridimensional experiment of spectrometry of an irradiation device located inside the reactor Siloe at a place shielded against spurious radiations, is exposed. The automatic scanning system that was developed, makes it possible to fully analyze in about 24 hours, the irradiation device (fuel pin, coolant and structures). The process combined with a 'pre-processing' program allows first partial results to be simultaneously obtained, more refined results being achieved during the next week, using the 'heavy processing'. The irradiation of the device is only interrupted during the compelling duty shutdown of the reactor, the evolution of the device during the successive irradiation cycles being thus followed up without pertubing said evolution. The reproducibility was studied at a local stage for testing the collimation of the detection unit (1% accuracy) and for testing the whole set 'processing measurement and computation' (5% accuracy). The sensitivity has been illustrated by detecting and measuring local singularities inside fuel (pellets), determining the detection efficiency dependence on the radial distribution of fission products and measuring nucleides inside the coolant flow (limiting value 10 -7 ). The accuracy of the method is evaluated at 5% for relative measurement of an experimental device during its in-pile lifetime and as 10% for quantitative absolute measurements [fr

  6. MODELING OF POWER SYSTEMS AND TESTING OF RELAY PROTECTION DEVICES IN REAL AND MODEL TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Novash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The methods of modelling of power system modes and of testing of relay protection devices with the aid the simulation complexes in real time and with the help of computer software systems that enables the simulation of virtual time scale are considered. Information input protection signals in the simulation of the virtual model time are being obtained in the computational experiment, whereas the tests of protective devices are carried out with the help of hardware and software test systems with the use of estimated input signals. Study of power system stability when modes of generating and consuming electrical equipment and conditions of devices of relay protection are being changed requires testing with the use of digital simulators in a mode of a closed loop. Herewith feedbacks between a model of the power system operating in a real time and external devices or their models must be determined (modelled. Modelling in real time and the analysis of international experience in the use of digital simulation power systems for real-time simulation (RTDS simulator have been fulfilled. Examples are given of the use of RTDS systems by foreign energy companies to test relay protection systems and control, to test the equipment and devices of automatic control, analysis of cyber security and evaluation of the operation of energy systems under different scenarios of occurrence of emergency situations. Some quantitative data on the distribution of RTDS in different countries and Russia are presented. It is noted that the leading energy universities of Russia use the real-time simulation not only to solve scientific and technical problems, but also to conduct training and laboratory classes on modelling of electric networks and anti-emergency automatic equipment with the students. In order to check serviceability of devices of relay protection without taking into account the reaction of the power system tests can be performed in an open loop mode with the

  7. HIV self-testing among female sex workers in Zambia: A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Chanda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available HIV self-testing (HIVST may play a role in addressing gaps in HIV testing coverage and as an entry point for HIV prevention services. We conducted a cluster randomized trial of 2 HIVST distribution mechanisms compared to the standard of care among female sex workers (FSWs in Zambia.Trained peer educators in Kapiri Mposhi, Chirundu, and Livingstone, Zambia, each recruited 6 FSW participants. Peer educator-FSW groups were randomized to 1 of 3 arms: (1 delivery (direct distribution of an oral HIVST from the peer educator, (2 coupon (a coupon for collection of an oral HIVST from a health clinic/pharmacy, or (3 standard-of-care HIV testing. Participants in the 2 HIVST arms received 2 kits: 1 at baseline and 1 at 10 weeks. The primary outcome was any self-reported HIV testing in the past month at the 1- and 4-month visits, as HIVST can replace other types of HIV testing. Secondary outcomes included linkage to care, HIVST use in the HIVST arms, and adverse events. Participants completed questionnaires at 1 and 4 months following peer educator interventions. In all, 965 participants were enrolled between September 16 and October 12, 2016 (delivery, N = 316; coupon, N = 329; standard of care, N = 320; 20% had never tested for HIV. Overall HIV testing at 1 month was 94.9% in the delivery arm, 84.4% in the coupon arm, and 88.5% in the standard-of-care arm (delivery versus standard of care risk ratio [RR] = 1.07, 95% CI 0.99-1.15, P = 0.10; coupon versus standard of care RR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.86-1.05, P = 0.29; delivery versus coupon RR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.22, P = 0.005. Four-month rates were 84.1% for the delivery arm, 79.8% for the coupon arm, and 75.1% for the standard-of-care arm (delivery versus standard of care RR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.98-1.27, P = 0.11; coupon versus standard of care RR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.92-1.22, P = 0.42; delivery versus coupon RR = 1.05, 95% CI 0.94-1.18, P = 0.40. At 1 month, the majority of HIV tests were self-tests (88.4%. HIV self-test

  8. HIV self-testing among female sex workers in Zambia: A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Michael M; Ortblad, Katrina F; Mwale, Magdalene; Chongo, Steven; Kanchele, Catherine; Kamungoma, Nyambe; Fullem, Andrew; Dunn, Caitlin; Barresi, Leah G; Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till; Oldenburg, Catherine E

    2017-11-01

    HIV self-testing (HIVST) may play a role in addressing gaps in HIV testing coverage and as an entry point for HIV prevention services. We conducted a cluster randomized trial of 2 HIVST distribution mechanisms compared to the standard of care among female sex workers (FSWs) in Zambia. Trained peer educators in Kapiri Mposhi, Chirundu, and Livingstone, Zambia, each recruited 6 FSW participants. Peer educator-FSW groups were randomized to 1 of 3 arms: (1) delivery (direct distribution of an oral HIVST from the peer educator), (2) coupon (a coupon for collection of an oral HIVST from a health clinic/pharmacy), or (3) standard-of-care HIV testing. Participants in the 2 HIVST arms received 2 kits: 1 at baseline and 1 at 10 weeks. The primary outcome was any self-reported HIV testing in the past month at the 1- and 4-month visits, as HIVST can replace other types of HIV testing. Secondary outcomes included linkage to care, HIVST use in the HIVST arms, and adverse events. Participants completed questionnaires at 1 and 4 months following peer educator interventions. In all, 965 participants were enrolled between September 16 and October 12, 2016 (delivery, N = 316; coupon, N = 329; standard of care, N = 320); 20% had never tested for HIV. Overall HIV testing at 1 month was 94.9% in the delivery arm, 84.4% in the coupon arm, and 88.5% in the standard-of-care arm (delivery versus standard of care risk ratio [RR] = 1.07, 95% CI 0.99-1.15, P = 0.10; coupon versus standard of care RR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.86-1.05, P = 0.29; delivery versus coupon RR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.22, P = 0.005). Four-month rates were 84.1% for the delivery arm, 79.8% for the coupon arm, and 75.1% for the standard-of-care arm (delivery versus standard of care RR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.98-1.27, P = 0.11; coupon versus standard of care RR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.92-1.22, P = 0.42; delivery versus coupon RR = 1.05, 95% CI 0.94-1.18, P = 0.40). At 1 month, the majority of HIV tests were self-tests (88.4%). HIV self-test use

  9. Comparison Between THOR Anthropomorphic Test Device and THOR Finite Element Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Extended time spent in reduced gravity can cause physiologic deconditioning of astronauts, reducing their ability to sustain excessive forces during dynamic phases of spaceflight such as landing. To make certain that the crew is safe during these phases, NASA must take caution when determining what types of landings are acceptable based on the accelerations applied to the astronaut. In order to test acceptable landings, various trials have been run accelerating humans, cadavers, and Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs), or crash test dummies, at different acceleration and velocity rates on a sled testing platform. Using these tests, risks of injury will be created and metrics will be developed for the likelihood of injuries due to the acceleration. A finite element model (FEM) of the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) ATD has been developed that can simulate these test trials and others (Putnam, 2014), reducing the need for human and ATD testing. Additionally, this will give researchers a more effective way to test the accelerations and orientations encountered during spaceflight landings during design of new space vehicles for crewed missions. However, the FEM has not been proven and must be validated by comparing the forces, accelerations, and other measurements of all parts of the body between the physical tests already completed and computer simulated trials. The purpose of my research was to validate the FEM for the ATD using previously run trials with the physical THOR ATD.

  10. Reliability and Usefulness of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test in Male and Female Professional Futsal Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valladares-Rodríguez Santiago

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and usefulness of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT in professional male and female futsal players. Thirteen male (24.4 ± 5.6 years; 174.5 ± 10.3 cm; 70.3 ± 9.9 kg and fourteen female (23.3 ± 4.5 years; 165.8 ± 6.2 cm; 61.7 ± 5.5 kg professional futsal players performed the 30-15IFT on two occasions, separated by 5 days. Maximal intermittent running velocity (VIFT and heart rate at exhaustion (HRpeak data were collected for both tests. Reliability was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, typical error (TE expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV, and smallest worthwhile change (SWC. VIFT demonstrated very good reliability between sessions, both for male (ICC = 0.92 and female (ICC = 0.96 players. As the TE for VIFT and HRpeak was similar to the calculated SWC for both male and female players, the usefulness of the test was rated as “medium”. A change in performance of at least 2 stages in male players, or a change of more than 1 stage in female players could be interpreted as a meaningful change in aerobic futsal fitness. The results of this study demonstrate that the 30-15IFT is both a reliable and useful test for male and female professional futsal players.

  11. Construction and tests of a gamma device for experimental measurements of burnup of nuclear reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao Junior, F.A.

    1982-01-01

    The gamma-scanning method is an important tool for the measurement of burnup of nuclear reactor fuel. The adequate knowledge of burnup allows for a better inventory of 'sensitive' fissile materials, better fuel management and provides insight on fuel behaviour and safety margins. This paper is related to the description, construction and operation of a first gamma scanning device, tested by irradiation of prototype PWR fuel pins, 14 cm long, in a Triga Mark-I reactor at very low power. Despite the limitations imposed by the low burnup, the experiment permitted a good checking of the main physical concepts and devices involved in the method. (Author) [pt

  12. Testing a key assumption in animal communication: between-individual variation in female visual systems alters perception of male signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L. Ronald

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Variation in male signal production has been extensively studied because of its relevance to animal communication and sexual selection. Although we now know much about the mechanisms that can lead to variation between males in the properties of their signals, there is still a general assumption that there is little variation in terms of how females process these male signals. Variation between females in signal processing may lead to variation between females in how they rank individual males, meaning that one single signal may not be universally attractive to all females. We tested this assumption in a group of female wild-caught brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater, a species that uses a male visual signal (e.g. a wingspread display to make its mate-choice decisions. We found that females varied in two key parameters of their visual sensory systems related to chromatic and achromatic vision: cone densities (both total and proportions and cone oil droplet absorbance. Using visual chromatic and achromatic contrast modeling, we then found that this between-individual variation in visual physiology leads to significant between-individual differences in how females perceive chromatic and achromatic male signals. These differences may lead to variation in female preferences for male visual signals, which would provide a potential mechanism for explaining individual differences in mate-choice behavior.

  13. Testing a key assumption in animal communication: between-individual variation in female visual systems alters perception of male signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald, Kelly L; Ensminger, Amanda L; Shawkey, Matthew D; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2017-12-15

    Variation in male signal production has been extensively studied because of its relevance to animal communication and sexual selection. Although we now know much about the mechanisms that can lead to variation between males in the properties of their signals, there is still a general assumption that there is little variation in terms of how females process these male signals. Variation between females in signal processing may lead to variation between females in how they rank individual males, meaning that one single signal may not be universally attractive to all females. We tested this assumption in a group of female wild-caught brown-headed cowbirds ( Molothrus ater ), a species that uses a male visual signal (e.g. a wingspread display) to make its mate-choice decisions. We found that females varied in two key parameters of their visual sensory systems related to chromatic and achromatic vision: cone densities (both total and proportions) and cone oil droplet absorbance. Using visual chromatic and achromatic contrast modeling, we then found that this between-individual variation in visual physiology leads to significant between-individual differences in how females perceive chromatic and achromatic male signals. These differences may lead to variation in female preferences for male visual signals, which would provide a potential mechanism for explaining individual differences in mate-choice behavior. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. A test of bone mobilization relative to reproductive demand: skeletal quality is improved in cannibalistic females with large litters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Wendy R

    2012-01-01

    In species with repeated bouts of reproduction, a female's ability to retain sufficient tissue for self-maintenance is essential to her survival and capacity for future reproduction. Loss of bone mineral content results in bone fragility and the possibility of reduced survival, so females should guard against the overuse of their bone mineral during reproduction. Given these constraints, I predicted that bone mobilization would increase with litter size in mice but plateau before maximum litter size was reached. To test this idea, I manipulated the litter sizes of house mice on the day of parturition to 3, 8, 13, and 18 offspring. At weaning, I euthanized the females and calculated whole-body and bone mineral composition. The total mineral content of females' femurs dropped as litter size increased to the average litter size for this strain of mouse (13) but surprisingly, femoral mineral content was higher for females assigned the largest litter sizes (18). Seven of the nine females assigned 18 young cannibalized some of their offspring. For females assigned to these larger litters, femoral ash content was not correlated with number of young consumed, suggesting that mineral recycling had little effect on final bone mineral content. However, nursing effort (accounting for young lost to cannibalism) was correlated with maternal femoral ash at weaning. These finding suggest that the high bone mineral content of females assigned the largest litters was associated with a reduction in endogenous mineral allocated to the litter.

  15. 10 CFR 32.103 - Schedule D-prototype tests for ice detection devices containing strontium-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... water and the strontium-90 shall be considered leakage. (e) Observations. After each of the tests... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Schedule D-prototype tests for ice detection devices... § 32.103 Schedule D—prototype tests for ice detection devices containing strontium-90. An applicant for...

  16. Tests of microprocessor-based relay protection devices: Problems and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurevich Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, the operational condition of relay protection devices is checked with specific settings used for the relay operation in a certain network point. In the author's opinion in order to verify the proper operation of complex multifunctional microprocessor-based protection devices (MPD at their inspection, start-up after repairs or during periodic tests there is no need to use the actual settings at which the relay is to be operated in a certain network's point. It should be tested for proper operation at several of its most critical preset characteristic points as well as in several preset characteristics constituting its most complicated (combined operation modes, including the dynamic operation modes with preset transition processes specific for standard power networks (not necessarily for a specific point. The proposed set of actions for the unification of software platforms of the modern, microprocessor-based relay protection test systems will enable examination of modern MPD in an absolutely new way. .

  17. A new cryogenic test facility for large superconducting devices at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Perin, A; Serio, L; Stewart, L; Benda, V; Bremer, J; Pirotte, O

    2015-01-01

    To expand CERN testing capability to superconducting devices that cannot be installed in existing test facilities because of their size and/or mass, CERN is building a new cryogenic test facility for large and heavy devices. The first devices to be tested in the facility will be the S-FRS superconducting magnets for the FAIR project that is currently under construction at the GSI Research Center in Darmstadt, Germany. The facility will include a renovated cold box with 1.2 kW at 4.5 K equivalent power with its compression system, two independent 15 kW liquid nitrogen precooling and warm-up units, as well as a dedicated cryogenic distribution system providing cooling power to three independent test benches. The article presents the main input parameters and constraints used to define the cryogenic system and its infrastructure. The chosen layout and configuration of the facility is presented and the characteristics of the main components are described.

  18. Assessment And Testing of Industrial Devices Robustness Against Cyber Security Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Tilaro, F

    2011-01-01

    CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research),like any organization, needs to achieve the conflicting objectives of connecting its operational network to Internet while at the same time keeping its industrial control systems secure from external and internal cyber attacks. With this in mind, the ISA-99[0F1] international cyber security standard has been adopted at CERN as a reference model to define a set of guidelines and security robustness criteria applicable to any network device. Devices robustness represents a key link in the defense-in-depth concept as some attacks will inevitably penetrate security boundaries and thus require further protection measures. When assessing the cyber security robustness of devices we have singled out control system-relevant attack patterns derived from the well-known CAPEC[1F2] classification. Once a vulnerability is identified, it needs to be documented, prioritized and reproduced at will in a dedicated test environment for debugging purposes. CERN - in collaboration ...

  19. Testing the mate-choice hypothesis of the female orgasm: disentangling traits and behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Sherlock, James M.; Sidari, Morgan J.; Harris, Emily Ann; Barlow, Fiona Kate; Zietsch, Brendan P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The evolution of the female orgasm in humans and its role in romantic relationships is poorly understood. Whereas the male orgasm is inherently linked to reproduction, the female orgasm is not linked to obvious reproductive or survival benefits. It also occurs less consistently during penetrative sex than does the male orgasm. Mate-choice hypotheses posit that the wide variation in female orgasm frequency reflects a discriminatory mechanism designed to select high-quality mates.Ob...

  20. Climate-related environmental variation in a visual signalling device: the male and female dewlap in Anolis sagrei lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessens, T; Baeckens, S; Balzarolo, M; Vanhooydonck, B; Huyghe, K; Van Damme, R

    2017-10-01

    Animals communicate using a variety of signals that differ dramatically among and within species. The astonishing dewlap diversity in anoles has attracted considerable attention in this respect. Yet, the evolutionary processes behind it remain elusive and have mostly been explored for males only. Here, we considered Anolis sagrei males and females to study signal divergence among populations. First, we assessed the degree of variation in dewlap design (size, pattern and colour) and displays by comparing 17 populations distributed across the Caribbean. Second, we assessed whether the observed dewlap diversity is associated with variation in climate-related environmental conditions. Results showed that populations differed in all dewlap characteristics, with the exception of display rate in females. We further found that males and females occurring in 'xeric' environments had a higher proportion of solid dewlaps with higher UV reflectance. In addition, lizards inhabiting 'mesic' environments had primarily marginal dewlaps showing high reflectance in red. For dewlap display, a correlation with environment was only observed in males. Our study provides evidence for a strong relationship between signal design and prevailing environmental conditions, which may result from differential selection on signal efficacy. Moreover, our study highlights the importance of including females when studying dewlaps in an evolutionary context. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. A test of Hirschi's social bonding theory: a comparison of male and female delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, Ozden; Ozcan, Yusuf Ziya

    2008-04-01

    In this study, Hirschi's social bonding theory is employed to identify what aspects of the theory can explain male and female delinquency and whether social bonding variables can equally explain male and female delinquency (generalizability problem) in a developing society, Turkey. The data include a two-stage-stratified cluster sample of 1,710 high school students from the central districts of Ankara, the capital of Turkey. The findings suggest that social bonding variables play a more important role for male students than for female students. Furthermore, they indicate that components of the social bonding theory can equally explain both male and female delinquent acts.

  2. Concept of the LORELEI Test Device for LOCA Experiment in the JHR Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, N.; Ferry, L.; Azulay, A.; Mileguir, O.; Weiss, Y.; Szanto, M.

    2014-01-01

    Modeling of nuclear fuel cladding behavior during a Loss of Coolant accident (LOCA) is a principal requirement in reactor safety analysis. Former safety criteria were obtained from experiments during the 1970's, conducted mainly with fresh fuels. Changes in modern fuel design, introduction of new cladding materials and motivation towards higher burn-ups have generated a need to re-examine safety criteria and their continued validity. This led to the growing development of both experiments and simulations meant to address this need. The Halden IFA-650 series of experiments for example, beginning in the early 2000's have clearly shown that existing criteria and experimental data are insufficient for the growing demand for higher burn-ups. In JHR material testing reactor, which is currently under construction, one significant experimental device is the LORELEI testing device. The objective is to examine the LOCA sequence influence on: thermo-mechanical behavior of the fuel clad, possible fuel relocation, corrosion at high temperature, oxidation, hydriding and resulted clad embrittment. The device is a single rod closed loop system placed on a displacement device inside a defined channel in the reflector. Several operational constrains on the device, as required by the reactor operational philosophy resulted quite a few challenges in the design. Constrains as: pre experimental re-irradiation phase under thermo-syphonic flow, application of active insulation to simulate the surrounding fuel, application of tensile force during refolding simulation, controlling the experiment with non-direct temperature measurement, etc. requires sophisticated solutions. The main objective of the conceptual design was to remove the uncertainties of those challenging requirements. The current presentation describes the approach applied defining the concept of the device, using sophisticated design combined with computational and experimental tools

  3. Ruggedising biomedical devices for field-testing in resource-constrained environments: Context, issues and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Schopman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Community Health Workers (CHWs are community members who address primary health challenges through education, prevention, and awareness initiatives. CHWs conduct home visits, provide treatment for simple common illnesses, and offer health education on numerous topics including nutrition, child health, and family planning. Since they serve on the frontlines of healthcare in rural communities, ruggedised and low-cost biomedical devices could improve the efficiency and efficacy of their caregiving efforts. However, the vast majority of biomedical devices used in sub-Saharan Africa are designed by engineers in Western countries who are not familiar with the distinct physical, environmental, socio-cultural, and economic environment of the context for which they are designing. Systemic challenges include long distances, poor transportation, unreliable infrastructure, harsh climate, and limited operator education. Specifically, three sets of hurdles to the adoption, sustainability and usability of devices by the CHWs include vibrations and wire strain, dust and water penetration, and device usability. This article discusses the operational context of CHWs and then delves into the specific problems encountered, and practical solutions applied, during four years of field-testing ruggedised biomedical devices in rural Kenya.

  4. Development of a High Sensitivity Digital Cerenkov Viewing Device. Prototype Digital Cerenkov Viewing Device. Field test in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.D.; Gerwing, A.F.; Lewis, P.D.; Larsson, M.; Jansson, K.; Lindberg, B.; Sundkvist, E.; Ohlsson, M.

    2002-05-01

    The Swedish and Canadian Safeguards Support Programs have developed a prototype Digital Cerenkov Viewing Device (DCVD) to verify long-cooled spent fuel. The instrument consists of a camera system and a custom portable computer equipped with a liquid crystal and a wearable heads-up display. The camera was coupled to a hardware user interface (HUI) and was operated with a computer program designed to image spent fuel and store the images. Measurements were taken at the CLAB facility on pressurized-water reactor fuel and non-fuel assemblies, a number of boiling-water reactor fuel assemblies, and long-cooled Aagesta fuel assemblies. The camera head, attached to the HUI, a battery-operated computer carried in a backpack and the heads-up display were field tested for portability. The ergonomics of this system is presented in the report. For the examination of long-cooled spent fuel, the camera head was mounted on a bracket that rested on the railing of a moving bridge. The DCVD instrument is approximately 100 times higher in sensitivity than the Mark IVe CVD. The oldest fuel with the lowest burnup at the CLAB facility was positively verified. The measurement capability of this instrument greatly exceeds the verification criteria of 10,000 MWd/t U and 40 years cooling

  5. Model-based testing with UML applied to a roaming algorithm for bluetooth devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhen Ru; Grabowski, Jens; Neukirchen, Helmut; Pals, Holger

    2004-11-01

    In late 2001, the Object Management Group issued a Request for Proposal to develop a testing profile for UML 2.0. In June 2003, the work on the UML 2.0 Testing Profile was finally adopted by the OMG. Since March 2004, it has become an official standard of the OMG. The UML 2.0 Testing Profile provides support for UML based model-driven testing. This paper introduces a methodology on how to use the testing profile in order to modify and extend an existing UML design model for test issues. The application of the methodology will be explained by applying it to an existing UML Model for a Bluetooth device.

  6. Demonstration tests of tritium removal device under the conditions of nuclear fusion reactor. Cooperation test between Japan and USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takumi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Nishi, Masataka

    2001-01-01

    Performance of oxidation catalysis in emergency tritium removal device was tested in Los Alamos National Laboratory by cooperation between Japan and USA on November 8, 2000. To reduce the effects of tritium on the environment, a plan of the closed space for trapping tritium was made. A tritium removal device using oxidation catalysis and water vapor adsorption removes the tritium in the closed space. The treatment flow rate of the device is about 2,500 m 3 /h, the same as ITER(3,000 to 4,500 m 3 /h). Catalysis is Pt/ alumina. The closed space is 3,000m 2 . The initial concentration of tritium was about 7 Bq/cm 2 , ten times as large as the concentration limit in atmosphere. The concentration of tritium in the test laboratory decreased linearly with time and attained to the limit value after about 200 min. Residue of tritium on the wall had been removed and the significant quantity was not detected after three days. The results proved to satisfy safety of ITER. (S.Y.)

  7. Coating, Degrading and Testing of Organic Polymer Devices - Reducing the route from Laboratory to Production scale devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Henrik Friis

    volume, which for spin coating allowed making a single 1 cm2 device, using the mini roll coater (MRC) enable the coating of a 100 cm2 area, resulting in 60 1cm2 devices with the present mask designs. With the relative expensive polymers, this translates into a large saving for performing the same amount...

  8. Brood desertion by female shorebirds : a test of the differential parental capacity hypothesis on Kentish plovers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amat, JA; Visser, GH; Perez-Hurtado, A; Arroyo, GM

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the energetic costs of reproduction explain offspring desertion by female shorebirds, as is suggested by the differential parental capacity hypothesis. A prediction of the hypothesis is that, in species with biparental incubation in which females desert

  9. EM algorithm for one-shot device testing with competing risks under exponential distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, N.; So, H.Y.; Ling, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an extension of the work of Balakrishnan and Ling [1] by introducing a competing risks model into a one-shot device testing analysis under an accelerated life test setting. An Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm is then developed for the estimation of the model parameters. An extensive Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to assess the performance of the EM algorithm and then compare the obtained results with the initial estimates obtained by the Inequality Constrained Least Squares (ICLS) method of estimation. Finally, we apply the EM algorithm to a clinical data, ED01, to illustrate the method of inference developed here. - Highlights: • ALT data analysis for one-shot devices with competing risks is considered. • EM algorithm is developed for the determination of the MLEs. • The estimations of lifetime under normal operating conditions are presented. • The EM algorithm improves the convergence rate

  10. Automatic testing devices for diesel engines for the quality control in engine production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homann, R; Homilius, K

    1979-01-01

    A device which generates the torque for the brakes is the most important functional group in engine test stands. Hydraulic dynamometric brakes are serially produced for power ranges from 210 up to 70000 kw and maximum revolutions up to 10000 rpm. Eddy current brakes can be supplied for the power range of 40 to 3600 kW. Compared to the hydraulic dynamometric brake they have a larger rev-range for control while both have the same torque. Electric machines used as dynamometric brakes make it possible to recuperate electric energy. The properties of the individual braking devices are compared. Torque and number of revolutions are calculated digitally. Test methods are automatised as far as possible. There are four control methods: time plan, perforated strip, magnetic tape or computer.

  11. Heat resistant/radiation resistant cable and incore structure test device for FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Hajime; Shiono, Takeo; Sato, Yoshimi; Ito, Kazumi; Sudo, Shigeaki; Saito, Shin-ichi; Mitsui, Hisayasu.

    1995-01-01

    A heat resistant/radiation resistant coaxial cable of the present invention comprises an insulation layer, an outer conductor and a protection cover in this order on an inner conductor, in which the insulation layer comprises thermoplastic polyimide. In the same manner, a heat resistant/radiation resistant power cable has an insulation layer comprising thermoplastic polyimide on a conductor, and is provided with a protection cover comprising braid of alamide fibers at the outer circumference of the insulation layer. An incore structure test device for an FBR type reactor comprises the heat resistant/radiation resistant coaxial cable and/or the power cable. The thermoplastic polyimide can be extrusion molded, and has excellent radiation resistant by the extrusion, as well as has high dielectric withstand voltage, good flexibility and electric characteristics at high temperature. The incore structure test device for the FBR type reactor of the present invention comprising such a cable has excellent reliability and durability. (T.M.)

  12. Tamper-indicating devices and safeguards seals evaluation test report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, P.R.V.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1995-08-01

    Volume I was based on a survey and an evaluation of seals that are used as tamper-indicating devices at DOE facilities. For that evaluation, currently available seals were physically and environmentally evaluated under two broad categories: handling durability and tamper resistance. Our study indicated that the environmental testing had no negative effects on the results of the mechanical tests. In Volume II, we evaluate some loop, fiber optic loop, and pressure-sensitive seals that are not used at DOE facilities. However, we continue to focus on qualities required by DOE: durability and tamper resistance. The seals are comparatively rated, and recommendations are made for using currently available seals and new tamper-indicating device technology.

  13. Tamper-indicating devices and safeguards seals evaluation test report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, P.R.V.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1995-08-01

    Volume I was based on a survey and an evaluation of seals that are used as tamper-indicating devices at DOE facilities. For that evaluation, currently available seals were physically and environmentally evaluated under two broad categories: handling durability and tamper resistance. Our study indicated that the environmental testing had no negative effects on the results of the mechanical tests. In Volume II, we evaluate some loop, fiber optic loop, and pressure-sensitive seals that are not used at DOE facilities. However, we continue to focus on qualities required by DOE: durability and tamper resistance. The seals are comparatively rated, and recommendations are made for using currently available seals and new tamper-indicating device technology

  14. Development of a handmade device for collimation and central ray alignment tests in medical X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, B.L. da; Brito, E.B.; Gomes, A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Ordinance 453/98 of the Ministry of Health establishes that medical X-ray equipment should be monitored by tests that prove its efficiency. This practice is called quality control (QC), and two important tests jointly evaluate the operation of the collimation and alignment systems of the central axis of the X-ray beam. The low supply and the high cost generate allegations of difficulties in the periodic realization of the tests. The aim of this work is to design, make and evaluate the performance of a handmade device for the mentioned tests, using low cost materials. Once built, the device had its performance evaluated and compared with the traditionally marketed device. The handmade device proved to be fit in its functions. It is possible to make a device that tests X-ray medical equipment, using the radiology technologist himself as the test runner. Radiation protection is promoted and legislation with no real financial burden

  15. Manufacturing and testing flexible microfluidic devices with optical and electrical detection mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan, M.G.; Vivet, F.; Meinders, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Flexible microfluidic devices made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) were manufactured by soft lithography, and tested in detection of ionic species using optical absorption spectroscopy and electrical measurements. PDMS was chosen due to its flexibility and ease of surface modification by exposure to plasma and UV treatment, its transparency in UV-Vis regions of the light spectrum, and biocompatibility. The dual-detection mechanism allows the user more freedom in choosing the detection tool, ...

  16. Python Scripts for Automation of Current-Voltage Testing of Semiconductor Devices (FY17)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    investment required by the user with manual operation, only a fraction of the total devices fabricated on a sample are actually tested. In this...only moves the stage itself in 3 dimensions. It does not control the probes or stage rotation. It is important to note that the user must first attempt...measurements using the 4155C and the manual probe station. This script bypasses the original front panel operation of the 4155C and allows the user to set

  17. Technical performance of lactate biosensors and a test-strip device during labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttkus, A K; Fotopoulou, C; Sehouli, J; Stupin, J; Dudenhausen, J W

    2010-04-01

    Lactate in fetal blood has a high diagnostic power to detect fetal compromise due to hypoxia, as lactate allows an estimation of duration and intensity of metabolic acidemia. Biosensor technology allows an instantaneous diagnosis of fetal compromise in the delivery room. The goal of the current investigation is to define the preanalytical and analytical biases of this technology under routine conditions in a labour ward in comparison to test-strip technology, which allows measurement of lactate alone. Three lactate biosensors (RapidLab 865, Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics, Bad Nauheim, Germany; Radiometer ABL625 and ABL 700, Radiometer Copenhagen, Denmark) and one test-strip device (Lactate Pro, Oxford Instruments, UK) were evaluated regarding precision in serial and repetitive measurements in over 1350 samples of fetal whole blood. The coefficient of variation (CV) and the standard deviation (SD) were calculated. The average value of all three biosensors was defined as an artificial reference value (refval). Blood tonometry was performed in order to test the quality of respiratory parameters and to simulate conditions of fetal hypoxia (pO (2): 10 and 20 mmHg). The precision of serial measurements of all biosensors indicated a coefficient of variation (CV) between 1.55 and 3.16% with an SD from 0.042 to 0.053 mmol/L. The test-strip device (Lactate Pro) mounted to 0.117 mmol/L and 3.99% (SD, CV). When compared to our reference value (refval) ABL 625 showed the closest correlation of -0.1%, while Siemens RapidLab 865 showed an overestimation of +8.9%, ABL700 an underestimation of -6.2% and Lactate Pro of -3.7%. For routine use all tested biosensors show sufficient precision. The test-strip device shows a slightly higher standard deviation. A direct comparison of measured lactate values from the various devices needs to be interpreted with caution as each method detects different lactate concentrations. Furthermore, the 40 min process of tonometry led to an

  18. 10 CFR 34.67 - Records of leak testing of sealed sources and devices containing depleted uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of leak testing of sealed sources and devices containing depleted uranium. 34.67 Section 34.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL... Requirements § 34.67 Records of leak testing of sealed sources and devices containing depleted uranium. Each...

  19. 10 CFR 32.101 - Schedule B-prototype tests for luminous safety devices for use in aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....101 Schedule B—prototype tests for luminous safety devices for use in aircraft. An applicant for a... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Schedule B-prototype tests for luminous safety devices for use in aircraft. 32.101 Section 32.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES...

  20. An optimal controller for an electric ventricular-assist device: theory, implementation, and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klute, G K; Tasch, U; Geselowitz, D B

    1992-04-01

    This paper addresses the development and testing of an optimal position feedback controller for the Penn State electric ventricular-assist device (EVAD). The control law is designed to minimize the expected value of the EVAD's power consumption for a targeted patient population. The closed-loop control law is implemented on an Intel 8096 microprocessor and in vitro test runs show that this controller improves the EVAD's efficiency by 15-21%, when compared with the performance of the currently used feedforward control scheme.

  1. Design of the Caltrans Seismic Response Modification Device (SRMD) test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzoni, G.; Seible, F.

    1998-01-01

    In the Seismic retrofit design of California's Toll Bridges, seismic isolation is used in several bridges to limit the seismic force input into the superstructure and to avoid costly superstructure retrofit measures which would require partial lane closures and traffic interruptions. Isolation bearings and dampers of the size required for these large span bridges have not been built or tested to date. This paper describes the design and construction of a full scale testing facility which will allow the real-time 6-DOF dynamic characterization of the seismic response modification devices designed for California's Toll Bridges. (author)

  2. Experience of manual periodic testing and development of automatic test devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, J.; Bergdahl, B.G.; Oguma, R.; Pazsit, I.; Akerhielm, F.

    1989-01-01

    During more than two decades experience has been gained in the field of process control and instrumentation using signal noise analysis applied to measurements at Swedish nuclear power plants. The methods developed and employed cover areas like: - Sensor and component status test in safety systems during operation, - Monitoring of BWR-stability during start-up, - Thermal time constant analysis on irradiated fuel, - Monitoring of instrument tube vibrations during operation, Self-diagnosing neutron detectors. Together with stationary surveillance systems like SOLNAS for Early Warning based on spectral analysis and Pattern Recognition we use a mobile mini-computer twin station and PC/AT sets. Further theory development goes hand in hand with experimental results obtained through measurement campaigns. In the following some of the work under progress, demonstrated or already applied is described and the results are reported correspondingly

  3. New nucleic acid testing devices to diagnose infectious diseases in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffert, P; Reverchon, S; Nasser, W; Rozand, C; Abaibou, H

    2017-10-01

    Point-of-care diagnosis based on nucleic acid testing aims to incorporate all the analytical steps, from sample preparation to nucleic acid amplification and detection, in a single device. This device needs to provide a low-cost, robust, sensitive, specific, and easily readable analysis. Microfluidics has great potential for handling small volumes of fluids on a single platform. Microfluidic technology has recently been applied to paper, which is already used in low-cost lateral flow tests. Nucleic acid extraction from a biological specimen usually requires cell filtration and lysis on specific membranes, while affinity matrices, such as chitosan or polydiacetylene, are well suited to concentrating nucleic acids for subsequent amplification. Access to electricity is often difficult in resource-limited areas, so the amplification step needs to be equipment-free. Consequently, the reaction has to be isothermal to alleviate the need for a thermocycler. LAMP, NASBA, HDA, and RPA are examples of the technologies available. Nucleic acid detection techniques are currently based on fluorescence, colorimetry, or chemiluminescence. For point-of-care diagnostics, the results should be readable with the naked eye. Nowadays, interpretation and communication of results to health professionals could rely on a smartphone, used as a telemedicine device. The major challenge of creating an "all-in-one" diagnostic test involves the design of an optimal solution and a sequence for each analytical step, as well as combining the execution of all these steps on a single device. This review provides an overview of available materials and technologies which seem to be adapted to point-of-care nucleic acid-based diagnosis, in low-resource areas.

  4. Liquid oxygen liquid acquisition device bubble point tests with high pressure lox at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurns, J. M.; Hartwig, J. W.

    2012-04-01

    When transferring propellant in space, it is most efficient to transfer single phase liquid from a propellant tank to an engine. In earth's gravity field or under acceleration, propellant transfer is fairly simple. However, in low gravity, withdrawing single-phase fluid becomes a challenge. A variety of propellant management devices (PMDs) are used to ensure single-phase flow. One type of PMD, a liquid acquisition device (LAD) takes advantage of capillary flow and surface tension to acquire liquid. The present work reports on testing with liquid oxygen (LOX) at elevated pressures (and thus temperatures) (maximum pressure 1724 kPa and maximum temperature 122 K) as part of NASA's continuing cryogenic LAD development program. These tests evaluate LAD performance for LOX stored in higher pressure vessels that may be used in propellant systems using pressure fed engines. Test data shows a significant drop in LAD bubble point values at higher liquid temperatures, consistent with lower liquid surface tension at those temperatures. Test data also indicates that there are no first order effects of helium solubility in LOX on LAD bubble point prediction. Test results here extend the range of data for LOX fluid conditions, and provide insight into factors affecting predicting LAD bubble point pressures.

  5. Conspicuous female ornamentation and tests of male mate preference in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shane Wright

    Full Text Available Sexual selection drives the evolution of exaggerated male ornaments in many animal species. Female ornamentation is now acknowledged also to be common but is generally less well understood. One example is the recently documented red female throat coloration in some threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus populations. Although female sticklebacks often exhibit a preference for red male throat coloration, the possibility of sexual selection on female coloration has been little studied. Using sequential and simultaneous mate choice trials, we examined male mate preferences for female throat color, as well as pelvic spine color and standard length, using wild-captured threespine sticklebacks from the Little Campbell River, British Columbia. In a multivariate analysis, we found no evidence for a population-level mate preference in males, suggesting the absence of directional sexual selection on these traits arising from male mate choice. Significant variation was detected among males in their preference functions, but this appeared to arise from differences in their mean responsiveness across mating trials and not from variation in the strength (i.e., slope of their preference, suggesting the absence of individual-level preferences as well. When presented with conspecific intruder males, male response decreased as intruder red throat coloration increased, suggesting that males can discriminate color and other aspects of phenotype in our experiment and that males may use these traits in intrasexual interactions. The results presented here are the first to explicitly address male preference for female throat color in threespine sticklebacks.

  6. Conspicuous female ornamentation and tests of male mate preference in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel Shane; Pierotti, Michele E R; Rundle, Howard D; McKinnon, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection drives the evolution of exaggerated male ornaments in many animal species. Female ornamentation is now acknowledged also to be common but is generally less well understood. One example is the recently documented red female throat coloration in some threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations. Although female sticklebacks often exhibit a preference for red male throat coloration, the possibility of sexual selection on female coloration has been little studied. Using sequential and simultaneous mate choice trials, we examined male mate preferences for female throat color, as well as pelvic spine color and standard length, using wild-captured threespine sticklebacks from the Little Campbell River, British Columbia. In a multivariate analysis, we found no evidence for a population-level mate preference in males, suggesting the absence of directional sexual selection on these traits arising from male mate choice. Significant variation was detected among males in their preference functions, but this appeared to arise from differences in their mean responsiveness across mating trials and not from variation in the strength (i.e., slope) of their preference, suggesting the absence of individual-level preferences as well. When presented with conspecific intruder males, male response decreased as intruder red throat coloration increased, suggesting that males can discriminate color and other aspects of phenotype in our experiment and that males may use these traits in intrasexual interactions. The results presented here are the first to explicitly address male preference for female throat color in threespine sticklebacks.

  7. Standard test method for calibration of surface/stress measuring devices

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    Return to Contents page 1.1 This test method covers calibration or verification of calibration, or both, of surface-stress measuring devices used to measure stress in annealed and heat-strengthened or tempered glass using polariscopic or refractometry based principles. 1.2 This test method is nondestructive. 1.3 This test method uses transmitted light, and therefore, is applicable to light-transmitting glasses. 1.4 This test method is not applicable to chemically tempered glass. 1.5 Using the procedure described, surface stresses can be measured only on the “tin” side of float glass. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  8. Manufacturing and testing flexible microfluidic devices with optical and electrical detection mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, Marius G.; Vivet, Frédéric; Meinders, Erwin R.

    2010-06-01

    Flexible microfluidic devices made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) were manufactured by soft lithography, and tested in detection of ionic species using optical absorption spectroscopy and electrical measurements. PDMS was chosen due to its flexibility and ease of surface modification by exposure to plasma and UV treatment, its transparency in UV-Vis regions of the light spectrum, and biocompatibility. The dual-detection mechanism allows the user more freedom in choosing the detection tool, and a functional device was successfully tested. Optical lithography was employed for manufacturing templates, which were subsequently used for imprinting liquid PDMS by thermal curing. Gold electrodes having various widths and distances among them were patterned with optical lithography on the top part which sealed the microchannels, and the devices were employed for detection of ionic species in aqueous salt solutions as well as micro-electrolysis cells. Due to the transparency of PDMS in UV-Vis the microfluidics were also used as photoreactors, and the in-situ formed charged species were monitored by applying a voltage between electrodes. Upon addition of a colorimetric pH sensor, acid was detected with absorption spectroscopy.

  9. A novel device for accurate and efficient testing for vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maa, April Y; Feuer, William J; Davis, C Quentin; Pillow, Ensa K; Brown, Tara D; Caywood, Rachel M; Chasan, Joel E; Fransen, Stephen R

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the performance of the RETeval device, a handheld instrument using flicker electroretinography (ERG) and pupillography on undilated subjects with diabetes, to detect vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR). Performance was measured using a cross-sectional, single armed, non-interventional, multi-site study with Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study 7-standard field, stereo, color fundus photography as the gold standard. The 468 subjects were randomized to a calibration phase (80%), whose ERG and pupillary waveforms were used to formulate an equation correlating with the presence of VTDR, and a validation phase (20%), used to independently validate that equation. The primary outcome was the prevalence-corrected area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the detection of VTDR. The area under the ROC curve was 0.86 for VTDR. With a sensitivity of 83%, the specificity was 78% and the negative predictive value was 99%. The average testing time was 2.3 min. With a VTDR prevalence similar to that in the U.S., the RETeval device will identify about 75% of the population as not having VTDR with 99% accuracy. The device is simple to use, does not require pupil dilation, and has a short testing time. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Numerical and tank test of a pivoted floating device for wave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiro, Domenico P.; Calise, Giuseppe; Bizzarrini, Nadia; Troise, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a system for extracting energy from waves is presented. The present work deals with numerical and experimental tests on a scaled model, performed in the DII towing tank facility. The device is made up of a floating body, which oscillates due to waves, and of a linear electromechanical generator. The electromechanical generator, based on ball-bearing screw, is linked both to the buoyant body and a fixed frame, converting relative movements of its anchor point in electrical power. Numerical analyses on such device have been performed in order to evaluate critical parameters for the system optimization, including analytical study of the system, potential flow and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), as well. [it

  11. Use of Silicon Carbide as Beam Intercepting Device Material: Tests, Issues and Numerical Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Delonca, M; Gil Costa, M; Vacca, A

    2014-01-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) stands as one of the most promising ceramic material with respect to its thermal shock resistance and mechanical strengths. It has hence been considered as candidate material for the development of higher performance beam intercepting devices at CERN. Its brazing with a metal counterpart has been tested and characterized by means of microstructural and ultrasound techniques. Despite the positive results, its use has to be evaluated with care, due to the strong evidence in literature of large and permanent volumetric expansion, called swelling, under the effect of neutron and ion irradiation. This may cause premature and sudden failure, and can be mitigated to some extent by operating at high temperature. For this reason limited information is available for irradiation below 100°C, which is the typical temperature of interest for beam intercepting devices like dumps or collimators. This paper describes the brazing campaign carried out at CERN, the results, and the theoretical and numeric...

  12. Stress testing on silicon carbide electronic devices for prognostics and health management.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplar, Robert James; Brock, Reinhard C.; Marinella, Matthew; King, Michael Patrick; Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Power conversion systems for energy storage and other distributed energy resource applications are among the drivers of the important role that power electronics plays in providing reliable electricity. Wide band gap semiconductors such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) will help increase the performance and efficiency of power electronic equipment while condition monitoring (CM) and prognostics and health management (PHM) will increase the operational availability of the equipment and thereby make it more cost effective. Voltage and/or temperature stress testing were performed on a number of SiC devices in order to accelerate failure modes and to identify measureable shifts in electrical characteristics which may provide early indication of those failures. Those shifts can be interpreted and modeled to provide prognostic signatures for use in CM and/or PHM. Such experiments will also lead to a deeper understanding of basic device physics and the degradation mechanisms behind failure.

  13. Design, analysis, and testing of a flexure-based vibration-assisted polishing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan; Zhou, Yan; Lin, Jieqiong; Lu, Mingming; Zhang, Chenglong; Chen, Xiuyuan

    2018-05-01

    A vibration-assisted polishing device (VAPD) composed of leaf-spring and right-circular flexure hinges is proposed with the aim of realizing vibration-assisted machining along elliptical trajectories. To design the structure, energy methods and the finite-element method are used to calculate the performance of the proposed VAPD. An improved bacterial foraging optimization algorithm is used to optimize the structural parameters. In addition, the performance of the VAPD is tested experimentally. The experimental results indicate that the maximum strokes of the two directional mechanisms operating along the Z1 and Z2 directions are 29.5 μm and 29.3 μm, respectively, and the maximum motion resolutions are 10.05 nm and 10.01 nm, respectively. The maximum working bandwidth is 1,879 Hz, and the device has a good step response.

  14. Large scale testing of nitinol shape memory alloy devices for retrofitting of bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Rita; Emmanuel Maragakis, M; Saiid Saiidi, M; Padgett, Jamie E; DesRoches, Reginald

    2008-01-01

    A large scale testing program was conducted to determine the effects of shape memory alloy (SMA) restrainer cables on the seismic performance of in-span hinges of a representative multiple-frame concrete box girder bridge subjected to earthquake excitations. Another objective of the study was to compare the performance of SMA restrainers to that of traditional steel restrainers as restraining devices for reducing hinge displacement and the likelihood of collapse during earthquakes. The results of the tests show that SMA restrainers performed very well as restraining devices. The forces in the SMA and steel restrainers were comparable. However, the SMA restrainer cables had minimal residual strain after repeated loading and exhibited the ability to undergo many cycles with little strength and stiffness degradation. In addition, the hysteretic damping that was observed in the larger ground accelerations demonstrated the ability of the materials to dissipate energy. An analytical study was conducted to assess the anticipated seismic response of the test setup and evaluate the accuracy of the analytical model. The results of the analytical simulation illustrate that the analytical model was able to match the responses from the experimental tests, including peak stresses, strains, forces, and hinge openings

  15. Assessment and testing of industrial devices robustness against cyber security attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilaro, F.; Copy, B.

    2012-01-01

    CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research),like any organization, needs to achieve the conflicting objectives of connecting its operational network to Internet while at the same time keeping its industrial control systems secure from external and internal cyber attacks. Devices robustness represents a key link in the defense-in-depth concept as some attacks will inevitably penetrate security boundaries and thus require further protection measures. CERN - in collaboration with Siemens - has designed and implemented a dedicated working environment, the Test-bench for Robustness of Industrial Equipment. Such tests attempt to detect possible anomalies by exploiting corrupt communication channels and manipulating the normal behavior of the communication protocols, in the same way as a cyber attacker would proceed. Our approach consists of analyzing protocol implementations by injecting malformed PDUs (Protocol Data Unit) to corrupt the normal behaviour of the system. As a PDU typically has many fields, the number of possible syntactically faulty PDUs grows exponentially with the number of fields. In this document, we proposed a strategy to explore this huge test domain using a hybrid approach of fuzzing and syntax techniques, specifically developed to evaluate industrial device communication robustness. So far, not all the tests can be integrated into automatic tools, human analysis and management is necessary to discover and investigate specific possible failures

  16. A typological approach to testing the evolutionary functions of human female orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Robert; Belsky, Jay

    2012-10-01

    Building on previous work that identified different types of orgasm in women (King, Belsky, Mah, & Binik, 2011), the goal of the present study was to extend such typological work and determine whether female orgasmic variability tracked potentially evolutionarily salient sexual partner characteristics (e.g., those displaying possible immune-system compatibility). A total of 265 females completed an Internet survey about their orgasmic experience-achieved either with partners or alone. For partnered orgasms, they also provided details of partner characteristics and sexual behaviors. Latent class analysis revealed two orgasm types which were meaningfully distinguishable in terms of sensations and location-either centered on the surface of genitalia or deep inside. Deep orgasms were associated with internal sensations consistent with proposed functions of female orgasm in terms of differential sperm insuck. Such orgasms were associated with partners who were perceived as considerate, dominant, with a noticeably attractive smell, and as providing firm penetration. However, some hypothesized reproductively significant partner characteristics were not differentially associated with deep orgasms (i.e., muscularity, aggression, masculinity). Results were discussed and future research directions outlined. In particular, it is suggested that sexual passion between partners is a non-accidental component of sexual functioning and that this has too frequently been missing in sex research involving humans. Direct physiological measures of the results of female orgasm need to be undertaken. Additionally, the intriguing phenomenon of female ejaculation deserves scientific attention.

  17. HIV-testing among female sex workers on the border between Brazil and French Guiana: the need for targeted interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parriault, Marie-Claire; van Melle, Astrid; Basurko, Célia; Gaubert-Marechal, Emilie; Macena, Raimunda Hermelinda Maia; Rogier, Stéphanie; Kerr, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-08-01

    The border between Brazil and French Guiana is a place of economic, cultural, social and sexual exchange. Female sex workers represent a high risk population for HIV in this area where sexual tourism is particularly developed. HIV testing seems to be an important element in the fight against the epidemic. Indeed, early HIV testing gives access to treatments and prevention. An HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and practices survey was conducted in 2011 among sex workers along the border between Brazil and French Guiana. A total of 213 female sex workers were interviewed. One third (31.5%) of the interviewed had never tested for HIV. Factors associated with non HIV-testing were the lack of knowledge of places where to do an HIV test, to be 30 or older, feeling at risk of HIV, not evaluating one's own risk towards HIV, and living in Oiapoque. These results clearly suggest that targeted interventions are needed to encourage and assist female sex workers to get tested regularly.

  18. Development status of irradiation devices and instrumentation for material and nuclear fuel irradiation tests in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Goo; Sohn, Jae Min; Choo, Kee Nam [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The High flux Advanced Neutron Application ReactOr (HANARO), an open-tank-in-pool type reactor, is one of the multi-purpose research reactors in the world. Since the commencement of HANARO's operations in 1995, a significant number of experimental facilities have been developed and installed at HANARO, and continued efforts to develop more facilities are in progress. Owing to the stable operation of the reactor and its frequent utilization, more experimental facilities are being continuously added to satisfy various fields of study and diverse applications. The irradiation testing equipment for nuclear fuels and materials at HANARO can be classified into capsules and the Fuel Test Loop (FTL). Capsules for irradiation tests of nuclear fuels in HANARO have been developed for use under the dry conditions of the coolant and materials at HANARO and are now successfully utilized to perform irradiation tests. The FTL can be used to conduct irradiation testing of a nuclear fuel under the operating conditions of commercial nuclear power plants. During irradiation tests conducted using these capsules in HANARO, instruments such as the thermocouple, Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT), small heater, Fluence Monitor (F/M) and Self-Powered Neutron Detector (SPND) are used to measure various characteristics of the nuclear fuel and irradiated material. This paper describes not only the status of HANARO and the status and perspective of irradiation devices and instrumentation for carrying out nuclear fuel and material tests in HANARO but also some results from instrumentation during irradiation tests

  19. Evidence-based point-of-care tests and device designs for disaster preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, T Keith; Mecozzi, Daniel M; Sumner, Stephanie; Kost, Gerald J

    2010-01-01

    To define pathogen tests and device specifications needed for emerging point-of-care (POC) technologies used in disasters. Surveys included multiple-choice and ranking questions. Multiple-choice questions were analyzed with the chi2 test for goodness-of-fit and the binomial distribution test. Rankings were scored and compared using analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparison test. Disaster care experts on the editorial boards of the American Journal of Disaster Medicine and the Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, and the readers of the POC Journal. Vibrio cholera and Staphylococcus aureus were top-ranked pathogens for testing in disaster settings. Respondents felt that disaster response teams should be equipped with pandemic infectious disease tests for novel 2009 H1N1 and avian H5N1 influenza (disaster care, p disaster settings, respondents preferred self-contained test cassettes (disaster care, p disaster care, p disaster care scenarios, in which Vibrio cholera, methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli ranked the highest. POC testing should incorporate setting-specific design criteria such as safe disposable cassettes and direct blood sampling at the site of care.

  20. UHV testing of vacuum components and diagnostic devices, related to installation of Undulators in Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnakala, K.C.; Tiwari, S.K.; Bhange, N.J.; Yadav, D.P.; Babbar, L.K.; Netram; Sridhar, R.

    2015-01-01

    Two Insertion Devices, both planar Undulators (U1 and U2), have been successfully installed and commissioned in Indus-2, in Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. The radiation from these Undulators are expected to be 2 to 3 orders of magnitude brighter than the radiation from the Bending Magnets. As required for the installation of these Insertion Devices in Indus-2 ring, two vacuum sections (LS 2 and LS 3) were modified. Apart from the main Undulator chambers (which were procured from the Manufacturer), several other components were developed in UHVT Section and Beam Diagnostic Section, for this purpose. The components include Taper chambers, Beam Position Indicators (both Insertion Device BPI-s and Upgraded BPI-s) and RF shielded bellows.Taper chambers were needed for the smooth transition of cross-section of vacuum envelope, from the normal straight section chamber (with dimensions: 36 mm x 86 mm) to the Undulator chamber (with dimensions: 17 mm x 81 mm). These chambers were required at both entry and exit of Undulator chambers. IDBPI-s and Upgraded BPI-s were needed for the precise monitoring of electron beam position, before the entry into the Undulator and after exiting the Undulator, at various critical positions. Bellows were required to be connected at various positions, during the assembly of vacuum chambers, for the mechanical flexibility. RF shielding was mandatory inside these bellows, to provide a smooth contour of the vacuum envelope, inside these bellows. All these components were tested in the UHV Lab, and confirmed for their UHV compatibility, prior to the actual assembly in the ring. Afterwards, these components were successfully installed in Indus-2 ring, by December, 2014. This paper narrates the UHV-tests carried out, including the assembly, leak-testing, baking, pumping etc. and the results. (author)

  1. Associations of HIV Testing, Sexual Risk and Access to Prevention Among Female Sex Workers in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lisa G; Bonilla, Luis; Caballero, Tessie; Rodriguez, Martha; Dolores, Yordana; de la Rosa, Miguel Angel; Malla, Annie; Burnett, Janet; Terrero, Víctor; Martinez, Sam; Morgan, Oliver

    2017-08-01

    The Caribbean region has one of the highest proportions of HIV in the general female population attributable to sex work. In 2008 (n = 1256) and 2012 (n = 1525) in the Dominican Republic, HIV biological and behavioral surveys were conducted among female sex workers (FSW) in four provinces using respondent driven sampling. Participants were ≥15 years who engaged in intercourse in exchange for money in the past 6 months and living/working in the study province. There were no statistically significant changes in HIV and other infections prevalence from 2008 to 2012, despite ongoing risky sexual practices. HIV testing and receiving results was low in all provinces. FSW in 2012 were more likely to receive HIV testing and results if they participated in HIV related information and education and had regular checkups at health centers. Further investigation is needed to understand barriers to HIV testing and access to prevention services.

  2. Anomalous Thrust Production from an RF Test Device Measured on a Low-Thrust Torsion Pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, David; White, Harold G.; March, Paul; Lawrence, James T.; Davies, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    produce thrust. Specifically, one test article contained internal physical modifications that were designed to produce thrust, while the other did not (with the latter being referred to as the "null" test article). Test data gathered includes torsion pendulum displacement measurements which are used to calculate generated force, still imagery in the visible spectrum to document the physical configuration, still imagery in the infrared spectrum to characterize the thermal environment, and video imagery. Post-test data includes static and animated graphics produced during RF resonant cavity characterization using the COMSOL Multiphysics® software application. Excerpts from all of the above are included and discussed in this paper. Lessons learned from test integration and operations include identification of the need to replace manual control of the resonant cavity target frequency with an automated frequency control capability. Future test plans include the development of an automatic frequency control circuit. Test results indicate that the RF resonant cavity thruster design, which is unique as an electric propulsion device, is producing a force that is not attributable to any classical electromagnetic phenomenon and therefore is potentially demonstrating an interaction with the quantum vacuum virtual plasma. Future test plans include independent verification and validation at other test facilities.

  3. Accelerated life-test methods and results for implantable electronic devices with adhesive encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuechen; Denprasert, Petcharat May; Zhou, Li; Vest, Adriana Nicholson; Kohan, Sam; Loeb, Gerald E

    2017-09-01

    We have developed and applied new methods to estimate the functional life of miniature, implantable, wireless electronic devices that rely on non-hermetic, adhesive encapsulants such as epoxy. A comb pattern board with a high density of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) could be used to detect incipient failure from water vapor condensation. Inductive coupling of an RF magnetic field was used to provide DC bias and to detect deterioration of an encapsulated comb pattern. Diodes in the implant converted part of the received energy into DC bias on the comb pattern. The capacitance of the comb pattern forms a resonant circuit with the inductor by which the implant receives power. Any moisture affects both the resonant frequency and the Q-factor of the resonance of the circuitry, which was detected wirelessly by its effects on the coupling between two orthogonal RF coils placed around the device. Various defects were introduced into the comb pattern devices to demonstrate sensitivity to failures and to correlate these signals with visual inspection of failures. Optimized encapsulation procedures were validated in accelerated life tests of both comb patterns and a functional neuromuscular stimulator under development. Strong adhesive bonding between epoxy and electronic circuitry proved to be necessary and sufficient to predict 1 year packaging reliability of 99.97% for the neuromuscular stimulator.

  4. Inspection device for external examination of pressure vessels, preferably for ultrasonic testing of reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figlhuber, D.; Gallwas, J.; Weber, R.; Weber, J.

    1978-01-01

    The inspection device is placed in the annular gap between pressure vessel and biological shield of the BWR. In the annulus there is arranged at least one longitudinal rail which has got vertical guideways. Along it there can be moved on testing paths a manipulator with the ultrasonic search unit. The manipulator drive is outside of the inspection annulus. It is coupled to the manipulator by means of a tension member being guided over a reversing unit mounted at the upper end of the longitudinal rail. As a tension member there may be used a drag chain; the drive and the reversing unit are provided with corresponding chain wheels. (DG) [de

  5. Clinical Tests of Ultra-Low Vision Used to Evaluate Rudimentary Visual Perceptions Enabled by the BrainPort Vision Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, Amy; Bach, Michael; Fisher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated whether existing ultra-low vision tests are suitable for measuring outcomes using sensory substitution. The BrainPort is a vision assist device coupling a live video feed with an electrotactile tongue display, allowing a user to gain information about their surroundings. We enrolled 30 adult subjects (age range 22-74) divided into two groups. Our blind group included 24 subjects ( n = 16 males and n = 8 females, average age 50) with light perception or worse vision. Our control group consisted of six subjects ( n = 3 males, n = 3 females, average age 43) with healthy ocular status. All subjects performed 11 computer-based psychophysical tests from three programs: Basic Assessment of Light Motion, Basic Assessment of Grating Acuity, and the Freiburg Vision Test as well as a modified Tangent Screen. Assessments were performed at baseline and again using the BrainPort after 15 hours of training. Most tests could be used with the BrainPort. Mean success scores increased for all of our tests except contrast sensitivity. Increases were statistically significant for tests of light perception (8.27 ± 3.95 SE), time resolution (61.4% ± 3.14 SE), light localization (44.57% ± 3.58 SE), grating orientation (70.27% ± 4.64 SE), and white Tumbling E on a black background (2.49 logMAR ± 0.39 SE). Motion tests were limited by BrainPort resolution. Tactile-based sensory substitution devices are amenable to psychophysical assessments of vision, even though traditional visual pathways are circumvented. This study is one of many that will need to be undertaken to achieve a common outcomes infrastructure for the field of artificial vision.

  6. Liquid Acquisition Device Hydrogen Outflow Testing on the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Engineering Design Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Greg; Statham, Geoff; Garces, Rachel; Cartagena, Will

    2015-01-01

    As part of the NASA Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Engineering Design Unit (EDU) testing with liquid hydrogen, screen-channel liquid acquisition devices (LADs) were tested during liquid hydrogen outflow from the EDU tank. A stainless steel screen mesh (325x2300 Dutch T will weave) was welded to a rectangular cross-section channel to form the basic LAD channel. Three LAD channels were tested, each having unique variations in the basic design. The LADs fed a common outflow sump at the aft end of the 151 cu. ft. volume aluminum tank, and included a curved section along the aft end and a straight section along the barrel section of the tank. Wet-dry sensors were mounted inside the LAD channels to detect when vapor was ingested into the LADs during outflow. The use of warm helium pressurant during liquid hydrogen outflow, supplied through a diffuser at the top of the tank, always led to early breakdown of the liquid column. When the tank was pressurized through an aft diffuser, resulting in cold helium in the ullage, LAD column hold-times as long as 60 minutes were achieved, which was the longest duration tested. The highest liquid column height at breakdown was 58 cm, which is 23 less than the isothermal bubble-point model value of 75 cm. This paper discusses details of the design, construction, operation and analysis of LAD test data from the CPST EDU liquid hydrogen test.

  7. Results of testing the E9 multiple probe lateral logging device in deep wells in the eastern Pre-caucasus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyarchuk, A.F.; Kochetkov, V.T.; Kucherov, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    The integrated lateral logging device E9 developed for investigating deep and extra-deep wells, permitting measurement of apparent resistances by three probes at different depths, is described. It is heat and pressure resistant (up to 200/degree/C, 120 MPa). The tests showed that under certain favorable conditions the device is fairly effective.

  8. Test-retest paradigm of the forced swimming test in female mice is not valid for predicting antidepressant-like activity: participation of acetylcholine and sigma-1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jing; Hato-Yamada, Noriko; Araki, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The forced swimming test (FST) in mice is widely used to predict the antidepressant activity of a drug, but information describing the immobility of female mice is limited. We investigated whether a prior swimming experience affects the immobility duration in a second FST in female mice and whether the test-retest paradigm is a valid screening tool for antidepressants. Female ICR mice were exposed to the FST using two experimental paradigms: a single FST and a double FST in which mice had experienced FST once 24 h prior to the second trail. The initial FST experience reliably prolonged immobility duration in the second FST. The antidepressants imipramine and paroxetine significantly reduced immobility duration in the single FST, but not in the double FST. Scopolamine and the sigma-1 (σ1) antagonist NE-100 administered before the second trial significantly prevented the prolongation of immobility. Neither a 5-HT1A nor a 5-HT2A receptor agonist affected immobility duration. We suggest that the test-retest paradigm in female mice is not adequate for predicting antidepressant-like activity of a drug; the prolongation of immobility in the double FST is modulated through acetylcholine and σ1 receptors.

  9. Behavioral and Psychosocial Correlates of HIV Testing Among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J; Patterson, Thomas L; Chavarin, Claudia V; Semple, Shirley J; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Pitpitan, Eileen V

    2017-08-01

    We use data collected from a sample of 400 male clients of female sex workers (FSW) to examine their HIV testing behavior. We present frequencies of HIV testing and used bivariate and multivariable analyses to assess its socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial correlates. We found that the majority (55 %) of male clients of FSW in Tijuana, Mexico had never had an HIV test and the prevalence of HIV testing within the past year was low (9 %). In multivariable analyses, significant correlates of having ever tested for HIV were higher age, higher HIV knowledge score, lower sexual compulsiveness score, lower misogynistic attitudes score, having a condom break during sex with a FSW, and higher frequency of sex with a FSW while she was high. Our findings represent an important starting point for developing effective interventions to address the need to promote HIV testing among this population.

  10. Rapid prototyping compliant arterial phantoms for in-vitro studies and device testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biglino Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compliant vascular phantoms are desirable for in-vitro patient-specific experiments and device testing. TangoPlus FullCure 930® is a commercially available rubber-like material that can be used for PolyJet rapid prototyping. This work aims to gather preliminary data on the distensibility of this material, in order to assess the feasibility of its use in the context of experimental cardiovascular modelling. Methods The descending aorta anatomy of a volunteer was modelled in 3D from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR images and rapid prototyped using TangoPlus. The model was printed with a range of increasing wall thicknesses (0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.5 mm, keeping the lumen of the vessel constant. Models were also printed in both vertical and horizontal orientations, thus resulting in a total of ten specimens. Compliance tests were performed by monitoring pressure variations while gradually increasing and decreasing internal volume. Knowledge of distensibility was thus derived and then implemented with CMR data to test two applications. Firstly, a patient-specific compliant model of hypoplastic aorta suitable for connection in a mock circulatory loop for in-vitro tests was manufactured. Secondly, the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT of a patient necessitating pulmonary valve replacement was printed in order to physically test device insertion and assess patient’s suitability for percutaneous pulmonary valve intervention. Results The distensibility of the material was identified in a range from 6.5 × 10-3 mmHg-1 for the 0.6 mm case, to 3.0 × 10-3 mmHg-1 for the 1.5 mm case. The models printed in the vertical orientation were always more compliant than their horizontal counterpart. Rapid prototyping of a compliant hypoplastic aorta and of a RVOT anatomical model were both feasible. Device insertion in the RVOT model was successful. Conclusion Values of distensibility, compared with literature data, show that Tango

  11. Rapid prototyping compliant arterial phantoms for in-vitro studies and device testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglino, Giovanni; Verschueren, Peter; Zegels, Raf; Taylor, Andrew M; Schievano, Silvia

    2013-01-16

    Compliant vascular phantoms are desirable for in-vitro patient-specific experiments and device testing. TangoPlus FullCure 930 is a commercially available rubber-like material that can be used for PolyJet rapid prototyping. This work aims to gather preliminary data on the distensibility of this material, in order to assess the feasibility of its use in the context of experimental cardiovascular modelling. The descending aorta anatomy of a volunteer was modelled in 3D from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) images and rapid prototyped using TangoPlus. The model was printed with a range of increasing wall thicknesses (0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.5 mm), keeping the lumen of the vessel constant. Models were also printed in both vertical and horizontal orientations, thus resulting in a total of ten specimens. Compliance tests were performed by monitoring pressure variations while gradually increasing and decreasing internal volume. Knowledge of distensibility was thus derived and then implemented with CMR data to test two applications. Firstly, a patient-specific compliant model of hypoplastic aorta suitable for connection in a mock circulatory loop for in-vitro tests was manufactured. Secondly, the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) of a patient necessitating pulmonary valve replacement was printed in order to physically test device insertion and assess patient's suitability for percutaneous pulmonary valve intervention. The distensibility of the material was identified in a range from 6.5 × 10(-3) mmHg(-1) for the 0.6 mm case, to 3.0 × 10(-3) mmHg(-1) for the 1.5 mm case. The models printed in the vertical orientation were always more compliant than their horizontal counterpart. Rapid prototyping of a compliant hypoplastic aorta and of a RVOT anatomical model were both feasible. Device insertion in the RVOT model was successful. Values of distensibility, compared with literature data, show that TangoPlus is suitable for manufacturing arterial phantoms, with

  12. System for measurement and automatic regulation of gas flow within an oil aging test device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žigić Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system within an oil aging test device that serves for measurement and automatic regulation of gas flow. Following an already realized system that continuously monitors, logs, and regulates transformer oil temperature during the aging process and maintains temperature consistency within strict limits, a model of a flow meter and regulator of air or oxygen through transformer oil samples is developed. A special feature of the implemented system is the measurement of very small gas flows. A short technical description of the realized system is given with a functional block diagram. The basic technical characteristics of the system are specified, and the operating principles and application of the system are described. The paper also gives performance test results in a real exploitation environment.

  13. TASKA-M - a low cost, near term tandem mirror device for fusion technology testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badger, B.; Corradini, M.L.; El-Guebaly, L.; Emmert, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Larsen, E.M.; Maynard, C.W.; Perkins, L.J.; Peterson, R.R.; Plute, K.E.; Santarius, J.F.; Sawan, M.E.; Scharer, J.E.; Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; Sze, D.K.; Vogelsang, W.F.; Wittenberg, L.J.; Leppelmeier, G.W.; Grover, J.M.; Opperman, E.K.; Vogel, M.A.; Borie, E.; Taczanowski, S.; Arendt, F.; Dittrich, H.G.; Fett, T.; Haferkamp, B.; Heinz, W.; Hoelzchen, E.; Kleefeldt, K.; Klingelhoefer, R.; Komarek, P.; Kuntze, M.; Leiste, H.G.; Link, W.; Malang, S.; Manes, B.M.; Maurer, W.; Michael, I.; Mueller, R.A.; Neffe, G.; Schramm, K.; Suppan, A.; Weinberg, D.

    1984-04-01

    TASKA-M (Modifizierte Tandem Spiegelmaschine Karlsruhe) is a study of a dedicated fusion technology device based on the mirror principle, in continuation of the 1981/82 TASKA study. The main objective is to minimize cost while retaining key requirements of neutron flux and fluence for blanket and material development and for component testing in a nuclear environment. Direct costs are reduced to about 400 M$ by dropping reactor-relevant aspects not essential to technology testing: No thermal barrier and electrostatic plugging of the plasma; fusion power of 7 MW at an injected power of 44 MW; tritium supply from external sources. All technologies for operating the machine are expected to be available by 1990; the plasma physics relies on microstabilization in a sloshing ion population. (orig.) [de

  14. [Research of joint-robotics-based design of biomechanics testing device on human spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Guoyong; Tian, Lianfang; Mao, Zongyuan

    2009-12-01

    This paper introduces the hardware and software of a biomechanical robot-based testing device. The bottom control orders, posture and torque data transmission, and the control algorithms are integrated in a unified visual control platform by Visual C+ +, with easy control and management. By using hybrid force-displacement control method to load the human spine, we can test the organizational structure and the force state of the FSU (Functional spinal unit) well, which overcomes the shortcomings due to the separation of the force and displacement measurement, thus greatly improves the measurement accuracy. Also it is esay to identify the spinal degeneration and the load-bearing impact on the organizational structure of the FSU after various types of surgery.

  15. Factors Predicting the Physical Activity Behavior of Female Adolescents: A Test of the Health Promotion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Mohamadian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesPhysical activity behavior begins to decline during adolescence and continues to decrease throughout young adulthood. This study aims to explain factors that influence physical activity behavior in a sample of female adolescents using a health promotion model framework.MethodsThis cross-sectional survey was used to explore physical activity behavior among a sample of female adolescents. Participants completed measures of physical activity, perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem, social support, perceived barriers, and perceived affect. Interactions among the variables were examined using path analysis within a covariance modeling framework.ResultsThe final model accounted for an R2 value of 0.52 for physical activity and offered a good model-data fit. The results indicated that physical activity was predicted by self-esteem (β=0.46, p<0.001, perceived self-efficacy (β=0.40, p<0.001, social support (β=0.24, p<0.001, perceived barriers (β=-0.19, p<0.001, and perceived affect (β=0.17, p<0.001.ConclusionsThe findings of this study showed that the health promotion model was useful to predict physical activity behavior among the Iranian female adolescents. Information related to the predictors of physical activity behavior will help researchers plan more tailored culturally relevant health promotion interventions for this population.

  16. Hybrid III anthropomorphic test device (ATD) response to head impacts and potential implications for athletic headgear testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam; Benzel, Edward; Miele, Vincent; Morr, Douglas; Prakash, Vikas

    2012-09-01

    The Hybrid III 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD) is the most widely used human impact testing surrogate and has historically been used in automotive or military testing. More recently, this ATD is finding use in applications evaluating athletic helmet protectivity, quantifying head impact dosage and estimating injury risk. But ATD head-neck response has not been quantified in omnidirectional athletic-type head impacts absent axial preload. It is probable that headgear injury reduction that can be quantified in a laboratory, including in American football, boxing, hockey, lacrosse and soccer, is related to a number of interrelated kinetic and kinematic factors, such as head center of gravity linear acceleration, head angular acceleration, head angular velocity, occipito-cervical mechanics and neck stiffness. Therefore, we characterized ATD head-neck dynamic response to direct head impacts in a series of front, oblique front and lateral head impacts. Key findings were: (1) impacts producing highest ATD resultant center of gravity linear acceleration resulted in the lowest resultant occipito-cervical spine bending moment/force. (2) Resultant ATD head angular velocity and angular acceleration did not appear coupled to impact direction at lower impact energy levels; these parameters were coupled at higher energy levels. (3) The ATD had progressively increasing occipito-cervical stiffness in extension, torsion and lateral bending, respectively. Because the ATD neck influenced head and neck impact dosage parameters, testing agencies, manufacturers and researchers should consider using the Hybrid III head form attached to a neck as a means to quantify head and neck injury risks as opposed to systems that do not utilize a neck. This heightened understanding of Hybrid III ATD head-neck response, and consideration of order of stiffest axes in the lateral, oblique and extension directions, respectively, should aid in the development of head and neck injury

  17. Relationships among the Y balance test, Berg Balance Scale, and lower limb strength in middle-aged and older females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kyu Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Older females have less dynamic postural control and muscle strength than do middle-aged females. Aging-related strength losses may limit balancing performance. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of the Y Balance Test (YBT and lower limb strength to discriminate between females in 2 age groups, the relationship between YBT distance and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS, and the degree to which performance on YBT distance is related to lower limb strength in middle-aged and older females. Method: The 40 healthy, independently active females were divided into 2 groups: older and middle-aged. The participants underwent measurements of YBT distance using the YBT, maximal muscular strength of the lower limbs using a handheld dynamometer, and the BBS. Results: The YBT distance in 3 directions and lower limb muscle strength for both lower limbs were significantly lower in the older adults than in the middle-aged group. A moderate correlation but insignificant correlation was found between the YBT composite distance and the BBS score. In the older females, YBT distance was significantly positively correlated with strength of the knee flexor and hip abductor. In the middle-aged group, YBT distance was significantly positively correlated with strength of the knee flexor and hip extensor. Conclusions: Performance on the YBT was influenced by the strength of lower limb. We suggested that YBT can be used to alternative as a measurement of dynamic balance. Proper training programs for older people could include not only strengthening exercises but also YBT performance to improve balance.

  18. Field Performance versus Standard Test Condition Efficiency of Tandem Solar Cells and the Specific Case of Perovskites/Silicon Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Dupre, Olivier; Niesen, Bjö rn; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    efficiencies and calculate their energy yields using field data from Denver. We find that annual losses due to differences between operating conditions and standard test conditions are similar for single-junction and four-terminal tandem devices. The additional

  19. A neutron scattering device for void fraction measurement in channels of the RD-14M thermalhydraulics test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, P; Hussein, E M.A. [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Ingham, P J [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a neutron scattering device designed for measuring the void fraction of two-phase flow in the channels or heated sections of the RD-14M Thermalhydraulics Test Facility, located at the AECL Whiteshell Laboratories. The results of an on-line test of the device are presented. The performance of the scatterometer is assessed and is shown to be in agreement with the results inferred from other independent process-parameter measurements. (author). 2 refs., 7 figs.

  20. A proposed hardness assurance test methodology for bipolar linear circuits and devices in a space ionizing radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, R.L.; Brown, D.B.; Cohn, L.

    1997-01-01

    A hardness assurance test approach has been developed for bipolar linear circuits and devices in space. It consists of a screen for dose rate sensitivity and a characterization test method to develop the conditions for a lot acceptance test at high dose rate

  1. 75 FR 76636 - Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Child Test Dummy, Hybrid III 6-Year-Old...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... provision: ``When a motor vehicle safety standard is in effect under this chapter, a State or a political... [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0147] RIN 2127-AK34 Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Child Test Dummy, Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Weighted Child Test Dummy AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...

  2. Identifying cognitive preferences for attractive female faces: an event-related potential experiment using a study-test paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Kong, Fanchang; Chen, Hong; Jackson, Todd; Han, Li; Meng, Jing; Yang, Zhou; Gao, Jianguo; Najam ul Hasan, Abbasi

    2011-11-01

    In this experiment, sensitivity to female facial attractiveness was examined by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to attractive and unattractive female faces within a study-test paradigm. Fourteen heterosexual participants (age range 18-24 years, mean age 21.67 years) were required to judge 84 attractive and 84 unattractive face images as either "attractive" or "unattractive." They were then asked whether they had previously viewed each face in a recognition task in which 50% of the images were novel. Analyses indicated that attractive faces elicited more enhanced ERP amplitudes than did unattractive faces in judgment (N300 and P350-550 msec) and recognition (P160 and N250-400 msec and P400-700 msec) tasks on anterior locations. Moreover, longer reaction times and higher accuracy rate were observed in identifying attractive faces than unattractive faces. In sum, this research identified neural and behavioral bases related to cognitive preferences for judging and recognizing attractive female faces. Explanations for the results are that attractive female faces arouse more intense positive emotions in participants than do unattractive faces, and they also represent reproductive fitness and mating value from the evolutionary perspective. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Lessons from wet gas flow metering systems using differential measurements devices: Testing and flow modelling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazin, J.; Couput, J.P.; Dudezert, C. et al

    2005-07-01

    A significant number of wet gas meters used for high GVF and very high GVF are based on differential pressure measurements. Recent high pressure tests performed on a variety of different DP devices on different flow loops are presented. Application of existing correlations is discussed for several DP devices including Venturi meters. For Venturi meters, deviations vary from 9% when using the Murdock correlation to less than 3 % with physical based models. The use of DP system in a large domain of conditions (Water Liquid Ratio) especially for liquid estimation will require information on the WLR This obviously raises the question of the gas and liquid flow metering accuracy in wet gas meters and highlight needs to understand AP systems behaviour in wet gas flows (annular / mist / annular mist). As an example, experimental results obtained on the influence of liquid film characteristics on a Venturi meter are presented. Visualizations of the film upstream and inside the Venturi meter are shown. They are completed by film characterization. The AP measurements indicate that for a same Lockhart Martinelli parameter, the characteristics of the two phase flow have a major influence on the correlation coefficient. A 1D model is defined and the results are compared with the experiments. These results indicate that the flow regime influences the AP measurements and that a better modelling of the flow phenomena is needed even for allocation purposes. Based on that, lessons and way forward in wet gas metering systems improvement for allocation and well metering are discussed and proposed. (author) (tk)

  4. A qualitative study of secondary distribution of HIV self-test kits by female sex workers in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Maman

    Full Text Available Promoting awareness of serostatus and frequent HIV testing is especially important among high risk populations such as female sex workers (FSW and their sexual partners. HIV self-testing is an approach that is gaining ground in sub-Saharan Africa as a strategy to increase knowledge of HIV status and promote safer sexual decisions. However, little is known about self-test distribution strategies that are optimal for increasing testing access among hard-to-reach and high risk individuals. We conducted a qualitative study with 18 FSW who participated in a larger study that provided them with five oral fluid-based self-tests, training on how to use the tests, and encouragement to offer the self-tests to their sexual partners using their discretion. Women demonstrated agency in the strategies they used to introduce self-tests to their partners and to avoid conflict with partners. They carefully considered with whom to share self-tests, often assessing the possibility for negative reactions from partners as part of their decision making process. When women faced negative reactions from partners, they drew on strategies they had used before to avoid conflict and physical harm from partners, such as not responding to angry partners and forgoing payment to leave angry partners quickly. Some women also used self-tests to make more informed sexual decisions with their partners.

  5. Test-re-test reliability and inter-rater reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer in young, healthy males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, Chris; Egerton, Tim; Skinner, Brendon

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer (DPI) for measuring sagittal plane pelvic tilt in 18 young, healthy males and females. Method. The inter-rater reliability and test-re-test reliabilities of the DPI for measuring pelvic tilt in standing on both the right and left sides of the pelvis were measured by two raters carrying out two rating sessions of the same subjects, three weeks apart. Results. For measuring pelvic tilt, inter-rater reliability was designated as good on both sides (ICC = 0.81-0.88), test-re-test reliability within a single rating session was designated as good on both sides (ICC = 0.88-0.95), and test-re-test reliability between two rating sessions was designated as moderate on the left side (ICC = 0.65) and good on the right side (ICC = 0.85). Conclusion. Inter-rater reliability and test-re-test reliability within a single rating session of the DPI in measuring pelvic tilt were both good, while test-re-test reliability between rating sessions was moderate-to-good. Caution is required regarding the interpretation of the test-re-test reliability within a single rating session, as the raters were not blinded. Further research is required to establish validity.

  6. IN VITRO TESTING – AN ESENTIAL METHOD FOR EVALUATING THE PERFORMANCE OF DENTAL MATERIALS AND DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca VIŢALARIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentistry is unique among biomaterials specialties as to the large variety of materials used, and nature of the challenges they must resist. Intra-oral service demands materials adapted to a warm and moist environment, resisting the attack of digestive acids and enzymes. The materials subjected to mechanical forces should preserve their strength, fatigue and wear characteristics, for accomplishing their function. The wide range of materials available for restorative dentistry demands knowledge of their relative strengths and trade-offs, and offers the opportunity for many interesting lines of research. The spectrum extensively ranges from elastic impression materials to extremely stiff metal and ceramic appliances, so that familiarity with a variety of mechanical testing situations is required from a well-rounded dental materials laboratory. Evaluating the mechanical and wear characteristics of dental restorative materials and analyzing the durability of adhesives is critical to the development of improved dental devices

  7. Modeling and Experimental Tests of a Mechatronic Device to Measure Road Profiles Considering Impact Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza, A.; Santos, Ilmar

    2002-01-01

    of a vehicle and to test its components in laboratory. In this framework a mechanism to measure road profiles is designed and presented. Such a mechanism is composed of two rolling wheels and two long beams attached to the vehicles by means of four Kardan joints. The wheels are kept in contact to the ground...... to highlight that the aim of this device is to independently measure two road profiles, without the influence of the vehicle dynamics where the mechanism is attached. Before the mechatronic mechanism is attached to a real vehicle, its dynamic behavior must be known. A theoretical analysis of the mechanism...... predicts well the mechanism movements. However it was also experimentally observed that the contact between the wheels and the road profile is not permanent. To analyze the non-contact between the wheels and the road, the Newton-Euler´s Method is used to calculate forces and moments of reactions between...

  8. Mirror Fusion Test Facility: an intermediate device to a mirror fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) now under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory represents more than an order-of-magnitude step from earlier magnetic-mirror experiments toward a future mirror fusion reactor. In fact, when the device begins operating in 1986, the Lawson criteria of ntau = 10 14 cm -3 .s will almost be achieved for D-T equivalent operation, thus signifying scientific breakeven. Major steps have been taken to develop MFTF-B technologies for tandem mirrors. Steady-state, high-field, superconducting magnets at reactor-revelant scales are used in the machine. The 30-s beam pulses, ECRH, and ICRH will also introduce steady-state technologies in those systems

  9. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Tire Tread Block Friction Characteristics Based on a New Test Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new device was developed for tire tread block slip friction tests. Then the friction characteristics were investigated under different loads and contact roads. Based on this, a friction model for contact between tire tread block and different road surfaces was developed. A finite element slip friction model of rubber block was developed for studying the tread contact stress, stiffness under different pattern slope angles, and ditch radius. Results indicate that friction coefficient between tread and ice road increases when the temperature decreases; different tread patterns have a certain influence on the friction coefficient; its average difference was less than 10%. Different roads impact the coefficient of friction more significantly; the greater the pattern slope, the greater the radial stiffness.

  10. Electrostatic protocol treatment lens. The purpose of this device is to transport Antiprotons from the new ELENA storage beam to all AD experiments. The electrostatic device was successfully tested in ASACUSA two weeks ago.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    Electrostatic protocol treatment lens. The purpose of this device is to transport Antiprotons from the new ELENA storage beam to all AD experiments. The electrostatic device was successfully tested in ASACUSA two weeks ago.

  11. Deformable microparticles with multiple functions for drug delivery and device testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thula, Taili T.

    Since the HIV epidemic of the 1990s, researchers have attempted to develop a red blood cell analog. Even though some of these substitutes are now in Phase III of clinical trials, their use is limited by side effects and short half-life in the human body. As a result, there is still a need for an effective erythrocyte analog with minimum immunogenic and side effects, so that it can be used for multiple applications. Finding new approaches to develop more efficient blood substitutes will not only bring valuable advances in the clinical approach, but also in the area of in vitro testing of medical devices. We examined the feasibility of creating a deformable multi-functional, biodegradable, biocompatible particle for applications in drug delivery and device testing. As a preliminary evaluation, we synthesized different types of microcapsules using natural and synthetic polymers, various cross-linking agents, and diverse manufacturing techniques. After fully characterizing of each system, we determined the most promising red blood cell analog in terms of deformability, stability and toxicity. We also examined the encapsulation and release of bovine serum albumin (BSA) within these deformable particles. After removal of cross-linkers, zinc- and copper-alginate microparticles surrounded by multiple polyelectrolyte layers of chitosan oligosaccharide and alginate were deformable and remained stable under physiological pressures applied by the micropipette technique. In addition, multiple coatings decreased toxicity of heavy-metal crosslinked particles. BSA encapsulation and release from chitosan-alginate microspheres were contingent on the crosslinker and number of polyelectrolyte coatings, respectively. Further rheological studies are needed to determine how closely these particles simulate the behavior of erythrocytes. Also, studies on the encapsulation and release of different proteins, including hemoglobin, are needed to establish the desired controlled release of

  12. Smart device-based testing for medical students in Korea: satisfaction, convenience, and advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Young Lim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate respondents’ satisfaction with smart device-based testing (SBT, as well as its convenience and advantages, in order to improve its implementation. The survey was conducted among 108 junior medical students at Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Korea, who took a practice licensing examination using SBT in September 2015. The survey contained 28 items scored using a 5-point Likert scale. The items were divided into the following three categories: satisfaction with SBT administration, convenience of SBT features, and advantages of SBT compared to paper-and-pencil testing or computer-based testing. The reliability of the survey was 0.95. Of the three categories, the convenience of the SBT features received the highest mean (M score (M= 3.75, standard deviation [SD]= 0.69, while the category of satisfaction with SBT received the lowest (M= 3.13, SD= 1.07. No statistically significant differences across these categories with respect to sex, age, or experience were observed. These results indicate that SBT was practical and effective to take and to administer.

  13. Standard practices for verification of displacement measuring systems and devices used in material testing machines

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 These practices cover procedures and requirements for the calibration and verification of displacement measuring systems by means of standard calibration devices for static and quasi-static testing machines. This practice is not intended to be complete purchase specifications for testing machines or displacement measuring systems. Displacement measuring systems are not intended to be used for the determination of strain. See Practice E83. 1.2 These procedures apply to the verification of the displacement measuring systems associated with the testing machine, such as a scale, dial, marked or unmarked recorder chart, digital display, etc. In all cases the buyer/owner/user must designate the displacement-measuring system(s) to be verified. 1.3 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems m...

  14. Iodine based radiopacity of experimental blood clots for testing of mechanical thrombectomy devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Zhong Hua; Chung, Alex; Choi, Gibok; Lin, Yih Huie; Pang, Huajin; Uchida, Barry T.; Pavcnik, Dusan; Jeromel, Miran; Keller, Frederick S.; Rösch, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Barium sulfate powder used for radiopacity of experimental blood clots (EBCs) for testing mechanical thrombectomy devices (MTD) has negative effects on EBCs mechanical properties. In vitro and in vivo exploration was performed to determine if the iodine based contrast medium will have less negative effects on the EBCs than barium. Fresh blood from 2 swine was used to create fibrinogen enhanced and thrombin initiated EBC in tubes. Iodine radiopacity was achieved by mixing the blood with 65% Iohexol or by soaking the EBCs for 2 or 24 hours in Iohexol. The EBCs opacified with barium served as controls. In vitro study: The EBCs were subjected to four tests, manual elongation, catheter injection, radiopacity and contrast wash out tests. In vivo study: The common carotid arteries of 2 swine were embolized by either barium EBC or EBC soaked for 24 hours in Iohexol. The duration of radiopacity of the different EBCs was compared. The EBCs opacified with Iohexol initially had higher radiopacity than the barium opacified EBCs. However, their opacity rapidly decreased with saline soaking and, particularly, after they were embolized in live animals. The mechanical properties of Iohexol opacified EBCs were inferior to barium opacified EBCs. The Iohexol mixed EBCs were less firm and elastic and half of them fragmented during catheter injection. The Iohexol soaked EBCs exhibited decreased tensile strength and elasticity compared to the barium EBCs. Compared to barium, iodine based contrast medium does not offer any advantage for opacifying EBCs

  15. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2 and Its Relationship With Other Typical Soccer Field Tests in Female Collegiate Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Jalilvand, Farzad; Moreno, Matthew R; Orjalo, Ashley J; Risso, Fabrice G; Nimphius, Sophia

    2017-10-01

    The ability to complete high-intensity running is essential for soccer. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2 (YYIRT2) can measure this capacity, but there is limited information regarding this assessment in collegiate female soccer players. This study investigated the YYIRT2 as a measure of high-intensity running in this population, and its relationship to other soccer field tests. Twenty-one players from a Division I team were recruited. In addition to the YYIRT2, subjects completed linear (0-5, 0-10, and 0-30 m sprint intervals) and change-of-direction (pro-agility and 60-yard shuttle) speed tests, as well as the YYIRT Level 1 (YYIRT1), to assess relationships with YYIRT2 by correlations (p ≤ 0.05). The correlation of YYIRT1 with the speed tests was also assessed. The YYIRT1 and YYIRT2 were standardized using z-scores for comparison with elite benchmarks to investigate relative performance on each test. The YYIRT2 and YYIRT1 distances did not significantly correlate with those of the speed tests (r = -0.251 to 0.274). There was a large relationship between YYIRT2 and YYIRT1 distances (r = 0.582), although the explained variance was low (33.87%). Mean YYIRT2 z-scores (-4.29 ± 1.66) indicated a performance further from elite benchmarks than those of the YYIRT1 (-1.92 ± 1.61), and 90.5% (19 of 21) subjects performed relatively better in the YYIRT1 than YYIRT2. The YYIRT2 provided a more specific measure of high-intensity running to that of the YYIRT1 in collegiate female soccer players. Coaches may consider using the YYIRT2 to gauge and track progress of high-intensity running capabilities and create training programs to improve this ability in female players.

  16. Male and female WorldSID and post mortem human subject responses in full-scale vehicle tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John; Pintar, Frank; Rhule, Heather; Moorhouse, Kevin; Suntay, Brian; Stricklin, Jim; Rudd, Rodney; Craig, Matthew

    2017-05-29

    This study compares the responses of male and female WorldSID dummies with post mortem human subject (PMHS) responses in full-scale vehicle tests. Tests were conducted according to the FMVSS-214 protocols and using the U.S. Side Impact New Car Assessment Program change in velocity to match PMHS experiments, published earlier. Moving deformable barrier (MDB) tests were conducted with the male and female surrogates in the left front and left rear seats. Pole tests were performed with the male surrogate in the left front seat. Three-point belt restraints were used. Sedan-type vehicles were used from the same manufacturer with side airbags. The PMHS head was instrumented with a pyramid-shaped nine-axis accelerometer package, with angular velocity transducers on the head. Accelerometers and angular velocity transducers were secured to T1, T6, and T12 spinous processes and sacrum. Three chest bands were secured around the upper, middle, and lower thoraces. Dummy instrumentation included five infrared telescoping rods for assessment of chest compression (IR-TRACC) and a chest band at the first abdomen rib, head angular velocity transducer, and head, T1, T4, T12, and pelvis accelerometers. Morphological responses of the kinematics of the head, thoracic spine, and pelvis matched in both surrogates for each pair. The peak magnitudes of the torso accelerations were lower for the dummy than for the biological surrogate. The brain rotational injury criterion (BrIC) response was the highest in the male dummy for the MDB test and PMHS. The probability of AIS3+ injuries, based on the head injury criterion, ranged from 3% to 13% for the PMHS and from 3% to 21% for the dummy from all tests. The BrIC-based metrics ranged from 0 to 21% for the biological and 0 to 48% for the dummy surrogates. The deflection profiles from the IR-TRACC sensors were unimodal. The maximum deflections from the chest band placed on the first abdominal rib were 31.7 mm and 25.4 mm for the male and female

  17. Motivators and barriers to HIV testing among street-based female sex workers in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth J; Maman, Suzanne; Dudina, Victoria I; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael

    2017-07-01

    Female sex workers are particularly susceptible to HIV-infection in Russia. However, a dearth of information exists on their utilisation of HIV services. A mixed-methods, cross-sectional study was conducted to examine motivators and barriers to HIV testing among street-based sex workers in St. Petersburg, Russia. The health belief model was the theoretical framework for the study. Twenty-nine sex workers participated in in-depth interviews, and 139 sex workers completed interviewer-administered surveys between February and September 2009. Barriers to getting an HIV test were fear of learning the results, worrying that other people would think they were sick, and the distance needed to travel to obtain services. Motivators for getting tested were protecting others from infection, wanting to know one's status and getting treatment if diagnosed. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that knowing people living with HIV [aOR = 6.75, 95% CI (1.11, 41.10)] and length of time since start of injection drug use [aOR = 0.30, 95% CI (0.09, 0.97)] were significantly associated with recently getting tested. These results are important to consider when developing public health interventions to help female sex workers in Russia learn their HIV status and get linked to care and treatment services if needed.

  18. Design and testing of an innovative measurement device for tyre-road contact forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheli, F.; Braghin, F.; Brusarosco, M.; Mancosu, F.; Sabbioni, E.

    2011-08-01

    The measurement of tyre-road contact forces is the first step towards the development of new control systems for improving vehicle safety and performances. Tyre-road contact forces measurement systems are very expensive and significantly modify the unsprung masses of the vehicle as well as the rotational inertia of the tyres. Thus, vehicle dynamics results are significantly affected. As a consequence, the measured contact forces do not correspond to the contact forces under real working conditions. A new low-cost tyre-road contact forces measurement system is proposed in this paper that can be applied to passenger cars. Its working principle is based on the measurement of three deformations of the wheel rim through strain gauges. The tyre-rim assembly is thus turned into a sensor for tyre-road contact forces. The influence of the strain gauges position onto the measurement results has been assessed through finite element simulations and experimental tests. It has been proven that, for a large variety of rims, the strain gauge position that leads to high signal-to-noise ratios is almost the same. A dynamic calibration procedure has been developed in order to allow the reconstruction of contact force and torque components once per wheel turn. The capability of the developed device to correctly estimate tyre-road contact forces has been assessed, in a first stage, through indoor laboratory experimental test on an MTS Flat-Trac ® testing machine. Results show that the implemented measuring system allows to reconstruct contact forces once per wheel turn with a precision that is comparable to that of existing high-cost measurement systems. Subsequently, outdoor tests with a vehicle having all four wheels equipped with the developed measuring device have also been performed. Reliability of the measurements provided by the developed sensor has been assessed by comparing the global measured longitudinal/lateral forces and the product of the measured longitudinal

  19. Application of Docker Swarm cluster for testing programs, developed for system of devices within paradigm of Internet of things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shichkina, Y. A.; Kupriyanov, M. S.; Moldachev, S. O.

    2018-05-01

    Today, a description of various Internet devices very often appears on the Internet. For the efficient operation of the Industrial Internet of things, it is necessary to provide a modern level of data processing starting from getting them from devices ending with returning them to devices in a processed form. Current solutions of the Internet of Things are mainly focused on the development of centralized decisions, projecting the Internet of Things on the set of cloud-based platforms that are open, but limit the ability of participants of the Internet of Things to adapt these systems to their own problems. Therefore, it is often necessary to create specialized software for specific areas of the Internet of Things. This article describes the solution of the problem of virtualization of the system of devices based on the Docker system. This solution allows developers to test any software on any number of devices forming a mesh.

  20. Testing objective measures of motor impairment in early Parkinson's disease: Feasibility study of an at-home testing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Christopher G; Stebbins, Glenn T; Wolff, David; DeLeeuw, William; Bronte-Stewart, Helen; Elble, Rodger; Hallett, Mark; Nutt, John; Ramig, Lorraine; Sanger, Terence; Wu, Allan D; Kraus, Peter H; Blasucci, Lucia M; Shamim, Ejaz A; Sethi, Kapil D; Spielman, Jennifer; Kubota, Ken; Grove, Andrew S; Dishman, Eric; Taylor, C Barr

    2009-03-15

    We tested the feasibility of a computer based at-home testing device (AHTD) in early-stage, unmedicated Parkinson's disease (PD) patients over 6 months. We measured compliance, technical reliability, and patient satisfaction to weekly assessments of tremor, small and large muscle bradykinesia, speech, reaction/movement times, and complex motor control. relative to the UPDRS motor score. The AHTD is a 6.5'' x 10'' computerized assessment battery. Data are stored on a USB memory stick and sent by internet to a central data repository as encrypted data packets. Although not designed or powered to measure change, the study collected data to observe patterns relative to UPDRS motor scores. Fifty-two PD patients enrolled, and 50 completed the 6 month trial, 48 remaining without medication. Patients complied with 90.6% of weekly 30-minute assessments, and 98.5% of data packets were successfully transmitted and decrypted. On a 100-point scale, patient satisfaction with the program at study end was 87.2 (range: 80-100). UPDRS motor scores significantly worsened over 6 months, and trends for worsening over time occurred for alternating finger taps (P = 0.08), tremor (P = 0.06) and speech (P = 0.11). Change in tremor was a significant predictor of change in UPDRS (P = 0.047) and was detected in the first month of the study. This new computer-based technology offers a feasible format for assessing PD-related impairment from home. The high patient compliance and satisfaction suggest the feasibility of its incorporation into larger clinical trials, especially when travel is difficult and early changes or frequent data collection are considered important to document.

  1. Testing and ground calibration of DREAMS-H relative humidity device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzer, Maria; Hieta, Maria; Nikkanen, Timo; Schmidt, Walter; Kemppinen, Osku; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri

    2015-04-01

    DREAMS (Dust Characterization, Risk Assessment and Environmental Analyzer on the Martian Surface) instrument suite is to be launched as part of the ESA ExoMars 2016/Schiaparelli lander. DREAMS consists of an environmental package for monitoring temperature, pressure, relative humidity, winds and dust opacity, as well as atmospheric electricity of Martian atmosphere. The DREAMS instruments and scientific goals are described in [1]. Here we describe testing and ground calibration of the relative humidity device, DREAMS-H, provided to the DREAMS payload by the Finnish Meteorological Institute and based on proprietary technology of Vaisala, Inc. The same kind of device is part of the REMS instrument package onboard MSL Curiosity Rover [2][3]. DREAMS-H is based on Vaisala Humicap® technology adapted for use in Martian environment by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The device is very small and lightweighed, with total mass less than 20 g and consuming only 15 mW of power. The Humicap® sensor heads contain an active polymer film that changes its capacitance as function of relative humidity, with 0% to 100% RH measurement range. The dynamic range of the device gets smaller with sensor temperature, being in -70°C approximately 30% of the dynamic range in 0°C [3]. Good-quality relative humidity measurements require knowing the temperature of the environment in which relative humidity is measured. An important part of DREAMS-H calibration was temperature calibration of Vaisala Thermocap® temperature sensors used for housekeeping temperature measurements of the DREAMS-H device. For this, several temperature points in the desired operational range were measured with 0.1°C accuracy traceable to national standards. The main part of humidity calibration of DREAMS-H flight models was done in subzero temperatures in a humidity generator of the Finnish Center of Metrology and Accreditation (MIKES). Several relative humidity points ranging from almost dry to almost wet

  2. Evaluation of the FTA carrier device for human papillomavirus testing in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Paula; Cortes, Bernal; Quint, Wim; Kreimer, Aimée R; Porras, Carolina; Rodríguez, Ana Cecilia; Jimenez, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Struijk, Linda; Hildesheim, Allan; Melchers, Willem

    2012-12-01

    Liquid-based methods for the collection, transportation, and storage of cervical cells are cumbersome and expensive and involve laborious DNA extraction. An FTA cartridge is a solid carrier device, easier to handle and allowing simple DNA elution for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. HPV-DNA results from cervical specimens collected in PreservCyt medium (Hologic, Inc.) and the indicating FTA elute cartridge were compared in an area where transportation and storage may affect the performance of the test. Cervical cells from 319 young adult women enrolled in the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial were collected by a nurse using a Cervex brush (Roberts), which was placed on the FTA cartridge and subsequently rinsed in 20 ml of PreservCyt medium. Two 0.5-ml PreservCyt aliquots were frozen for HPV-PCR testing; the FTA cartridges were kept at room temperature. HPV-DNA detection and typing was performed using SPF(10) PCR/DEIA (DNA enzyme immunoassay detection of amplimers)/LiPA(25) system. The percent agreement, agreement among positives, and kappas were estimated. Positivity was higher for FTA compared to PreservCyt specimens (54.5% versus 45.8%, P FTA collection for HPV testing. HPV-DNA detection from FTA cartridges is broadly comparable to detection from PC medium. The higher HPV detection observed for FTA-collected specimens should be explored further. FTA cartridges could provide a simpler and more cost-effective method for cervical cell collection, storage, and transportation for HPV-DNA detection in research settings in developing countries.

  3. Optical devices for proximity operations study and test report. [intensifying images for visual observation during space transportation system activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Operational and physical requirements were investigated for a low-light-level viewing device to be used as a window-mounted optical sight for crew use in the pointing, navigating, stationkeeping, and docking of space vehicles to support space station operations and the assembly of large structures in space. A suitable prototype, obtained from a commercial vendor, was subjected to limited tests to determine the potential effectiveness of a proximity optical device in spacecraft operations. The constructional features of the device are discussed as well as concepts for its use. Tests results show that a proximity optical device is capable of performing low-light-level viewing services and will enhance manned spacecraft operations.

  4. Radiation Test Results on COTS and non-COTS Electronic Devices for NASA-JSC Space Flight Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allums, Kimberly K.; O'Neill, P. M.; Reddell, B. D.; Nguyen, K. V.; Bailey, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation reports the results of recent proton and heavy ion Single Event Effect (SEE) testing on a variety of COTS and non-COTs electronic devices and assemblies tested for the Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV).

  5. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart F of... - Method for Testing Recovery Devices for Use With Small Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for Use With Small Appliances C Appendix C to Subpart F of Part 82 Protection of Environment... Recovery Devices for Use With Small Appliances Recovery Efficiency Test Procedure for Refrigerant Recovery Equipment Used on Small Appliances The following test procedure is utilized to evaluate the efficiency of...

  6. EquiMar : Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCombes, T; Johnstone, C.; Holmes, B.

    At present no common practices are adopted to assess the performance and operational characteristics of conceptual and small prototype wave and tidal energy devices when tested within controlled laboratory environments. Information acquired from this early stage assessment may be used to secure...... development funding or promote a specific wave or tidal energy device. Since no standards exist, the data produced may be misinterpreted or inaccurately presented, which in turn may lead to failure to live up to performance expectations, as devices scale up in size. This report aims to identify limitations...

  7. EquiMar : Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCombes, T; Johnstone, C.; Holmes, B.

    At present no common practices are adopted to assess the performance and operational characteristics of conceptual and small prototype wave and tidal energy devices when tested within controlled laboratory environments. Information acquired from this early stage assessment may be used to secure...... development funding or promote a specific wave or tidal energy device. Since no standards exist, the data produced may be misinterpreted or inaccurately presented, which in turn may lead to failure to live up to performance expectations, as devices scale up in size. This report builds on Deliverable 3.3 which...

  8. Deposited power in a complex device by gamma radiation of test reactors; experiments and calculations carried out at SILOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitcolas, H.; Besson, A.; Bevilacqua, A.; Cosoli, G.

    1984-09-01

    Eight samples, which represent different materials used in testing reactors, were irradiated in the device ''CYRANO'' placed in the water reflector at different distances from the reactor core. The power dissipated in the device was measured by the ''CYRANO'' equipment itself, whereas the calorimeter juxtaposed served to monitor the gamma flux. Parallel to each experiment, the power deposited in the samples, the device materials and the calorimeter was calculated by the code MERCURE 4. The measured values were compared with the calculated ones, both in relative and in absolute values, for each sample and for each distance in the reflector. The comparison shows very good agreement [fr

  9. Experiments on crushed salt consolidation with true triaxial testing device as a contribution to an EC Benchmark exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korthaus, E.

    1998-10-01

    The description of a Benchmark laboratory test on crushed salt consolidation is given that was performed twice with the true triaxial testing device developed by INE. The test was defined as an anisothermal hydrostatic multi-step test, with six creeping periods, and 45 days total duration. In the repetition test, an additional technique was applied for the first time in order to further reduce wall friction effects in the triaxial device. In both tests the sample strains were measured with high precision, allowing a reliable determination of the consolidation rates during the creeping periods. Changes in consolidation rates during load reductions were used to calculate the stress exponent of the constitutive model. Elastic compression moduli were determined at three compaction stages in the first test with the use of fast stress changes. The test results are compared with the model calculations performed by INE before the test under the Benchmark project. A preliminary comparison of the test results with those of the other participants is given. The comparison of the results of both tests shows that wall friction has only a moderate effect in the measurements with the true triaxial device. (orig.) [de

  10. High Pressure Hydrogen Pressure Relief Devices: Accelerated Life Testing and Application Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, William J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rivkin, Carl H. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-06

    Pressure relief devices (PRDs ) are used to protect high pressure systems from burst failure caused by overpressurization. Codes and standards require the use of PRDs for the safe design of many pressurized systems. These systems require high reliability due to the risks associated with a burst failure. Hydrogen service can increase the risk of PRD failure due to material property degradation caused by hydrogen attack. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has conducted an accelerated life test on a conventional spring loaded PRD. Based on previous failures in the field, the nozzles specific to these PRDs are of particular interest. A nozzle in a PRD is a small part that directs the flow of fluid toward the sealing surface to maintain the open state of the valve once the spring force is overcome. The nozzle in this specific PRD is subjected to the full tensile force of the fluid pressure. These nozzles are made from 440C material, which is a type of hardened steel that is commonly chosen for high pressure applications because of its high strength properties. In a hydrogen environment, however, 440C is considered a worst case material since hydrogen attack results in a loss of almost all ductility and thus 440C is prone to fatigue and material failure. Accordingly, 440C is not recommended for hydrogen service. Conducting an accelerated life test on a PRD with 440C material provides information on necessary and sufficient conditions required to produce crack initiation and failure. The accelerated life test also provides information on other PRD failure modes that are somewhat statistically random in nature.

  11. Perceptions of Iranian Female Drug Users Toward HIV Testing: A Qualitative Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidimanesh, Mansoureh; Khoie, Effat Merghati; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Keramat, Afsaneh; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan

    Drug-dependent women are the vulnerable population deprived of access to health services and also have particular relevance to public health perspective because they are important bridge population for driving HIV/AIDS epidemic. This qualitative study aimed to explore the perception of drug-dependent women regarding HIV testing. In this qualitative study, we approached 23 women with substance use disorders in 2 of the selected drop-in centers in the south Tehran. Focus group discussion, face-to-face semistructured interviews, and field notes were used to collect the data. Qualitative content analysis was used to extract the explanatory model of women's perceptions about HIV testing. Four main themes emerged from the data: forgotten health during use, having misconception, and sharing of sexual partner in secrecy and concerns. Seven subthemes were extracted, including not being sex worker, point of ruin, voluntary selection and concerns about fear of abandonment and fear of loss and death, double concern, and future of children. Beliefs and values of drug-dependent women can be positive points leading them to do an HIV test, and misconceptions of these women would be corrected by using safe behavioral skills training.

  12. Female mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA mice exhibit hyperactivity and a reduced sense of danger in the open field test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Langford-Smith

    Full Text Available Reliable behavioural tests in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases allow us to study the natural history of disease and evaluate the efficacy of novel therapies. Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA or Sanfilippo A, is a severe, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the heparan sulphate catabolising enzyme, sulfamidase. Undegraded heparan sulphate accumulates, resulting in lysosomal enlargement and cellular dysfunction. Patients suffer a progressive loss of motor and cognitive function with severe behavioural manifestations and premature death. There is currently no treatment. A spontaneously occurring mouse model of the disease has been described, that has approximately 3% of normal enzyme activity levels. Behavioural phenotyping of the MPS IIIA mouse has been previously reported, but the results are conflicting and variable, even after full backcrossing to the C57BL/6 background. Therefore we have independently backcrossed the MPS IIIA model onto the C57BL/6J background and evaluated the behaviour of male and female MPS IIIA mice at 4, 6 and 8 months of age using the open field test, elevated plus maze, inverted screen and horizontal bar crossing at the same circadian time point. Using a 60 minute open field, we have demonstrated that female MPS IIIA mice are hyperactive, have a longer path length, display rapid exploratory behaviour and spend less time immobile than WT mice. Female MPS IIIA mice also display a reduced sense of danger and spend more time in the centre of the open field. There were no significant differences found between male WT and MPS IIIA mice and no differences in neuromuscular strength were seen with either sex. The altered natural history of behaviour that we observe in the MPS IIIA mouse will allow more accurate evaluation of novel therapeutics for MPS IIIA and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders.

  13. Female mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA mice exhibit hyperactivity and a reduced sense of danger in the open field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Langford-Smith, Kia J; Jones, Simon A; Wynn, Robert F; Wraith, J E; Wilkinson, Fiona L; Bigger, Brian W

    2011-01-01

    Reliable behavioural tests in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases allow us to study the natural history of disease and evaluate the efficacy of novel therapies. Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA or Sanfilippo A), is a severe, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the heparan sulphate catabolising enzyme, sulfamidase. Undegraded heparan sulphate accumulates, resulting in lysosomal enlargement and cellular dysfunction. Patients suffer a progressive loss of motor and cognitive function with severe behavioural manifestations and premature death. There is currently no treatment. A spontaneously occurring mouse model of the disease has been described, that has approximately 3% of normal enzyme activity levels. Behavioural phenotyping of the MPS IIIA mouse has been previously reported, but the results are conflicting and variable, even after full backcrossing to the C57BL/6 background. Therefore we have independently backcrossed the MPS IIIA model onto the C57BL/6J background and evaluated the behaviour of male and female MPS IIIA mice at 4, 6 and 8 months of age using the open field test, elevated plus maze, inverted screen and horizontal bar crossing at the same circadian time point. Using a 60 minute open field, we have demonstrated that female MPS IIIA mice are hyperactive, have a longer path length, display rapid exploratory behaviour and spend less time immobile than WT mice. Female MPS IIIA mice also display a reduced sense of danger and spend more time in the centre of the open field. There were no significant differences found between male WT and MPS IIIA mice and no differences in neuromuscular strength were seen with either sex. The altered natural history of behaviour that we observe in the MPS IIIA mouse will allow more accurate evaluation of novel therapeutics for MPS IIIA and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders.

  14. Standard Practice for Minimizing Dosimetry Errors in Radiation Hardness Testing of Silicon Electronic Devices Using Co-60 Sources

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers recommended procedures for the use of dosimeters, such as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's), to determine the absorbed dose in a region of interest within an electronic device irradiated using a Co-60 source. Co-60 sources are commonly used for the absorbed dose testing of silicon electronic devices. Note 1—This absorbed-dose testing is sometimes called “total dose testing” to distinguish it from “dose rate testing.” Note 2—The effects of ionizing radiation on some types of electronic devices may depend on both the absorbed dose and the absorbed dose rate; that is, the effects may be different if the device is irradiated to the same absorbed-dose level at different absorbed-dose rates. Absorbed-dose rate effects are not covered in this practice but should be considered in radiation hardness testing. 1.2 The principal potential error for the measurement of absorbed dose in electronic devices arises from non-equilibrium energy deposition effects in the vicinity o...

  15. Design and test of 4πβ-γ coincidence measurement device based on DSP technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Herong; Feng Qijie; Leng Jun; Qian Dazhi; Bai Lixin; Zhang Yiyun

    2012-01-01

    The paper illustrates the hardware and software of the 4πβ-γ coincidence measurement device based on DSP technology in detail. In such device, the single-channel analyzer, gate generator, coincidence circuit and scalar in the traditional coincidence measurement device are replaced by the digital coincidence acquirer which is researched and manufactured by ourselves. Doing so, the measurement efficiency will be respectively improved, and the hardware cost will be lowered. The comparison experiment shows that the design of such device is a success. (authors)

  16. Design and construction of engineering test device of a multi-purpose radwaste incineration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peiyi; Zhou Lianquan; Ma Mingxie; Qiu Mingcai; Yang Liguo; Li Xiaohai; Zhang Xiaobin; Lu Xiaowu; Dong Jingling; Wang Xujin; Li Chuanlian; Yang Baomin

    2002-01-01

    The author describes designs of main un-standard devices, monitoring system and safety system, as well as construction of the engineering system devices for a multi-purpose radwaste incineration system. Un-standard devices include waste crusher, pyrolysis furnace, incinerator furnace, cool stream dilution device and bag filter, etc. The monitoring system mainly includes industrial controlled computer, supported by conventional electrical equipment and instruments. Designs of system safety takes account of containment of radioactive materials fire-prevention, explosion prevention, anti-corrosion, redundance and reservation, emergency system, controlling and electric safety system, etc. Results show that main technological system remains good airtight with leakage ratio at 0.67%

  17. Analysis of Gauntlet Test Performance and Injury Risk in Intercollegiate Division I Female Soccer (Football) Players: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Brandon M; Zimney, Kory; Schweinle, William E

    2017-11-01

    Injury risk factors and relevant assessments have been identified in women's soccer athletes. Other tests assess fitness (eg, the Gauntlet Test [GT]). However, little empirical support exists for the utility of the GT to predict time loss injury. To examine the GT as a predictor of injury in intercollegiate Division I female soccer athletes. Retrospective, nonexperimental descriptive cohort study. College athletic facilities. 71 female Division I soccer athletes (age 19.6 ± 1.24 y, BMI 23.0 ± 2.19). GT, demographic, and injury data were collected over 3 consecutive seasons. GT trials were administered by coaching staff each preseason. Participation in team-based activities (practices, matches) was restricted until a successful GT trial. Soccer-related injuries that resulted in time loss from participation were recorded. 71 subjects met the inclusion criteria, with 12 lower body time loss injuries sustained. Logistic regression models indicated that with each unsuccessful GT attempt, the odds of sustaining an injury increased by a factor of 3.5 (P soccer athletes in this cohort. Further investigation into the appropriate application of the GT for injury prediction is warranted given the scope of this study.

  18. Development and Testing of a Device to Increase the Level of Automation of a Conventional Milking Parlor through Vocal Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zaninelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A portable wireless device with a “vocal commands” feature for activating the mechanical milking phase in conventional milking parlors was developed and tested to increase the level of automation in the milking procedures. The device was tested in the laboratory and in a milking parlor. Four professional milkers participated in the experiment. Before the start of the tests, a set of acoustic models with speaker-dependent commands defined for the project was acquired for each milker using a dedicated “milker training procedure”. Two experimental sessions were performed by each milker, with one session in the laboratory and a subsequent session in the milking parlor. The device performance was evaluated based on the accuracy demonstrated in the vocal command recognition task and rated using the word recognition rate (WRR. The data were expressed as %WRR and grouped based on the different cases evaluated. Mixed effects logistic regression modeling was used to evaluate the association between the %WRR and explanatory variables. The results indicated significant effects due to the location where the tests were performed. Higher values of the %WRR were found for tests performed in the laboratory, whereas lower values were found for tests performed in the milking parlor (due to the presence of background noise. Nevertheless, the general performance level achieved by the device was sufficient for increasing the automation level of conventional milking parlors.

  19. A pair choice test to identify female mating patterns in relation to ovulation in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikitopoulos, E.; Heistermann, M.; Vries, Han de; Hooff, J.A.R.A.M. van; Sterck, E.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Female mammals may exert choice for mates directly by mating selectively. Alternatively, females can mate promiscuously, allowing sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice to operate. Primate sexual behaviour is probably a compromise between conflicting male and female interests, so it may be

  20. Investigation and realization of an automatic device for the control and test of a photon tagging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallou, J.L.

    1987-12-01

    An intelligent control/test equipment for a monoenergetic photon production system was developed. The device enables simulations to be done outside experimental runs. Operation can be entirely automatic, or controlled by the experimenters. The device is modular and conforms to CAMAC standards. The architecture of the system is based around a local bus which comprises a central unit and its memory; a programmable pulse generator; a switching circuit to test and control the various paths; and a unit to communicate with the acquisition system [fr

  1. Estimation of the two-dimensional presampled modulation transfer function of digital radiography devices using one-dimensional test objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, Jered R.; Dobbins, James T. III

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The modulation transfer function (MTF) of medical imaging devices is commonly reported in the form of orthogonal one-dimensional (1D) measurements made near the vertical and horizontal axes with a slit or edge test device. A more complete description is found by measuring the two-dimensional (2D) MTF. Some 2D test devices have been proposed, but there are some issues associated with their use: (1) they are not generally available; (2) they may require many images; (3) the results may have diminished accuracy; and (4) their implementation may be particularly cumbersome. This current work proposes the application of commonly available 1D test devices for practical and accurate estimation of the 2D presampled MTF of digital imaging systems. Methods: Theory was developed and applied to ensure adequate fine sampling of the system line spread function for 1D test devices at orientations other than approximately vertical and horizontal. Methods were also derived and tested for slit nonuniformity correction at arbitrary angle. Techniques were validated with experimental measurements at ten angles using an edge test object and three angles using a slit test device on an indirect-detection flat-panel system [GE Revolution XQ/i (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI)]. The 2D MTF was estimated through a simple surface fit with interpolation based on Delaunay triangulation of the 1D edge-based MTF measurements. Validation by synthesis was also performed with simulated images from a hypothetical direct-detection flat-panel device. Results: The 2D MTF derived from physical measurements yielded an average relative precision error of 0.26% for frequencies below the cutoff (2.5 mm −1 ) and approximate circular symmetry at frequencies below 4 mm −1 . While slit analysis generally agreed with the results of edge analysis, the two showed subtle differences at frequencies above 4 mm −1 . Slit measurement near 45° revealed radial asymmetry in the MTF resulting from the square

  2. Medical chilling device designed for hypothermic hydration graft storage system: Design, thermohydrodynamic modeling, and preliminary testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jung Hwan [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Hypothermic hydration graft storage is essential to reduce the metabolic demand of cells in vitro. The alleviated metabolic demands reduce the emergence rate of anaerobic metabolism generating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy that creates free radicals. The cessive free radicals can damage cells and tissues due to their highly oxidative power with molecules. Current cooling systems such as a conventional air cooling system and an ice pack system are inappropriate for chilling cell tissues in vitro because of inconvenience in use and inconsistent temperature sustainability caused by large size and progressive melting, respectively. Here, we develop a medical chilling device (MCD) for hypothermic hydration graft storage based on thermo-hydrodynamic modeling and thermal electric cooling technology. Our analysis of obtained hydrodynamic thermal behavior of the MCD revealed that the hypothermic condition of 4 .deg. C was continuously maintained, which increased the survival rates of cells in vitro test by reduced free radicals. The validated performance of the MCD promises future development of an optimal hypothermic hydration graft storage system designed for clinical use.

  3. Testing and evaluation of different energy storage devices for piezoelectric energy harvesting under road conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Pratheek

    The increasing needs in green technology have propelled the rapid development in energy conversion and the advancement of electric energy storage systems. A viable storage technology is needed to store intermittent electrical energy in different electronic applications. In this thesis, recent progress on the chemistry and design of batteries is summarized with their challenges and improvements. Along with that, electrolytic capacitors are also reviewed with their types, advantages and disadvantages of each in short. Super capacitors having higher surface area and thinner dielectrics than conventional capacitors along with hybrid capacitors, are discussed in detail. The potential of a hybrid capacitor, Ni(OH)2/ Active Carbon, compared with Ni-Cd batteries and electrolytic capacitors in the application of energy storage for high way energy harvesting has been explored in this work. Both the battery and the hybrid capacitor has been tested under various experimental conditions and their properties in relation to their chemical compositions are compared. The results obtained from the experiments have been analyzed and the most suitable energy storage devices have been selected with their application potential evaluated before drawing conclusion reported in this thesis.

  4. Novel device to sample the esophageal microbiome--the esophageal string test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie A Fillon

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies implicate the microbiome in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. Previous work has shown that adults with esophagitis related to gastroesophageal reflux disease have altered esophageal microbiota compared to those who do not have esophagitis. In these studies, sampling of the esophageal microbiome was accomplished by isolating DNA from esophageal biopsies obtained at the time of upper endoscopy. The aim of the current study was to identify the esophageal microbiome in pediatric individuals with normal esophageal mucosa using a minimally invasive, capsule-based string technology, the Enterotest™. We used the proximal segment of the Enterotest string to sample the esophagus, and term this the "Esophageal String Test" (EST. We hypothesized that the less invasive EST would capture mucosal adherent bacteria present in the esophagus in a similar fashion as mucosal biopsy. EST samples and mucosal biopsies were collected from children with no esophageal inflammation (n = 15 and their microbiome composition determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbiota from esophageal biopsies and ESTs produced nearly identical profiles of bacterial genera and were different from the bacterial contents of samples collected from the nasal and oral cavity. We conclude that the minimally invasive EST can serve as a useful device for study of the esophageal microbiome.

  5. Analytical performance of centrifuge-based device for clinical chemistry testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk-Anake, Jamikorn; Promptmas, Chamras

    2012-01-01

    A centrifuge-based device has been introduced to the Samsung Blood Analyzer (SBA). The verification of this analyzer is essential to meet the ISO15189 standard. Analytical performance was evaluated according to the NCCLS EP05-A method. The results of plasma samples were compared between the SBA and a Hitachi 917 analyzer according to the NCCLS EP09-A2-IR method. Percent recovery was determined via analysis of original control serum and spiked serum. Within-run precision was found to be 0.00 - 6.61% and 0.96 - 5.99% in normal- and abnormal-level assays, respectively, while between-run precision was 1.31 - 9.09% and 0.89 - 6.92%, respectively. The correlation coefficients (r) were > 0.990. The SBA presented analytical accuracy at 96.64 +/- 3.39% to 102.82 +/- 2.75% and 98.31 +/- 4.04% to 103.61 +/- 8.28% recovery, respectively. The results obtained verify that all of the 13 tests performed using the SBA demonstrates good and reliable precision suitable for use in qualified clinical chemistry laboratory service.

  6. Final report on the in situ testing of electrical components and devices at TMI-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soberano, F.T.

    1984-06-01

    A total of 88 electrical components and devices were in situ tested. Of these, 11 totally failed and 21 suffered degradation that varied from mild to severe. The equipment that failed or incurred severe degradation was located in areas of known environmental extremes. Several motor operated valves in the Reactor Building basement failed because of submersion in water. Others severely degraded from contamination tracking, resulting in the alteration of their circuit electrical characteristics - a circumstance that could compromise their designed function. One backup oil lift pump motor for a reactor coolant pump motor, although located well above the Reactor Building basement high water mark, failed because of a break in its armature and field circuits; this failure was surmised to be a result of corrosion. The limit switch of a Class 1E solenoid valve likewise failed due to moisture intrusion. Components that noticeably degraded exhibited anomalies, likely due to the incursion of moisture, that varied from high capacitance to increased circuit resistance. The effect of the other degenerating conditions that existed during the accident, such as high temperature, high radiation levels, and the hydrogen burn, could not be evaluated individually or synergistically

  7. Basic performance tests on vibration of support structure with flexible plates for ITER tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Nobukazu; Kakudate, Satoshi; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    2005-01-01

    The vibration experiments of the support structures with flexible plates for the ITER major components such as toroidal field coil (TF coil) and vacuum vessel (VV) were performed using small-sized flexible plates aiming to obtain its basic mechanical characteristics such as dependence of the stiffness on the loading angle. The experimental results obtained by the hammering and frequency sweep tests were agreed each other, so that the experimental method is found to be reliable. In addition, the experimental results were compared with the analytical ones in order to estimate an adequate analytical model for ITER support structure with flexible plates. As a result, the bolt connection of the flexible plates on the base plate strongly affected on the stiffness of the flexible plates. After studies of modeling the bolts, it is found that the analytical results modeling the bolts with finite stiffness only in the axial direction and infinite stiffness in the other directions agree well with the experimental ones. Using this adequate model, the stiffness of the support structure with flexible plates for the ITER major components can be calculated precisely in order to estimate the dynamic behaviors such as eigen modes and amplitude of deformation of the major components of the ITER tokamak device. (author)

  8. 3D-FBK Pixel sensors: recent beam tests results with irradiated devices

    CERN Document Server

    Micelli, A; Sandaker, H; Stugu, B; Barbero, M; Hugging, F; Karagounis, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kruger, H; Tsung, J W; Wermes, N; Capua, M; Fazio, S; Mastroberardino, A; Susinno, G; Gallrapp, C; Di Girolamo, B; Dobos, D; La Rosa, A; Pernegger, H; Roe, S; Slavicek, T; Pospisil, S; Jakobs, K; Kohler, M; Parzefall, U; Darbo, G; Gariano, G; Gemme, C; Rovani, A; Ruscino, E; Butter, C; Bates, R; Oshea, V; Parker, S; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Grinstein, S; Korokolov, I; Pradilla, C; Einsweiler, K; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Borri, M; Da Via, C; Freestone, J; Kolya, S; Lai, C H; Nellist, C; Pater, J; Thompson, R; Watts, S J; Hoeferkamp, M; Seidel, S; Bolle, E; Gjersdal, H; Sjobaek, K N; Stapnes, S; Rohne, O; Su, D; Young, C; Hansson, P; Grenier, P; Hasi, J; Kenney, C; Kocian, M; Jackson, P; Silverstein, D; Davetak, H; DeWilde, B; Tsybychev, D; Dalla Betta, G F; Gabos, P; Povoli, M; Cobal, M; Giordani, M P; Selmi, L; Cristofoli, A; Esseni, D; Palestri, P; Fleta, C; Lozano, M; Pellegrini, G; Boscardin, M; Bagolini, A; Piemonte, C; Ronchin, S; Zorzi, N; Hansen, T E; Hansen, T; Kok, A; Lietaer, N; Kalliopuska, J; Oja, A

    2011-01-01

    The Pixel detector is the innermost part of the ATLAS experiment tracking device at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and plays a key role in the reconstruction of the primary and secondary vertices of short-lived particles. To cope with the high level of radiation produced during the collider operation, it is planned to add to the present three layers of silicon pixel sensors which constitute the Pixel Detector, an additional layer (Insertable B-Layer, or IBL) of sensors. 3D silicon sensors are one of the technologies which are under study for the IBL. 3D silicon technology is an innovative combination of very-large-scale integration (VLSI) and Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) where electrodes are fabricated inside the silicon bulk instead of being implanted on the wafer surfaces. 3D sensors, with electrodes fully or partially penetrating the silicon substrate, are currently fabricated at different processing facilities in Europe and USA. This paper reports on the 2010 June beam test results for irradi...

  9. Radiation Hardness tests with neutron flux on different Silicon photomultiplier devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, P. W.; Cervi, T.; Menegolli, A.; Oddone, M.; Prata, M.; Prata, M. C.; Rossella, M.

    2017-07-01

    Radiation hardness is an important requirement for solid state readout devices operating in high radiation environments common in particle physics experiments. The MEG II experiment, at PSI, Switzerland, investigates the forbidden decay μ+ → e+ γ. Exploiting the most intense muon beam of the world. A significant flux of non-thermal neutrons (kinetic energy Ek>= 0.5 MeV) is present in the experimental hall produced along the beam-line and in the hall itself. We present the effects of neutron fluxes comparable to the MEG II expected doses on several Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPMs). The tested models are: AdvanSiD ASD-NUV3S-P50 (used in MEG II experiment), AdvanSiD ASD-NUV3S-P40, AdvanSiD ASD-RGB3S-P40, Hamamatsu and Excelitas C30742-33-050-X. The neutron source is the thermal Sub-critical Multiplication complex (SM1) moderated with water, located at the University of Pavia (Italy). We report the change of SiPMs most important electric parameters: dark current, dark pulse frequency, gain, direct bias resistance, as a function of the integrated neutron fluency.

  10. How Well Does the Latest Anthropomorphic Test Device Mimic Human Impact Responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Nate; Somers, Jeff; Caldewll, Erin; Gernhardt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    One of the goals of the NASA Occupant Protection Group is to understand the human tolerance to dynamic loading. This knowledge has to come through indirect approaches such as existing human response databases, anthropometric test devices (ATD), animal testing, post-­-mortem human subjects, and models. This study investigated the biofidelity of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's ATD named the THOR (test device for human occupant restraint). If THOR responds comparably to humans, then it could potentially be used as a human surrogate to help validate space vehicle requirements for occupant protection. The THOR responses to frontal and spinal impacts (ranging from 8 to 12 G with rise times of 40, 70, and 100 ms) were measured and compared to human volunteer responses (95 trials in frontal and 58 in spinal) previously collected by the U. S. Air Force on the same horizontal impact accelerator. The impact acceleration profiles tested are within the expected range of multi-­-purpose crew vehicle (MPCV) landing dynamics. A correlation score was calculated for each THOR to human comparison using CORA (CORrelation and Analysis) software. A two-­-parameter beta distribution model fit was obtained for each dependent variable using maximum likelihood estimation. For frontal impacts, the THOR head x-­-acceleration peak response correlated with the human response at 8 and 10-­-G 100 ms but not 10-­-G 70 ms. The phase lagged the human response. Head z-­-acceleration was not correlated. Chest x-­-acceleration was in phase, had a higher peak response, and was well correlated with lighter subjects (Cora = 0.8 for 46 kg vs. Cora = 0.4 for 126 kg). Head x-­-displacement had a leading phase. Several subjects responded with the same peak displacement but the mean of the group was lower. The shoulder x-­-displacement was in phase but had higher peaks than the human response. For spinal impacts, the THOR head x-­-acceleration was not well correlated. Head and

  11. Uav Photogrammetric Solution Using a Raspberry pi Camera Module and Smart Devices: Test and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, M.; Grasso, N.; Jabbar, A. Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, smart technologies are an important part of our action and life, both in indoor and outdoor environment. There are several smart devices very friendly to be setting, where they can be integrated and embedded with other sensors, having a very low cost. Raspberry allows to install an internal camera called Raspberry Pi Camera Module, both in RGB band and NIR band. The advantage of this system is the limited cost (light weight and their simplicity to be used and embedded. This paper will describe a research where a Raspberry Pi with the Camera Module was installed onto a UAV hexacopter based on arducopter system, with purpose to collect pictures for photogrammetry issue. Firstly, the system was tested with aim to verify the performance of RPi camera in terms of frame per second/resolution and the power requirement. Moreover, a GNSS receiver Ublox M8T was installed and connected to the Raspberry platform in order to collect real time position and the raw data, for data processing and to define the time reference. IMU was also tested to see the impact of UAV rotors noise on different sensors like accelerometer, Gyroscope and Magnetometer. A comparison of the achieved results (accuracy) on some check points of the point clouds obtained by the camera will be reported as well in order to analyse in deeper the main discrepancy on the generated point cloud and the potentiality of these proposed approach. In this contribute, the assembling of the system is described, in particular the dataset acquired and the results carried out will be analysed.

  12. Testing a Novel 3D Printed Radiographic Imaging Device for Use in Forensic Odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Tara L; Bruhn, Ann M; Giles, Bridget; Garcia, Hector M; Diawara, Norou

    2017-01-01

    There are specific challenges related to forensic dental radiology and difficulties in aligning X-ray equipment to teeth of interest. Researchers used 3D printing to create a new device, the combined holding and aiming device (CHAD), to address the positioning limitations of current dental X-ray devices. Participants (N = 24) used the CHAD, soft dental wax, and a modified external aiming device (MEAD) to determine device preference, radiographer's efficiency, and technique errors. Each participant exposed six X-rays per device for a total of 432 X-rays scored. A significant difference was found at the 0.05 level between the three devices (p = 0.0015), with the MEAD having the least amount of total errors and soft dental wax taking the least amount of time. Total errors were highest when participants used soft dental wax-both the MEAD and the CHAD performed best overall. Further research in forensic dental radiology and use of holding devices is needed. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Design of a test device for subjecting materials to high strain rates: with application in nuclear area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todesco, Sergio R.; Mucsi, Cristiano S.; Rossi, Jesualdo L., E-mail: sergio.todesco@usp.br, E-mail: csmucsi@ipen.br, E-mail: jelrossi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a design of a device to gather characteristic data of materials subjected to high strain rates, this device named after the eminent English engineer Sir Bertram Hopkinson 'Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar', from here will be designated SHPB. More specifically, this work is inseparably linked to the development of packing for transportation of highly radioactive substances as a part to the general scope of a CAPES project in partnership with the CCTM Materials Department of IPEN, Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research, linked to the University of Sao Paulo. The development of the device is part of a scope, and collection of data necessary for the design and construction of this packing. The SHPB device can be divided into two parts, the first part concerning the mechanical design. The second, data collection that is indeed the challenging part of the device, and proper tests. The present paper, specifically, will only deals with the mechanical design of the device, importantly, divided into two parts, the size of the bars, which are the impact bar, the input bar, and the output bar, and the size of the impact device. The sizing of the bars involve knowledge of the concept of elastic waves in solid media for the length of the bars to serve as a wave-guide, which will cause a deformation of the specimen, and enables recording of these waves for data analysis. The impact device must be robust enough to produce the stress wave to deform the specimen, but not to plastically deform the bars, which have to continue throughout the test within the elastic range. (author)

  14. Design of a test device for subjecting materials to high strain rates: with application in nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todesco, Sergio R.; Mucsi, Cristiano S.; Rossi, Jesualdo L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a design of a device to gather characteristic data of materials subjected to high strain rates, this device named after the eminent English engineer Sir Bertram Hopkinson 'Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar', from here will be designated SHPB. More specifically, this work is inseparably linked to the development of packing for transportation of highly radioactive substances as a part to the general scope of a CAPES project in partnership with the CCTM Materials Department of IPEN, Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research, linked to the University of Sao Paulo. The development of the device is part of a scope, and collection of data necessary for the design and construction of this packing. The SHPB device can be divided into two parts, the first part concerning the mechanical design. The second, data collection that is indeed the challenging part of the device, and proper tests. The present paper, specifically, will only deals with the mechanical design of the device, importantly, divided into two parts, the size of the bars, which are the impact bar, the input bar, and the output bar, and the size of the impact device. The sizing of the bars involve knowledge of the concept of elastic waves in solid media for the length of the bars to serve as a wave-guide, which will cause a deformation of the specimen, and enables recording of these waves for data analysis. The impact device must be robust enough to produce the stress wave to deform the specimen, but not to plastically deform the bars, which have to continue throughout the test within the elastic range. (author)

  15. Fabrication and testing of a device capable of reducing the incidence of ventricular shunt promoted metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, E C; Samulski, T; Oakes, W J; Friedman, H S

    1996-01-01

    Some malignant brain tumors shed cells into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). These tumors may implant throughout the neuroaxis via the CSF. With the placement of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) or ventriculoatrial (VA) shunt, tumor cells free-floating in the CSF may be carried through the shunt to the remainder of the body. Mechanical filtration devices to prevent this are not reliable. We report the development of a new device capable of reducing the incidence of shunt promoted metastasis. The device exposes the draining CSF, as it passes through a baffle system, to a localized high-intensity radiation field adequately shielded from surrounding normal tissue. The prototype consists of geometrically fixed iodine-125 (125I) sources. The device accommodates the maximum CSF flow rate of 500 ml/24 hours. Radiation exposure to clonogenic cells occurs as they transit through the baffle system. Since the volume of the prototype device is 14 ml, a tumor cell floating through the device will be exposed to radiation for 40 minutes. Utilizing the human medulloblastoma cell line D425 MED, a limiting dilution clonogenic assay was performed. Suspensions of tumor cells in liquid medium were pumped through the device at the maximum anticipated CSF production rate of 0.35 ml/min. After the cells, with their tissue culture medium, were received from the device, a series of nine 5-fold dilutions were prepared from the suspensions which initially contained 10(6) tumor cell/ml. Plates were then incubated and growth was demonstrated by visual scoring of colonies of more than 20 cells. Limiting dilution data analysis was performed. Radiation surveys of the fully loaded (approximately 1.8 Ci) 125I prototype were conducted. A well calibrator was used to measure the activity of the fully loaded device. When the device was loaded with 125I seeds providing a dose of 364-479 cGy the probability of clonogen survival was 0.033. Radiation exposure levels at the exterior surface of the shielded device

  16. Standard Test Method for Determination of the Spectral Mismatch Parameter Between a Photovoltaic Device and a Photovoltaic Reference Cell

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for the determination of a spectral mismatch parameter used in performance testing of photovoltaic devices. 1.2 The spectral mismatch parameter is a measure of the error, introduced in the testing of a photovoltaic device, caused by mismatch between the spectral responses of the photovoltaic device and the photovoltaic reference cell, as well as mismatch between the test light source and the reference spectral irradiance distribution to which the photovoltaic reference cell was calibrated. Examples of reference spectral irradiance distributions are Tables E490 or G173. 1.3 The spectral mismatch parameter can be used to correct photovoltaic performance data for spectral mismatch error. 1.4 This test method is intended for use with linear photovoltaic devices. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, a...

  17. Design and Development of a Miniaturized Percutaneously Deployable Wireless Left Ventricular Assist Device: Early Prototypes and Feasibility Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letzen, Brian; Park, Jiheum; Tuzun, Zeynep; Bonde, Pramod

    The current left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are limited by a highly invasive implantation procedure in a severely unstable group of advanced heart failure patients. Additionally, the current transcutaneous power drive line acts as a nidus for infection resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. In an effort to decrease this invasiveness and eliminate drive line complications, we have conceived a wireless miniaturized percutaneous LVAD, capable of being delivered endovascularly with a tether-free operation. The system obviates the need for a transcutaneous fluid purge line required in existing temporary devices by utilizing an incorporated magnetically coupled impeller for a complete seal. The objective of this article was to demonstrate early development and proof-of-concept feasibility testing to serve as the groundwork for future formalized device development. Five early prototypes were designed and constructed to iteratively minimize the pump size and improve fluid dynamic performance. Various magnetic coupling configurations were tested. Using SolidWorks and ANSYS software for modeling and simulation, several geometric parameters were varied. HQ curves were constructed from preliminary in vitro testing to characterize the pump performance. Bench top tests showed no-slip magnetic coupling of the impeller to the driveshaft up to the current limit of the motor. The pump power requirements were tested in vitro and were within the appropriate range for powering via a wireless energy transfer system. Our results demonstrate the proof-of-concept feasibility of a novel endovascular cardiac assist device with the potential to eventually offer patients an untethered, minimally invasive support.

  18. Evaluation of three rapid oral fluid test devices on the screening of multiple drugs of abuse including ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Magdalene H Y; Ching, C K; Poon, Simon; Chan, Suzanne S S; Ng, W Y; Lam, M; Wong, C K; Pao, Ronnie; Lau, Angus; Mak, Tony W L

    2018-05-01

    Rapid oral fluid testing (ROFT) devices have been extensively evaluated for their ability to detect common drugs of abuse; however, the performance of such devices on simultaneous screening for ketamine has been scarcely investigated. The present study evaluated three ROFT devices (DrugWipe ® 6S, Ora-Check ® and SalivaScreen ® ) on the detection of ketamine, opiates, methamphetamine, cannabis, cocaine and MDMA. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS) assay was firstly established and validated for confirmation analysis of the six types of drugs and/or their metabolites. In the field test, the three ROFT devices were tested on subjects recruited from substance abuse clinics/rehabilitation centre. Oral fluid was also collected using Quantisal ® for confirmation analysis. A total of 549 samples were collected in the study. LCMS analysis on 491 samples revealed the following drugs: codeine (55%), morphine (49%), heroin (40%), methamphetamine (35%), THC (8%), ketamine (4%) and cocaine (2%). No MDMA-positive cases were observed. Results showed that the overall specificity and accuracy were satisfactory and met the DRUID standard of >80% for all 3 devices. Ora-Check ® had poor sensitivities (ketamine 36%, methamphetamine 63%, opiates 53%, cocaine 60%, THC 0%). DrugWipe ® 6S showed good sensitivities in the methamphetamine (83%) and opiates (93%) tests but performed relatively poorly for ketamine (41%), cocaine (43%) and THC (22%). SalivaScreen ® also demonstrated good sensitivities in the methamphetamine (83%) and opiates (100%) tests, and had the highest sensitivity for ketamine (76%) and cocaine (71%); however, it failed to detect any of the 28 THC-positive cases. The test completion rate (proportion of tests completed with quality control passed) were: 52% (Ora-Check ® ), 78% (SalivaScreen ® ) and 99% (DrugWipe ® 6S). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reference values for 27 clinical chemistry tests in 70-year-old males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Lena; Lind, Lars; Larsson, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Reference values are usually defined based on blood samples from healthy men or nonpregnant women in the age range of 20-50 years. These values are not optimal for elderly patients, as many biological markers change over time and adequate reference values are important for correct clinical decisions. To validate NORIP (Nordic Reference Interval Project) reference values in a 70-year-old population. We studied 27 frequently used laboratory tests. The 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles for these markers were calculated according to the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry on the statistical treatment of reference values. Reference values are reported for plasma alanine aminotransferase, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, pancreas amylase, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, calcium, chloride, cholesterol, creatinine, creatine kinase, C-reactive protein, glucose, gamma-glutamyltransferase, HDL-cholesterol, iron, lactate dehydrogenase, LDL-cholesterol, magnesium, phosphate, potassium, sodium, transferrin, triglycerides, urate and urea. Reference values calculated from the whole population and a subpopulation without cardiovascular disease showed strong concordance. Several of the reference interval limits were outside the 90% CI of a Scandinavian population (NORIP). 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. A permutation test to analyse systematic bias and random measurement errors of medical devices via boosting location and scale models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Andreas; Schmid, Matthias; Pfahlberg, Annette; Uter, Wolfgang; Gefeller, Olaf

    2017-06-01

    Measurement errors of medico-technical devices can be separated into systematic bias and random error. We propose a new method to address both simultaneously via generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) in combination with permutation tests. More precisely, we extend a recently proposed boosting algorithm for GAMLSS to provide a test procedure to analyse potential device effects on the measurements. We carried out a large-scale simulation study to provide empirical evidence that our method is able to identify possible sources of systematic bias as well as random error under different conditions. Finally, we apply our approach to compare measurements of skin pigmentation from two different devices in an epidemiological study.

  1. Knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test and its relation with female age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Nara Sibério Pinho; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista; Pinheiro, Patricia Neyva da Costa; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2016-06-14

    to verify the association among the knowledge attitude and practice of women in relation to the smear test and the age range. a cross-sectional research was undertaken, associated with the knowledge, attitude and practice survey at a Primary Health Care service. The sample consisted of 775 women, distributed in three age ranges: adolescent, young and elderly. although high rates of inappropriate knowledge were found in all age ranges, it was significantly higher among the adolescents (p=0.000). A similar trend was found in the attitude component, with percentages of inappropriateness in adolescence that drop as age advances (p=0.000). Nevertheless, no statistical difference among the groups was found in terms of practice (p=0.852). the study demonstrated a relation between the age range and knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test. verificar a associação entre o conhecimento, atitude e prática de mulheres em relação ao exame colpocitológico e a faixa etária. trata-se de pesquisa de corte transversal associada ao inquérito conhecimento, atitude e prática, em uma Unidade de Atenção Primária à Saúde. A amostra foi composta por 775 mulheres, distribuídas em três faixas etárias: adolescentes, jovens e idosas. embora o conhecimento inadequado tenha tido altas taxas em todas as faixas etárias, foi significativamente superior entre as adolescentes (p=0,000). Tendência semelhante no componente atitude por apresentar percentuais de inadequabilidade na adolescência e decair com o avançar da idade (p=0,000). Todavia, não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos quanto à prática (p=0,852). o estudo demonstrou relação entre a faixa etária e o conhecimento, a atitude e a prática do exame colpocitológico. verificar la asociación entre el conocimiento, la actitud y práctica de mujeres con relación a la prueba colpocitológica y el rango de edad. se trata de investigación trasversal asociada a la encuesta conocimiento, actitud y pr

  2. Test performance and acceptability of self- versus provider-collected swabs for high-risk HPV DNA testing in female-to-male trans masculine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Deutsch, Madeline B; Peitzmeier, Sarah M; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Cavanaugh, Timothy P; Pardee, Dana J; McLean, Sarah A; Panther, Lori A; Gelman, Marcy; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Potter, Jennifer E

    2018-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) causes virtually all cervical cancers. Trans masculine (TM) people (those assigned female at birth who identify with a gender other than female) have low uptake of conventional cervical cancer screening. Self-collected hrHPV DNA testing has high levels of acceptability among cisgender (non-transgender) females and may support increased cervical cancer screening uptake in TM individuals. To assess the test performance and acceptability of self-collected vaginal specimens in comparison to provider-collected cervical swabs for hrHPV DNA detection in TM individuals ages 21-64 years. Between March 2015-September 2016, 150 TM participants with a cervix (mean age = 27.5 years; SD = 5.7) completed a one-time study visit comprised of a self-report survey, self-collected vaginal HPV DNA swab, clinician-administered cervical HPV swab, and brief interview on acceptability of clinical procedures. Participants were randomized to complete either self- or provider-collection first to minimize ordering effects. Self- and provider-collected samples were tested for 13 hrHPV DNA types using a DNA Hybridization Assay. The primary outcome variable was the concordance (kappa statistic) and performance (sensitivity, specificity) of self-collected vaginal HPV DNA specimens versus provider-collected cervical HPV swabs as the gold standard. Of the 131 participants completing both the self- and provider-collected HPV tests, 21 cases of hrHPV were detected by the provider cervical swab (gold standard; 16.0% hrHPV prevalence); 15 of these cases were accurately detected by the self-collected vaginal swab (71.4% concordance) (Kappa = 0.75, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.59, 0.92; p<0.001). Compared to the provider-collected cervical hrHPV DNA sample (gold standard), the self-collected vaginal hrHPV DNA test demonstrated a sensitivity of 71.4% (95% CI: 0.52, 0.91; p = 0.0495) and specificity of 98.2% (95% CI: 0.96, 1.00; p<0.0001). Over 90% of participants

  3. Detecting asymptomatic Trichomonas vaginalis in females using the BD ProbeTec™ Trichomonas vaginalis Qx nucleic acid amplification test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Emily; Newnham, Tana; Dorrell, Lucy; Jesuthasan, Gerald; Clarke, Lorraine; Jeffery, Katie; Sherrard, Jackie

    2017-03-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) rates in women are increasing and many are asymptomatic. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are becoming the 'gold standard' for diagnosis. We aimed to establish our asymptomatic TV rates by testing all women attending Oxfordshire's Sexual Health service, regardless of symptoms, using the BD ProbeTec™ TV Q x NAATs (BDQ x ). During BDQ x 's verification process, the sensitivity and specificity were calculated using results of 220 endocervical samples from symptomatic women, compared with culture. BDQ x was subsequently implemented and prospectively evaluated over 6 months in female attendees. Wet mount microscopy was also performed in symptomatics. Demographic and clinical characteristics of those diagnosed were analysed. From 220 samples tested by BDQ x and culture: 5 were positive on both and one solely using BDQ x , giving a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 99.53%, respectively. In the prospective cohort, of 5775 BDQ x tests, 33 (0.57%) were positive. 11/33 (33%) patients were asymptomatic. All patients diagnosed had risk factors: age >25 years (85%), residence in a deprived area (79%) and black ethnicity (21%). Despite BDQ x being highly sensitive and specific, with our low TV prevalence universal screening may not be justified. Targeted screening using local demographic data merits further investigation.

  4. The effect of heightened awareness of observation on consumption of a multi-item laboratory test meal in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Proctor, Michael; Oldham, Melissa; Masic, Una

    2016-09-01

    Human eating behaviour is often studied in the laboratory, but whether the extent to which a participant believes that their food intake is being measured influences consumption of different meal items is unclear. Our main objective was to examine whether heightened awareness of observation of food intake affects consumption of different food items during a lunchtime meal. One hundred and fourteen female participants were randomly assigned to an experimental condition designed to heighten participant awareness of observation or a condition in which awareness of observation was lower, before consuming an ad libitum multi-item lunchtime meal in a single session study. Under conditions of heightened awareness, participants tended to eat less of an energy dense snack food (cookies) in comparison to the less aware condition. Consumption of other meal items and total energy intake were similar in the heightened awareness vs. less aware condition. Exploratory secondary analyses suggested that the effect heightened awareness had on reduced cookie consumption was dependent on weight status, as well as trait measures of dietary restraint and disinhibition, whereby only participants with overweight/obesity, high disinhibition or low restraint reduced their cookie consumption. Heightened awareness of observation may cause females to reduce their consumption of an energy dense snack food during a test meal in the laboratory and this effect may be moderated by participant individual differences. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The impact of exercise-induced muscle damage on performance test outcomes in elite female basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doma, Kenji; Leicht, Anthony; Sinclair, Wade; Schumann, Moritz; Damas, Felipe; Burt, Dean; Woods, Carl

    2017-09-11

    The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, to examine the impact exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) on physical fitness qualities following a basketball-specific training session. Secondly, to determine the reproducibility of the sport-specific performance measures in elite female basketball players. Ten elite female basketball players (age 25.6 ± 4.5 years; height 1.8 ± 0.7m; body mass 76.7 ± 8.3kg) undertook a 90-minute training session involving repeated jumping, sprinting and game-simulated training. Indirect muscle damage markers (i.e., countermovement jump [CMJ], delayed-onset of muscle soreness [DOMS] and creatine kinase [CK]) and sport-specific performances (i.e., change of direction [COD] and suicide test [ST]) were measured prior to and 24 hours post training. These measures were also collected one week following training to determine the reproducibility of the basketball-specific performance measures. A significant reduction in lower-body power (-3.5±3.6%; P0.05). The intra-class correlation coefficient and coefficient of variation for the COD and ST were 0.81 and 0.90, respectively, and 1.9% and 1.5%, respectively. In conclusion, appropriate recovery should be considered the day following basketball-specific training sessions in elite basketball players. Furthermore, this study showed the usability of performance measures to detect changes during periods of EIMD, with acceptable reproducibility and minimal measurement error.

  6. A device for testing the dynamic performance of in situ force plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Rebecca H; Noble, Jonathan J; Arscott, Richard A; Shortland, Adam P

    2017-09-01

    Force plates are often incorporated into motion capture systems for the calculation of joint kinetic variables and other data. This project aimed to create a system that could be used to check the dynamic performance of force plate in situ. The proposed solution involved the design and development of an eccentrically loaded wheel mounted on a weighted frame. The frame was designed to hold a wheel mounted in two orthogonal positions. The wheel was placed on the force plate and spun. A VICON™ motion analysis system captured the positional data of the markers placed around the rim of the wheel which was used to create a simulated force profile, and the force profile was dependent on spin speed. The root mean square error between the simulated force profile and the force plate measurement was calculated. For nine trials conducted, the root mean square error between the two simultaneous measures of force was calculated. The difference between the force profiles in the x- and y-directions is approximately 2%. The difference in the z-direction was under 0.5%. The eccentrically loaded wheel produced a predictable centripetal force in the plane of the wheel which varied in direction as the wheel was spun and magnitude dependent on the spin speed. There are three important advantages to the eccentrically loaded wheel: (1) it does not rely on force measurements made from other devices, (2) the tests require only 15 min to complete per force plate and (3) the forces exerted on the plate are similar to those of paediatric gait.

  7. FEMALE SEX WORKERS’ ATTITUDES TOWARD HIV TESTING: A STUDY AMONG INDIRECT SEX WORKERS IN BANTUL, YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhesi Ari Astuti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Indonesia is among the highest in Asia after Papua New Guinea and Malaysia. Indirect sex workers posed a heightened risk of HIV infection compared to direct sex workers because they usually earn less than their direct counterpart and have lower bargaining power in condom use. Objective: This study aims to examine the factors influencing indirect sex workers’ attitudes toward HIV testing. Methods: This study employed a quantitative method with a cross-sectional approach involved 67 indirect sex workers from massage parlors and beauty salons in Bantul district. Descriptive analysis of respondents’ attitude, perceive threat and expectation was drawn from Health Belief Model Theory. Results: The majority of indirect sex workers had positive attitude towards HIV testing. They are aware to the importance of condom in every commercial sex works, but the majority believe themselves were not susceptible to HIV-AIDS due to their preference to healthy-looking clients to serve sex. Personal expenses to visit the health center for HIV testing are less considered compared to public opinion and discrimination. Peers encouraged the workers to get tested. Disseminating HIV/AIDS information to sex workers through media and mobile phone are not successful. Conclusion: The findings of the study carrying an expectation that when individuals’ attitudes toward HIV testing are positive, the likelihood of getting themselves tested would also be higher. Since the perception is driven by information as stimulus, it is important to provide continuous information to create stimulus which eventually will influence their perception.

  8. Numerical Simulation of a Single-Phase Closed-Loop Thermo-Siphon in LORELEI Test Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitelman, D.; Shenha, H.; Gonnier, Ch.; Tarabelli, D.; Sasson, A.; Weiss, Y.; Katz, M.

    2014-01-01

    The LORELEI experimental setup in the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) is dedicated for the study of fuel during a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). The main objective of the LORELEI(2) (Light-Water One-Rod Equipment for LOCA Experimental Investigation) is to study the thermal-mechanical behavior of fuel during such an accident and to produce a short half-life fission products source term. In order to study those phenomena, the fuel sample will experience a transient neutron flux field, which in turn will generate a Linear Heat Generation Rate (LHGR) and determine the temperature of the fuel and its cladding, simulating the behavior of the fuel and the cladding during a LOCA accident. In order to reproduce a LOCA-type transient sequence, the experimental test device will be located on a displacement device. The displacement device moves the test device in the flux field in order to generate a representing LHGR in the fuel or temperature of its cladding. The LOCA-type transient sequence has four major features: „h An adiabatic heating of the fuel up to the ballooning and burst occurrence. „h High temperature plateau which will promote clad oxidation. „h Passive precooling by thermal inertia. „h Water re-flooding and quenching. The challenge in the thermo-hydraulic design of the LORELEI test section is in defining a one closed water capsule design that can operate as a thermo-siphon at re-irradiation phase and also can reproduce all LOCA-type transient sequence phases. This design should be validated and verified to fill all safety and regulation requirements. This work aims to investigate fluid flow behavior of a single-phase thermo-siphon in the LORELEI test device, as part of the conceptual design and optimization study. The complexity of the flow field in the LORELEI test device, as a closed-loop thermo-siphon, is due to the opposing forces in the device - buoyancy forces and natural convection flow generated (mainly) by the fuel power in the hot channel

  9. Testing and Evaluation of a Pen Input Device Using an Inertial/Magnetic Sensor Module

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drakopoulos, Leonidas

    2008-01-01

    .... Before continuing to evaluate the 3-D writing, a calibration algorithm is implemented for computing the length between the nose of the pen input device and the point where the inertial/magnetic...

  10. Laboratory- and field-based testing as predictors of skating performance in competitive-level female ice hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Tommy; Vescovi, Jason D; Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine; Gilenstam, Kajsa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether field-based and/or laboratory-based assessments are valid tools for predicting key performance characteristics of skating in competitive-level female hockey players. Cross-sectional study. Twenty-three female ice hockey players aged 15-25 years (body mass: 66.1±6.3 kg; height: 169.5±5.5 cm), with 10.6±3.2 years playing experience volunteered to participate in the study. The field-based assessments included 20 m sprint, squat jump, countermovement jump, 30-second repeated jump test, standing long jump, single-leg standing long jump, 20 m shuttle run test, isometric leg pull, one-repetition maximum bench press, and one-repetition maximum squats. The laboratory-based assessments included body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), maximal aerobic power, and isokinetic strength (Biodex). The on-ice tests included agility cornering s-turn, cone agility skate, transition agility skate, and modified repeat skate sprint. Data were analyzed using stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis. Linear regression analysis was used to establish the relationship between key performance characteristics of skating and the predictor variables. Regression models (adj R (2)) for the on-ice variables ranged from 0.244 to 0.663 for the field-based assessments and from 0.136 to 0.420 for the laboratory-based assessments. Single-leg tests were the strongest predictors for key performance characteristics of skating. Single leg standing long jump alone explained 57.1%, 38.1%, and 29.1% of the variance in skating time during transition agility skate, agility cornering s-turn, and modified repeat skate sprint, respectively. Isokinetic peak torque in the quadriceps at 90° explained 42.0% and 32.2% of the variance in skating time during agility cornering s-turn and modified repeat skate sprint, respectively. Field-based assessments, particularly single-leg tests, are an adequate substitute to more expensive and time

  11. Adolescents’ experience of a rapid HIV self-testing device in youth-friendly clinic settings in Cape Town South Africa: a cross-sectional community based usability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip; Wallace, Melissa; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Since HIV testing in South African adolescents and young adults is sub-optimal, the objective of the current study was to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of an HIV rapid self-testing device in adolescents and young people at the Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation Youth Centre and Mobile Clinic. Methods: Self-presenting adolescents and young adults were invited to participate in a study investigating the fidelity, usability and acceptability of the AtomoRapid HIV Rapid self-testing device. Trained healthcare workers trained participants to use the device before the participant conducted the HIV self-test with device usage instructions. The healthcare worker then conducted a questionnaire-based survey to assess outcomes. Results: Of the 224 enrolled participants between 16 and 24 years of age, 155 (69,2%) were female. Overall, fidelity was high; 216 (96,4%) participants correctly completed the test and correctly read and interpreted the HIV test result. There were eight (3,6%) user errors overall; six participants failed to prick their finger even though the lancet fired correctly. There were two user errors where participants failed to use the capillary tube correctly. Participants rated acceptability and usability highly, with debut testers giving significantly higher ratings for both. Younger participants gave significantly higher ratings of acceptability. Conclusions: Adolescents and young adults found HIV self-testing highly acceptable with the AtomoRapid and they used the device accurately. Further research should investigate how, where and when to deploy HIV self-testing as a means to accompany existing strategies in reaching the UNAIDS goal to test 90% of all individuals worldwide. PMID:28406597

  12. Adolescents' experience of a rapid HIV self-testing device in youth-friendly clinic settings in Cape Town South Africa: a cross-sectional community based usability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip; Wallace, Melissa; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2016-12-23

    Introduction : Since HIV testing in South African adolescents and young adults is sub-optimal, the objective of the current study was to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of an HIV rapid self-testing device in adolescents and young people at the Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation Youth Centre and Mobile Clinic. Methods : Self-presenting adolescents and young adults were invited to participate in a study investigating the fidelity, usability and acceptability of the AtomoRapid HIV Rapid self-testing device. Trained healthcare workers trained participants to use the device before the participant conducted the HIV self-test with device usage instructions. The healthcare worker then conducted a questionnaire-based survey to assess outcomes. Results : Of the 224 enrolled participants between 16 and 24 years of age, 155 (69,2%) were female. Overall, fidelity was high; 216 (96,4%) participants correctly completed the test and correctly read and interpreted the HIV test result. There were eight (3,6%) user errors overall; six participants failed to prick their finger even though the lancet fired correctly. There were two user errors where participants failed to use the capillary tube correctly. Participants rated acceptability and usability highly, with debut testers giving significantly higher ratings for both. Younger participants gave significantly higher ratings of acceptability. Conclusions : Adolescents and young adults found HIV self-testing highly acceptable with the AtomoRapid and they used the device accurately. Further research should investigate how, where and when to deploy HIV self-testing as a means to accompany existing strategies in reaching the UNAIDS goal to test 90% of all individuals worldwide.

  13. GPR30 activation decreases anxiety in the open field test but not in the elevated plus maze test in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchan, Divya; Clark, Sara; Pollard, Kevin; Vasudevan, Nandini

    2014-01-01

    The GPR30 is a novel estrogen receptor (ER) that is a candidate membrane ER based on its binding to 17β estradiol and its rapid signaling properties such as activation of the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Its distribution in the mouse limbic system predicts a role for this receptor in the estrogenic modulation of anxiety behaviors in the mouse. A previous study showed that chronic administration of a selective agonist to the GPR30 receptor, G-1, in the female rat can improve spatial memory, suggesting that GPR30 plays a role in hippocampal-dependent cognition. In this study, we investigated the effect of a similar chronic administration of G-1 on behaviors that denote anxiety in adult ovariectomized female mice, using the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the open field test as well as the activation of the ERK pathway in the hippocampus. Although estradiol benzoate had no effect on behaviors in the EPM or the open field, G-1 had an anxiolytic effect solely in the open field that was independent of ERK signaling in either the ventral or dorsal hippocampus. Such an anxiolytic effect may underlie the ability of G-1 to increase spatial memory, by acting on the hippocampus.

  14. Sharing Data between Mobile Devices, Connected Vehicles and Infrastructure Task 6: Prototype Acceptance Test Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-30

    The Task 6 Prototype Acceptance Test Summary Report summarizes the results of Acceptance Testing carried out at Battelle facilities in accordance with the Task 6 Acceptance Test Plan. The Acceptance Tests were designed to verify that the prototype sy...

  15. Developing a reproducible non-line-of-sight experimental setup for testing wireless medical device coexistence utilizing ZigBee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSorte, Nickolas J; Rajab, Samer A; Refai, Hazem H

    2012-11-01

    The integration of heterogeneous wireless technologies is believed to aid revolutionary healthcare delivery in hospitals and residential care. Wireless medical device coexistence is a growing concern given the ubiquity of wireless technology. In spite of this, a consensus standard that addresses risks associated with wireless heterogeneous networks has not been adopted. This paper serves as a starting point by recommending a practice for assessing the coexistence of a wireless medical device in a non-line-of-sight environment utilizing 802.15.4 in a practical, versatile, and reproducible test setup. This paper provides an extensive survey of other coexistence studies concerning 802.15.4 and 802.11 and reports on the authors' coexistence testing inside and outside an anechoic chamber. Results are compared against a non-line-of-sight test setup. Findings relative to co-channel and adjacent channel interference were consistent with results reported in the literature.

  16. Passive safety device and internal short tested method for energy storage cells and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Matthew; Darcy, Eric; Long, Dirk; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-22

    A passive safety device for an energy storage cell for positioning between two electrically conductive layers of the energy storage cell. The safety device also comprising a separator and a non-conductive layer. A first electrically conductive material is provided on the non-conductive layer. A first opening is formed through the separator between the first electrically conductive material and one of the electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device. A second electrically conductive material is provided adjacent the first electrically conductive material on the non-conductive layer, wherein a space is formed on the non-conductive layer between the first and second electrically conductive materials. A second opening is formed through the non-conductive layer between the second electrically conductive material and another of the electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device. The first and second electrically conductive materials combine and exit at least partially through the first and second openings to connect the two electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device at a predetermined temperature.

  17. Comparison of two systems for rigidly connecting 2.0-mm bone screws to an implantable device : in vitro stability testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, JP; de Bont, LGM; Verkerke, GJ

    The stability of a screw-fixed implantable device can be improved by eliminating the freedom of movement between the screws and the device. Two systems have been developed for rigidly connecting 2.0-mm bone screws to an implantable device, and the aim of this study was to test and compare the

  18. Testing for adaptive evolution of the female reproductive protein ZPC in mammals, birds and fishes reveals problems with the M7-M8 likelihood ratio test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Sofia; Smith, Nick G C

    2005-11-10

    Adaptive evolution appears to be a common feature of reproductive proteins across a very wide range of organisms. A promising way of addressing the evolutionary forces responsible for this general phenomenon is to test for adaptive evolution in the same gene but among groups of species, which differ in their reproductive biology. One can then test evolutionary hypotheses by asking whether the variation in adaptive evolution is consistent with the variation in reproductive biology. We have attempted to apply this approach to the study of a female reproductive protein, zona pellucida C (ZPC), which has been previously shown by the use of likelihood ratio tests (LRTs) to be under positive selection in mammals. We tested for evidence of adaptive evolution of ZPC in 15 mammalian species, in 11 avian species and in six fish species using three different LRTs (M1a-M2a, M7-M8, and M8a-M8). The only significant findings of adaptive evolution came from the M7-M8 test in mammals and fishes. Since LRTs of adaptive evolution may yield false positives in some situations, we examined the properties of the LRTs by several different simulation methods. When we simulated data to test the robustness of the LRTs, we found that the pattern of evolution in ZPC generates an excess of false positives for the M7-M8 LRT but not for the M1a-M2a or M8a-M8 LRTs. This bias is strong enough to have generated the significant M7-M8 results for mammals and fishes. We conclude that there is no strong evidence for adaptive evolution of ZPC in any of the vertebrate groups we studied, and that the M7-M8 LRT can be biased towards false inference of adaptive evolution by certain patterns of non-adaptive evolution.

  19. Inter operability of smart field devices on an open field-bus: from laboratory tests to on-site applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piguet, M.; Favennec, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents a field trial held in EDF's R and D laboratories concerning smart field instruments (sensors, I/O modules, transmitters) operating on the WorldFIP field-bus. The trial put into operation a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system on the field-bus with available industrial field devices and software tools. The field trial enables EDF's teams to address the inter-operability issue regarding smart field devices and to prepare the forthcoming step from analog to fully digital measurement technology by evaluating new services and higher performances provided. Possible architectures for process control and on-site testing purposes have been identified. A first application for a flow-measuring rig is under way. It implements a WorldFIP field-bus based DCS with FIP/HART multiplexers, FIP and HART smart devices (sensors and actuators) and a field management system. (authors)

  20. Field Performance versus Standard Test Condition Efficiency of Tandem Solar Cells and the Specific Case of Perovskites/Silicon Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Dupre, Olivier

    2018-01-05

    Multijunction cells may offer a cost-effective route to boost the efficiency of industrial photovoltaics. For any technology to be deployed in the field, its performance under actual operating conditions is extremely important. In this perspective, we evaluate the impact of spectrum, light intensity, and module temperature variations on the efficiency of tandem devices with crystalline silicon bottom cells with a particular focus on perovskite top cells. We consider devices with different efficiencies and calculate their energy yields using field data from Denver. We find that annual losses due to differences between operating conditions and standard test conditions are similar for single-junction and four-terminal tandem devices. The additional loss for the two-terminal tandem configuration caused by current mismatch reduces its performance ratio by only 1.7% when an optimal top cell bandgap is used. Additionally, the unusual bandgap temperature dependence of perovskites is shown to have a positive, compensating effect on current mismatch.

  1. HPV, Cervical Cancer and Pap Test Related Knowledge Among a Sample of Female Dental Students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Dolar; Reddy, B Srikanth; Karunakar, P; Deshpande, Kopparesh

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to ascertain knowledge about HPV, cervical cancer (CC) and the Pap test among female dental students of Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Hyderabad, India. A self-administered questionnaire covering demographic details, knowledge relating to human papilloma virus (HPV) (8 items), cervical cancer (4 items) and the Pap smear (6 items) was employed. Responses were coded as "True, False and Don't Know". Mean and standard deviation (SD) for correct answers and levels of knowledge were determined. Based on the year of study, significant differences in knowledge of HPV were noted for questions on symptoms (p=0.01); transmission from asymptomatic partners (p=0.002); treatment with antibiotics (p=0.002); start of sexual activity (p=0.004); and recommended age for HPV vaccination (p=0.01). For knowledge regarding CC, significance was observed for the age group being affected (p=0.008) and symptoms of the disease in early stages (p=0.001). Indications for Pap smear tests like symptoms' of vaginal discharge (p=0.002), marital status (p=0.01) and women with children (p=0.02) had significant difference based on the year of study. Based on religion, transmission of HPV via pregnancy, HPV related diseases except CC and preventive measures except condom use and oral contraceptives showed significant differences. However, significant variation with religion was observed only for two preventive measures of CC (Pap test; p=0.004) and HPV vaccination (p=0.003). Likewise, only the frequency of Pap test showed a significant difference for religion (p=0.001). This study emphasizes the lack of awareness with regard to HPV, CC and screening with pap smear even among health professionals. Hence, regular health campaigns are essential to reduce the disease burden.

  2. Overview of a benefit/risk ratio optimized for a radiation emitting device used in non-destructive testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maharaj, H.P., E-mail: H_P_Maharaj@hc-sc.gc.ca [Health Canada, Dept. of Health, Consumer and Clinical Radiaton Protection Bureau, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    This paper aims to provide an overview of an optimized benefit/risk ratio for a radiation emitting device. The device, which is portable, hand-held, and open-beam x-ray tube based, is utilized by a wide variety of industries for purposes of determining elemental or chemical analyses of materials in-situ based on fluorescent x-rays. These analyses do not cause damage or permanent alteration of the test materials and are considered a non-destructive test (NDT). Briefly, the key characteristics, principles of use and radiation hazards associated with the Hay device are presented and discussed. In view of the potential radiation risks, a long term strategy that incorporates risk factors and guiding principles intended to mitigate the radiation risks to the end user was considered and applied. Consequently, an operator certification program was developed on the basis of an International Standards Organization (ISO) standard (ISO 20807:2004) and in collaboration with various stake holders and was implemented by a federal national NDT certification body several years ago. It comprises a written radiation safety examination and hands-on training with the x-ray device. The operator certification program was recently revised and the changes appear beneficial. There is a fivefold increase in operator certification (Levels 1 a nd 2) to date compared with earlier years. Results are favorable and promising. An operational guidance document is available to help mitigate radiation risks. Operator certification in conjunction with the use of the operational guidance document is prudent, and is recommended for end users of the x-ray device. Manufacturers and owners of the x-ray devices will also benefit from the operational guidance document. (author)

  3. Overview of a benefit/risk ratio optimized for a radiation emitting device used in non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharaj, H.P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of an optimized benefit/risk ratio for a radiation emitting device. The device, which is portable, hand-held, and open-beam x-ray tube based, is utilized by a wide variety of industries for purposes of determining elemental or chemical analyses of materials in-situ based on fluorescent x-rays. These analyses do not cause damage or permanent alteration of the test materials and are considered a non-destructive test (NDT). Briefly, the key characteristics, principles of use and radiation hazards associated with the Hay device are presented and discussed. In view of the potential radiation risks, a long term strategy that incorporates risk factors and guiding principles intended to mitigate the radiation risks to the end user was considered and applied. Consequently, an operator certification program was developed on the basis of an International Standards Organization (ISO) standard (ISO 20807:2004) and in collaboration with various stake holders and was implemented by a federal national NDT certification body several years ago. It comprises a written radiation safety examination and hands-on training with the x-ray device. The operator certification program was recently revised and the changes appear beneficial. There is a fivefold increase in operator certification (Levels 1 a nd 2) to date compared with earlier years. Results are favorable and promising. An operational guidance document is available to help mitigate radiation risks. Operator certification in conjunction with the use of the operational guidance document is prudent, and is recommended for end users of the x-ray device. Manufacturers and owners of the x-ray devices will also benefit from the operational guidance document. (author)

  4. Elite Female Basketball Players' Body-Weight Neuromuscular Training and Performance on the Y-Balance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benis, Roberto; Bonato, Matteo; La Torre, Antonio La

    2016-09-01

    Neuromuscular training enhances unconscious motor responses by stimulating both the afferent signals and central mechanisms responsible for dynamic joint control. Dynamic joint-control training is a vital component of injury-prevention programs. To investigate the effects of body-weight neuromuscular training on Y-Balance Test (YBT) performance and postural control in female basketball players. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Basketball practice sessions. A total of 28 healthy elite female basketball players were randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 14) or a control group (n = 14). Before their regular practice sessions, the experimental group warmed up with body-weight neuromuscular exercises and the control group with standard tactical-technical exercises twice weekly for 8 weeks. Anterior-, posteromedial-, and posterolateral-reach and composite YBT scores were measured before and after 8 weeks of training. Improvement over baseline scores was noted in the posteromedial (right = 86.5 ± 4.5 cm versus 89.6 ± 2.2 cm, +3.5%, P = .049; left = 85.5 ± 4.3 cm versus 90.2 ± 2.7 cm, +5.5%, P = .038)- and posterolateral (right = 90.7 ± 3.6 cm versus 94.0 ± 2.7 cm, +3.6%, P = .016; left = 90.9 ± 3.5 cm versus 94.2 ± 2.6 cm, +3.6%, P = .011)-reach directions and in the composite YBT scores (right = 88.6% ± 3.2% versus 94.0% ± 1.8%, +5.4%, P = .0004; left = 89.2% ± 3.2% versus 94.5% ± 3.0%, +5.8%, P = .001) of the experimental group. No differences in anterior reach were detected in either group. Differences were noted in postintervention scores for posteromedial reach (right = 89.6 ± 2.2 cm versus 84.3 ± 4.4 cm, +4.1%, P = .005; left = 94.2 ± 2.6 cm versus 84.8 ± 4.4 cm, +10%, P = .003) and composite scores (right = 94.0% ± 1.8% versus 87.3% ± 2.0%, +7.1%, P = .003; left = 94.8% ± 3.0% versus 87.9% ± 3.4%, +7.3%, P weight neuromuscular training improved postural control and lower limb stability in female basketball players as assessed with the

  5. Shock wave effects in copper: Design of an experimental device for post recovery mechanical testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buy, Francois; Llorca, Fabrice

    2002-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of metals may prove high changes with strain rate and pressure loading history. In order to investigate the effect of a shock on the ulterior mechanical behavior of high purity copper, we set up an experimental device inspired from G. T. Gray III's works. This device, based on the trapping of shock waves after a plane plate impact is validated by numerical simulations. The aim of these simulations is the evaluation of the heterogeneity of plastic deformation. Shock pressures up to 10 GPa have been investigated. The plastic strain levels subsequent to the shock are between 0.08 and 0.15 in the sample

  6. A microfluidic device with multi-valves system to enable several simultaneous exposure tests on Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jaehoon; Masaru, Takeuchi; Nakajima, Masahiro; Huang, Qiang; Fukuda, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a microfluidic device with a multi-valve system to conduct several exposure tests on Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) simultaneously. It has pneumatic valves and no-moving-parts (NMP) valves. An NMP valve is incorporated with a chamber and enables the unidirectional movement of C. elegans in the chamber; once worms are loaded into the chamber, they cannot exit, regardless of the flow direction. To demonstrate the ability of the NMP valve to handle worms, we made a microfluidic device with three chambers. Each chamber was used to expose worms to Cd and Cu solutions, and K-medium. A pair of electrodes was installed in the device and the capacitance in-between the electrode was measured. When a C. elegans passed through the electrodes, the capacitance was changed. The capacitance change was proportional to the body volume of the worm, thus the body volume change by the heavy metal exposure was measured in the device. Thirty worms were divided into three groups and exposed to each solution. We confirmed that the different solutions induced differences in the capacitance changes for each group. These results indicate that our device is a viable method for simultaneously analyzing the effect of multiple stimuli on C. elegans. (paper)

  7. Artifical Excitation of Ferro-Resonance for Testing Electrotechnical Equipment in Distribution Devices with Increased Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Dmitriev

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the developed device for protection against of ferro-resonant and high-frequency cumulative over-voltages an algorithm for obtaining a voltage imitating ferro-resonant over-voltages is proposed in the paper. This algorithm presupposes to apply a voltage to the secondary transformer side from an extraneous source is proposed.

  8. Isotope-labelled urea to test colon drug delivery devices in vivo : principles, calculations and interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurer, Marina; Schellekens, Reinout C. A.; Wutzke, Klaus D.; Stellaard, Frans

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes various methodological aspects that were encountered during the development of a system to monitor the in vivo behaviour of a newly developed colon delivery device that enables oral drug treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. [C-13]urea was chosen as the marker substance.

  9. A hydraulic test device for free-flowing artesian boreholes with a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-22

    Oct 22, 2013 ... head of the aquifer is often above ground level, the applicability of the device presented is likely to be widespread. With due .... rate will become zero, and pressure head will start to rise in ..... John Wiley & Sons, New York.

  10. 76 FR 16350 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... inflation) in any one year.'' The current threshold after adjustment for inflation is $135 million, using the most current (2009) Implicit Price Deflator for the Gross Domestic Product. FDA does not expect... proposes to amend 21 CFR part 866 as follows. PART 866--IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES 1. The...

  11. Laboratory- and field-based testing as predictors of skating performance in competitive-level female ice hockey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriksson T

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tommy Henriksson,1,2 Jason D Vescovi,3 Anncristine Fjellman-Wiklund,4 Kajsa Gilenstam1 1Sport Medicine Unit, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2The National Graduate School of Gender Studies, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 3Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 4Physiotherapy Unit, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine whether field-based and/or laboratory-based assessments are valid tools for predicting key performance characteristics of skating in competitive-level female hockey players.Design: Cross-sectional study.Methods: Twenty-three female ice hockey players aged 15–25 years (body mass: 66.1±6.3 kg; height: 169.5±5.5 cm, with 10.6±3.2 years playing experience volunteered to participate in the study. The field-based assessments included 20 m sprint, squat jump, countermovement jump, 30-second repeated jump test, standing long jump, single-leg standing long jump, 20 m shuttle run test, isometric leg pull, one-repetition maximum bench press, and one-repetition maximum squats. The laboratory-based assessments included body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, maximal aerobic power, and isokinetic strength (Biodex. The on-ice tests included agility cornering s-turn, cone agility skate, transition agility skate, and modified repeat skate sprint. Data were analyzed using stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis. Linear regression analysis was used to establish the relationship between key performance characteristics of skating and the predictor variables.Results: Regression models (adj R2 for the on-ice variables ranged from 0.244 to 0.663 for the field-based assessments and from 0.136 to 0.420 for the laboratory-based assessments. Single-leg tests were the strongest predictors for key performance characteristics of skating. Single leg standing

  12. Female infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.A.; Yoder, I.

    1984-01-01

    Infertility, defined as 1 year of unprotected intercourse without conception, is becoming of increasingly important medical concern. Fertility in both the male and the female is at its peak in the twenties. Many couples today have postponed marriage and/or childbearing into their 30s until careers are established, but at that point fertility may be diminished. The current epidemic of venereal disease has been associated with an increasing incidence of tubal scarring. In addition, the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) and birth control pills for contraception have let to later problems with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovulation disturbances. The problem of infertility intensifies as the number of babies available for adoption decreases. Therefore, it is estimated that approximately 10-20% of couples will eventually seek medical attention for an infertility-related problem. Fortunately, marked improvements in the results of tubal surgery are concurrently occurring secondary to refinements in microsurgical techniques, and many medical alternatives to induce ovulation are being developed. The male factor causes infertility in 30-40 % of couples, and the female factor is responsible in approximately 50% of couples. No cause is found in 10-20% of couples. This chapter discusses the role of coordinated imaging in the diagnosis and therapy of infertility in the female

  13. Study on 3D printer production of auxiliary device for upper limb for medical imaging test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeong Gyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Far East University, Eumsung (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jae Ho [Jukwang Precision Co., Ltd., Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong Dae [Dept. of Mechanical system engineering, Kumoh Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    There is a progressive development in the medical imaging technology, especially of descriptive capability for anatomical structure of human body thanks to advancement of information technology and medical devices. But however maintenance of correct posture is essential for the medical imaging checkup on the shoulder joint requiring rotation of the upper limb due to the complexity of human body. In the cases of MRI examination, long duration and fixed posture are critical, as failure to comply with them leads to minimal possibility of reproducibility only with the efforts of the examiner and will of the patient. Thus, this study aimed to develop an auxiliary device that enables rotation of the upper limb as well as fixing it at quantitative angles for medical imaging examination capable of providing diagnostic values. An auxiliary device has been developed based on the results of precedent studies, by designing a 3D model with the CATIA software, an engineering application, and producing it with the 3D printer. The printer is Objet350 Connex from Stratasys, and acrylonitrile- butadiene-styrene(ABS) is used as the material of the device. Dimensions are 120 X 150 X 190 mm, with the inner diameter of the handle being 125.9 mm. The auxiliary device has 4 components including the body (outside), handle (inside), fixture terminal and the connection part. The body and handle have the gap of 2.1 mm for smooth rotation, while the 360 degree of scales have been etched on the handle so that the angle required for observation may be recorded per patient for traceability and dual examination.

  14. Study on 3D printer production of auxiliary device for upper limb for medical imaging test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeong Gyun; Yoon, Jae Ho; Choi, Seong Dae

    2015-01-01

    There is a progressive development in the medical imaging technology, especially of descriptive capability for anatomical structure of human body thanks to advancement of information technology and medical devices. But however maintenance of correct posture is essential for the medical imaging checkup on the shoulder joint requiring rotation of the upper limb due to the complexity of human body. In the cases of MRI examination, long duration and fixed posture are critical, as failure to comply with them leads to minimal possibility of reproducibility only with the efforts of the examiner and will of the patient. Thus, this study aimed to develop an auxiliary device that enables rotation of the upper limb as well as fixing it at quantitative angles for medical imaging examination capable of providing diagnostic values. An auxiliary device has been developed based on the results of precedent studies, by designing a 3D model with the CATIA software, an engineering application, and producing it with the 3D printer. The printer is Objet350 Connex from Stratasys, and acrylonitrile- butadiene-styrene(ABS) is used as the material of the device. Dimensions are 120 X 150 X 190 mm, with the inner diameter of the handle being 125.9 mm. The auxiliary device has 4 components including the body (outside), handle (inside), fixture terminal and the connection part. The body and handle have the gap of 2.1 mm for smooth rotation, while the 360 degree of scales have been etched on the handle so that the angle required for observation may be recorded per patient for traceability and dual examination

  15. Performance differences between male and female marines on standardized physical fitness tests and combat proxy tasks: identifying the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Jason; Pappa, Leon; McGuire, Brian; Kelly, Karen R

    2015-01-01

    For decades women have been restricted from direct assignment to certain military occupational specialties such as infantry. These restrictions can limit the advancement of women through the ranks of military leadership. Thus, the purpose of this effort was to identify those physical requirements most likely to serve as barriers for women wanting to enter closed combat arms positions, and to evaluate the quality of existing physical fitness tests as potential measures of assessment of combat readiness. Data were collected from 3 different sites within the US Marine Corps Training and Education Command. All participants (409 male, 379 femaile) were active-duty Marines who recently completed the Physical Fitness Test (PFT) and Combat Fitness Test (CFT). Participants completed 6 physical tasks: 120-mm tank loading drill, 155-mm artillery round carry, negotiating an obstacle course wall while wearing a fighting load (≈30 lb), pull-ups, deadlift, and clean and press. Overall, there was a high rate of successful completion on the combat proxy tasks (men, ≈80% to 100%; women, ≈70% to 100%), with the notable exception being the clean and press (men, 80%; women, 9%) and pull-ups (men, 16±4; women, 4±2). The PFT and CFT components tasks were also related, strongly in some cases, with performance on combat-related proxy tasks (Spearman's ρ typically ranged from 0.60 to 0.80). Estimates of fat-free mass and VO2max were also strongly related to an overall measure of combat readiness (Spearman's ρ=0.77 and ρ=0.56, respectively). The primary physical obstacle for women is upper body strength. However, some women could successfully complete all of the proxy tasks and thus are physically capable of meeting the demands of closed combat occupations. The fact that some female Marines could complete the most challenging upper body strength tasks suggests that these barriers are not inherent but may be due to a lack of training specificity.

  16. Radiation effect test on ADC/DAC and high density memory devices with 60Co γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Kefei; Wang Yueke; Pan Huafeng

    2006-01-01

    A test platform was constructed for 60 Co γ-ray irradiation experiment of microelectronics, with the aid of computer and a FPGA module. The tested sample devices included analog-to-digital converter AD10465, digital-to-analog converter AD9857, high density Flash memory MEF64M16 and anti-fused PROM XQR17V16, which are used in signal processing module in spaceborne systems. Evaluations were made on their ability of resisting the total dose based on the proper function criterion of the devices. The results showed that AD10465 and AD9857 ran properly after 1.59 kGy(Si) irradiation, but errors were found when MEF64M16 and XQR17V16's total ionizing dose is 0.13 kGy(Si) and 0.99 kGy(Si), respectively. (authors)

  17. Assessment of knee laxity using a robotic testing device: a comparison to the manual clinical knee examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, T P; Stinton, S K; Siebold, R; Freedberg, H I; Jacobs, C A; Hutton, W C

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect knee laxity data using a robotic testing device. The data collected were then compared to the results obtained from manual clinical examination. Two human cadavers were studied. A medial collateral ligament (MCL) tear was simulated in the left knee of cadaver 1, and a posterolateral corner (PLC) injury was simulated in the right knee of cadaver 2. Contralateral knees were left intact. Five blinded examiners carried out manual clinical examination on the knees. Laxity grades and a diagnosis were recorded. Using a robotic knee device which can measure knee laxity in three planes of motion: anterior-posterior, internal-external tibia rotation, and varus-valgus, quantitative data were obtained to document tibial motion relative to the femur. One of the five examiners correctly diagnosed the MCL injury. Robotic testing showed a 1.7° larger valgus angle, 3° greater tibial internal rotation, and lower endpoint stiffness (11.1 vs. 24.6 Nm/°) in the MCL-injured knee during varus-valgus testing when compared to the intact knee and 4.9 mm greater medial tibial translation during rotational testing. Two of the five examiners correctly diagnosed the PLC injury, while the other examiners diagnosed an MCL tear. The PLC-injured knee demonstrated 4.1 mm more lateral tibial translation and 2.2 mm more posterior tibial translation during varus-valgus testing when compared to the intact knee. The robotic testing device was able to provide objective numerical data that reflected differences between the injured knees and the uninjured knees in both cadavers. The examiners that performed the manual clinical examination on the cadaver knees proved to be poor at diagnosing the injuries. Robotic testing could act as an adjunct to the manual clinical examination by supplying numbers that could improve diagnosis of knee injury. Level II.

  18. Design Engineering in Surgery. How to Design, Test and Market Surgical Devices Made With 3D Printing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez García, José Ignacio; Sierra Velasco, José Manuel; Villazón Suárez, Marta; Cabrera Pereira, Ana; Sosa, Valentina; Cortizo Rodríguez, José Luis

    2018-04-01

    Industry 4.0 offers new development opportunities for surgeons. Computer-aided design and 3D printing allow for the creation of prototypes and functional end products. Until now, it was difficult for new devices to get to the manufacturing phase. Nowadays, the main limitations are our creativity, available spaces to test our creations and obtaining financing. Copyright © 2018 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. TBI Assessment of Readiness Using a Gait Evaluation Test (TARGET): Development of a Portable mTBI Screening Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    determine the validity and reliability of an Android device-based mTBI (mild traumatic brain injury) screening test app for assessing motor function. The...individuals and those with clinically confirmed mTBI in both a civilian and military population. 15. SUBJECT TERMS- 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...8 5. Changes/ Problems 9 6. Products 11 7. Participants & Other Collaborating Organizations 14 8. Special Reporting Requirements 16 9. Appendices

  20. Mobile Testing of Cognitive Function : A tool for assessment of cognitive abilities in an everyday environment using a handheld device

    OpenAIRE

    Fouchenette, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The unit of Cognitive Developmental Neuroscience at Karolinska Institutet have developed a method for measuring cognitive performance with handheld devices, which resulted in a mobile application for the iPod Touch. The application was previously used in a clinical trial with individuals suffering from chronic stress disorder, but had to be further developed. The application, which consisted of cognitive tests and questionnaires, required improvements that could be divided into three parts: (...

  1. A calibration mechanism based on the principles of the Michelson interferometer micro-thrust test device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Biao; Wang, Hai; Yang, Chunlai; Wen, Li

    2017-08-01

    A micro-thrust test system based on Michelson interferometer was proposed and tested. The relationship between thrust and output voltage of the calibration component in the system was calculated and verified with numerical modeling. The fitting function of the calibration component was obtained, which will be tested during future thrust test experiments.

  2. Testing the ISP method with the PARIO device: Accuracy of results and influence of homogenization technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, Wolfgang; Huber, Magdalena; Yangxu, Li; Steins, Andi; Pertassek, Thomas; Göttlein, Axel; Iden, Sascha C.; von Unold, Georg

    2017-04-01

    The particle-size distribution (PSD) is one of the main properties of soils. To determine the proportions of the fine fractions silt and clay, sedimentation experiments are used. Most common are the Pipette and Hydrometer method. Both need manual sampling at specific times. Both are thus time-demanding and rely on experienced operators. Durner et al. (Durner, W., S.C. Iden, and G. von Unold (2017): The integral suspension pressure method (ISP) for precise particle-size analysis by gravitational sedimentation, Water Resources Research, doi:10.1002/2016WR019830) recently developed the integral suspension method (ISP) method, which is implemented in the METER Group device PARIOTM. This new method estimates continuous PSD's from sedimentation experiments by recording the temporal evolution of the suspension pressure at a certain measurement depth in a sedimentation cylinder. It requires no manual interaction after start and thus no specialized training of the lab personnel. The aim of this study was to test the precision and accuracy of new method with a variety of materials, to answer the following research questions: (1) Are the results obtained by PARIO reliable and stable? (2) Are the results affected by the initial mixing technique to homogenize the suspension, or by the presence of sand in the experiment? (3) Are the results identical to the one that are obtained with the Pipette method as reference method? The experiments were performed with a pure quartz silt material and four real soil materials. PARIO measurements were done repetitively on the same samples in a temperature-controlled lab to characterize the repeatability of the measurements. Subsequently, the samples were investigated by the pipette method to validate the results. We found that the statistical error for silt fraction from replicate and repetitive measurements was in the range of 1% for the quartz material to 3% for soil materials. Since the sand fractions, as in any sedimentation method, must

  3. 78 FR 69943 - Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Q3s 3-Year-Old Child Side Impact Test Dummy, Incorporation by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... airbag tests, Stapp Car Crash Journal, V44: 25-50. Since the Q3 had yet to show it was suitable for side... on May 2, 2002, 67 FR 21836. In early 2002, NHTSA tested a prototype version of the Q3s.\\6\\ NHTSA..., durability, and biofidelity. We determined that the thorax of the prototype appeared biofidelic and...

  4. Evaluation of the effect of acute sibutramine in female rats in the elevated T-maze and elevated plus-maze tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Raliny O; de Assunção, Gabriela L M; de Medeiros, Diogo M B; de Sousa Pinto, Icaro A; de Barros, Keizianny S; Soares, Bruno L; André, Eunice; Gavioli, Elaine C; de Paula Soares-Rachetti, Vanessa

    2014-02-01

    Sibutramine is a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor indicated for the treatment of obesity. A pre-clinical study showed that acute administration of sibutramine promoted anxiolytic- and panicolytic-like effects in male rats. However, in clinical reports, sibutramine favoured the onset of panic attacks in women. In this study, the effect of sibutramine on experimental anxiety in females and the relevance of different oestrous cycle phases for this effect were analysed. In experiment 1, both male and female rats were submitted to acute intraperitoneal injection of sibutramine or vehicle 30 min. before testing in the elevated T-maze (ETM) and in the open-field test (OF). Females in the pro-oestrus (P), oestrus (E), early dioestrus (ED) and late dioestrus (LD) phases were tested in the ETM and OF (experiment 2) or in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) 30 min. after the injection of sibutramine. Sibutramine impaired the escape response in the ETM in both males and females. This effect was observed for P, E and ED, but not for LD females. Sibutramine altered neither the inhibitory avoidance in the ETM nor the behaviour of females in the EPM. Thus, sibutramine promoted a panicolytic-like effect in female rats cycling at P, E and ED, but not in the LD phase and did not alter behaviours related to anxiety in both ETM and EPM. Considering that pre-clinical studies aiming the screening of anxiolytic drugs employ male rodents, data here obtained reinforce the importance of better understanding the effects of drugs in females. © 2013 Nordic Pharmacological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Female Advantage in Object Location Memory is Robust to Verbalizability and Mode of Presentation of Test Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejbak, Lisa; Vrbancic, Mirna; Crossley, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    This study extends Duff and Hampson's [Duff, S., & Hampson, E. (2001). A sex difference on a novel spatial working memory task in humans. "Brain and Cognition, 47," 470-493] finding of a sex-related difference in favor of females for an object location memory task. Twenty female and 20 male undergraduate students performed both manual and…

  6. High School Females' Emotions, Self-Efficacy, and Attributions during Soccer and Fitness Testing in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodewyk, Ken R.; Muir, Amber

    2017-01-01

    Female enthusiasm toward engaging in physical education decreases significantly with age. This has been linked to, among other things, the negative emotional experiences that sometimes occur when learning and participating in a variety of curricular content such as games or fitness activities. Little is yet known about how females' enjoyment,…

  7. The evolution of sex differences in mate searching when females benefit: new theory and a comparative test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, J; Kokko, H; Heller, K-G; Gwynne, D T

    2012-03-22

    Sexual selection is thought to have led to searching as a profitable, but risky way of males obtaining mates. While there is great variation in which sex searches, previous theory has not considered search evolution when both males and females benefit from multiple mating. We present new theory and link it with data to bridge this gap. Two different search protocols exist between species in the bush-cricket genus Poecilimon (Orthoptera): females search for calling males, or males search for calling females. Poecilimon males also transfer a costly nuptial food gift to their mates during mating. We relate variations in searching protocols to variation in nuptial gift size among 32 Poecilimon taxa. As predicted, taxa where females search produce significantly larger nuptial gifts than those where males search. Our model and results show that search roles can reverse when multiple mating brings about sufficiently strong material benefits to females.

  8. ThermaCELL and OFF! Clip-On Devices Tested for Repellency and Mortality Against Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodida: Amblyommidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbs, Christopher S; Xue, Rui-De

    2016-07-01

    The ThermaCELL with allethrin and OFF! Clip-on with metofluthrin were tested in a 939 m 2 vented enclosure against nymphal lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.). Repellency assays were conducted at varying distances relative to product specifications for repellency range. Nymphal ticks acclimated for 24 h in chambers attached to 10 repellency tracks per repetition. Devices were turned on, and the tick travel distance and delay until beginning to travel were recorded. Mortality of ticks was recorded after 24 h. Mortality assays were also conducted at the same distances with five ticks per cage, and 12 cages per distance radially distributed around a device. Cages were removed after 5 min, 15 min, 30 min, and 60 min of exposure and checked after 24 h for mortality. Significant travel distance was found when exposed to the ThermaCELL and OFF! Clip-on at their shortest test distances. Significant mortality also resulted at the same distances. Ticks exposed to active devices for longer than 15 min had significant mortality at the shortest distance for OFF! Clip-on and multiple distances for the ThermaCELL. Overall, the spatial repellent devices ThermaCELL with allethrin and OFF! Clip-on with metofluthrin both demonstrated desirable effects when tested against A. americanum nymphs. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Development and Testing of Atomic Beam-Based Plasma Edge Diagnostics in the CIEMAT Fusion Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafalla, D.; Tabares, F.L.; Ortiz, P.; Herrero, V.J.; Tanarro, I.

    1998-01-01

    In this report the development of plasma edge diagnostic based on atomic beam techniques fir their application in the CIEMAT fusion devices is described. The characterisation of the beams in laboratory experiments at the CSIC, together with first results in the Torsatron TJ-II are reported. Two types of beam diagnostics have been developed: a thermal (effusive) Li and a supersonic, pulsed He beams. This work has been carried out in collaboration between the institutions mentioned above under partial financial support by EURATOM. (Author) 17 refs

  10. Interim guidance risk assessment of the device assembly facility at the Nevada test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altenbach, T.J.

    1996-05-01

    The risks of plutonium dispersal and/or high explosive detonation from nuclear explosive operations at the Device Assembly Facility were examined in accordance with DOE Order 5610.11 and the Interim Guidance. The assessment consisted of a qualitative task and hazards analysis, and a quantitative risk screening. Results are displayed on risk matrices for the major types of operations. Most accident scenarios were considered to have Low risk; a few scenarios have Moderate risk; and none have High risk. The highest risk scenarios (Moderate category) consist of a high explosive detonation during assembly operations in a cell, with bare conventional high explosive surrounding the pit

  11. Female CFOs and loan contracting: Financial conservatism or gender discrimination? – An empirical test based on collateral clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixiong Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on signaling and gender discrimination theory, we examine whether chief financial officer (CFO gender matters to bank–firm relationships and the designing of collateral clauses in bank loan contracting, and explore the potential path of influence. Data taken from Chinese listed companies between 2009 and 2012 indicate that (1 female-CFO-led firms are less likely to obtain credit loans than male-CFO-led firms; (2 female-CFO-led borrowers are more likely to be required to provide collateral for loans than male-CFO-led borrowers; and (3 banks are more inclined to claim mortgaging collateral when lending to female-CFO-led firms and prefer to guarantee collateral when lending to male-CFO-led firms. Female-CFO-led borrowers seem to be granted more unfavorable loan terms than male-CFO-led borrowers, supporting the hypothesis that female CFOs experience credit discrimination. Further analysis reveals that regional financial development helps to alleviate lending discrimination against female CFOs. Furthermore, female CFOs in SOEs are less likely than their non-SOE counterparts to experience gender discrimination in the credit market.

  12. Female CFOs and loan contracting: Financial conservatism or gender discrimination? – An empirical test based on collateral clauses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xixiong; Xu; Yaoqin; Li; Mengmeng; Chang

    2016-01-01

    Based on signaling and gender discrimination theory, we examine whether chief financial officer(CFO) gender matters to bank–firm relationships and the designing of collateral clauses in bank loan contracting, and explore the potential path of influence. Data taken from Chinese listed companies between2009 and 2012 indicate that(1) female-CFO-led firms are less likely to obtain credit loans than male-CFO-led firms;(2) female-CFO-led borrowers are more likely to be required to provide collateral for loans than male-CFO-led borrowers; and(3) banks are more inclined to claim mortgaging collateral when lending to female-CFO-led firms and prefer to guarantee collateral when lending to male-CFO-led firms. Female-CFO-led borrowers seem to be granted more unfavorable loan terms than male-CFO-led borrowers, supporting the hypothesis that female CFOs experience credit discrimination. Further analysis reveals that regional financial development helps to alleviate lending discrimination against female CFOs. Furthermore, female CFOs in SOEs are less likely than their non-SOE counterparts to experience gender discrimination in the credit market.

  13. Usability testing of an mHealth device for swallowing therapy in head and neck cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Gabriela; Kuffel, Kristina; King, Ben; Hodgetts, William; Rieger, Jana

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct the first patient usability testing of a mobile health (mHealth) system for in-home swallowing therapy. Five participants with a history of head and neck cancer evaluated the mHealth system. After completing an in-application (app) tutorial with the clinician, participants were asked to independently complete five tasks: pair the device to the smartphone, place the device correctly, exercise, interpret progress displays, and close the system. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to evaluate the effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction with the system. Critical changes to the app were found in three of the tasks, resulting in recommendations for the next iteration. These issues were related to ease of Bluetooth pairing, placement of device, and interpretation of statistics. Usability testing with patients identified issues that were essential to address prior to implementing the mHealth system in subsequent clinical trials. Of the usability methods used, video observation (synced screen capture with videoed gestures) revealed the most information.

  14. Interlaboratory indoor ageing of roll-to-roll and spin coated organic photovoltaic devices: Testing the ISOS tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren A.; Corazza, Michael; Madsen, Morten Vesterager

    2014-01-01

    to roll-to-roll production. Furthermore, the reproducibility of current–voltage (IV) measurement and preconditioning (light soaking treatments) are addressed. Additionally, the inter-comparison of the degradation rates of the samples aged under three different dark test conditions (ambient, dry/heat, damp...

  15. A test of genetic association among male nuptial coloration, female mating preference, and male aggression bias within a polymorphic population of cichlid fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inke van der SLUIJS, Peter D. DIJKSTRA, Charlotte M. LINDEYER et al.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Both inter- and intrasexual selection have been implicated in the origin and maintenance of species-rich taxa with diverse sexual traits. Simultaneous disruptive selection by female mate choice and male-male competition can, in theory, lead to speciation without geographical isolation if both act on the same male trait. Female mate choice can generate discontinuities in gene flow, while male-male competition can generate negative frequency-dependent selection stabilizing the male trait polymorphism. Speciation may be facilitated when mating preference and/or aggression bias are physically linked to the trait they operate on. We tested for genetic associations among female mating preference, male aggression bias and male coloration in the Lake Victoria cichlid Pundamilia. We crossed females from a phenotypically variable population with males from both extreme ends of the phenotype distribution in the same population (blue or red. Male offspring of a red sire were significantly redder than males of a blue sire, indicating that intra-population variation in male coloration is heritable. We tested mating preferences of female offspring and aggression biases of male offspring using binary choice tests. There was no evidence for associations at the family level between female mating preferences and coloration of sires, but dam identity had a significant effect on female mate preference. Sons of the red sire directed significantly more aggression to red than blue males, whereas sons of the blue sire did not show any bias. There was a positive correlation among individuals between male aggression bias and body coloration, possibly due to pleiotropy or physical linkage, which could facilitate the maintenance of color polymorphism [Current Zoology 59 (2: 221-229, 2013].

  16. Microbiological testing of devices used in maintaining peripheral venous catheters 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Fernanda de Paula; de Andrade, Denise; Santos, Lissandra Chaves de Sousa; Ferreira, Adriano Menis; Tieppo, Caroline; Watanabe, Evandro

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the use of peripheral venous catheters based on microbiological analysis of devices (dressing and three-way stopcocks) and thus contribute to the prevention and infection control. Methods: this was a prospective study of microbiological analysis of 30 three-way stopcocks (external surfaces and lumens) and 30 dressing used in maintaining the peripheral venous catheters of hospitalized adult patients. Results: all external surfaces, 40% of lumens, and 86.7% of dressing presented bacterial growth. The main species isolated in the lumen were 50% coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, 14.3% Staphylococcus aureus, and 14.3% Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fifty nine percent of multidrug-resistant bacteria were isolated of the three-way stopcocks, 42% of the lumens, and 44% of the dressing with a predominance of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus resistant to methicillin. Besides, 18% gram-negative bacteria with resistance to carbapenems were identified from multidrug-resistant bacteria on the external surfaces of the three-way stopcocks. Conclusion: it is important to emphasize the isolation of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and gram-negative bacteria resistant to methicillin and carbapenems in samples of devices, respectively, which reinforces the importance of nursing care in the maintenance of the biologically safe environment as well as prevention and infection control practices. PMID:28513768

  17. Advanced Accelerated Power Cycling Test for Reliability Investigation of Power Device Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Jørgensen, Søren; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an apparatus and methodology for an advanced accelerated power cycling test of insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules. In this test, the accelerated power cycling test can be performed under more realistic electrical operating conditions with online wear-out monitoring...... of tested power IGBT module. The various realistic electrical operating conditions close to real three-phase converter applications can be achieved by the simple control method. Further, by the proposed concept of applying the temperature stress, it is possible to apply various magnitudes of temperature...... swing in a short cycle period and to change the temperature cycle period easily. Thanks to a short temperature cycle period, test results can be obtained in a reasonable test time. A detailed explanation of apparatus such as configuration and control methods for the different functions of accelerated...

  18. Mechanical property test of natural rubber bearing for the evaluation of uncertainty value of seismic isolation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Jung Han; Choi, In Kil

    2012-01-01

    Seismic safety of NPP is one of the most important issues in a nuclear field after great east Japan earthquake in 2011. For the improvement of seismic safety of nuclear power plant, seismic isolation is the easiest solution for increasing the seismic safety. Otherwise, the application of seismic isolation devices for nuclear power plants doesn't make the seismic risk of NPP increases always. The rubber bearing have many uncertainties of material properties and large displacement should absorb according to the application of isolation devices. In this study, for the evaluation of uncertainty of the material properties of rubber bearing, material tests for rubber and mechanical properties test for natural rubber bearing were performed. For the evaluation of effect of hardness of rubber, 4 kinds of rubber hardness for material property tests and 2 kinds of rubber hardness for mechanical property test were considered. As a result, the variation of material properties is higher than that of mechanical properties of natural rubber bearings

  19. Device for the automatic X-ray testing of welded joints of pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ries, K.; Hannoschieck, K.; Rozic, K.M.; Basler, G.

    1979-01-01

    The notification flows of the tested pipes determined by the ultrasonic inspection are transmitted to the X-ray film automatic charger in the X-ray test room. The roll table for the pipes from the ultrasonic inspection to the X-ray test room is provided with an arrangement for weld detection and tube lathe, so that the X-ray films can be set on the corresponding spot by means of a cantilever. (RW) [de

  20. Digitising of ultrasonic pulse echo devices as a means for automation of ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, R.

    1989-01-01

    A universal multi-purpose test equipment - EPOCH 2002 - with a 12.5 cm picture tube and a digitally generated echo pulse representation with a format of 80x57 mm is introduced. The content of the screen and the equipment adjustment data can be passed on to external units via a video or RS 232 interface. These parameters favour the use of equipment in part-automated test systems, such as, for example, level monitoring with difficult geometries, continuous testing of shrinkage during profile extrusion and testing for cracks around bolts and rivets with a rotor scanner in aircraft construction. (orig./MM) [de

  1. A hydraulic test device for free-flowing artesian boreholes with a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accurate parameter estimation for aquifers is very challenging, particularly for artesian aquifers in which the potentiometric surface is above ground level. A common approach to parameter estimation for artesian aquifers is to make use of free-flowing and recovery tests. However, such aquifer tests on artesian boreholes are ...

  2. SU-F-T-496: An Investigation of Two Novel Devices for Testing Linac Clearance During CT Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, A; Massingill, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work’s objective is to determine the efficacy of two newly patented devices termed the Mor-O rings, Mark1 and Mark2, developed to predict collisions between the patient and a linac at the time of CT simulation. Methods: Mark1: A ring with an inner radius equal to the distance between the isocenter and the nearest portion of a linac head(diso) was made. This is mounted to a stand that allows vertical repositioning. The ring is placed around the patient on the CT table and aligned with isocenter. The patient is moved through the ring. If the ring touches the patient, a collision is predicted. To test this device, predicted collisions were marked on a phantom. The phantom was then repositioned on the linac table where the collisions were verified. Mark2: An arc with the radius diso was created with a re-locatable half-linac head wire-frame. The Mark2 is positioned in the same way as the Mark1 but can additionally mimic couch and gantry angulations. The Mark2 was tested with a volunteer using multiple couch, gantry and isocenter positions. The volunteer was then repositioned on the linac table to verify the angles of collisions. Results: Mark1: One isocenter out of ten showed negative clearance (0.9mm) on the linac table. All other collisions were predicted with 1 to 36mm of additional clearance. Mark2: All collisions were prevented with an additional 1.3 to 14.8 degrees of clearance. Conclusion: The Mark1 prototype is able to predict all collisions when no couch angulation is used. This device takes less than a minute to setup and is simple to use. The Mark2, when testing beam geometries used for noncoplanar SBRT, was able to prevent all collisions with 1.3 to 14.8 degrees additional clearance. Improvements in construction for both devices could increase accuracy and usability. Andrew Morrow owns Morrow Physics, LLC and Brian Massingill owns Spur Physics, LLC. We are both listed on the patent for the devices investigated in this work (patent 9220922

  3. Development of a new biofidelity ranking system for anthropomorphic test devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhule, Heather H; Maltese, Matthew R; Donnelly, Bruce R; Eppinger, Rolf H; Brunner, Jill K; Bolte, John H

    2002-11-01

    A new biofidelity assessment system is being developed and applied to three side impact dummies: the WorldSID-alpha, the ES-2 and the SID-HIII. This system quantifies (1) the ability of a dummy to load a vehicle as a cadaver does, "External Biofidelity," and (2) the ability of a dummy to replicate those cadaver responses that best predict injury potential, "Internal Biofidelity." The ranking system uses cadaver and dummy responses from head drop tests, thorax and shoulder pendulum tests, and whole body sled tests. Each test condition is assigned a weight factor based on the number of human subjects tested to form the biomechanical response corridor and how well the biofidelity tests represent FMVSS 214, side NCAP (SNCAP) and FMVSS 201 Pole crash environments. For each response requirement, the cumulative variance of the dummy response relative to the mean cadaver response (DCV) and the cumulative variance of the mean cadaver response relative to the mean plus one standard deviation (CCV) are calculated. The ratio of DCV/CCV expresses how well the dummy response duplicates the mean cadaver response: a smaller ratio indicating better biofidelity. For each test condition, the square root is taken of each Response Comparison Value (DCV/CCV), and then these values are averaged and multiplied by the appropriate Test Condition Weight. The weighted and averaged comparison values are then summed and divided by the sum of the Test Condition Weights to obtain a rank for each body region. Each dummy obtains an overall rank for External Biofidelity and an overall rank for Internal Biofidelity comprised of an average of the ranks from each body region. Of the three dummies studied, the selected comparison test data indicate that the WorldSID-alpha prototype dummy demonstrated the best overall External Biofidelity although improvement is needed in all of the dummies to better replicate human kinematics. All three dummies estimate potential injury assessment with similar levels of

  4. Exercise physiology, testing, and training in patients supported by a left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyaga-Rendon, Renzo Y; Plaisance, Eric P; Arena, Ross; Shah, Keyur

    2015-08-01

    The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is an accepted treatment alternative for the management of end-stage heart failure. As we move toward implantation of LVADs in less severe cases of HF, scrutiny of functional capacity and quality of life becomes more important. Patients demonstrate improvements in exercise capacity after LVAD implantation, but the effect is less than predicted. Exercise training produces multiple beneficial effects in heart failure patients, which would be expected to improve quality of life. In this review, we describe factors that are thought to participate in the persistent exercise impairment in LVAD-supported patients, summarize current knowledge about the effect of exercise training in LVAD-supported patients, and suggest areas for future research. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An Intraoperative Site-specific Bone Density Device: A Pilot Test Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosio, Paolo; Moschioni, Monica; Banfi, Luca Maria; Di Stefano, Anilo Alessio

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports a case of all-on-four rehabilitation where bone density at implant sites was assessed both through preoperative computed tomographic (CT) scans and using a micromotor working as an intraoperative bone density measurement device. Implant-supported rehabilitation is a predictable treatment option for tooth replacement whose success depends on the clinician's experience, the implant characteristics and location and patient-related factors. Among the latter, bone density is a determinant for the achievement of primary implant stability and, eventually, for implant success. The ability to measure bone density at the placement site before implant insertion could be important in the clinical setting. A patient complaining of masticatory impairment was presented with a plan calling for extraction of all her compromised teeth, followed by implant rehabilitation. A week before surgery, she underwent CT examination, and the bone density on the CT scans was measured. When the implant osteotomies were created, the bone density was again measured with a micromotor endowed with an instantaneous torque-measuring system. The implant placement protocols were adapted for each implant, according to the intraoperative measurements, and the patient was rehabilitated following an all-on-four immediate loading protocol. The bone density device provided valuable information beyond that obtained from CT scans, allowing for site-specific, intraoperative assessment of bone density immediately before implant placement and an estimation of primary stability just after implant insertion. Measuring jaw-bone density could help clinicians to select implant-placement protocols and loading strategies based on site-specific bone features.

  6. On the testing of Hardy-Weinberg proportions and equality of allele frequencies in males and females at biallelic genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffelman, Jan; Weir, Bruce S

    2018-02-01

    Standard statistical tests for equality of allele frequencies in males and females and tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are tightly linked by their assumptions. Tests for equality of allele frequencies assume Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, whereas the usual chi-square or exact test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium assume equality of allele frequencies in the sexes. In this paper, we propose ways to break this interdependence in assumptions of the two tests by proposing an omnibus exact test that can test both hypotheses jointly, as well as a likelihood ratio approach that permits these phenomena to be tested both jointly and separately. The tests are illustrated with data from the 1000 Genomes project. © 2017 The Authors Genetic Epidemiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A temperature sensor implant for active implantable medical devices for in vivo subacute heating tests under MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silemek, Berk; Acikel, Volkan; Oto, Cagdas; Alipour, Akbar; Aykut, Zaliha Gamze; Algin, Oktay; Atalar, Ergin

    2018-05-01

    To introduce a temperature sensor implant (TSI) that mimics an active implantable medical device (AIMD) for animal testing of MRI heating. Computer simulations and phantom experiments poorly represent potential temperature increases. Animal experiments could be a better model, but heating experiments conducted immediately after the surgery suffer from alterations of the thermoregulatory and tissue properties during acute testing conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to introduce a temperature sensor implant that mimics an AIMD and capable of measuring the electrode temperature after implantation of the device without any further intervention at any time after the surgery in an animal model. A battery-operated TSI, which resembled an AIMD, was used to measure the lead temperature and impedance and the case temperature. The measured values were transmitted to an external computer via a low-power Bluetooth communication protocol. In addition to validation experiments on the phantom, a sheep experiment was conducted to test the feasibility of the system in subacute conditions. The measurements had a maximum of 0.5°C difference compared to fiber-optic temperature probes. In vivo animal experiments demonstrated feasibility of the system. An active implant, which can measure its own temperature, was proposed to investigate implant heating during MRI examinations. Magn Reson Med 79:2824-2832, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Neutronic design of pulse operation simulating device for in-pile functional test of fusion blanket by MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yoshiharu; Nakamichi, Masaru; Kawamura, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The pulse operation of a fusion reactor can be simulated in a fission reactor by controlling the neutron flux entering a test section by using a rotating 'hollow cylinder with window' made of hafnium. The rotating cylinder is installed between the test section and the fixed outer neutron absorber cylinder and is also made of hafnium with an opening in the direction to the core center. For gathering engineering data for the tritium breeding blanket such as characteristics of temperature change, tritium release and recovery, etc., it is desirable that the ratio of minimum to maximum thermal neutron fluxes is greater than 1:10. Design calculations were performed for the test assembly which considered local neutronic effects and the mechanical constraints of the device. From the results of these calculations, the ratio of minimum to maximum thermal neutron flux under irradiation would be about 1:10 using a pulse operation simulating device which has a thickness of 6.5 mm and a 150deg window angle for the rotating hollow cylinder and 5.0 mm in thickness of fixed neutron absorber. (author)

  9. Operational tests of a device with an elevator for automated outlet of heat for heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinger, N.M.; Belevich, A.I.; Burd, A.L.; Krivitskiy, V.I.; Lokshin, L.S.

    1983-01-01

    The results are presented of operational tests of series produced jet pumps. The field of use of an automated elevator is determined and recommendations for increasing its operational qualities are given.

  10. Development of device for grid spring fatigue and a cell-based fuel rod fretting wear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kang, Heung Seok; Song, Kee Nam

    2001-05-01

    As an activity of experimental research on the cause and the remedy of LWR fuel fretting failure, developed is test equipment for fatigue of grid spring and cell-based fuel rod fretting wear test. The equipment enables to perform the fretting wear test in the case of gap existence between spring and cladding, which has not been possible by the previously developed one (KAERI/TR-1570/2000). It can also provide fatigue test capability with the frequency of more than 10 Hz. Used are a servo-motor, an eccentric cylinder and lever mechanism for driving system as was similarly used for the previous equipment. In fretting wear test, up to 2 span-length of a fuel cladding tube can be accommodated. For fatigue test, on the other hand, a device for clamping the spring fixture is installed additionally. As a feature of the present equipment, the gap or the contacting force between a spring and a tube can be adjusted during the fretting wear test, while an initial spring force can be simulated for the fatigue test. Tests will be conducted in air at room temperature. In this report, every part of the equipment is explained with photographs, which will provide an easy understanding. Test procedure such as specimen installation, sequence of operation and program handling is also given. As a performance test of the present equipment, displacement range is measured when the hinge of the lever locates at its maximum and minimum positions. This will be used as basic information when additional eccentric cylinder is necessary for different displacement ranges

  11. New Technology for Microfabrication and Testing of a Thermoelectric Device for Generating Mobile Electrical Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narashimha S.; Taylor, Patrick J.; Trivedi, Sudhir B.; Kutcher, Susan

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of fabrication and testing of a thermoelectric power generation module. The module was fabricated using a new "flip-chip" module assembly technique that is scalable and modular. This technique results in a low value of contact resistivity ( surfaces. Under mild testing, a power of 22 mW/sq cm was obtained from small (electrical power of practical and usable magnitude for remote applications using thermoelectric power generation technologies.

  12. Field-test of a date-rape drug detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quest, Dale W; Horsley, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Drink Safe Technology Version 1.2 is an inexpensive color-change reagent test marketed internationally for use by consumers in settings such as a night club to detect potentially incapacitating concentrations of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and ketamine in beverages. The objective of this study was to compare product performance in the laboratory and performance in the hands of consumers in the field. Product performance in the laboratory adhered to the protocol defined by the manufacturer. Product performance in the hands of consumers in field settings allowed browsing participants to pipette an aliquot of their own drinks into randomly coded vials containing authentic drugs, or pure water, so as to yield the same concentrations of GHB or ketamine specified in the manufacturer-defined protocol, or blanks. Consumers were to proceed according to the directions printed on the product, and to record their results on a card with a code corresponding with the vial to which they had added an aliquot of their beverage. Diagnostic performance was calculated using two-way analysis. In the laboratory, Drink Safe Technology Version 1.2 reliably detected GHB and ketamine at concentrations specified by the manufacturer's protocol. The reactive color change denoting a positive test for GHB was rapid, but a positive test for ketamine required substantially more time to resolve. Nonetheless, test accuracy following the manufacturer's protocol in the laboratory was 100%. In the field, based on 101 paired-test results recorded by consumers, the test efficiency was 65.1%, sensitivity 50%, and specificity 91.6%. The product performed much better in the laboratory than it did in the hand of consumers in the field. There seems to be considerable potential for consumers to misinterpret a test result. The potential for consumers to record a false-negative test result for a spiked drink is cause for concern.

  13. Sharing Data between Mobile Devices, Connected Vehicles and Infrastructure Task 10: D2X Hub Prototype Acceptance Test Plan and Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-27

    This Devices to Everything (D2X) Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) and Summary Report provides the plan, test cases, and test procedures that were used to verify Prototype System (version 2.0) system requirements, as well as a summary of results of the test...

  14. Design of a non-linear power take-off simulator for model testing of rotating wave energy devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M.F.P.; Henriques, J.C.C.; Lopes, Miguel C.; Gato, L.M.C. [IDMEC - Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Dente Antonio [CIE3 - Center for Innovation in Electrical and Energy Engineering, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-07-01

    Eddy current brakes provide a versatile way of simulating the power take-off system (PTO) in the model testing of wave energy converters at small scale. These are based on the principle that a conductive material moving perpendicularly to a magnetic field generates a braking force proportional to its velocity. This was applied in the design of the PTO simulator of a bottom-hinged flap wave energy converter model, at 1/16 scale. The efforts put into the accurate dynamic simulation of the device led to the development of a controllable PTO simulator, which can be applied to other small scale rotating wave energy device models. A special power source was built to provide the required controllable current intensity to feed the magnetic field generating coils. Different non-linear damping PTO characteristic curves can be simulated by basing the current control on real-time velocity measurement. The calibration of the system was done by connecting the device to a constant rotating speed motor and measuring the resistent torque produced by the PTO with a torquemeter for different values of current intensity through the coils.

  15. Additional collection devices used in conjunction with the SurePath Liquid-Based Pap Test broom device do not enhance diagnostic utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor Jason C

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that use of an EC brush device in combination with the Rovers Cervex-Brush (SurePath broom offered no significant improvement in EC recovery. Here we determine if use of additional collection devices enhance the diagnostic utility of the SurePath Pap for gynecologic cytology. Methods After informed consent, 37 women ages 18–56 receiving their routine cervical examinations were randomized into four experimental groups. Each group was first sampled with the SurePath broom then immediately re-sampled with an additional collection device or devices. Group 1: Rover endocervix brush (n = 8. Group 2: Medscand CytoBrush Plus GT (n = 7. Group 3: Rover spatula + endocervix brush (n = 11. Group 4: Medscand spatula + CytoBrush Plus GT (n = 11. Results Examination of SurePath broom-collected cytology yielded the following abnormal diagnoses: atypia (n = 2, LSIL (n = 5 and HSIL (n = 3. Comparison of these diagnoses to those obtained from paired samples using the additional collection devices showed that use of a second and or third device yielded no additional abnormal diagnoses. Importantly, use of additional devices did not improve upon the abnormal cell recovery of the SurePath broom and in 4/10 cases under-predicted or did not detect the SurePath broom-collected lesion as confirmed by cervical biopsy. Finally, in 36/37 cases, the SurePath broom successfully recovered ECs. Use of additional devices, in Group 3, augmented EC recovery to 37/37. Conclusions Use of additional collection devices in conjunction with the SurePath broom did not enhance diagnostic utility of the SurePath Pap. A potential but not significant improvement in EC recovery might be seen with the use of three devices.

  16. Development and Test of a Contactless Position and Angular Sensor Device for the Application in Synchronous Micro Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas WALDSCHIK

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a contactless micro position and angular sensor system which consists of fixed commercial magnetic sensor elements, such as hall sensors and a movable part with integrated micro structured polymer magnets. This system serves particularly for linear and rotatory synchronous micro motors which we have developed and successfully tested. In order to achieve high precision and control of these motors an integration of the special micro position and angular sensors is pursued to increase the resolution and accuracy of the devices.

  17. Amplification of transcutaneous and percutaneous bone-conduction devices with a test-band in an induced model of conductive hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Marn Joon; Lee, Jae Ryung; Yang, Chan Joo; Yoo, Myung Hoon; Jin, In Suk; Choi, Chi Ho; Park, Hong Ju

    2016-11-01

    Transcutaneous devices have a disadvantage, the dampening effect by soft tissue between the bone and devices. We investigated hearing outcomes with percutaneous and transcutaneous devices using test-bands in an induced unilateral conductive hearing loss. Comparison of hearing outcomes of two devices in the same individuals. The right ear was plugged in 30 subjects and a test-band with devices (Cochlear™ Baha® BP110 Power and Sophono® Alpha-2 MPO™) was applied on the right mastoid tip with the left ear masked. Sound-field thresholds, speech recognition thresholds (SRTs), and word recognition scores (WRSs) were compared. Aided thresholds of Sophono were significantly better than those of Baha at most frequencies. Sophono WRSs (86 ± 12%) at 40 dB SPL and SRTs (14 ± 5 dB HL) were significantly better than those (73 ± 24% and 23 ± 8 dB HL) of Baha. However, Sophono WRSs (98 ± 3%) at 60 dB SPL did not differ from Baha WRSs (95 ± 12%). Amplifications of the current transcutaneous device were not inferior to those of percutaneous devices with a test-band in subjects with normal bone-conduction thresholds. Since the percutaneous devices can increase the gain when fixed to the skull by eliminating the dampening effect, both devices are expected to provide sufficient hearing amplification.

  18. A primary standard for the calibration of sniffer test leak devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousten, Karl; Becker, Ute

    2009-10-01

    Test leaks with a gas flow to atmospheric pressure are often called sniffer test leaks. They are used to calibrate leak detectors for sniffing applications. Sniffer test leaks need calibration against a standard. A primary standard for the calibration of sniffer test leaks with relatively low measurement uncertainties is described. It is assured that the measurement result is traceable to the relevant SI units and that there is a well-known and complete measurement uncertainty budget. The measurement range of the system is from 4 × 10-11 mol s-1 (corresponding to 10-4 Pa l s-1 at 23 °C) to 4 × 10-9 mol s-1 (10-2 Pa l s-1 at 23 °C), which is the most often needed range in industry of around 1 g loss per year of the cooling agent R134a. The temperature where the calibration can be carried out may vary from 18 °C to 30 °C. The flow rate of any test gas not condensing in this temperature range can be measured.

  19. Potential testing of reprocessing procedures by real-time polymerase chain reaction: A multicenter study of colonoscopy devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeriani, Federica; Agodi, Antonella; Casini, Beatrice; Cristina, Maria Luisa; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Gianfranceschi, Gianluca; Liguori, Giorgio; Liguori, Renato; Mucci, Nicolina; Mura, Ida; Pasquarella, Cesira; Piana, Andrea; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Privitera, Gaetano; Protano, Carmela; Quattrocchi, Annalisa; Ripabelli, Giancarlo; Rossini, Angelo; Spagnolo, Anna Maria; Tamburro, Manuela; Tardivo, Stefano; Veronesi, Licia; Vitali, Matteo; Romano Spica, Vincenzo

    2018-02-01

    Reprocessing of endoscopes is key to preventing cross-infection after colonoscopy. Culture-based methods are recommended for monitoring, but alternative and rapid approaches are needed to improve surveillance and reduce turnover times. A molecular strategy based on detection of residual traces from gut microbiota was developed and tested using a multicenter survey. A simplified sampling and DNA extraction protocol using nylon-tipped flocked swabs was optimized. A multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was developed that targeted 6 bacteria genes that were amplified in 3 mixes. The method was validated by interlaboratory tests involving 5 reference laboratories. Colonoscopy devices (n = 111) were sampled in 10 Italian hospitals. Culture-based microbiology and metagenomic tests were performed to verify PCR data. The sampling method was easily applied in all 10 endoscopy units and the optimized DNA extraction and amplification protocol was successfully performed by all of the involved laboratories. This PCR-based method allowed identification of both contaminated (n = 59) and fully reprocessed endoscopes (n = 52) with high sensibility (98%) and specificity (98%), within 3-4 hours, in contrast to the 24-72 hours needed for a classic microbiology test. Results were confirmed by next-generation sequencing and classic microbiology. A novel approach for monitoring reprocessing of colonoscopy devices was developed and successfully applied in a multicenter survey. The general principle of tracing biological fluids through microflora DNA amplification was successfully applied and may represent a promising approach for hospital hygiene. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Software Suite for Testing SpaceWire Devices and Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Stuart; Parkes, Steve

    2015-09-01

    SpaceWire is a data-handling network for use on-board spacecraft, which connects together instruments, mass-memory, processors, downlink telemetry, and other on-board sub-systems. SpaceWire is simple to implement and has some specific characteristics that help it support data-handling applications in space: high-speed, low-power, simplicity, relatively low implementation cost, and architectural flexibility making it ideal for many space missions. SpaceWire provides high-speed (2 Mbits/s to 200 Mbits/s), bi-directional, full-duplex data-links, which connect together SpaceWire enabled equipment. Data-handling networks can be built to suit particular applications using point-to-point data-links and routing switches. STAR-Dundee’s STAR-System software stack has been designed to meet the needs of engineers designing and developing SpaceWire networks and devices. This paper describes the aims of the software and how those needs were met.

  1. Test results of the experimental laser device for potato tubers radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anufrik, S.S.; Korzun, O.S.

    2007-01-01

    Results of 3 year investigation of the influence of the presowing low intensity laser radiation treatment of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers with the help of laser device with various spectral composition and exposition on plant growth, development and productivity and potato tubers quality and starch content in the conditions of the Republic of Belarus were presented. Presowing tubers treatment of potato cultivars Sante, Yavar and Arkhideya was realized by He-Ne, Ar-, Cu (in course of 3 and 5 minutes) and CO2 (in course of 5 seconds) lasers. Research results have shown that presowing treatment with CO2 laser promoted the higher (on 1,7-6,6%) potato germination capacity in comparison with the control variant without radiation treatment. Height of potato plants of Sante variety after radiation treatment fell behind the control ones. Haulm quantity per one plant and yield quality did not depend on radiation treatment Treatment with CO2 laser exercised the stimulatory action on productivity of Sante variety without changing the starch content in tubers. Tuber weight increased up to 0,4 kg (0,2 kg in the control variant). Similar effect for Arkhideya and Yavar varieties was obtained after Cu-laser treatment in course of 5 minutes. Radiation treatment with He-Ne laser caused the increased starch accumulation (on 0,4-0,6% in comparison with the control variant) in potato tubers of all studied varieties

  2. 1994 Baseline biological studies for the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Y.E. [ed.; Woodward, B.D.; Hunter, R.B.; Greger, P.D.; Saethre, M.B.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes environmental work performed at the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) in 1994 by the Basic Environmental Monitoring and Compliance Program (BECAMP). The DAF is located near the Mojave-Great Basin desert transition zone 27 km north of Mercury. The area immediately around the DAF building complex is a gentle slope cut by 1 to 3 m deep arroyos, and occupied by transitional vegetation. In 1994, construction activities were largely limited to work inside the perimeter fence. The DAF was still in a preoperational mode in 1994, and no nuclear materials were present. The DAF facilities were being occupied so there was water in the sewage settling pond, and the roads and lights were in use. Sampling activities in 1994 represent the first year in the proposed monitoring scheme. The proposed biological monitoring plan gives detailed experimental protocols. Plant, lizard, tortoise, small mammal, and bird surveys were performed in 1994. The authors briefly outline procedures employed in 1994. Studies performed on each taxon are reviewed separately then summarized in a concluding section.

  3. StructUre and test results of the Tokamak-7 device cryogenic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaev, I.V.; VolobUev, A.N.; Zhul'kin, V.F.

    1982-01-01

    A cryogenic system (CS) of the Tokamak-7 (T-7) installation with the longitudinal field superconducting magnetic system (SMS) is described. The CS is designed for cool-down, cryostatic cooling and heating of the T-7 cryogenic objects and consists of a helium system (HS) and a nitrogen cryogenic system (NCS). The HS consists of:a a heliUm delivery system intended for distributing and controlling the helium flows in the SMS; cryogenic helium units; a 1.25 m 3 volume for storing liquid helium; a compressor compartment using piston compressors at the 3 MPa operating pressure and 140 g/s total capacity; gaseous helium storages (3600 m 3 under normal conditions); helium cleaning and drying systems; a gas holder of 20 m 3 operating volume; cryogenic pipelines and pipe fittings. The NCS operates on delivered nitrogen and includes a 120 m 3 liquid nitrogen storage, evaporators and electric heaters producing up to 230 g/s of gaseous nitrogen at 300 K, a separator, cryogenic pipelines and fittings. It is found that the CS has the necessary cold production reserve, ensures reliable operation of the Tokamak-7 device and permits to carry out practically continuous plasma experiments

  4. Usability Testing of a Collaborative and Interactive University on a Mobile Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin McArdle

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The use of mobile devices for delivering learning tools is an attractive concept. Termed mobile learning (m-learning, this new technology allows people to participate in learning activities without being tied to a fixed location and provides users with convenient and flexible access to learning resources anytime and anywhere. While many m-learning applications have been developed to date, most provide tools to help students’ with specific learning tasks rather than a general interface to online courses. Few sup-port online learning communities or allow users to download multimedia learning content. These features would engage mobile users and enable them to interact with one another, thus allowing them to participate in group learning activities despite their changing location. In this article, we describe an m-learning system which we have developed which aims to incorporate these facilities. This system provides access to multimedia learning resources and supports mobile users in an interactive synchronous learning environment with their desktop peers. Details of the evaluation techniques which we utilised to appraise the system are provided and the results are presented. Feedback suggests that the features offered by our system are beneficial for collaborative m-learning.

  5. A UVC Device for Intra-luminal Disinfection of Catheters: In Vitro Tests on Soft Polymer Tubes Contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jimmy; Begovic, Tanja; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    light is possible. In this paper we present dose-response results using a newly developed UVC disinfection device, which can be connected to a Luer catheter hub. The device was tested on soft polymer tubes contaminated with a pallet of microorganisms, including Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus...

  6. Modern industrial devices of X-ray radioscopy and fluorography for nondestructive testing of welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonov, B.I.; Sosnin, F.R.; Luk'yanenko, Eh.A.; Veselovskij, L.N.; Kanter, B.M.; Zhdanov, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    Technical data on industrial X-ray television systems with new convertors are given. The convertors are characterized by high sensitivity, defect detectability, lower noise level as compared to earlier produced equipment. Flu uorographic installation for testing welded joints of thick metals is described

  7. Evaluating Effects of Marine Energy Devices on the Marine Environment - A Risk-Based and In-Water Testing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker-Klimes, G.; Copping, A. E.

    2016-02-01

    The portfolio of emerging renewables includes generating power from offshore winds, tides, waves, and ocean currents, as well as seawater temperature and salinity differentials. These new systems are collectively known as marine renewable energy (MRE). MRE development worldwide is in the early stages of design, deployment, and commercialization. A major barrier to bringing these systems into commercial use is the need to overcome uncertainties in environmental effects that slow siting and permitting of devices. Using a risk-based approach, this paper will discuss pathways for evaluating potential effects of tidal turbines and wave energy converters (WECs) on marine animals, habitats, and ecosystem processes. Using basic biological principles and knowledge of specific MRE technologies, the Environmental Risk Evaluation System has been used to narrow pertinent risks from devices, enabling laboratory and field studies to focus on the most important interactions. These interactions, include: potential collisions and behavioral disturbances of marine mammals, fish and other organisms; effects of underwater sound on animal communication and navigation; changes in sediment transport, benthic habitats, and water quality constituents; and effects of electromagnetic fields on animals. It is then necessary to apply these findings to the projects themselves. Another uncertainty is how to measure these key interactions in high-energy locations where MRE deployment is desirable. Consequently, new systems are being developed: instrumentation, innovative platforms for deployment, and new management strategies for collecting and analyzing very large data streams. Inherent in this development pathway is the need to test, deploy, and calibrate these monitoring systems. The Triton initiative is designed to enable this development, and has initiated testing of devices in Washington State to move the MRE industry forward while protecting marine animals, habitats and processes.

  8. Lactate point-of-care testing for acidosis: Cross-comparison of two devices with routine laboratory results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco van Horssen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Lactate is a major parameter in medical decision making. During labor, it is an indicator for fetal acidosis and immediate intervention. In the Emergency Department (ED, rapid analysis of lactate/blood gas is crucial for optimal patient care. Our objectives were to cross-compare-for the first time-two point-of-care testing (POCT lactate devices with routine laboratory results using novel tight precision targets and evaluate different lactate cut-off concentrations to predict metabolic acidosis. Design and methods: Blood samples from the delivery room (n=66 and from the ED (n=85 were analyzed on two POCT devices, the StatStrip-Lactate (Nova Biomedical and the iSTAT-1 (CG4+ cassettes, Abbott, and compared to the routine laboratory analyzer (ABL-735, Radiometer. Lactate concentrations were cross-compared between these analyzers. Results: The StatStrip correlated well with the ABL-735 (R=0.9737 and with the iSTAT-1 (R=0.9774 for lactate in umbilical cord blood. Lactate concentrations in ED samples measured on the iSTAT-1 and ABL-735 showed a correlation coefficient of R=0.9953. Analytical imprecision was excellent for lactate and pH, while for pO2 and pCO2 the coefficient of variation was relatively high using the iSTAT-1. Conclusion: Both POCT devices showed adequate analytical performance to measure lactate. The StatStrip can indicate metabolic acidosis in 1 μl blood and will be implemented at the delivery room. Keywords: Lactate, Point-of-care testing, Blood gas, Fetal acidosis

  9. Testing the effects of an acoustic harassment device on the behaviour of harbour porpoises (Phocoena Phocoena)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diederichs, Ansgar; Brandt, Miriam J.; Hoeschle, Caroline; Betke, Klaus; Nehls, Georg

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The use of monopile foundations for offshore wind farm construction goes along with considerable underwater noise emissions during pile driving, which can potentially harm marine mammals in the vicinity of the sound source. In order to avoid hearing damage in porpoises and seals the use of deterring devices is mandatory during pile driving in German waters. However, so far there is too little information to judge if the deterring effect is sufficient to prevent physical damage in these marine mammals. Using a combination of visual observations and passive acoustic monitoring (C-PODs) we investigated the spatial effects of a Lofitech seal scarer on harbour porpoises. The seal scarer emits pulses at 14 kHz at a source level of about 189dB re 1 muPa, and sound measurements at various distances where carried out. Sighting rates of porpoises significantly declined within the whole 1 km observation radius. Recordings of porpoise echolocation signals by C-PODs were significantly reduced out to a distance of 7 km, with the strongest effect at the nearest PODs and a weak effect at further distances. Minimum observed approach distance during 28 hours of seal scarer activity was 700 m. A response study revealed clear avoidance reactions by porpoises out to the maximum studied distance of 2.6 km. However, in some cases no reaction was found, and occasionally porpoises were also recorded by PODs at close distances. This shows that there may be substantial variation between individuals, different motivational states or different environmental conditions. These results show that the application of seal scarers is useful for reducing the number of harbour porpoises that may suffer hearing damage caused by pile driving. However, since complete exclusion of all animals cannot be achieved, alternative mitigation measures should be considered. (Author)

  10. Analysis of Baseline Computerized Neurocognitive Testing Results among 5–11-Year-Old Male and Female Children Playing Sports in Recreational Leagues in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen D. Liller

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of data related to sports injuries, concussions, and computerized neurocognitive testing (CNT among very young athletes playing sports in recreational settings. The purpose of this study was to report baseline CNT results among male and female children, ages 5–11, playing sports in Hillsborough County, Florida using ImPACT Pediatric, which is specifically designed for this population. Data were collected from 2016 to 2017. The results show that 657 baseline tests were conducted and t-tests and linear regression were used to assess mean significant differences in composite scores with sex and age. Results showed that females scored better on visual memory and in general as age increased, baseline scores improved. The results can be used to build further studies on the use of CNT in recreational settings and their role in concussion treatment, management, and interventions.

  11. Investigation of the THOR Anthropomorphic Test Device for Predicting Occupant Injuries during Spacecraft Launch Abort and Landing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T. Somers

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate new methods for predicting injury from expected spaceflight dynamic loads by leveraging a broader range of available information in injury biomechanics. Although all spacecraft designs were considered, the primary focus was the NASA Orion capsule, as the authors have the most knowledge and experience related to this design. The team defined a list of critical injuries and selected the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR anthropomorphic test device (ATD as the basis for new standards and requirements. In addition, the team down selected the list of available injury metrics to the following: head injury criteria (HIC 15, kinematic rotational brain injury criteria (BRIC, neck axial tension and compression force, maximum chest deflection, lateral shoulder force and displacement, acetabular lateral force, thoracic spine axial compression force, ankle moments, and average distal forearm speed limits. The team felt that these metrics capture all of the injuries that might be expected by a seated crewmember during vehicle aborts and landings. Using previously determined injury risk levels for nominal and off-nominal landings, appropriate injury assessment reference values (IARVs were defined for each metric. Musculoskeletal deconditioning due to exposure to reduced gravity over time can affect injury risk during landing; therefore a deconditioning factor was applied to all IARVs. Although there are appropriate injury data for each anatomical region of interest, additional research is needed for several metrics to improve the confidence score.

  12. OFF! Clip-on Repellent Device With Metofluthrin Tested on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for Mortality at Different Time Intervals and Distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbs, Christopher S; Xue, Rui-De

    2016-03-01

    The OFF! Clip-on mosquito-repellent device was tested outdoors against Aedes aegypti (L.). A single treatment device was used against batches of caged adult, nonblood fed Ae. aegypti at multiple locations 0.3m from treatment center. Another set of cages was stationed 0.6m from treatment. A final set of cages was placed 0.9m away. Trials ran for durations of 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. Initial knockdown and mortality after 24 h was recorded. The devices had effective knockdown and mortality. This was not sustained at distances greater than 0.3m from the device.

  13. Assessment of RELAP5 MOD3.3 and CATHARE 2 V1.5A against a full scale test of PERSEO device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, F.; Meloni, P.; Ferri, R.; Achilli, A.

    2004-01-01

    PERSEO device was developed in the framework of a domestic research program on innovative safety systems, with the purpose to increase the reliability of passive Decay Heat Removal Systems implementing in-pool heat exchangers. The device was tested at SIET Thermal-hydraulic Research Centre by modifying the existing PANTHERS IC-PCC facility. Two types of tests were performed: integral tests and stability tests. The experimental data acquired in the test campaign allowed a validation of a RELAP5/mod 3.3 beta release and CATHARE2 V1.5a/Mod8.1 full scale model of the PERSEO device. The paper deals with the comparison between the two codes against an integral test considered representative from the point of view of the PERSEO functioning and it highlights capabilities and limits of the codes in simulating such kind of test. (authors)

  14. Analysis of the Pull-Up Requirement in the U.S. Marine Corps Physical Fitness Test for Female Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    level of fitness, it will be “easier” to adapt once again. That said, it’s also muscle dependent, therefore a cross-country runner in high school...needed to change the hearts, minds, and resilience of female Marines having served years of their lives in the Corps. Marines follow orders, and they

  15. Impact of lowering ski binding settings on the outcome of the self-release test of ski bindings among female recreational skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posch M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Markus Posch,1 Martin Burtscher,1 Alois Schranz,2 Katja Tecklenburg,2 Kenneth Helle,2 Gerhard Ruedl1 1Department of Sport Science, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria; 2Medalp Sportclinic, Imst, Austria Background and purpose: The ability to successfully self-release the ski binding can prevent skiing-related injuries of the lower extremities. Failure of binding release associated with a knee injury is significantly higher among females compared to males. The International Standards Organization ISO 11088 standard for binding setting values allows a lowering by 15% upon request of the skier. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of lowered ski binding settings by 15% on the outcome of the self-release test among female recreational skiers. Materials and methods: In this randomized single-blinded study, a cohort of 20 females (24.5±2.7 years performed the self-release test in the laboratory thrice with each leg under two conditions: 1 with an actual ISO 11088 setting and 2 with a setting lowered by 15%. For each attempt, torques calculated via the force plate were normalized to torques measured by a binding adjustment system (relative release torque, RRT. Results: Among 240 trials in total, more females were significantly able to self-release their ski bindings with lowered binding settings when compared to their actual ISO settings (53% vs 9%, p<0.001. Thirteen females (65% were able to release their bindings at least once with both legs with lowered binding settings compared to only three females (15% with their actual binding settings (p<0.001. Mean RRT of all failure of binding release trials significantly differed between lowered and actual binding settings (58.6%±22.2% vs 50.5%±20.4%, p=0.003. Conclusion: Four times more females were able to self-release their ski bindings at least once with both legs with a 15% lowered binding setting compared to their normal ISO 11088 setting. The fact that the ISO standard

  16. Reproducibility for Heart Rate Variability Analysis during 6-Min Walk Test in Patients with Heart Failure and Agreement between Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Lays Magalhães; Prado, Gustavo Faibischew; Umeda, Iracema Ioco Kikuchi; Kawauchi, Tatiana Satie; Taboada, Adriana Marques Fróes; Azevedo, Raymundo Soares; Pereira Filho, Horacio Gomes; Grupi, César José; Souza, Hayala Cristina Cavenague; Moreira, Dalmo Antônio Ribeiro; Nakagawa, Naomi Kondo

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a useful method to assess abnormal functioning in the autonomic nervous system and to predict cardiac events in patients with heart failure (HF). HRV measurements with heart rate monitors have been validated with an electrocardiograph in healthy subjects but not in patients with HF. We explored the reproducibility of HRV in two consecutive six-minute walk tests (6MW), 60-minute apart, using a heart rate monitor (PolarS810i) and a portable electrocardiograph (called Holter) in 50 HF patients (mean age 59 years, NYHA II, left ventricular ejection fraction ~35%). The reproducibility for each device was analysed using a paired t-test or the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Additionally, we assessed the agreement between the two devices based on the HRV indices at rest, during the 6MW and during recovery using concordance correlation coefficients (CCC), 95% confidence intervals and Bland-Altman plots. The test-retest for the HRV analyses was reproducible using Holter and PolarS810i at rest but not during recovery. In the second 6MW, patients showed significant increases in rMSSD and walking distance. The PolarS810i measurements had remarkably high concordance correlation [0.86

  17. Development of a portable test device for assessing on-site floor slipperiness: an interim report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönqvist, R; Hirvonen, M; Rajamäki, E

    2001-04-01

    The main objective was to design and construct a prototype portable slipmeter with the capability of measuring static, transitional kinetic and steady-state kinetic coefficient of friction properties of on-site floors. The second objective was to evaluate its operation in the laboratory, using a commercial force platform as reference. The prototype was found to be capable of measuring the described frictional characteristics of floor surfaces, using three different test wheels and two modes of operation, impact and non-impact testing. The results anticipate that the slipmeter may prove to be more valid than any traditional measurement technique. The study continues with biomechanical trials and will be completed during the year 2000.

  18. Environmental test program for superconducting materials and devices. Mid-Term Report, May 1990 - Jun. 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haertling, G.; Randolph, H.; Hsi, Chi-Shiung; Verbelyi, D.

    1991-07-01

    This report is divided into two parts. The first dealing with work involved with Clemson University and the second with the results from Westinghouse/Savannah River. Both areas of work involved low noise, low thermal conductivity superconducting grounding links used in the NASA-sponsored Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far Infrared Emission (SAFIRE) Project. Clemson prepared the links from YBa2Cu3O(7-x) superconductor tape that was mounted on a printed circuit board and encapsulated with epoxy resin. The Clemson program includes temperature vs. resistance, liquid nitrogen immersion, water immersion, thermal cycling, humidity, and radiation testing. The evaluation of the links under a long term environmental test program is described. The Savannah River program includes gamma irradiation, vibration, and long-term evaluation. The progress made in these evaluations is discussed

  19. High flux materials testing reactor HFR Petten. Characteristics of facilities and standard irradiation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roettger, H.; Hardt, P. von der; Tas, A.; Voorbraak, W.P.

    1981-01-01

    For the materials testing reactor HFR some characteristic information is presented. Besides the nuclear data for the experiment positions short descriptions are given of the most important standard facilities for material irradiation and radionuclide production. One paragraph deals with the experimental set-ups for solid state and nuclear structure investigations. The information in this report refers to a core type, which is operational since March 1977. The numerical data compiled have been up-dated to January 1981

  20. Testing devices or experimental systems? Cancer clinical trials take the genomic turn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nicole C; Keating, Peter; Cambrosio, Alberto; Aguilar-Mahecha, Adriana; Basik, Mark

    2014-06-01

    Clinical trials are often described as machine-like systems for generating specific information concerning drug safety and efficacy, and are understood as a component of the industrial drug development processes. This paper argues that contemporary clinical trials in oncology are not reducible to mere drug testing. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews with researchers in the field of oncology from 2010 to 2013, we introduce a conceptual contrast between trials as testing machines and trials as clinical experimental systems to draw attention to the ways trials are increasingly being used to ask open-ended scientific questions. When viewed as testing machines, clinical trials are seen as a means to produce answers to straightforward questions and deviations from the protocol are seen as bugs in the system; but practitioners can also treat trials as clinical experimental systems to investigate as yet undefined problems and where heterogeneity becomes a means to produce novel biological or clinical insights. The rise of "biomarker-driven" clinical trials in oncology, which link measurable biological characteristics such as genetic mutations to clinical features such as a patient's response to a particular drug, exemplifies a trend towards more experimental styles of clinical work. These transformations are congruent with changes in the institutional structure of clinical research in oncology, including a movement towards more flexible, networked research arrangements, and towards using individual patients as model systems for asking biological questions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cooling for SC devices of test cryomodule for ADS Injector II at IMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.; Wang, S. Y.; Sun, S.; Wang, S. H.; Liu, Y. Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201204 (China); Guo, X. L. [JiangSu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2014-01-29

    The superconducting half-wave resonance cavities connected in series with superconducting solenoids will be applied to the Injector II of the Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System (ADS) to be built at the Modern Physics Institute, China. A test system has been developed for the purpose of performance test of the HWR cavities as well as validating the relevant technique for cooling the cavity and the solenoids together. It mainly comprises a cryogenic valve box (TVB), a test cryomodule (TCM1) and transfer lines. The TCM1 includes one HWR cavity, two superconducting solenoids, one cold BPM and their cooling system. The design of the TCM1 cryostat was carried out by the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP), CAS. Both the cavity and the solenoids will work at 4.4 K by bath cooling. The fast cooling down for the cavity from around 100 K to 120 K is required to avoid degrading of the cavity performance. After cool down and before energization, the solenoids should be warmed up to above 10 K and re-cooled down for the purpose of degaussing. The TCM1 can not only be cooled by using the dewar-filling system, but also operated by the refrigerator system. For the purpose of reducing the heat loads to the cold mass at 4 K from room temperature, thermal radiation shields cooled by liquid nitrogen flowing in tubing were employed. This paper presents the design details of cooling circuits and thermal shields of the TCM1 as well as related calculations and analyses.

  2. Design and results of testing the SHF-generator magnetic system of the T-15 device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, V.D.; Koretskij, A.Yu.; Kostenko, A.I.; Monoszon, N.A.; Ostroumov, Yu.N.; Suvorov, M.M.; Trokhachev, G.V.; Churakov, G.F.; Shmal'ko, G.I.; Yakubovskij, V.G.

    1984-01-01

    Design and engineering solutions accepted in the development of the 5T superconducting solenoid of the auxillary heating SHF-generator for the T-15 tokamak are presented. A superconducting coil generates an axially symmetric field with a definite distribution along the SHF-generator gyrocon axis. Limited sizes, high accuracy of coincidence of geometric and magnetic axes, and possibility of operation with different gyrocons are the main peculiarities of the developed cryostat. The required magnetic field of 5T was attained after some training. Heat input at 4.5 K corresponds to the rated value of 2.5 W. Test results for solenoid functional models are presented

  3. A New Test Device for Characterization of Mechanical Stress Caused by Packaging Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, Soeren; Doerner, Steffen; Hauptmann, Peter; Schmidt, Bertram

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a new method for estimation and minimization of mechanical stress on MEMS sensor and actuator structures due to packaging processes based on flip chip technology. For studying mechanical stress a test chip with silicon membranes was fabricated. A network of piezo-resistive solid state resistors created by diffusion was used to measure the surface tension pattern between adjacent membranes. Finite element method simulation was used to calculate the stress profile and to determine the optimum positions for placing the resistive network

  4. Method and device for materials testing making use of the Doppler effect in nuclear gamma spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, U.; Pietsch, W.; Neuwirth, W.

    1977-01-01

    A sample to be tested, e.g. steel or petroleum, is irradiated with isotropically incident 14MeV neutrons or thermal neutrons from a neutron generator. If the sample contains C,N,O,F,Na, or Mg, natural or implanted, the neutrons produce recoil nuclei excited by inelastic scattering or the (n,α) process. Their excitation energy is emitted in the form of γ quanta. The Doppler spectrum obtained with the aid of a gamma spectrometer yields information on the microstructure of the sample via the differential energy losses. (ORU) [de

  5. Power cycling test of a 650 V discrete GaN-on-Si power device with a laminated packaging embedding technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Sungyoung; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Uhrenfeldt, Christian

    2017-01-01

    A GaN-on-Si power device is a strong candidate to replace power components based on silicon in high-end market for low-voltage applications, thanks to its electrical characteristics. To maximize opportunities of the GaN device in field applications, a package technology plays an important role...... in a discrete GaN power device. A few specialized package technologies having very lower stray inductance and higher thermal conductivity have been proposed for discrete GaN-on-Si power devices. Despite their superior performance, there has been little discussion of their reliability. The paper presents a power...... cycling test of a discrete GaN power device employing a laminated embedded packaging technology subjected to 125 degrees Celsius junction temperature swing. Failure modes are described with collected electrical characteristics and measured temperature data under the test. In conclusion, physical...

  6. Promoting male partner HIV testing and safer sexual decision making through secondary distribution of self-tests by HIV-negative female sex workers and women receiving antenatal and post-partum care in Kenya: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumurthy, Harsha; Masters, Samuel H; Mavedzenge, Sue Napierala; Maman, Suzanne; Omanga, Eunice; Agot, Kawango

    2016-06-01

    Increased uptake of HIV testing by men in sub-Saharan Africa is essential for the success of combination prevention. Self-testing is an emerging approach with high acceptability, but little evidence exists on the best strategies for test distribution. We assessed an approach of providing multiple self-tests to women at high risk of HIV acquisition to promote partner HIV testing and to facilitate safer sexual decision making. In this cohort study, HIV-negative women aged 18-39 years were recruited at two sites in Kisumu, Kenya: a health facility with antenatal and post-partum clinics and a drop-in centre for female sex workers. Participants gave informed consent and were instructed on use of oral fluid based rapid HIV tests. Participants enrolled at the health facility received three self-tests and those at the drop-in centre received five self-tests. Structured interviews were conducted with participants at enrolment and over 3 months to determine how self-tests were used. Outcomes included the number of self-tests distributed by participants, the proportion of participants whose sexual partners used a self-test, couples testing, and sexual behaviour after self-testing. Between Jan 14, 2015, and March 13, 2015, 280 participants were enrolled (61 in antenatal care, 117 in post-partum care, and 102 female sex workers); follow-up interviews were completed for 265 (96%). Most participants with primary sexual partners distributed self-tests to partners: 53 (91%) of 58 participants in antenatal care, 91 (86%) of 106 in post-partum care, and 64 (75%) of 85 female sex workers. 82 (81%) of 101 female sex workers distributed more than one self-test to commercial sex clients. Among self-tests distributed to and used by primary sexual partners of participants, couples testing occurred in 27 (51%) of 53 in antenatal care, 62 (68%) of 91 from post-partum care, and 53 (83%) of 64 female sex workers. Among tests received by primary and non-primary sexual partners, two (4%) of 53

  7. Design and testing of a chamber device to measure organic vapor fluxes from the unsaturated zone under natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillman, F.D.; Choi, J-W.; Smith, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    As the difficulty and expense of achieving water quality standards at contaminated sites becomes more apparent, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is taking a closer look at natural attenuation processes for selected sites. To determine if a site has potential for natural attenuation, all natural processes affecting the fate and transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the subsurface must be identified and quantified. This research addresses the quantification of air-phase VOCs leaving the subsurface and entering the atmosphere, both through diffusion and soil-gas advection caused by barometric pumping. A simple, easy-to-use, and inexpensive device for measuring VOC flux under natural conditions was designed, constructed and tested both in a controlled laboratory environment and in a natural field setting. Design parameters for the chamber were selected using continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR)-equation based modeling under several flux inputs. The final chamber design performs at greater than 95% efficiency for the simulated cases. Laboratory testing of the flux chamber under both diffusion and advection transport conditions was performed in a device constructed to simulate the unsaturated zone. Results indicate an average flux measurement accuracy of 83% over 3 orders of magnitude for diffusion-only fluxes and 94% for combined advection-diffusion fluxes. A field test of the chamber was performed and results compared with predictions made by a 1-dimensional unsaturated zone flow and transport model whose calibration and parameters were obtained from data collected at the site. Fluxes measured directly by the chamber were generally in good agreement with the fluxes calculated from the calibrated flow-and-transport model. (author)

  8. Lifting devices with minimum effort for testing, maintenance and repair at the example of a lifting rig for core internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pache, Martin [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH (Germany); Wiesendanger, Robert [Kernkraftwerk Beznau, NOK (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Beznau is a Westinghouse built nuclear power plant in the Aargau area Switzerland. It consists of two PWR units, each providing 365 MWe net capacity. The units were set into operation in 1969 and 1972, respectively, and hold an unlimited license for operation, provided they continue to fulfill current legal and security requirements. Beznau's previous lifting rigs for core internals required a high effort in testing and maintenance. Moreover, a damage to one of the rigs nearly resulted in the inoperability of the rig. However, no element of the load chain was affected, so there was no danger of a crash, but it could have caused an extended outage. Hence, it was decided to replace the lifting rigs with a state-of-the-art functional design that reflects modern requirements on maintenance and testing. Although the plant was built to ASME standards and codes, the new lifting rigs have been designed to German KTA code for lifting devices (KTA 3902 / 3903 for equipment with increased requirements, as per section 4.3 of KTA 3902). Given KTA's demands on periodic testing, one main requirement on the new design was to minimize the testing effort for the new rigs. (orig.)

  9. The Development of Computer Code for Safety Injection Tank (SIT) with Fluidic Device(FD) Blowdown Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joo Hee; Kim, Tae Han; Choi, Hae Yun; Lee, Kwang Won; Chung, Chang Kyu

    2007-01-01

    Safety Injection Tanks (SITs) with the Fluidic Device (FD) of APR1400 provides a means of rapid reflooding of the core following a large break Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), and keeping it covered until flow from the Safety Injection Pump (SIP) becomes available. A passive FD can provide two operation stages of a safety water injection into the RCS and allow more effective use of borated water in case of LOCA. Once a large break LOCA occurs, the system will deliver a high flow rate of cooling water for a certain period of time, and thereafter, the flow rate is reduced to a lower flow rate. The conventional computer code 'TURTLE' used to simulate the blowdown of OPR1000 SIT can not be directly applied to simulate a blowdown process of the SIT with FD. A new computer code is needed to be developed for the blowdown test evaluation of the APR1400 SIT with FD. Korea Power Engineering Company (KOPEC) has developed a new computer code to analyze the characteristics of the SIT with FD and validated the code through the comparison of the calculation results with the test results obtained by Ulchin 5 and 6 units pre-operational test and VAlve Performance Evaluation Rig (VAPER) tests performed by The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI)

  10. An integrated electrochemical device based on immunochromatographic test strip and enzyme labels for sensitive detection of disease-related biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Zhexiang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hua; Li, Yao Q.; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-05-30

    A novel electrochemical biosensing device that integrates an immunochromatographic test strip and a screen-printed electrode (SPE) connected to a portable electrochemical analyzer was presented for rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection of disease-related biomarker in human blood samples. The principle of the sensor is based on sandwich immunoreactions between a biomarker and a pair of its antibodies on the test strip, followed by highly sensitive square-wave voltammetry (SWV) detection. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as a signal reporter for electrochemical readout. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was employed as a model protein biomarker to demonstrate the analytical performance of the sensor in this study. Some critical parameters governing the performance of the sensor were investigated in detail. The sensor was further utilized to detect HBsAg in human plasma with an average recovery of 91.3%. In comparison, a colorimetric immunochromatographic test strip assay (ITSA) was also conducted. The result shows that the SWV detection in the electrochemical sensor is much more sensitive for the quantitative determination of HBsAg than the colorimetric detection, indicating that such a sensor is a promising platform for rapid and sensitive point-of-care testing/screening of disease-related biomarkers in a large population

  11. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  12. Initial results of tests of depth markers as a surface diagnostic for fusion devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Kesler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Accelerator-Based In Situ Materials Surveillance (AIMS diagnostic was developed to perform in situ ion beam analysis (IBA on Alcator C-Mod in August 2012 to study divertor surfaces between shots. These results were limited to studying low-Z surface properties, because the Coulomb barrier precludes nuclear reactions between high-Z elements and the ∼1 MeV AIMS deuteron beam. In order to measure the high-Z erosion, a technique using deuteron-induced gamma emission and a low-Z depth marker is being developed. To determine the depth of the marker while eliminating some uncertainty due to beam and detector parameters, the energy dependence of the ratio of two gamma yields produced from the same depth marker will be used to determine the ion beam energy loss in the surface, and thus the thickness of the high-Z surface. This paper presents the results of initial trials of using an implanted depth marker layer with a deuteron beam and the method of ratios. First tests of a lithium depth marker proved unsuccessful due to the production of conflicting gamma peaks, among other issues. However, successful trials with a boron depth marker show that it is possible to measure the depth of the marker layer with the method of gamma yield ratios.

  13. Implantable electrolyte conductance-based pressure sensing catheter, II. Device construction and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Robert; Benharash, Peyman; Schulam, Peter; Schmidt, Jacob J

    2013-12-01

    Direct measurements of arterial blood pressure most commonly use bulky external instrumentation containing a pressure transducer connected to an ex vivo fluid-filled arterial line, which is subject to several sensing artifacts. In situ blood pressure sensors, typically solid state piezoresistive, capacitive, and interferometric sensors, are unaffected by these artifacts, but can be expensive to produce and miniaturize. We have developed an alternative approach to blood pressure measurement based on deformation of an elastic tube filled with electrolyte solution. Simple measurement of the electrical conductance of this solution as the tube dimensions change allows determination of the external pressure. The sensor is made from inexpensive materials and its miniaturization is straightforward. In vitro static testing of initial sensor prototypes mounted on a catheter tip showed a linear response with applied pressure and a resolution of 1 mmHg. In vivo sensing followed catheterization of the sensor into the femoral artery of a porcine model through a 7F catheter port. The sensor performed comparably to a commercial pressure transducer also connected to the catheter port. Due to its scalability and cost, this sensor has the potential for use in a range of pressure sensing applications, such as measurement of intracranial, spinal, or interstitial pressures.

  14. Surgical removal of atrial septal defect occlusion device and mitral valve replacement in a 39-year-old female patient with infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Zotov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Atrial septal defects represent the second most frequent congenital heart disease after ventricular septal defects. Transcatheter closure of an atrial septal defect is usually performed following strict indications on patients with significant left-to-right shunt. Infective endocarditis after transcatheter implantation of atrial septal defect occluder is an extremely rare complication. We report a case of infective endocarditis of the mitral valve (with severe mitral valve insufficiency in a 39-year-old female patient 13 years after transcatheter closure of an atrial septal defect. Complex prophylactic antibiotic coverage was performed prior to surgical intervention. Surgical removal of atrial septal defect occluder, mitral valve replacement, atrial septal defect closure and left atrial appendage resection were performed. Postoperative course was uneventful.

  15. Accident Testing of High Temperature Reactor Fuel Elements with the KueFA Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, O.; Laurie, M.; Bottomley, P.D.W.; Ferreira-Teixeira, A.E.; Van Winckel, S.; Rondinella, V.V.; Allelein, H.J.

    2013-06-01

    The High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is characterised by an advanced design with passive safety features. Fuel elements are constituted by a graphite matrix containing sub-mm-sized fuel particles with Tri-Isotropic (TRISO) coating, designed to provide high fission product retention. During a loss of coolant accident scenario in a HTR the maximum temperature is foreseen to be in the range of 1600-1650 deg. C, remaining well below the melting point of the fuel. The Cold Finger Apparatus (KueFA) is used to observe the combined effects of Depressurization and Loss of Forced Circulation (DLOFC) accident scenarios on HTR fuel. Originally designed at the Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ), an adapted KueFA operates on irradiated fuel in hot cell at JRC-ITU. A fuel pebble is heated in He atmosphere for several hundred hours, mimicking accident temperatures up to 1800 deg. C and realistic temperature transients. Non-gaseous volatile fission products released from the fuel condense on a water cooled stainless steel plate dubbed 'Cold Finger'. Exchanging plates frequently during the experiment and analysing plate deposits by means of HPGe gamma spectroscopy allows a reconstruction of the fission product release as a function of time and temperature. In order to achieve a good quantification of the release, a careful calibration of the setup is mandatory. An especially tailored collimator was designed to perform plate scanning with high spatial resolution, thus yielding information about the fission product distribution on the condensation plates. The analysis of condensation plates from recent KueFA tests shows that fission product release quantification is possible at high and low activity levels. Chemical dissolution has been performed for some condensation plates in order to assess beta nuclides of interest such as 90 Sr and possibly 129 I using an Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and to cross check the HPGe gamma spectroscopy measurements

  16. A technician from NASDA test the real-time radiation monitoring device on SPACEHAB in preparation fo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A technician from the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) tests the real-time radiation monitoring device on SPACEHAB at Kennedy Space Center in preparation for the STS-89 mission, slated to be the first Shuttle launch of 1998. STS-89 will be the eighth of nine scheduled Mir dockings and will include a double module of SPACEHAB, used mainly as a large pressurized cargo container for science, logistical equipment and supplies to be exchanged between the orbiter Endeavour and the Russian Space Station Mir. The nine-day flight of STS-89 also is scheduled to include the transfer of the seventh American to live and work aboard the Russian orbiting outpost. Liftoff of Endeavour and its seven-member crew is targeted for Jan. 15, 1998, at 1:03 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  17. Functional and operational requirements document : building 1012, Battery and Energy Storage Device Test Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, William H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report provides an overview of information, prior studies, and analyses relevant to the development of functional and operational requirements for electrochemical testing of batteries and energy storage devices carried out by Sandia Organization 2546, Advanced Power Sources R&D. Electrochemical operations for this group are scheduled to transition from Sandia Building 894 to a new Building located in Sandia TA-II referred to as Building 1012. This report also provides background on select design considerations and identifies the Safety Goals, Stakeholder Objectives, and Design Objectives required by the Sandia Design Team to develop the Performance Criteria necessary to the design of Building 1012. This document recognizes the Architecture-Engineering (A-E) Team as the primary design entity. Where safety considerations are identified, suggestions are provided to provide context for the corresponding operational requirement(s).

  18. The 1993 baseline biological studies and proposed monitoring plan for the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, B.D.; Hunter, R.B.; Greger, P.D.; Saethre, M.B.

    1995-02-01

    This report contains baseline data and recommendations for future monitoring of plants and animals near the new Device Assembly Facility (DAF) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The facility is a large structure designed for safely assembling nuclear weapons. Baseline data was collected in 1993, prior to the scheduled beginning of DAF operations in early 1995. Studies were not performed prior to construction and part of the task of monitoring operational effects will be to distinguish those effects from the extensive disturbance effects resulting from construction. Baseline information on species abundances and distributions was collected on ephemeral and perennial plants, mammals, reptiles, and birds in the desert ecosystems within three kilometers (km) of the DAF. Particular attention was paid to effects of selected disturbances, such as the paved road, sewage pond, and the flood-control dike, associated with the facility. Radiological monitoring of areas surrounding the DAF is not included in this report.

  19. Dynamic properties of a dirt and a synthetic equine racetrack surface measured by a track-testing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setterbo, J J; Fyhrie, P B; Hubbard, M; Upadhyaya, S K; Stover, S M

    2013-01-01

    Racetrack surface is a risk factor for Thoroughbred racehorse injury and death that can be engineered and managed. To investigate the relationship between surface and injury, the mechanical behaviour of dirt and synthetic track surfaces must be quantified. To compare dynamic properties of a dirt and a synthetic surface in situ using a track-testing device designed to simulate equine hoof impact; and to determine the effects of impact velocity, impact angle and repeated impact on dynamic surface behaviour. A track-testing device measured force and displacement during impact into a dirt and a synthetic surface at 3 impact velocities (1.91, 2.30, 2.63 m/s), 2 impact angles (0°, 20° from vertical), and 2 consecutive impacts (initial, repeat). Surfaces were measured at 3 locations/day for 3 days. The effects of surface type, impact velocity, impact angle and impact number on dynamic surface properties were assessed using analysis of variance. Synthetic surface maximum forces, load rates and stiffnesses were 37-67% of dirt surface values. Surfaces were less stiff with lower impact velocities, angled impacts and initial impacts. The magnitude of differences between dirt and synthetic surfaces increased for repeat impacts and higher impact velocities. The synthetic surface was generally softer than the dirt surface. Greatly increased hardness for repeat impacts corroborates the importance of maintenance. Results at different impact velocities suggest that surface differences will persist at higher impact velocities. For both surfaces it is clearly important to prevent horse exposure to precompacted surfaces, particularly during high-speed training when the surface has already been trampled. These data should be useful in coordinating racetrack surface management with racehorse training to prevent injuries. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  20. Medical Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob; Mahieu, H.F.; Geertsema, A.A.; Hermann, I.F.; van Horn, J.R.; Hummel, J. Marjan; van Loon, J.P.; Mihaylov, D.; van der Plaats, A.; Schraffordt Koops, H.; Schutte, H.K.; Veth, R.P.H.; de Vries, M.P.; Rakhorst, G.; Shi, Donglu

    2004-01-01

    The development of new medical devices is a very time-consuming and costly process. Besides the time between the initial idea and the time that manufacturing and testing of prototypes takes place, the time needed for the development of production facilities, production of test series, marketing,

  1. The Vertical Drop Jump Is a Poor Screening Test for ACL Injuries in Female Elite Soccer and Handball Players: A Prospective Cohort Study of 710 Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krosshaug, Tron; Steffen, Kathrin; Kristianslund, Eirik; Nilstad, Agnethe; Mok, Kam-Ming; Myklebust, Grethe; Andersen, Thor Einar; Holme, Ingar; Engebretsen, Lars; Bahr, Roald

    2016-04-01

    The evidence linking knee kinematics and kinetics during a vertical drop jump (VDJ) to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk is restricted to a single small sample. Still, the VDJ test continues to be advocated for clinical screening purposes. To test whether 5 selected kinematic and kinetic variables were associated with future ACL injuries in a large cohort of Norwegian female elite soccer and handball players. Furthermore, we wanted to assess whether the VDJ test can be recommended as a screening test to identify players with increased risk. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Elite female soccer and handball players participated in preseason screening tests from 2007 through 2014. The tests included marker-based 3-dimensional motion analysis of a drop-jump landing. We followed a predefined statistical protocol in which we included the following candidate risk factors in 5 separate logistic regression analyses, with new ACL injury as the outcome: (1) knee valgus angle at initial contact, (2) peak knee abduction moment, (3) peak knee flexion angle, (4) peak vertical ground-reaction force, and (5) medial knee displacement. A total of 782 players were tested (age, 21 ± 4 years; height, 170 ± 7 cm; body mass, 67 ± 8 kg), of which 710 were included in the analyses. We registered 42 new noncontact ACL injuries, including 12 in previously ACL-injured players. Previous ACL injury (relative risk, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.1-7.1) and medial knee displacement (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.12-1.74 per 1-SD change) were associated with increased risk for injury. However, among the 643 players without previous injury, we found no association with medial knee displacement. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of medial knee displacement showed an area under the curve of 0.6, indicating a poor-to-failed combined sensitivity and specificity of the test, even when including previously injured players. Of the 5 risk factors considered, medial knee displacement was the

  2. Existential Threat or Dissociative Response? Examining Defensive Avoidance of Point-of-Care Testing Devices Through a Terror Management Theory Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Simon; Gallagher, Pamela; Matthews, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Using a terror management theory framework, this study investigated if providing mortality reminders or self-esteem threats would lead participants to exhibit avoidant responses toward a point-of-care testing device for cardiovascular disease risk and if the nature of the device served to diminish the existential threat of cardiovascular disease. One hundred and twelve participants aged 40-55 years completed an experimental questionnaire. Findings indicated that participants were not existentially threatened by established terror management methodologies, potentially because of cross-cultural variability toward such methodologies. Highly positive appraisals of the device also suggest that similar technologies may beneficially affect the uptake of screening behaviors.

  3. Improving toxicity assessment of pesticide mixtures: the use of polar passive sampling devices extracts in microalgae toxicity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra KIM TIAM

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Complexity of contaminants exposure needs to be taking in account for an appropriate evaluation of risks related to mixtures of pesticides released in the ecosystems. Toxicity assessment of such mixtures can be made through a variety of toxicity tests reflecting different level of biological complexity. This paper reviews the recent developments of passive sampling techniques for polar compounds, especially Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS and Chemcatcher® and the principal assessment techniques using microalgae in laboratory experiments. The progresses permitted by the coupled use of such passive samplers and ecotoxicology testing as well as their limitations are presented. Case studies combining passive sampling devices (PSD extracts and toxicity assessment toward microorganisms at different biological scales from single organisms to communities level are presented. These case studies, respectively aimed i at characterizing the toxic potential of waters using dose-response curves, and ii at performing microcosm experiments with increased environmental realism in the toxicant exposure in term of cocktail composition and concentration. Finally perspectives and limitations of such approaches for future applications in the area of environmental risk assessment are discussed.

  4. The life test of a DC circuit breaker of tokamak device JT-60 for a nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Ryuichi; Tani, Keiji; Kishimoto, Hiroshi; Tamura, Sanae; Yanabu, Satoru.

    1979-01-01

    In the Tokamak devices for nuclear fusion research, the construction of the current transformer circuits having plasma as the secondary circuit and the change of the primary circuit current are necessary for generating current in the plasma. This is considered to be fairly difficult in practice if conventional methods using capacitor discharge and iron core coils are employed. Considering such circumstances, it was decided for JT-60 to use an air-core current transformer coil and to employ the method of storing energy in the form of current in the coil inductance instead of a capacitor. For this reason, a DC circuit breaker is required to interrupt coil current. The authors improved an AV vacuum breaker, which had been developed as the vacuum breaker of longitudinal magnetic field type applying a magnetic field in parallel with an arc, to get the one for DC circuit for the purpose of applying it to JT-60. In this paper, the operational characteristic of the DC breaker is described, the construction and function of the life test circuit is explained, and the test results are reported. Finally, interruptions of 10,000 times at 20 kA were carried out. It is successful that the restrike of arc occurring during tens of milli-seconds after interruptions was improved to 0.05% or less for 10,000 times operations. Further, it was found that the generation of arc restrike can be reduced practically to zero with two breakers in series. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. Ultrasonic testing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrie, W.E.

    1978-01-01

    The ultrasonic transmitter made of polarized ferroelectric ceramic material (lead zirconate titanate) is arranged in a strip carrier which allows it to be introduced between the fuel elements of a fuel subassembly in a water cooled nuclear reactor. The ultrasonic transmitter is insulated relative to the carrier. The echo of the ra dal ultrasonic pulse is recorded which changes as faulty water filled fuel elements are detected. (RW) [de

  6. GPR30 activation decreases anxiety in the open field test but not in the elevated plus maze test in female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Anchan, Divya; Clark, Sara; Pollard, Kevin; Vasudevan, Nandini

    2014-01-01

    The GPR30 is a novel estrogen receptor (ER) that is a candidate membrane ER based on its binding to 17beta estradiol and its rapid signaling properties such as activation of the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Its distribution in the mouse limbic system predicts a role for this receptor in the estrogenic modulation of anxiety behaviors in the mouse. A previous study showed that chronic administration of a selective agonist to the GPR30 receptor, G-1, in the female rat can improv...

  7. Psychophysical testing of visual prosthetic devices: a call to establish a multi-national joint task force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Joseph F., III; Ayton, Lauren N.

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in the field of visual prostheses, as showcased in this special feature of Journal of Neural Engineering , have led to promising results from clinical trials of a number of devices. However, as noted by these groups there are many challenges involved in assessing vision of people with profound vision loss. As such, it is important that there is consistency in the methodology and reporting standards for clinical trials of visual prostheses and, indeed, the broader vision restoration research field. Two visual prosthesis research groups, the Boston Retinal Implant Project (BRIP) and Bionic Vision Australia (BVA), have agreed to work cooperatively to establish a multi-national Joint Task Force. The aim of this Task Force will be to develop a consensus statement to guide the methods used to conduct and report psychophysical and clinical results of humans who receive visual prosthetic devices. The overarching goal is to ensure maximum benefit to the implant recipients, not only in the outcomes of the visual prosthesis itself, but also in enabling them to obtain accurate information about this research with ease. The aspiration to develop a Joint Task Force was first promulgated at the inaugural 'The Eye and the Chip' meeting in September 2000. This meeting was established to promote the development of the visual prosthetic field by applying the principles of inclusiveness, openness, and collegiality among the growing body of researchers in this field. These same principles underlie the intent of this Joint Task Force to enhance the quality of psychophysical research within our community. Despite prior efforts, a critical mass of interested parties could not congeal. Renewed interest for developing joint guidelines has developed recently because of a growing awareness of the challenges of obtaining reliable measurements of visual function in patients who are severely visually impaired (in whom testing is inherently noisy), and of the importance of

  8. A field test of substance use screening devices as part of routine drunk-driving spot detection operating procedures in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzopoulos, Richard; Lasarow, Avi; Bowman, Brett

    2013-10-01

    This pilot study aimed to test four substance use screening devices developed in Germany under local South African conditions and assess their utility for detecting driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) as part of the standard roadblock operations of local law enforcement agencies. The devices were used to screen a sample of motorists in the Gauteng and Western Cape provinces. The motorists were diverted for screening at roadblocks at the discretion of the law enforcement agencies involved, as per their standard operating procedures. Fieldworkers also administered a questionnaire that described the screening procedure, as well as information about vehicles, demographic information about the motorists and their attitudes to the screening process during testing. Motorists tested positive for breath alcohol in 28% of the 261 cases tested. Oral fluid was screened for drugs as per the standard calibrated cut-offs of all four devices. There were 14 cases where the under-influence drivers tested positive for alcohol and drugs simultaneously, but 14% of the 269 drivers drug-screened tested positive for drugs only. After alcohol, amphetamine, methamphetamine and cocaine were the most common drugs of impairment detected. The results suggest that under normal enforcement procedures only 76% of drivers impaired by alcohol and other drugs would have been detected. In more than 70% of cases the tests were administered within 5 min and this is likely to improve with more regular use. It was clear that the pilot screening process meets global testing standards. Although use of the screening devices alone would not serve as a basis for prosecution and provisions would need to be made for the confirmation of results through laboratory testing, rollout of this screening process would improve operational efficiency in at least two ways. Firstly, the accuracy of the tests will substantially decrease confirmatory test loads. Secondly, laboratory drug testing can be restricted to

  9. Female condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, W

    1997-06-01

    Early versions of a female condom were available in the 1920s and 1960s, but they were little used and soon forgotten. It took the arrival of AIDS, and the urgent need for a wider range of female-controlled barrier techniques, to rekindle scientific interest in this method. In the 1980s, three groups in Europe and the USA began development of new female condom designs, comprising 'Femidom (Reality)', the 'Bikini Condom', and 'Women's Choice'. Apart from differences in their physical design, Femidom differs from the others in that it is made of a polyurethane membrane, which has several advantages over latex. Of the three, Femidom is the most advanced in terms of development and clinical testing, and it is the only one to have reached the marketing stage. Laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that its contraceptive efficacy is similar to that documented for the male condom, though a direct comparison is not possible because no comparative clinical trials have, as yet, been undertaken. Reported 'typical-use' pregnancy rates range from 12.4 to 22.2% at 6 months of use in the USA and Latin America, respectively, while a study in the UK observed a rate of 15% at 12 months. As with all barrier methods, most failures appear to be associated with poor compliance or incorrect use. 'Perfect-use' pregnancy rates were substantially lower, indicating that Femidom can be very effective, if used consistently and correctly. Evidence for Femidom's effectiveness to protect against transmission of sexual disease-causing organisms, including HIV, is still very limited and based largely on laboratory studies. Whilst, in theory, the condom should confer reliable protection, its efficacy in clinical use will depend upon correct and consistent use and upon the product's ability to maintain an effective physical barrier throughout penetrative intercourse. In this respect, the results of recent and ongoing clinical studies are expected with much interest. How valuable Femidom will

  10. Real-time and on-site γ-ray radiation response testing system for semiconductor devices and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Yifei, E-mail: Y.Mu@student.liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Zhao, Ce Zhou, E-mail: cezhou.zhao@xjtlu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Qi, Yanfei, E-mail: yanfei.qi01@xjtlu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Lam, Sang, E-mail: s.lam@xjtlu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhao, Chun, E-mail: garyzhao@ust.hk [Nano and Advanced Materials Institute, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Lu, Qifeng, E-mail: qifeng@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Cai, Yutao, E-mail: yutao.cai@xjtlu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Mitrovic, Ivona Z., E-mail: ivona@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Taylor, Stephen, E-mail: s.taylor@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Chalker, Paul R., E-mail: pchalker@liverpool.ac.uk [Center for Materials and Structures, School of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    The construction of a turnkey real-time and on-site radiation response testing system for semiconductor devices is reported. Components of an on-site radiation response probe station, which contains a 1.11 GBq Cs{sup 137} gamma (γ)-ray source, and equipment of a real-time measurement system are described in detail for the construction of the whole system. The real-time measurement system includes a conventional capacitance–voltage (C–V) and stress module, a pulse C–V and stress module, a conventional current–voltage (I–V) and stress module, a pulse I–V and stress module, a DC on-the-fly (OTF) module and a pulse OTF module. Electrical characteristics of MOS capacitors or MOSFET devices are measured by each module integrated in the probe station under continuous γ-ray exposure and the measurement results are presented. The dose rates of different gate dielectrics are calculated by a novel calculation model based on the Cs{sup 137} γ-ray source placed in the probe station. For the sake of operators’ safety, an equivalent dose rate of 70 nSv/h at a given operation distance is indicated by a dose attenuation model in the experimental environment. HfO{sub 2} thin films formed by atomic layer deposition are employed to investigate the radiation response of the high-κ material by using the conventional C–V and pulse C–V modules. The irradiation exposure of the sample is carried out with a dose rate of 0.175 rad/s and ±1 V bias in the radiation response testing system. Analysis of flat-band voltage shifts (ΔV{sub FB}) of the MOS capacitors suggests that the on-site and real-time/pulse measurements detect more serious degradation of the HfO{sub 2} thin films compared with the off-site irradiation and conventional measurement techniques.

  11. '. . . if you bring the kit home, you [can] get time and test together with your partner': Pregnant women and male partners' perceptions regarding female partner-delivered HIV self-testing in Uganda - A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matovu, Joseph Kb; Buregyeya, Esther; Arinaitwe, Jim; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2017-11-01

    In 2015, the World Health Organization reported that more than 60 million people were tested for HIV in 122 low- and middle-income countries between 2010 and 2014. Despite this level of progress, over 40% of people living with HIV remain unaware of their HIV status. This calls for innovative approaches to improve uptake of HIV testing services, including use of HIV self-test (HIVST) kits. We conducted a cross-sectional, qualitative study to assess pregnant women and their male partners' perceptions regarding female partner-delivered HIVST kits. This study was conducted at two health facilities in Central Uganda between November and December 2015. Data were collected on pregnant women's willingness to take HIVST kits to their male partners and other household members using eight focus group discussions and 30 in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed following a thematic framework approach. Overall, pregnant women were willing to take HIVST kits to their partners and other household members, with the exception of their cowives. Male partners were willing to use HIVST kits brought by their female partners. Our findings suggest that secondary distribution of HIVST kits through female partners is acceptable and has the potential to improve male partner and household-member HIV testing.

  12. Comparison of hemodynamics during hyperthermal immersion and exercise testing in apparently healthy females aged 50-60 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietava, Jan; Vohnout, Branislav; Valent, Denis; Celko, Juraj

    2004-07-01

    Owing to excessive worries regarding adverse cardiac events, hyperthermal balneotherapy for patients with coronary artery disease is underprescribed. However, very few cardiac events occur in similar heat stress during Finnish sauna bathing. Exercise testing has proven to be a safe diagnostic procedure even in survivors of myocardial infarction. We compared the effects of hyperthermal immersion and exercise testing on cardiac hemodynamics in 21 apparently healthy women aged 50-60 years. The maximal symptom-limited bicycle exercise test was performed according to the modified protocol of Wasserman. Hyperthermal immersion was carried out in 40 degrees C water and was completed by increasing the core temperature by about 2 degrees C. The left ventricular function was evaluated using continuous measurement of thoracic electric bioimpedance during both tests. The blood pressure, index of contractility and heart rate were measured directly, whereas the cardiac index, left cardiac work index and systemic vascular resistance index were calculated. The hemodynamic response, as assessed at continuous non-invasive monitoring, showed substantial differences between hyperthermal immersion and exercise testing. Overall, we found a significantly lower hemodynamic load during hyperthermal immersion in comparison with exercise testing. Entering the bath, there was a significant decrease in the left cardiac work, contractility and blood pressure. We recorded a slight increase in the heart rate towards peak hyperthermal immersion. However, other modulators such as the mean arterial pressure, index of contractility, cardiac index and left cardiac work index decreased even below resting values. Excessive hyperthermal immersion induced a lower hemodynamic load in apparently healthy women than standard maximal exercise testing.

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Eating Attitudes Test in Young Female Patients with Eating Disorders in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Qing; Chan, Raymond C K; Li, Xiaoping; Arcelus, Jon; Yue, Ling; Huang, Jiabin; Gu, Lian; Fan, Qing; Zhang, Haiyin; Xiao, Zeping; Chen, Jue

    2017-11-01

    The study aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the eating attitudes test (EAT-26) among female adolescents and young adults in Mainland China. This scale was administered to 396 female eating disorder patients and 406 noneating disorder healthy controls, in addition 35 healthy controls completed a retest after a 4-week intervals. Tests for reliability, convergent validity and receiver operating characteristic analysis were performed to detect the psychometric properties. The EAT-26 demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.822-0.922), test-retest reliability (interclass correlation coefficient = 0.817) and convergent validity(r = 0.450-0.750). The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the cut-off 14 for anorexia nervosa and 15 for bulimia nervosa represented good compromises with approximate sensitivity (0.66-0.68) and specificity (0.85-0.86). Our findings provided evidence that the Chinese version of the EAT-26 was a psychometrically reliable and valid self-rating instrument for identifying people suffering from an eating disorder in Mainland China. A clinical cut-off range between 14 and 15 could be used, but caution should be exercised because of the low sensitivity of the tool. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. 31-Year-Old Female Shows Marked Improvement in Depression, Agitation, and Panic Attacks after Genetic Testing Was Used to Inform Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This case describes a 31-year-old female Caucasian patient with complaints of ongoing depression, agitation, and severe panic attacks. The patient was untreated until a recent unsuccessful trial of citalopram followed by venlafaxine which produced a partial response. Genetic testing was performed to assist in treatment decisions and revealed the patient to be heterozygous for polymorphisms in 5HT2C, ANK3, and MTHFR and homozygous for a polymorphism in SLC6A4 and the low activity (Met/Met COMT allele. In response to genetic results and clinical presentation, venlafaxine was maintained and lamotrigine was added leading to remission of agitation and depression.

  15. Test–re-test reliability and inter-rater reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer in young, healthy males and females

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Beardsley; Tim Egerton; Brendon Skinner

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer (DPI) for measuring sagittal plane pelvic tilt in 18 young, healthy males and females.\\ud \\ud Method. The inter-rater reliability and test–re-test reliabilities of the DPI for measuring pelvic tilt in standing on both the right and left sides of the pelvis were measured by two raters carrying out two rating sessions of the same subjects, three weeks apart.\\ud \\ud Results. For measuring pel...

  16. A stab in the dark: Design and construction of a novel device for conducting incised knife trauma investigations and its initial test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Caitlin; Kumaratilake, Jaliya; Henneberg, Maciej

    2016-05-01

    Knife attacks are commonly seen in Australia and other countries. During forensic investigations the force with which a wound was inflicted is often questioned. The ability to examine resultant trauma and particular weapons at different forces with an experimental device may lead to better interpretations of knife wounds. The objective of this study is to design, construct and test a device to analyse the characteristics and forces involved in knife attacks, particularly incised wounds. The mechanical variables (e.g. force, angle, knife geometry) involved in knife attacks have been considered to design and construct a suitable device which allows these variables to be systematically controlled and varied. A device was designed and constructed from mild steel. This included a pivoting arm and instrumented knife holder. The arm has adjustable angle and weight so that knives can be operated at different calculated forces. A device was successfully constructed and the repeatability of incised knife trauma and its characteristics in skeletal tissues were investigated. A device which allows reproducible and controlled experiments with knife wounds will be advantageous to forensic investigations. In particular, in determining forces and types of weapons associated with particular wounds, identifying or eliminating suspected weapons and more accurately answering the common question: How much force would be required to cause that particular wound. This could help to characterise the perpetrator. The device can be altered to be used in the future to investigate trauma caused by other weapons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High heat load tests on W/Cu mock-ups and evaluation of their application to EAST device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Hefei Electronic Engineering Institute, Hefei, Anhui 230037 (China)], E-mail: lih72@hotmail.com; Chen, J.L.; Li, J.G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Sun, X.J. [Hefei Electronic Engineering Institute, Hefei, Anhui 230037 (China)

    2009-01-15

    Tungsten has been considered as the primary candidate plasma-facing materials (PFM) for the EAST device. Three actively cooled W/Cu mock-ups with an interlayer made of tungsten-copper alloy (1.5 mm) were designed and manufactured. The tungsten armors, pure sintered tungsten plate (1 mm) and plasma-sprayed tungsten coatings (0.3 and 0.9 mm), were bonded to the interlayer by brazing and depositing respectively. All mock-ups can withstand high heat flux up to 5 MW/m{sup 2} and no obvious failure was found after tests. The thermal performance experiments and microstructure analyses indicated the structure of mock-ups possess good thermal contact and high heat transfer capability. WCu alloy as an interlayer can largely reduce the stress due to the mismatch and improve the reliability. The mock-up with 0.9 mm coating had the highest surface temperature than the other two mock-ups, delaminations of this mock-up were found in the near surface by SEM. The primary results show that pure sintered tungsten brazed to WCu alloy is a possible way, and thick plasma-sprayed coating technique still need to be improved.

  18. Design, Qualification and Integration Testing of the High-Temperature Resistance Temperature Device for Stirling Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jack; Hill, Dennis H.; Elisii, Remo; White, Jonathan R.; Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), developed from 2006 to 2013 under the joint sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to provide a high-efficiency power system for future deep space missions, employed Sunpower Incorporated's Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) with operating temperature up to 840 C. High-temperature operation was made possible by advanced heater head materials developed to increase reliability and thermal-to-mechanical conversion efficiency. During a mission, it is desirable to monitor the Stirling hot-end temperature as a measure of convertor health status and assist in making appropriate operating parameter adjustments to maintain the desired hot-end temperature as the radioisotope fuel decays. To facilitate these operations, a Resistance Temperature Device (RTD) that is capable of high-temperature, continuous long-life service was designed, developed and qualified for use in the ASRG. A thermal bridge was also implemented to reduce the RTD temperature exposure while still allowing an accurate projection of the ASC hot-end temperature. NASA integrated two flight-design RTDs on the ASCs and assembled into the high-fidelity Engineering Unit, the ASRG EU2, at Glenn Research Center (GRC) for extended operation and system characterization. This paper presents the design implementation and qualification of the RTD, and its performance characteristics and calibration in the ASRG EU2 testing.

  19. Validity of Alternative Fitnessgram Upper Body Tests of Muscular Strength and Endurance among Seventh and Eighth Grade Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobayan, Kalani; Patterson, Debra; Sherman, Clay; Wiersma, Lenny

    2014-01-01

    In a society in which obesity levels have tripled in the past 30 years, the importance of increased fitness levels within the academic setting has become even more critical. The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of alternative Fitnessgram upper body tests of muscular strength and endurance among seventh and eighth grade males…

  20. Performance test of dual modulator polarimeters in two different configurations for magneto-optic measurement of fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenji Higuchi; Tsuyoshi Akiyama; Yoshifumi Azuma; Shunji Tsuji-Iio; Hiroaki Tsutsui; Ryuichi Shimada

    2006-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the magnetic field around plasma is indispensable for real-time control and data analysis on magnetic fusion devices such as tokamaks. Instead of commonly used pick-up loops, which have the problems of zero-point drifts, we proposed and tested a magneto-optic polarimeter based on the polarization modulation method using two photoelastic modulators (PEMs). Polarization detection using a pair of PEMs has been applied to the motional Stark effect (MSE) measurements in some tokamaks. The CO 2 laser polarimeter for electron density measurement on JT-60U adopted this method and demonstrated long time stability for several hours. However, this method requires the same number of pairs of PEMs, which are delicate and expensive, as that of channels so that this method is not easy to apply to multi-point measurements of magnetic fields around tokamaks. To cope with this problem, the two PEMs, which are conventionally placed behind each magnetic sensor, are used to modulate the incident beam before split for each magneto-optic sensor. This configuration can reduce the number of PEMs drastically and the optical system becomes simple. In this new optical configuration, the polarization angle resolution comparable to the conventional optical configuration of 0.002 o with response time of 10 ms was achieved at an incident polarization angle of about 0 o while that at 21 o was 0.07 o . The resolution of 0.07 o corresponds to 7 gauss when a 40-mm-long ZnSe sensing rod is used. Performance test between the two optical configurations were also made on the long-time stability and the accuracy with increasing numbers of beam splitters and/or mirrors for multi-point measurements. (author)

  1. Female Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA Mice Exhibit Hyperactivity and a Reduced Sense of Danger in the Open Field Test

    OpenAIRE

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Langford-Smith, Kia J.; Jones, Simon A.; Wynn, Robert F.; Wraith, J. E.; Wilkinson, Fiona L.; Bigger, Brian W.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable behavioural tests in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases allow us to study the natural history of disease and evaluate the efficacy of novel therapies. Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA or Sanfilippo A), is a severe, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the heparan sulphate catabolising enzyme, sulfamidase. Undegraded heparan sulphate accumulates, resulting in lysosomal enlargement and cellular dysfunction. Patients suffer a progressive lo...

  2. Test–re-test reliability and inter-rater reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer in young, healthy males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Beardsley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer (DPI for measuring sagittal plane pelvic tilt in 18 young, healthy males and females. Method. The inter-rater reliability and test–re-test reliabilities of the DPI for measuring pelvic tilt in standing on both the right and left sides of the pelvis were measured by two raters carrying out two rating sessions of the same subjects, three weeks apart. Results. For measuring pelvic tilt, inter-rater reliability was designated as good on both sides (ICC = 0.81–0.88, test–re-test reliability within a single rating session was designated as good on both sides (ICC = 0.88–0.95, and test–re-test reliability between two rating sessions was designated as moderate on the left side (ICC = 0.65 and good on the right side (ICC = 0.85. Conclusion. Inter-rater reliability and test–re-test reliability within a single rating session of the DPI in measuring pelvic tilt were both good, while test–re-test reliability between rating sessions was moderate-to-good. Caution is required regarding the interpretation of the test–re-test reliability within a single rating session, as the raters were not blinded. Further research is required to establish validity.

  3. Direct provision versus facility collection of HIV self-tests among female sex workers in Uganda: A cluster-randomized controlled health systems trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Ortblad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available HIV self-testing allows HIV testing at any place and time and without health workers. HIV self-testing may thus be particularly useful for female sex workers (FSWs, who should test frequently but face stigma and financial and time barriers when accessing healthcare facilities.We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled health systems trial among FSWs in Kampala, Uganda, to measure the effect of 2 HIV self-testing delivery models on HIV testing and linkage to care outcomes. FSW peer educator groups (1 peer educator and 8 participants were randomized to either (1 direct provision of HIV self-tests, (2 provision of coupons for free collection of HIV self-tests in a healthcare facility, or (3 standard of care HIV testing. We randomized 960 participants in 120 peer educator groups from October 18, 2016, to November 16, 2016. Participants' median age was 28 years (IQR 24-32. Our prespecified primary outcomes were self-report of any HIV testing at 1 month and at 4 months; our prespecified secondary outcomes were self-report of HIV self-test use, seeking HIV-related medical care and ART initiation. In addition, we analyzed 2 secondary outcomes that were not prespecified: self-report of repeat HIV testing-to understand the intervention effects on frequent testing-and self-reported facility-based testing-to quantify substitution effects. Participants in the direct provision arm were significantly more likely to have tested for HIV than those in the standard of care arm, both at 1 month (risk ratio [RR] 1.33, 95% CI 1.17-1.51, p < 0.001 and at 4 months (RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07-1.22, p < 0.001. Participants in the direct provision arm were also significantly more likely to have tested for HIV than those in the facility collection arm, both at 1 month (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.07-1.31, p = 0.001 and at 4 months (RR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05, p = 0.02. At 1 month, fewer participants in the intervention arms had sought medical care for HIV than in the standard of care arm

  4. Inter-rater reliability and agreement of the 6-minute walk test in females with hip fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Jan; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Tange Kristensen, Morten

    physiotherapy students independently examined (randomized order) a convenient sample of 20 participants; their assessments were separated by two days, and testing followed instructions from the American Thoracic Society. Hip pain was assessed with the Verbal Ranking Scale. Participants (all women) with a mean...... (SD) age of 78.1 ± 5.9 years performed the test within a mean of 31.5 ± 5.8 days post-surgery; 10 had a cervical and 10 a trochanteric fracture. Excellent inter-rater reliability; ICC2.1 = 0.92 (95% CI, 0.81 - 0.97) was found, and the standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest real difference.......6 meters longer, at the second trial (P = 0.002). Participants with moderate hip fracture-related pain walked a shorter distance than those with no or light pain during the first test (P = 0.04), while this was not the case during the second (P = 0.25). Excellent inter-rater reliability was found...

  5. A methodological approach to improve the sexual health of vulnerable female populations: incentivized peer-recruitment and field-based STD testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alexis M; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Reece, Michael; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2012-02-01

    Transactional sex has been associated with increased risk of adverse health outcomes, including sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Participants included female sex workers and men they recruited utilizing incentivized snowball sampling. Participants provided specimens for STI diagnostic testing and completed a semi-structured interview. Forty-four participants aged 19-65 were interviewed. Participants found self-sampling to be acceptable and overwhelmingly endorsed sampling outside of a clinic (90%) for reasons such as convenience, privacy, and lack of stigma. A substantial minority (38%) tested positive for at least one STI. Novel strategies may encourage sexual health care and prevent STIs among sex workers. High infection and screening acceptance rates across the sample suggests that individuals engaged in transactional sex would benefit from, and would be responsive to, community-based self-sampling for STI screening.

  6. Over-the-air Radiated Testing of Millimeter-Wave Beam-steerable Devices in a Cost-Effective Measurement Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Rumney, Moray

    2018-01-01

    antenna selection scheme is proposed. This setup is suitable for evaluation of beam-steerable devices, including both base station (BS) and user equipment (UE) devices. The requirements for the test system design are analyzed, including the measurement range, number of OTA antennas, number of active OTA...... conditions. In this article, radiated testing methods are reviewed, with a focus on their principle and applicability for beam steerable mmWave devices. To explore the spatial sparsity of mmWave channel profiles, a cost-effective simplified 3D sectored multi-probe anechoic chamber (MPAC) system with an OTA......With the severe spectrum congestion of sub-6GHz cellular systems, large-scale antenna systems in the millimeter-wave (mmWave) bands can potentially meet the high data rate envisioned for fifth generation (5G) communications. Performance evaluation of antenna systems is an essential step...

  7. Evaluation of the medical devices benchmark materials in the controlled human patch testing and in the RhE in vitro skin irritation protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandárová, Helena; Bendova, Hana; Letasiova, Silvia; Coleman, Kelly P; De Jong, Wim H; Jírova, Dagmar

    2018-01-01

    Several irritants were used in the in vitro irritation medical device round robin. The objective of this study was to verify their irritation potential using the human patch test (HPT), an in vitro assay, and in vivo data. The irritants were lactic acid (LA), heptanoic acid (HA), sodium dodecyl

  8. Study of performance of acoustic fixture for using in noise reduction rate tests of hearing protection devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zam Biabani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:One of the recommended methods for evaluation effectiveness of hearing protection is use the acoustic fixture accordance with standard ISO 4869-3. The aim of this study was evaluate the acoustic performance of fixture for using in noise reduction rate tests of hearing protection devices in the laboratory. Methods: In this cross-sectional study , noise reduction rates of five common ear muffs used in the Iran industries were investigated based on the ISO 11904 standard, microphone in real ear method, using noise dosimeter (SVANTEK , Model SV102 equipped with microphone SV25 model which can install inside the ear on 30 subjects under laboratory conditions. Also, noise reduction rate of earmuffs was determined using the fixture model AVASINA9402 accordance with standard procedures. Data were analyzed using the software SPSS21. Results: The results showed the real noise reduction rates of the earmuffs on the studied subjects are from 59% to 94% nominal reduction rates. That rates for the ear muffs on the studied fixture are from 64% to 92.The results showed that the noise reduction rates of the ear muffs on subjects compared with and noise reduction rates of the ear muffs on fixture were not statistically significant (p> 0.05. Conclusion: The results showed the accuracy of noise reduction rate of earmuffs using the fixture compared with real subjects is acceptable. Hence, the fixture is good choice for environments where there’s no possibility of acoustic evaluation on real subjects, also for quality control of productions in the earmuff manufacturers.

  9. Test for arsenic speciation in waters based on a paper-based analytical device with scanometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Villar-Blanco, Lorena; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2018-06-29

    A rapid, simple and affordable method for arsenic speciation analysis is described in this work. The proposed methodology involves in situ arsine generation, transfer of the volatile to the headspace and its reaction with silver nitrate at the detection zone of a paper-based analytical device (PAD). Thus, silver nitrate acts as a recognition element for arsine in the paper-based sensor. The chemical reaction between the recognition element and the analyte derivative results in the formation of a colored product which can be detected by scanning the detection zone and data treatment with an image processing and analysis program. Detection and injection zones were defined in the paper substrate by formation of hydrophobic barriers, thus enabling the formation of the volatile derivative without affecting the chemical stability of the recognition element present in the PAD. Experimental parameters influencing the analytical performance of the methodology, namely color mode detection, composition of the paper-based sensor and hydride generation and mass transfer conditions, were evaluated. Under optimal conditions, the proposed method showed limits of detection and quantification of 1.1 and 3.6 ng mL -1 , respectively. Remarkably, the limit of detection of the method reported herein was much lower than the maximum contaminant levels set by both the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency for arsenic in drinking water, unlike several commercially available arsenic test kits. The repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation, was found to be 7.1% (n = 8). The method was validated against the European Reference Material ERM ® -CA615 groundwater and successfully applied to the determination of As(III), As(V) and total inorganic As in different water samples. Furthermore, the method can be used for the screening analysis of total arsenic in waters when a cut-off level of 7 ng mL -1 is used. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B

  10. Surgical membranes as directional delivery devices to generate tissue: testing in an ovine critical sized defect model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L Knothe Tate

    Full Text Available Pluripotent cells residing in the periosteum, a bi-layered membrane enveloping all bones, exhibit a remarkable regenerative capacity to fill in critical sized defects of the ovine femur within two weeks of treatment. Harnessing the regenerative power of the periosteum appears to be limited only by the amount of healthy periosteum available. Here we use a substitute periosteum, a delivery device cum implant, to test the hypothesis that directional delivery of endogenous periosteal factors enhances bone defect healing.Newly adapted surgical protocols were used to create critical sized, middiaphyseal femur defects in four groups of five skeletally mature Swiss alpine sheep. Each group was treated using a periosteum substitute for the controlled addition of periosteal factors including the presence of collagen in the periosteum (Group 1, periosteum derived cells (Group 2, and autogenic periosteal strips (Group 3. Control group animals were treated with an isotropic elastomer membrane alone. We hypothesized that periosteal substitute membranes incorporating the most periosteal factors would show superior defect infilling compared to substitute membranes integrating fewer factors (i.e. Group 3>Group 2>Group 1>Control.Based on micro-computed tomography data, bone defects enveloped by substitute periosteum enabling directional delivery of periosteal factors exhibit superior bony bridging compared to those sheathed with isotropic membrane controls (Group 3>Group 2>Group 1, Control. Quantitative histological analysis shows significantly increased de novo tissue generation with delivery of periosteal factors, compared to the substitute periosteum containing a collagen membrane alone (Group 1 as well as compared to the isotropic control membrane. Greatest tissue generation and maximal defect bridging was observed when autologous periosteal transplant strips were included in the periosteum substitute.Periosteum-derived cells as well as other factors

  11. Acceptability Study on HIV Self-Testing among Transgender Women, Men who Have Sex with Men, and Female Entertainment Workers in Cambodia: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Khuondyla; Ngin, Chanrith; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Ly, Cheaty; Chhim, Srean; Luong, Minh-Anh; Tatomir, Brent; Yi, Siyan

    2016-01-01

    In Cambodia, HIV prevalence is high while HIV testing rates remain low among transgender women (TG women), men who have sex with men (MSM), and female entertainment workers (FEW). Introducing self-testing for HIV to these key populations (KPs) could potentially overcome the under-diagnosis of HIV and significantly increase testing rates and receipt of the results, and thus could decrease transmission. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the acceptability of HIV self-testing (HIVST) among these three categories of KPs. This study was conducted through focus group discussions (FGDs) with TG women, MSM, and FEW in Phnom Penh city, Kampong Cham, Battambang, and Siem Reap provinces of Cambodia. Convenience sampling was used to recruit the participants. Two FGDs (six participants in each FGD) were conducted in each target group in each study site, totaling 24 FGDs (144 participants). Thematic analysis was performed to identify common or divergent patterns across the target groups. Almost all participants among the three groups (TG women, MSM, and FEW) had not heard about HIVST, but all of them expressed willingness to try it. They perceived HIVST as confidential, convenient, time-saving, and high-tech. Barriers to obtaining HIVST included cost, access, administration technique, embarrassment, and fear of pain. The majority preferred counseling before and after testing. Participants showed high willingness to use and acceptability of HIVST due to its confidentiality/privacy and convenience even if it is not linked to a confirmatory test or care and treatment. Notwithstanding, to increase HIVST, the target groups would need affordable self-test kits, education about how to perform HIVST and read results, assurance about accuracy and reliability of HIVST, and provision of post-test counseling and facilitation of linkage to care and treatment.

  12. Acceptability Study on HIV Self-Testing among Transgender Women, Men who Have Sex with Men, and Female Entertainment Workers in Cambodia: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuondyla Pal

    Full Text Available In Cambodia, HIV prevalence is high while HIV testing rates remain low among transgender women (TG women, men who have sex with men (MSM, and female entertainment workers (FEW. Introducing self-testing for HIV to these key populations (KPs could potentially overcome the under-diagnosis of HIV and significantly increase testing rates and receipt of the results, and thus could decrease transmission. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the acceptability of HIV self-testing (HIVST among these three categories of KPs.This study was conducted through focus group discussions (FGDs with TG women, MSM, and FEW in Phnom Penh city, Kampong Cham, Battambang, and Siem Reap provinces of Cambodia. Convenience sampling was used to recruit the participants. Two FGDs (six participants in each FGD were conducted in each target group in each study site, totaling 24 FGDs (144 participants. Thematic analysis was performed to identify common or divergent patterns across the target groups.Almost all participants among the three groups (TG women, MSM, and FEW had not heard about HIVST, but all of them expressed willingness to try it. They perceived HIVST as confidential, convenient, time-saving, and high-tech. Barriers to obtaining HIVST included cost, access, administration technique, embarrassment, and fear of pain. The majority preferred counseling before and after testing.Participants showed high willingness to use and acceptability of HIVST due to its confidentiality/privacy and convenience even if it is not linked to a confirmatory test or care and treatment. Notwithstanding, to increase HIVST, the target groups would need affordable self-test kits, education about how to perform HIVST and read results, assurance about accuracy and reliability of HIVST, and provision of post-test counseling and facilitation of linkage to care and treatment.

  13. Comparison of Video Head Impulse Test (vHIT) Gains Between Two Commercially Available Devices and by Different Gain Analytical Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Yoo, Myung Hoon; Park, Jun Woo; Kang, Byung Chul; Yang, Chan Joo; Kang, Woo Suk; Ahn, Joong Ho; Chung, Jong Woo; Park, Hong Ju

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate whether video head impulse test (vHIT) gains are dependent on the measuring device and method of analysis. Prospective study. vHIT was performed in 25 healthy subjects using two devices simultaneously. vHIT gains were compared between these instruments and using five different methods of comparing position and velocity gains during head movement intervals. The two devices produced different vHIT gain results with the same method of analysis. There were also significant differences in the vHIT gains measured using different analytical methods. The gain analytic method that compares the areas under the velocity curve (AUC) of the head and eye movements during head movements showed lower vHIT gains than a method that compared the peak velocities of the head and eye movements. The former method produced the vHIT gain with the smallest standard deviation among the five procedures tested in this study. vHIT gains differ in normal subjects depending on the device and method of analysis used, suggesting that it is advisable for each device to have its own normal values. Gain calculations that compare the AUC of the head and eye movements during the head movements show the smallest variance.

  14. EquiMar : Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in Terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Pecher, Arthur; Margheritini, Lucia

    The Sea Trial Manual (D4.1) describes the type of operations required to advance an ocean energy conversion device (wave and tide) from an intermediate scaled sub-systems proving machine (circa 1:4) to a full size solo prototype pre-production unit and on towards a pre-commercial device ready for...... of marine energy converters, according to Annex 1 – Description of Work of the EquiMar project, where task 4.2 is defined. Some slight modifications have been made to the original structure due to re-adjustments in accordance with the on-going research.......The Sea Trial Manual (D4.1) describes the type of operations required to advance an ocean energy conversion device (wave and tide) from an intermediate scaled sub-systems proving machine (circa 1:4) to a full size solo prototype pre-production unit and on towards a pre-commercial device ready...

  15. Test Standard Revision Update: JESD57, "Procedures for the Measurement of Single-Event Effects in Semiconductor Devices from Heavy-Ion Irradiation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The JEDEC JESD57 test standard, Procedures for the Measurement of Single-Event Effects in Semiconductor Devices from Heavy-Ion Irradiation, is undergoing its first revision since 1996. In this talk, we place this test standard into context with other relevant radiation test standards to show its importance for single-event effect radiation testing for space applications. We show the range of industry, government, and end-user party involvement in the revision. Finally, we highlight some of the key changes being made and discuss the trade-space in which setting standards must be made to be both useful and broadly adopted.

  16. Kinematics of child volunteers and child anthropomorphic test devices during emergency braking events in real car environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Isabelle; Bohman, Katarina; Jakobsson, Lotta; Brolin, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to present, compare, and discuss the kinematic response of children and child anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) during emergency braking events in different restraint configurations in a passenger vehicle. A driving study was conducted on a closed-circuit test track comprising 16 children aged 4 to 12 years old and the Q3, Hybrid III (HIII) 3-year-old, 6-year-old, and 10-year-old ATDs restrained on the right rear seat of a modern passenger vehicle. The children were exposed to one braking event in each of the 2 restraint systems and the ATDs were exposed to 2 braking events in each restraint system. All events had a deceleration of 1.0 g. Short children (stature 107-123 cm) and the Q3, HIII 3-year-old, and 6-year-old were restrained on booster cushions as well as high-back booster seats. Tall children (stature 135-150 cm) and HIII 10-year-old were restrained on booster cushions or restrained by 3-point belts directly on the car seat. Vehicle data were collected and synchronized with video data. Forward trajectories for the forehead and external auditory canal (ear) were determined as well as head rotation and shoulder belt force. A total of 40 trials were analyzed. Child volunteers had greater maximum forward displacement of the head and greater head rotation compared to the ATDs. The average maximum displacement for children ranged from 165 to 210 mm and 155 to 195 mm for the forehead and ear target, respectively. Corresponding values for the ATDs were 55 to 165 mm and 50 to 160 mm. The change in head angle was greater for short children than for tall children. Shoulder belt force was within the same range for short children when restrained on booster cushions or high-back booster seats. For tall children, the shoulder belt force was greater when restrained on booster cushions compared to being restrained by seat belts directly on the car seat. The forward displacement was within the same range for all children regardless of

  17. The 6-minute walk test in female fibromyalgia patients: relationship with tenderness, symptomatology, quality of life, and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Aparicio, Virginia A; Ortega, Francisco B; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the 6-minute walk test (6-MWT) and tenderness, symptomatology, quality of life, and coping strategies in women with fibromyalgia. One hundred eighteen women with fibromyalgia aged 51.9 ± 7.3 years participated in the study. The examination included the 6-MWT, tender points, and the following questionnaires: Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Short-Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36), and Vanderbilt Pain Management Inventory. Fair correlations between the 6-MWT and the subscales of physical impairment (FIQ) and physical function (SF-36) were observed (ρ -0.365 and 0.347, respectively, both p fibromyalgia shows significant relationships, ranging from weak to fair, between the 6-MWT and tenderness, symptomatology, quality of life, and coping strategies. These findings indicate that functional capacity, as assessed by the distance walked in 6 minutes, might be important when planning the assessment, treatment, and monitoring of patients with fibromyalgia. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The evolution of polyandry: patterns of genotypic variation in female mating frequency, male fertilization success and a test of the sexy-sperm hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, L W

    2003-07-01

    The sexy-sperm hypothesis predicts that females obtain indirect benefits for their offspring via polyandy, in the form of increased fertilization success for their sons. I use a quantitative genetic approach to test the sexy-sperm hypothesis using the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. Previous studies of this species have shown considerable phenotypic variation in fertilization success when two or more males compete. There were high broad-sense heritabilities for both paternity and polyandry. Patterns of genotypic variance were consistent with X-linked inheritance and/or maternal effects on these traits. The genetic architecture therefore precludes the evolution of polyandry via a sexy-sperm process. Thus the positive genetic correlation between paternity in sons and polyandry in daughters predicted by the sexy-sperm hypothesis was absent. There was significant heritable variation in the investment by females in ovaries and by males in the accessory gland. Surprisingly there was a very strong genetic correlation between these two traits. The significance of this genetic correlation for the coevolution of male seminal products and polyandry is discussed.

  19. "Qual destas moças é você?" o autoconhecimento produzido pelos testes da imprensa feminina "Which one of these girls are you?" Self-knowledge produced by female press tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantina Xavier Filha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este texto pretende refletir acerca dos discursos veiculados e produzidos por um elemento textual peculiar da imprensa feminina: os testes. O estudo fundamenta-se nos pressupostos de gênero e de alguns conceitos dos estudos foucaultianos. Pretende discutir os enunciados expressos na imprensa (revistas Capricho e Cláudia com a temática da feminilidade e da sexualidade nas primeiras décadas da segunda metade do século XX. Os testes, mediante enunciados prescritivos e normalizadores, revelaram ser instrumentos de dispositivos pedagógicos com o objetivo de "conduzir as condutas" femininas, uma vez que se tornam capazes de provocar o exame e a confissão, tornando o discurso da intimidade visível e verbalizado. Indicam conceitos de "verdade", apoiados em códigos morais e, especialmente, em preceitos fundamentados em teorias científicas a respeito da conduta feminina. O conceito de verdade está ligado a sistemas de poder, que apontam para regimes não necessariamente negativos ou repressivos, mas, fundamentalmente, produtivos, porque incitam à reflexão e propiciam possibilidades de trabalho pessoal.Tthis paper aims to make a reflection on the discourses conveyed and produced by a peculiar textual element in the female press: tests. The study is based on gender assumptions and some foucaultian concepts. It intends to discuss statements found in the press (magazines Capricho and Cláudia regarding female themes and sexuality in the first decades of the second half of the 20th century. By using prescriptive and normalizing statements, the tests were revealed to act as pedagogical tools whose objective was "to guide female conduct", as they were able to prompt examination and confession, thus making it possible for the inner discourse to be visible and verbalized. The tests indicate concepts of "truth" supported by moral codes and, especially, by precepts based on scientific theories about female conduct. The concept of truth is connected to

  20. Field and Evaluation Methods Used to Test the Performance of a Stormceptor® Class 1 Stormwater Treatment Device in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nichols

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Field testing of a proprietary stormwater treatment device was undertaken over 14 months at a site located in Nambour, South East Queensland. Testing was undertaken to evaluate the pollution removal performance of a Stormceptor® treatment train for removing total suspended solids (TSS, total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorous (TP from stormwater runoff. Water quality sampling was undertaken using natural rainfall events complying with an a priori sampling protocol. More than 59 rain events were monitored, of which 18 were found to comply with the accepted sampling protocol. The efficiency ratios (ER observed for the treatment device were found to be 83% for TSS, 11% for TP and 23% for TN. Although adequately removing TSS, additional system components, such as engineered filters, would be required to satisfy minimum local pollution removal regulations. The results of dry weather sampling tests did not conclusively demonstrate that pollutants were exported between storm events or that pollution concentrations increased significantly over time.